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Sample records for preparing large quantities

  1. Methods for the preparation of large quantities of complex single-stranded oligonucleotide libraries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf E Murgha

    Full Text Available Custom-defined oligonucleotide collections have a broad range of applications in fields of synthetic biology, targeted sequencing, and cytogenetics. Also, they are used to encode information for technologies like RNA interference, protein engineering and DNA-encoded libraries. High-throughput parallel DNA synthesis technologies developed for the manufacture of DNA microarrays can produce libraries of large numbers of different oligonucleotides, but in very limited amounts. Here, we compare three approaches to prepare large quantities of single-stranded oligonucleotide libraries derived from microarray synthesized collections. The first approach, alkaline melting of double-stranded PCR amplified libraries with a biotinylated strand captured on streptavidin coated magnetic beads results in little or no non-biotinylated ssDNA. The second method wherein the phosphorylated strand of PCR amplified libraries is nucleolyticaly hydrolyzed is recommended when small amounts of libraries are needed. The third method combining in vitro transcription of PCR amplified libraries to reverse transcription of the RNA product into single-stranded cDNA is our recommended method to produce large amounts of oligonucleotide libraries. Finally, we propose a method to remove any primer binding sequences introduced during library amplification.

  2. Methods for the preparation of large quantities of complex single-stranded oligonucleotide libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgha, Yusuf E; Rouillard, Jean-Marie; Gulari, Erdogan

    2014-01-01

    Custom-defined oligonucleotide collections have a broad range of applications in fields of synthetic biology, targeted sequencing, and cytogenetics. Also, they are used to encode information for technologies like RNA interference, protein engineering and DNA-encoded libraries. High-throughput parallel DNA synthesis technologies developed for the manufacture of DNA microarrays can produce libraries of large numbers of different oligonucleotides, but in very limited amounts. Here, we compare three approaches to prepare large quantities of single-stranded oligonucleotide libraries derived from microarray synthesized collections. The first approach, alkaline melting of double-stranded PCR amplified libraries with a biotinylated strand captured on streptavidin coated magnetic beads results in little or no non-biotinylated ssDNA. The second method wherein the phosphorylated strand of PCR amplified libraries is nucleolyticaly hydrolyzed is recommended when small amounts of libraries are needed. The third method combining in vitro transcription of PCR amplified libraries to reverse transcription of the RNA product into single-stranded cDNA is our recommended method to produce large amounts of oligonucleotide libraries. Finally, we propose a method to remove any primer binding sequences introduced during library amplification.

  3. Large quantity discrimination by North Island robins (Petroica longipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Alexis; Low, Jason; Burns, Kevin C

    2012-11-01

    While numerosity-representation and enumeration of different numbers of objects-and quantity discrimination in particular have been studied in a wide range of species, very little is known about the numerical abilities of animals in the wild. This study examined spontaneous relative quantity judgments (RQJs) by wild North Island robins (Petroica longipes) of New Zealand. In Experiment 1, robins were tested on a range of numerical values of up to 14 versus 16 items, which were sequentially presented and hidden. In Experiment 2, the same numerical contrasts were tested on a different group of subjects but quantities were presented as whole visible sets. Experiment 3 involved whole visible sets that comprised of exceedingly large quantities of up to 56 versus 64 items. While robins shared with other species a ratio-based representation system for representing very large values, they also appeared to have developed an object indexing system with an extended upper limit (well beyond 4) that may be an evolutionary response to ecological challenges faced by scatter-hoarding birds. These results suggest that cognitive mechanism influencing an understanding of physical quantity may be deployed more flexibly in some contexts than previously thought, and are discussed in light of findings across other mammalian and avian species.

  4. Preparation of colloidal graphene in quantity by electrochemical exfoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng

    2014-12-15

    We reported the preparation of colloidal graphene in quantity via the anodic exfoliation of graphite in (NH4)2SO4 aqueous solution. In the currently designed electrochemical exfoliation route, mass high-quality graphene was produced within short reaction time, around 1h. The proposed electrochemical exfoliation mechanism showed that SO4(2-) and H2O can be intercalated into those graphite sheets, monolayer and few-layer graphene were obtained by the formation of gaseous SO2 and O2 within graphite sheets. Stability evaluation showed that our exfoliated colloidal graphene can be perfectly stabilized in DMF solvent more than 1 week. The colloidal graphene can be used to construct various simple and complex patterns by writing it on A4 paper, which can be applied to flexible printed electronic devices. Furthermore, colloidal graphene can show promising applications in the fabrication of binder- and additive-free electrodes for supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries. Our present method shows huge potential for industrial-scale synthesis of high-quality graphene and further commercialization of graphene colloid for numerous advanced applications in flexible printed electronics and energy storage devices.

  5. Preparation of large monodisperse vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting F Zhu

    Full Text Available Preparation of monodisperse vesicles is important both for research purposes and for practical applications. While the extrusion of vesicles through small pores (approximately 100 nm in diameter results in relatively uniform populations of vesicles, extrusion to larger sizes results in very heterogeneous populations of vesicles. Here we report a simple method for preparing large monodisperse multilamellar vesicles through a combination of extrusion and large-pore dialysis. For example, extrusion of polydisperse vesicles through 5-microm-diameter pores eliminates vesicles larger than 5 microm in diameter. Dialysis of extruded vesicles against 3-microm-pore-size polycarbonate membranes eliminates vesicles smaller than 3 microm in diameter, leaving behind a population of monodisperse vesicles with a mean diameter of approximately 4 microm. The simplicity of this method makes it an effective tool for laboratory vesicle preparation with potential applications in preparing large monodisperse liposomes for drug delivery.

  6. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  7. Visualization of the Flux Rope Generation Process Using Large Quantities of MHD Simulation Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Kubota

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new concept of analysis using visualization of large quantities of simulation data. The time development of 3D objects with high temporal resolution provides the opportunity for scientific discovery. We visualize large quantities of simulation data using the visualization application 'Virtual Aurora' based on AVS (Advanced Visual Systems and the parallel distributed processing at "Space Weather Cloud" in NICT based on Gfarm technology. We introduce two results of high temporal resolution visualization: the magnetic flux rope generation process and dayside reconnection using a system of magnetic field line tracing.

  8. A method for synthesizing large quantities of carbon nanotubes and encapsulated copper nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlur, A. A.; Lauerhaas, J. M.; Dai, J. Y.; Chang, R. P. H.

    1996-07-01

    A method using a hydrogen arc for synthesizing large quantities of carbon nanotubes filled with pure copper is reported. The interaction of small copper clusters with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is shown to form carbon nanotubes and encapsulated copper nanowires. The effectiveness of this model is demonstrated by showing that no copper filled nanotubes are formed in a helium arc that does not generate PAHs. A direct proof of this model is demonstrated by using pyrene, a PAH molecule, to grow carbon nanotubes and encapsulated copper nanowires.

  9. Preparation of high-quality next-generation sequencing libraries from picogram quantities of target DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Nicholas J; Maslau, Siarhei; Ferneyhough, Ben; Zhang, Gang; Gregory, Lorna; Buck, David; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Ponting, Chris P; Fischer, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    New sequencing technologies can address diverse biomedical questions but are limited by a minimum required DNA input of typically 1 μg. We describe how sequencing libraries can be reproducibly created from 20 pg of input DNA using a modified transpososome-mediated fragmentation technique. Resulting libraries incorporate in-line bar-coding, which facilitates sample multiplexes that can be sequenced using Illumina platforms with the manufacturer's sequencing primer. We demonstrate this technique by providing deep coverage sequence of the Escherichia coli K-12 genome that shows equivalent target coverage to a 1-μg input library prepared using standard Illumina methods. Reducing template quantity does, however, increase the proportion of duplicate reads and enriches coverage in low-GC regions. This finding was confirmed with exhaustive resequencing of a mouse library constructed from 20 pg of gDNA input (about seven haploid genomes) resulting in ∼0.4-fold statistical coverage of uniquely mapped fragments. This implies that a near-complete coverage of the mouse genome is obtainable with this approach using 20 genomes as input. Application of this new method now allows genomic studies from low mass samples and routine preparation of sequencing libraries from enrichment procedures.

  10. Using large-scale diagnostic quantities to investigate change in East Coast Lows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Fei; Evans, Jason P.; Argueso, Daniel; Fita, Lluis; Di Luca, Alejandro

    2015-11-01

    East Coast Lows (ECLs) are intense low-pressure systems that affect the eastern seaboard of Australia. They have attracted research interest for both their destructive nature and water supplying capability. Estimating the changes in ECLs in the future has a major impact on emergency response as well as water management strategies for the coastal communities on the east coast of Australia. In this study, ECLs were identified using two large-scale diagnostic quantities: isentropic potential vorticity (IPV) and geostrophic vorticity (GV), which were calculated from outputs of historical and future regional climate simulations from the NSW/ACT regional climate modelling (NARCliM) project. The diagnostic results for the historical period were evaluated against a subjective ECL event database. Future simulations using a high emission scenario were examined to estimate changes in frequency, duration, and intensity of ECLs. The use of a relatively high resolution regional climate model makes this the first study to examine future changes in ECLs while resolving the full range of ECL sizes which can be as small as 100-200 km in diameter. The results indicate that it is likely that there will be fewer ECLs, with weaker intensity in the future. There could also be a seasonal shift in ECLs from cool months to warm months. These changes have the potential to significantly impact the water security on the east coast of Australia.

  11. Optimized Gen-II FeCrAl cladding production in large quantity for campaign testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sun, Zhiqian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pint, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-06-03

    There are two major objectives in this report; (1) to optimize microstructure control of ATF FeCrAl alloys during tube drawing processes, and (2) to provide an update on the progress of ATF FeCrAl tube production via commercial manufacturers. Experimental efforts have been made to optimize the process parameters balancing the tube fabricability, especially for tube drawing processes, and microstructure control of the final tube products. Lab-scale sheet materials of Gen II FeCrAl alloys (Mo-containing and Nb-containing FeCrAl alloys) were used in the study, combined with a stepwise warm-rolling process and intermediate annealing, aiming to simulate the tube drawing process in a commercial tube manufacturer. The intermediate annealing at 650ºC for 1h was suggested for the tube-drawing process of Mo-containing FeCrAl alloys because it successfully softened the material by recovering the work hardening introduced through the rolling step, without inducing grain coarsening due to recrystallization. The final tube product is expected to have stabilized deformed microstructure providing the improved tensile properties with sufficient ductility. Optimization efforts on Nb-containing FeCrAl alloys focused on the effect of alloying additions and annealing conditions on the stability of deformed microstructure. Relationships between the second-phase precipitates (Fe2Nb-Laves phase) and microstructure stability are discussed. FeCrAl tube production through commercial tube manufacturers is currently in progress. Three different manufacturers, Century Tubes, Inc. (CTI), Rhenium Alloys, Inc. (RAI), and Superior Tube Company, Inc. (STC), are providing capabilities for cold-drawing, warm-drawing, and HPTR cold-pilgering, respectively. The first two companies are currently working on large quantity tube production (expected 250 ft length) of Gen I model FeCrAl alloy (B136Y3, at CTI) and Gen II (C35M4, at RAI), with the process parameters obtained from the experimental

  12. Configured-groups hypothesis: fast comparison of exact large quantities without counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravete, Sébastien; Tricot, André; Kalyuga, Slava; Amadieu, Franck

    2017-07-17

    Our innate number sense cannot distinguish between two large exact numbers of objects (e.g., 45 dots vs 46). Configured groups (e.g., 10 blocks, 20 frames) are traditionally used in schools to represent large numbers. Previous studies suggest that these external representations make it easier to use symbolic strategies such as counting ten by ten, enabling humans to differentiate exactly two large numbers. The main hypothesis of this work is that configured groups also allow for a differentiation of large exact numbers, even when symbolic strategies become ineffective. In experiment 1, the children from grade 3 were asked to compare two large collections of objects for 5 s. When the objects were organized in configured groups, the success rate was over .90. Without this configured grouping, the children were unable to make a successful comparison. Experiments 2 and 3 controlled for a strategy based on non-numerical parameters (areas delimited by dots or the sum areas of dots, etc.) or use symbolic strategies. These results suggest that configured grouping enables humans to distinguish between two large exact numbers of objects, even when innate number sense and symbolic strategies are ineffective. These results are consistent with what we call "the configured group hypothesis": configured groups play a fundamental role in the acquisition of exact numerical abilities.

  13. Dynamical large deviations for a boundary driven stochastic lattice gas model with many conserved quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Farfan, Jonathan; Valentim, Fabio J

    2009-01-01

    We prove the dynamical large deviations for a particle system in which particles may have different velocities. We assume that we have two infinite reservoirs of particles at the boundary: this is the so-called boundary driven process. The dynamics we considered consists of a weakly asymmetric simple exclusion process with collision among particles having different velocities.

  14. Dynamics of large-scale quantities in Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Ambrish; Chatterjee, Anando G; Verma, Mahendra K

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the relative strengths of various terms of the Rayleigh-B\\'enard equations. Based on these estimates and scaling analysis, we derive a general formula for the large-scale velocity, $U$, or the P\\'eclet number that is applicable for arbitrary Rayleigh number $\\mathrm{Ra}$ and Prandtl number $\\mathrm{Pr}$. Our formula fits reasonably well with the earlier simulation and experimental results. Our analysis also shows that the wall-bounded convection has enhanced viscous force compared to free turbulence. We also demonstrate how correlations deviate the Nusselt number scaling from the theoretical prediction of $\\mathrm{Ra}^{1/2}$ to the experimentally observed scaling of nearly $\\mathrm{Ra}^{0.3}$.

  15. Test Station for Magnetization Measurements on Large Quantities of Superconducting Strands

    CERN Document Server

    Le Naour, S; Billan, J; Genest, J

    2001-01-01

    In the superconducting main magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), persistent currents in the superconductor determine the field quality at injection field. For this reason it is necessary to check the magnetization of the cable strands during their production. During four years, this requires measurements of the width of the strand magnetization hysteresis loop at 0.5 T, 1.9 K, at a rate of up to eight samples per day. This paper describes the design, construction and the first results of a magnetization test station built for this purpose. The samples are cooled in a cryostat, with a 2-m long elliptic tail. This tail is inserted in a normal conducting dipole magnet with a field between ± 1.5 T. Racetrack pick-up coils, integrated in the cryostat, detect the voltage due to flux change, which is then integrated numerically. The sample holder can contain eight strand samples, each 20 cm long. The test station operates in two modes: either the sample is fixed while the external field is changed, or the sa...

  16. Simple room-temperature preparation of high-yield large-area graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, N M; Lim, H N; Chia, C H; Yarmo, M A; Muhamad, M R

    2011-01-01

    Graphene has attracted much attention from researchers due to its interesting mechanical, electrochemical, and electronic properties. It has many potential applications such as polymer filler, sensor, energy conversion, and energy storage devices. Graphene-based nanocomposites are under an intense spotlight amongst researchers. A large amount of graphene is required for preparation of such samples. Lately, graphene-based materials have been the target for fundamental life science investigations. Despite graphene being a much sought-after raw material, the drawbacks in the preparation of graphene are that it is a challenge amongst researchers to produce this material in a scalable quantity and that there is a concern about its safety. Thus, a simple and efficient method for the preparation of graphene oxide (GO) is greatly desired to address these problems. In this work, one-pot chemical oxidation of graphite was carried out at room temperature for the preparation of large-area GO with ~100% conversion. This high-conversion preparation of large-area GO was achieved using a simplified Hummer's method from large graphite flakes (an average flake size of 500 μm). It was found that a high degree of oxidation of graphite could be realized by stirring graphite in a mixture of acids and potassium permanganate, resulting in GO with large lateral dimension and area, which could reach up to 120 μm and ~8000 μm(2), respectively. The simplified Hummer's method provides a facile approach for the preparation of large-area GO.

  17. Quantity and Quality of Computer Use and Academic Achievement: Evidence from a Large-Scale International Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Zhang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This study looked at the effect of both quantity and quality of computer use on achievement. The Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 student survey comprising of 4,356 students (boys, n = 2,129; girls, n = 2,227) was used to predict academic achievement from quantity and quality of computer use while controlling for…

  18. Chum-RNA allows preparation of a high-quality cDNA library from a single-cell quantity of mRNA without PCR amplification

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Linear RNA amplification using T7 RNA polymerase is useful in genome-wide analysis of gene expression using DNA microarrays, but exponential amplification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is still required for cDNA library preparation from single-cell quantities of RNA. We have designed a small RNA molecule called chum-RNA that has enabled us to prepare a single-cell cDNA library after four rounds of T7-based linear amplification, without using PCR amplification. Chum-RNA drove cDNA synt...

  19. Development of a robust DNA quality and quantity assessment qPCR assay for targeted next-generation sequencing library preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jennifer; Mendez, Pedro; Lee, Sharon; Kim, James W; Yoon, Jun-Hee; Kim, Thomas W; Sailey, Charles J; Jablons, David M; Kim, Il-Jin

    2016-10-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is becoming a standard for genetic analyses of clinical samples. DNAs retrieved from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens are commonly degraded, and specimens such as core biopsies are sometimes too small to obtain enough DNA for NGS applications. Thus, it is important to measure both the DNA quantity and quality accurately from clinical samples. However, there is no standard method for DNA quantity and quality analyses for NGS library preparation. We tested four different methods (PicoGreen, Qubit® fluorometry, TaqMan and SYBR-Green-based qPCR assay) and compared each to RNase P TaqMan as a reference control. We found that SYBR-Green-based qPCR assay provides a consistent and accurate DNA quantification while keeping its cost relatively low and the throughput high. We designed a dual-probe SYBR-Green qPCR assay for DNA quantity and quality assessment for targeted NGS library preparation. This assay provides a Dscore (degradation score) of the interrogated DNA by analyzing two different sizes of amplicons. We show an example of a clinical sample with a very high Dscore (high degradation). With a regular DNA quantification, without considering the degradation status, no correct NGS libraries were obtained. However, after optimizing the library condition by considering its poor DNA quality, a reasonably good library and sequencing results were obtained. In summary, we developed and presented a new DNA quantity and quality analysis qPCR assay for the targeted NGS library preparation. This assay may be mostly efficient for the clinical samples with high degradation and poor DNA quality.

  20. Preparation of cluster state in large detuned cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Chang-Lin; Gao Guo-Jun; Lu Yan; Li Da-Chuang; Yang Ming; Cao Zhuo-Liang

    2008-01-01

    An experimentally realizable physical scheme for preparing multiqubit cluster states from a large detuned atomcavity interaction is proposed. The scheme is free of any type of measurement and insensitive to the cavity decay, and the cavity field is only virtually excited so that there is no information exchanging between atom and cavity. The time required for the gate operations is very short, which is important for decoherence. We also discuss the experimental feasibility of our scheme.

  1. The Research Description of the Large Quantity of Mineral Fine Powder of RPC%大掺量矿物微细粉活性粉末混凝土的研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢彪

    2014-01-01

    Large quantity of mineral fine powder reactive powder concrete sets the advantages of high strength concrete and fiber reinforced concrete, and has the characteristics of super-high strength, low brittleness and high durability. This paper expounded its preparation principle, summarized and prospected its application status and prospects, and finally put forward problems existing in the actual application of large quantity of mineral fine powder reactive powder concrete, which provides some new thoughts for the research and application of large quantity of mineral fine powder reactive powder concrete.%大掺量矿物微细粉活性粉末混凝土集高强混凝土和纤维混凝土的优势于一体,具有超高强、低脆性、高耐久性的特点,本文对其制备原理进行阐述,并对其应用现状和前景进行概述和展望,最后提出目前应用大掺量矿物微细粉活性粉末混凝土实际中存在的问题。为大掺量矿物微细粉活性粉末混凝土的研究应用提供一些新的思路。

  2. Bulk-quantity synthesis and electrical properties of SnO{sub 2} nanowires prepared by pulsed delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.W., E-mail: cnzwchen@yahoo.com.cn [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Jiao, Z. [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Wu, M.H., E-mail: mhwu@staff.shu.edu.cn [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shek, C.H.; Wu, C.M.L.; Lai, J.K.L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2009-06-15

    Tin dioxide nanowires have been realized via pulsed laser deposition techniques based on a sintered cassiterite SnO{sub 2} target, being deposited on Si (1 0 0) substrates at room temperature. X-ray diffraction indicated that the nanowires show the tetragonal rutile structure in the form of SnO{sub 2}. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the nanowires are structurally perfect and uniform, and diameters range from 10 nm to 30 nm, and lengths of several hundreds nanometers to a few micrometers. Selected area electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy verified that the nanowires grow along the [1 1 0] growth direction. Electric properties were investigated by connecting a single SnO{sub 2} nanowire in field-effect transistor configuration. The SnO{sub 2} nanowires based on field-effect transistor devices exhibited that the SnO{sub 2} nanowires prepared by our method hold better electrical properties.

  3. Unintended consequences of biofuels production?The effects of large-scale crop conversion on water quality and quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Heather L.; Green, Christopher T.; Rebich, Richard A.; Barlow, Jeannie R.B.; Hicks, Matthew B.

    2010-01-01

    In the search for renewable fuel alternatives, biofuels have gained strong political momentum. In the last decade, extensive mandates, policies, and subsidies have been adopted to foster the development of a biofuels industry in the United States. The Biofuels Initiative in the Mississippi Delta resulted in a 47-percent decrease in cotton acreage with a concurrent 288-percent increase in corn acreage in 2007. Because corn uses 80 percent more water for irrigation than cotton, and more nitrogen fertilizer is recommended for corn cultivation than for cotton, this widespread shift in crop type has implications for water quantity and water quality in the Delta. Increased water use for corn is accelerating water-level declines in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer at a time when conservation is being encouraged because of concerns about sustainability of the groundwater resource. Results from a mathematical model calibrated to existing conditions in the Delta indicate that increased fertilizer application on corn also likely will increase the extent of nitrate-nitrogen movement into the alluvial aquifer. Preliminary estimates based on surface-water modeling results indicate that higher application rates of nitrogen increase the nitrogen exported from the Yazoo River Basin to the Mississippi River by about 7 percent. Thus, the shift from cotton to corn may further contribute to hypoxic (low dissolved oxygen) conditions in the Gulf of Mexico.

  4. Assessing large spatial scale landscape change effects on water quality and quantity response in the lower Athabasca River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Nicole E; Westbrook, Cherie J; Dubé, Monique G; Squires, Allison J

    2013-07-01

    Increased land use intensity has been shown to adversely affect aquatic ecosystems. Multiple landscape stressors interact over space and time, producing cumulative effects. Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA) is the process of evaluating the impact a development project may have on the ecological surroundings, but several challenges exist that make current approaches to cumulative effects assessment ineffective. The main objective of this study was to compare results of different methods used to link landscape stressors with stream responses in a highly developed watershed, where past work has shown that the river has experienced significant water quality and quantity changes to improve approaches to CEA. The study site was the lower reaches of the Athabasca River, Canada that have been subjected to a diverse range of intense anthropogenic developments since the late 1960s. Linkages between landscape change and river response were evaluated using correlation analyses, stepwise, multiple regression, and regression trees. Notable landscape changes include increased industrial development and forest cut-blocks, made evident from satellite imagery and supporting ancillary data sets. Simple regression analyses showed water use was closely associated with total phosphorus (TP) and Na(+) concentrations, as well as specific conductance. The regression trees for total organic carbon (TOC), TP, and Na(+) showed that the landscape variables that appear as the first characteristic were the same variables that showed significant relations for their respective simple regression models. Simple, stepwise, and multiple regressions in conjunction with regression trees were useful in this study for capturing the strongest associations between landscape stressors and river response variables. The results highlight the need for improved scaling methods and monitoring strategies crucial to managing cumulative effects to river systems. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  5. The Role of Self-Monitoring in Assessing Individual Students' Quantity and Quality of Comments in Large-Class Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, B. A.; Wright, J. M.; Coles, J. T.; McCleary, L. N.; Williams, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    This study developed a reliable and valid self-monitoring procedure for student use in recording and rating the quality of their individual comments in large college classes. Students used daily record cards immediately to record and rate each comment they made each day. However, a limit was set on the amount of credit students could claim for…

  6. An improved method for the cost-effective expression and purification of large quantities of KcsA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilegenova, Cholpon; Vemulapally, Spandana; Cortes, Doris M; Cuello, Luis G

    2016-11-01

    KcsA, the bacterial K(+) channel from Streptomyces lividans, is the prototypical model system to study the functional and structural correlations of the pore domain of eukaryotic voltage-gated K(+) channels (Kv channels). It contains all the molecular elements responsible for ion conduction, activation, deactivation and inactivation gating [1]. KcsA's structural simplicity makes it highly amenable for structural studies. Therefore, it is methodological advantageous to produce large amounts of functional and properly folded KcsA in a cost-effective manner. In the present study, we show an optimized protocol for the over-expression and purification of large amounts of high-quality, fully functional and crystallizable KcsA using inexpensive detergents, which significantly lowered the cost of the purification process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Production of large quantities of {sup 90}Y by ion-exchange chromatography using an organic resin and a chelating agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiques Castillo, Abmel, E-mail: axcastillo@yahoo.co [Centro de Isotopos (CENTIS), Ave. Monumental y Carretera La Rada Km 3 1/2, Guanabacoa, Havana (Cuba); Perez-Malo, Marylaine; Isaac-Olive, Keila [Centro de Isotopos (CENTIS), Ave. Monumental y Carretera La Rada Km 3 1/2, Guanabacoa, Havana (Cuba); Mukhallalati, Heyam [Division of Radiopharmaceuticals, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Casanova Gonzalez, Edgar; Torres Berdeguez, Mirta [Centro de Isotopos (CENTIS), Ave. Monumental y Carretera La Rada Km 3 1/2, Guanabacoa, Havana (Cuba); Cornejo Diaz, Nestor [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, AP: 6195 Habana 6, CP 10600, Havana (Cuba)

    2010-11-15

    The performance of a system composed of an organic cation exchanger (Dowex 50Wx8) and a chelating agent (EDTA) previously described for the successful production of {sup 90}Y via a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y generator is assessed under dynamic conditions. In an attempt to overcome the established limitation of ion-exchange resins for the separation of subcurie quantities of activity, {sup 90}Y is repeatedly isolated from an 11.8-GBq (320 mCi) {sup 90}Sr cow using a three-column tandem arrangement. The high recovery and radionuclidic purity obtained for {sup 90}Y and the parameters of the separation (time, eluant concentration, pH and flow rate range) strongly suggest that Ci quantities of {sup 90}Y can be handled satisfactorily by the ion-exchange method. No replacement or treatment of the cow, low waste generation and {sup 90}Sr losses less than 0.1% after each run were observed during the present study which, in combination with the low cost of this resin, may result in an attractive alternate method for the production of large quantities of {sup 90}Y.

  8. Indicators used to assess the quantity and quality of water in Special Area of Conservation located in the valleys of large lowland rivers - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utratna, Marta; Okruszko, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    One of the aims of Ecological network Natura 2000 is to protect rare habitats from complete disappearance in Europe. That is why natural and transformed river valleys were and still are often included into this form of protection. The problem of influences on Natura 2000 areas an their impact on the conservation status of protected habitats within the network is well known. Solving this issue may have a significant impact on the planning of protection tasks, as well as on assessing the impact of new and existing investments on protected areas. The aim of this study was to build a statistical model for assessing the impact of selected external factors related to the quantity and quality of water on the conservation status of habitats in large lowland river areas protected under the Natura 2000 network. The method used in the study is based on a structural study which uses the knowledge and experience of experts in the field of Phytosociology as well as indicators used to assess the quantity and quality of water in the analyzed area.

  9. Study of Preparation of Large Area Standard Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With increasingly widespread application of nuclear technology, many large area contamination detectors are used to measure the contaminated surface by α, β radionuclides in nuclear facilities and isotope production places. To solve the

  10. Preparing Students with Learning Disabilities for Large-Scale Writing Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Colwell, Ryan P.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides recommendations for teachers to better prepare 3rd through 12th grade students with learning disabilities for large-scale writing assessments. The variation across large-scale writing assessments and the multiple needs of struggling writers indicate the need for test preparation to be embedded within a comprehensive,…

  11. SU-E-T-235: Data Mining for Evaluating Treatment Performances Over a Large Quantity of Data to Monitor and Improve SBRT Workflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, W [Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Bayhealth Medical Center, Dover, DE (United States); Chu, A [New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, AA (United States); Wuu, C [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Nguyen, K [Bayhealth Medical Center, Dover, DE (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To quality assure a large quantity of retrospective treatment cases for treatment performances by randomly sampling is inefficient. Here we provide a method to efficiently monitor and investigate the QA of SBRT workflow over Mosaiq. Methods: The code developed with Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio 2008R2 and VBA was used for retrieving and sorting data from Mosaiq (version 2.3–2.6 during 2012–2015). SBRT patients were filtered by fractional dose over 350cGy and total fraction number less than 6, which SBRT prescriptions were defined. The quality assurance on the SBRT workflow was focused on the treatment deliveries such as patient positioning setup, CBCT indicated offsets and couch shifted corrections. The treatment delivery were done by Varian Truebeam systems and the record/verify by Mosaiq. Results: Total 82 SBRT patients corresponding to 103 courses and 854 CBCT images were found by the retrieval query. Most centers record daily pre-treatment (Pre-Tx: before treatment shift) image-guided shifts along treatment course for inter-fraction motion record, and it is useful to also verify it with post-treatment imaging (Post-Tx: after treatment CBCT verification) to verify intra-fraction motion. Analyzing the details of daily recorded shifts can reveals the information of patient-setup and staff’s record/verify behaviors. 3 examples were provided as solid evidences and on-going rectification for preventing future mistakes. Conclusions: The report gave feasible examples for inspector to verify a large amount of data during site investigation. This program can also be extended to a scheduled data mining with software to periodical analyze the timely records in Mosaiq, for example, a various control charts for different QA purposes. As the current trend of automation in radiation therapy field, the data mining would be a necessary tool in the future, just as the automatic plan quality evaluation has been under development in Eclipse.

  12. Efficient production of sTNFRII-gAD fusion protein in large quantity by use of the modified CHO-S cell expression system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinzhen Cai

    Full Text Available TNFα is one of the initial and important mediators to activate downstream signaling pathways by binding to trimerized TNFα receptors (TNFR, and thus is an ideal drug target for cancer therapy. Taking advantage of intrinsic homotimerization of the globular domain of adiponectin (gAD, we have developed a novel TNFα antagonist, the trimerized fusion protein named sTNFRII-gAD. However, our previously-used CHO expression system yielded less than 10 mg/L of sTNFRII-gAD. To produce large quantities of sTNFRII-gAD efficiently, we used a modified CHO-S cell expression system, which is based on a pMH3 vector with non-coding GC-rich DNA fragments for high-level gene expression. We obtained stable clones that produced 75 mg/L of sTNFRII-gAD in the 96-well plate, adapted the clones to 40 ml suspension serum-free batch culture, then optimized the culturing conditions to scale up the fed-batch culture in a 3 L shake-flask and finally in a 5 L AP30 bioreactor. We achieved a final yield of 52 mg/L of sTNFRII-gAD. The trimerized sTNFRII-gAD exhibited the higher affinity to TNFα with a dissociation constant (Kd of 5.63 nM than the dimerized sTNFRII-Fc with a Kd of 13.4 nM, and further displayed the higher TNFα-neutralizing activity than sTNFRII-Fc (p<0.05 in a L929 cytotoxicity assay. Therefore, the strategy employed in this study may provide an efficient avenue for large-scale production of other recombinant proteins by use of the modified CHO-S cell expression system.

  13. Study on preparation and quantity determination of Scrophularia ningpoensis dispensing granules%玄参配方颗粒的制备工艺和含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钮正睿; 王如峰; 荆宇; 尚明英; 蔡少青

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To develop the preparation method and to determine the quantity of effective constituents of Scrophularia ningpoensis dispensing granules. Method: Nine experiments were carried out through L_9(3~4)orthogonal design. The contents of harpagoside and cinnamic acid were determined by HPLC method. Result: The optimal extraction process was as follows: the slices were soaked in water in the ratio of 1: 8 for 0.5 h, then they were decocted for 2 h. For the second time, 6 times of water was added and sustained for 1.5 h. Harpagoside and cinnamic acid were linear within the ranges of 0.077 6-1.552 μg (r=0.999 9)and 0.01446-0.4339 μg(r=0.999 9), respectively. The average recoveries were 100.4%(RSD 1.98%, n=6)and 98.27%(RSD1.35%, n=6), respectively. Ten batches of granules were determined. Conclusion: The extraction process is scientific and the determination method is suitable for quality control of Scrophularia ningpoensis dispensing granules.%目的:建立玄参配方颗粒的制备工艺并对其中的有效成分进行含量测定.方法:根据4因素3水平正交表安排试验.用HPLC测定配方颗粒中哈巴俄苷和肉桂酸的含量.结果:优化的提取工艺如下:玄参饮片加入8倍量水浸泡0.5 h,煎煮2 h,药渣再加入6倍量水煎煮1.5 h.哈巴俄苷和肉桂酸的线性范围分别是0.077 6~1.552 μg(r=0.999 9)和0.014 46~0.433 9μg(r=0.999 9).平均回收率分别是100.4%(RSD 1.98%,n=6)和98.27%(RSD 1.35%,n=6).测定了10批配方颗粒中上述两种成分的含量.结论:优化的提取工艺科学可靠,含量测定方法对配方颗粒的质量控制是可行的.

  14. PRACTICAL PREPARATION OF RESVERATROL 3-O-β-D-GLUCURONIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Jungong, Christian S.; Novikov, Alexei V.

    2012-01-01

    A practical synthesis of resveratrol 3-O-β-D-glucuronide, suitable for preparation of large quantities, was developed using selective deacetylation of resveratrol triacetate with ammonium acetate. A simplified procedure for large scale preparation of resveratrol is also reported.

  15. PRACTICAL PREPARATION OF RESVERATROL 3-O-β-D-GLUCURONIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Jungong, Christian S.; Novikov, Alexei V.

    2012-01-01

    A practical synthesis of resveratrol 3-O-β-D-glucuronide, suitable for preparation of large quantities, was developed using selective deacetylation of resveratrol triacetate with ammonium acetate. A simplified procedure for large scale preparation of resveratrol is also reported.

  16. Comparative Studies on Preparation of Large Plant DNA Fragments by Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jiliang(杨继良); Wang Qinghua(王庆华); Deng Daiyong; Yang Dianer; Jin Demin; Weng Manli; Zhang Juren; Wang Bin

    2004-01-01

    The preparation of large plant DNA fragments is extremely important to the construction of large insert DNA libraries (YAC, BAC, PAC and TAC). Although several techniques have been developed in each step of large plant DNA fragments preparation, the whole processing remains complicated and difficult. Based on authors research experience and the recent worldwide development in this field, the following aspects are discussed in this paper: techniques of plant high molecular weight (HMW) DNA purification by pre-electrophoresis, the optimal conditions for the partial digestion of the HMW DNA by HindIII, the isolation effects of of large plant DNA fragments (100~400 kb) with different parameters of pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the recovery of large DNA fragments. Through comparative studies, the advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed and some recommendations are proposed for preparing high quality large plant DNA fragments. The suggested techniques have been used in preparing the large DNA fragments of maize, rice, moss, laver, sea tangle and peach,and similar results are obtained among all the materials. This paper only reports the results using maize as material.

  17. The large observatories maintenance management: tools and strategies for maintenance manuals preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentin, F.; Pozzobon, M.; Marchiori, G.; Busatta, A.; Giacomel, L.

    2010-07-01

    Large Observatories require enormous efforts in preparing the Maintenance Manuals. The possibility to adopt a standardised system, associated to centralized data base and software tools is investigated. This strategy implies a revolution of Maintenance Manuals: from information collection (paper-based), to a modular approach where data modules are used. The initial efforts associated to data modules preparation is compensated by several benefits (time savings for end-users, reduced training requirements, reduced equipment down-time). Moreover, cost savings in the preparation process, even for different equipment, is also possible. Finally, this standardised strategy will assure compatibility between different programs or partners.

  18. MAD about the Large Magellanic Cloud: preparing for the era of Extremely Large Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorentino, G; Diolaiti, E; Valenti, E; Cignoni, M; Mackey, A D

    2011-01-01

    We present J, H, Ks photometry from the the Multi conjugate Adaptive optics Demonstrator (MAD), a visitor instrument at the VLT, of a resolved stellar population in a small crowded field in the bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud near the globular cluster NGC 1928. In a total exposure time of 6, 36 and 20 minutes, magnitude limits were achieved of J \\sim 20.5 mag, H \\sim 21 mag, and Ks \\sim20.5 mag respectively, with S/N> 10. This does not reach the level of the oldest Main Sequence Turnoffs, however the resulting Colour-Magnitude Diagrams are the deepest and most accurate obtained so far in the infrared for the LMC bar. We combined our photometry with deep optical photometry from the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys, which is a good match in spatial resolution. The comparison between synthetic and observed CMDs shows that the stellar population of the field we observed is consistent with the star formation history expected for the LMC bar, and that all combinations of IJHKs filters can, with ...

  19. Intermediate dosimetric quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerer, A M; Hahn, K; Rossi, H H

    1992-04-01

    The transfer of energy from ionizing radiation to matter involves a series of steps. In wide ranges of their energy spectra photons and neutrons transfer energy to an irradiated medium almost exclusively by the production of charged particles which ionize and thereby produce electrons that can ionize in turn. The examination of these processes leads to a series of intermediate quantities. One of these is kerma, which has long been employed as a measure of the energy imparted in the first of the interactions. It depends only on the fluence of uncharged particles and is therefore--unlike absorbed dose and electron fluence--insensitive to local differences of receptor geometry and composition. An analogous quantity for charged-particle fields, cema (converted energy per unit mass), is defined, which quantifies the energy imparted in terms of the interactions of charged particles, disregarding energy dissipation by secondary electrons. Cema can be expressed as an integral over the fluence of ions times their stopping power. However, complications arise when the charged particles are electrons, and when their fluence cannot be separated from that of the secondaries. The resulting difficulty can be circumvented by the definition of reduced cema. This quantity corresponds largely to the concept employed in the cavity theory of Spencer and Attix. In reduced cema not all secondary electrons but all electrons below a chosen cutoff energy, delta, are considered to be absorbed locally. When the cutoff energy is reduced, cema approaches absorbed dose and thereby becomes sensitive to highly local differences in geometry or composition. With larger values of delta, reduced cema is a useful parameter to specify the dose-generating potential of a charged-particle field 'free in air' or in vacuo. It is nearly equal to the mean absorbed dose in a sphere with radius equal to the range of electrons of energy delta. Reduced cema is a function of the fluence at the specified location at

  20. The Preparation of Graphene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanyan

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has unique structure and possesses excellent physical and chemical properties, and it has received a great deal of attention in related research fields. The quality, quantity and application of graphene are related to its preparation methods. At present the bottleneck of graphene research is that both high-quality and large quantity of graphene could not be obtained simultaneously and the reason is that the basic mechanism of graphene formation has mot been wel understood.

  1. Conserved quantities in isotropic loop quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Cartin, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We develop an action principle for those models arising from isotropic loop quantum cosmology, and show that there is a natural conserved quantity $Q$ for the discrete difference equation arising from the Hamiltonian constraint. This quantity $Q$ relates the semi-classical limit of the wavefunction at large values of the spatial volume, but opposite triad orientations. Moreover, there is a similar quantity for generic difference equations of one parameter arising from a self-adjoint operator.

  2. Quisqualate-activated single channel currents in neuromuscular preparations of small and large crayfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W; Martin, C; Pareto, A

    1988-06-01

    Single channel currents elicited by 1-5 mumol/l quisqualate in neuromuscular preparations in large (greater than 16 month old) and small (1-3 month old) crayfish were recorded by means of the patch-clamp technique. In preparations from large crayfish single channel currents of variable amplitude (-1 to -12 pA) were induced by quisqualate. The mean burst lengths of these currents were tau approximately equal to 1-2 ms. In the opener muscle of the first walking leg and the contractor epimeralis muscle of small crayfish the mean burst lengths of single channel currents evoked by quisqualate were prolonged by a factor of about 4 (tau approximately equal to 5 ms). Moreover, in the opener muscle of the first walking leg of small crayfish single channel currents of small amplitude (-0.5 to -2.5 pA) were preferentially evoked by quisqualate. By contrast, in the contractor epimeralis muscle of small crayfish mainly single channel currents of large amplitude (-10 to -12 pA) were elicited by quisqualate. The results suggest that at the stage of neuromuscular development characterizing the small crayfish, gating properties of excitatory postsynaptic channels are different from those in adult crayfish. Furthermore, the results obtained in the opener muscle of the first walking leg of small crayfish are consistent with those obtained previously by means of the noise analysis technique.

  3. Mass Spectrometry as a Preparative Tool for the Surface Science of Large Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, Stephan; Ternes, Markus; Harnau, Ludger; Kern, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    Measuring and understanding the complexity that arises when nanostructures interact with their environment are one of the major current challenges of nanoscale science and technology. High-resolution microscopy methods such as scanning probe microscopy have the capacity to investigate nanoscale systems with ultimate precision, for which, however, atomic scale precise preparation methods of surface science are a necessity. Preparative mass spectrometry (pMS), defined as the controlled deposition of m/z filtered ion beams, with soft ionization sources links the world of large, biological molecules and surface science, enabling atomic scale chemical control of molecular deposition in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). Here we explore the application of high-resolution scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy to the characterization of structure and properties of large molecules. We introduce the fundamental principles of the combined experiments electrospray ion beam deposition and scanning tunneling microscopy. Examples for the deposition and investigation of single particles, for layer and film growth, and for the investigation of electronic properties of individual nonvolatile molecules show that state-of-the-art pMS technology provides a platform analog to thermal evaporation in conventional molecular beam epitaxy. Additionally, it offers additional, unique features due to the use of charged polyatomic particles. This new field is an enormous sandbox for novel molecular materials research and demands the development of advanced molecular ion beam technology.

  4. Increasing the isolated quantities and purities of volatile compounds by using a triple Deans-switch multidimensional preparative gas chromatographic system with an apolar-wax-ionic liquid stationary-phase combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarrone, Danilo; Pantò, Sebastiano; Ragonese, Carla; Tranchida, Peter Quinto; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2012-08-21

    A novel preparative-scale triple gas chromatographic system, equipped with three Deans-switch devices, is herein described. The isolation of volatile compounds was achieved by using a lab-made collection system. Considerations are made on the possibility to inject high volumes of neat sample, maintaining, at the same time, high resolution levels. The degree of recovery of a series of compounds, characterized by a differing volatility, is also reported. In this respect, different collection conditions were evaluated, namely, the presence (or not) of packing material as well as CO(2) cooling, in various combinations. Finally, the interconnected features, that is time requirements and the isolation of "acceptable" analyte quantities (e.g., milligram level for NMR characterization), are related to parameters such as analyte concentration, injected volume, collection conditions, and number of GC runs. The results herein reported will demonstrate the need for a high-resolution GC step, prior to analyte collection, in the prep-GC analysis of complex samples.

  5. [Preparation of large area Al-ZnO thin film by DC magnetron sputtering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Fei; Liao, Cheng; Han, Jun-Feng; Zhou, Zhen

    2009-03-01

    Solar cells of p-CIS/n-buffer/ZnO type, where CIS is (CuInS2, CuInSe2 or intermediates, are thin-film-based devices for the future high-efficiency and low-cost photovoltaic devices. As important thin film, the properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) directly affect the parameter of the cell, especially for large volume. In the present paper, AZO semiconductor transparent thin film on soda-lime glass was fabricated using cylindrical zinc-aluminum target, which can not only lower the cost of the target but also make the preparation of large area AZO thin film more easily. Using the DC magnet sputtering techniques and rolling target, high utilization efficiency of target was achieved and large area uniform and directional film was realized. An introduction to DC magnet sputtering techniques for large area film fabrication is given. With different measurement methods, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scan electron microscope (SEM), we analyzed large size film's structure, appearance, and electrical and optical characteristics. The XRD spectrum indicated that the AZO film shows well zinc-blende structure with a preferred (002) growth and the c-axis is oriented normal to the substrate plane. The lattice constant is 5.603 9 nm and the mismatch with CdS thin film is only 2 percent. It absolutely satisfied the demand of the GIGS solar cell. The cross-section of the AZO thin film indicates the columnar structure and the surface morphology shows that the crystal size is about 50 nm that is consistent with the result of XRD spectrum. By the optical transmission curve, not only the high transmission rate over 85 percent in the visible spectrum between 400 nm and 700 nm was showed but also the band gap 3.1 eV was estimated. And all these parameters can meet the demand of the large area module of GIGS solar cell. The result is that using alloy target and Ar gas, and controlling the appropriate pressure of oxygen, we can get directional, condensed, uniform, high transmitting rate, low

  6. Quality or quantity?

    OpenAIRE

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Simler, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    The role of school quality in determining educational outcomes has received much research attention in the United States. However, in developing countries, where a significant part of the school age population never attends school, policymakers must consider both quality and quantity when deciding how to maximize the impact of scarce investments. Acknowledging this difference in the policy environment in developing countries, this paper provides comparative estimates of the impact of quality ...

  7. The preparation and characterization of chitin and chitosan under large-scale submerged fermentation level using shrimp by-products as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongcai; Yun, Sanyue; Song, Lingling; Zhang, Yiwen; Zhao, Yanyun

    2017-03-01

    The crustacean shells of crabs and shrimps produces quantities of by-products, leading to seriously environmental pollution and human health problems during industrial processing, yet they turned into high-value useful products, such as chitin and chitosan. To prepare them under large-scale submerged fermentation level, shrimp shell powders (SSPs) was fermented by successive three-step fermentation of Serratia marcescens B742, Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 and Rhizopus japonicus M193 to extract chitin and chitosan based on previously optimal conditions. Moreover, the key parameters was investigated to monitor the changes of resulted products during fermentation process. The results showed that the yield of prepared chitin and chitosan reached 21.35 and 13.11% with the recovery rate of 74.67 and 63.42%, respectively. The degree of deacetylation (DDA) and molecular mass (MM) of produced chitosan were 81.23% and 512.06kDa, respectively. The obtained chitin and chitosan was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The established microbial fermentation method can be applied for the industrial large-scale production of chitin and chitosan, while the use of chemical reagents was significantly reduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 基于排队论的大型舰船甲板弹射器数量研究%Investigation into Deck Catapults Quantity of Large Ship by Using Queuing Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鑫磊; 孟祥印; 解学参; 胡玉龙; 侯远杭

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to establish a theoretical basis for determining the quantity of catapult on the flight deck of large ship. As for investigation, the approach of "dummy queue (virtual queue)" was presented from the view of aircraft handling officer, and the task flow model was set up and analysis was carried out by using the queuing theory. The realistic model of task flow of carrier-based aircraft in standby position for launch was also constructed. A multiple calculations were conducted for the key targets, ignoring all the other factors, with regard to the influence of different quantities of catapults on the virtual length of aircraft's waiting queue and time of the system standby based on the assumption of the queuing theory. The results enable to have a quantifying comparison of sortie generation capacities of carried-based aircraft on the flight deck. The calculations also showed that under a given set of conditions, increasing the quantity of the catapult can obviously minimize the queuing length of the birds waiting in a queue for launch on the flight deck, but, if the number of catapult was greater than four, this would be less effective. Through the calculating results, application of the queuing theory to the demonstration as well as quantity design of catapult on large ship is proved to be practicable.%为明确大型舰船飞行甲板弹射器数量设计的理论依据,从调运指挥官的角度提出了"虚拟队列"概念,分析了其工作特点,对其工作模式进行了排队论建模.同时分析、建立了舰载机在弹射等待过程中的真实排队模型.忽略其它甲板因素的影响,基于排队论假设代入数值计算了不同弹射器数量对虚拟队列中舰载机的等待队长、系统等待耗时等关键指标的影响,使弹射器数量影响下的大型舰船舰载机出动能力得到了量化比较.计算结果表明,在给定条件下,甲板弹射器数量的增加能有效减少大型舰船舰

  9. Research on Order Quantity Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hong; LI Zhi-cheng

    2003-01-01

    The order quantity is often affected by various factors, so it is more valuable to research the problem of evaluating the order quantity based on a less premise. In this paper, a complicated order quantity problem is studied and an order quantity simulation system is established with the simulation software of ARENA. Finally, an example is given.

  10. Prices versus Quantities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank

    Weitzman (2002) studies the regulation of a fishery characterised by constant marginal harvest costs and shows that price regulation performs better than quantity regulation when the regulator is uncertain about the biological reproduction function (ecological uncertainty). Here, we initially...... uncertainty. We find that the gain from eliminating compliance uncertainty may be up to 5% of gross profit while the gain from eliminating ecological uncertainty is minimal. Under landing fee regulation, the entire gain from eliminating both types of uncertainty is captured, even if the regulator’s stock...

  11. Typical Scenario of Preparation, Implementation, and Aftershock Sequence of a Large Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkin, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    We have tried here to construct and examine the typical scenario of a large earthquake occurrence. The Harvard seismic moment GCMT catalog was used to construct the large earthquake generalized space-time vicinity (LEGV) and to investigate the seismicity behavior in LEGV. LEGV was composed of earthquakes falling into the zone of influence of any of the considerable number (100, 300, or 1,000) of largest earthquakes. The LEGV construction is aimed to enlarge the available statistics, diminish a strong random component, and to reveal in result the typical features of pre- and post-shock seismic activity in more detail. In result of the LEGV construction the character of fore- and aftershock cascades was examined in more detail than it was possible without of the use of the LEGV approach. It was shown also that the mean earthquake magnitude tends to increase, and the b-values, mean mb/mw ratios, apparent stress values, and mean depth tend to decrease. Amplitudes of all these anomalies increase with an approach to a moment of the generalized large earthquake (GLE) as a logarithm of time interval from GLE occurrence. Most of the discussed anomalies agree well with a common scenario of development of instability. Besides of such precursors of common character, one earthquake-specific precursor was found. The revealed decrease of mean earthquake depth during large earthquake preparation testifies probably for the deep fluid involvement in the process. The revealed in LEGV typical features of development of shear instability agree well with results obtained in laboratory acoustic emission (AE) study. Majority of the revealed anomalies appear to have a secondary character and are connected mainly with an increase in a mean earthquake magnitude in LEGV. The mean magnitude increase was shown to be connected mainly with a decrease of a portion of moderate size events (Mw 5.0 - 5.5) in a closer GLE vicinity. We believe that this deficit of moderate size events hardly can be

  12. Large 2D-arrays of size-controllable silver nanoparticles prepared by hybrid deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieu Thuy Ung, Thi; Hoa Nguyen, Thi; Liem Nguyen, Quang

    2016-09-01

    Two main results are presented in this paper. (i) Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with uniform size-distribution and controllability in the range of 20-50 nm were synthesized by seeding and growing at ambient conditions. The single-crystal Ag nano-seeds were created by reduction of AgNO3 in presence of citrate surfactant at 70 °C. Then, importantly, the fresh AgCl precursor was used in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone to adjust the reaction rate with ascorbic acid to generate Ag for growing on the surface of single-crystal Ag nano-seeds. The AgNPs size could be well-controlled by varying the amount of Ag nano-seeds while keeping the AgCl precursor concentration to be constant. (ii) The large 2D-arrays with homogeneous and dense monolayers of AgNPs were prepared on ITO substrates by hybrid method, in which the key technological point is the surface functionalization of AgNPs using mixed alkanethiols (dodecanethiol:octadecanethiol = 6:1). We have used the fabricated 2D-arrays from the 50 nm AgNPs as a surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate to take the Raman scattering spectra of rhodamine B (RhB), glucose and viral pathogen (H5N1) at very low concentrations of 10-10 M, 10-12 M and 4 ng μl-1, respectively.

  13. Thermally Sprayed Large Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Its Stack: Geometry Optimization, Preparation, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shan-Lin; Li, Cheng-Xin; Liu, Shuai; Li, Chang-Jiu; Yang, Guan-Jun; He, Peng-Jiang; Yun, Liang-Liang; Song, Bo; Xie, Ying-Xin

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we develop a large tubular solid oxide fuel cells design with several cells in series on a porous cermet support, which has many characteristics such as self-sealing, low Ohmic loss, high strength, and good thermal expansion coefficient matching. Here, we investigate aspects of the cell design, manufacture, performance, and application. Firstly, the cell length and number of cells in series are optimized by theoretical analysis. Then, thermal spraying is applied as a cost-effective method to prepare all the cell components. Finally, the performance of different types of cells and two types of stacks is characterized. The maximum output power of one tube, which had 20 cells in series, reaches 31 and 40.5 W at 800 and 900 °C, respectively. Moreover, the output power of a stack assembled with 56 tubes, each with ten cells in series, reaches 800 W at 830 °C. The excellent single tube and cell stack performance suggest that thermally sprayed tubular SOFCs have significant potential for commercialized application.

  14. Preparation and Properties of the Heteropolyoxometalates of Large Organic Cation with Molybdotungstosilicic Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dunjia; FANG Zhengdong; WEI Xianhong

    2008-01-01

    Some new heteropolyoxometalates of large organic cations with molybdotungstosilicic acids (general formula: (CTMA)4SiMoxW12-xO40·mH20·nDMF, x=0,2,4,6,8,10,12) were prepared by the reaction of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB,C16H33N(CH3)3Br) with H4SiMoxW12-xO40(x=0,2,4,6,8,10,12)in aqueous solution and recrystallization in DMF, and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra,TG-DTA and XRD techniques. The IR spectrum confirms the presence of Keggin structure and organic cations in these compounds, and it is indicated that the stretching vibration of the M-Od, M-Ob-M and Si-Oa becomes more red-shifted when molybdenum is gradually substituted for the tungsten atom. In particular, the thermal decomposition of the heteropolyoxometalates was studied in nitrogen atmosphere. The TG-DTA curves show that their thermal behaviors not only contain the release of water molecule, DMF molecule, CTMA and its fragments but also contains simultaneous collapse of Keggin anion. Their end products of the thermal decomposition are the mixture of WO3, MoO3 and SiO2. And from the final decomposition temperature of view, it is found that the thermal stability of these compounds gradually is decreased when the number of molybdenum atoms is increased.

  15. Ultrafast and large scale preparation of superior catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xianqing; Liu, Yunhua; Xiao, Dan; Sun, Jie

    2017-10-01

    The development of efficient and earth abundant catalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a key challenge for the renewable energy research community. Here, we report a facile and ultrafast route to immobilize nickel-iron layered double hydroxide (NiFe-LDH) nanoparticles on nickel foam (NF) via soaking the direct electroless deposited prussian blue analogue (PBA) on NF in 1 M KOH. This NiFe-LDH/NF electrode can be prepared in a few seconds without further treatments. It has three-dimensional interpenetrating network originated from its PBA precursor which facilitate the diffusion and ad/desorption of the reactants and producing for OER. And further characterization of the Faradaic efficiency and forced convection tests show direct evidence to demonstrate the formation of free intermediate(s) in the OER process. This electrode (typically NiFe-LDH-20s/NF) exhibits outstanding electrocatalytic activity with low overpotential of ∼0.240 V at 10 mA cm-2, low Tafel slope of 38 mV dec-1, and great stability. This feasible strategy affords a new strategy for the large scale manufacture of low-cost, effective and robust OER electrodes.

  16. Thermally Sprayed Large Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Its Stack: Geometry Optimization, Preparation, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shan-Lin; Li, Cheng-Xin; Liu, Shuai; Li, Chang-Jiu; Yang, Guan-Jun; He, Peng-Jiang; Yun, Liang-Liang; Song, Bo; Xie, Ying-Xin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we develop a large tubular solid oxide fuel cells design with several cells in series on a porous cermet support, which has many characteristics such as self-sealing, low Ohmic loss, high strength, and good thermal expansion coefficient matching. Here, we investigate aspects of the cell design, manufacture, performance, and application. Firstly, the cell length and number of cells in series are optimized by theoretical analysis. Then, thermal spraying is applied as a cost-effective method to prepare all the cell components. Finally, the performance of different types of cells and two types of stacks is characterized. The maximum output power of one tube, which had 20 cells in series, reaches 31 and 40.5 W at 800 and 900 °C, respectively. Moreover, the output power of a stack assembled with 56 tubes, each with ten cells in series, reaches 800 W at 830 °C. The excellent single tube and cell stack performance suggest that thermally sprayed tubular SOFCs have significant potential for commercialized application.

  17. Preparation and characterization of mixed hydroxy-Fe-Al pillared montmorillonite with large basal spacing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xiu-qiong; LIU Wei-ping

    2004-01-01

    Mixed hydroxy-Al-Fe pillared montmorillonites with large basal spacing were successfully prepared through cation-exchanging of Na+ - montmorillonite with mixed hydroxy-Al and hydroxy-Fe pillaring solutions made from hydrolysis of corresponding metal salts, followed by calcination to convert hydroxy-Al and hydroxy-Fe into intercalated polycations. According to XRD analysis, the basal spacing d(001 ) of pillared products dramatically enlarged from 12.7 A in the Na-montmorillonite to 81 A in the hydroxy-Fe -montmorillonite and 77.5 A in mixed hydroxy-Al-Fe-montmorillonite. The N2 BET surface areas of the pillared montmorillonites also greatly increased to more than 200m2/g as compared to about 27 m2/g for the Na-montmorillonite. IR analysis of hydroxy-Fe, and mixed hydroxy-Al-Fe pillared montmorillonites revealed a new absorption vibration at 1384 cm-1 wavelength. XRF elemental analysis data also showed a high content of Fe2 O3 in the hydroxy-Fe pillared montmorillonite.

  18. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  19. Study of Large-Scale Aluminium-Doped Zinc Oxide Ceramic Targets Prepared by Slip Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-yun Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO ceramic green compacts at a size of 170 × 340 × 17 mm have been prepared by slip casting. An AZO slurry with good fluidity and viscosity was obtained when 1.2 wt% of dispersant was added, which indicates that the slurry prepared with micrometre particles is more suitable for slip casting. The densification and electrical properties of the AZO targets prepared by particles with different sizes were investigated after sintering from 1380 to 1460°C. The results showed that the relative density of the AZO target prepared with 45 nm particles could reach nearly 98% at 1380°C; the resistivity of the AZO target prepared with nanometre particles could be as low as 1.6 × 10−3 Ω·cm at 1400°C; and the average transmittance of the AZO film prepared with nanometre particles could reach a maximum value of 93.73% in the visible region at 250 W. In this study, the correlation between the density, resistivity, and grain growth of AZO ceramic green compacts was studied.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of a Master Blend of Plutonium Oxide for the 3013 Large Scale Shelf-Life Surveillance Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillispie, Obie William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stroud, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Narlesky, Joshua Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Padilla, Dennis D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bender, Beverly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lopez, Annabelle S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinex, Max A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trujillo, Leonardo A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilson, Edward L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-10

    A mixture of chlorine-containing, impure plutonium oxides has been produced and has been given the name Master Blend. This large quantity of well-characterized chlorinecontaining material is available for use in the Integrated Surveillance and Monitoring Program for shelf-life experiments. It is intended to be representative of materials packaged to meet DOE-STD-3013.1 The Master Blend contains a mixture of items produced in Los Alamos National Laboratory’s (LANL) electro-refining pyrochemical process in the late 1990s. Twenty items were crushed and sieved, calcined to 800ºC for four hours, and blended multiple times. This process resulted in four batches of Master Blend. Calorimetry and density data on material from the four batches indicate homogeneity.

  1. Characteristics and Laser Performance of Yb3+-Doped Silica Large Mode Area Fibers Prepared by Sol–Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikai Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-size 0.1 Yb2O3–1.0 Al2O3–98.9 SiO2 (mol% core glass was prepared by the sol–gel method. Its optical properties were evaluated. Both large mode area double cladding fiber (LMA DCF with core diameter of 48 µm and large mode area photonic crystal fiber (LMA PCF with core diameter of 90 µm were prepared from this core glass. Transmission loss at 1200 nm is 0.41 dB/m. Refractive index fluctuation is less than 2 × 10−4. Pumped by 976 nm laser diode LD pigtailed with silica fiber (NA 0.22, the slope efficiency of 54% and “light-to-light” conversion efficiency of 51% were realized in large mode area double cladding fiber, and 81 W laser power with a slope efficiency of 70.8% was achieved in the corresponding large mode area photonic crystal fiber.

  2. Preparation of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) nanoparticles by desolvation using a membrane contactor: a new tool for large scale production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedomon, B; Fessi, H; Charcosset, C

    2013-11-01

    Albumin nanoparticles are attractive drug delivery systems as they can be prepared under soft conditions and incorporate several kinds of molecules. The aim of this study was to upscale the desolvation process for preparing Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) nanoparticles using a membrane contactor. At a first step, the BSA nanoparticles were prepared at small scale using a syringe pump. BSA nanoparticles of 139 nm in size, with a polydispersity index of 0.046, were obtained at the optimal conditions: pH 8.2, 100 mg mL(-1) BSA albumin solution (2 mL), and 1 mL min(-1) flow rate of ethanol addition (8 mL). The upscaling with a membrane contactor was achieved by permeating ethanol through the pores of a Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG Technology Co., Japan) membrane and circulating the aqueous phase tangentially to the membrane surface. By increasing the pressure of the ethanol from 1 to 2.7 bars, a progressive decrease in nanoparticle size was obtained with a high nanoparticles yield (around 94-96%). In addition, the flow rate of the circulating phase did not affect the BSA nanoparticle characteristics. At the optimal conditions (pH 8.2, 100 mg mL(-1) BSA albumin solution, pressure of ethanol 2.7 bars, flow rate of the circulating phase 30.7 mL s(-1)), the BSA nanoparticles showed similar characteristics to those obtained with the syringe pump. Large batches of BSA nanoparticles were prepared up to 10 g BSA. The BSA nanoparticles were stable at least during 2 months at 4 °C, and their characteristics were reproducible. It was then concluded that the membrane contactor technique could be a suitable method for the preparation of albumin nanoparticles at large scale with properties similar to that obtained at small scale.

  3. Electrochemical preparation of metal microstructures on large areas of etched ion track membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrev, D.; Vetter, J.; Angert, N.

    1999-01-01

    A microgalvanic method for metal filling of etched ion tracks in organic foils on large areas is described. The method and the used galvanic cell permit the deposition of stable standing individual metal whiskers with high aspect ratio and a density of 10 5-10 8 per cm 2 on an area of 12.5 cm 2. The method was verified with copper and it is suitable also for various other metals. It can be applied for the replication of etched ion tracks and for the fabrication of microstructures containing large numbers of individual metal whiskers.

  4. Thermal quantities of 46Ti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatinejad, A.; Razavi, R.; Kakavand, T.

    2015-07-01

    Thermodynamic quantities of 46Ti have been calculated in the framework of the BCS model with inclusion of modified nuclear pairing gap (MPBCS) that was proposed in our previous publication. Using modified paring gap results in an S-shaped heat capacity curve at critical temperature with a smooth behavior instead of singular behavior of the same curve in the BCS calculations. In addition the thermal quantities have been extracted within the framework of a canonical ensemble according to the new experimental data on nuclear level densities measured by the Oslo group. Comparison shows a good agreement between our calculations in MPBCS and the extracted quantities in the canonical ensemble framework.

  5. Preparation of Super-Thin, Large-Area, Double-Sided Gold-Plated Mylar Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Large-area multi-wire parallel plane avalanche counter (MWPPAC) is a kind of gas detector widely used in nuclear experiments. MWPPAC is composed of front-window film, X wires, anode film, Y wires and rear-window film, which is mostly utilized to measuring

  6. Use of large-scale chromatography in the preparation of armodafinil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Willy; Adam, Philippe; Bobier, Christelle; Landmesser, Nelson

    2008-08-01

    Armodafinil, the (R)-enantiomer of modafinil, is a medication used to treat the excessive sleepiness associated with narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome, and shift work sleep disorder. We report here the chemical development of armodafinil and the investigations that led to a commercial route to prepare this pure enantiomer. Three synthetic approaches were used to provide the chiral sulfoxide. Resolution via preferential crystallization was used for phase I clinical trials and was subsequently replaced by chiral chromatography, enabling us to pursue a rapid filing and registration of the API. Finally, the commercial route was developed and employed asymmetric oxidation catalyzed by a titanium(IV) isopropoxide and diethyl tartrate system. The advantages of choosing a chromatographic development pathway to expedite registration while concurrently developing an economical chiral synthesis route is discussed in the context of armodafinil development.

  7. Preparation and characterization of monodisperse large-porous silica microspheres as the matrix for protein separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hongjun; Wan, Guangping; Zhao, Junlong; Liu, Jiawei; Bai, Quan

    2016-11-04

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a kind of efficient separation technology and has been used widely in many fields. Micro-sized porous silica microspheres as the most popular matrix have been used for fast separation and analysis in HPLC. In this paper, the monodisperse large-porous silica microspheres with controllable size and structure were successfully synthesized with polymer microspheres as the templates and characterized. First, the poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate) microspheres (PGMA-EDMA) were functionalized with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) to generate amino groups which act as a catalyst in hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to form Si-containing low molecular weight species. Then the low molecular weight species diffused into the functionalized PGMA-EDMA microspheres by induction force of the amino groups to form polymer/silica hybrid microspheres. Finally, the organic polymer templates were removed by calcination, and the large-porous silica microspheres were obtained. The compositions, morphology, size distribution, specific surface area and pore size distribution of the porous silica microspheres were characterized by infrared analyzer, scanning-electron microscopy, dynamic laser scattering, the mercury intrusion method and thermal gravimetric analysis, respectively. The results show that the agglomeration of the hybrid microspheres can be overcome when the templates were functionalized with TEPA as amination reagent, and the yield of 95.7% of the monodisperse large-porous silica microspheres can be achieved with high concentration of polymer templates. The resulting large-porous silica microspheres were modified with octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODS) and the chromatographic evaluation was performed by separating the proteins and the digest of BSA. The baseline separation of seven kinds of protein standards was achieved, and the column delivered a better performance when separating BSA digests

  8. Preparing laboratory and real-world EEG data for large-scale analysis: A containerized approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima eBigdely-Shamlo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale analysis of EEG and other physiological measures promises new insights into brain processes and more accurate and robust brain-computer interface (BCI models.. However, the absence of standard-ized vocabularies for annotating events in a machine understandable manner, the welter of collection-specific data organizations, the diffi-culty in moving data across processing platforms, and the unavailability of agreed-upon standards for preprocessing have prevented large-scale analyses of EEG. Here we describe a containerized approach and freely available tools we have developed to facilitate the process of an-notating, packaging, and preprocessing EEG data collections to enable data sharing, archiving, large-scale machine learning/data mining and (meta-analysis. The EEG Study Schema (ESS comprises three data Levels, each with its own XML-document schema and file/folder convention, plus a standardized (PREP pipeline to move raw (Data Level 1 data to a basic preprocessed state (Data Level 2 suitable for application of a large class of EEG analysis methods. Researchers can ship a study as a single unit and operate on its data using a standardized interface. ESS does not require a central database and provides all the metadata data necessary to execute a wide variety of EEG processing pipelines. The primary focus of ESS is automated in-depth analysis and meta-analysis EEG studies. However, ESS can also encapsulate meta-information for the other modalities such as eye tracking, that are in-creasingly used in both laboratory and real-world neuroimaging. ESS schema and tools are freely available at eegstudy.org, and a central cata-log of over 850 GB of existing data in ESS format is available at study-catalog.org. These tools and resources are part of a larger effort to ena-ble data sharing at sufficient scale for researchers to engage in truly large-scale EEG analysis and data mining (BigEEG.org.

  9. Uniformity in large area ZnO:Al films prepared by reactive midfrequency magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, R J; Sittinger, V; Szyszka, B; Hoeing, T; Bräuer, G; Heide, G; Frischat, G H

    2002-01-01

    Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) films were deposited on glass substrates using a reactive midfrequency magnetron sputtering process. The optical transmission and reflection as well as the electrical resistivity of the films prepared on an area of 1000x600 mm sup 2 were determined at different locations. Films with a uniform distribution of resistivity between 2.9x10 sup - sup 4 and 3.6x10 sup - sup 4 OMEGA cm and transmittance up to 88% in the visible spectral range were obtained. The ellipsometric spectra of the films were also analyzed using the Drude-Lorentz model. The calculated thicknesses of the films agreed well with those measured by a step profilometer. Secondary neutral mass spectrometry depth profiling showed uniform contents of Zn and O elements, while a slight periodic variation of the Al content was observed at different depths inside the film. A transition zone of 35-55 nm in width between the films and glass substrates due to the interdiffusion was also observed.

  10. Preparation of Large Area Double Sided YBCO Thin Films by DC Magneton Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Tao; Gu Hongwei; Wang Peiwen; Wang Xiaoping; Xie Bowei

    2004-01-01

    Tc, Jc and Rs properties of large area double sided YBCO thin films deposited on LaAlO3 substrates by direct current sputtering were reported.Film thickness of the obtained thin films is over 300 nm, Tc > 90 K; Rs can be as low as less than 1.0 mΩ(77 K, 10 GHz).Homogenousity of the properties around the plane was studied.Under the measnous distributions.Influences of substrate temperature and Ar and O2 pressures on properties of the double-sided thin films were discussed.

  11. Conditional large Fock state preparation and field state reconstruction in cavity QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M F; Solano, E; de Matos Filho, R L

    2001-08-27

    We propose a scheme for producing large Fock states in cavity QED via the implementation of a highly selective atom-field interaction. It is based on Raman excitation of a three-level atom by a classical field and a quantized field mode. Selectivity appears when one tunes to resonance a specific transition inside a chosen atom-field subspace, while other transitions remain dispersive, as a consequence of the field dependent electronic energy shifts. We show that this scheme can be also employed for reconstructing, in a new and efficient way, the Wigner function of the cavity field state.

  12. Preparation of ceria with large particle size and high appearance density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Songling; LIU Junyun; JIA Jiangtao; LIAO Chunsheng; YAN Chunhua

    2008-01-01

    Cerium is one of the most abundant rare earth dements in both bastnasite and monazite. Ceria has been widely used in optical catalytic, electrolyte, and sensor materials, with unique performances. With the development of functional materials, great interest has been focused on the synthesis and characterization of specific fine/mesoporous ceria powder. In this study, the modified precipitation and recrystallization processes combined with a controlled calcination process for fabricating the ceria with large particle size and high appearance density was reported. During precipitation, a certain amount of mineral acid such as nitric acid served as an additive, to adjust the precipitation and crystallization processes of cerium oxalates. An appropriate acidic condition could lead the process into the Oswald ripening stage and made the particles become bigger. Thus, the appearance density of powder was increased. The optimized conditions, such as the temperature, feeding speed, type and concentration of mineral acids, and the concentration of cerium-contained stock solution, were investigated and evaluated.

  13. Effects of Quantity and Quality Instructions on Brainstorming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Paul B.; Kohn, Nicholas W.; Arditti, Lauren E.

    2011-01-01

    One of the basic presumptions of brainstorming is that a focus on generating a large number of ideas enhances both the number of ideas generated and the number of good ideas (original and useful). Prior research has not clearly demonstrated the utility of such a quantity focus in comparison to a condition in which quantity is not emphasized. There…

  14. Large-scale preparation of active caspase-3 in E. coli by designing its thrombin-activatable precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sung

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspase-3, a principal apoptotic effector that cleaves the majority of cellular substrates, is an important medicinal target for the treatment of cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Large amounts of the protein are required for drug discovery research. However, previous efforts to express the full-length caspase-3 gene in E. coli have been unsuccessful. Results Overproducers of thrombin-activatable full-length caspase-3 precursors were prepared by engineering the auto-activation sites of caspase-3 precursor into a sequence susceptible to thrombin hydrolysis. The engineered precursors were highly expressed as soluble proteins in E. coli and easily purified by affinity chromatography, to levels of 10–15 mg from 1 L of E. coli culture, and readily activated by thrombin digestion. Kinetic evaluation disclosed that thrombin digestion enhanced catalytic activity (kcat/KM of the precursor proteins by two orders of magnitude. Conclusion A novel method for a large-scale preparation of active caspase-3 was developed by a strategic engineering to lack auto-activation during expression with amino acid sequences susceptible to thrombin, facilitating high-level expression in E. coli. The precursor protein was easily purified and activated through specific cleavage at the engineered sites by thrombin, generating active caspase-3 in high yields.

  15. Simple and large scale refluxing method for preparation of Ce-doped ZnO nanostructures as highly efficient photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, P.O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Habibi-Yangjeh, A., E-mail: ahabibi@uma.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, P.O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: A simple method was applied for the preparation of Ce-doped ZnO nanostructures (mole fractions of Ce{sup 4+} ions are 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.10) in water by refluxing for 3 h about at 90 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple refluxing method was applied for preparation of Ce-doped ZnO nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The XRD patterns demonstrate that loading of Ce{sup 4+} ions does not change the structure of ZnO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results indicate that the nanostructures with 0.05 mole fraction of Ce{sup 4+} ions exhibit highest photocatalytic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanostructures have highest photocatalytic activity at solutions with pH between 5.4 and 9. - Abstract: A simple method was applied for preparation of Ce-doped ZnO nanostructures (mole fractions of Ce{sup 4+} ions are 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.10) in water by refluxing for 3 h about at 90 Degree-Sign C. This method is large scale, mild and involve no templates, surfactants or additives. The prepared nanostructures were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) techniques. The XRD patterns demonstrate that the nanostructures have the same crystal structure, and loading of Ce{sup 4+} ions does not change the structure of ZnO. The SEM images show that with increasing mole fraction of Ce{sup 4+} ions, morphology of the nanostructures changes from nanoplates to nanospheres. Photocatalytic activity of the nanostructures toward photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) was evaluated under UV irradiation. The results indicate that the nanostructures with 0.05 mole fraction of Ce{sup 4+} ions exhibit highest photocatalytic activity among the prepared samples. The influence of various operational parameters such as refluxing time, catalyst weight, calcinations temperature and pH of solution on the photodegradation reaction

  16. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…

  17. Acid/base bifunctional carbonaceous nanomaterial with large surface area: Preparation, characterization, and adsorption properties for cationic and anionic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kai; Ma, Chun–Fang; Ling, Yuan; Li, Meng [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Gao, Qiang, E-mail: gaoqiang@cug.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geo Materials of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Luo, Wen–Jun, E-mail: heartnohome@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Nanostructured carbonaceous materials are extremely important in the nano field, yet developing simple, mild, and “green” methods that can make such materials possess large surface area and rich functional groups on their surfaces still remains a considerable challenge. Herein, a one-pot and environment-friendly method, i.e., thermal treatment (180 °C; 18 h) of water mixed with glucose and chitosan (CTS), has been proposed. The resultant carbonaceous nanomaterials were characterized by field emitting scanning electron microscope, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and zeta-potential analysis. It was found that, in contrast to the conventional hydrothermally carbonized product from pure glucose, with low surface area (9.3 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and pore volume (0.016 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}), the CTS-added carbonaceous products showed satisfactory textural parameters (surface area and pore volume up to 254 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and 0.701 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}, respectively). Moreover, it was also interestingly found that these CTS-added carbonaceous products possessed both acidic (–COOH) and basic (–NH{sub 2}) groups on their surfaces. Taking the advantages of large surface area and –COOH/–NH{sub 2} bifunctional surface, the carbonaceous nanomaterials exhibited excellent performance for adsorptions of cationic compound (i.e., methylene blue) at pH 10 and anionic compound (i.e., acid red 18) at pH 2, respectively. This work not only provides a simple and green route to prepare acid/base bifunctional carbonaceous nanomaterials with large surface area but also well demonstrates their potential for application in adsorption. - Highlights: • A simple and green method was proposed to prepare carbon nanomaterials. • The carbon product showed acid/base bifunctional surface with large surface area. • The carbon material could efficiently adsorb both cationic and anionic compounds.

  18. Quantity discrimination in female mosquitofish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrillo, Christian; Dadda, Marco; Bisazza, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The ability in animals to count and represent different numbers of objects has received a great deal of attention in the past few decades. Cumulative evidence from comparative studies on number discriminations report obvious analogies among human babies, non-human primates and birds and are consistent with the hypothesis of two distinct and widespread mechanisms, one for counting small numbers (verbal creatures studied; results are in agreement with the hypothesis of the existence of two distinct systems for quantity discrimination in vertebrates.

  19. Impact of the Velo 2 half misalignment on physical quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Roguljic, Matej; Borghi, Silvia; Grillo, Lucia; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the misalignment of the Vertex Locator of the LHCb experiment on the physical quantities of the decay "$D^{*+} \\rightarrow (D^{0}\\rightarrow K^{-}\\pi^{+}) \\pi^{+} $" is studied in this note. Different misalignments of the 2 halves are applied to Monte Carlo data and the variations of the physical quantities with respect to the case without misalignment are evaluated. The results show the importance of the VELO 2 half alignment which can significantly affect the physics performance in the large misalignment case. A misalignment equal to the precision of the real-time alignment of the Vertex Locator is found to have a negligible effect on the studied physical quantities.

  20. All-solid-state reduced graphene oxide supercapacitor with large volumetric capacitance and ultralong stability prepared by electrophoretic deposition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Duong, Le Dai; Mai, Nguyen Thi; Kim, Sanghoon; Kim, Youngjun; Seo, Heewon; Kim, Ye Chan; Jang, Woojin; Lee, Youngkwan; Suhr, Jonghwan; Nam, Jae-Do

    2015-01-21

    Portable energy storage devices have gained special attention due to the growing demand for portable electronics. Herein, an all-solid-state supercapacitor is successfully fabricated based on a poly(vinyl alcohol)-H3PO4 (PVA-H3PO4) polymer electrolyte and a reduced graphene oxide (RGO) membrane electrode prepared by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). The RGO electrode fabricated by EPD contains an in-plane layer-by-layer alignment and a moderate porosity that accommodate the electrolyte ions. The all-solid-state RGO supercapacitor is thoroughly tested to give high specific volumetric capacitance (108 F cm(-3)) and excellent energy and power densities (7.5 Wh cm(-3) and 2.9 W cm(-3), respectively). In addition, the all-solid-state RGO supercapacitor exhibits an ultralong lifetime for as long as 180 days (335 000 cycles), which is an ultrahigh cycling capability for a solid-state supercapacitor. The RGO is also tested for being used as a transparent supercapacitor electrode demonstrating its possible use in various transparent optoelectronic devices. Due to the facile scale-up capability of the EPD process and RGO dispersion, the developed all-solid-state supercapacitor is highly applicable to large-area portable energy storage devices.

  1. Preparation of High Surface Area, Large Pore Volume Alumina by Using β-Cyclodextrin as a Non-surfactant Template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lai Jun WANG; Ming Fen WEN; Yu Shan LI; Dong YANG; Jing CHEN; Chong Li SONG

    2006-01-01

    A series of alumina samples were prepared using β-cyclodextrin as the non-surfactant template. These samples were characterized by XRD, BET and TEM. The results showed that the alumina samples prepared using β-cyclodextrin template had the higher surface areas (124-484 m2/g), larger pore volumes (0.7-1.27 mL/g) and more thermal stability than samples prepared without using β-cyclodextrin.

  2. Improved Cellulose Adsorption Method for the Preparation of Perovskite Oxides with Large Specific Surface Area at Low Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Perovskite-type La1-xSrxMO3-d (x=0,0.1,0.2, B=Co,Fe,Mn) oxides were prepared by pyrolysis of metal salt-(organic acid)-cellulose compound precursors. Low calcination temperatures, usually lower than 600oC, were needed. The specific surface area of the as-prepared oxides is higher than that prepared by the cellulose adsorption method, and is comparable to that prepared by sol-gel method. The effective organic acid could be EDTA acid, citric acid or DL-hydroxysuccinic acid, among them, EDTA acid is the best one.

  3. Preparation of isotopic molybdenum foils utilizing small quantities of material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, A. R.; Lee, L. L.; Liang, J. F.; Mahon, J. C.

    1993-09-01

    A simple method utilizing a small amount of isotopic material for production of molybdenum foils is discussed. An e-gun is used in the procedure. The Mo powder undergoes reduction-sintering and melting-solidifying steps leading to the creation of a metallic droplet suitable for further cold rolling or vacuum deposition.

  4. Quantity Cognition: Numbers, Numerosity, Zero and Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ben M

    2016-05-23

    Physical quantities differ from abstract numbers and mathematics, but recent results are revealing the neural representation of both: a new study demonstrates how an absence of quantity is transformed into a representation of zero as a number.

  5. A statistical law in the perception of risks and physical quantities in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests that a universal psychophysical law influences the perception of risks and physical quantities in traffic. This law states that there will be a tendency to overestimate low probabilities or small quantities, while high probabilities or large quantities may be underestimated. S...

  6. Assessment of petrophysical quantities inspired by joint multifractal approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Z Koohi; Jafari, G R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper joint multifractal random walk approach is carried out to analyze some petrophysical quantities for characterizing the petroleum reservoir. These quantities include Gamma emission (GR), sonic transient time (DT) and Neutron porosity (NPHI) which are collected from four wells of a reservoir. To quantify mutual interaction of petrophysical quantities, joint multifractal random walk is implemented. This approach is based on the mutual multiplicative cascade notion in the multifractal formalism and in this approach $L_0$ represents a benchmark to describe the nature of cross-correlation between two series. The analysis of the petrophysical quantities revealed that GR for all wells has strongly multifractal nature due to the considerable abundance of large fluctuations in various scales. The variance of probability distribution function, $\\lambda_{\\ell}^2$, at scale $\\ell$ and its intercept determine the multifractal properties of the data sets sourced by probability density function. The value of $\\...

  7. Fluctuations of Intensive Quantities in Statistical Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur E. Ruuge

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In phenomenological thermodynamics, the canonical coordinates of a physical system split in pairs, with each pair consisting of an extensive quantity and an intensive one. In the present paper, the quasithermodynamic fluctuation theory of a model system of a large number of oscillators is extended to statistical thermodynamics based on the idea of perceiving the fluctuations of intensive variables as the fluctuations of specific extensive ones in a “thermodynamically dual” system. The extension is motivated by the symmetry of the problem in the context of an analogy with quantum mechanics, which is stated in terms of a generalized Pauli problem for the thermodynamic fluctuations. The doubled Boltzmann constant divided by the number of particles plays a similar role as the Planck constant.

  8. Synthesis of Large Quantities of Single-Walled Aluminogermanante Nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levard,C.; Rose, J.; Mision, A.; Doelsch, E.; Borschneck, D.; Olivi, L.; Dominic, C.; Grauby, O.; Woicik, J.; Bottero, J.

    2008-01-01

    A simple aqueous synthesis yielded about 100 times more structurally well-organized single-walled aluminogermanate nanotubes than previously reported 'standard' procedures. The structure analyses using XRD, IRTF, TEM, and XAS were greatly facilitated by the high concentrations available, and they ascertained the imogolite-like structure of the nanotubes. Simplicity and yield of the synthesis protocol are likely to favor commercial applications of theses materials as well as simplified syntheses of other nanophases.

  9. Nurturing young writers: sustaining quality, not quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, L M

    2009-11-01

    The exponential growth in scientific journals and advent of the electronic era have led to such information overload that the sustainability of credible and quality publications is more urgent than ever. Editors and academics who commit themselves to nurturing young writers need to reaffirm their focus on quality rather than quantity of papers. Bearing in mind that publications should firstly be founded on good science, there are several approaches in helping the uninitiated develop and hone writing skills. Academic journals faithfully publish instructions to guide potential authors on the preparation and submission of manuscripts. For those with a gift for writing, this may suffice to start them soaring in their writing career. Others find the hands-on approach of writing workshops more effective in clarifying the rules of the writing game and dispelling the fear of writing. Workshops are good at demonstrating the basics, but the forging of a good writer is a long process in which a mentor can play an invaluable role. A nurturing mentor-mentee relationship should not be a stifling one, but one that leads, grows and finally liberates an independent writer. It is inevitable that the nature of scientific publications will change over time. Nonetheless, the sustainability of quality journals will remain linked to the continual generation of writers who uphold scientific truth and good writing values.

  10. Preparation of vitamin E loaded nanocapsules by the nanoprecipitation method: from laboratory scale to large scale using a membrane contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayata, N; Abdelwahed, W; Chehna, M F; Charcosset, C; Fessi, H

    2012-02-28

    Vitamin E or α-tocopherol is widely used as a strong antioxidant in many medical and cosmetic applications, but is rapidly degraded, because of its light, heat and oxygen sensitivity. In this study, we applied the nanoprecipitation method to prepare vitamin E-loaded nanocapsules, at laboratory-scale and pilot-scale. We scaled-up the preparation of nanocapsule with the membrane contactor technique. The effect of several formulation variables on the vitamin E-loaded nanocapsules properties (mean diameter, zeta potential, and drug entrapment efficiency) was investigated. The optimized formulation at laboratory-scale and pilot-scale lead to the preparation of vitamin E-loaded nanocapsules with mean diameter of 165 and 172 nm, respectively, and a high encapsulation efficiency (98% and 97%, respectively).

  11. Rapid Feedback Assessment Methods: Can We Improve Engagement and Preparation for Exams in Large-Enrollment Courses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Sehoya H.; Fall, Bruce A.; Wick, Susan M.; Walker, J. D.; Baepler, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Scratch-off immediate feedback assessment technique (IF-AT) forms and classroom response systems (clickers) can increase student engagement and interaction and help students prepare for exams by indicating the type and level of questions they will encounter. We used the IF-AT throughout the semester in three sections of a lower-division biology…

  12. Using break quantities for tactical optimisation in multistage distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Kleijn (Marcel); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this chapter we discuss a tactical optimisation problem that arises in a multistage distribution system where customer orders can be delivered from any stockpoint. A simple rule to allocate orders to locations is a break quantity rule, which routes large orders to higher-stage stockpo

  13. Carbon Footprint and Order Quantity in Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Even without economic factors and government regulations, the pressure and motivation of corporation to reduce emission are still increasing. This is because the key factors for corporation to reduce emissions have become corporate social responsibility and identification of low-carbon value by consumer and society from economic trade-off and government regulations. So, the purpose of this paper is to provide quantity methods for the logistics organizations with wish of voluntary reduction and social responsibility.Design/methodology/approach: Being difference from the traditional research that takes economic value as object, this paper takes carbon footprint as object directly, order quantity as decision variable. By referring to the traditional economic order quantity model, the paper creates logistics carbon footprint model which takes transport and inventory into account. Then it solves the model by calculating the values of order quantity, carbon footprint and revenue using the method of optimization.Findings and Originality/value: By solving and comparing the two models of economic order quantity model and carbon footprint model, it gets some results, such as carbon optimization order quantity, the effects order quantity deviating from economic order quantity or carbon order quantity having on economic or carbon footprint values, which can give some meaningful insight for corporation to search out reduction opportunities by operations adjustment.Originality/value: The study takes carbon footprint as object directly and creates the corresponding quantity model. By comparing with the traditional economic order quantity model, the paper provides quantity methods and obtains some meaningful insights for the logistics organizations with wish of voluntary reduction and social responsibility to reduce emissions by operations adjustment.

  14. Minimalistic sample preparation strategies for LC-MS quantification of large molecule biopharmaceuticals: a case study highlighting alpha-1 antitrypsin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Katherine; Dufield, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Large molecule biotherapeutics pose a distinctive bioanalytical challenge for LC-MS assay development, particularly when optimizing sample enrichment steps. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is used as an example for highlighting large-molecule assay-development strategies. Two sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS-based quantification assays were developed. Fit-for-purpose assay qualifications for BAL and serum matrices were performed by assessing sensitivity, precision and accuracy, dilution linearity and interferences. Our approach to sample preparation focuses on optimizing the simplest methodology necessary to generate fit-for-purpose bioanalytical assays. To measure AAT protein levels in preclinical species with selectivity and increased assay sensitivity, a minimalistic sample preparation strategy was adopted that included either traditional direct digestion or a more complicated immunoprecipitation enrichment process.

  15. Preparation of Calibration Standards of N1-H Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Analogues by Large-Scale Culture of Cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis (TA04

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Suzuki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mouse bioassay is the official testing method to quantify paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs in bivalves. A number of alternative analytical methods have been reported. Some methods have been evaluated by a single laboratory validation. Among the different types of methods, chemical analyses are capable of identifying and quantifying the toxins, however a shortage of the necessary calibration standards hampers implementation of the chemical analyses in routine monitoring of PSTs in bivalves. In our present study, we studied preparation of major PST analogues as calibrants by large-scale cultivation of toxic freshwater cyanobacteria Anabaena circinalis TA04. The cells were steadily grown in 10 L bottle for 28 days. The primary N1-H toxins, C1/C2, were produced at a concentration of 1.3 ± 0.1 µmol/L. The intracellular and extracellular toxins occupied 80% and 20%, respectively. Over 220 µmol of the toxins was obtained from approximately 200 L of the culture over six months, demonstrating that it is sufficient to prepare saxitoxin analogues. The toxins were chemically converted to six N1-H analogues. Preparation of the analogues was carried out at relatively high yields (50–90%. The results indicate that our preparation method is useful to produce N1-H toxins. In our present study, detailed conditions for preparation of one of the rare N1-H analogues, gonyautoxin-5, were investigated.

  16. Large scale preparation and application of bacteriocins%细菌素的制备及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方佳琪; 别怀周; 陈晓琳; 张明

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, bacteriocins that can inhibit or kill the growth of some bacteria have a wide range of practical application in food preservation, disease treatment and many other related aspects were found, and the preparation methods of bacteriocin were widely reported. This article outlines the preparation methods of bacteriocins and its application in many fields.%近年来,具有抑菌活性的细菌素被发现在食品防腐保鲜、疾病治疗和其他许多相关方面有着广泛的应用价值,各种制备细菌素的方法 也被广泛报道.本文概述了细菌素的制备方法 以及其在诸多领域中的应用.

  17. Effects of Small and Large Molecule Emulsifiers on the Characteristics of β-Carotene Nanoemulsions Prepared by High Pressure Homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Like Mao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil-in-water (O/W nanoemulsion allows the preparation of lipophilic nutrients such as carotenoids in liquid form, which may improve their bioavailability and broaden applications. In the present study, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20, TW-20, decaglycerol monolaurate (DML, octenyl succinate starch (OSS, whey protein isolate (WPI, and finally a blend of TW-20 and WPI (1 % by mass have been tested for the preparation of β-carotene nanoemulsions. Interfacial tension, droplet size, zeta potential, microstructures observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM, stability of the emulsion and β-carotene have been compared. Results show that nanoemulsions stabilized with TW-20 and DML had smaller droplet size, but relatively poorer stability, compared with the ones stabilized with OSS and WPI (p0.05.

  18. Determining the directions of increasing the innovative potential of the region by developing innovative technologies and competences when preparing and implementing large investment projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur V. Kramin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the directions of increasing the innovative potential of a region through the development of innovative technologies and competences in the process of preparation and implementation of large investment projects in the Republic of Tatarstan. Methods methodology of project management institutional approach. Results it is proved that the main largescale directions of innovative potential development in the Republic of Tatarstan as a result of preparation and implementing of Universiade 2013 in Kazan are knowledge management information technologies risk management. It is shown that in the framework of the considered innovative areas a complete system was formed of competences of employees and managers in the fields of education trade hospitality and service. Scientific novelty the key directions were defined of increasing the innovative potential of a region through the development of innovative technologies and competences in the process of preparation and implementation of large investment projects by the example of the World Summer Student Games in Kazan in 2013. Practical significance on the basis of specific examples the authors illustrate the practiceoriented mechanism of innovative potential development of a region as a result of implementation of large investment projects. nbsp

  19. Photosynthesis-related quantities for education and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Taras K; Kovalenko, Ilya B; Rubin, Andrew B; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2013-11-01

    A quantitative understanding of the photosynthetic machinery depends largely on quantities, such as concentrations, sizes, absorption wavelengths, redox potentials, and rate constants. The present contribution is a collection of numbers and quantities related mainly to photosynthesis in higher plants. All numbers are taken directly from a literature or database source and the corresponding reference is provided. The numerical values, presented in this paper, provide ranges of values, obtained in specific experiments for specific organisms. However, the presented numbers can be useful for understanding the principles of structure and function of photosynthetic machinery and for guidance of future research.

  20. Inherently analog quantity representations in olive baboons (Papio anubis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M Barnard

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Strong evidence indicates that non-human primates possess a numerical representation system, but the inherent nature of that system is still debated. Two cognitive mechanisms have been proposed to account for non-human primate numerical performance: (1 a discrete object-file system limited to quantities <4, and (2 an analog system which represents quantities comparatively but is limited by the ratio between two quantities. To test the underlying nature of non-human primate quantification, we asked eight experiment -naive olive baboons (Papio anubis to discriminate between number pairs containing small (<4, large (>4, or span (small vs. large numbers of food items presented simultaneously or sequentially. The prediction from the object-file hypothesis is that baboons will only accurately choose the larger quantity in small pairs, but not large or span pairs. Conversely, the analog system predicts that baboons will be successful with all numbers, and that success will be dependent on numerical ratio. We found that baboons successfully discriminated all pair types at above chance levels. In addition, performance significantly correlated with the ratio between the numerical values. Although performance was better for simultaneous trials than sequential trials, evidence favoring analog numerical representation emerged from both conditions, and was present even in the first exposure to number pairs. Together, these data favor the interpretation that a single, coherent analog representation system underlies spontaneous quantitative abilities in primates.

  1. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products § 223.220 Quantity determination...

  2. Rethinking Intensive Quantities via Guided Mediated Abduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Dor

    2012-01-01

    Some intensive quantities, such as slope, velocity, or likelihood, are perceptually privileged in the sense that they are experienced as holistic, irreducible sensations. However, the formal expression of these quantities uses "a/b" analytic metrics; for example, the slope of a line is the quotient of its rise and run. Thus, whereas students'…

  3. Keeping Secrets : Quantity, Quality and Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijns, T.

    2005-01-01

    Keeping Secrets deals with the consequences of an elusive yet everyday phenomenon. It addresses both the quantity and quality of secret-keeping. With respect to quantity, it presents research on the intra- and interpersonal consequences of keeping secrets from parents in adolescence. With respect t

  4. Facile preparation of polypyrrole/graphene oxide nanocomposites with large areal capacitance using electrochemical codeposition for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haihan; Han, Gaoyi; Xiao, Yaoming; Chang, Yunzhen; Zhai, Hua-Jin

    2014-10-01

    A simple and low-cost electrochemical codeposition method has been introduced to fabricate polypyrrole/graphene oxide (PPy/GO) nanocomposites and the areal capacitance of conducting polymer/GO composites is reported for the first time. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are implemented to determine the PPy/GO nanocomposites are successfully prepared and the interaction between PPy and GO. The as-prepared PPy/GO nanocomposites show the curly sheet-like morphology, superior capacitive behaviors and cyclic stability. Furthermore, the varying deposition time is implemented to investigate the impact of the loading amount on electrochemical behavior of the composites, and a high areal capacitance of 152 mF cm-2 is achieved at 10 mV s-1 CV scan. However, the thicker films caused by the long deposition time would result in larger diffusion resistance of electrolyte ions, consequently exhibit the relatively lower capacitance value at the high current density. The GCD tests indicate moderate deposition time is more suitable for the fast charge/discharge. Considering the very simple and effective synthetic process, the PPy/GO nanocomposites with relatively high areal capacitance are competitive candidate for supercapacitor application, and its capacitive performances can be easily tuned by varying the deposition time.

  5. Thin films of spin-crossover coordination polymers with large thermal hysteresis loops prepared by nanoparticle spin coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Daisuke; Aketa, Naoki; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Tamaki, Takashi; Inose, Tomoko; Akai, Tomoki; Toyama, Hirotaka; Sakata, Osami; Tajiri, Hiroo; Ogawa, Takuji

    2014-09-11

    This communication describes the synthesis of spin-crossover nanoparticles, which can disperse in various organic solvents without an excess amount of surfactants. The nanoparticles form homogeneous thin films on substrates by spin coating. The films show abrupt spin transitions with large thermal hysteresis loops.

  6. Large-scale preparation of clove essential oil and eugenol-loaded liposomes using a membrane contactor and a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaaly, Carine; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Agusti, Géraldine; Fessi, Hatem; Charcosset, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Based on our previous study where optimal conditions were defined to encapsulate clove essential oil (CEO) into liposomes at laboratory scale, we scaled-up the preparation of CEO and eugenol (Eug)-loaded liposomes using a membrane contactor (600 mL) and a pilot plant (3 L) based on the principle of ethanol injection method, both equipped with a Shirasu Porous Glass membrane for injection of the organic phase into the aqueous phase. Homogenous, stable, nanometric-sized and multilamellar liposomes with high phospholipid, Eug loading rates and encapsulation efficiency of CEO components were obtained. Saturation of phospholipids and drug concentration in the organic phase may control the liposome stability. Liposomes loaded with other hydrophobic volatile compounds could be prepared at large scale using the ethanol injection method and a membrane for injection.

  7. Thermal quantities of {sup 46}Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmatinejad, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zanjan, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razavi, R., E-mail: rrazavin@ihu.ac.ir [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Imam Hossein Comprehensive University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kakavand, T. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Thermodynamic quantities of {sup 46}Ti have been calculated in the framework of the BCS model with inclusion of modified nuclear pairing gap (MPBCS) that was proposed in our previous publication. Using modified paring gap results in an S-shaped heat capacity curve at critical temperature with a smooth behavior instead of singular behavior of the same curve in the BCS calculations. In addition the thermal quantities have been extracted within the framework of a canonical ensemble according to the new experimental data on nuclear level densities measured by the Oslo group. Comparison shows a good agreement between our calculations in MPBCS and the extracted quantities in the canonical ensemble framework.

  8. Continuing Professional Development in the quantity surveying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-01-01

    . .... South African Council for Quantity Surveyors (SACQS) to implement a policy of ... In addition to withdrawing the administration/management of the policy .... practice; assisting human resource personnel to set objectives for.

  9. A shared system of representation governing quantity discrimination in canids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Baker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris, for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (C. latrans. Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical less/more discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber’s Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously presented quantities of food become more similar, choice of the large or small option becomes random in both dogs and coyotes. It remains unknown, however, whether these closely related species within the same family—one domesticated, and one wild—make such quantitative comparisons with comparable accuracy. Has domestication honed or diminished this quantitative ability? Might different selective and ecological pressures facing coyotes drive them to be more or less able to accurately represent and discriminate food quantity than domesticated dogs? This study is an effort to elucidate this question concerning the evolution of non-verbal quantitative cognition.Here, we tested the quantitative discrimination ability of 16 domesticated dogs. Each animal was given 9 trials in which two different quantities of food were simultaneously displayed to them. The domesticated dogs’ performance on this task was then compared directly to the data from 16 coyotes’ performance on this same task reported by Baker and colleagues (2011.The quantitative discrimination abilities between the two species were strikingly similar. Domesticated dogs demonstrated similar quantitative sensitivity as coyotes, suggesting that domestication may not have significantly altered the psychophysical discrimination abilities of canids. Instead, this study provides further evidence for similar nonverbal quantitative abilities across

  10. Uncertainty propagation with functionally correlated quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Giordano, Mosè

    2016-01-01

    Many uncertainty propagation software exist, written in different programming languages, but not all of them are able to handle functional correlation between quantities. In this paper we review one strategy to deal with uncertainty propagation of quantities that are functionally correlated, and introduce a new software offering this feature: the Julia package Measurements.jl. It supports real and complex numbers with uncertainty, arbitrary-precision calculations, mathematical and linear algebra operations with matrices and arrays.

  11. Counting on your friends: The role of social environment on quantity discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, E McKenna

    2016-07-01

    Quantity discrimination has been established in a range of species. However, most demonstrations of quantity discrimination control for social factors by testing animals individually. I tested whether sociality affects quantity discrimination in the wild by comparing the performances of the highly social Mexican jay (MJ; Aphelocoma wollweberi) and the territorial Western scrub jay (WJ; Aphelocoma californica). The birds were given a choice between two lines of peanuts that differed in initial quantity ranging from 2 vs 8 to 14 vs 16. Their choices were recorded until all peanuts were eaten or cached. Whereas non-social WJ selected the larger quantity across all the trials significantly more than chance, social MJ selected the larger line only when the difference in the number of peanuts between lines was small. In MJ, individual choice when selecting the large or small quantity was influenced by what line the previous bird had chosen when the difference in lines was large, with followers significantly more likely to select the smaller quantity. WJ were not significantly affected by the choices of other individuals. The only factors that influenced WJ choice were ratio and total differences between the two quantities. These results suggests that in certain scenarios, both species can discriminate between different quantities. However, MJ were greatly influenced by social factors, a previously untested factor, while WJ were only influenced by ratio and total difference between the quantities, consistent with findings in other species. Overall, this study demonstrates the important role of sociality in numerical cognitive performance, a previously overlooked factor.

  12. Facile preparation of monodisperse, impurity-free, and antioxidation copper nanoparticles on a large scale for application in conductive ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Pengli; Li, Gang; Zhao, Tao; Fu, Xianzhu; Sun, Rong; Zhou, Feng; Wong, Ching-ping

    2014-01-08

    Monodisperse copper nanoparticles with high purity and antioxidation properties are synthesized quickly (only 5 min) on a large scale (multigram amounts) by a modified polyol process using slightly soluble Cu(OH)2 as the precursor, L-ascorbic acid as the reductant, and PEG-2000 as the protectant. The resulting copper nanoparticles have a size distribution of 135 ± 30 nm and do not suffer significant oxidation even after being stored for 30 days under ambient conditions. The copper nanoparticles can be well-dispersed in an oil-based ink, which can be silk-screen printed onto flexible substrates and then converted into conductive patterns after heat treatment. An optimal electrical resistivity of 15.8 μΩ cm is achieved, which is only 10 times larger than that of bulk copper. The synthesized copper nanoparticles could be considered as a cheap and effective material for printed electronics.

  13. Large coercivity FePt nanoparticles prepared via a one-step method without post-annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinwei; Xiong, Fang; Jiang, Xiaohong; Hua, Zhenghe; Wang, Chunlei; Yang, Shaoguang

    2016-12-01

    L10 FePt nanoparticles were synthesized by a one-step sol-gel autocombustion method, using nontoxic ferric nitrate, hexachloroplatinic acid, and glycine as starting materials. In contrast to common syntheses, high-temperature post-annealing was not required to form the L10 FePt phase. The entire ignition and combustion process lasted no more than one minute. The L10 FePt phase could form in the presence of the high temperature caused by the exothermic combustion reaction. Adjusting the glycine-to-metal ion molar ratio from 0.5 to 6.0 allowed its effects on the phase transformation and magnetic properties of the products to be investigated. X-ray diffraction indicated that pure phase L10 FePt was obtained at a glycine-to-metal ion molar ratio of 1.5. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the monodisperse L10 FePt nanoparticles had an average particle size of about 20 nm. The reasons why the as-synthesized L10 FePt nanoparticles were not aggregated and sintered could be attributed to the large amount, a gas is being released and the short duration of heat treatment during this combustion. This finding constituted a significant improvement in the synthesis of L10 FePt nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements showed that the L10 FePt nanoparticles had a coercivity of 15.8 kOe at 300 K, and 23.2 kOe at 5 K. Thus, the L10 FePt nanoparticles had a very large coercivity.

  14. Large difference between the magnetic properties of Ba and Ti co-doped BiFeO3 bulk materials and their corresponding nanoparticles prepared by ultrasonication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmmad, Bashir; Kanomata, Kensaku; Koike, Kunihiro; Kubota, Shigeru; Kato, Hiroaki; Hirose, Fumihiko; Billah, Areef; Jalil, M. A.; Basith, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    The ceramic pellets of the nominal compositions Bi0.7Ba0.3Fe1-x Ti x O3 (x  =  0.00-0.20) were prepared initially by standard solid state reaction technique. The pellets were then ground into micrometer-sized powders and mixed with isopropanol in an ultrasonic bath to prepare nanoparticles. The x-ray diffraction patterns demonstrate the presence of a significant number of impurity phases in bulk powder materials. Interestingly, these secondary phases were completely removed due to the sonication of these bulk powder materials for 60 minutes. The field and temperature dependent magnetization measurements exhibited significant difference between the magnetic properties of the bulk materials and their corresponding nanoparticles. We anticipate that the large difference in the magnetic behavior may be associated with the presence and absence of secondary impurity phases in the bulk materials and their corresponding nanoparticles, respectively. The leakage current density of the bulk materials was also found to suppress in the ultrasonically prepared nanoparticles compared to that of bulk counterparts.

  15. Low-Temperature Preparation of Tungsten Oxide Anode Buffer Layer via Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Method for Large-Area Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ran; Zheng, Ding; Zhou, Chang; Cheng, Jiang; Yu, Junsheng; Li, Lu

    2017-07-18

    Tungsten oxide (WO₃) is prepared by a low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method in air atmosphere, and it is used as an anode buffer layer (ABL) for organic solar cells (OSCs). The properties of the WO₃ transition metal oxide material as well as the mechanism of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis processes are investigated. The results show that the ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO₃ ABL exhibits low roughness, matched energy level, and high conductivity, which results in high charge transport efficiency and suppressive recombination in OSCs. As a result, compared to the OSCs based on vacuum thermal evaporated WO₃, a higher power conversion efficiency of 3.63% is reached with low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO₃ ABL. Furthermore, the mostly spray-coated OSCs with large area was fabricated, which has a power conversion efficiency of ~1%. This work significantly enhances our understanding of the preparation and application of low temperature-processed WO₃, and highlights the potential of large area, all spray coated OSCs for sustainable commercial fabrication.

  16. Low-Temperature Preparation of Tungsten Oxide Anode Buffer Layer via Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Method for Large-Area Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Ji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten oxide (WO3 is prepared by a low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method in air atmosphere, and it is used as an anode buffer layer (ABL for organic solar cells (OSCs. The properties of the WO3 transition metal oxide material as well as the mechanism of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis processes are investigated. The results show that the ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO3 ABL exhibits low roughness, matched energy level, and high conductivity, which results in high charge transport efficiency and suppressive recombination in OSCs. As a result, compared to the OSCs based on vacuum thermal evaporated WO3, a higher power conversion efficiency of 3.63% is reached with low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO3 ABL. Furthermore, the mostly spray-coated OSCs with large area was fabricated, which has a power conversion efficiency of ~1%. This work significantly enhances our understanding of the preparation and application of low temperature-processed WO3, and highlights the potential of large area, all spray coated OSCs for sustainable commercial fabrication.

  17. Textured PrCo{sub 5} nanoflakes with large coercivity prepared by low power surfactant-assisted ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Wen-Liang, E-mail: wlzuo@iphy.ac.cn; Liu, Rong-Ming; Zheng, Xin-Qi; Wu, Rong-Rong; Hu, Feng-Xia; Sun, Ji-Rong; Shen, Bao-Gen, E-mail: shenbg@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory for Magnetism, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China)

    2014-05-07

    The effect of the milling time on the structure, morphology, coercivity, and remanence ratio of textured PrCo{sub 5} nanoflakes produced by low power surfactant-assisted ball milling (SABM) was investigated. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that the SABM PrCo{sub 5} samples are all CaCu{sub 5}-type hexagonal structure. The average grain size is smaller than 10 nm when the SABM time is equal to or longer than 5.5 h. The thickness of nanoflakes is mainly in the range of 50−100 nm while the length is 0.5−5 μm when the SABM time reaches 8 h. For the field-aligned PrCo{sub 5} nanoflakes, the out-of-plane texture is indicated from the increasing (0 0 l) peaks in the XRD patterns, and the easy magnetization direction is perpendicular to the flake surface. The strong texture of PrCo{sub 5} nanoflakes leads to a large coercivity H{sub c} (7.8 kOe) and obvious anisotropic magnetic behaviors for the aligned samples.

  18. Preparation of Polyclonal Antibodies of Rubisco Large and Small Subunits and Their Application in the Functional Analysis of the Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-Da MA; Tian-Cheng LU; Xiao-Fu ZHOU; Xiao-Juan ZHU; Xing-Zhi WANG

    2004-01-01

    Spinach Rubisco (ribulose-l,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) large (rbcL) and small (rbcS) subunits were separated by SDS-PAGE, and protein amount and purity were determined by Bradford assay. Polyclonal antibodies against rbcL and rbcS subunit were generated in female BALB/c mice and had no cross-reaction with each other. A total of 81 μg antigens were used and 0.3 ml anti-sera with titer of 1:5000were yielded. The antibodies were also applicable to study rbcL and rbcS in tobacco plant Nicotiana benthamiana. Potato virus X vector pGR107 induced silencing of rbcS gene by Agrobacterium in Nicotiana benthaniana was performed. The expression level ofrbcL and rbcS was lower in rbcS silenced plants than that in control plants as detected by the corresponding antibodies. This implied that the expression of rbcL was regulated by rbcS.

  19. Quantity Representation in Children and Rhesus Monkeys: Linear Versus Logarithmic Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Johnson-Pynn, Julie S.; Ready, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The performances of 4- and 5-year-olds and rhesus monkeys were compared using a computerized task for quantity assessment. Participants first learned two quantity anchor values and then responded to intermediate values by classifying them as similar to either the large anchor or the small anchor. Of primary interest was an assessment of where the…

  20. A generalized definition of dosimetric quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerer, A M; Rossi, H H

    1990-04-01

    The current definitions of microdosimetric and dosimetric quantities use the notion of 'ionizing radiation'. However, this notion is not rigorously defined, and its definition would require the somewhat arbitrary choice of specified energy cut-off values for different types of particles. Instead of choosing fixed cut-off values one can extend the system of definitions by admitting the free selection of a category of types and energies of particles that are taken to be part of the field. In this way one extends the system of dosimetric quantities. Kerma and absorbed dose appear then as special cases of a more general dosimetric quantity, and an analogue to kerma can be obtained for charged particle fields; it is termed cema. A modification that is suitable for electron fields is termed reduced cema.

  1. Electromagnetic Quantities in Black Hole Magnetosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪定雄; 马任意; 雷卫华; 姚国政

    2004-01-01

    Some electromagnetic quantities in the black hole (BH) magnetosphere are discussed by considering the coexistence of the Blandford-Znajek process and the magnetic coupling process. These quantities are (i) flux of electromagnetic energy and angular momentum transferred between the BH and the disc, (ii) poloidal currents flowing on the horizon and disc, (iii) poloidal electric field on the horizon, (iv) toroidal magnetic field in the BH magnetosphere,and (v) voltage drop across the magnetic coupling region on the horizon. It turns out that these quantities are determined mainly by three parameters: (i) the positions relative to the corotation magnetic surface, (ii) the BH spin, and (iii) the power-law index for the variation of the magnetic field on the disc.

  2. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, J.A., E-mail: hannaj@vt.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Department of Physics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Pendar, H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant. - Highlights: • A conserved quantity relevant to the dynamical equilibria of thin structures. • A mixed Lagrangian–Eulerian non-material action principle for fixed windows of axially moving systems. • Analytical solutions for rotating, flowing strings (yarn balloons). • Noether meets Bernoulli in a textile factory.

  3. Exact cosmological solutions from Hojman conservation quantities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozziello, Salvatore, E-mail: capozzie@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy); INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126, Napoli (Italy); Roshan, Mahmood, E-mail: rowshan@alumni.ut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 1436, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-10-07

    We present a new approach to find exact solutions for cosmological models. By requiring the existence of a symmetry transformation vector for the equations of motion of the given cosmological model (without using either Lagrangian or Hamiltonian), one can find corresponding Hojman conserved quantities. With the help of these conserved quantities, the analysis of the cosmological model can be simplified. In the case of quintessence scalar–tensor models, we show that the Hojman conserved quantities exist for a wide range of V(ϕ)-potentials and allow to find exact solutions for the cosmic scale factor and the scalar field. Finally, we investigate the general cosmological behavior of solutions by adopting a phase-space view.

  4. Exact cosmological solutions from Hojman conservation quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    We present a new approach to find exact solutions for cosmological models. By requiring the existence of a symmetry transformation vector for the equations of motion of the given cosmological model (without using either Lagrangian or Hamiltonian), one can find corresponding Hojman conserved quantities. With the help of these conserved quantities, the analysis of the cosmological model can be simplified. In the case of quintessence scalar-tensor models, we show that the Hojman conserved quantities exist for a wide range of V(\\phi)-potentials and allow to find exact solutions for the cosmic scale factor and the scalar field. Finally, we investigate the general cosmological behavior of solutions by adopting a phase-space view.

  5. The large-area CdTe thin film for CdS/CdTe solar cell prepared by physical vapor deposition in medium pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Run; Liu, Bo; Yang, Xiaoyan; Bao, Zheng; Li, Bing; Zhang, Jingquan; Li, Wei; Wu, Lili; Feng, Lianghuan

    2016-01-01

    The Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin film has been prepared by physical vapor deposition (PVD), the Ar + O2 pressure is about 0.9 kPa. This method is a newer technique to deposit CdTe thin film in large area, and the size of the film is 30 × 40 cm2. This method is much different from the close-spaced sublimation (CSS), as the relevance between the source temperature and the substrate temperature is weak, and the gas phase of CdTe is transferred to the substrate by Ar + O2 flow. Through this method, the compact and uniform CdTe film (30 × 40 cm2) has been achieved, and the performances of the CdTe thin film have been determined by transmission spectrum, SEM and XRD. The film is observed to be compact with a good crystallinity, the CdTe is polycrystalline with a cubic structure and a strongly preferred (1 1 1) orientation. Using the CdTe thin film (3 × 5 cm2) which is taken from the deposited large-area film, the 14.6% efficiency CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell has been prepared successfully. The structure of the cell is glass/FTO/CdS/CdTe/graphite slurry/Au, short circuit current density (Jsc) of the cell is 26.9 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage (Voc) is 823 mV, and filling factor (FF) is 66.05%. This technique can be a quite promising method to apply in the industrial production, as it has great prospects in the fabricating of large-area CdTe film.

  6. Large Polycrystalline Silicon Grains Prepared by Excimer Laser Crystallization of Sputtered Amorphous Silicon Film with Process Temperature at 100 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming; Ishihara, Ryoichi; Neihof, Ellen J. J.; van Andel, Yvonne; Schellevis, Hugo; Metselaar, Wim; Beenakker, Kees

    2007-03-01

    Large polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) grains with a diameter of 1.8 μm are successfully prepared by excimer laser crystallization (ELC) of a sputtered amorphous silicon (α-Si) film at a maximum process temperature of 100 °C. By pulsed DC magnetron sputtering, α-Si is deposited on a non-structured oxidized wafer. It is found that the α-Si film deposited with a bias is easily ablated during ELC, even at an energy density below the super lateral growth (SLG) region. However, the α-Si film deposited without a bias can endure an energy density well beyond the SLG region without ablation. This zero-bias sputtered α-Si film with a high compressive stress has a low Ar content and a high density, which is beneficial for the suppression of ablation. Large grains with a petal-like shape can be obtained in a wide energy density window, which can be a result from some fine crystallites in the α-Si matrix. These large grains with a low process temperature are promising for the direct formation of system circuits as well as a high-quality display on a plastic foil.

  7. 16 CFR 500.19 - Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI metric quantities. 500.19 Section 500.19 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION AND EXEMPTIONS UNDER THE FAIR PACKAGING...

  8. Variation and Change in Northern Bavarian Quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Derek

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents new research on the "Bavarian Quantity Law" (the BQL) in the northern Bavarian dialect of Hahnbach. Building upon earlier investigation of the BQL (cf. Bannert 1976a,b for Central Bavarian) this study examines the historical, phonological, and phonetic motivations for this feature as well the variability in its…

  9. Variation and Change in Northern Bavarian Quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Derek

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents new research on the "Bavarian Quantity Law" (the BQL) in the northern Bavarian dialect of Hahnbach. Building upon earlier investigation of the BQL (cf. Bannert 1976a,b for Central Bavarian) this study examines the historical, phonological, and phonetic motivations for this feature as well the variability in its…

  10. Factors affecting lactose quantity in raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubporn Kittivachra

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize factors affecting lactose quantities in raw cow's milk. This study combined the survey design with laboratory analysis. Selected farm members of Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives, from Ban Pong and Photharam Districts, Ratchaburi Province, were sampled. From the selected farms, data collected included lactose quantities in the raw milk and dairy farming information. The raw milk of selected farms was sampled at the delivery site of Nong Poh dairy cooperatives in the morning during December 2003 till February 2004. Lactose in the raw milk was then quantified by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using the MilkoScan FT6000 at the Department of Livestock Development. The farm owners or managers of selected farms were in-depth interviewed on dairy farming information including cowsí health and cows' diet. The data revealed that all cows from the selected farms were fed with concentrate diet purchased from Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives and grass as high fiber diets. Sample of eighteen farms also fed their cows with one of supplements: corn stem, soybean meal, or rice straw. All cows from these farms were Holstein-Friesian Hybrid. As supplemented high fiber diets, corn stem significantly increased the lactose quantities over soybean meal and rice straw (planned comparison, pvalue = 0.044. The study concluded that some high fiber diets, specifically corn stem, significantly contributed to the lactose quantities in raw milk.

  11. Quantity language speakers show enhanced subcortical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Vainio, Martti

    2016-07-01

    The complex auditory brainstem response (cABR) can reflect language-based plasticity in subcortical stages of auditory processing. It is sensitive to differences between language groups as well as stimulus properties, e.g. intensity or frequency. It is also sensitive to the synchronicity of the neural population stimulated by sound, which results in increased amplitude of wave V. Finnish is a full-fledged quantity language, in which word meaning is dependent upon duration of the vowels and consonants. Previous studies have shown that Finnish speakers have enhanced behavioural sound duration discrimination ability and larger cortical mismatch negativity (MMN) to duration change compared to German and French speakers. The next step is to find out whether these enhanced duration discrimination abilities of quantity language speakers originate at the brainstem level. Since German has a complementary quantity contrast which restricts the possible patterns of short and long vowels and consonants, the current experiment compared cABR between nonmusician Finnish and German native speakers using seven short complex stimuli. Finnish speakers had a larger cABR peak amplitude than German speakers, while the peak onset latency was only affected by stimulus intensity and spectral band. The results suggest that early cABR responses are better synchronised for Finns, which could underpin the enhanced duration sensitivity of quantity language speakers. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. CALL, Prewriting Strategies, and EFL Writing Quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Sajad; Koosha, Mansour; Afghar, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to explore the effect of teaching prewriting strategies through different methods of input delivery (i.e. conventional, web-based, and hybrid) on EFL learners' writing quantity. In its quasi-experimental study, the researchers recruited 98 available sophomores, and assigned them to three experimental groups (conventional,…

  13. Practice Makes Perfect: Contracting Quantity and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how contract grading promotes quality writing as well as a larger quantity of writing. Considers how teachers can use contract grading to support and promote the behaviors, thinking skills, and writing skills they believe will help students create quality writing. Notes that contract grading leads students to write more, to have fewer…

  14. Measurements of non-physical quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkin, Igor F.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the paper is to suggest an approach to development of a theory of measurements for non-physical quantities. For these measurements it is not possible to ensure traceability because of their exclusive nature as substantiated by the author. This theory is presented as particularly important one for social and human sciences.

  15. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketable quantity. 929.14 Section 929.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... market demand and to provide for an adequate carryover. ...

  16. Hypergraph topological quantities for tagged social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatić, Vinko; Ghoshal, Gourab; Caldarelli, Guido

    2009-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emergence of a new class of social networks, which require us to move beyond previously employed representations of complex graph structures. A notable example is that of the folksonomy, an online process where users collaboratively employ tags to resources to impart structure to an otherwise undifferentiated database. In a recent paper, we proposed a mathematical model that represents these structures as tripartite hypergraphs and defined basic topological quantities of interest. In this paper, we extend our model by defining additional quantities such as edge distributions, vertex similarity and correlations as well as clustering. We then empirically measure these quantities on two real life folksonomies, the popular online photo sharing site Flickr and the bookmarking site CiteULike. We find that these systems share similar qualitative features with the majority of complex networks that have been previously studied. We propose that the quantities and methodology described here can be used as a standard tool in measuring the structure of tagged networks.

  17. Relevance of conserved quantities for data assimilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dubinkina (Svetlana)

    2016-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we study relevance of quantities conserved by a numerical scheme for data assimilation. We consider three Arakawa discretizations of the quasigeostrophic model that either preserve energy, or enstrophy, or both and an Ensemble Kalman Filter data assimilation method.

  18. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of permanent supports. (3) If machine mounted dust collectors or diffuser fans are used, the approved... currents cannot be controlled and air measurements cannot be obtained, the air shall have perceptible... results of sampling that demonstrate that the lesser air quantity will maintain continuous compliance...

  19. 7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantity. 35.13 Section 35.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  20. Large-area flexible monolithic ITO/WO3/Nb2O5/NiVOχ/ITO electrochromic devices prepared by using magnetron sputter deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chien-Jen; Ye, Jia-Ming; Yang, Yueh-Ting; He, Ju-Liang

    2016-05-01

    Electrochromic devices (ECDs) have been applied in smart windows to control the transmission of sunlight in green buildings, saving up to 40-50% electricity consumption and ultimately reducing carbon dioxide emissions. However, the high manufacturing costs and difficulty of transportation of conventional massive large area ECDs has limited widespread applications. A unique design replacing the glass substrate commonly used in the ECD windows with inexpensive, light-weight and flexible polymeric substrate materials would accelerate EC adoption allowing them to be supplemented for regular windows without altering window construction. In this study, an ITO/WO3/Nb2O5/NiVOχ/ITO all-solid-state monolithic ECD with an effective area of 24 cm × 18 cm is successfully integrated on a PET substrate by using magnetron sputter deposition. The electrochromic performance and bending durability of the resultant material are also investigated. The experimental results indicate that the ultimate response times for the prepared ECD is 6 s for coloring at an applied voltage of -3 V and 5 s for bleaching at an applied voltage of +3 V, respectively. The optical transmittances for the bleached and colored state at a wavelength of 633 nm are 53% and 11%, respectively. The prepared ECD can sustain over 8000 repeated coloring and bleaching cycles, as well as tolerate a bending radius of curvature of 7.5 cm.

  1. Preparation of born-doped a-SiC:H thin films by ICP-CVD method and to the application of large-area heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chaehwan; Kim, Young-Back; Lee, Suk-Ho; Kim, Jin Hyeok

    2010-05-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC:H) film has been widely used as an emitter p layer in solar cells. For the better p layer, wide optical bandgap, and high electrical conductivity should be obtained from the effective method. We prepared the boron-doped a-SiC:H thin films using inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) method and characteristics on the small-area (2 cm x 2 cm) as well as the large-area films (diameter of 100 mm) were shown on it. As a substrate, the n-type (100) oriented CZ c-Si (5.5 approximately 6.5 omega x cm, 650 microm) wafers were used and cleaned by using the reduced RCA method. A silane (SiH4) of 99.999% purity, H2 and 60% hydrogen diluted ethylene (C2H4) was used as source gas for the deposition of intrinsic a-SiC:H films, and then diborane (B2H6), as the doping gas, is added to C2H4 and SiH4/H2 during the deposition of films. The uniformity of thickness and optical bandgap from large-area as-dep. films was at 1.8% and 0.3%, respectively. Heterojunction solar cell with 2 wt%-AZO/p-a-SiC:H/i-a-Si:H/c-Si/Ag structure was fabricated and characterized with diameter of 152.3 mm in this large-area ICP-CVD system. Conversion efficiency of 9.123% was achieved with a practical area of 100 mm x 100 mm, which can show the potentials to the fabrication of the large-area solar cell using ICP-CVD method.

  2. Preparation of a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector with a mutation of human factor IX in large scale and its expression in vitro and in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A series of adeno-associated viral vectors conraining a mutation of human factor IX (hFIXR338A) with different regulation elements were constructed and used to transduce cell lines. The plasmids and the stable transduction cell clones with high expression level of hFIXR338Awere obtained by selecting and optimizing, and then, the recombinant adeno-associated viral vector with hFIXR338Awas prepared via novel rHSV/AAV hybrid virus packaging system on a large scale, which contained the capsid protein genes. A method for producing rAAV-hFIXR338A viral stocks on a large scale and higher fiter was established,which can be used for industrial purpose. The titer of rAAV-hFIXR338A was more than 1.25x1012 particle/mL, and then, a mammalian cell line, C2C12 and the factor IXknock-out mice were transfected with the rAAV-hFIXR338Ain vitro and in vivo. The results show that the high-level expression of rAAV-hFIXR338A was achieved in cell line and hemophilia B mice. It reached at (2551.32±92.14) ng@ (106cells)-1 @ (24 h)-1 in C2C12 cell in vitro and had a peak concentration of 463.28 ng/mL in mice treated with rAAV-hFIX R338A, which was as high as the expression of rAAV-hFIX -wt (2565.76±64.36) ng@ (106 cells)-1@ (24 h)-1 in C2C12 and 453.92 ng/mL in the mice treated with rAAV-hFIX-wt) in vitro and in vivo, there is no any difference between two groups, but the clotting activity of hFIXR338A is about 2.46times higher than that of hFIX-wt. It was first reported that a mutation of human factor IX was used into gene therapy research for hemophilia B, meanwhile, a novel packaging system, rAAV/HSV was used for preparation of rAAV-hFIX R338A on a large scale, which laid the foundation of industrial production for applying rAAV viral stocks to gene therapy clinical trial for hemophilia B mediated with rAAV-hFIX.``

  3. Sleep quantity, quality and optimism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemola, Sakari; Räikkönen, Katri; Scheier, Michael F; Matthews, Karen A; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Lahti, Jari; Komsi, Niina; Paavonen, Juulia E; Kajantie, Eero

    2011-03-01

    We tested the relationship of objectively measured sleep quantity and quality with positive characteristics of the child. Sleep duration, sleep latency and sleep efficiency were measured by an actigraph for an average of seven (range = 3-14) consecutive nights in 291 8-year-old children (standard deviation = 0.3 years). Children's optimism, self-esteem and social competence were rated by parents and/or teachers. Sleep duration showed a non-linear, reverse J-shaped relationship with optimism (P = 0.02), such that children with sleep duration in the middle of the distribution scored higher in optimism compared with children who slept relatively little. Shorter sleep latency was related to higher optimism (P = 0.01). The associations remained when adjusting for child's age, sex, body mass index, and parental level of education and optimism. In conclusion, sufficient sleep quantity and good sleep quality are related to children's positive characteristics. Our findings may inform why sleep quantity and quality and positive characteristics are associated with wellbeing in children. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  4. Quantity discrimination in wolves (Canis lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina eUtrata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested eleven hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris and coyotes (Canis latrans, our wolves’ performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber’s law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current setup are still needed to determine whether and when wolves’ quantity discrimination conforms to Weber’s law.

  5. [Key Technology and Quantity Control of Wearable Medical Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongen; Yao, Shaowei

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, because the wearable medical devices can indicate the health monitoring index of blood sugar, blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen content, temperature, respiration of the human body anytime and anywhere, can also be used for the treatment of various diseases, accompanied by the development of large data, which will bring a subversive revolution for the medical device industry. This paper introduces the development of wearable devices, key technical index of main products, and to make a preliminary study on its quantity control.

  6. Defining value through quantity and quality-Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) undervalue food quantities when items are broken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Decision-making largely is influenced by the relative value of choice options, and the value of such options can be determined by a combination of different factors (e.g., the quantity, size, or quality of a stimulus). In this study, we examined the competing influences of quantity (i.e., the number of food items in a set) and quality (i.e., the original state of a food item) of choice items on chimpanzees' food preferences in a two-option natural choice paradigm. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees chose between sets of food items that were either entirely whole or included items that were broken into pieces before being shown to the chimpanzees. Chimpanzees exhibited a bias for whole food items even when such choice options consisted of a smaller overall quantity of food than the sets containing broken items. In Experiment 2, chimpanzees chose between sets of entirely whole food items and sets of initially whole items that were subsequently broken in view of the chimpanzees just before choice time. Chimpanzees continued to exhibit a bias for sets of whole items. In Experiment 3, chimpanzees chose between sets of new food items that were initially discrete but were subsequently transformed into a larger cohesive unit. Here, chimpanzees were biased to choose the discrete sets that retained their original qualitative state rather than toward the cohesive or clumped sets. These results demonstrate that beyond a food set's quantity (i.e., the value dimension that accounts for maximization in terms of caloric intake), other seemingly non-relevant features (i.e., quality in terms of a set's original state) affect how chimpanzees assign value to their choice options.

  7. 48 CFR 52.211-16 - Variation in Quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Variation in Quantity. 52....211-16 Variation in Quantity. As prescribed in 11.703(a), insert the following clause: Variation in Quantity (APR 1984) (a) A variation in the quantity of any item called for by this contract will not...

  8. Conformal invariance conserved quantity of Hamilton systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Jian-Le; Luo Shao-Kai; Mei Feng-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies conformal invariance and comserved quantRies of Hamilton system.The definition and the determining equation of conformal invariance for Hamilton system are provided.The relationship between the conformal invariance and the Lie symmetry are discussed,and the necessary and sufficient condition that the conformal invariance would be the Lie symmetry of the system under the infinitesimal one-parameter transformation group is deduced.It gives the conserved quantities of the system and an example for illustration.

  9. On ADM quantities of multiple black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Rácz, István

    2016-01-01

    In [11] a proposal was made to construct initial data for binary black hole configurations. It was done by using the parabolic-hyperbolic form of the constraints and choosing the free data provided by superposed Kerr-Schild black holes. The proposal of [11] do also apply to multiple systems involving generic Kerr-Schild black holes. Notably, the specific choice made for the free data allows---without making detailed use of the to be solutions to the constraints---to determine explicitly, the ADM quantities of the multiple system in terms of the separations velocities and spins of the individual Kerr-Schild black holes.

  10. Semisynthetic preparation and isolation of dimeric procyanidins B1-B8 from roasted hazelnut skins (Corylus avellana L.) on a large scale using countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Juadjur, Andreas; Wray, Victor; Winterhalter, Peter

    2014-07-23

    Dimeric procyanidins B1-B8 were produced via semisynthesis from a polymeric proanthocyanidin fraction of hazelnut skins (Corylus avellana L.). This polymeric fraction was found to consist mostly of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin as upper units. Therefore, according to the choice of nucleophile agent, it is possible to semisynthesize dimeric procyanidins B1, B3, B6, and B7 with (+)-catechin and B2, B4, B5, and B8 with (-)-epicatechin. The semisynthetic mixtures were separated on a preparative scale using high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and low-speed rotary countercurrent chromatography (LSRCCC). C4 → C8 linked dimeric procyanidins B1-B4 were isolated in amounts of 350-740 mg. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first study isolating dimeric procyanidins B1-B8 in large amounts with countercurrent chromatography. Moreover, the dimeric prodelphinidins B1, B2, and B3 and their structural elucidation by (1)H NMR spectroscopy without derivatization are described for hazelnuts as natural compounds for the first time.

  11. Metastable tetragonal Cu2Se hyperbranched structures: large-scale preparation and tunable electrical and optical response regulated by phase conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinbao; Li, Qiuyang; Bai, Liangfei; Sun, Yongfu; Zhou, Min; Xie, Yi

    2012-10-08

    Despite the promising applications of copper selenide nanoparticles, an in-depth elucidation of the inherent properties of tetragonal Cu(2)Se (β-Cu(2)Se) has not been performed because of the lack of a facile synthesis on the nanoscale and an energy-intensive strategy is usually employed. In this work, a facile wet-chemical strategy, employing HCOOH as reducing agent, has been developed to access single-crystalline metastable β-Cu(2)Se hyperbranched architectures for the first time. The process avoids hazardous chemistry and high temperatures, and thus opens up a facile approach to the large-scale low-cost preparation of metastable β-Cu(2)Se hyperbranched architectures. A possible growth mechanism to explain the formation of the β-Cu(2)Se dendritic morphology has been proposed based on time-dependent shape evolution. Further investigations revealed that the metastable β-Cu(2)Se can convert into the thermodynamically more stable cubic α-Cu(2-x)Se maintaining the dendritic morphology. An increase in electrical conductivity and a tunable optical response were observed under ambient conditions. This behavior can be explained by the oxidation of the surface of the β-Cu(2)Se hyperbranched structures, ultimately leading to solid-state phase conversion from β-Cu(2)Se into superionic conductor α-Cu(1.8)Se, which has potential applications in energy-related devices and sensors.

  12. High Purity and Large-scale Preparation of β-Ga2O3 Nanowires and Nanosheets by CVD and Their Raman and Photoluminescence Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhou; GONG Min; SUN Xiao-song; YANG Zhi-mei; CHEN Hao; WU Zhan-wen; JIN Yong; JIAO Zhi-feng; HE Yi; WANG Hui; LIU Jun-gang

    2007-01-01

    Ga2O3 nano-structures,nanowires and nanosheets are produced on Au pre-coated(111) silicon substrates with chemical vapor deposition(CVD) technique.By evaporating pure Ga powder in the H2O atmosphere under ambient pressure the large-scale preparation of β-Ga2O3 with monoclinic crystalline structure is achieved.The crystalline structures and morphologies of produced Ga2O3 nano-structures are characterized by means of scanning electron microscope(SEM),X-ray diffraction(XRD),selected area electron diffraction(SAED) and transmission electron microscope(TEM).Raman spectrum reveals the typical vibration modes of Ga2O3.The vibration mode shifts corresponding to Ga2O3 nano-structures are not found.Two distinguish photoluminescence(PL) emissions are found at about 399 nm and 469 nm owing to the VO-VGa excitation and VO-VGa-O excitation,respectively.The growth mechanisms of Ga2O3 nanowires and nanosheets are discussed with vapor-liquid-solid(VLS) and vapor-solid(VS) mechanisms.

  13. Preparation of graphitic carbon nitride with large specific surface area and outstanding N2 photofixation ability via a dissolve-regrowth process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huiqiang; Shi, Zhenyu; Li, Qiang; Li, Shuang

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen fixation is the second most important chemical process in nature next to photosynthesis. Here, we report a convenient dissolve-regrowth method for synthesizing graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with a large surface area and nitrogen vacancies by HCl treatment. XRD, N2adsorption, SEM, TEM, UV-Vis spectroscopy, EPR, N2-TPD, Photoluminescence and Photocurrent were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The results indicate that HCl treatment does not influence the crystal phase of g-C3N4 but change the morphology and optical property, leading to the smaller particle size, larger surface area and increased bang gap energy. It is deduced by N2-TPD, Photoluminescence, Photocurrent and DFT simulations that the nitrogen vacancies formed by the HCl treatment not only serve as active sites to adsorb and activate N2 molecules but also promote interfacial charge transfer from g-C3N4to N2 molecules. The HCl treated g-C3N4 catalyst exhibits outstanding nitrogen photofixation ability under visible light, which is 13.4-fold higher than that of bulk g-C3N4 without nitrogen vacancy. The possible reaction mechanism is proposed.

  14. Maximizing Complementary Quantities by Projective Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Souza, Leonardo A.; Bernardes, Nadja K.; Rossi, Romeu

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we study the so-called quantitative complementarity quantities. We focus in the following physical situation: two qubits ( q A and q B ) are initially in a maximally entangled state. One of them ( q B ) interacts with a N-qubit system ( R). After the interaction, projective measurements are performed on each of the qubits of R, in a basis that is chosen after independent optimization procedures: maximization of the visibility, the concurrence, and the predictability. For a specific maximization procedure, we study in detail how each of the complementary quantities behave, conditioned on the intensity of the coupling between q B and the N qubits. We show that, if the coupling is sufficiently "strong," independent of the maximization procedure, the concurrence tends to decay quickly. Interestingly enough, the behavior of the concurrence in this model is similar to the entanglement dynamics of a two qubit system subjected to a thermal reservoir, despite that we consider finite N. However, the visibility shows a different behavior: its maximization is more efficient for stronger coupling constants. Moreover, we investigate how the distinguishability, or the information stored in different parts of the system, is distributed for different couplings.

  15. PS-b-PEO/Silica Films with Regular and Reverse Mesostructures of Large Characteristic Length Scales Prepared by Solvent Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    YU,KUI; BRINKER,C. JEFFREY; HURD,ALAN J.; EISENBERG,ADI

    2000-11-22

    Since the discovery of surfactant-templated silica by Mobil scientists in 1992, mesostructured silica has been synthesized in various forms including thin films, powders, particles, and fibers. In general, mesostructured silica has potential applications, such as in separation, catalysis, sensors, and fluidic microsystems. In respect to these potential applications, mesostructured silica in the form of thin films is perhaps one of the most promising candidates. The preparation of mesostructured silica films through preferential solvent evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) has recently received much attention in the laboratories. However, no amphiphile/silica films with reverse mesophases have ever been made through this EISA procedure. Furthermore, templates employed to date have been either surfactants or poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymers, such as pluronic P-123, both of which are water-soluble and alcohol-soluble. Due to their relatively low molecular weight, the templated silica films with mesoscopic order have been limited to relatively small characteristic length scales. In the present communication, the authors report a novel synthetic method to prepare mesostructured amphiphilic/silica films with regular and reverse mesophases of large characteristic length scales. This method involves evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) of amphiphilic polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymers. In the present study, the PS-b-PEO diblocks are denoted as, for example, PS(215)-b-PEO(100), showing that this particular sample contains 215 S repeat units and 100 EO repeat units. This PS(215)-b-PEO(100) diblock possesses high molecular weight and does not directly mix with water or alcohol. To the authors knowledge, no studies have reported the use of water-insoluble and alcohol-insoluble amphiphilic diblocks as structure-directing agents in the synthesis of mesostructured silica films through

  16. Evaluation of a transposase protocol for rapid generation of shotgun high-throughput sequencing libraries from nanogram quantities of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine, Rachel; Polson, Shawn W; Ravel, Jacques; Hatfull, Graham; Russell, Daniel; Sullivan, Matthew; Syed, Fraz; Dumas, Michael; Wommack, K Eric

    2011-11-01

    Construction of DNA fragment libraries for next-generation sequencing can prove challenging, especially for samples with low DNA yield. Protocols devised to circumvent the problems associated with low starting quantities of DNA can result in amplification biases that skew the distribution of genomes in metagenomic data. Moreover, sample throughput can be slow, as current library construction techniques are time-consuming. This study evaluated Nextera, a new transposon-based method that is designed for quick production of DNA fragment libraries from a small quantity of DNA. The sequence read distribution across nine phage genomes in a mock viral assemblage met predictions for six of the least-abundant phages; however, the rank order of the most abundant phages differed slightly from predictions. De novo genome assemblies from Nextera libraries provided long contigs spanning over half of the phage genome; in four cases where full-length genome sequences were available for comparison, consensus sequences were found to match over 99% of the genome with near-perfect identity. Analysis of areas of low and high sequence coverage within phage genomes indicated that GC content may influence coverage of sequences from Nextera libraries. Comparisons of phage genomes prepared using both Nextera and a standard 454 FLX Titanium library preparation protocol suggested that the coverage biases according to GC content observed within the Nextera libraries were largely attributable to bias in the Nextera protocol rather than to the 454 sequencing technology. Nevertheless, given suitable sequence coverage, the Nextera protocol produced high-quality data for genomic studies. For metagenomics analyses, effects of GC amplification bias would need to be considered; however, the library preparation standardization that Nextera provides should benefit comparative metagenomic analyses.

  17. Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of th...

  18. Effect of high-pressure homogenization preparation on mean globule size and large-diameter tail of oil-in-water injectable emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Peng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different high pressure homogenization energy input parameters on mean diameter droplet size (MDS and droplets with > 5 μm of lipid injectable emulsions were evaluated. All emulsions were prepared at different water bath temperatures or at different rotation speeds and rotor-stator system times, and using different homogenization pressures and numbers of high-pressure system recirculations. The MDS and polydispersity index (PI value of the emulsions were determined using the dynamic light scattering (DLS method, and large-diameter tail assessments were performed using the light-obscuration/single particle optical sensing (LO/SPOS method. Using 1000 bar homogenization pressure and seven recirculations, the energy input parameters related to the rotor-stator system will not have an effect on the final particle size results. When rotor-stator system energy input parameters are fixed, homogenization pressure and recirculation will affect mean particle size and large diameter droplet. Particle size will decrease with increasing homogenization pressure from 400 bar to 1300 bar when homogenization recirculation is fixed; when the homogenization pressure is fixed at 1000 bar, the particle size of both MDS and percent of fat droplets exceeding 5 μm (PFAT5 will decrease with increasing homogenization recirculations, MDS dropped to 173 nm after five cycles and maintained this level, volume-weighted PFAT5 will drop to 0.038% after three cycles, so the “plateau” of MDS will come up later than that of PFAT5, and the optimal particle size is produced when both of them remained at plateau. Excess homogenization recirculation such as nine times under the 1000 bar may lead to PFAT5 increase to 0.060% rather than a decrease; therefore, the high-pressure homogenization procedure is the key factor affecting the particle size distribution of emulsions. Varying storage conditions (4–25°C also influenced particle size, especially the PFAT

  19. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement was implemented by two-color pyrometry under quiescent type diesel engine conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration). Different fuel quantities, which correspond to different injection widths from 0.5 ms to 2 ms under constant injection pressure (1000 bar), were used to simulate different loads in engines. For a given fuel, soot temperature and KL factor show a different trend at initial stage for different fuel quantities, where a higher soot temperature can be found in a small fuel quantity case but a higher KL factor is observed in a large fuel quantity case generally. Another difference occurs at the end of combustion due to the termination of fuel injection. Additionally, BTL flame has a lower soot temperature, especially under a larger fuel quantity (2 ms injection width). Meanwhile, average soot level is lower for BTL flame, especially under a lower fuel quantity (0.5 ms injection width). BTL shows an overall low sooting behavior with low soot temperature compared to diesel, however, trade-off between soot level and soot temperature needs to be carefully selected when different loads are used.

  20. A horizontal mobile measuring system for atmospheric quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hübner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A fully automatic Horizontal Mobile Measuring System (HMMS for atmospheric quantities has been developed. The HMMS is based on the drive mechanism of a garden railway system and can be installed at any location and with any measuring track. In addition to meteorological quantities (temperature, humidity and short/long-wave down/upwelling radiation, HMMS also measures trace gas concentrations (carbon dioxide and ozone. While sufficient spatial resolution is a problem even for measurements on distributed towers, this could be easily achieved with the HMMS, which has been specifically developed to obtain higher information density about horizontal gradients in a heterogeneous forest ecosystem. There, horizontal gradients of meteorological quantities and trace gases could be immense, particularly at the transition from a dense forest to an open clearing, with large impact on meteorological parameters and exchange processes. Consequently, HMMS was firstly applied during EGER IOP3 project (ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions – Intense Observation Period 3 in the Fichtelgebirge Mountains (SE Germany during summer 2011. At a constant 1 m above ground, the measuring track of the HMMS consisted of a straight line perpendicular to the forest edge, starting in the dense spruce forest and leading 75 m into an open clearing. Tags with bar codes, mounted every meter on the wooden substructure, allowed (a keeping the speed of the HMMS constant (approx. 0.5 m s−1 and (b operation of the HMMS in a continuous back and forth running mode. During EGER IOP3, HMMS was operational for almost 250 h. Results show that – due to considerably long response times (between 4 s and 20 s of commercial temperature, humidity and the radiation sensors – true spatial variations of the meteorological quantities could not be adequately captured (mainly at the forest edge. Corresponding dynamical (spatial errors of the measurement values were corrected on the basis of

  1. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandigo, R.L.

    1996-02-13

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  2. Alternative Techniques for Injecting Massive Quantities of Gas for Plasma Disruption Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Caughman, John B [ORNL; Commaux, Nicolas JC [ORNL; Fehling, Dan T [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL; McGill, James M [ORNL; Parks, P. B. [General Atomics; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Injection of massive quantities of noble gases or D2 has proven to be effective at mitigating some of the deleterious effects of disruptions in tokamaks. Two alternative methods that might offer some advantages over the present technique for massive gas injection are shattering massive pellets and employing closecoupled rupture disks. Laboratory testing has been carried out to evaluate their feasibility. For the study of massive pellets, a pipe gun pellet injector cooled with a cryogenic refrigerator was fitted with a relatively large barrel (16.5 mm bore), and D2 and Ne pellets were made and were accelerated to speeds of ~600 and 300 m/s, respectively. Based on the successful proof-of-principle testing with the injector and a special double-impact target to shatter pellets, a similar system has been prepared and installed on DIII-D, with preliminary experiments already carried out. To study the applicability of rupture disks for disruption mitigation, a simple test apparatus was assembled in the lab. Commercially available rupture disks of 1 in. nominal diameter were tested at conditions relevant for the application on tokamaks, including tests with Ar and He gases and rupture pressures of ~54 bar. Some technical and practical issues of implementing this technique on a tokamak are discussed.

  3. Property of Fluctuations of Sales Quantities by Product Category in Convenience Stores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaku Fukunaga

    Full Text Available The ability to ascertain the extent of product sale fluctuations for each store and locality is indispensable to inventory management. This study analyzed POS data from 158 convenience stores in Kawasaki City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan and found a power scaling law between the mean and standard deviation of product sales quantities for several product categories. For the statistical domains of low sales quantities, the power index was 1/2; for large sales quantities, the power index was 1, so called Taylor's law holds. The value of sales quantities with changing power indixes differed according to product category. We derived a Poissonian compound distribution model taking into account fluctuations in customer numbers to show that the scaling law could be explained theoretically for most of items. We also examined why the scaling law did not hold in some exceptional cases.

  4. Approximating relational observables by absolute quantities: a quantum accuracy-size trade-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyadera, Takayuki; Loveridge, Leon; Busch, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The notion that any physical quantity is defined and measured relative to a reference frame is traditionally not explicitly reflected in the theoretical description of physical experiments where, instead, the relevant observables are typically represented as ‘absolute’ quantities. However, the emergence of the resource theory of quantum reference frames as a new branch of quantum information science in recent years has highlighted the need to identify the physical conditions under which a quantum system can serve as a good reference. Here we investigate the conditions under which, in quantum theory, an account in terms of absolute quantities can provide a good approximation of relative quantities. We find that this requires the reference system to be large in a suitable sense.

  5. How to introduce physical quantities physically

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Serge A

    2015-01-01

    The centuries-long practice of the teaching turned mechanics into an academic construct detached from its underlying science, the physics of macroscopic bodies. In particular, the regularities that delineate the scope of validity of Newtonian mechanics was never used as premises in that construct. Instead, its logical structure has been built with the only purpose to ease the presentation of mechanics as an application of calculus and algebra. This leaves no room for the explicit physical description of the fundamental notions of the construct, such as the ability of (a system of) physical bodies to keep a spatial form, symbolized by a rigid measuring rod, and the possibility to count out even temporal intervals, symbolized by a standard clock, let alone the origin of the basic mechanical quantities. The comparison between (states of) physical objects is possible as far as the natural regularities enable a researcher to define an equivalence relation in a set of these objects. The class of macroscopic (or mac...

  6. On the Hojman conservation quantities in Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliathanasis, A.; Leach, P. G. L.; Capozziello, S.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the application of the Hojman's Symmetry Approach for the determination of conservation laws in Cosmology, which has been recently applied by various authors in different cosmological models. We show that Hojman's method for regular Hamiltonian systems, where the Hamiltonian function is one of the involved equations of the system, is equivalent to the application of Noether's Theorem for generalized transformations. That means that for minimally-coupled scalar field cosmology or other modified theories which are conformally related with scalar-field cosmology, like f (R) gravity, the application of Hojman's method provide us with the same results with that of Noether's Theorem. Moreover we study the special Ansatz. ϕ (t) = ϕ (a (t)) , which has been introduced for a minimally-coupled scalar field, and we study the Lie and Noether point symmetries for the reduced equation. We show that under this Ansatz, the unknown function of the model cannot be constrained by the requirement of the existence of a conservation law and that the Hojman conservation quantity which arises for the reduced equation is nothing more than the functional form of Noetherian conservation laws for the free particle. On the other hand, for f (T) teleparallel gravity, it is not the existence of Hojman's conservation laws which provide us with the special function form of f (T) functions, but the requirement that the reduced second-order differential equation admits a Jacobi Last multiplier, while the new conservation law is nothing else that the Hamiltonian function of the reduced equation.

  7. 48 CFR 52.211-18 - Variation in Estimated Quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Variation in Estimated....211-18 Variation in Estimated Quantity. As prescribed in 11.703(c), insert the following clause in... in the estimated quantity of unit-priced items: Variation in Estimated Quantity (APR 1984) If...

  8. 48 CFR 852.216-70 - Estimated quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Estimated quantities. 852... Estimated quantities. As prescribed in 816.504(a), insert the following clause: Estimated Quantities (APR... percent of the estimated requirement or which provide that the Government shall guarantee any...

  9. Hwa measurement of turbulent diffusion of a scalar quantity

    OpenAIRE

    Antoš Pavel

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with simultaneous measurement of the velocity and the scalar quantity by means of hot-wire anemometry. Statistical moments of the scalar quantity fluctuations can be obtained employing a dual hot-wire probe. An evaluation procedure of the quantity mean values and fluctuations is described. Results from the molar concentration measurement in binary-gas mixture are shown.

  10. Symmetries and Mei Conserved Quantities of Nonholonomic Controllable Mechanical Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Li-Li; LI Yuan-Cheng; WANG Jing; HOU Qi-Bao

    2006-01-01

    This paper concentrates on studying the symmetries and a new type of conserved quantities called Mei conserved quantity. The criterions of the Mei symmetry, the Noether symmetry and the Lie symmetry are given. The conditions and the forms of the Mei conserved quantities deduced from these three symmetries are obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  11. Extracting three-body observables from finite-volume quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Maxwell T

    2015-01-01

    Scattering and transition amplitudes with three-hadron final states play an important role in nuclear and particle physics. However, predicting such quantities using numerical Lattice QCD is very difficult, in part because of the effects of Euclidean time and finite volume. In this review we highlight recent formal developments that work towards overcoming these issues. We organize the presentation into three parts: large volume expansions, non-relativistic nonperturbative analyses, and nonperturbative studies based in relativistic field theory. In the first part we discuss results for ground state energies and matrix elements given by expanding in inverse box length, $1/L$. We describe complications that arise at $\\mathcal O(1/L^6)$ and include a table summarizing the results of different calculations. In the second part we summarize three recent non-relativistic non-perturbative studies and highlight the main conclusions of these works. This includes demonstrating that the three-particle finite-volume spect...

  12. Conserved Quantities of harmonic asymptotic initial data sets

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Po-Ning

    2014-01-01

    In the first half of this article, we survey the new quasi-local and total angular momentum and center of mass defined in [9] and summarize the important properties of these definitions. To compute these conserved quantities involves solving a nonlinear PDE system (the optimal isometric embedding equation), which is rather difficult in general. We found a large family of initial data sets on which such a calculation can be carried out effectively. These are initial data sets of harmonic asymptotics, first proposed by Corvino and Schoen to solve the full vacuum constraint equation. In the second half of this article, the new total angular momentum and center of mass for these initial data sets are computed explicitly.

  13. Quantity and structure of word knowledge across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salthouse, Timothy A

    2014-09-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from moderately large samples of healthy adults confirmed prior findings of age-related declines in measures of the quantity of word knowledge beginning around age 65. Additional analyses were carried out to investigate the interrelations of different types of vocabulary knowledge at various periods in adulthood. Although the organizational structures were similar in adults of different ages, scores on tests with different formats had weaker relations to a higher-order vocabulary construct beginning when adults were in their 60's. The within-person dispersion among different vocabulary test scores was also greater after about 65 years of age. The discovery of quantitative decreases in amount of knowledge occurring at about the same age as qualitative shifts in the structure of knowledge raises the possibility that the two types of changes may be causally linked.

  14. On the Hojman conservation quantities in Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paliathanasis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the application of the Hojman's Symmetry Approach for the determination of conservation laws in Cosmology, which has been recently applied by various authors in different cosmological models. We show that Hojman's method for regular Hamiltonian systems, where the Hamiltonian function is one of the involved equations of the system, is equivalent to the application of Noether's Theorem for generalized transformations. That means that for minimally-coupled scalar field cosmology or other modified theories which are conformally related with scalar-field cosmology, like f(R gravity, the application of Hojman's method provide us with the same results with that of Noether's Theorem. Moreover we study the special Ansatz. ϕ(t=ϕ(a(t, which has been introduced for a minimally-coupled scalar field, and we study the Lie and Noether point symmetries for the reduced equation. We show that under this Ansatz, the unknown function of the model cannot be constrained by the requirement of the existence of a conservation law and that the Hojman conservation quantity which arises for the reduced equation is nothing more than the functional form of Noetherian conservation laws for the free particle. On the other hand, for f(T teleparallel gravity, it is not the existence of Hojman's conservation laws which provide us with the special function form of f(T functions, but the requirement that the reduced second-order differential equation admits a Jacobi Last multiplier, while the new conservation law is nothing else that the Hamiltonian function of the reduced equation.

  15. Estimated quantities of residual materials in a KBS-3H repository at Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagros, Annika (Sannio and Riekkola OY (Finland))

    2008-12-15

    The quantities of residual materials in a KBS-3H type repository have been estimated in this report. The repository is assumed to be constructed at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, Western Finland. Both the total quantities of the materials introduced into the repository and the quantities of materials that remain in the repository after closure have been calculated. The calculations are largely based on a similar work regarding the material quantities in the Finnish KBS-3V repository and the main goal has been to identify the differences between the KBS-3H and KBS-3V repositories with respect to the type and quantities of residual materials. As the design of the KBS-3H repository is not final yet, the results are only preliminary. Several alternative designs were assumed in the calculations, resulting in different total quantities of materials. The design alternatives that had the greatest effect on the total material quantities were the two different tunnel backfill options, bentonite-crushed rock and Friedland clay. If Friedland clay is used instead of a bentonite-crushed rock mixture, the total quantity of pyrite remaining in the repository is 20 times larger and the quantities of organic materials and gypsum are also increased significantly. The other design alternatives did not have a substantial effect on the total material quantities. The remaining quantity of cement can be reduced by some 20% by selecting the silica grouting alternative in the sealing of the rock mass and low-pH cement in the shotcreting of the repository, instead of using the ordinary cement alternatives. If the total quantity of steel should be minimised, the use of the DAWE design alternative would be better than the Basic Design, although the total reduction would be less than 10%. The main difference between the different drift end plug alternatives is related to the total remaining quantity of silica, which is some 80% smaller if the rock plug is used instead of the LHHP (Low Heat High

  16. Thermodynamics of quantum systems with multiple conserved quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guryanova, Yelena; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J.; Silva, Ralph; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Recently, there has been much progress in understanding the thermodynamics of quantum systems, even for small individual systems. Most of this work has focused on the standard case where energy is the only conserved quantity. Here we consider a generalization of this work to deal with multiple conserved quantities. Each conserved quantity, which, importantly, need not commute with the rest, can be extracted and stored in its own battery. Unlike the standard case, in which the amount of extractable energy is constrained, here there is no limit on how much of any individual conserved quantity can be extracted. However, other conserved quantities must be supplied, and the second law constrains the combination of extractable quantities and the trade-offs between them. We present explicit protocols that allow us to perform arbitrarily good trade-offs and extract arbitrarily good combinations of conserved quantities from individual quantum systems.

  17. Law of genome evolution direction: Coding information quantity grows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao-fu LUO

    2009-01-01

    The problem of the directionality of genome evolution is studied. Based on the analysis of C-value paradox and the evolution of genome size, we propose that the function-coding information quantity of a genome always grows in the course of evolution through sequence duplication, expansion of code,and gene transfer from outside. The function-coding information quantity of a genome consists of two parts, p-coding information quantity that encodes functional protein and n-coding information quantity that encodes other functional elements. The evidences on the law of the evolutionary directionality are indicated. The needs of function are the motive force for the expansion of coding information quantity,and the information quantity expansion is the way to make functional innovation and extension for a species. Therefore, the increase of coding information quantity of a genome is a measure of the acquired new function, and it determines the directionality of genome evolution.

  18. Preparation of drug-in-cyclodextrin-in-liposomes at a large scale using a membrane contactor: Application to trans-anethole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Riham; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Jraij, Alia; Auezova, Lizette; Charcosset, Catherine

    2016-12-10

    The present study aimed to prepare liposomes loaded with cyclodextrin/drug inclusion complexes at a pilot scale based on the ethanol injection technique. Anethole (ANE), a major component of anise and fennel essential oils, was used as a model of a volatile and highly hydrophobic drug. Membrane contactor (600mL) and a pilot plant (3L) were used for liposome production. The liposome preparations obtained were characterized for size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, morphology, stability and ANE release rate. All experimental set-ups were shown to be appropriate for the preparation of small, multilamellar vesicles with narrow size distribution and good stability at 4°C. The drug release study showed that only a small amount of ANE was released from liposome formulations after 21days of storage at 4°C. The loading rate of ANE was higher when ethanol was evaporated directly on the pilot plant compared to a rotary evaporation.

  19. Automated Decisional Model for Optimum Economic Order Quantity Determination Using Price Regressive Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roşu, M. M.; Tarbă, C. I.; Neagu, C.

    2016-11-01

    The current models for inventory management are complementary, but together they offer a large pallet of elements for solving complex problems of companies when wanting to establish the optimum economic order quantity for unfinished products, row of materials, goods etc. The main objective of this paper is to elaborate an automated decisional model for the calculus of the economic order quantity taking into account the price regressive rates for the total order quantity. This model has two main objectives: first, to determine the periodicity when to be done the order n or the quantity order q; second, to determine the levels of stock: lighting control, security stock etc. In this way we can provide the answer to two fundamental questions: How much must be ordered? When to Order? In the current practice, the business relationships with its suppliers are based on regressive rates for price. This means that suppliers may grant discounts, from a certain level of quantities ordered. Thus, the unit price of the products is a variable which depends on the order size. So, the most important element for choosing the optimum for the economic order quantity is the total cost for ordering and this cost depends on the following elements: the medium price per units, the stock cost, the ordering cost etc.

  20. Preparing the Next Generations of Technology Project Managers to Lead through Knowledge Sharing: A Case Study at a Large Transportation Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargbo, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify knowledge transfer gaps and current practices, prepare current project managers to accept the challenges associated with leadership opportunities that are coming available due to retirements through cross training efforts and succession planning, and to identify the proper management of knowledge…

  1. Torsor Theory of Physical Quantities and their Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domotor Zoltan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this paper is to provide a torsor theory of physical quantities and basic operations thereon. Torsors are introduced in a bottom-up fashion as actions of scale transformation groups on spaces of unitized quantities. In contrast, the shortcomings of other accounts of quantities that proceed in a top-down axiomatic manner are also discussed. In this paper, quantities are presented as dual counterparts of physical states. States serve as truth-makers of metrological statements about quantity values and are crucial in specifying alternative measurement units for base quantities. For illustration and ease of presentation, the classical notions of length, time, and instantaneous velocity are used as primordial examples. It is shown how torsors provide an effective description of the structure of quantities, systems of quantities, and transformations between them. Using the torsor framework, time-dependent quantities and their unitized derivatives are also investigated. Lastly, the torsor apparatus is applied to deterministic measurement of quantities.

  2. Relative quantity judgments in South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, José Z; Hernández-Lloreda, Victoria; Call, Josep; Colmenares, Fernando

    2011-09-01

    There is accumulating evidence that a variety of species possess quantitative abilities although their cognitive substrate is still unclear. This study is the first to investigate whether sea lions (Otaria flavescens), in the absence of training, are able to assess and select the larger of two sets of quantities. In Experiment 1, the two sets of quantities were presented simultaneously as whole sets, that is, the subjects could compare them directly. In Experiment 2, the two sets of quantities were presented item-by-item, and the totality of items was never visually available at the time of choice. For each type of presentation, we analysed the effect of the ratio between quantities, the difference between quantities and the total number of items presented. The results showed that (1) sea lions can make relative quantity judgments successfully and (2) there is a predominant influence of the ratio between quantities on the subjects' performance. The latter supports the idea that an analogue representational mechanism is responsible for sea lions' relative quantities judgments. These findings are consistent with previous reports of relative quantities judgments in other species such as monkeys and apes and suggest that sea lions might share a similar mechanism to compare and represent quantities.

  3. The large scale antibacterial, antifungal and anti-phage efficiency of Petamcin-A: new multicomponent preparation for skin diseases treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginovyan, Mikayel; Keryan, Andranik; Bazukyan, Inga; Ghazaryan, Petros; Trchounian, Armen

    2015-05-18

    Human and animal skin diseases of bacterial, fungal and viral nature and their complications are widespread and globally cause a serious trouble. Their prevalence is increasing mainly due to drug resistance. Consequently, demand has increased for new effective antimicrobial drugs, which also should be less toxic, possess a wider spectrum of action and be economically more beneficial. The goal was to investigate antibacterial, antifungal and anti-phage activity of Petamcin-A-a new multicomponent preparation. It contains acetic acid and hexamethylenetetramine as main active antimicrobial components, as well as phosphatidylcholine, tocopheryl acetate and glycerol as excipients. Bacteriostatic activity and minimal inhibitory concentrations of the preparation against various test-organisms were determined by agar well diffusion assay. Antifungal activity was tested by agar dilution assay. To explore anti-phage activity double agar overlay plaque assay was used. Nystatin, chlorhexidine and acetic acid were used as control agents for comparative analysis. Statistical analysis was done with GraphPad Prism 5.03 or R 3.1.0 software. The results showed a higher activity of Petamcin-A against all bacterial and fungal test strains compared with its components or control agents. The preparation was more effective against tested gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative ones. Petamcin-A expressed bactericidal activity against almost all test strains. In addition, the preparation demonstrated high activity against T4 phage of Escherichia coli C-T4 completely inhibiting its growth. 5-fold diluted Petamcin-A also exhibited considerable activity reducing phage concentration by 2.6 Log10. Petamcin-A has a high antimicrobial activity against all tested strains of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. The preparation also exhibited high anti-phage activity. Moreover, taking into account that Petamcin-A has no observable toxicity on skin and its components are not expensive, it can be

  4. Evaluation of real-time data obtained from gravimetric preparation of antineoplastic agents shows medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact: Results of a large-scale, multicentre, multinational, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkola, R; Czejka, M; Bérubé, J

    2017-08-01

    Medication errors are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality especially with antineoplastic drugs, owing to their narrow therapeutic index. Gravimetric workflow software systems have the potential to reduce volumetric errors during intravenous antineoplastic drug preparation which may occur when verification is reliant on visual inspection. Our aim was to detect medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact as determined by the rate of prevented medication errors in chemotherapy compounding after implementation of gravimetric measurement. A large-scale, retrospective analysis of data was carried out, related to medication errors identified during preparation of antineoplastic drugs in 10 pharmacy services ("centres") in five European countries following the introduction of an intravenous workflow software gravimetric system. Errors were defined as errors in dose volumes outside tolerance levels, identified during weighing stages of preparation of chemotherapy solutions which would not otherwise have been detected by conventional visual inspection. The gravimetric system detected that 7.89% of the 759 060 doses of antineoplastic drugs prepared at participating centres between July 2011 and October 2015 had error levels outside the accepted tolerance range set by individual centres, and prevented these doses from reaching patients. The proportion of antineoplastic preparations with deviations >10% ranged from 0.49% to 5.04% across sites, with a mean of 2.25%. The proportion of preparations with deviations >20% ranged from 0.21% to 1.27% across sites, with a mean of 0.71%. There was considerable variation in error levels for different antineoplastic agents. Introduction of a gravimetric preparation system for antineoplastic agents detected and prevented dosing errors which would not have been recognized with traditional methods and could have resulted in toxicity or suboptimal therapeutic outcomes for patients undergoing anticancer treatment.

  5. Large-scale preparation of strawberry-like, AgNP-doped SiO2 microspheres using the electrospraying method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhijun; Ji, Huijiao; Tan, Dezhi; Dong, Guoping; Teng, Yu; Zhou, Jiajia; Guan, Miaojia; Qiu, Jianrong; Zhang, Ming

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we report on a novel strategy for the preparation of silver nanoparticle-doped SiO2 microspheres (Ag-SMSs) with an interesting strawberry-like morphology using a simple and efficient electrospraying method. SEM (scanning electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy), XRD (x-ray diffraction), EDS (energy-dispersive spectroscopy) and UV-vis spectra (ultraviolet-visible spectra) were applied to investigate the morphology, structure, composition and optical properties of the hybrid microspheres, and E. coli (Escherichia coli) was used as a model microbe to evaluate their antibacterial ability. The results showed that the Ag-SMSs were environmentally stable and washing resistant. The Ag-SMSs exhibited effective inhibition against proliferation of E. coli, and their antibacterial ability could be well preserved for a long time. The environmental stability, washing resistance, efficient antibacterial ability and simple but productive preparation method endowed the Ag-SMSs with great potential for practical biomedical applications.

  6. Hwa measurement of turbulent diffusion of a scalar quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoš Pavel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with simultaneous measurement of the velocity and the scalar quantity by means of hot-wire anemometry. Statistical moments of the scalar quantity fluctuations can be obtained employing a dual hot-wire probe. An evaluation procedure of the quantity mean values and fluctuations is described. Results from the molar concentration measurement in binary-gas mixture are shown.

  7. Impact of festival factor on electric quantity multiplication forecast model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to improve the forecasting precision of electric quantity. It is discovered that the total electricity consumption considerably increased during the Spring Festival by the analysis of the electric quantity time series from 2002 to 2007 in Shandong province. The festival factor is ascertained to be one of the important seasonal factors affecting the electric quantity fluctuations, and the multiplication model for forecasting is improved by introducing corresponding variables and parameters...

  8. On the History of Quantity Calculus and the International System

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, J.

    1995-01-01

    A brief presentation is given of the most important developments in the history of quantity calculus. Starting with the early introduction of the concept "physical quantity" by Maxwell in his work on electricity and magnetism, attention is focused in particular on the foundations of the calculus with physical quantities given by Wallot in the 1920s. For illustration and better understanding of the praxis of quantity calculus, special attention is paid to the three- and four-dimensional systems of physical quantities used for theoretical description in the fields of electricity and magnetism. Special emphasis is placed on understanding controversies and confusion caused by differences in interpretation of the concepts "quantity" and "unit" in physical language and in the mathematical description of physical phenomena. A short presentation is given of the further development of various studies on the algebraic structure and the axiomatic foundation of the calculus with physical quantities developed by Landolt, Stille, Fleischmann and others. Quantity calculus constituted the basis for obtaining consensus on the introduction of the International System of Units (SI) and allowed the formulation of international standards on definitions and symbols for quantities and units by the various international scientific and standardizing organizations.

  9. Quantity Discount Scheme in Supply Chain under Asymmetric Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji-bin; PENG Zuo-he

    2007-01-01

    Quantity discount scheme plays an important role in supply chain management. The different quantity discount schemes under symmetric (full) information and asymmetric information, are analyzed by using principal-agent and optimal control theory. As a result, the research reveals that the optimal quantity discount solution under symmetric information is a special case of that under asymmetric information. At the same price, the critical value of quantity discount under asymmetric information is much lower than that under asymmetric information. Therefore, this leads to less cost for retailers and smaller profit for their supplier.

  10. Quantity of cholesterol in butter from Zagreb market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Cvrtila

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the quantity of cholesterol in butter - a representative of dairy products with known high quantity of milk fat, is determined. The results show that the quantity of milk fats for the butter samples from domestic production (n=17 was 83.9 %, and from the industrial production (n=5 85.2 %. Average cholesterol quantities, in before mentioned samples, were 227 mg/100g or 22 mg of cholesterol per 100 g of sample. The results show that the increase of milk fats does not strictly influence cholesterol increase in the individual butter sample.

  11. Household Water Quantity and Health: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel D. Stelmach

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While the quantity of water used in the home is thought to be an important determinant of health, much of the evidence relies on using water access as a proxy for quantity. This review examines the health effects of household water quantity using studies that directly measured water quantity. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and article reference lists. Eligible studies included experimental and observational studies that measured a difference in water quantity and quantified an association between water quantity and health outcomes. 21 studies, divided into six of the many possible water-quantity associated outcomes, met the eligibility criteria. Due to heterogeneity in designs, settings, methods, and outcomes, a meta-analysis was inappropriate. Overall results showed a positive association between water quantity and health outcomes, but the effect depended on how the water was used. Increased water usage for personal hygiene was generally associated with improved trachoma outcomes, while increased water consumption was generally associated with reduced gastrointestinal infection and diarrheal disease and improved growth outcomes. In high-income countries, increased water consumption was associated with higher rates of renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer but not associated with type II diabetes, cardiac-related mortality, or all-cause mortality.

  12. Some Intensive and Extensive Quantities in High-Energy Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2013-01-01

    We review the evolution of some statistical and thermodynamical quantities measured in difference sizes of high-energy collisions at different energies. We differentiate between intensive and extensive quantities and discuss the importance of their distinguishability in characterizing possible critical phenomena of nuclear collisions at various energies with different initial conditions.

  13. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Economic purchase... purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase quantity... provision at 52.207-4, Economic Purchase Quantity—Supplies, and 7.204 for guidance on handling responses...

  14. Household water quantity and health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, Rachel D; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-05-28

    While the quantity of water used in the home is thought to be an important determinant of health, much of the evidence relies on using water access as a proxy for quantity. This review examines the health effects of household water quantity using studies that directly measured water quantity. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and article reference lists. Eligible studies included experimental and observational studies that measured a difference in water quantity and quantified an association between water quantity and health outcomes. 21 studies, divided into six of the many possible water-quantity associated outcomes, met the eligibility criteria. Due to heterogeneity in designs, settings, methods, and outcomes, a meta-analysis was inappropriate. Overall results showed a positive association between water quantity and health outcomes, but the effect depended on how the water was used. Increased water usage for personal hygiene was generally associated with improved trachoma outcomes, while increased water consumption was generally associated with reduced gastrointestinal infection and diarrheal disease and improved growth outcomes. In high-income countries, increased water consumption was associated with higher rates of renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer but not associated with type II diabetes, cardiac-related mortality, or all-cause mortality.

  15. Preparation of anhydrous lanthanum bromide for scintillation crystal growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tong; LI Hongwei; ZHAO Chunlei; YU Jinqiu; HU Yunsheng; CUI Lei; HE Huaqiang

    2012-01-01

    This paper reported an efficient and economical method for preparation of anhydrous LaBr3 for scintillation crystal growth.High purity anhydrous LaBr3 powders in large quantities were successfully obtained by stepped dehydration of LaBr3·7H2O using NH4Br as additive.Experiments revealed that adding proper amount of NH4Br could effectively restrain the hydrolysis of LaBr3 during dehydration and thus decreased the yield of deleterious impurity of LaOBr.Optimum preparation conditions,including the amount of NH4Br in use,the dehydration temperature and atmosphere,were investigated by DTA/TG and water/oxygen analysis.The Raman characterization of the as-prepared anhydrous LaBr3 was also presented.

  16. Application of sensitivity-analysis techniques to the calculation of topological quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Stuart

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic reconnection in the corona occurs preferentially at sites where the magnetic connectivity is either discontinuous or has a large spatial gradient. Hence there is a general interest in computing quantities (like the squashing factor) that characterize the gradient in the field-line mapping function. Here we present an algorithm for calculating certain (quasi)topological quantities using mathematical techniques from the field of ``sensitivity-analysis''. The method is based on the calculation of a three dimensional field-line mapping Jacobian from which all the present topological quantities of interest can be derived. We will present the algorithm and the details of a publicly available set of libraries that implement the algorithm.

  17. An Algebraic Approach to Unital Quantities and their Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domotor, Zoltan; Batitsky, Vadim

    2016-06-01

    The goals of this paper fall into two closely related areas. First, we develop a formal framework for deterministic unital quantities in which measurement unitization is understood to be a built-in feature of quantities rather than a mere annotation of their numerical values with convenient units. We introduce this idea within the setting of certain ordered semigroups of physical-geometric states of classical physical systems. States are assumed to serve as truth makers of metrological statements about quantity values. A unital quantity is presented as an isomorphism from the target system's ordered semigroup of states to that of positive reals. This framework allows us to include various derived and variable quantities, encountered in engineering and the natural sciences. For illustration and ease of presentation, we use the classical notions of length, time, electric current and mean velocity as primordial examples. The most important application of the resulting unital quantity calculus is in dimensional analysis. Second, in evaluating measurement uncertainty due to the analog-to-digital conversion of the measured quantity's value into its measuring instrument's pointer quantity value, we employ an ordered semigroup framework of pointer states. Pointer states encode the measuring instrument's indiscernibility relation, manifested by not being able to distinguish the measured system's topologically proximal states. Once again, we focus mainly on the measurement of length and electric current quantities as our motivating examples. Our approach to quantities and their measurement is strictly state-based and algebraic in flavor, rather than that of a representationalist-style structure-preserving numerical assignment.

  18. Economic Order Quantity Model with Two Levels of Delayed Payment and Bad Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Juanjuan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal retailer’s replenishment policies considering the customers’ bad debt and delayed payment in the three-stage supply chain with the dominant retailer. The effect of bad debt is analyzed on the interest earned and interest charged to build the models of the retailer’s decision in two cases. By analyzing the model, the retailer’s optimal replenishment time and the optimal order quantity are obtained. Furthermore, analyze the effect of parameters on the retailer’s optimal order policies. Finally, the numerical analysis is presented to demonstrate the conclusions. The results show that the delayed payment offered by the manufacturer becomes large, the retailer's optimal order cycle and the optimal order quantity increases or remains the same; When the delayed payment time offered by the retailer decreases, the retailer's optimal order cycle and the optimal order quantity increases or remains the same. When the fixed ordering cost is reduced, the retailer's optimal order cycle and the optimal order quantity decreases or remains the same. When the charged interest is greater than the earned interest, with the bad debt rate increasing, the retailer's optimal order cycle and optimal order quantity is converged to a certain value.

  19. BIM implementation in a New Zealand consulting quantity surveying practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Harrison

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available 5D BIM - generating cost data via the building information modelling (BIM process - has the potential to be used by quantity surveyors (QSs to streamline their workflows and increase their provision of a quality service. Consultant QSs experienced in the use of 5D BIM, from the New Zealand office of a large global practice, were interviewed on their perceptions of the benefits of, and barriers to, 5D BIM implementation within their firm. Findings suggest that 5D BIM has numerous benefits over traditional methods, chiefly through the increased efficiency and visualisation that BIM provides, along with the rapid identification of design changes. However, realisation of these perceived benefits is limited to date, due to several barriers hindering 5D BIM implementation: incomplete design and insufficient model object data in the BIM model; a lack of standards to facilitate electronic measurement; legal issues, and a lack of government support. Increasing 5D BIM implementation, in tandem with increasing use of collaborative project working through integrated project delivery, will, however, facilitate these benefits being achieved to a far greater extent in the future. Further research is recommended to identify the BIM skills which QSs will need in the future to reach the full potential of 5D BIM.

  20. Static quantities of the W bosons in the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Lahanas, Athanasios B

    1995-01-01

    I discuss the static quantities of the W boson, magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments, in the context of the minimal supersymmetric standard model, in which supersymmetry is broken by soft terms A_o,\\, m_o,\\, M_{1/2}. Following a renormalization group analysis it is found that the supersymmetric values of \\Delta k_{\\gamma} and \\Delta Q_{\\gamma} can be largely different, in some cases, from the standard model predictions but of the same order of magnitude for values of \\quad A_0,m_0,M_{1/2} \\leq {\\cal O}(1 TeV) . Therefore possible supersymmetric structure can be probed provided the accuracy of measurements for \\Delta k_{\\gamma}, \\Delta Q_{\\gamma} reaches 10^{-2}-10^{-3} and hence hard to be detected at LEP2. In cases where M_{1/2} \\ll A_0,m_0 , the charginos and neutralinos may give substantial contributions saturating the LEP2 sensitivity limits. This occurs when their masses m_{\\tilde C},m_{\\tilde Z} turn out to be both light satisfying m_{\\tilde C}+m_{\\tilde Z} \\simeq M_W . However these extreme ...

  1. Large-scale ATLAS production on EGEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinal, X.; Campana, S.; Walker, R.

    2008-07-01

    In preparation for first data at the LHC, a series of Data Challenges, of increasing scale and complexity, have been performed. Large quantities of simulated data have been produced on three different Grids, integrated into the ATLAS production system. During 2006, the emphasis moved towards providing stable continuous production, as is required in the immediate run-up to first data, and thereafter. Here, we discuss the experience of the production done on EGEE resources, using submission based on the gLite WMS, CondorG and a system using Condor Glide-ins. The overall wall time efficiency of around 90% is largely independent of the submission method, and the dominant source of wasted cpu comes from data handling issues. The efficiency of grid job submission is significantly worse than this, and the glide-in method benefits greatly from factorising this out.

  2. Large-scale ATLAS production on EGEE

    CERN Document Server

    Espinal, X; Walker, R

    2008-01-01

    In preparation for first data at the LHC, a series of Data Challenges, of increasing scale and complexity, have been performed. Large quantities of simulated data have been produced on three different Grids, integrated into the ATLAS production system. During 2006, the emphasis moved towards providing stable continuous production, as is required in the immediate run-up to first data, and thereafter. Here, we discuss the experience of the production done on EGEE resources, using submission based on the gLite WMS, CondorG and a system using Condor Glide-ins. The overall wall time efficiency of around 90% is largely independent of the submission method, and the dominant source of wasted cpu comes from data handling issues. The efficiency of grid job submission is significantly worse than this, and the glide-in method benefits greatly from factorising this out.

  3. Large-scale ATLAS production on EGEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinal, X [PIC - Port d' Informacio cientifica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici D 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Campana, S [CERN, European Laboratory for Particle Physics, Rue de Geneve 23 CH 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Walker, R [TRIUMF, Tri - University Meson Facility, 4004 Wesbrook Mall Vancouver, BC (Canada)], E-mail: espinal@ifae.es

    2008-07-15

    In preparation for first data at the LHC, a series of Data Challenges, of increasing scale and complexity, have been performed. Large quantities of simulated data have been produced on three different Grids, integrated into the ATLAS production system. During 2006, the emphasis moved towards providing stable continuous production, as is required in the immediate run-up to first data, and thereafter. Here, we discuss the experience of the production done on EGEE resources, using submission based on the gLite WMS, CondorG and a system using Condor Glide-ins. The overall wall time efficiency of around 90% is largely independent of the submission method, and the dominant source of wasted cpu comes from data handling issues. The efficiency of grid job submission is significantly worse than this, and the glide-in method benefits greatly from factorising this out.

  4. Comparison of procedures for immediate reconstruction of large osseous defects resulting from removal of a single tooth to prepare for insertion of an endosseous implant after healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, G. M.; Slater, J. J. H.; den Hartog, L.; Meijer, H. J. A.; Vissink, A.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the treatment outcome of immediate reconstruction of 45 large osseous defects resulting from removal of a single tooth with a 1:2 mixture of Bio-Oss(R) and autologous tuberosity bone, and three different procedures for soft tissue closing (Bio-Gide(R) membrane, connective tissue

  5. Optimisation of a sol-gel synthesis route for the preparation of MgF2 particles for a large scale coating process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurell, K; Noack, J; König, R; Hegmann, J; Jahn, R; Hofmann, Th; Löbmann, P; Lintner, B; Garcia-Juan, P; Eicher, J; Kemnitz, E

    2015-12-07

    A synthesis route for the preparation of optically transparent magnesium fluoride sols using magnesium acetate tetrahydrate as precursor is described. The obtained magnesium fluoride sols are stable for several months and can be applied for antireflective coatings on glass substrates. Reaction parameters in the course of sol synthesis are described in detail. Thus, properties of the precursor materials play a crucial role in the formation of the desired magnesium fluoride nanoparticles, this is drying the precursor has to be performed under defined mild conditions, re-solvation of the dried precursor has to be avoided and addition of water to the final sol-system has to be controlled strictly. Important properties of the magnesium fluoride sols like viscosity, particle size distribution, and structural information are presented as well.

  6. Progressive preoperative pneumoperitoneum preparation (the Goni Moreno protocol) prior to large incisional hernia surgery: volumetric, respiratory and clinical impacts. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, C; Dumont, F; Fuks, D; Yzet, T; Verhaeghe, P; Regimbeau, J-M

    2012-02-01

    Progressive preoperative pneumoperitoneum (PPP) is used to prepare incisional hernias with loss of domain (IHLD) operations. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of PPP on peritoneal volume [measured using a new computed tomography (CT)-based method] and respiratory function. From July 2004 to July 2008, 19 patients were included in a prospective, observational study. The volumes of the incisional hernia (VIH), the abdominal cavity (VAC), the total peritoneal content (VP) and the VIH/VP ratio were measured before and after PPP using abdominal CT scan data. Spirometric parameters were measured before and after PPP, and postoperative clinical data were evaluated. Before and after PPP, the mean VIH was 1,420 cc and 2,110 cc (P  VIH before PPP. After PPP, the spirometric measurements revealed a restrictive syndrome. The overall postoperative morbidity rate was 37%. PPP increased the hernia and abdominal volumes. PPP induced a progressive, restrictive syndrome.

  7. Studies on the immune response and preparation of antibodies against a large panel of conjugated neurotransmitters and biogenic amines: specific polyclonal antibody response and tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Han; Wynveen, Paul; Setter, Peter W

    2010-02-01

    We described the production and characterization of antibodies against three important groups of neuro-active haptens, e.g., neurotransmitters and biogenic amines. First, from the tryptophane metabolic pathway: tryptamine, serotonin, 5-hydroxy-indole acetic acid, and melatonin. Secondly, the tyrosine metabolic pathway: tyramine, dopamine, dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid, and norepinephrine. Thirdly, antibodies against excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters: glycine, glutamate, glutamine, and GABA. Immunogenic conjugates were prepared after linking haptens to carrier proteins. Most antibodies displayed high specificity against corresponding neuro-active haptens conjugated in vitro and in situ in biological specimens, but not to closely related conjugated metabolites, precursors, pharmaceuticals, agonists, antagonists, or free neuro-active haptens. Conjugated norepinephrine was highly tolerant in different animal species and produced incidentally a short specific antibody response.

  8. The construction of conserved quantities for linearly coupled oscillators and study of symmetries about the conserved quantities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lou Zhi-Mei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the conserved quantities are constructed using two methods. The first method is by making an ansatz of the conserved quantity and then using the definition of Poisson bracket to obtain the coefficients in the ansatz. The main procedure for the second method is given as follows. Firstly, the coupled terms in Lagrangian are eliminated by changing the coordinate scales and rotating the coordinate axes, secondly, the conserved quantities are obtain in new coordinate directly, and at last, the conserved quantities are expressed in the original coordinates by using the inverse transform of the coordinates. The Noether symmetry and Lie symmetry of the infinitesimal transformations about the conserved quantities are also studied in this paper.

  9. Forecasting the manpower demand for quantity surveyors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H K Ho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a massive infrastructure development and an increasing demand for public and private housing, resulting in a shortage of qualified quantity surveyors. This study aims to forecast the demand for qualified quantity surveyors in Hong Kong from 2013 to 2015. Literature review indicates that the demand for quantity surveyors is a function of the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works. The proposed forecasting method consists of two steps. The first step is to estimate the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works by time series methods and the second step is to forecast the manpower demand for quantity surveyors by causal methods. The data for quantity surveyors and construction outputs are based on the ‘manpower survey reports of the building and civil engineering industry’ and the ‘gross value of construction works performed by main contractors’ respectively. The forecasted manpower demand for quantity surveyors in 2013, 2014 and 2015 are 2,480, 2,632 and 2,804 respectively. Due to the low passing rate of the assessment of professional competence (APC and the increasing number of retired qualified members, there will be a serious shortage of qualified quantity surveyors in the coming three years.

  10. Forecasting the manpower demand for quantity surveyors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H K Ho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a massive infrastructure development and an increasing demand for public and private housing, resulting in a shortage of qualified quantity surveyors. This study aims to forecast the demand for qualified quantity surveyors in Hong Kong from 2013 to 2015. Literature review indicates that the demand for quantity surveyors is a function of the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works. The proposed forecasting method consists of two steps. The first step is to estimate the gross values of building, civil engineering and maintenance works by time series methods and the second step is to forecast the manpower demand for quantity surveyors by causal methods. The data for quantity surveyors and construction outputs are based on the ‘manpower survey reports of the building and civil engineering industry’ and the ‘gross value of construction works performed by main contractors’ respectively. The forecasted manpower demand for quantity surveyors in 2013, 2014 and 2015 are 2,480, 2,632 and 2,804 respectively. Due to the low passing rate of the assessment of professional competence (APC and the increasing number of retired qualified members, there will be a serious shortage of qualified quantity surveyors in the coming three years.

  11. Conceptual Model of Quantities, Units, Dimensions, and Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquette, Nicolas F.; DeKoenig, Hans-Peter; Burkhart, Roger; Espinoza, Huascar

    2011-01-01

    JPL collaborated with experts from industry and other organizations to develop a conceptual model of quantities, units, dimensions, and values based on the current work of the ISO 80000 committee revising the International System of Units & Quantities based on the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM). By providing support for ISO 80000 in SysML via the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM), this conceptual model provides, for the first time, a standard-based approach for addressing issues of unit coherence and dimensional analysis into the practice of systems engineering with SysML-based tools. This conceptual model provides support for two kinds of analyses specified in the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM): coherence of units as well as of systems of units, and dimension analysis of systems of quantities. To provide a solid and stable foundation, the model for defining quantities, units, dimensions, and values in SysML is explicitly based on the concepts defined in VIM. At the same time, the model library is designed in such a way that extensions to the ISQ (International System of Quantities) and SI Units (Systeme International d Unites) can be represented, as well as any alternative systems of quantities and units. The model library can be used to support SysML user models in various ways. A simple approach is to define and document libraries of reusable systems of units and quantities for reuse across multiple projects, and to link units and quantity kinds from these libraries to Unit and QuantityKind stereotypes defined in SysML user models.

  12. Comparison of methods for high quantity and quality genomic DNA extraction from raw cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, T; Yu, Y; Liu, C; Fan, Z; Wang, Y

    2014-04-29

    Isolation of sufficient quantities of high quality DNA is a prerequisite for molecular studies. Milk somatic cells can be used; however, inhibitors such as fats and proteins make milk a difficult medium for extracting large amounts of quality DNA. We optimized, evaluated and compared three methods, Modified Nucleospin Blood Kit method, Modified TianGen Kit method and Phenol-Chloroform method for genomic DNA extraction from bovine milk. Individual cows' milk and bulk milk samples were collected from a China agricultural university dairy farm. Genomic DNA extracted from each milk sample by the three methods was evaluated for quantity and purity by spectrophotometry and gel electrophoresis, as well as PCR and sequencing. All the three methods were found suitable for genomic DNA isolation from bovine milk, PCR applications, and sequencing. Comparing the three methods, we found that the Modified Nucleospin Blood Kit method was significantly better than the Phenol-Chloroform method in terms of quantity as well as quality (amount, concentration, 260/280 nm and 260/230 nm absorbance ratio), whereas, the Modified TianGen Kit method was more efficient than the Phenol-Chloroform method and cheaper than the Modified Nucleospine Blood Kit method; it yielded reasonably good quantities of good quality DNA and would be suitable for large-scale genotyping of lactating cows.

  13. Exact solutions and conserved quantities in f( R, T) Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Nawazish, Iqra

    2017-06-01

    This paper explores Noether and Noether gauge symmetries of anisotropic universe model in f( R, T) gravity. We consider two particular models of this gravity and evaluate their symmetry generators as well as associated conserved quantities. We also find exact solution by using cyclic variable and investigate its behavior via cosmological parameters. The behavior of cosmological parameters turns out to be consistent with recent observations which indicates accelerated expansion of the universe. Next we study Noether gauge symmetry and corresponding conserved quantities for both isotropic and anisotropic universe models. We conclude that symmetry generators and the associated conserved quantities appear in all cases.

  14. OpenMath Content Dictionaries for SI Quantities and Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    mole, and candela , corresponding to the seven SI base quantities. There is a necessary one-to-one mapping between the base quantities and the base...kelvin, mole, and candela . The base units, with the inclusion of the unit named one, with symbol, 1, form an abelian generating set for the infinite...BaseUnits1 CD defines metre, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, mole, and candela . For completeness, in both the SI BaseQuantities1 and SI BaseUnits1 CDs

  15. Hojman Conserved Quantities for Birkhoffian Systems in Event Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on studying a Hojman conserved quantity directly derived from a Lie symmetry for a Birkhoffian system in the event space.The Birkhoffian parametric equations for the system are established,and the determining equations of Lie symmetry for the system are obtained.The conditions under which a Lie symmetry of Birkhoffian system in the event space can directly lead up to a Hojman conserved quantity and the form of the Hojman conserved quantity are given.An example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  16. A Novel Way to Prepare TiO2 and γ-Al2O3 Supported Catalysts with Large Surface Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yue-Xiang ZHU Yue-Xiang; ZHAO Bi-Ying; ZHOU Chang-Jun; WANG Rong-Qiu; XIE You-Chang

    2001-01-01

    pared by a novel way and characterized by X-ray diffractiou,Raman spectroscopy and BET surface area measurement.The results show: (1) all the samples,including M0O3/TiO2,WO3/TiO2, V2Os/TiO2, FeSO4/γ-Al2O3, Al2(SO4)3/γ-Al2O3,K2CO3/-Al2O3 and so on,prepared by impregnating TiO2·H20or pseudo-boehmite AlO(OH)with the active components them calcining at a high temperature exhibit much larger surface ar-eas than that of pure TiO2 or γ-Al2O3 calcined at the same tem-perature; (2) the surface area of the sample increases with the increase in the coverage of active component on the surface of the support; (3) when the content of active component reaches its utmost monolayer dispersion capacity, the surface area of the sample is the largest, and then decreases when the content of active component exceeds its dispersion threshold.

  17. Large transport Jc in Sn-added SmFeAsO1-xFx tapes prepared by an ex situ PIT method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlei; Yao, Chao; Lin, He; Zhang, Xianping; Zhang, Qianjun; Wang, Dongliang; Ma, Yanwei; Awaji, S.; Watanabe, K.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Sun, Y.; Tamegai, T.

    2013-07-01

    SmFeAsO1-xFx possesses the highest superconducting transition temperature (Tc) among the iron-based superconductors, with a very high upper critical field and critical current density (Jc). All these are desirable for practical applications. Although tremendous progress has been made in improving the Jc values for Sr(Ba)-122 tapes or wires [1-3], the transport Jc of Sm1111 tapes or wires is still very low. Here we report on large transport critical current densities observed in Sn-added SmFeAsO1-xFx/Fe tapes produced by an ex situ powder-in-tube (PIT) method. It was found that the loss of fluorine was reduced and the intergranular coupling was enhanced in the Sn-added samples. As a result, the onset and offset Tc values for 10 wt%, 20 wt% and 30 wt% Sn-added samples were 52 K and 35 K, 53 K and 39 K, and 54 K and 41.5 K, respectively. In particular, a transport Jc as large as 22 000 A cm-2 (Ic = 160 A) at 4.2 K under self-field was achieved in 30 wt% Sn-added specimens, which is the highest value reported so far for SmFeAsO1-xFx wires and tapes. Magneto-optical imaging further showed that there were large global currents over the whole sample, which is consistent with the results obtained by the four-probe method.

  18. The effects of inulin, dried Jerusalem artichoke tuber and a multispecies probiotic preparation on microbiota ecology and immune status of the large intestine in young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barszcz, Marcin; Taciak, Marcin; Skomiał, Jacek

    2016-08-01

    The study aimed at determining the effect of two types of prebiotics and a multispecies probiotic on microbiota activity and composition, as well as mucosal immunity in the large intestine of young pigs. In total 48 piglets were divided into 6 groups (n = 8), which received from day 10 of life probiotic-unsupplemented (PU) or probiotic-supplemented (PS) diets. Probiotics were added at 0.5 g/kg diet and contained: Lactococcus lactis, Carnobacterium divergens, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The PU and PS diets were formulated without prebiotic addition (control) or with addition of 2% of inulin from chicory root (IN) or 4% of dried Jerusalem artichoke tubers (DJA). After 40 days of feeding, digesta and tissue samples were taken from the caecum and three sections of the colon for analyses of microbiota activity and composition, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). IN diets decreased the caecal digesta pH and β-glucosidase activity but increased propionic, valeric and total short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations compared to control diets. Feeding DJA diets increased caecal valeric acid level, decreased the concentration of isoacids in the colon, reduced β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase activity in the middle colon and increased Bifidobacterium spp. populations in the proximal and distal colon. PS diets increased the caecal acetic acid and total SCFA level, and Clostridium spp. populations in the distal colon. Neither probiotic nor prebiotics affected sIgA level or IEL number in the large intestine. In conclusion, DJA modified the microbiota ecology in the large intestine of young pigs to a greater extent than IN and the applied probiotic did not enhance effects of prebiotics.

  19. Hyperspectral remote sensing of tropical grass quality and quantity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutanga, O.

    2004-01-01

    Resource distribution is a fundamental factor governing the movement and distribution of herbivores. Specifically, the quality (foliar concentration of nitrogen, phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium) and quantity (biomass) of vegetation are important factors. In this regard, the dev

  20. Partial enthalpies and related quantities in mixtures from computer simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sindzingre, P.; Ciccotti, G.; Massobrio, C.; Frenkel, D.

    1987-01-01

    We report a method of calculating partial molar quantities in mixtures by computer simulation. The method is based on an extension of Widom's potential distribution theorem and provides an alternative way of computing partial enthalpies and volumes.

  1. Securing water quality and quantity: Research and development perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pienaar, H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available and quantity: Research and development perspective 4th Biennial Conference Harrison Pienaar 10 October 2012 Presentation outline ? Introduction and background to water in South Africa ? Transboundary water resource aspects ? Water related challenges...

  2. Analysis of an economic order quantity and reorder point inventory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of an economic order quantity and reorder point inventory control model for Siba ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... In addition, a cost estimate was done to compare both her current model and the recommended models.

  3. 49 CFR 173.306 - Limited quantities of compressed gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... charged with compressed air or limited quantities of nitrogen to not over 40 psig for single-trip shipment... and part 177 except § 177.817. (1) The tank must be of steel, welded with heads concave to pressure...

  4. Lie symmetries and conserved quantities of discrete nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xing-Zhong; Fu Hao; Fu Jing-Li

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on studying Lie symmetries and conserved quantities of discrete nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems.Firstly,the discrete generalized Hamiltonian canonical equations and discrete energy equation of nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems are derived from discrete Hamiltonian action.Secondly,the determining equations and structure equation of Lie symmetry of the system are obtained.Thirdly,the Lie theorems and the conservation quantities are given for the discrete nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems.Finally,an example is discussed to illustrate the application of the results.

  5. The qualitative advantages of quantities of information: bigger is better

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LESK Michael

    2005-01-01

    Digitization projects should focus on quantity rather than quality. Increasing quantities of information produce qualitatively more valuable services. Online writing and searching are now common, and it is only online reading that is still limiting our use of online books. New interfaces might increase our willingness to read online, which should be encouraged rather than fought, since it represents an increase both the amount of information available and the participation of more people in the writing and exchange of information.

  6. Charaterisation of function spaces via mollification; fractal quantities for distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Triebel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is twofold. First we characterise elements f belonging to the Besov spaces Bpqs(ℝn with s∈ℝ,  0quantities for distributions generalising well-known corresponding quantities for Radon measures.

  7. China Limits the Mining Quantity of Tungsten and Rare Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>Based on a notice issued by the Ministry of Land Resources, China’s tungsten mining quantity in 2006 will be controlled to 59,060 tons in concentrates form, which include 4,250 tons of recycled tungsten. And the rare earth mining quantity in 2006 will also be controlled to 86,620 tons (REO) including 8,320 tons of heavy rare earth and 78,200 tons of light rare earth.

  8. Principle of limitation of physical quantities and cyclic universe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE GuoZhu

    2008-01-01

    A close study of Heisenberg uncertainty principles reveals many significant facts, and all four major physical quantities, energy, time, momentum and length, have both lower and upper limits. Now, many questions come up. What are these limits? Some answers may lead to the understanding of the development of our universe. What is the shortest limit of time? At the beginning of big bang, there exists a tre-mendously short time, the Planck time. This may be just the shortest time limit in our universe. The longest time limit might be the lifetime of our universe. The longest length might be the final diameter of our expanding universe. All these lead to a finite universe. Two more coupling formulae are formed for the other two pairs of physical quantities, mass and speed, thermal energy and temperature. These four physical quantities must also have limits. We already knew that speed has upper limit and temperature has lower limit. By these two formulae, Planck and Einstein equations are derived directly. Since most other physical quantities are somewhat related to these major physical quantities, it seems that there exists a principle of limitation of physical quantities. A quantitative sketch of big bang is described. It also shows that our universe will contract back to another big bang. The principle of limitation opens up some fields of investigation. It may bring nature back to the harmony and determined world described by classical physics.

  9. Development of Digital Computation of Building and Civil Engineering Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderinola, O.S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The work of Building and Civil engineering demands a greater knowledge, skill and precision in quantity estimation.The manual method of estimating quantities for building and civil engineering works has posed potential problem areas on work that is undertaken. The low reliability of manual estimation indicates discrepancies in the accuracy of quantities computed manually,hence,the introduction of a digital computation.It is envisaged that this method will greatly reduce the complexities of different aspects when computing quantities for projects, as well as reduce the time to complete the computation and therefore projects can be started earlier.The paper reviewed the procedures involved in the development of a computer program for the digital computation of Building and Civil engineering quantities.The program was developed using Microsoft Visual C SHARP (C# programming language and Microsoft Visual studio. The steps/procedure used in achieving the development of the computer program was (1.designing the application interface,(2 adding controls to the window and (3writing codes behind the interface.The digital computation was tested using a proposed Road project and a proposed administrative buildingand the results showed an average of 100% of the items has 0 to 10 percentage difference for the road and 92% for the building in the final outputs of the quantities obtained through the manual computation and the digital computation and the software could therefore be said to be accurate and reliable.

  10. PARAMETRIC STUDY FOR THE PREPARATION OF ALIGNED SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES BY ANODE-ARC DISCHARGE METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.F. Dai; Q. Wang; W.X. Li; Z.Q. Wei; G.J. Xu

    2005-01-01

    Well aligned quasi-straight single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and straight SWCNTs bundle have been prepared in large scale by anode-arc vaporization of graphite with metallic catalysts. Various parameters such as the catalyst preparation, the kinds and pressure of the buffer gases, the quantity of anode-arc current intensity, and the method of purification have been examined. The influence of these parameters on the deposited carbon yield is reported, together with observations of the produced material. Improvement in synthetic techniques has resulted in the optimal conditions for the production of large quantities of high quality SWCNTs in our semi-continuous synthesis method. The formation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was studied briefly in this paper. Owing to the magnetic pinching effect of arc current, the CNTs arrange in parallel lines along the arc current direction.

  11. Forest Biomass Energy Resources in China: Quantity and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important renewable and sustainable energy sources, the forest biomass energy resource has always been the focus of attention of scholars and policy makers. However, its potential is still uncertain in China, especially with respect to its spatial distribution. In this paper, the quantity and distribution of Chinese forest biomass energy resources are explored based mainly on forestry statistics data rather than forest resource inventory data used by most previous studies. The results show that the forest biomass energy resource in China was 169 million tons in 2010, of which wood felling and bucking residue (WFBR,wood processing residue (WPR, bamboo processing residue, fuel wood and firewood used by farmers accounted for 38%, 37%, 6%, 4% and 15%, respectively. The highest resource was located in East China, accounting for nearly 39.0% of the national amount, followed by the Southwest and South China regions, which accounted for 17.4% and 16.3%, respectively. At the provincial scale, Shandong has the highest distribution, accounting for 11.9% of total resources, followed by Guangxi and Fujian accounting for 10.3% and 10.2%, respectively. The actual wood-processing residue (AWPR estimated from the actual production of different wood products (considering the wood transferred between regions showed apparent differences from the local wood processing residue (LWPR, which assumes that no wood has been transferredbetween regions. Due to the large contribution of WPR to total forestry bioenergy resources, the estimation of AWPR will provide a more accurate evaluation of the total amount and the spatial distribution of forest biomass energy resources in China.

  12. 大尺寸触控面板用铜布线薄膜的制备%Preparation of copper wiring film for large-size touch panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾海军

    2014-01-01

    介绍了一种高透光、电阻小,可用于触摸面板大型化的透明导电性薄膜的制造工艺,即在 PET(聚对苯二甲酸乙二酯)薄膜上形成肉眼不可见的铜网。其工艺流程主要包括低温等离子体表面清洗,磁控溅射Ni-Cr过渡层及Cu植晶层,硫酸盐镀铜层,光刻。所得铜布线薄膜的性能超过了一般ITO(氧化铟锡)膜的性能。%A method for producing a transparent and conductive film with high light transmission and low resistance used in large-size touch panel was introduced. Copper mesh which is invisible to the eyes is formed on a PET thin film by the following steps:(1) cleaning the surface with low-temperature plasma;(2) magnetron sputtering with Ni-Cr intermediate layer and Cu seed layer; (3) electroplating Cu in a sulfate bath;and (4) photolithography. The copper wiring film obtained has superior performance than a common ITO film.

  13. Diversity not quantity in caregiver speech: Using computational modeling to isolate the effects of the quantity and the diversity of the input on vocabulary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gary; Rowland, Caroline F

    2017-11-01

    Children who hear large amounts of diverse speech learn language more quickly than children who do not. However, high correlations between the amount and the diversity of the input in speech samples makes it difficult to isolate the influence of each. We overcame this problem by controlling the input to a computational model so that amount of exposure to linguistic input (quantity) and the quality of that input (lexical diversity) were independently manipulated. Sublexical, lexical, and multi-word knowledge were charted across development (Study 1), showing that while input quantity may be important early in learning, lexical diversity is ultimately more crucial, a prediction confirmed against children's data (Study 2). The model trained on a lexically diverse input also performed better on nonword repetition and sentence recall tests (Study 3) and was quicker to learn new words over time (Study 4). A language input that is rich in lexical diversity outperforms equivalent richness in quantity for learned sublexical and lexical knowledge, for well-established language tests, and for acquiring words that have never been encountered before. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of RE-Doped and RE Quantity of Ni-Based Catalysts on CH4/CO2 Reforming Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yifeng; Li Xiancai; Dai Chao; Wang Chunfeng; Chen Juanrong

    2004-01-01

    RE-doped Ni-based catalysts were prepared by sol-gel method.These catalysts were applied to the reaction of CO2 reforming CH4 to syngas.The studies reveal that RE-doped ( RE = La, Ce, Sm, Yb) Ni-based catalysts show higher catalytic activity than undoped Ni-based catalyst, and with the increasing of RE-doped quantity, the catalytic activity of catalysts exhibits regular changes.When RE-doped quantity is 0.2% ( molar ratio), the catalysts show the best catalytic activity.

  15. Macroscopic Properties of Restacked, Redox-Liquid Exfoliated Graphite and Graphite Mimics Produced in Bulk Quantities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Vikram K [ORNL; Quinlan, Ronald [ORNL; Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL; Dunlap, John R [ORNL; Nelson, Kimberly M [ORNL; Duranty, Edward R [ORNL; Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL; Bhat, Gajanan [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The excellent properties exhibited by monolayer graphene have spurred the development of exfoliation techniques using bulk graphite to produce large quantities of pristine monolayer sheets. Development of simple chemistry to exfoliate and intercalate graphite and graphite mimics in large quantities is required for numerous applications. To determine the macroscopic behavior of restacked, exfoliated bulk materials, a systematic approach is presented using a simple, redox-liquid sonication process along to obtain large quantities of 2D and 3D hexagonally layered graphite, molybdenum disulfi de, and boron nitride, which are subsequently characterized to observe chemical and structural changes. For MoS 2 sonicated with the antioxidant sodium bisulfi te, results from Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron microscopy indicate the presence of distorted phases from different polymorphs, and apparent nanotube structures in the bulk, restacked powder. Furthermore, using thermograviemtric analysis, the antioxidant enhances the resistance to oxidative degradation of MoS 2 , upon thermal treatment up to 900 C. The addition of the ionic antioxidant decreased dispersion stability in non-polar solvent, suggesting decreased compatibility with non-polar systems. Using simple chemical methods, the ability to generate tailored multidimensional layered materials with unique macroscopic properties is critical for numerous applications, including electrical devices, reinforced polymer composites, lithium ion capacitors, and chemical sensing.

  16. Using Large-scale Spatially and Temporally Consistent Reanalysis Data to Assess Fire Weather and Fire Regimes in Siberia in Preparation for Future Fire Weather Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, A. J.; Westberg, D. J.; Stackhouse, P. W.; McRae, D.; Jin, J.

    2008-12-01

    A primary driving force of land cover change in boreal regions is fire, where extreme fire seasons are influenced by local weather and ultimately climate. It is predicted that fire frequency, area burned, fire severity, fire season length, and severe fire seasons will increase under current climate change scenarios. The use of local ground based weather data can be used to gauge the local fire potential on a daily, monthly, or seasonal basis. However, the number and distribution of surface observing stations in Siberia have been declining since the early 1990's. A compounding problem is existing observing stations have missing data on various time scales. The density of stations is limited; hence results may not be representative of the spatial reality. One solution is the temporally and spatially consistent NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 4 (GEOS-4) satellite-derived weather data interpolated to a 1x1 degree grid. In previous work, we showed the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) derived using GEOS-4 weather and Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) precipitation data compared well to ground based weather data from Jakutsk (Sakha) and Kyzyl (Tuva), Russia. Our primary focus is to expand on this work by spatially comparing the FWI derived from GEOS-4 / GPCP data and ground-based weather observations from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). Extreme fires burned in Sakha and Tuva in 2002 and 2004, respectively, while in contrast, normal fire seasons occurred in Sakha and Tuva in 1999 and 2002, respectively. For this reason, we focus on the 1999, 2002, and 2004 fire seasons (April - September). In this investigation, we demonstrate how fire weather models perform on a large scale and investigate the performance of these models relative to input uncertainties. We intend to use this information to build regional-scale fire predictions systems that can be used for future interactive fire-weather-climate assessments.

  17. Assessment of Cost Management Functions of Quantity Surveyors with Lean Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroof Opeyemi Anifowose

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Construction industry in Nigeria is made up of a wide variety of activities which include the provision of professional and technical services to clients in the built environment. Despite the provision of these services to a large number of clients worldwide, the construction industry is still awash by the chronic problems of low productivity, insufficient quality, time over-runs, and poor safety, which hinder customer delivered value. The Just-In-Time phenomenon is a characteristic of lean production systems which operate with very little “fat” (e.g. excess inventory extra workers, wasted space.This study aimed at assessing the construction management function of the quantity surveyor in line with the principle of lean methodology (Just-In-Time. This was achieved by exploring the cost management function of the quantity surveyor, to investigate the current practice of cost management by quantity surveying firms. Data for the study were sourced primarily with the use of questionnaire and the subsequent data analysis, which employed the use of descriptive analysis of presenting the data as obtained on tables during the field survey and attempts a rudimentary establishment of patterns using percentages. The study concluded amongst others, that: all activities involved in the cost management function of the quantity surveyor are important, and value adding, corresponding to conversion activities in line with the Just-In-time/lean methodology

  18. Variance-based Sensitivity Analysis of Large-scale Hydrological Model to Prepare an Ensemble-based SWOT-like Data Assimilation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, C. M.; Biancamaria, S.; Boone, A. A.; Ricci, S. M.; Garambois, P. A.; Decharme, B.; Rochoux, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Land Surface Models (LSM) coupled with River Routing schemes (RRM), are used in Global Climate Models (GCM) to simulate the continental part of the water cycle. They are key component of GCM as they provide boundary conditions to atmospheric and oceanic models. However, at global scale, errors arise mainly from simplified physics, atmospheric forcing, and input parameters. More particularly, those used in RRM, such as river width, depth and friction coefficients, are difficult to calibrate and are mostly derived from geomorphologic relationships, which may not always be realistic. In situ measurements are then used to calibrate these relationships and validate the model, but global in situ data are very sparse. Additionally, due to the lack of existing global river geomorphology database and accurate forcing, models are run at coarse resolution. This is typically the case of the ISBA-TRIP model used in this study.A complementary alternative to in-situ data are satellite observations. In this regard, the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission, jointly developed by NASA/CNES/CSA/UKSA and scheduled for launch around 2020, should be very valuable to calibrate RRM parameters. It will provide maps of water surface elevation for rivers wider than 100 meters over continental surfaces in between 78°S and 78°N and also direct observation of river geomorphological parameters such as width ans slope.Yet, before assimilating such kind of data, it is needed to analyze RRM temporal sensitivity to time-constant parameters. This study presents such analysis over large river basins for the TRIP RRM. Model output uncertainty, represented by unconditional variance, is decomposed into ordered contribution from each parameter. Doing a time-dependent analysis allows then to identify to which parameters modeled water level and discharge are the most sensitive along a hydrological year. The results show that local parameters directly impact water levels, while

  19. Scaling of large-scale quantities in Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Ambrish

    2016-01-01

    We derive a formula for the P\\'eclet number ($\\mathrm{Pe}$) by estimating the relative strengths of various terms of the momentum equation. Using direct numerical simulations in three dimensions we show that in the turbulent regime, the fluid acceleration is dominated by the pressure gradient, with relatively small contributions arising from the buoyancy and the viscous term, in the viscous regime, acceleration is very small due to a balance between the buoyancy and the viscous term. Our formula for $\\mathrm{Pe}$ describes the past experiments and numerical data quite well. We also show that the ratio of the nonlinear term and the viscous term is $\\mathrm{Re} \\mathrm{Ra}^{-0.14}$, where $\\mathrm{Re}$ and $\\mathrm{Ra}$ are Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers respectively, and that the viscous dissipation rate $\\epsilon_u = (U^3/d) \\mathrm{Ra}^{-0.21}$, where $U$ is the root mean square velocity and $d$ is the distance between the two horizontal plates. The aforementioned decrease in nonlinearity compared to free tur...

  20. Thermoelectric Modules Based on Half-Heusler Materials Produced in Large Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomé, Kilian; Balke, Benjamin; Zuckermann, Daniel; Köhne, Martin; Müller, Michael; Tarantik, Karina; König, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Half-Heusler (HH) compounds are some of the most promising candidates among the medium-temperature thermoelectric materials being investigated for automotive and industrial waste heat recovery applications. For n- as well as p-type material, peak ZT values larger than one have been published recently, and first modules have been built. The next step to facilitate the industrialization of thermoelectric module production is upscaling of material synthesis. In this paper, the latest results of the thermoelectric properties of HH compounds produced in kg batches are presented and compared with values published in the literature. The performance of modules built from these materials is analyzed with respect to power output and long-term stability of the material and electrical contacts.

  1. Method for the rapid synthesis of large quantities of metal oxide nanowires at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar (Louisville, KY); Vaddiraju, Sreeram (Mountain View, CA); Mozetic, Miran (Ljubljan, SI); Cvelbar, Uros (Idrija, SI)

    2009-09-22

    A process for the rapid synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles at low temperatures and methods which facilitate the fabrication of long metal oxide nanowires. The method is based on treatment of metals with oxygen plasma. Using oxygen plasma at low temperatures allows for rapid growth unlike other synthesis methods where nanomaterials take a long time to grow. Density of neutral oxygen atoms in plasma is a controlling factor for the yield of nanowires. The oxygen atom density window differs for different materials. By selecting the optimal oxygen atom density for various materials the yield can be maximized for nanowire synthesis of the metal.

  2. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1 in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available, 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition, and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available. The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2, the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research.

  3. Processing ordinality and quantity: the case of developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Sury, Dana

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1) the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2) core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD). Participants made "ordered" or "non-ordered" judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1) and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2). In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks), DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

  4. Processing ordinality and quantity: the case of developmental dyscalculia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly Rubinsten

    Full Text Available In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1 the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2 core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD. Participants made "ordered" or "non-ordered" judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1 and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2. In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks, DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

  5. Development of blueberry liquor: influence of distillate, sweetener and fruit quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Ilda; Lopes, Daniel; Delgado, Teresa; Canas, Sara; Anjos, Ofélia

    2017-07-19

    In this work different formulations of blueberry liquor were tested and characterised based on their physico-chemical and sensory characteristics. Three factors were evaluated: the distillate used to produce the liquor (wine spirit or grape marc spirit); the sweetener (white sugar or honey) and the fruit quantity (two doses). For each liquor, pH, total acidity, dry soluble solids content, dry extract, alcoholic strength, reducing sugars, colour intensity, methanol content, acetaldehyde and fusel alcohols were determined. Sensory tests were carried out with a trained panel. The three factors studied significantly influenced the physico-chemical features of the liquors, being the quantity of fruit the most discriminating factor, except for the volatile compounds which were mainly influenced by the distillate. As regards the sensory analysis, it was found that the most appreciated liquor was that prepared with wine spirit, sugar and a lower dose of blueberry, and the less appreciated formulation was the one made with grape marc spirit, honey and a lower quantity of blueberry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Few researches have been concerned about relation between children’s spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was conducted in Indonesia in which we investigated pre-school children’s (between 2 and 3.5 years old ability in making structured arrangement and their ability to determine the quantities by looking at the arrangements. The result shows us that some of the children were able to make such arrangement. However, the children found difficulties either to determine quantities from those arrangements or to compare some structures to easily recognize number of objects.

  7. Pseudotensor applied to Numerical Relativity in Calculating Global Quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Chung-Chin; Lin, Chun-Yu; Yo, Hwei-Jang

    2015-01-01

    In this work we apply the Landau-Lifshitz pseudotensor flux formalism to the calculation of the total mass and the total angular momentum during the evolution of a binary black hole system. We also compare its performance with the traditional integrations for the global quantities. It shows that the advantage of the pseudotensor flux formalism is the smoothness of the numerical value of the global quantities, especially of the total angular momentum. Although the convergence behavior of the global quantities with the pseudotensor flux method is only comparable with the ones with the traditional method, the smoothness of its numerical value allows using a larger radius for surface integration to obtain more accurate result.

  8. Multimodal semantic quantity representations: further evidence from Korean Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eDomahs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Korean deaf signers performed a number comparison task on pairs of Arabic digits. In their RT profiles, the expected magnitude effect was systematically modified by properties of number signs in Korean Sign Language in a culture-specific way (not observed in hearing and deaf Germans or hearing Chinese. We conclude that finger-based quantity representations are automatically activated even in simple tasks with symbolic input although this may be irrelevant and even detrimental for task performance. These finger-based numerical representations are accessed in addition to another, more basic quantity system which is evidenced by the magnitude effect. In sum, these results are inconsistent with models assuming only one single amodal representation of numerical quantity.

  9. Principle of limitation of physical quantities and cyclic universe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A close study of Heisenberg uncertainty principles reveals many significant facts,and all four major physical quantities,energy,time,momentum and length,have both lower and upper limits.Now,many questions come up.What are these limits?Some answers may lead to the understanding of the development of our universe.What is the shortest limit of time?At the beginning of big bang,there exists a tre-mendously short time,the Planck time.This may be just the shortest time limit in our universe.The longest time limit might be the lifetime of our universe.The longest length might be the final diameter of our expanding universe.All these lead to a finite universe.Two more coupling formulae are formed for the other two pairs of physical quantities,mass and speed,thermal energy and temperature.These four physical quantities must also have limits.We already knew that speed has upper limit and temperature has lower limit.By these two formulae,Planck and Einstein equations are derived directly.Since most other physical quantities are somewhat related to these major physical quantities,it seems that there exists a principle of limitation of physical quantities.A quantitative sketch of big bang is described.It also shows that our universe will contract back to another big bang.The principle of limitation opens up some fields of investigation.It may bring nature back to the harmony and determined world described by classical physics.

  10. Difference in quantity discrimination in dogs and wolves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike eRange

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Certain aspects of social life, such as engaging in intergroup conflicts, as well as challenges posed by the physical environment, may facilitate the evolution of quantity discrimination. In lack of excessive comparative data, one can only hypothesize about its evolutionary origins, but human-raised wolves performed well when they had to choose the larger of two sets of 1 to 4 food items that had been sequentially placed into two opaque cans. Since in such paradigms, the animals never see the entire content of either can, their decisions are thought to rely on mental representation of the two quantities rather than on some perceptual factors such as the overall volume or surface area of the two amounts. By equaling the time that it takes to enter each quantity into the cans or the number of items entered, one can further rule out the possibility that animals simply choose based on the amount of time needed to present the two quantities. While the wolves performed well even in such a control condition, dogs failed to choose the larger one of two invisible quantities in another study using a similar paradigm. Because this disparity could be explained by procedural differences, in the current study, we set out to test dogs that were raised and kept identically as the previously tested wolves using the same set-up and procedure. Our results confirm the former finding that dogs, in comparison to wolves, have inferior skills to represent quantities mentally. This seems to be in line with a Frank's (1980 hypothesis suggesting that domestication altered the information processing of dogs. However, as discussed, also alternative explanations may exist.

  11. A Characterization of Conserved Quantities in Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Romero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The well-known Noether theorem in Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics associates symmetries in the evolution equations of a mechanical system with conserved quantities. In this work, we extend this classical idea to problems of non-equilibrium thermodynamics formulated within the GENERIC (General Equations for Non-Equilibrium Reversible-Irreversible Coupling framework. The geometric meaning of symmetry is reviewed in this formal setting and then utilized to identify possible conserved quantities and the conditions that guarantee their strict conservation. Examples are provided that demonstrate the validity of the proposed definition in the context of finite and infinite dimensional thermoelastic problems.

  12. Manual of symbols and terminology for physicochemical quantities and units

    CERN Document Server

    Whiffen, D H

    2013-01-01

    Manual of Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units, 1979 Edition contains physical quantity tabulations of products. The Commission on Symbols, Terminology, and Units is a part of the Division of Physical Chemistry of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Its general responsibilities are to secure clarity and precision, and wider agreement in the use of symbols, by chemists in different countries, among physicists, chemists, and engineers, and by editors of scientific journals. This book is composed of 13 chapters, and begins with the determination o

  13. Covariant Hamiltonian boundary term: Reference and quasi-local quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Gang; Liu, Jian-Liang; Nester, James M

    2016-01-01

    The Hamiltonian for dynamic geometry generates the evolution of a spatial region along a vector field. It includes a boundary term which determines both the value of the Hamiltonian and the boundary conditions. The value gives the quasi-local quantities: energy-momentum, angular-momentum and center-of-mass. The boundary term depends not only on the dynamical variables but also on their reference values; the latter determine the ground state (having vanishing quasi-local quantities). For our preferred boundary term for Einstein's GR we propose 4D isometric matching and extremizing the energy to determine the reference metric and connection values.

  14. Conformal Invariance and Conserved Quantities of General Holonomic Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Jian-Le

    2008-01-01

    Conformal invarianee and conserved quantities of general holonomic systems are studied. A one-parameter infinitesimal transformation group and its infinitesimal transformation vector of generators are described.The definition of conformal invariance and determining equation for the system are provided.The conformal factor expression is deduced from conformal invariance and Lie symmetry.The necessary and sufficient condition,that conformal invariance of the system would be Lie symmetry,is obtained under the infinitesimal one-parameter transformation group. The corresponding conserved quantity is derived with the aid of a structure equation.Lastly,an example is given to demonstrate the application of the result.

  15. SYMMETRIES AND CONSERVED QUANTITIES FOR SYSTEMS OF GENERALIZED CLASSICAL MECHANICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yi; Shang Mei; Mei Feng-xiang

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the symmetries and the conserved quantities for systemsof generalized classical mechanics are studied. First, the generalizedNoether's theorem and the generalized Noether's inverse theorem of thesystems are given, which are based upon the invariant properties of thecanonical action with respect to the action of the infinitesimaltransformation of r-parameter finite group of transformation; second,the Lie symmetries and conserved quantities of the systems are studiedin accordance with the Lie's theory of the invariance of differentialequations under the transformation of infinitesimal groups; and finally,the inner connection between the two kinds of symmetries of systems isdiscussed.

  16. Core skills requirement and competencies expected of quantity surveyors: perspectives from quantity surveyors, allied professionals and clients in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Oluwasuji Dada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Deployment of appropriate skills and competencies is crucial and germane to the development and continuous relevance of any profession. In the built environment, the science for selecting the required skills and competencies expected of quantity surveyors and understanding the inherent dependencies between them remains a research issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill requirements and competencies expected of quantity surveyors. A structured questionnaire was administered among quantity surveyors, architects, engineers, builders and clients in Nigeria. The respondents were asked to give rating, on a 5 point Likert scale, on usual skills and competencies required of quantity surveyors. A secondary objective of the study was to examine the important skills and competencies and categorized them into core skill, basic skill, core competence, optional competence and special competence. The results of the study indicate the important skills as computer literacy, building engineering, information technology, economics, measurement/quantification and knowledge of civil/heavy engineering works. The results also indicate the important competencies as cost planning and control, estimating, construction procurement system, contract documentation, contract administration and project management. It is emphasized that the findings of the research have considerable implications on the training and practice of quantity surveying in Nigeria.

  17. Core skills requirement and competencies expected of quantity surveyors: perspectives from quantity surveyors, allied professionals and clients in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Oluwasuji Dada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDeployment of appropriate skills and competencies is crucial and germane to the development and continuous relevance of any profession. In the built environment, the science for selecting the required skills and competencies expected of quantity surveyors and understanding the inherent dependencies between them remains a research issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill requirements and competencies expected of quantity surveyors. A structured questionnaire was administered among quantity surveyors, architects, engineers, builders and clients in Nigeria. The respondents were asked to give rating, on a 5 point Likert scale, on usual skills and competencies required of quantity surveyors. A secondary objective of the study was to examine the important skills and competencies and categorized them into core skill, basic skill, core competence, optional competence and special competence. The results of the study indicate the important skills as computer literacy, building engineering, information technology, economics, measurement/quantification and knowledge of civil/heavy engineering works. The results also indicate the important competencies as cost planning and control, estimating, construction procurement system, contract documentation, contract administration and project management. It is emphasized that the findings of the research have considerable implications on the training and practice of quantity surveying in Nigeria.

  18. Aerobic digestion reduces the quantity of antibiotic resistance genes in residual municipal wastewater solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker R Burch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous initiatives have been undertaken to circumvent the problem of antibiotic resistance, including the development of new antibiotics, the use of narrow spectrum antibiotics, and the reduction of inappropriate antibiotic use. We propose an alternative but complimentary approach to reduce antibiotic resistant bacteria by implementing more stringent technologies for treating municipal wastewater, which is known to contain large quantities of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs. In this study, we investigated the ability of conventional aerobic digestion to reduce the quantity of ARGs in untreated wastewater solids. A bench-scale aerobic digester was fed untreated wastewater solids collected from a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment facility. The reactor was operated under semi-continuous flow conditions for more than 200 days at a residence time of approximately 40 days. During this time, the quantities of tet(A, tet(W, and erm(B decreased by more than 90%. In contrast, intI1 did not decrease, and tet(X increased in quantity by 5-fold. Following operation in semi-continuous flow mode, the aerobic digester was converted to batch mode to determine the first-order decay coefficients, with half-lives ranging from as short as 2.8 days for tet(W to as long as 6.3 days for intI1. These results demonstrated that aerobic digestion can be used to reduce the quantity of antibiotic resistance genes in untreated wastewater solids, but that rates can vary substantially depending on the reactor design (i.e., batch versus continuous-flow and the specific ARG.

  19. Production of highly pure einsteinium and fermium preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, O.I.; Tarasov, V.A.; Zotov, E.A.; Baranov, A.Yu. [Federal State Unitary Enterprise ' ' State Scientific Center of Russian Federation Research Institute of Atomic Reactors' ' (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Highly pure einsteinium and fermium preparations are in increased demand due to the progress of the following fields of modern sciences: Fundamental and applied nuclear physics. Heavy actinides are necessary for detailed study of structure and decay of a nucleus, as well as initial material both for nuclear synthesis of new superheavy elements and for manufacturing radioactive radiation sources. Fundamental and applied radiochemistry. Einsteinium and fermium preparations are required to investigate chemical properties of these hard-to-obtain elements and to improve technology of their recovery and purification. Nuclear medicine. Biologically active compounds labeled with alpha- emitting einsteinium and fermium may be applied in prospect for a radioimmunotherapy of oncological diseases. The principal method of einsteinium and fermium production is irradiation of curium or californium isotopes in a high-flux nuclear reactor. Large-scale production of transplutonium elements at RIAR enables also to produce regularly significant quantities of einsteinium and fermium. (orig.)

  20. The preparation of a new type of ferrocene-based compounds with large conjugated system containing symmetrical aromatic vinyl with Schiff base moieties and the study of their third-order nonlinear optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiguo; Jia, Jianhong; Gao, Jianrong; Han, Liang; Li, Yujin

    2016-09-01

    Herein we reported the preparation of a new type of ferrocene-based compounds with large conjugated system containing symmetrical aromatic vinyl and Schiff base moieties and the study of their third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. Their third-order NLO properties were measured using femtosecond laser and degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) technique. The obtained χ(3), n2 and γ values of these molecules were found in the range of 0.998-1.429 × 10-12 esu,1.847-2.646 × 10-11 esu and 1.026-1.449 × 10-30 esu, respectively. The response time ranged from 43.65 fs to 61.71 fs. The results indicate that these compounds have potential nonlinear optical applications.

  1. Large tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/pentacene/Cu structures prepared on SrTiO3 (110) substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Takeshi; Miyahara, Chihiro; Tada, Hirokazu

    2017-01-01

    We investigated tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR) at the interface between pentacene and La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) thin films prepared on SrTiO3 (STO) (110) substrates. The dependence of the TAMR ratio on the magnetic field strength was approximately ten times larger than that of the magnetic field angle at a high magnetic field. This large difference in the TAMR ratio is explained by the interface magnetic anisotropy of strain-induced LSMO thin films on a STO (110) substrate, which has an easy axis with an out-of-plane component. We also note that the TAMR owing to out-of-plane magnetization was positive at each angle of the in-plane magnetic field. This result implies that active control of the interface magnetic anisotropy between organic materials and ferromagnetic metals should realize nonvolatile and high-efficiency TAMR devices.

  2. 山东省男子体操队体育信息服务实践研究%Information services for Shandong gymnastics team preparing for large -scale sporting events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满晓霞

    2015-01-01

    依据山东省男子体操队伦敦奥运会竞技备战周期的项目布局及夺金任务目标,采用教练访谈、文献资料、实地调研、数理统计等多种方式,为山东省男子体操队开展全方位体育信息咨询服务,涉及运动训练信息、对手情报信息、参赛环境情报等诸多方面。一方面,在备战大型综合性运动会中进行了体育信息服务模式的积极探索;另一方面,也为管理部门及教练员、运动员科学备战参赛提供信息依据和智力支持。%In preparation for large -scale sporting events,sports information service is of much help for sports authorities to make macro strategies and develop scientific decisions.The Olympic Games is a typical representative of large -scale sporting events.Therefore,taking Shandong Province preparing for the London Olympics as an example,with the methods of literature review,interviews with experts,investigation teams,video analysis,statistics and so on,the paper discussed how the information were gathered,processed and transmitted,and explored its application benefits.

  3. Nucleation site and mechanism leading to growth of bulk-quantity Mn3O4 nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z. W.; Lai, J. K. L.; Shek, C. H.

    2005-05-01

    We report a simple and effective method for the generation of bulk-quantity nanorods of manganese oxide, Mn3O4, under surroundings of a suitable surfactant and alkaline solution. It is found that the Mn3O4 nanorod is smooth, straight, and that the geometrical shape is structurally perfect, which is produced with lengths from several hundreds nanometers to a few micrometers, and diameters range from 10nmto30nm. We amazedly found that the dripping speed of the NaOH solution plays an important role in formation of bulk-quantity Mn3O4 nanorods. The difference of dripping speed of the NaOH solution leads to a large difference of Mn3O4 morphologies, which is observed in the transmission electron microscopy images. The growth of the Mn3O4 nanorods is suggested first to follow a self-catalyzed solution-liquid-solid mechanism.

  4. Quantity effect of radial cracks on the cracking propagation behavior and the crack morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Chen

    Full Text Available In this letter, the quantity effect of radial cracks on the cracking propagation behavior as well as the circular crack generation on the impacted glass plate within the sandwiched glass sheets are experimentally investigated via high-speed photography system. Results show that the radial crack velocity on the backing glass layer decreases with the crack number under the same impact conditions during large quantities of repeated experiments. Thus, the "energy conversion factor" is suggested to elucidate the physical relation between the cracking number and the crack propagation speed. Besides, the number of radial crack also takes the determinative effect in the crack morphology of the impacted glass plate. This study may shed lights on understanding the cracking and propagation mechanism in laminated glass structures and provide useful tool to explore the impact information on the cracking debris.

  5. Quantity, Quality, and Satisfaction with Mentoring: What Matters Most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohong; Payne, Stephanie C.

    2014-01-01

    According to Kram's mentor role theory, satisfaction with mentoring and mentorship quality are key indicators of effective and successful mentoring. We contribute to mentoring research by demonstrating the relative importance of mentorship quantity, mentorship quality, and satisfaction with mentoring to the prediction of job satisfaction,…

  6. Quality, Quantity, and Age: The Careers of Ten Distinguished Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    1985-01-01

    The longitudinal relationship between quality and quantity of productive output is examined over the careers of 10 recipients of the Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award using four alternative models (expertise-acquisition, youthful-enthusiasm, peak-age, and constant-probability-of-success). The results endorsed the…

  7. Predictors of Sleep Quantity and Quality in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas sleep is often thought of as a common health issue among college students, few, if any, researchers have comprehensively evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality and quantity within this population. Most often, studies of this type are used by researchers to assess particular categories of correlates and predictors (e.g.,…

  8. Early Numeracy Intervention: Does Quantity Discrimination Really Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansmann, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The current study demonstrates that a taped problem intervention is an effective tool for increasing the early numeracy skill of QD. A taped problems intervention was used with two variations of the quantity discrimination measure (triangle and traditional). A 3x2 doubly multivariate multivariate analysis of variance was…

  9. Quantity and unit extraction for scientific and technical intelligence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Peter; Hawes, Timothy

    2017-05-01

    Scientific and Technical (S and T) intelligence analysts consume huge amounts of data to understand how scientific progress and engineering efforts affect current and future military capabilities. One of the most important types of information S and T analysts exploit is the quantities discussed in their source material. Frequencies, ranges, size, weight, power, and numerous other properties and measurements describing the performance characteristics of systems and the engineering constraints that define them must be culled from source documents before quantified analysis can begin. Automating the process of finding and extracting the relevant quantities from a wide range of S and T documents is difficult because information about quantities and their units is often contained in unstructured text with ad hoc conventions used to convey their meaning. Currently, even simple tasks, such as searching for documents discussing RF frequencies in a band of interest, is a labor intensive and error prone process. This research addresses the challenges facing development of a document processing capability that extracts quantities and units from S and T data, and how Natural Language Processing algorithms can be used to overcome these challenges.

  10. Mapping among Number Words, Numerals, and Nonsymbolic Quantities in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle; Anderson, Ursula; Cordes, Sara

    2017-01-01

    In mathematically literate societies, numerical information is represented in 3 distinct codes: a verbal code (i.e., number words); a digital, symbolic code (e.g., Arabic numerals); and an analogical code (i.e., quantities; Dehaene, 1992). To communicate effectively using these numerical codes, our understanding of number must involve an…

  11. Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity Inventory Models Without Backordering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaobin; TANG Wansheng; ZHAO Ruiqing

    2007-01-01

    In economic order quantity models without backordering, both the stock cost of each unit quantity and the order cost of each cycle are characterized as independent fuzzy variables rather than fuzzy numbers as in previous studies. Based on an expected value criterion or a credibility criterion, a fuzzy expected value model and a fuzzy dependent hance programming (DCP) model are constructed. The purpose of the fuzzy expected value model is to find the optimal order quantity such that the fuzzy expected value of the total cost is minimal. The fuzzy DCP model is used to find the optimal order quantity for maximizing the credibility of an event such that the total cost in the planning periods does not exceed a certain budget level.Fuzzy simulations are designed to calculate the expected value of the fuzzy objective function and the credibility of each fuzzy event. A particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm based on a fuzzy simulation is designed, by integrating the fuzzy simulation and the PSO algorithm. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Order Quantity Distributions in Make-to-Order Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Poul Svante; Nielsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents both an analytical and a numerical investigation into the order quantities received by a company in the form of customer orders. A discussion of assumptions regarding the behavior of demand in the form of customer orders from various perspectives within manufacturing planning ...

  13. Photographs in Dutch History Textbooks: Quantity, type and educational use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kleppe (Martijn)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis article demonstrates a media scientific approach by studying the use of photographs in Dutch History textbooks for High School pupils in the period 1970 – 2000. The quantity of photos has been determined as well as the types of pictures and its use as educational tool. Results show

  14. Quantity, Quality, and Satisfaction with Mentoring: What Matters Most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohong; Payne, Stephanie C.

    2014-01-01

    According to Kram's mentor role theory, satisfaction with mentoring and mentorship quality are key indicators of effective and successful mentoring. We contribute to mentoring research by demonstrating the relative importance of mentorship quantity, mentorship quality, and satisfaction with mentoring to the prediction of job satisfaction,…

  15. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, Neni

    2010-01-01

    Few researches have been concerned about relation between children's spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was…

  16. Can the Lorenz-Gauge Potentials Be Considered Physical Quantities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Jose A.; Fernandez-Anaya, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Two results support the idea that the scalar and vector potentials in the Lorenz gauge can be considered to be physical quantities: (i) they separately satisfy the properties of causality and propagation at the speed of light and do not imply spurious terms and (ii) they can naturally be written in a manifestly covariant form. In this paper we…

  17. Threshold quantities for infectious diseases in periodic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Roberts, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    In this short note we give threshold quantities that determine the stability of the infection-free steady state for periodic deterministic systems that describe the spread of infectious diseases in populations whose individuals can be divided into a finite number of distinct groups. We concentrate o

  18. 16 CFR 300.28 - Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.28 Undetermined... reclaimed fibers” or “undetermined reclaimed fibers,” as for example: 75% Recycled Wool—25% Unknown...

  19. Conserved Quantities and Conformal Mechanico-Electrical Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing-Li; WANG Xian-Jun; XIE Feng-Ping

    2008-01-01

    The conformal mechanico-electrical systems are presented by infinitesimal point transformations of time and generalized coordinates. The necessary and sufficient conditions that the conformal mechanico-electrical systems possess Lie symmetry are given. The Noether conserved quantities of the conformal mechanico-electrical systems are obtained from Lie symmetries.

  20. Quantity, Quality, and Satisfaction with Mentoring: What Matters Most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohong; Payne, Stephanie C.

    2014-01-01

    According to Kram's mentor role theory, satisfaction with mentoring and mentorship quality are key indicators of effective and successful mentoring. We contribute to mentoring research by demonstrating the relative importance of mentorship quantity, mentorship quality, and satisfaction with mentoring to the prediction of job satisfaction,…

  1. On the Economic Order Quantity Model With Transportation Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.I. Birbil (Ilker); K. Bulbul; J.B.G. Frenk (Hans); H.M. Mulder (Henry)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe consider an economic order quantity type model with unit out-of-pocket holding costs, unit opportunity costs of holding, fixed ordering costs and general transportation costs. For these models, we analyze the associated optimization problem and derive an easy procedure for determining

  2. Lie Symmetry and Hojman Conserved Quantity of Maggi Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chu-le; XIE Jia-fang

    2007-01-01

    Lie symmetry of Maggi equations is studied. Its determining equation and restriction equation of nonholonomic constraint are given. A Hojman conserved quantity can be deduced directly by using the Lie symmetry. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  3. Water quantity and quality at the urban-rural interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; B. Graeme Lockaby

    2012-01-01

    Population growth and urban development dramatically alter natural watershed ecosystem structure and functions and stress water resources. We review studies on the impacts of urbanization on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes underlying stream water quantity and water quality issues, as well as water supply challenges in an urban environment. We conclude that...

  4. Conserved quantities and symmetries related to stochastic Hamiltonian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Mei; Mei Feng-Xiang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper symmetries and conservation laws for stochastic dynamical systems are discussed in detail.Determining equations for infinitesimal approximate symmetries of Ito and Stratonovich dynamical systems are derived. It shows how to derive conserved quantities for stochastic dynamical systems by using their symmetries without recourse to Noether's theorem.

  5. 19 CFR 351.409 - Differences in quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.409... comparing export price or constructed export price with normal value, the Secretary will make a reasonable... section 773(a)(6)(C)(i) of the Act.) (b) Sales with quantity discounts in calculating normal value. The...

  6. Quantity or quality? Knowledge alliances and their effects on patenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hottenrott, H.; Lopes-Bento, C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines a sample of R&D-active manufacturing firms over the period 2000-2009 and shows that knowledge alliances have a positive effect on patenting in terms of both quantity and quality. More interestingly, we distinguish between alliances that aim at joint creation of new knowledge and

  7. Quantity versus Price Rationing of Credit: An Empirical Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Waters

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One proxy of price rationing of credit is an aggregation of information on interest rates, while loan officer survey data measures quantity rationing of credit, meaning some borrowers are denied loans. The latter Granger causes real GDP but the former does not. The loan officer survey is a better leading indicator of credit market conditions that affect real activity.

  8. Approximate quantities and exact number words: dissociable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemer, Cathy; Dehaene, Stanislas; Spelke, Elizabeth; Cohen, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    Numerical abilities are thought to rest on the integration of two distinct systems, a verbal system of number words and a non-symbolic representation of approximate quantities. This view has lead to the classification of acalculias into two broad categories depending on whether the deficit affects the verbal or the quantity system. Here, we test the association of deficits predicted by this theory, and particularly the presence or absence of impairments in non-symbolic quantity processing. We describe two acalculic patients, one with a focal lesion of the left parietal lobe and Gerstmann's syndrome and another with semantic dementia with predominantly left temporal hypometabolism. As predicted by a quantity deficit, the first patient was more impaired in subtraction than in multiplication, showed a severe slowness in approximation, and exhibited associated impairments in subitizing and numerical comparison tasks, both with Arabic digits and with arrays of dots. As predicted by a verbal deficit, the second patient was more impaired in multiplication than in subtraction, had intact approximation abilities, and showed preserved processing of non-symbolic numerosities.

  9. The preparation of the poly(vinyl alcohol/graphene nanocomposites with low percolation threshold and high electrical conductivity by using the large-area reduced graphene oxide sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Fu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a method to prepare the poly(vinyl alcohol/reduced graphene oxide (PVA/rGO nanocomposites with low percolation threshold and high electrical conductivity by using the large-area reduced graphene oxide (LrGO sheets. The large-area graphene oxide (LGO sheets are expected to overlap better with each other and form the continuous GO network in PVA matrix than small-area graphene oxide (SGO. During the thermal reduction process, the LGO sheets are easily restored and improve the electrical conductivity of nanocomposites due to their low damage level of conjugate-structure. As a result, the percolation threshold of PVA/LrGO nanocomposites is ~0.189 wt% lower than present reports (0.5~0.7 wt%. At the LrGO content of 0.7 wt%, the electrical conductivity of PVA/LrGO nanocomposites reaches 6.3•10–3 S/m. Besides that, this method only takes 15~30 min to reduce the PVA/GO nanocomposites effectively.

  10. Quantum Physics and Mathematical Debates Concerning the Problem of the Ontological Priority between Continuous Quantity and Discrete Quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pin, Victor Gómez

    In his book about the Categories (that is about the ultimate elements of classification and order), in the chapter concerning the quantity (IV, 20) Aristotle says that this concept recovers two kinds of modalities: the discrete quantity and the continuous quantity and he gives as examples the number for the first one; line, surface, solid, times and space for the second one. The main philosophical problem raised by this text is to determine which of the two modalities of the quantity has the ontological priority over the other (given two concepts A and B, we assume that A has ontological priority over B if every entity that possesses the quality B possesses necessarily the quality A). The problem is magnified by the fact that space, which in some part of Aristotle's Physics is mentioned not only as a category properly speaking but even as the main category whose power can be amazing, is in the evoked text of the Categories's Book reduced to expression of the continuum, and sharing this condition with time. In this matter the controversy is constant through the common history of Science and Philosophy.

  11. 77 FR 43077 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Economic Purchase Quantity-Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Economic Purchase Quantity--Supplies AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD... approved information collection requirement concerning Economic Purchase Quantity--Supplies. Public...: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0082, Economic Purchase Quantity--Supplies, by...

  12. EOQ Model for Deteriorating Items with exponential time dependent Demand Rate under inflation when Supplier Credit Linked to Order Quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Prakash Tripathi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In paper (2004 Chang studied an inventory model under a situation in which the supplier provides the purchaser with a permissible delay of payments if the purchaser orders a large quantity. Tripathi (2011 also studied an inventory model with time dependent demand rate under which the supplier provides the purchaser with a permissible delay in payments. This paper is motivated by Chang (2004 and Tripathi (2011 paper extending their model for exponential time dependent demand rate. This study develops an inventory model under which the vendor provides the purchaser with a credit period; if the purchaser orders large quantity. In this chapter, demand rate is taken as exponential time dependent. Shortages are not allowed and effect of the inflation rate has been discussed. We establish an inventory model for deteriorating items if the order quantity is greater than or equal to a predetermined quantity. We then obtain optimal solution for finding optimal order quantity, optimal cycle time and optimal total relevant cost. Numerical examples are given for all different cases. Sensitivity of the variation of different parameters on the optimal solution is also discussed. Mathematica 7 software is used for finding numerical examples.

  13. An exploratory investigation of the intuition of physical quantity among 15 to 17 year old high school students from an evolutionary epistemological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernavski, Ghennady

    This study examines the issue of perception of extreme amounts of various physical quantities among 14 to 17 year old public schools students. The methods used in this investigation consisted of combined multiple-choice-open response questions and clinical interviews. The subjects in this study have relatively well defined ideas about quantitative relationships of the physical world as long as the quantities involved lie within their perceptual limits. Beyond these limits, their quantitative understanding was vague across all concepts with respect to their inability to do adequate quantitative comparisons. Very small physical quantities as well as very small changes in quantities did not seem to be present in the mental frameworks of the subjects. Most subjects were able to comprehend micro-quantities and micro-changes by relating them to those within their mesocosmical range. Analogical reasoning appeared to be central to this process. The subjects failed to perceive identical physical situations as analogical if one of them involved mesocosmical quantities and the other contained those lying beyond their mental mesocosmical range. Crossing mesocosmical boundaries in one's mind caused interruption in analogical reasoning. Very large physical quantities, namely those beyond the human range of sensual perception, were present in the subjects' mental frameworks. However, they were unable to reason adequately about quantitative differences between distinct quantities of the same concept if these quantities were beyond their sensual range. The findings of this study provide empirical support to Vollmer's (1984) theory of mesocosmical mind.

  14. Dimensions of Organisational Culture in Quantity Surveying Firms in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle Olubunmi Olanipekun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The functionalist paradigm of organisational culture (OC views culture as a variable subject to conscious manipulation and control in order to solve organisational challenges. Therefore, this paper provides information on how OC is a solution to the challenges in Quantity Surveying firms (QSFs.  This was achieved by eliciting the dimensions of OC in forty two QSFs in Lagos, Nigeria, which are the business, people and external environment dimensions. The paper concludes that OC is a relevant solution to the identity and management related challenges in QSFs. Specifically, the paper informs on the implications of business and people dimensions of OC as a solution to the identity challenges, as well as on the implication of the external environment dimension of OC to the management challenges. Based on the findings, practical implications and recommendations were directed at the management and employees QSs in QSFs and Quantity Surveying researchers.

  15. Does quantity generate quality? Testing the fundamental principle of brainstorming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Adánez, Alfredo

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to test the chief principle of brainstorming, formulated as "quantity generates quality." The study is included within a broad program whose goal is to detect the strong and weak points of creative techniques. In a sample of 69 groups, containing between 3 and 8 members, the concurrence of two commonly accepted criteria was established as a quality rule: originality and utility or value. The results fully support the quantity-quality relation (r = .893): the more ideas produced to solve a problem, the better quality of the ideas. The importance of this finding, which supports Osborn's theory, is discussed, and the use of brainstorming is recommended to solve the many open problems faced by our society.

  16. Pseudo-quantities, New Public Management and Human Judgement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven-Eric Liedman

    2012-10-01

    and conscientious verbal evaluation. The term pseudo-quantity is new, but the phenomenon is well known to researchers and has become the subject of a rapidly growing stream of literature.1 The new term would primarily be intended to provide insight into the on-going mechanisms and processes that underlie this phenomenon. Furthermore, this term has a critical potential that is urgently needed at a time when many individuals erroneously believe that pseudoquantities can be used to gain both time and perspective. In the first part of the article, I will present the new concept and its background in the concepts of quality and quantity. The importance of this term is pertinent to the founding of New Public Management (NPM in the public sector. NPM will be treated in the following section. I will specifically highlight how this process influences education and research. In the conclusion, I summarise my argument and provide insight regarding a possible alternative.

  17. Quantity and quality benefits of in-service invasive cleaning of trunk mains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sunny

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Trunk mains are high risk critical infrastructure where poor performance can impact on large numbers of customers. Both quantity (e.g. hydraulic capacity and quality (e.g. discolouration of trunk main performance are affected by asset deterioration in the form of particle accumulation at the pipe wall. Trunk main cleaning techniques are therefore desirable to remove such material. However, little is quantified regarding the efficacy of different maintenance interventions or longer-term changes following such cleaning. This paper presents an assessment of quantity and quality performance of a trunk main system pre, post and for 12 months following cleaning using pigging with ice slurry. Hydraulic calibration showed a 7 times roughness height reduction after ice slurry pigging, evidencing substantially improved hydraulic capacity and reduced headloss. Turbidity response due to carefully imposed shear stress increase remained significant after the cleaning intervention, showing that relatively loose material had not been fully removed from the pipe wall. Overall the results demonstrate that cleaning by pigging with ice slurry can be beneficial for quantity performance, but care and further assessment may be necessary to realise the full quality benefits.

  18. Lot-Sizing Decisions under Trade Credit Depending on the Ordering Quantity in Fuzzy Annual Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chui-Yu Chiu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In reality, there are of various products such as liquids, volatile, medicines and materials, in which the rate of deterioration is very large. However, little attention has been mentioned what the effects of deterioration occur in most inventory systems. Also, the loss of the deterioration should not be neglected as an important issue. Approach: In this study, we proposed the problem of determining the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ for exponentially deteriorating items under the conditions of permissible delay in payments. Recent researches revealed that the payment for the product must be made forthwith when the order quantity is less than the allowable delay in payments. The fixed trade credit period was permitted, or else. Therefore, we utilized the fuzzy theory to implement more considerable answers via numerical examples which were provided to illustrate the results clearly at the end of study. Results: This study discussed the optimal replenishment cycle time for an exponentially deteriorating product under conditions of permissible delay in payments to take the order quantity into account. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study presented another fuzzy environment inventory model which accounts for the permissible delay in payments offered by supplier to the retailer. From the results, it can be concluded that another point of view to decision makers in uncertainty.

  19. Quantity and quality benefits of in-service invasive cleaning of trunk mains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Iftekhar; Husband, Stewart; Drake, Nick; Mckenzie, Kevan; Boxall, Joby

    2017-07-01

    Trunk mains are high risk critical infrastructure where poor performance can impact on large numbers of customers. Both quantity (e.g. hydraulic capacity) and quality (e.g. discolouration) of trunk main performance are affected by asset deterioration in the form of particle accumulation at the pipe wall. Trunk main cleaning techniques are therefore desirable to remove such material. However, little is quantified regarding the efficacy of different maintenance interventions or longer-term changes following such cleaning. This paper presents an assessment of quantity and quality performance of a trunk main system pre, post and for 12 months following cleaning using pigging with ice slurry. Hydraulic calibration showed a 7 times roughness height reduction after ice slurry pigging, evidencing substantially improved hydraulic capacity and reduced headloss. Turbidity response due to carefully imposed shear stress increase remained significant after the cleaning intervention, showing that relatively loose material had not been fully removed from the pipe wall. Overall the results demonstrate that cleaning by pigging with ice slurry can be beneficial for quantity performance, but care and further assessment may be necessary to realise the full quality benefits.

  20. 应用固定砂石总体积法配制大粒径自密实混凝土%Preparation of self-compacting concrete with large diameter aggregate by fixed total volume of sand and gravel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    危加阳; 罗竹容

    2014-01-01

    The method of fixed volume of sand and gravel is commonly used in mixture proportion design of self-compacting concrete. In order to return to the natural properties of aggregate, the method of fixed total volume of sand and gravel that is dif-ferent from the traditional concept is proposed, i. e. , in the mixture proportion design of self-compacting concrete, we should ensure it completely enwrapped, separated and suspended by cementing material. Moreover, this method is also applied in the preparation of self-compacting concrete with the maximum size of 31. 5 mm of coarse aggregate. The practices show that the self-compacting concrete still has good stability of anti-segregation and demonstrates that the preparation of self-compacting con-crete with large diameter aggregate by fixed total volume of sand and gravel is feasible.%固定砂石体积法是设计自密实混凝土配合比的常用方法。为回归骨料的天然属性,提出了有别于传统概念的固定砂石总体积法,即在配制自密实混凝土时,按胶凝材料浆包裹、分隔、悬浮总骨料为目标进行配比计算。同时,在工程实际中,利用该方法尝试将最大粒径为31.5 mm且具有较好抗离析稳定性的粗骨料用于自密实混凝土配制。实践证明,利用固定砂石总体积法配制较大粒径骨料自密实混凝土是可行的。

  1. Large-scale preparation of the homogeneous LolA lipoprotein complex and efficient in vitro transfer of lipoproteins to the outer membrane in a LolB-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shoji; Oguchi, Yuki; Yokota, Naoko; Tokuda, Hajime

    2007-12-01

    An ATP-binding cassette transporter LolCDE complex of Escherichia coli releases lipoproteins destined to the outer membrane from the inner membrane as a complex with a periplasmic chaperone, LolA. Interaction of the LolA-lipoprotein complex with an outer membrane receptor, LolB, then causes localization of lipoproteins to the outer membrane. As far as examined, formation of the LolA-lipoprotein complex strictly depends on ATP hydrolysis by the LolCDE complex in the presence of LolA. It has been speculated, based on crystallographic and biochemical observations, that LolA undergoes an ATP-dependent conformational change upon lipoprotein binding. Thus, preparation of a large amount of the LolA-lipoprotein complex is difficult. Moreover, lipoproteins bound to LolA are heterogeneous. We report here that the coexpression of LolA and outer membrane-specific lipoprotein Pal from a very efficient plasmid causes the unusual accumulation of the LolA-Pal complex in the periplasm. The complex was purified to homogeneity and shown to be a functional intermediate of the lipoprotein localization pathway. In vitro incorporation of Pal into outer membranes revealed that a single molecule of LolB catalyzes the incorporation of more than 100 molecules of Pal into outer membranes. Moreover, the LolB-dependent incorporation of Pal was not affected by excess-free LolA, indicating that LolB specifically interacts with liganded LolA. Finally, the LolB depletion caused the accumulation of a significant amount of Pal in the periplasm, thereby establishing the conditions for preparation of the homogeneous LolA-lipoprotein complex.

  2. Quasilocal quantities for GR and other gravity theories

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, C.M.; Nester, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    From a covariant Hamiltonian formulation, by using symplectic ideas, we obtain certain covariant boundary expressions for the quasilocal quantities of general relativity and other geometric gravity theories. The contribution from each of the independent dynamic geometric variables (the frame, metric or connection) has two possible covariant forms associated with the selected type of boundary condition. The quasilocal expressions also depend on a reference value for each dynamic variable and a...

  3. Requirements and Indefinite Quantity Contracts in Government Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-18

    of Master of Laws February 18, 1990 Thesis directed by Ralph Clarke Nash, Jr. and John Cibinic, Jr. Professors of Law 91 2 06 092 TABLE OF CONTENTS...Finally, the Court of Claims had an opportunity co address the Government’s efforts to continue the use of indefinite quantity contracts. In Updike v...Today, it is doubtful such extreme discrepancies would survive scrutiny without a change in circumstances. 201 Womack, Jr. & John R. Vorhies v

  4. Surface tension and related thermodynamic quantities of aqueous electrolyte solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Matubayasi, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Surface tension provides a thermodynamic avenue for analyzing systems in equilibrium and formulating phenomenological explanations for the behavior of constituent molecules in the surface region. While there are extensive experimental observations and established ideas regarding desorption of ions from the surfaces of aqueous salt solutions, a more successful discussion of the theory has recently emerged, which allows the quantitative calculation of the distribution of ions in the surface region. Surface Tension and Related Thermodynamic Quantities of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions provides a d

  5. Monitoring the eye lens: which dose quantity is adequate?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, R [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Dietze, G, E-mail: rolf.behrens@ptb.d [Paracelsusstrasse 7, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-07-21

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. The question of which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens arises from this situation. While in many countries dosemeters calibrated in terms of the dose equivalent quantity H{sub p}(0.07) have been seen as being adequate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens, this might be questionable in the case of reduced dose limits and, thus, it may become necessary to use the dose equivalent quantity H{sub p}(3) for this purpose. To discuss this question, the dose conversion coefficients for the equivalent dose of the eye lens (in the following eye lens dose) were determined for realistic photon and beta radiation fields and compared with the values of the corresponding conversion coefficients for the different operational quantities. The values obtained lead to the following conclusions: in radiation fields where most of the dose comes from photons, especially x-rays, it is appropriate to use dosemeters calibrated in terms of H{sub p}(0.07) on a slab phantom, while in other radiation fields (dominated by beta radiation or unknown contributions of photon and beta radiation) dosemeters calibrated in terms of H{sub p}(3) on a slab phantom should be used. As an alternative, dosemeters calibrated in terms of H{sub p}(0.07) on a slab phantom could also be used; however, in radiation fields containing beta radiation with the end point energy near 1 MeV, an overestimation of the eye lens dose by up to a factor of 550 is possible.

  6. Navy Officials Justified the MQ-4C Triton Procurement Quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-16

    Naval Air Systems Command internal controls over Triton quantity requirements were effective as they applied to the audit objectives, because Navy...Visit us at www.dodig.mil September 16, 2015 Objective This is the first in a series of audits on the Navy MQ-4C Triton (Triton) Unmanned Aircraft...System (UAS) Program. Our overall objective for the series of audits was to determine whether the Navy effectively managed the Triton UAS

  7. Conformal invariance and Hojman conserved quantities of canonical Hamilton systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chang; Liu Shi-Xing; Mei Feng-Xiang; Guo Yong-Xin

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the conformal invariance by infinitesimal transformations of canonical Hamilton systems. The necessary and sufficient conditions of conformal invariance being Lie symmetrical simultaneously by the action of infinitesimal transformations are given. The determining equations of the conformal invariance are gained. Then the Hojman conserved quantities of conformal invariance by special infinitesimal transformations are obtained. Finally an illustrative example is given to verify the results.

  8. Physical quantities and dimensional analysis: from mechanics to quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Trancanelli, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Physical quantities and physical dimensions are among the first concepts encountered by students in their undergraduate career. In this pedagogical review, I will start from these concepts and, using the powerful tool of dimensional analysis, I will embark in a journey through various branches of physics, from basic mechanics to quantum gravity. I will also discuss a little bit about the fundamental constants of Nature, the so-called "cube of Physics", and the natural system of units.

  9. Subleading terms of thermodynamic quantities around static spherical black holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Gu-Qiang

    2009-01-01

    The thermodynamic quantities for the gases of massless particles with spin s = 1/2, 1, 3/2, 2 around static spherical black holes are investigated by using the brick-wall method. The appearance of the spin-dependent subleading terms is demonstrated and the terms are shown to contain not only the linear and quadratic terms of the spins but also a zero-power term of the spins.

  10. Consumer-resource dynamics: quantity, quality, and allocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne M Getz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dominant paradigm for modeling the complexities of interacting populations and food webs is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations in which the state of each species, population, or functional trophic group is represented by an aggregated numbers-density or biomass-density variable. Here, using the metaphysiological approach to model consumer-resource interactions, we formulate a two-state paradigm that represents each population or group in a food web in terms of both its quantity and quality. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The formulation includes an allocation function controlling the relative proportion of extracted resources to increasing quantity versus elevating quality. Since lower quality individuals senescence more rapidly than higher quality individuals, an optimal allocation proportion exists and we derive an expression for how this proportion depends on population parameters that determine the senescence rate, the per-capita mortality rate, and the effects of these rates on the dynamics of the quality variable. We demonstrate that oscillations do not arise in our model from quantity-quality interactions alone, but require consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels that can be stabilized through judicious resource allocation strategies. Analysis and simulations provide compelling arguments for the necessity of populations to evolve quality-related dynamics in the form of maternal effects, storage or other appropriate structures. They also indicate that resource allocation switching between investments in abundance versus quality provide a powerful mechanism for promoting the stability of consumer-resource interactions in seasonally forcing environments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our simulations show that physiological inefficiencies associated with this switching can be favored by selection due to the diminished exposure of inefficient consumers to strong oscillations associated with the

  11. Novel Ansatzes and Scalar Quantities in Gravito-Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Bakopoulos, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we focus on the theory of Gravito-Electromagnetism (GEM) -- the theory that describes the dynamics of the gravitational field in terms of quantities met in Electromagnetism -- and we propose two novel forms of metric perturbations. The first one is a generalisation of the traditional GEM ansatz, and succeeds in reproducing the whole set of Maxwell's equations even for a dynamical vector potential A. The second form, the so-called alternative ansatz, goes beyond that leading to an expression for the Lorentz force that matches the one of Electromagnetism and is free of additional terms even for a dynamical scalar potential \\Phi. In the context of the linearised theory, we then search for scalar invariant quantities in analogy to Electromagnetism. We define three novel, 3rd-rank gravitational tensors, and demonstrate that the last two can be employed to construct scalar quantities that succeed in giving results very similar to those found in Electromagnetism. Finally, the gauge invariance of the li...

  12. Novel ansatzes and scalar quantities in gravito-electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakopoulos, A.; Kanti, P.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we focus on the theory of gravito-electromagnetism (GEM)—the theory that describes the dynamics of the gravitational field in terms of quantities met in electromagnetism—and we propose two novel forms of metric perturbations. The first one is a generalisation of the traditional GEM ansatz, and succeeds in reproducing the whole set of Maxwell's equations even for a dynamical vector potential A. The second form, the so-called alternative ansatz, goes beyond that leading to an expression for the Lorentz force that matches the one of electromagnetism and is free of additional terms even for a dynamical scalar potential Φ. In the context of the linearised theory, we then search for scalar invariant quantities in analogy to electromagnetism. We define three novel, 3rd-rank gravitational tensors, and demonstrate that the last two can be employed to construct scalar quantities that succeed in giving results very similar to those found in electromagnetism. Finally, the gauge invariance of the linearised gravitational theory is studied, and shown to lead to the gauge invariance of the GEM fields E and B for a general configuration of the arbitrary vector involved in the coordinate transformations.

  13. Synchrotron radiation shielding design and ICRP radiological protection quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassey, Bassey; Moreno, Beatriz; Chapman, Dean

    2015-06-01

    Protection and operational quantities as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) are the two sets of quantities recommended for use in radiological protection for external radiation. Since the '80s, the protection quantities have evolved from the concept of dose equivalent to effective dose equivalent to effective dose, and the associated conversion coefficients have undergone changes. In this work, the influence of three different versions of ICRP photon dose conversion coefficients in the synchrotron radiation shielding calculations of an experimental enclosure has been examined. The versions are effective dose equivalent (ICRP Publication 51), effective dose (ICRP Publication 74), and effective dose (ICRP Publication 116) conversion coefficients. The sources of the synchrotron radiation white beam into the enclosure were a bending magnet, an undulator and a wiggler. The ranges of photons energy from these sources were 10-200 keV for the bending magnet and undulator, and 10-500 keV for the wiggler. The design criterion aimed a radiation leakage less than 0.5 µSv h(-1) from the enclosure. As expected, larger conversion coefficients in ICRP Publication 51 lead to higher calculated dose rates. However, the percentage differences among the calculated dose rates get smaller once shielding is added, and the choice of conversion coefficients set did not affect the final shielding decision.

  14. Preparation of the radioactive source core of iodine-125 seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jiaheng; JIANG Lin; LI Xingliang; ZHONG Wenbin; WANG Jing; MA Zongping; JIAN Yuan

    2009-01-01

    ption, so as to optimize the process for preparing 125I core of the seed. The parameters investigated include kind and concentration of halogenation reagent, halogenation time, adsorption time, pH and carrier iodine quantity.

  15. Spontaneous chlorophyll mutants of Pennisetum americanum: Genetics and chlorophyll quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koduru, P R; Rao, M K

    1980-05-01

    Thirteen spontaneously occurring chlorophyll deficient phenotypes have been described and their genetic basis was established. Ten of these - 'white', 'white tipped green', 'patchy white', 'white virescent', 'white striping 1', 'white striping 2', 'white striping 4', 'fine striping', 'chlorina' and 'yellow virescent' showed monogenic recessive inheritance and the remaining three - 'yellow striping', 'yellow green' and 'light green' seedling phenotypes showed digenic recessive inheritance. The genes for (i) 'white tipped green' (wr) and 'yellow virescent' (yv) and (ii) 'patchy white' (pw) and 'white striping 1' (wst 1) showed independent assortment. Further, the genes for 'white' (w), 'white tipped green' (wr) and 'yellow virescent' (yv) were inherited independently of the gene for hairy leaf margin (Hm).In the mutants - 'white tipped green', 'patchy white', 'white striping 1', 'white striping 2', 'fine striping', 'chlorina', 'yellow virescent', 'yellow striping', 'yellow green' and 'light green' phenotypes total quantity of chlorophyll was significantly less than that in the corresponding controls, while in 'white virescent' there was no reduction in the mature stage. For nine of the mutants the quantity of chlorophyll was also estimated in F1's (mutant x control green). In F1's of six of the mutants - 'white tip', 'patchy white', 'chlorina', 'yellow virescent', 'fine striping' and 'yellow striping' the quantity of chlorophyll was almost equal to the wild type. In the F1's of three of the mutants - 'white striping 1', 'white striping 2' and 'light green' an intermediate value between the mutant and wild types was observed. In 'yellow virescent' retarded synthesis of chlorophyll, particularly chlorophyll a was observed in the juvenile stage. Reduced quantity of chlorophyll was associated with defective chloroplasts. In the mutants - 'white tipped green, 'white virescent', 'fine striping', 'chlorina', 'yellow striping', 'yellow green' and 'light green' defective

  16. Radioenzymatic microassay for picogram quantities of serotonin or acetylserotonin in biological fluids and tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, M.N.; Benedict, C.R.

    1987-06-01

    This paper describes several modifications of the original radioenzymatic assay for serotonin which increase the sensitivity of the assay 20-fold as well as enhance its reliability. Using this method serotonin concentrations can be directly measured in biological examples without precleaning the sample. When compared to currently available methods this assay is specific and sensitive to approximately 1 pg of serotonin and can be used to measure serotonin levels in individual brain nuclei or microliter quantities of biological fluids. This assay can be easily adapted for the direct measurement of N-acetylserotonin. A large number of samples can be assayed in a single working day.

  17. Influence of pre-injection control parameters on main-injection fuel quantity for an electronically controlled double-valve fuel injection system of diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Enzhe; Fan, Liyun; Chen, Chao; Dong, Quan; Ma, Xiuzhen; Bai, Yun

    2013-09-01

    A simulation model of an electronically controlled two solenoid valve fuel injection system for a diesel engine is established in the AMESim environment. The accuracy of the model is validated through comparison with experimental data. The influence of pre-injection control parameters on main-injection quantity under different control modes is analyzed. In the spill control valve mode, main-injection fuel quantity decreases gradually and then reaches a stable level because of the increase in multi-injection dwell time. In the needle control valve mode, main-injection fuel quantity increases with rising multi-injection dwell time; this effect becomes more obvious at high-speed revolutions and large main-injection pulse widths. Pre-injection pulse width has no obvious influence on main-injection quantity under the two control modes; the variation in main-injection quantity is in the range of 1 mm3.

  18. SNaPP: Simplified Nanoproteomics Platform for Reproducible Global Proteomic Analysis of Nanogram Protein Quantities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Eric L.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Casey, Cameron P.; Sun, Xiaofei; Dey, Sudhansu K.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-03-01

    Global proteomic analyses are now widely applied across biological research to study changes in an organism(s) proteome correlated with a perturbation, phenotype and/or time series of interest.[1-3] Further, it has been broadly established that efficient and reproducible sample preparation workflows are crucial to successful quantitative proteome comparisons, especially when applying label free methods.[4-8] However, clinical samples are often severely limited in quantity and can preclude the application of more robust bulk sample processing workflows due to e.g. contamination, carry-over, or sample losses.[9] This has limited the effective application of global proteomics for many sample types of great interest, e.g. LCM dissected tissues, FACS sorted cells, circulating tumor cells (CTC), and early embryos. In a typical proteomics experiment, bulk homogenization is applied to generate sufficient protein for processing (> 10 µg protein), and can blend the proteomes of many different cell types and disparate tissue regions. The resulting “average” proteome, can effectively render unobservable proteome changes of interest, and preclude important applications. Global proteomic analyses of complex protein samples in nanogram quantities require a fastidious approach to achieve in-depth protein coverage and quantitative reproducibility.

  19. Colonization of Potato Rhizosphere by GFP-Tagged Bacillus subtilis MB73/2, Pseudomonas sp. P482 and Ochrobactrum sp. A44 Shown on Large Sections of Roots Using Enrichment Sample Preparation and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Jafra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to colonize the host plants’ rhizospheres is a crucial feature to study in the case of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPRs with potential agricultural applications. In this work, we have created GFP-tagged derivatives of three candidate PGPRs: Bacillus subtilis MB73/2, Pseudomonas sp. P482 and Ochrobactrum sp. A44. The presence of these strains in the rhizosphere of soil-grown potato (Solanum tuberosum L. was detected with a classical fluorescence microscope and a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM. In this work, we have used a broad-field-of-view CLMS device, dedicated to in vivo analysis of macroscopic objects, equipped with an automated optical zoom system and tunable excitation and detection spectra. We show that features of this type of CLSM microscopes make them particularly well suited to study root colonization by microorganisms. To facilitate the detection of small and scattered bacterial populations, we have developed a fast and user-friendly enrichment method for root sample preparation. The described method, thanks to the in situ formation of mini-colonies, enables visualization of bacterial colonization sites on large root fragments. This approach can be easily modified to study colonization patterns of other fluorescently tagged strains. Additionally, dilution plating of the root extracts was performed to estimate the cell number of MB73/2, P482 and A44 in the rhizosphere of the inoculated plants.

  20. A generalized Mei conserved quantity and Mei symmetry of Birkhoff system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Peng; Fang Jian-Hui; Wang Xian-Ming

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies a new conserved quantity which can be called generalized Mei conserved quantity and directly deduced by Mei symmetry of Birkhoff system.The conditions under which the Mei symmetry can directly lead to generalized Mei conserved quantity and the form of generalized Mei conserved quantity are given.An example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  1. Quantity of soap as a variable in handwashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E L; Eke, P I; Wilder, M P; Laughon, B E

    1987-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess the effect of two quantities (1 mL or 3 mL) of four different handwashing products on reductions in log colony-forming units (CFU) from the hands and to determine the amount of liquid soap used for handwashing by personnel in one hospital. First, 40 subjects were assigned by block randomization to one of four handwashing products (4% chlorhexidine gluconate in a detergent base, two alcohol hand rinses, and a liquid, nonantimicrobial soap) to be used in either 1 mL or 3 mL amounts per wash. Each subject washed his or her hands 15 times per day for five days. After one and five days of handwashing there were significant reductions over baseline in log CFU between handwashing products (P less than 0.001). Additionally, subjects using 3 mL of antiseptic soap had significantly greater reductions in log CFU than those using 1 mL (P less than 0.001). Among subjects using control liquid soap there was no such dose response. Second, a survey of 47 members of a hospital nursing staff from nine specialty areas and ten individuals in the general population was conducted to measure amounts of two liquid soaps used for handwashing. Amount of soap ranged from 0.4 to 9 mL per handwash. Personnel working in clinical areas where patients were at high risk for nosocomial infection used significantly more soap than did others (P less than 0.05). We conclude that quantity of soap used for handwashing is one variable influencing the microbial counts on hands, and that the quantity of soap used by health care personnel varies considerably.

  2. MICROMICETES QUANTITY AND BIOMASS IN TECHNOGENIC AND NATURAL SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Korinovskaya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that in edaphotopes around of freight checkpoint of CJSC «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod», ore-enrichment factory and fresh-inwashed pool of tailings dam of PJSC «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» there is an increase of heavy metals mobile forms (which are the most dangerous for microorganisms, plants, animals and human: for iron in 310; for zinc - in 4,3-6,5; for lead - in 3.2-5.7; for cadmium - in 5,6-9,8; for copper – 6,8-66,5 and for nickel - in 9 times as compared to zonal soil. Whereas in soils of CJSC «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» sanitary protection zone number of copper, nickel, lead, cadmium and zinc mobile forms exceeded the control values in 2,4-6,6 times. For the first time the features of soil microscopic fungi seasonal dynamics of quantity in industrial disturbed soils of Kryvorizhzhya compared to zonal soil (chernozem usual were registered. Changes in fungal mycelium length and biomass, its spore’s amount and biomass in edaphotopes of ore-enrichment and chemical enterprises and of common chernozem are also presented. It is shown that in edaphotopes of heavy contamination areas of «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» and of «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» in spring, summer, and autumn there was decrease of microscopic fungi quantity in 4-10 times, moreover in tehnozems of «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» fresh-inwashed pool of tailings dam their amount reduces in more than 100 times, compared with common chernozem. In low contamination area of «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» their quantity decreases in 2 times. Also in heavy contamination areas of chemical and ore-enrichment enterprises there is strong decrease in the length of fungal mycelium in 2.7-4.2 times, its biomass in 2,6-4,5 times, the spores amount - in 4,5-7,7 times and their biomass - in 10,5-21 times compared to the natural soil, which could be explained by high contents of toxicants. While in the sanitary protection zone of the

  3. Investigation on Capability of Reaming Process using Minimal Quantity Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Tosello, Guido; Piska, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    An investigation on reaming using minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) was carried out with the scope of documenting process capability using a metrological approach. Reaming tests were carried out on austenitic stainless steel, using HSS reamers with different cutting data and lubrication conditions....... The reaming operations were compared with respect to a number of evaluation parameters, both hole quality (diameter, roundness, cylindricity and surface roughness) and cutting forces (reaming thrust and torque). Absolute average values as well as experimental standard deviations of the evaluation parameters...

  4. Comparison of simulated and measured quantities of a duplex reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskela, M.; Kajava, M. [ABB Marine, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate the use of an analog simulator as a design tool when designing new power electric equipment. The purpose of simulation is to predict the functionality of electrical equipment to be constructed. Duplex reactor is an electromagnetic device designed to reduce voltage harmonics and short circuit currents in the ship electrical network. In this report a comparison between simulated and measured electrical quantities of a duplex reactor has been made. The purpose of the measurements was to show the correct functioning of the reactor. The simulation results and the measured waveforms corresponds well to each other. (orig.) 4 refs.

  5. Application of optimisation techniques in groundwater quantity and quality management

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amlan Das; Bithin Datta

    2001-08-01

    This paper presents the state-of-the-art on application of optimisation techniques in groundwater quality and quantity management. In order to solve optimisation-based groundwater management models, researchers have used various mathematical programming techniques such as linear programming (LP), nonlinear programming (NLP), mixed-integer programming (MIP), optimal control theory-based mathematical programming, differential dynamic programming (DDP), stochastic programming (SP), combinatorial optimisation (CO), and multiple objective programming for multipurpose management. Studies reported in the literature on the application of these methods are reviewed in this paper.

  6. Kinematic Quantities and Raychaudhuri Equations in a $5D$ Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Bejancu, Aurel

    2015-01-01

    Based on some ideas emerged from the classical Kaluza-Klein theory, we present a $5D$ universe as a product bundle over the $4D$ spacetime. This enables us to introduce and study two categories of kinematic quantities (expansions, shear, vorticity) in a $5D$ universe. One category is related to the fourth dimension (time), and the other one comes from the assumption of the existence of the fifth dimension. The Raychaudhuri type equations that we obtain in the paper, lead us to results on the evolution of both the $4D$ expansion and $5D$ expansion in a $5D$ universe.

  7. Evaluating the uncertainty of input quantities in measurement models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possolo, Antonio; Elster, Clemens

    2014-06-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) gives guidance about how values and uncertainties should be assigned to the input quantities that appear in measurement models. This contribution offers a concrete proposal for how that guidance may be updated in light of the advances in the evaluation and expression of measurement uncertainty that were made in the course of the twenty years that have elapsed since the publication of the GUM, and also considering situations that the GUM does not yet contemplate. Our motivation is the ongoing conversation about a new edition of the GUM. While generally we favour a Bayesian approach to uncertainty evaluation, we also recognize the value that other approaches may bring to the problems considered here, and focus on methods for uncertainty evaluation and propagation that are widely applicable, including to cases that the GUM has not yet addressed. In addition to Bayesian methods, we discuss maximum-likelihood estimation, robust statistical methods, and measurement models where values of nominal properties play the same role that input quantities play in traditional models. We illustrate these general-purpose techniques in concrete examples, employing data sets that are realistic but that also are of conveniently small sizes. The supplementary material available online lists the R computer code that we have used to produce these examples (stacks.iop.org/Met/51/3/339/mmedia). Although we strive to stay close to clause 4 of the GUM, which addresses the evaluation of uncertainty for input quantities, we depart from it as we review the classes of measurement models that we believe are generally useful in contemporary measurement science. We also considerably expand and update the treatment that the GUM gives to Type B evaluations of uncertainty: reviewing the state-of-the-art, disciplined approach to the elicitation of expert knowledge, and its encapsulation in probability distributions that are usable in

  8. Klein-Gordon and Dirac Equations with Thermodynamic Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arda, Altuğ; Tezcan, Cevdet; Sever, Ramazan

    2016-03-01

    We study the thermodynamic quantities such as the Helmholtz free energy, the mean energy and the specific heat for both the Klein-Gordon, and Dirac equations. Our analyze includes two main subsections: (1) statistical functions for the Klein-Gordon equation with a linear potential having Lorentz vector, and Lorentz scalar parts (2) thermodynamic functions for the Dirac equation with a Lorentz scalar, inverse-linear potential by assuming that the scalar potential field is strong ( A ≫ 1). We restrict ourselves to the case where only the positive part of the spectrum gives a contribution to the sum in partition function. We give the analytical results for high temperatures.

  9. Kinematic quantities and Raychaudhuri equations in a 5D universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejancu, Aurel [Kuwait University, Department of Mathematics, Safat (Kuwait)

    2015-07-15

    Based on some ideas that have emerged from the classical Kaluza-Klein theory, we present a 5D universe as a product bundle over the 4D spacetime. This enables us to introduce and study two categories of kinematic quantities (expansions, shear, vorticity) in a 5D universe. One category is related to the fourth dimension (time), and the other one comes from the assumption of the existence of the fifth dimension. The Raychaudhuri type equations that we obtain in the paper, lead us to results on the evolution of both the 4D expansion and the 5D expansion in a 5D universe. (orig.)

  10. Optimizing solution of fault location using single terminal quantities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG XinZhou; SHI ShenXing; CUI Tao; LU Qiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper firstly evaluated the impedance method and traveling waves method for fault location, and studied the robustness of fault location method based on im-pedance. Then it proposed an assembled fault location method for a transmission line based on single-terminal electrical quantities, in which the fault zone was firstly determined by impedance method with robustness then the accurate fault position was pinpointed by traveling waves method. EMTP (Electromagnetic Transient Pro-gram) simulations showed that the proposed method can overcome the drawbacks of impedance method and traveling waves method when either one is used alone, and improve both the accuracy and the reliability of fault location.

  11. Regularization of Kerr-NUT spacetimes and their thermodynamical quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Nashed, G G L

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR) theory, continues calculations of the total energy and momentum for Kerr-NUT spacetimes using three different methods, the gravitational energy-momentum, the Riemannian connection 1-form, ${\\widetilde{\\Gamma}_\\alpha}^\\beta$ and the Euclidean continuation method, have been achieved. Many local Lorentz transformations, that play the role of regularizing tool, are given to get the commonly known form of energy and momentum. We calculate the thermodynamic quantities of Kerr-NUT spacetime. We also investigate the first law of thermodynamics and quantum statistical relation.

  12. Nanogram-scale preparation and NMR analysis for mass-limited small volatile compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nojima

    Full Text Available Semiochemicals are often produced in infinitesimally small quantities, so their isolation requires large amounts of starting material, not only requiring significant effort in sample preparation, but also resulting in a complex mixture of compounds from which the bioactive compound needs to be purified and identified. Often, compounds cannot be unambiguously identified by their mass spectra alone, and NMR analysis is required for absolute chemical identification, further exacerbating the situation because NMR is relatively insensitive and requires large amounts of pure analyte, generally more than several micrograms. We developed an integrated approach for purification and NMR analysis of <1 µg of material. Collections from high performance preparative gas-chromatography are directly eluted with minimal NMR solvent into capillary NMR tubes. With this technique, (1H-NMR spectra were obtained on 50 ng of geranyl acetate, which served as a model compound, and reasonable H-H COSY NMR spectra were obtained from 250 ng of geranyl acetate. This simple off-line integration of preparative GC and NMR will facilitate the purification and chemical identification of novel volatile compounds, such as insect pheromones and other semiochemicals, which occur in minute (sub-nanogram, and often limited, quantities.

  13. Preparation and Properties of Cellutose-Alginic Acid Interpolymeric Complex Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Hua HE; Mei-Yu HUANG; Ying-Yan JIANG

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction General synthetic polymers such as polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene etc. have been produced and used in large quantities. They are very cheap, but their wastes are difficult to decompose in nature so to cause environmental pollution . In order to overcome such disadvantage, various kinds of biodegradable synthetic polymers such as polyactic acid, aliphatic polyester, polyvinyl alcohol complexes etc. have been researched[1]. However, they are expensive, so cannot be manufactured on large scale. Biopolymers such as starch and cellulose have been used as raw materials to prepare biodegradable polymer materials[1,2]. Starch derivatives and starch containing materials have been prepared to obtain relatively cheap biodegradable polymer materials, but their water proofness is not so good[2].

  14. A New Type of Conserved Quantity of Mei Symmetry for Lagrange Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new type of conserved quantity, which is induced from the Mei symmetry of Lagrange systems, is studied.The conditions for that the new type of conserved quantity exists and the form of the new type of conserved quantity are obtained. An illustrated example is given. The Noether conserved quantity induced from the Mei symmetry of Lagrange systems is a special case of the new type of conserved quantity given in this paper.

  15. Fe(0) Nanomotors in Ton Quantities (10(20) Units) for Environmental Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Wei Zhe; Zboril, Radek; Medrik, Ivo; Pumera, Martin

    2016-03-24

    Despite demonstrating potential for environmental remediation and biomedical applications, the practical environmental applications of autonomous self-propelled micro-/nanorobots have been limited by the inability to fabricate these devices in large (kilograms/tons) quantities. In view of the demand for large-scale environmental remediation by micro-/nanomotors, which are easily synthesized and powered by nontoxic fuel, we have developed bubble-propelled Fe(0) Janus nanomotors by a facile thermally induced solid-state procedure and investigated their potential as decontamination agents of pollutants. These Fe(0) Janus nanomotors, stabilized by an ultrathin iron oxide shell, were fuelled by their decomposition in citric acid, leading to the asymmetric bubble propulsion. The degradation of azo-dyes was dramatically increased in the presence of moving self-propelled Fe(0) nanomotors, which acted as reducing agents. Such enhanced pollutant decomposition triggered by biocompatible Fe(0) (nanoscale zero-valent iron motors), which can be handled in the air and fabricated in ton quantities for low cost, will revolutionize the way that environmental remediation is carried out.

  16. Preparation, characterization and preliminary in vivo studies of inactivated SARS-CoV vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Lin; CHANG Guohui; LI Shuangli; ZHANG Xumin; CHEN Xishu; YU Jun; CHEN Ze; WANG Jian; QIN Ede; ZHU Qingyu; YU Man; DING Zhifen; SHI Huiying; CHENG Xiaojie; WANG Caiping

    2003-01-01

    A large quantity of SARS-CoV virus was proliferated in Vero cells, inactivated with β-propiolactone, then purified by Sepharose 4FF column chromatography to prepare inactivated vaccine. The vaccine was identified by Western blot, mass spectrographic analysis, ELISA and electron microscopy. The vaccine with or without aluminum hydroxide adjuvant was inoculated into female BALB/c mice at different dosages. The result showed that the antibodies to SARS-CoV were induced in the mice. The antibody levels induced by the vaccine with aluminum hydroxide were higher than those without aluminum hydroxide.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF MINIMUM QUANTITY LUBRICANTS IN ALLOY STEEL TURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L B Abhang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available To eliminate health and environmental problems caused by using conventional cutting fluid in the metal cutting industry, a new economical and practical approach to minimum quantity of lubrication machining technique is developed. Turning is a widely used metal removal process in manufacturing industry that involves generation of high cutting forces and temperature. Lubrication becomes critical to minimize the effects of these forces and temperature on cutting tool and work piece. Strained environment is a global problem. In metalcutting industry the use of coolant has become more problematic in terms of both employee health and environmental pollution. It is said that the use of coolant forms approximately 8-16 % of the total production costs. Development of lubricants that is eco-friendly and economically is acquiring importance. In this context, using minimum quantity of lubrication of boric acid mixed with base oil SAE 40 has proved to be a feasible alternative to the conventional cutting fluid. In the present work 10% boric acid by weight mixed with base oil SAE 40 is used as a MQL in turning process. Variations in cutting (lubricant force, cutting temp, chip thickness and surface roughness are studied under different machining conditions. The results indicate that there is a considerable improvement in machining performance with MQL assisted machining compared to dry machining.

  18. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostipo por Imagem; Silva, Teogenes Augusto da, E-mail: silvata@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods: the study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results: No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (C{sub W}), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (C{sub VOL}), air kerma-length product (P{sub KL,CT}) and effective dose. Conclusion: Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, P{sub KL,CT} and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. (author)

  19. Peer Assessment for Construction Management and Quantity Surveying Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia McLaughlin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Students undertaking the Bachelor of ConstructionManagement degree course at RMIT University, Melbourne,qualify for registration with the Australian Institute ofQuantity Surveyors (AIQS and the Australian Institute ofBuilding (AIB upon graduation. Over the past decade thedegree course has been constantly upgraded and altered inline with recommendations from professional bodies such asthese and other industry partners. In 1994 the Departmentof Building and Construction Economics re-assesseda range of subjects including the first year technologysubjects. Out of the review a problem-based integratedlearning unit was developed and tested. This unit has nowbeen in place for ten years.Quantity surveying and construction management likemost other professions in the construction industryrequire teamwork and advanced consultation skills. Theseskills may be learnt through experience but there isconsiderable evidence that these skills can be taught in theundergraduate years. Therefore in line with team-basedapproaches used in industry and professional constructionsettings, this year a new assessment model - peerassessment - will be applied to the problem-based learningunit. This paper describes the procedures and processesused to introduce the change and examines the theoreticalbase upon which the model was developed.

  20. Oscillatory brain activity reveals linguistic prints in the quantity code.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Salillas

    Full Text Available Number representations change through education, although it is currently unclear whether and how language could impact the magnitude representation that we share with other species. The most prominent view is that language does not play any role in modulating the core numeric representation involved in the contrast of quantities. Nevertheless, possible cultural hints on the numerical magnitude representation are currently on discussion focus. In fact, the acquisition of number words provides linguistic input that the quantity system may not ignore. Bilingualism offers a window to the study of this question, especially in bilinguals where the two number wording systems imply also two different numerical systems, such as in Basque-Spanish bilinguals. The present study evidences linguistic prints in the core number representational system through the analysis of EEG oscillatory activity during a simple number comparison task. Gamma band synchronization appears when Basque-Spanish bilinguals compare pairs of Arabic numbers linked through the Basque base-20 wording system, but it does not if the pairs are related through the base-10 system. Crucially, this gamma activity, originated in a left fronto-parietal network, only appears in bilinguals who learned math in Basque and not in equivalent proficiency bilinguals who learned math in Spanish. Thus, this neural index reflected in gamma band synchrony appears to be triggered by early learning experience with the base-20 numerical associations in Basque number words.

  1. Determinants of procurement strategy for construction works: quantity surveyors’ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju AbdulLateef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of the ‘appropriate’ procurement strategy is a prerequisite to the success or failure of a construction project. This paper investigates the factors determining the selection of appropriate procurement strategy for construction works in Nigeria. Data for the study was collected through an online survey questionnaire. The survey administration involves only quantity surveyors. Quantity surveyors were targeted because they advise clients and other stakeholders on procurement and contractual issues on construction works. A total of 33 usable responses were received and analysed for this study. On the basis of the results, it is concluded that the selection of procurement strategies for construction depend on complex interrelated factors. The study could not detect a particular factor or few factors responsible for a procurement strategy selection. The findings of this study is useful because it argues that the construction sector needs to broaden its considerations on the procurement strategy’s determinants rather than focusing solely on the client’s type and nature of projects as is often cited. Future research could segment these factors in terms of class of construction works or increase the sample size, which might lead to different findings.

  2. Inventory simulation tools: Separating nuclide contributions to radiological quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation response of a material is a primary factor considered when evaluating its suitability for a nuclear application. Various radiological quantities, such as total (becquerel activity, decay heat, and γ dose, can be readily predicted via inventory simulations, which numerically evolve in time the composition of a material under exposure to neutron irradiation. However, the resulting data sets can be very complex, often necessarily resulting in an over-simplification of the results – most commonly by just considering total response metrics. A number of different techniques for disseminating more completely the vast amount of data output from, in particular, the FISPACT-II inventory code system, including importance diagrams, nuclide maps, and primary knock-on atom (PKA spectra, have been developed and used in scoping studies to produce database reports for the periodic table of elements. This paper introduces the latest addition to this arsenal – standardised and automated plotting of the time evolution in a radiological quantity for a given material separated by contributions from dominant radionuclides. Examples for relevant materials under predicted fusion reactor conditions, and for bench-marking studies against decay-heat measurements, demonstrate the usefulness and power of these radionuclide-separated activation plots.

  3. Inventory simulation tools: Separating nuclide contributions to radiological quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark R.; Fleming, Michael; Sublet, Jean-Christophe

    2017-09-01

    The activation response of a material is a primary factor considered when evaluating its suitability for a nuclear application. Various radiological quantities, such as total (becquerel) activity, decay heat, and γ dose, can be readily predicted via inventory simulations, which numerically evolve in time the composition of a material under exposure to neutron irradiation. However, the resulting data sets can be very complex, often necessarily resulting in an over-simplification of the results - most commonly by just considering total response metrics. A number of different techniques for disseminating more completely the vast amount of data output from, in particular, the FISPACT-II inventory code system, including importance diagrams, nuclide maps, and primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectra, have been developed and used in scoping studies to produce database reports for the periodic table of elements. This paper introduces the latest addition to this arsenal - standardised and automated plotting of the time evolution in a radiological quantity for a given material separated by contributions from dominant radionuclides. Examples for relevant materials under predicted fusion reactor conditions, and for bench-marking studies against decay-heat measurements, demonstrate the usefulness and power of these radionuclide-separated activation plots. Note to the reader: the pdf file has been changed on September 22, 2017.

  4. Variations in hospital waste quantities and generation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoda, H M; El-Tomi, H N; Bahman, Q Y

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between public health and improper collection, handling, and disposal of solid wastes in general, and hospital wastes in particular, is quite clear. Hazardous and nonhazardous wastes generated from different divisions of two of the largest public hospitals (capacity of approximately 400 beds each) in Kuwait were quantified and generation rates were determined. The generation rates were related to some important factors such as the number of patients, number of beds, and the type of activity conducted in different sections of the hospitals. The relationship between the waste generation rate and the number of patients was more applicable than that expressed in terms of the number of beds. The rates observed were in the range of 4.89 to 5.4 kg/patient/day, which corresponds to 3.65 to 3.97 kg/bed/day, respectively. These generation rates were comparable with those reported in the literature for similar hospitals. Minimal waste quantities were collected in the weekends. The study indicated that the hospitals surveyed provide some segregation of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes. Hazardous wastes contributed about 53% of the total quantity of wastes generated at the hospitals.

  5. The effects of quantum gravity on some thermodynamical quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, A. D.; Shababi, H.; Nozari, K.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, using a deformed algebra [X,P] = iℏ/(1 - α2P2) which is originated from various theories of gravity, we study thermodynamical properties of the classical and extreme relativistic gases in canonical ensembles. In this regards, we exactly calculate the modified partition function, Helmholtz free energy, internal energy, entropy, heat capacity and the thermal pressure which conclude to the familiar form of the equation of state for the ideal gas. The advantage of applying this algebra is not only considering all natural cutoffs but also its structure is similar to the other effective quantum gravity models such as polymer, Snyder and noncommutative space-time frameworks. Moreover, after obtaining some thermodynamical quantities including internal energy and entropy, we conclude at high temperature limits due to the decreasing of the number of microstates, these quantities reach to maximal bounds which do not exist in standard cases and it concludes that at the presence of gravity for both micro-canonic and canonic ensembles, the internal energy and the entropy tend to these upper bounds.

  6. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva; da Silva, Teógenes Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods The study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (CW), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (CVOL), air kerma-length product (PKL,CT) and effective dose. Conclusion Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, PKL,CT and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. PMID:25741103

  7. The orientation distribution of tunneling-related quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, W. M.; Refaie, A. I.; Botros, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    In the nuclear tunneling processes involving deformed nuclei, most of the tunneling-related quantities depend on the relative orientations of the participating nuclei. In the presence of different multipole deformations, we study the variation of a few relevant quantities for the α-decay and the sub-barrier fusion processes, in an orientation degree of freedom. The knocking frequency and the penetration probability are evaluated within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. The interaction potential is calculated with Skyrme-type nucleon-nucleon interaction. We found that the width of the potential pocket, the Coulomb barrier radius, the penetration probability, the α-decay width, and the fusion cross-section follow consistently the orientation-angle variation of the radius of the deformed nucleus. The orientation distribution patterns of the pocket width, the barrier radius, the logarithms of the penetrability, the decay width, and the fusion cross-section are found to be highly analogous to pattern of the deformed-nucleus radius. The curve patterns of the orientation angle distributions of the internal pocket depth, the Coulomb barrier height and width, as well as the knocking frequency simulate inversely the variation of the deformed nucleus radius. The predicted orientation behaviors will be of a special interest in predicting the optimum orientations for the tunneling processes.

  8. MICROMICETES QUANTITY AND BIOMASS IN TECHNOGENIC AND NATURAL SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korinovskaya Olga Nikolaevna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that in edaphotopes around of freight checkpoint of CJSC «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod», ore-enrichment factory and fresh-inwashed pool of tailings dam of PJSC «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» there is an increase of heavy metals mobile forms (which are the most dangerous for microorganisms, plants, animals and human: for iron in 310; for zinc - in 4,3-6,5; for lead - in 3.2-5.7; for cadmium - in 5,6-9,8; for copper – 6,8-66,5 and for nickel - in 9 times as compared to zonal soil. Whereas in soils of CJSC «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» sanitary protection zone number of copper, nickel, lead, cadmium and zinc mobile forms exceeded the control values in 2,4-6,6 times. For the first time the features of soil microscopic fungi seasonal dynamics of quantity in industrial disturbed soils of Kryvorizhzhya compared to zonal soil (chernozem usual were registered. Changes in fungal mycelium length and biomass, its spore’s amount and biomass in edaphotopes of ore-enrichment and chemical enterprises and of common chernozem are also presented. It is shown that in edaphotopes of heavy contamination areas of «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» and of «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» in spring, summer, and autumn there was decrease of microscopic fungi quantity in 4-10 times, moreover in tehnozems of «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» fresh-inwashed pool of tailings dam their amount reduces in more than 100 times, compared with common chernozem. In low contamination area of «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» their quantity decreases in 2 times. Also in heavy contamination areas of chemical and ore-enrichment enterprises there is strong decrease in the length of fungal mycelium in 2.7-4.2 times, its biomass in 2,6-4,5 times, the spores amount - in 4,5-7,7 times and their biomass - in 10,5-21 times compared to the natural soil, which could be explained by high contents of toxicants. While in the sanitary protection zone of the

  9. Fuzzy economic production quantity model with time dependent demand rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta Kumar Indrajitsingha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this paper, an economic production quantity model is considered under a fuzzy environment. Both the demand cost and holding cost are considered using fuzzy pentagonal numbers. The Signed Distance Method is used to defuzzify the total cost function. Methods: The results obtained by these methods are compared with the help of a numerical example. Sensitivity analysis is also carried out to explore the effect of changes in the values of some of the system parameters. Results and conclusions: The fuzzy EPQ model with time dependent demand rate was presented together with the possible implementation. The behavior of changes in parameters was analyzed. The possible extension of the implementation of this method was presented.

  10. Evidence for a Conserved Quantity in Human Mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandretti, Laura; Lehmann, Sune; Baronchelli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Faced with effectively unlimited choices of how to spend their time, humans are constantly balancing a trade-off between exploitation of familiar places and exploration of new locations. Previous analyses have shown that at the daily and weekly timescales individuals are well characterized by an activity space of repeatedly visited locations. How this activity space evolves in time, however, remains unexplored. Here we analyse high-resolution spatio-temporal traces from 850 individuals participating in a 24-month experiment. We find that, although activity spaces undergo considerable changes, the number of familiar locations an individual visits at any point in time is a conserved quantity. We show that this number is similar for different individuals, revealing a substantial homogeneity of the observed population. We point out that the observed fixed size of the activity space cannot be explained in terms of time constraints, and is therefore a distinctive property of human behavior.

  11. A pilot study to evaluate runoff quantity from green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Young; Lee, Min Jung; Han, Mooyoung

    2015-04-01

    The use of green roofs is gaining increased recognition in many countries as a solution that can be used to improve environmental quality and reduce runoff quantity. To achieve these goals, pilot-scale green roof assemblies have been constructed and operated in an urban setting. From a stormwater management perspective, green roofs are 42.8-60.8% effective in reducing runoff for 200 mm soil depth and 13.8-34.4% effective in reducing runoff for 150 mm soil depth. By using Spearman rank correlation analysis, high rainfall intensity was shown to have a negative relationship with delayed occurrence time, demonstrating that the soil media in green roofs do not efficiently retain rainwater. Increasing the number of antecedent dry days can help to improve water retention capacity and delay occurrence time. From the viewpoint of runoff water quality, green roofs are regarded as the best management practice by filtration and adsorption through growth media (soil).

  12. Measuring Radionuclides in the environment: radiological quantities and sampling designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, G. [ed.] [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz

    1998-10-01

    One aim of the workshop was to support and provide an ICRU report committee (International Union of Radiation Units) with actual information on techniques, data and knowledge of modern radioecology when radionuclides are to be measured in the environment. It has been increasingly recognised that some studies in radioecology, especially those involving both field sampling and laboratory measurements, have not paid adequate attention to the problem of obtaining representative, unbiased samples. This can greatly affect the quality of scientific interpretation, and the ability to manage the environment. Further, as the discipline of radioecology has developed, it has seen a growth in the numbers of quantities and units used, some of which are ill-defined and which are non-standardised. (orig.)

  13. ATTENTION TO VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT IN READING:QUANTITY AND QUALITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It has long been argued that little or no classroomattention is given to vocabulary(Carter,1987;Zim-merman,1997),whereas the opposite might be saidof Chinese tertiary English majors.But problems stillremain:Does more time spent on vocabulary teachingand learning prove effective?Does more attentionneed to be paid to the quality of teaching and learningof vocabulary?To answer these questions,I argue inthis article for a balance of quality and quantity of at-tention to vocabulary development.In the first partof the article,I present five common procedures invocabulary teaching and learning in Chinese collegesand universities and analyse the reasons for the low ef-ficiency in vocabulary teaching and learning.In thesecond,I put forward three techniques—a semanticmapping activity,creating meaningful contexts andusing an integrated approach in teaching and learningvocabulary.

  14. A Quantities Method of Induction Motor Under Unbalanced Voltage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayong Hiendro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The most complete definition for the voltage unbalance is using complex voltage unbalance factor (CVUF that consists of its magnitude and angle. Unfortunately, the definition did not distinguish between undervoltage and overvoltage unbalance conditions. In this paper, the analysis of the motor is performed using the method of symmetrical component and MATLAB software is used to investigate the performance of induction motor. The simulation results show that the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC definition of the voltage unbalance can be applied to evaluate total copper losses precisely. However, the phase angle of unbalance factor must be included for accurate predicting of peak currents and peak copper losses of the phase windings of the motor.The unbalanced conditions which distinguish between under and over voltage unbalance must also be taken into consideration for assessing all the quantities.

  15. Gauge transformations and conserved quantities in classical and quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berche, Bertrand; Malterre, Daniel; Medina, Ernesto

    2016-08-01

    We are taught that gauge transformations in classical and quantum mechanics do not change the physics of the problem. Nevertheless, here we discuss three broad scenarios where under gauge transformations: (i) conservation laws are not preserved in the usual manner; (ii) non-gauge-invariant quantities can be associated with physical observables; and (iii) there are changes in the physical boundary conditions of the wave function that render it non-single-valued. We give worked examples that illustrate these points, in contrast to general opinions from classic texts. We also give a historical perspective on the development of Abelian gauge theory in relation to our particular points. Our aim is to provide a discussion of these issues at the graduate level.

  16. Confidence and certainty: distinct probabilistic quantities for different goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouget, Alexandre; Drugowitsch, Jan; Kepecs, Adam

    2017-01-01

    When facing uncertainty, adaptive behavioral strategies demand that the brain performs probabilistic computations. In this probabilistic framework, the notion of certainty and confidence would appear to be closely related, so much so that it is tempting to conclude that these two concepts are one and the same. We argue that there are computational reasons to distinguish between these two concepts. Specifically, we propose that confidence should be defined as the probability that a decision or a proposition, overt or covert, is correct given the evidence, a critical quantity in complex sequential decisions. We suggest that the term certainty should be reserved to refer to the encoding of all other probability distributions over sensory and cognitive variables. We also discuss strategies for studying the neural codes for confidence and certainty and argue that clear definitions of neural codes are essential to understanding the relative contributions of various cortical areas to decision making. PMID:26906503

  17. Can the Lorenz-gauge potentials be considered physical quantities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, Jose A; Fernandez-Anaya, Guillermo [Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prolongacion Paseo de la Reforma 880, Mexico DF 01210 (Mexico)], E-mail: herasgomez@gmail.com, E-mail: guillermo.fernandez@uia.mx

    2010-03-15

    Two results support the idea that the scalar and vector potentials in the Lorenz gauge can be considered to be physical quantities: (i) they separately satisfy the properties of causality and propagation at the speed of light and do not imply spurious terms and (ii) they can naturally be written in a manifestly covariant form. In this paper we introduce expressions for the Lorenz-gauge potentials: at the present time in terms of electric and magnetic fields at the retarded time. These expressions provide a third result in favour of a physical interpretation of the Lorenz-gauge potentials: (iii) they can be regarded as causal effects of the observed electric and magnetic fields.

  18. How to Combine Independent Data Sets for the Same Quantity

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Ronald F; Miller, Jack

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a recent mathematical method called conflation for consolidating data from independent experiments that are designed to measure the same quantity, such as Planck's constant or the mass of the top quark. Conflation is easy to calculate and visualize, and minimizes the maximum loss in Shannon information in consolidating several independent distributions into a single distribution. In order to benefit the experimentalist with a much more transparent presentation than the previous mathematical treatise, the main basic properties of conflation are derived in the special case of normal (Gaussian) data. Included are examples of applications to real data from measurements of the fundamental physical constants and from measurements in high energy physics, and the conflation operation is generalized to weighted conflation for situations when the underlying experiments are not uniformly reliable.

  19. Quantity judgments in the context of risk/reward decision making in striped field mice: first "count," then hunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleeva, Sofia; Reznikova, Zhanna; Vygonyailova, Olga

    2013-01-01

    We simulated the situation of risky hunting in the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius in order to examine whether these animals are able to make a choice between small and large quantities of live prey (ants). In the first (preliminary) experiment we investigated to what extent mice were interested in ants as a live prey and how their hunting activity depended on the quantity of these edible but rather aggressive insects. We placed mice one by one into arenas together with ant groups of different quantities, from 10 to 60. Surprisingly, animals, both wild-caught and laboratory-reared, displayed rather skilled predatory attacks: mice killed and ate from 0.37 ± 003 to 4 ± 0.5 ants per minute. However, there was a threshold number of ants in the arenas when rodents expressed signs of discomfort and started to panic, likely because ants bit them. This threshold corresponds to the dynamic density (about 400 individuals per m(2) per min) in the vicinity of anthills and ants' routes in natural environment. In the second experiment mice had to choose between different quantities of ants placed in two transparent tunnels. Ants here served both as food items and as a source of danger. As far as we know, this is the first experimental paradigm based on evaluation of quantity judgments in the context of risk/reward decision making where the animals face a trade-off between the hedonistic value of the prey and the danger it presents. We found that when mice have to choose between 5 vs. 15, 5 vs. 30, and 10 vs. 30 ants, they always tend to prefer the smaller quantity, thus displaying the capacity for distinguishing more from less in order to ensure comfortable hunting. The results of this study are ecologically relevant as they reflect situations and challenges faced by free-living small rodents.

  20. Solution preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results.

  1. Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Tarpy, David R; Grozinger, Christina M

    2007-10-03

    Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI) or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI). We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone). The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the colony.

  2. Quality and quantity of infertility care in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, P; Ishrat, S; Rahman, D; Banu, J; Deeba, F; Begum, N; Anwary, S A; Hossain, H B

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is an important health issue which has been neglected in the developing countries. First test-tube babies (triplet) in Bangladesh were born on 30th May, 2001. Although there is no tertiary level infertility center in the public sector, several private centers have come up with the facilities. The objective of the study was to find i) the quality and quantity of infertility care in Bangladesh and ii) the cause of infertility in the attending patients iii) the treatment seeking behaviors iv) and the reasons for not taking treatment among the attending patients. There are now 10 tertiary level Infertility centers in Bangladesh. The information was collected in a preformed datasheet about the facilities and the profile of the patients and the treatment seeking behavior of the attending patients. Out of the ten centers two centers refused to respond and did not disclose their data. Around 16700 new patients are enrolled in a year in the responsive clinics. Five percent (5%) of the patients underwent ART, 7% of the patients gave only one visit, 84% of the patients completed their evaluation, 76% of the patients took treatment. Causes of infertility in the patients taking treatment were male factor in 36.4%, bilateral tubal block in 20.2%, PCOS and anovulation in 31.7%, endometriosis in 19.6%, unexplained in 10.95, combined in 3.5%, ovarian failure in 1.4%, testicular failure in 0.33%, congenital anomaly in 0.3%. The main reason for not taking treatment was financial constrainment. The quality and quantity of infertility care is dependent on the available resources and on the use of the resources by the patients. In developing countries the resources are merging and confined to specified areas which cannot meet the demand of their population. The study gives us the idea of the need and the demand of the services in the country.

  3. Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie-Jeanne Richard

    Full Text Available Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI. We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone. The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the

  4. Suggestions for revised definitions of noise quantities, including quantum effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, A. R.

    1999-03-01

    Recent advances in millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength receivers and the development of low-noise optical amplifiers focus attention on inconsistencies and ambiguities in the standard definitions of noise quantities and the procedures for measuring them. The difficulty is caused by the zero-point (quantum) noise hf/2 W/Hz, which is present even at absolute zero temperature, and also by the nonlinear dependence at low temperature of the thermal noise power of a resistor on its physical temperature, as given by the Planck law. Until recently, these effects were insignificant in all but the most exotic experiments, and the familiar Rayleigh-Jeans noise formula P=kT W/Hz could safely be used in most situations, Now, particularly in low-noise millimeter-wave and photonic devices, the quantum noise is prominent and the nonlinearity of the Planck law can no longer be neglected. The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms gives several definitions of the noise temperature of a resistor or a port, which include: 1) the physical temperature of the resistor and 2) its available noise power density divided by Boltzmann's constant-definitions which are incompatible because of the nature of the Planck radiation law. In addition, there is no indication of whether the zero-point noise should be included as part of the noise temperature. Revised definitions of the common noise quantities are suggested, which resolve the shortcomings of the present definitions. The revised definitions have only a small effect on most RF and microwave measurements, but they provide a common consistent noise terminology from dc to light frequencies.

  5. Biologically Weighted Quantities in Radiotherapy: an EMRP Joint Research Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabus Hans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Funded within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP [1], the joint research project “Biologically weighted quantities in radiotherapy” (BioQuaRT [2] aims to develop measurement and simulation techniques for determining the physical properties of ionising particle tracks on different length scales (about 2 nm to 10 μm, and to investigate the correlation of these track structure characteristics with the biological effects of radiation at the cellular level. Work package 1 develops micro-calorimeter prototypes for the direct measurement of lineal energy and will characterise their response for different ion beams by experiment and modelling. Work package 2 develops techniques to measure particle track structure on different length scales in the nanometre range as well as a measurement device integrating a silicon microdosimeter and a nanodosimeter. Work package 3 investigates the indirect effects of radiation based on probes for quantifying particular radical and reactive oxygen species (ROS. Work package 4 focuses on the biological aspects of radiation damage and will produce data on initial DNA damage and late effects for radiotherapy beams of different qualities. Work package 5 provides evaluated data sets of DNA cross-sections and develops a multi-scale model to address microscopic and nanometric track structure properties. The project consortium includes three linked researchers holding so-called Researcher Excellence Grants, who carry out ancillary investigations such as developing and benchmarking a new biophysical model for induction of early radiation damage and developing methods for the translation of quantities derived from particle track structure to clinical applications in ion beam therapy.

  6. An effective and simple procedure to isolate abundant quantities of biologically active chemopreventive lunasin-protease inhibitor concentrate (LPIC) from soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunasin is a 5-kDa soybean bioactive peptide with demonstrated anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The use of lunasin as a chemopreventive agent in large-scale animal studies and human clinical trials is hampered by the paucity of large quantities of lunasin. Recently, purification methods...

  7. Preparation of one-dimensional nanostructured ZnO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuping Jiang; Youzhi Liu; Yanyang Cao; Xuejun Zhang; Lihong Shi

    2010-01-01

    Rod-like ZnO particles were synthesized via a sol-gel method by adding ethylene diamine(EDA)to the were characterized by XRD(X-ray powder diffractometer)and TEM(transmission electron microscope).Rod-like ZnO belongs to the hexagonal Wurtzite system,with diameters and lengths of about 20-200nm and 0.2-1.5μm,respectively.Experimental results showed that the morphology of nano-ZnO can be controlled by modulating the quantities of EDA added into the reaction system and that EDA plays an important role in the formation of rod-like ZnO particles.The growth mechanism of the rod-like nano-ZnO was briefly discussed.The proposed facile,reproducible,effective and low-cost synthesis promises future large-scale preparation of nanostructured ZnO for application in nanotechnology.

  8. On Ultra-High Dilutions: Global Effects Caused by Minimal Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Vannucci

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role played by minimum quantities, generating large scale effects, and even of catastrophic consequence, is very commonly observed in many areas of science. In Physics, for example, the doping of impurities in materials like silicon (as low as one atom per billion results in spectacular semiconductor properties. In Biology, the effects of pheromones produced by insects and other animals are so dramatic that females of the emperor moth can attract mating males from kilometers away. And, concerning human health, severe body reactions may occur following the ingestion of very diminutive quantity of some allergic food. In this paper, the question of how Nature provides mechanisms for developing such dramatic and many times unexpected results, from very faint stimulus, will be proposed and discussed. In particular, a model for the controversial issue of how homeopathic remedies can influence and impose organic responses will also be addressed. This model particularly rely on the here named infotrans mechanism, which is based on a type of resonant property that may induce living organisms to promptly over-react after a pseudo environmental aggression. Finally, arguments will be provided to demonstrate that water, mainly due to its very high dielectric constant, can be considered a very good mediator for the infotrans. The Role of Water in Important Biological Mechanisms: Assuming that water molecules can indeed rearrange themselves to form larger clusters, it is reasonable to accept that different external excitations might induce these structures to assemble in distinctive ways. As matter of fact, experimental evidences already exist in literature showing that ultra-high dilutions of different substances, when compared to pure water, do exhibit relevant physico-chemical differences. More recently, investigations have shown that water plays a crucial role in biological systems such as the protein folding process or the twisting

  9. Profiles of Phase-Space Density-like Quantities in Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chae, Kyu-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    With the profiles of total mass density rho(r), stellar mass density rho_*(r) and stellar (radial) velocity dispersion sigma_*(r) of ~2,000 elliptical galaxies, we investigate combinations of rho_*(r)/[sigma_*(r)]^epsilon and rho(r)/[sigma_*(r)]^epsilon which have the same dimensionality of phase-space density for epsilon=3 and in that case are respectively referred to as pseudo phase-space (PPS) density Q_*(r) and PPS-like density Q'_*(r). Compared with the density profile rho(r) the quantity rho_*(r)/[sigma_*(r)]^epsilon has at least as large scatter but the quantity rho(r)/[sigma_*(r)]^epsilon has ~4 times smaller scatter of slopes for epsilon=3 within the effective radius R_e. If Q'_*(r) is approximated by Q'_*(r) ~ r^{-chi_e} within R_e, we have chi_e=1.860+/-0.035. Remarkably, this slope matches well the PPS density slope chi_Bertschinger=1.875 predicted by the classical self-similar spherical infall model of a self-gravitating collisionless system and the PPS density slope ~1.9 predicted by N-body simu...

  10. Analysis of Physical Quantities and Radar Parameters about Hail Shooting and Heavy Convective Rainfall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The paper is to analyze physical quantities and radar parameter of hail shooting and heavy convective rainfall weather. [Method] Using radar data of Jinan station during 2002 and 2008, combined with sounding data, the physical quantities and radar parameter of hail shooting and heavy convective rainfall weather are compared and analyzed. [Result] The smaller Sl is conducive to the generation of hail weather. When K〉 35 ~C, the probability for occurrence of heavy rainfall weather is significantly increased; when K〈20 ~(3, the probability for occurrence of heavy rainfall weather is significantly decreased. When CAPE value is greater than 1 500 J/KG, the probability for occurrence of hail weather is significantly decreased, while the probability for occurrence of heavy rainfall weather is significantly in- creased. The possibility for occurrence of hail monomer is small when the wind shear is less than 5 m/s; and it is large while wind shear is greater than 20 m/s. The radar forecasting indexes of hail monomer is as follows: VIL value reaches 35 kg/m2 (May), 43 kg/m2 (June and July), the monomer height is greater than 9 km, the maximum reflectivity factor is larger than 60 dBz, strong center height reaches 3.3 km (May), 4.3 km (June) and 5.5 km (July); VlL value of heavy rainfall monomer generally is below 25 kg/m2. [Conclusion] The paper provides basis form prediction of hail and heavy rainfall.

  11. Family Income and Material Deprivation: Do They Matter for Sleep Quality and Quantity in Early Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzetta, Marta; Ghislandi, Simone

    2016-11-28

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate the determinants of sleeping patterns in children up to age 9 on a large and geographically homogeneous sample of British children and parents, focusing in particular on the role of economic and social factors, specifically on income. The data of this study come from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a long-term health research project that recruited over 14,000 pregnant women who were due to give birth between April 1991 and December 1992 in Bristol and its surrounding areas, including some of Somerset and Gloucestershire. Logistic regression models for the sleep problems dummies and loglinear models for the sleep quantity. One additional item in the material deprivation index is associated to an increase of around 10% to 20% in the odds of having at least one sleep problem. Similarly, children from the richest families are less likely to have any sleep problem up to 115 months (around 20% reduction in the odds). Mother's characteristics (i.e. education and mental health in the pregnancy period) are also significant predictors. Sleep quantity does not vary much and is not sensitive to socioeconomic factors. Exposure to income-related inequalities affects child sleep. Further research is needed in order to understand if sleep in early life influence future health and economic trajectories.

  12. Friendship quantity and quality as predictors of rejection sensitivity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Šeboková

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines friendship quality and quantity as unique predictors of rejection sensitivity in adolescents. The purpose of the study was to analyze whether the unique contributions of friendship quality and quantity differ in adolescent boys and girls. Rejection sensitivity is conceptualized as the disposition to anxiously expect, readily perceive and intensively react to social rejection. That is why rejection sensitivity is considered to be a cognitive-affective mechanism which leads to increase of internalizing problems in children and adolescents (loneliness, social anxiety, depression.... Friendship variables have been found to predict the level of internalizing problems in adolescents. Little to no research, however, has examined friendship quality and quantity as predictors of level of rejection sensitivity. Participants in this study were 184 students (98 girls and 86 boys, aged from 13 to 16 (M=13.83, SD=1. Adolescents completed measures assessing number of their friends, quality of best friendship (self-report questionnaire Friendship qualities scale, Bukowski, Hoza, Boivin, 1994 and rejection sensitivity (self-report questionnaire Rejection sensitivity scale, Downey, Feldman, 1996. Regression analysis indicated that friendship features (companionship, balance, help, security, closeness, friendship quantity and overall friendship quality are significant unique predictors of sensitivity rejection in adolescents with. Results suggest that adolescents with higher number of and higher quality friendships have lower concerns about the possibility and expectation of rejection, which can lead to minimizing the risk of development of internalizing problems. However, only a small proportion of variance was accounted for in rejection sensitivity by the friendship variables (small to medium effect size. This suggests that different kind of peer relationships (peer acceptance, popularity, peer victimization make unique, differential

  13. Mei Symmetry and New Conserved Quantity of Tzénoff Equations for Holonomic Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Wang; XIE Jia-Fang; ZHANG Qing-Hua

    2007-01-01

    @@ A new conserved quantity is deduced from Mei symmetry of Tzénoff equations for holonomic systems. The expression of this new conserved quantity is given, and the determining equation to induce this new conserved quantity is presented. The results exhibit that this new method is easier to find more conserved quantities than the previously reported ones. Finally, application of this new result is presented by a practical example.

  14. Two New Types of Conserved Quantities Deduced from Noether Symmetry for Nonholonomic Mechanical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-Ni; FANG Jian-Hui; PANG Ting; LIN Peng

    2009-01-01

    For a nonholonomic mechanical system, the generalized Mei conserved quantity and the new generalized Hojman conserved quantity deduced from Noether symmetry of the system are studied.The criterion equation of the Noether symmetry for the system is got.The conditions under which the Noether symmetry can lead to the two new conserved quantities are presented and the forms of the conserved quantities are obtained.Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  15. Hojman conserved quantity deduced by weak Noether symmetry for Lagrange systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Jia-Fang; Gang Tie-Qiang; Mei Feng-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the Hojman conserved quantity,a non-Noether conserved quantity,deduced by special weak Noether symmetry for Lagrange systems.Under special infinitesimal transformations in which the time is not variable,its criterion is given and a method of how to seek the Hojman conserved quantity is presented.A Hojman conserved quantity can be found by using the special weak Noether symmetry.

  16. Energy taxes, resource taxes and quantity rationing for climate protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenack, Klaus [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Kalkuhl, Matthias [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Economic sectors react strategically to climate policy, aiming at a re-distribution of rents. Established analysis suggests a Pigouvian emission tax as efficient instrument, but also recommends factor input or output taxes under specific conditions. However, existing studies leave it open whether output taxes, input taxes or input rationing perform better, and at best only touch their distributional consequences. When emissions correspond to extracted ressources, it is questionable whether taxes are effective at all. We determine the effectiveness, efficiency and functional income distribution for these instruments in the energy and resource sector, based on a game theoretic growth model with explicit factor markets and policy instruments. Market equilibrium depends on a government that acts as a Stackelberg leader with a climate protection goal. We find that resource taxes and cumulative resource quantity rationing achieve this objective efficiently. Energy taxation is only second best. Mitigation generates a substantial ''climate rent'' in the resource sector that can be converted to transfer incomes by taxes. (orig.)

  17. Quality and quantity of construction and demolition waste in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Alireza; Ghorbanian, Tahereh; Yousefi, Nader; Dadashzadeh, Dariush; Khalili, Fatemeh; Bagheri, Amin; Raei, Mehdi; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2017-01-01

    In recent years the generation rate of construction and demolition waste (C&D) has significantly augmented. The aim of this study was to assessed the quality and quantity of construction and demolition waste in Tehran (capital of Iran). Questionnaire methods were used for estimating the amount of generated C&D wastes national statistical data and typical waste generation data. In order to defining the composition of C&D waste, trucks were randomly selected and their wastes were separated and weighted. According to obtained results, about 82,646,051 m(3) of C&D waste (average 16,529,210 m(3) per year) were generated during 2011 to 2016 which only about 26% of them has been recycled. Mixing sand and cement, concrete, broken bricks and soil have the highest amount of the composition of C&D waste in Tehran that was 30, 19, 18 and 11%, respectively. Based on the results, about 2,784,158 t of the waste will generate in 2025 and this is approximately 122% higher than wastes generate in 2016. Based on MAPSA's data, 360 teams of personnel cruise and control the illegal disposals, but due to the expansion of Tehran this number of teams is inadequate and can't be effective in controlling the situation. In general, the overall condition of C&D waste management in Tehran seems undesirable and needs to be updated based on the experience of successful countries in this field.

  18. China's human resources for health: quantity, quality, and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sudhir; Fan, Victoria Y; Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Lingling; Ke, Yang; Dong, Zhe; Chen, Lincoln C

    2008-11-15

    In this paper, we analyse China's current health workforce in terms of quantity, quality, and distribution. Unlike most countries, China has more doctors than nurses-in 2005, there were 1.9 million licensed doctors and 1.4 million nurses. Doctor density in urban areas was more than twice that in rural areas, with nurse density showing more than a three-fold difference. Most of China's doctors (67.2%) and nurses (97.5%) have been educated up to only junior college or secondary school level. Since 1998 there has been a massive expansion of medical education, with an excess in the production of health workers over absorption into the health workforce. Inter-county inequality in the distribution of both doctors and nurses is very high, with most of this inequality accounted for by within-province inequalities (82% or more) rather than by between-province inequalities. Urban-rural disparities in doctor and nurse density account for about a third of overall inter-county inequality. These inequalities matter greatly with respect to health outcomes across counties, provinces, and strata in China; for instance, a cross-county multiple regression analysis using data from the 2000 census shows that the density of health workers is highly significant in explaining infant mortality.

  19. A Stochastic Decision Support System for Economic Order Quantity Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Yousefli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving decisions efficiency is one of the major concerns of the decision support systems. Specially in the uncertain environment, decision support systems could be implemented efficiently to simplify decision making process. In this paper stochastic economic order quantity (EOQ problem is investigated in which decision variables and objective function are uncertain in nature and optimum probability distribution functions of them are calculated through a geometric programming model. Obtained probability distribution functions of the decision variables and the objective function are used as optimum knowledge to design a new probabilistic rule base (PRB as a decision support system for EOQ model. The developed PRB is a new type of the stochastic rule bases that can be used to infer optimum or near optimum values of the decision variables and the objective function of the EOQ model without solving the geometric programming problem directly. Comparison between the results of the developed PRB and the optimum solutions which is provided in the numerical example illustrates the efficiency of the developed PRB.

  20. Dynamic Coding of Signed Quantities in Cortical Feedback Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana eBallard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the early sensory and motor areas of the cortex, individual neurons transmit information about specific sensory features via a peaked response. This concept has been crystallized as `labeled lines,' to denote that axons communicate the specific properties of their sensory or motor parent cell. Such cells also can be characterized as being polarized, that is, as representing a signed quantity that is either positive or negative. We show in a model simulation that there are two important consequences when learning receptive fields using such signed codings in circuits that subtract different inputs. The first is that, in feedback circuits using labeled lines, such arithmetic operations need to be distributed across multiple distinct pathways. The second consequence is that such pathways must be necessarily dynamic, i.e. that synapses can grow and retract when forming receptive fields. The model monitors the breaking and growing of new circuit connections when their synapses need to change polarities and predicts that the rate of such changes should be inversely correlated with the progress of receptive field formation.

  1. Comment on the Hojman conservation quantities in Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Paliathanasis, A

    2015-01-01

    We comment upon the application of Hojman's method for the determination of conservation laws in Cosmology, which has been introduced by Capozziello \\& Roshan (Phys. Lett. B 726 (2013) 471 (arXiv:1308.3910)), and has been applied recently in the cosmological scenario of a nonminimally coupled scalar field by Paolella \\& Capozziello (Phys. Lett. A (2015), in press (arXiv:1503.00098)). We apply the Ansatz, $\\phi\\left( t\\right) =\\phi\\left( a\\left( t\\right) \\right) $, which was introduced by the cited authors for a minimally-coupled scalar field, and we study the Lie and Noether point symmetries for the reduced equation. We show that under this Ansatz the unknown function of the model cannot be constrained by the requirement of the existence of a conservation law and that the Hojman conservation quantity which arises for the reduced equation is nothing more than the functional form of the Noether conservation law of momentum for the free particle. Finally we show that Hojman's method for Hamiltonian syste...

  2. Ship waste quantities prediction model for the port of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADANKA PRESBURGER ULNIKOVIĆ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the issues related to the waste management in river ports in general and especially in the port of Belgrade. Data on solid waste, waste oils, oily waters, gray water and black water have been collected for a period of five years. The methodology of data collection is presented. Trends of data were analyzed and the regression model was used to predict the waste quantities in the Belgrade port. This data could be utilized as a basis for the calculation of the equipment capacity for waste selective collection, treatment and storage. The results presented in this study establish the need for an orga¬nized management system for this type of waste which can be achieved either by constructing and providing new specialized terminal or by providing mobile floating facilities and other plants in the Port of Belgrade for these kinds of ser¬vices. In addition to the above, the legislative and organizational strategy of waste management has been explored to complete the study because the im¬pact of good waste management on environment and prevention of environ¬mental accidents would be highly beneficial. This study demonstrated that ad¬dressing these issues should be considered at international as well as national level.

  3. Order Quantity Distributions: Estimating an Adequate Aggregation Horizon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksen Poul Svante

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an investigation into the demand, faced by a company in the form of customer orders, is performed both from an explorative numerical and analytical perspective. The aim of the research is to establish the behavior of customer orders in first-come-first-serve (FCFS systems and the impact of order quantity variation on the planning environment. A discussion of assumptions regarding demand from various planning and control perspectives underlines that most planning methods are based on the assumption that demand in the form of customer orders are independently identically distributed and stem from symmetrical distributions. To investigate and illustrate the need to aggregate demand to live up to these assumptions, a simple methodological framework to investigate the validity of the assumptions and for analyzing the behavior of orders is developed. The paper also presents an analytical approach to identify the aggregation horizon needed to achieve a stable demand. Furthermore, a case study application of the presented framework is presented and concluded on.

  4. 78 FR 5448 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Economic Purchase Quantity-Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... previously approved information collection requirement concerning Economic Purchase Quantity--Supplies. A... ``Submit a Comment'' that corresponds with ``Information Collection 9000-0082 Economic Purchase Quantity..., company name (if any), and ``Information Collection 9000-0082 Economic Purchase Quantity-- Supplies'' on...

  5. A remark on symmetry of stochastic dynamical systems and their conserved quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Albeverio, Sergio A; Albeverio, Sergio; Fei, Shao Ming

    1995-01-01

    Symmetry properties of stochastic dynamical systems described by stochastic differential equation of Stratonovich type and related conserved quantities are discussed, extending previous results by Misawa. New conserved quantities are given by applying symmetry operators to known conserved quantities. Some detailed examples are presented.

  6. Lecturer Quality, Quantity and Gender in Colleges of Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arubayi, D. O.

    2009-01-01

    The quality and quantity of lecturers in Tertiary institutions to a great extent determines the quality of graduates. To ensure quality and quantity the Colleges of Education in Nigeria have established internal and external mechanisms. Quantity is determined by the number of students to a given lecturer. Despite the mechanism put forward to…

  7. 48 CFR 52.247-8 - Estimated Weights or Quantities Not Guaranteed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Estimated Weights or... Provisions and Clauses 52.247-8 Estimated Weights or Quantities Not Guaranteed. As prescribed in 47.207-3(e... transportation-related services when weights or quantities are estimates: Estimated Weights or Quantities...

  8. Reasoning about Variation in the Intensity of Change in Covarying Quantities Involved in Rate of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper extends work in the area of quantitative reasoning related to rate of change by investigating numerical and nonnumerical reasoning about covarying quantities involved in rate of change via tasks involving multiple representations of covarying quantities. The findings suggest that by systematically varying one quantity, an individual…

  9. Symbolic Estrangement: Evidence against a Strong Association between Numerical Symbols and the Quantities They Represent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M.; Ansari, Daniel; Beilock, Sian L.

    2012-01-01

    Are numerals estranged from a sense of the actual quantities they represent? We demonstrate that, irrespective of numerical size or distance, direct comparison of the relative quantities represented by symbolic and nonsymbolic formats leads to performance markedly worse than when comparing 2 nonsymbolic quantities (Experiment 1). Experiment 2…

  10. Two Types of New Conserved Quantities and Mei Symmetry of Mechanical Systems in Phase Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, two types of new conserved quantities directly deduced by Mei symmetry in phase space are studied. The conditions under which Mei symmetry can directly lead to the two types of new conserved quantities and the forms of the two types of new conserved quantities are given. An example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  11. Optimal Inventory Planning under Permissible Delay in Payments When a Larger Order Quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kuang-Hua; Huang, Hung-Fu; Tu, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Yung-Fu

    In the previous related studies, the inventory replenishment problems under permissible delay in payments are independent of the order quantity. In this study, the restrictive assumption of the trade credit independent of the order quantity is relaxed. This study discusses the inventory policies under permissible delay in payments when a larger order quantity.

  12. Together yet Separate: Students' Associating Amounts of Change in Quantities Involved in Rate of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends work about quantitative reasoning related to covarying quantities involved in rate of change. It reports a multiple case study of three students' reasoning about quantities involved in rate of change when working on tasks incorporating multiple representations of covarying quantities. When interpreting relationships between…

  13. Reasoning about Variation in the Intensity of Change in Covarying Quantities Involved in Rate of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper extends work in the area of quantitative reasoning related to rate of change by investigating numerical and nonnumerical reasoning about covarying quantities involved in rate of change via tasks involving multiple representations of covarying quantities. The findings suggest that by systematically varying one quantity, an individual…

  14. Gossip quantity and network structure can counterbalance errors in transmission and promote the evolution of cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Giardini, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    There are several mechanisms in human societies that help supporting cooperation. Gossiping, for instance, allows to identify defectors who can then be punished via ostracism. However, the evolutionary stability of gossip might be undermined by the fact that it is more error-prone that direct observation, whereas ostracism could be ineffective if the partner selection mechanism is not robust. The aim of this work is to investigate the conditions under which the combination of gossip and ostracism might support cooperation in groups of different sizes. We are also interested in exploring the extent to which errors in transmission might undermine the reliability of gossip as a mechanism for identifying defectors. Our results show that a large quantity of gossip is necessary to support cooperation, and that group structure can mitigate the effects of errors in transmission.

  15. Quantitative aspects of informed consent: considering the dose response curve when estimating quantity of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynöe, N; Hoeyer, K

    2005-12-01

    Information is usually supposed to be a prerequisite for people making decisions on whether or not to participate in a clinical trial. Previously conducted studies and research ethics scandals indicate that participants have sometimes lacked important pieces of information. Over the past few decades the quantity of information believed to be adequate has increased significantly, and in some instances a new maxim seems to be in place: the more information, the better the ethics in terms of respecting a participant's autonomy. The authors hypothesise that the dose-response curve from pharmacology or toxicology serves as a model to illustrate that a large amount of written information does not equal optimality. Using the curve as a pedagogical analogy when teaching ethics to students in clinical sciences, and also in engaging in dialogue with research institutions, may promote reflection on how to adjust information in relation to the preferences of individual participants, thereby transgressing the maxim that more information means better ethics.

  16. Bulk-Quantity Synthesis and Conductive Properties of Comb-Like Dendritic ZnO Nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Zhi-Min; ZHANG Hong-Zhou; XU Jun; YU Da-Peng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Adopting a simple low-temperature (~ 500℃) vapour process, we have synthesized bulk quantity comb-like dendritic ZnO nanostructures in large area.An atomic force microscope equipped with Au-coated probes was employed to elucidate the current-voltage characteristic of the individual ZnO nanocomb.The connection electrodes were defined by depositing Pt wires using focused ion beam (FIB).A rectification effect was observed,while it was slightly suppressed compared with that of the previous reports.The good conductive properties of the sample can be attributed to the Ga+ ions implantation through the FIB process of electrode definition.We suggest that the material and the FIB method can be developed to fabricate novel nanosized devices.

  17. A novel design for a primary measurement standard for the quantity torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccola, G. M.; Leão, R. J.

    2016-07-01

    Primary standards are established using a reference measurement procedure. Through the realization of the definition of a given quantity they provide traceability in the metrology chain. Most torque standards use calibrated weights linked to a lever arm to provide known torques in the rotational axis of the device. These standards do not succeed to provide continuous torque values because of limitation in weights combination and the intrinsic incremental steps of the technique. In automatic machines this can be overcome but it requires a complex mechanical system to operate. In designs that use movable weights along the lever arm the determination of the length of the lever arm is a large source of errors. Zeroing the torque standard also represents a major problem. An innovative and functional design that aims to solve the aforementioned disadvantages is presented.

  18. Difluoromethane preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, A.; Sandt, E.J.A.; Van Bekkum, H.; Makkee, M.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract of NL 9401574 (A) The invention relates to a method for preparing difluoromethane, wherein dichlorodifluoromethane or monochlorodifluoromethane is brought into contact with hydrogen in the presence of palladium on activated carbon, wherein the loading of the palladium on the activated c

  19. Results of the regional intercomparison exercise for the determination of operational quantity HP(10) in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraví, M; Zaretzky, A; Lindner, C; Díaz, J; Walwyn, G; Amorim, R; De Souza, D; Gregori, B; Papadópulos, S; Meghzifene, A; Ferruz, P; Suárez, R Cruz

    2007-01-01

    Several intercomparison exercises were organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the determination of operational quantities at the regional or interregional basis. In the Latin American region an intercomparison for the determination of the operational quantity Hp(10) was completed mid-2004, as a follow-up to previous exercises carried out during the 1990s. Eighteen individual external monitoring services from nineteen Member States participated in the first phase. The second phase grouped 15 services that had participated in the first phase. Dosemeter irradiations in photon beams were done by four Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) of the region. The preparation of this exercises involved an audit by the IAEA SSDL, where reference irradiations were provided to all participants for verification of their systems. During the first phase (2002-2003) only 9 out of 18 services met the performance requirements for such monitoring services. Necessary corrective actions and procedure verification were implemented. During the second phase (2004) 11 out of 15 services fulfilled the performance criteria. This intercomparison shows that there has been improvement in the second phase and most participants demonstrated a satisfactory performance of the quantity tested.

  20. A little here, a little there, a fairly big problem everywhere: Small quantity site transuranic waste disposition alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Luke; D. Parker; J. Moss; T. Monk (INEEL); L. Fritz (DOE-ID); B. Daugherty (SRS); K. Hladek (WM Federal Services Hanford); S. Kosiewicx (LANL)

    2000-02-27

    Small quantities of transuranic (TRU) waste represent a significant challenge to the waste disposition and facility closure plans of several sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the results of a series of evaluations, using a systems engineering approach, to identify the preferred alternative for dispositioning TRU waste from small quantity sites (SQSs). The TRU waste disposition alternatives evaluation used semi-quantitative data provided by the SQSs, potential receiving sites, and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to select and recommend candidate sites for waste receipt, interim storage, processing, and preparation for final disposition of contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. The evaluations of only four of these SQSs resulted in potential savings to the taxpayer of $33 million to $81 million, depending on whether mobile systems could be used to characterize, package, and certify the waste or whether each site would be required to perform this work. Small quantity shipping sites included in the evaluation included the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL), University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), and Mound Laboratory. Candidate receiving sites included the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), the Savannah River Site (SRS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge (OR), and Hanford. At least 14 additional DOE sites having TRU waste may be able to save significant money if cost savings are similar to the four evaluated thus far.

  1. A Little Here, A Little There, A Fairly Big Problem Everywhere: Small Quantity Site Transuranic Waste Disposition Alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luke, Dale Elden; Parker, Douglas Wayne; Moss, J.; Monk, Thomas Hugh; Fritz, Lori Lee; Daugherty, B.; Hladek, K.; Kosiewicx, S.

    2000-03-01

    Small quantities of transuranic (TRU) waste represent a significant challenge to the waste disposition and facility closure plans of several sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the results of a series of evaluations, using a systems engineering approach, to identify the preferred alternative for dispositioning TRU waste from small quantity sites (SQSs). The TRU waste disposition alternatives evaluation used semi-quantitative data provided by the SQSs, potential receiving sites, and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to select and recommend candidate sites for waste receipt, interim storage, processing, and preparation for final disposition of contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. The evaluations of only four of these SQSs resulted in potential savings to the taxpayer of $33 million to $81 million, depending on whether mobile systems could be used to characterize, package, and certify the waste or whether each site would be required to perform this work. Small quantity shipping sites included in the evaluation included the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL), University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), and Mound. Candidate receiving sites included the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), the Savannah River Site (SRS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge (OR), and Hanford. At least 14 additional DOE sites having TRU waste may be able to save significant money if cost savings are similar to the four evaluated thus far.

  2. Primary factors affecting water quality and quantity in four watersheds in Eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program, four small watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico were monitored to identify and evaluate the effects of geology, landcover, atmospheric deposition, and other factors on stream water quality and quantity. Two catchments are located on coarse-grained granitic plutonic rocks, which weather to quartz- and clay-rich, sandy soils, and two are located on fine-grained volcanic rocks and volcaniclastic sediments, which weather to quartz-poor, fine-grained soils. These differing soil materials result in different hydrologic regimes. Soils on the granitic rocks have greater permeability than those developed on the volcaniclastic rocks, allowing more water infiltration and potentially greater landslide erosion rates. For each bedrock type, one catchment was covered with mature rainforest, and the other catchment was affected by agricultural practices typical of eastern Puerto Rico. These practices led to the erosion of much of the original surface soil in the agricultural watersheds, which introduced large quantities of sediment to stream channels. The agricultural watersheds are undergoing natural reforestation, like much of Puerto Rico. Eastern Puerto Rico receives large atmospheric inputs of marine salts, pollutants from the Northern Hemisphere, and Saharan Desert dust. Marine salts contribute over 80 percent of the ionic charge in precipitation, with peak inputs in January. Intense storms, mostly hurricanes, are associated with exceptionally high chloride concentrations in stream waters. Temperate pollution contributes nitrate, ammonia, and sulfate, with maximum inputs during northern cold fronts in January, April, and May. Pollution inputs have increased through time. Desert dust peaks in June and July, during times of maximum dust transport from the Saharan Desert across the Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Calculation of uncertainties in influence quantities in biological essays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Morel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the need of showing the reliability of results from biological essays, such as in health and environmental areas, laboratories have been implementing quality systems, particularly ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025 (ABNT, 2001, which include as one of the requirements, the calculation of uncertainty in essays results. It is of common knowledge that estimating uncertainty in essays using organisms, such as animal and vegetal species, is difficult, preventing from meeting that requirement in the standard. The paper shows the calculation of uncertainties in influences quantities in these essays as a tool to allow validating the measuring process, by using the essays performed by Rhodia Environmental Impact Analysis Laboratory and IPEN Ecotoxicology Laboratory as examples.Devido à necessidade de demonstrar a confiabilidade dos resultados de ensaios biológicos como, por exemplo, nas áreas de saúde e ambiental, laboratórios vêm implementando sistemas da qualidade, em especial a ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025 (ABNT, 2001 que inclui como um dos requisitos o cálculo da incerteza dos resultados dos ensaios. É reconhecidamente difícil de estimar a incerteza de ensaios que utilizam organismos, como com espécies animais e vegetais o que impede, consequentemente, o atendimento deste requisito da norma. O trabalho apresenta o cálculo de incerteza das grandezas de influências nestes ensaios como uma ferramenta que permite validar o processo de medição, utilizando como exemplos aqueles realizados pelos Laboratórios de Análise de Impacto Ambiental da Rhodia e de Ecologia e Ecotoxicologia do IPEN.

  4. Quantity judgements in the context of risk/reward decision making in striped field mice: First count, then hunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia ePanteleeva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We simulated the vital situation of risky hunting in the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius in order to examine whether these animals are able to make a choice between small and large quantities of live prey (ants. In the first (preliminary experiment we investigated to what extent mice were interested in ants as a live prey and how their hunting activity depended on the quantity of these edible but rather aggressive insects. We placed mice one by one into arenas together with ant groups of different size, from 10 to 60. Surprisingly, animals, both wild-caught and laboratory-reared, displayed rather skilled predatory attacks: mice killed and ate from 0.37±003 to 4±0.5 ants per minute. However, there was a threshold number of ants in the arenas when rodents expressed signs of discomfort and started to panic, because ants bit them. This threshold corresponds to the dynamic density (about 400 individuals per m 2per min in the vicinity of anthills and ants’ routes in natural environment. In the second experiment mice had to choose between different quantities of ants placed in two transparent tunnels. Ants here served both as food items and as a source of danger. As far as we know, this is the first experimental paradigm based on evaluation of quantity judgements in the context of risk/reward decision making where the animals face a trade-off between the hedonistic value of the prey and the danger it presents.. We found that when mice have to choose between 5 vs 15, 5 vs 30 and 10 vs 30 ants, they always tend to prefer the smaller quantity, thus displaying the capacity for distinguishing more from less in order to ensure comfortable hunting. The results of this study are ecologically relevant as they reflect situations and challenges faced by free-living small rodents.

  5. Managing forest water quantity and quality under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A. Marion; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell; Chelcy F. Miniat; Ying Ouyang; Devendra M. Amatya; Barton D. Clinton; Paul A. Conrads; Shelby Gull Laird; Zhaohua Dai; J. Alan Clingenpeel; Yonqiang Liu; Edwin A. Roehl; Jennifer A. Moore Myers; Carl Trettin

    2014-01-01

    Water is a critical resource of the Southern United States and is intimately linked to other ecosystem and societal values. The South is known for its warm climate, rich water resources (Figure 9.1), and large acreage of forest lands that provide an ideal place for people to live. Indeed, water availability is central to sustaining an economy that relies on irrigation...

  6. A Comparison of Atmospheric Quantities Determined from Advanced WVR and Weather Analysis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D.; Wu, L.; Slobin, S.

    2017-05-01

    Lower frequency bands used for deep space communications (e.g., 2.3 GHz and 8.4 GHz) are oversubscribed. Thus, NASA has become interested in using higher frequency bands (e.g., 26 GHz and 32 GHz) for telemetry, making use of the available wider bandwidth. However, these bands are more susceptible to atmospheric degradation. Currently, flight projects tend to be conservative in preparing their communications links by using worst-case or conservative assumptions, which result in nonoptimum data return. We previously explored the use of weather forecasting over different weather condition scenarios to determine more optimal values of atmospheric attenuation and atmospheric noise temperature for use in telecommunications link design. In this article, we present the results of a comparison of meteorological parameters (columnar water vapor and liquid water content) estimated from multifrequency Advanced Water Vapor Radiometer (AWVR) data with those estimated from weather analysis tools (FNL). We find that for the Deep Space Network's Goldstone and Madrid tracking sites, the statistics are in reasonable agreement between the two methods. We can then use the statistics of these quantities based on FNL runs to estimate statistics of atmospheric signal degradation for tracking sites that do not have the benefit of possessing multiyear WVR data sets, such as those of the NASA Near-Earth Network (NEN). The resulting statistics of atmospheric attenuation and atmospheric noise temperature increase can then be used in link budget calculations.

  7. How Prepared is Prepared Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter-Levy; Macleod; Rickert

    1996-10-01

    A 17-year-old female was in the final stage in treatment of right unilateral cleft lip and palate. She had undergone a number of previous surgeries. Hearing and speech were good on evaluation, and her social and family situation were deemed excellent. After preparatory orthodontics she underwent a Lefort I maxillary advancement. Surgery was successful and she was admitted into postoperative recovery. However, the lack of adequate preoperative preparation caused traumatic reaction from the patient and her parents: anxiety over appearance, crying, refusal of oral fluids and oral care, refusal of analgesia, and refusal to mobilize. The patience and persistence of hospital staff slowly overcame all adversities and the patient moved on to full and successful recovery, but this case prompted changes in preoperative procedures and involvement of patients and their families in postoperative meal selection, planing, and preparation.

  8. Evaluation of minimum quantity lubrication grinding with nano-particles and recent related patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changhe; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Qiang; Jia, Dongzhou

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, a large number of patents have been devoted to developing minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) grinding techniques that can significantly improve both environmentally conscious and energy saving and costeffective sustainable grinding fluid alternatives. Among them, one patent is about a supply system for the grinding fluid in nano-particle jet MQL, which produced MQL lubricant by adding solid nano-particles in degradable grinding fluid. The MQL supply device turns the lubricant to the pulse drops with fixed pressure, unchanged pulse frequency and the same drop diameter. The drops will be produced and injected in the grinding zone in the form of jet flow under high pressure gas and air seal. As people become increasingly demanding on our environment, minimum quantity lubrication has been widely used in the grinding and processing. Yet, it presents the defect of insufficient cooling performance, which confines its development. To improve the heat transfer efficiency of MQL, nano-particles of a certain mass fraction can be added in the minimum quantity of lubricant oil, which concomitantly will improve the lubrication effects in the processing. In this study, the grinding experiment corroborated the effect of nano-particles in surface grinding. In addition, compared with other forms of lubrication, the results presented that the grinding force, the friction coefficient and specific grinding energy of MQL grinding have been significantly weakened, while G ratio greatly rose. These are attributed to the friction oil-film with excellent anti-friction and anti-wear performance, which is generated nano-particles at the wheel/workpiece interface. In this research, the cooling performance of nano-particle jet MQL was analyzed. Based on tests and experiments, the surface temperature was assayed from different methods, including flood lubricating oil, dry grinding, MQL grinding and nano-particle jet MQL grinding. Because of the outstanding heat transfer

  9. The method of arbitrarily large moments to calculate single scale processes in quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Schneider, Carsten [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC)

    2017-01-15

    We device a new method to calculate a large number of Mellin moments of single scale quantities using the systems of differential and/or difference equations obtained by integration-by-parts identities between the corresponding Feynman integrals of loop corrections to physical quantities. These scalar quantities have a much simpler mathematical structure than the complete quantity. A sufficiently large set of moments may even allow the analytic reconstruction of the whole quantity considered, holding in case of first order factorizing systems. In any case, one may derive highly precise numerical representations in general using this method, which is otherwise completely analytic.

  10. Sparse targets in hydroacoustic surveys: Balancing quantity and quality of in situ target strength data

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFour, Mark R.; Mayer, Christine M.; Kocovsky, Patrick; Qian, Song; Warner, David M.; Kraus, Richard T.; Vandergoot, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Hydroacoustic sampling of low-density fish in shallow water can lead to low sample sizes of naturally variable target strength (TS) estimates, resulting in both sparse and variable data. Increasing maximum beam compensation (BC) beyond conventional values (i.e., 3 dB beam width) can recover more targets during data analysis; however, data quality decreases near the acoustic beam edges. We identified the optimal balance between data quantity and quality with increasing BC using a standard sphere calibration, and we quantified the effect of BC on fish track variability, size structure, and density estimates of Lake Erie walleye (Sander vitreus). Standard sphere mean TS estimates were consistent with theoretical values (−39.6 dB) up to 18-dB BC, while estimates decreased at greater BC values. Natural sources (i.e., residual and mean TS) dominated total fish track variation, while contributions from measurement related error (i.e., number of single echo detections (SEDs) and BC) were proportionally low. Increasing BC led to more fish encounters and SEDs per fish, while stability in size structure and density were observed at intermediate values (e.g., 18 dB). Detection of medium to large fish (i.e., age-2+ walleye) benefited most from increasing BC, as proportional changes in size structure and density were greatest in these size categories. Therefore, when TS data are sparse and variable, increasing BC to an optimal value (here 18 dB) will maximize the TS data quantity while limiting lower-quality data near the beam edges.

  11. Evaluation of specific absorption rate as a dosimetric quantity for electromagnetic fields bioeffects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris J Panagopoulos

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate SAR as a dosimetric quantity for EMF bioeffects, and identify ways for increasing the precision in EMF dosimetry and bioactivity assessment. METHODS: We discuss the interaction of man-made electromagnetic waves with biological matter and calculate the energy transferred to a single free ion within a cell. We analyze the physics and biology of SAR and evaluate the methods of its estimation. We discuss the experimentally observed non-linearity between electromagnetic exposure and biological effect. RESULTS: WE FIND THAT: a The energy absorbed by living matter during exposure to environmentally accounted EMFs is normally well below the thermal level. b All existing methods for SAR estimation, especially those based upon tissue conductivity and internal electric field, have serious deficiencies. c The only method to estimate SAR without large error is by measuring temperature increases within biological tissue, which normally are negligible for environmental EMF intensities, and thus cannot be measured. CONCLUSIONS: SAR actually refers to thermal effects, while the vast majority of the recorded biological effects from man-made non-ionizing environmental radiation are non-thermal. Even if SAR could be accurately estimated for a whole tissue, organ, or body, the biological/health effect is determined by tiny amounts of energy/power absorbed by specific biomolecules, which cannot be calculated. Moreover, it depends upon field parameters not taken into account in SAR calculation. Thus, SAR should not be used as the primary dosimetric quantity, but used only as a complementary measure, always reporting the estimating method and the corresponding error. Radiation/field intensity along with additional physical parameters (such as frequency, modulation etc which can be directly and in any case more accurately measured on the surface of biological tissues, should constitute the primary measure for EMF exposures, in spite of similar

  12. Maximizing DNA profiling success from sub-optimal quantities of DNA: a staged approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Amy D; Elsmore, Paul; Greenhalgh, Matt; McDonald, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Obtaining genetic profiles from samples containing minimal amounts of DNA can be difficult. In forensic science, the vast majority of genetic profiles are generated using commercial kits that have been optimized for the amplification of a specific range of DNA concentrations. DNA extracted from many forensic samples falls below the kit manufacturers' specified concentrations either because there is not enough total DNA in the extract or the extract is so dilute that not enough volume of the extract can be added to the PCR. In order to develop a method to maximize SGM Plus and Identifiler profiling success from samples with sub-optimal quantities of DNA, thermocycle numbers and/or the amount of PCR product injected during capillary electrophoresis (termed Enhancement) of PCR products were increased. Increasing the number of thermocycles from 28 to 30 and/or two phases of Enhancement of both 28 and 30 thermocycle PCR products resulted in an increased number of scorable peaks. As expected with low template amounts of DNA, many of the samples showed allelic drop-out, heterozygote imbalances and sporadic, large stutter peaks. Enhancement decreased the amount of allelic drop-out observed and did not affect stutter peak or heterozygous peak height ratios. Although the PCR reactions from these samples should always be replicated before a reportable consensus profile is reached, Phase 1 and 2 Enhancement can maximize the profiling success from each reaction. Finally, a flexible, staged approach using 28 or 30 thermocycle PCR in combination with the Enhancement techniques described here is proposed for processing samples with sub-optimal quantities of DNA.

  13. Large-scale preparation of human anti-third-party veto cytotoxic T lymphocytes depleted of graft-versus-host reactivity: a new source for graft facilitating cells in bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviner, Shraga; Yao, Xin; Krauthgamer, Rita; Gan, Yehudit; Goren-Arbel, Rinat; Klein, Tirza; Tabilio, Antonio; McMannis, John D; Champlin, Richard; Martelli, Massimo F; Bachar-Lustig, Esther; Reisner, Yair

    2005-06-01

    Induction of donor type chimerism in mildly prepared hosts without graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a most desirable goal in bone morrow transplantation. We have recently demonstrated in a mouse model that donor veto cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) can facilitate the induction of donor type chimerism in sublethally irradiated recipients without causing GvHD if they are effectively depleted of alloreactivity against host cells by means of stimulation against a third party. We extend this approach to human cells, by preparing CTLs in two major steps: primary culture in the absence of interleukin 2, leading to death by neglect of antihost clones, and addition of interleukin 2 and subsequent dilution of antihost clones as a consequence of the expansion of the anti-third-party clones. CTLs prepared in this way specifically suppress host cytotoxic T cells directed against antigens of the donor, but not against fourth-party antigens, as demonstrated in a standard (51)Cr release assay. We conclude that human anti-third-party CTLs afford a new source of veto cells that are depleted of potential graft-versus-host-reactive clones. The cells generated by this approach could potentially be used to facilitate engraftment of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells.

  14. Memory for multiple cache locations and prey quantities in a food-hoarding songbird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola eArmstrong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most animals can discriminate between pairs of numbers that are each less than four without training. However, North Island robins (Petroica longipes, a food hoarding songbird endemic to New Zealand, can discriminate between quantities of items as high as eight without training. Here we investigate whether robins are capable of other complex quantity discrimination tasks. We test whether their ability to discriminate between small quantities declines with 1. the number of cache sites containing prey rewards and 2. the length of time separating cache creation and retrieval (retention interval. Results showed that subjects generally performed above chance expectations. They were equally able to discriminate between different combinations of prey quantities that were hidden from view in 2, 3 and 4 cache sites from between 1, 10 and 60 seconds. Overall results indicate that North Island robins can process complex quantity information involving more than two discrete quantities of items for up to one minute long retention intervals without training.

  15. Fractal characteristics of resource quantity of cobalt crusts and seamount topography, the West Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Weiyan; ZHANG Fuyuan; YANG Kehong; HU Guangdao; YANG Shengxiong; CHENG Yongshou; ZHAO Guojun

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the fractal distribution of topography of seamounts from the West Pacific and the resource quantity of cobalt crust therein. The cobalt resource quantity has three to four variable fractal dimensions, corre- sponding to the distinct slopes and water depths of the sea- mount. The multiple fractal property of resource quantity may have resulted from various factors, such as types and components of cobalt crusts and ages of oceanic crusts host- ing the seamounts. Individual seamounts display complex topography and quantity of cobalt crust, both in the same and different regions.

  16. Patterns in new dimensionless quantities containing melting temperature, and their dependence on pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. WALZER

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationships existing between melting temperature and other
    macroscopic physical quantities are investigated. A new dimensionless
    quantity Q(1 not containing the Grtineisen parameter proves to be suited for serving in future studies as a tool for the determination of the melting temperature in the outer core of the Earth. The pressure dependence of more general dimensionless quantities Q„ is determined analytically and, for the chemical elements, numerically, too. The patterns of various interesting dimensionless quantities are shown in the Periodic Table and compared.

  17. Radiation quantities: significance of the angular and energy distribution of the radiation field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, M.; Perks, C.A. (AEA Corporate Safety Directorate, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Thomas, D.J.; Naismith, O.F. (National Physical Lab., Teddington (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of changing from the old to new (ICRP 60 and ICRU 47) dosimetric quantities, and the relationship between quantities, as a function of the energy and angular distribution, for practical radiation fields. It considers: X rays, gamma rays, neutrons and beta rays; reviews the limited data on practical energy and angular distributions for photons and neutrons in the workplace; and calculates relevant dosimetric quantities based on realistic assumptions. The results are used to illustrate how the relationship between quantities might vary in practical fields and to draw conclusions about the implications of recent ICRP and ICRU publications. (Author).

  18. Form Invariance and Conserved Quantity for Non-holonomic Systems with Variable Mass and Unilateral Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; LI Yuan-Cheng; HOU Qi-Bao; XIA Li-Li

    2007-01-01

    The paper studies the form invariance and a type of non-Noether conserved quantity called Mei conserved quantity for non-holonomic systems with variable mass and unilateral constraints.Acoording to the invariance of the form of differential equations of motion under infinitesimal transformations,this paper gives the definition and criterion of the form invariance for non-holonomic systems with variable mass and unilateral constraints.The condition under which a form invariance can lead to Mei conservation quantity and the form of the conservation quantity are deduced.An example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  19. [Relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; Teng, Jianbei; Cai, Yi; Liang, Jie; Zhu, Yilin; Wei, Tao

    2011-12-01

    To find out the relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii. Microscopy-counting process was applied to starch quantity statistics, sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetry was used to assay polysaccharides content and bromocresol green colorimetry was used to assay alkaloid content. Pearson product moment correlation analysis, Kendall's rank correlation analysis and Spearman's concordance coefficient analysis were applied to study their relativity. Extremely significant positive correlation was found between starch quantity and polysaccharides content, and significant negative correlation between alkaloid content and starch quantity was discovered, as well was between alkaloid content and polysaccharides content.

  20. Forecasting Model of Coal Requirement Quantity Based on Grey System Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙继湖

    2001-01-01

    The generally used methods of forecasting coal requirement quantity include the analogy method, the outside-push method and the cause-effect analysis method. However, the precision of forecasting results using these methods is lower. This paper uses the grey system theory, and sets up grey forecasting model GM (1, 3) to coal requirement quantity. The forecasting result for the Chinese coal requirement quantity coincides with the actual values, and this shows that the model is reliable. Finally, this model are used to forecast Chinese coal requirement quantity in the future ten years.

  1. Modality-independent representations of small quantities based on brain activation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damarla, Saudamini Roy; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Just, Marcel Adam

    2016-04-01

    Machine learning or MVPA (Multi Voxel Pattern Analysis) studies have shown that the neural representation of quantities of objects can be decoded from fMRI patterns, in cases where the quantities were visually displayed. Here we apply these techniques to investigate whether neural representations of quantities depicted in one modality (say, visual) can be decoded from brain activation patterns evoked by quantities depicted in the other modality (say, auditory). The main finding demonstrated, for the first time, that quantities of dots were decodable by a classifier that was trained on the neural patterns evoked by quantities of auditory tones, and vice-versa. The representations that were common across modalities were mainly right-lateralized in frontal and parietal regions. A second finding was that the neural patterns in parietal cortex that represent quantities were common across participants. These findings demonstrate a common neuronal foundation for the representation of quantities across sensory modalities and participants and provide insight into the role of parietal cortex in the representation of quantity information.

  2. Energy-like conserved quantity of a nonlinear nonconsevative continuous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liqun

    2004-01-01

    A system whose energy is not conserved is called nonconservative. To investigate if there exists a conserved quantity that has the same dimension as energy and is positively definite, the author analyzed the bending vibration of an axially moving beam with geometric nonlinearity.Based on the governing equation, the energy was proven to be not conserved in the case where the beam has two simply supported or fixed ends. A definitely positive quantity with the energy dimension was defined. The quantity was verified to remain a constant during the motion. The investigation indicates that an energy-like conserved quantity may exist in a nonlinear nonconservative continuous system.

  3. [Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system] / Stefan Werner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Werner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2011. (Dissertationes philologiae estonicae Universitatis Tartuensis ; 29)

  4. On the Output-Inflation Relationship When Price and Quantity Adjustments are Costly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danziger, Leif; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    A vast literature analyzes the real effects of price-adjustment costs assuming that quantity adjustments are costless. In this paper, we analyze whether the presence of quantity-adjustments costs, which presumably are significant, change the traditional results on the impact of inflation....... In particular, recent findings suggest that quantity-adjustment costs may remove the linkage between output and inflation. We show that this is not the case when inflation is anticipated. On the contrary, quantity-adjustment costs may significantly amplify the consequences of price-adjustment costs...

  5. [Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system] / Stefan Werner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Werner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2011. (Dissertationes philologiae estonicae Universitatis Tartuensis ; 29)

  6. Application of robots to multi variable and little quantity products. Tahinshu shoryo waku eno robotto tekiyo no genjo to kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikawa, H. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-12-01

    However multi variable and little quantity they may be, when they can be loaded on the existing robots, they can be corresponded by the flexible manufacturing system (FMS). The work set up is installed on the robot at random, and subsequently the lengthiness and shortening of the weld line is also solved depending on the contrivance of the jig. Concurrently an introduction of the off line teaching as well supports firmly the application of robots to multi variable and media to little quantity work. The problem is the work which can not be loaded on the existing robot. Viewing from the actual results of the robot introduced enterprises, it is clearly affected by the size of work, and consequently in the industries such as the transportation machineries and construction machineries the actual results are high. It is thought to be because the work shape of machinery type, which will be the main current, was fit to the robot with a highly wide usage. As for the robots for a large size work to multi variable and little quantity products, which is most behind in application, it is necessary that by combining the robot group with the distinctive features such as the big shape and covering the wide range type, high ability type of FMS and so forth, intelligent type, small shape and local guerrilla type and so forth, the robotization ratio should be elevated. 3 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Impact of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination on boar semen quality and quantity using two different vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspari, K; Henning, H; Schreiber, F; Maass, P; Gössl, R; Schaller, C; Waberski, D

    2014-09-01

    Porcine circovirus type-2 (PCV2) is widespread in domestic pig populations. It can be shed with boar semen, but the role boars have in epidemiology is still unclear. Vaccinating boars against PCV2 can reduce disease and virus load in semen, but may have unwanted side effects, that is, impairment of spermatogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect and impact of two different PCV2 vaccines on boar semen quality and quantity. Healthy normospermic Large White boars in three groups of 12 each were vaccinated with either Circovac, Ingelvac CircoFLEX, or received NaCl. Eight ejaculates were collected starting 1 week after vaccination and assessed for quantitative traits. In general, sperm quantity and quality parameters did not change due to the vaccination (P > 0.05). Only DNA integrity between the Circovac and control group was P vaccination, fever period, and impaired sperm quality could be observed. The results indicate that both vaccines did not have a major impact on sperm quality or quantity. Therefore, vaccination of boars against PCV2 seems to be feasible. However, one boar treated with the oil-based vaccine showed a temporarily impaired semen quality after elevated body temperature after vaccination. Thus, possible systemic reactions and the subsequent impact on sperm quality should be taken into account when choosing a PCV2 vaccine for boars.

  8. Electrochemical slurry compositions and methods for preparing the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, Tristan; Limthongkul, Pimpa; Butros, Asli; Duduta, Mihai; Cross, III, James C.

    2016-11-01

    Embodiments described herein generally relate to semi-solid suspensions, and more particularly to systems and methods for preparing semi-solid suspensions for use as electrodes in electrochemical devices such as, for example batteries. In some embodiments, a method for preparing a semi-solid electrode includes combining a quantity of an active material with a quantity of an electrolyte to form an intermediate material. The intermediate material is then combined with a conductive additive to form an electrode material. The electrode material is mixed to form a suspension having a mixing index of at least about 0.80 and is then formed into a semi-solid electrode.

  9. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Varadhan, S R S

    2016-01-01

    The theory of large deviations deals with rates at which probabilities of certain events decay as a natural parameter in the problem varies. This book, which is based on a graduate course on large deviations at the Courant Institute, focuses on three concrete sets of examples: (i) diffusions with small noise and the exit problem, (ii) large time behavior of Markov processes and their connection to the Feynman-Kac formula and the related large deviation behavior of the number of distinct sites visited by a random walk, and (iii) interacting particle systems, their scaling limits, and large deviations from their expected limits. For the most part the examples are worked out in detail, and in the process the subject of large deviations is developed. The book will give the reader a flavor of how large deviation theory can help in problems that are not posed directly in terms of large deviations. The reader is assumed to have some familiarity with probability, Markov processes, and interacting particle systems.

  10. A new proposal on the operational quantity H{sub p}(3): Monte Carlo and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotti, F., E-mail: francesca.mariotti@bologna.enea.i [ENEA Radiation Protection Institute, Via dei Colli 16, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Gualdrini, G.; Fantuzzi, E.; Ferrari, P.; Monteventi, F. [ENEA Radiation Protection Institute, Via dei Colli 16, 40136 Bologna (Italy)

    2011-04-15

    The European Union is funding the ORAMED Contract (Optimization of RAdiation protection for MEDical staff) project that aims at developing methodologies for better assessing and reducing exposures to medical staff for procedures resulting in potentially large doses or complex radiation fields, such as interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and new developments. One of the ORAMED Working Tasks is addressed to the discussion and implementation in the radiation protection practice of the eye lens equivalent dose. The aim of this task group is to develop a personal dosemeter characterized in term of H{sub p}(3). Until now H{sub p}(3) conversion coefficients were not reported in the official recommendations and the available data were calculated for a 30 x 30 x 15 cm{sup 3} slab phantom that is far away to represent the head. A reduced slab phantom, for both calculating the quantities and type testing personal dosemeter in terms of the operational quantity, was previously proposed by ENEA Bologna team. The study demonstrated that a reduced slab phantom is better representative of a real situation, but the angular dependence of H{sub p}(3,{alpha}) due to the edges of the slab reduces its applicability. Therefore a better-suited phantom is proposed here. The dosimetric assessment in terms of this quantity is seldom performed in the various workplaces (e.g. hospitals) and therefore a question rises about its usefulness and practical implementation. The present work tries to introduce new elements in the discussion on the quantity H{sub p}(3) and to propose a more suitable theoretical cylindrical phantom (and a corresponding experimental one for the calibration procedures) to better approximate the head in which the eyes are placed.

  11. Preparation, characterization, and electrochemical properties of lithium vanadium oxide nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuo Shujuan [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Shao Mingwang, E-mail: mwshao@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Zhou Qing; Liao Fan [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > The lithium ions can easily move between the layers of lithium vanadium oxide. > It can highly increase the electron transfer between the electrode and dopamine. > The reversibility of electrochemical process was significantly improved. - Abstract: Highly uniform lithium vanadium oxide nanoribbons were successfully prepared in large quantities using a facile hydrothermal approach without employing any surfactants or templates. The as-prepared products were up to hundreds of micrometers in length, about 200 nm in width, and 20 nm in thickness. These nanoribbons and nafion composite were employed to modify glassy carbon electrode, which displayed excellent electrochemical sensitivity and rapid response in detecting dopamine in phosphate buffer solution. Lithium ions can greatly increase the electron transfer between the electrode and biological materials, and significantly increase the reversibility of electrochemical process. A linear relationship between the concentrations of dopamine and its oxidation peak currents was obtained. The linear range for the detection of dopamine was 2.0 x 10{sup -6} to 1.0 x 10{sup -4} M with a detection limit of 1.0 x 10{sup -7} M. In addition, the good reproducibility and long-term stability of the sensor make it valuable for further application.

  12. Growth of microscopic cones on titanium cathodes of sputter-ion pumps driven by sorption of large argon quantities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcelli, Tommaso, E-mail: tommaso-porcelli@saes-group.com [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria, 16, 20133 Milano, Italy and SAES Getters S.p.A., viale Italia, 77, 20020 Lainate, Milan (Italy); Siviero, Fabrizio; Bongiorno, Gero A. [SAES Getters S.p.A., viale Italia, 77, 20020 Lainate, Milan (Italy); Michelato, Paolo [INFN-LASA, via fratelli Cervi, 201, 20090 Segrate, Milan (Italy); Pagani, Carlo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria, 16, 20133 Milano, Italy and INFN-LASA, via fratelli Cervi, 201, 20090 Segrate, Milan (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    Microscopic cones have been observed on titanium cathodes of sputter-ion pumps (SIPs) after pump operation. The cones were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Size and morphology of these cones are clearly correlated with the nature and the relative amount of each gas species pumped by each SIP during its working life. In particular, their growth was found to be fed by sputtering mechanisms, mostly during Ar pumping, and to be driven by the electromagnetic field applied to the Penning cells of each SIP. Experimental findings suggest that the formation and extent of such conic structures on cathode surfaces might play a leading role in the onset of phenomena typically related to the functioning of SIPs, e.g., the so-called argon instability.

  13. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Hollander, Frank den

    2008-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theory and applications of large deviations, a branch of probability theory that describes the probability of rare events in terms of variational problems. By focusing the theory, in Part A of the book, on random sequences, the author succeeds in conveying the main ideas behind large deviations without a need for technicalities, thus providing a concise and accessible entry to this challenging and captivating subject. The selection of modern applications, described in Part B of the book, offers a good sample of what large deviation theory is able to achieve

  14. Parameters for quantity calculations of poultry by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okanović Đorđe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant group of inedible by-products from industrial slaughterhouses that can be used as a raw material for processing into quality feed for pigs and pets are byproducts of slaughtered poultry. The poultry industry yields a large amount of inedible byproducts of which the removal or processing requires hygienic and economic solutions. These activities primarily include the protection of the environmental from degradation processes and biological pollution, as well as securing high-protein animal feed. The incorporation of inedible slaughtered poultry by-products into food for animals involves the application of various technological processes. These processes should be simple and feasible for investments where it is necessary to obtain a quality product. At the same time, it must be taken into account that the production process does not create new secondary products or waste gases that could contaminate the environment. Scientific knowledge in the field of exploitation of inedible slaughtered poultry by-products provides the necessary basis for calculating the amount of certain types of raw materials.

  15. Towards effective phosphorus recycling from wastewater: quantity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muster, T H; Douglas, G B; Sherman, N; Seeber, A; Wright, N; Güzükara, Y

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation in the Mg-Ca-NH3-PO4 system has been explored to improve understanding of likely phases recoverable from complex wastewaters. Over a range of Mg/Ca combinations (0-100%) and pH 5-11, at least seven identifiable crystalline phases could be precipitated from artificial wastewater including: struvite, hydroxylapatite, newberyite, brushite, merrilite/whitlockite, octocalcium phosphate, and monetite. This experimental study has outlined the physicochemical conditions required to produce various phosphate products from synthetic wastewater, and found that large differences exist between experimentally formed phases and thermodynamical predictions. Struvite formation is the most desirable precipitate for the recovery of phosphate based upon purity, growth characteristics, dewatering properties, phosphate removal efficiency, and its ability to simultaneously remove ammonia. This study has also demonstrated that in specific cases the preliminary precipitation of brushite is a possible means of decreasing calcium content such that subsequent struvite formation could achieve higher-purity. Utilising experimental results and information on current commodity prices, discussion on the choice of Mg and Ca sources for phosphorus recovery provides guidance on appropriate means to optimise the formation and yield of high quality cost-optimised products.

  16. An unknown quantity--the worldwide prevalence of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Gail S; Neligan, Aidan; Sander, Josemir W

    2014-07-01

    The reported incidence (rate of new cases in a population) of epilepsy is consistently lower in high-income than in lower-income economies, whereas opinions vary regarding comparative prevalence rates (proportion of the population with epilepsy). For any condition that does not influence mortality, lifetime prevalence should approximate to the cumulative incidence. We suspected that epilepsy prevalence might be uniform throughout the world, whereas incidence is higher in resource-poor countries. To test whether our suspicion was reasonable, we conducted a Medline search to estimate the prevalence of active and lifetime epilepsy in different economic areas throughout the world. We found that the range of estimated prevalence of epilepsy may be broadly similar throughout the world, but comparison is limited by lack of door-to-door studies in high-income economies and by variations in the definitions of active epilepsy. We contend that any inconsistencies between incidence and prevalence are due largely to the excess premature death rate in people with epilepsy in lower-income economies. Much of the variability in epidemiologic indices arises from differences in study methodology, definitions, and risk factors. The epidemiology of epilepsy, and particularly its mortality, needs thorough investigation using uniform definitions that do not include antiepileptic drug use; causes of death should be identified and actions, including treatment and education, should be taken to avoid preventable deaths.

  17. PCP METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING DOSE RATES FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITIES IN SHIPPING PACKAGINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan, S.

    2011-08-23

    The Small Gram Quantity (SGQ) concept is based on the understanding that small amounts of hazardous materials, in this case radioactive materials, are significantly less hazardous than large amounts of the same materials. This study describes a methodology designed to estimate an SGQ for several neutron and gamma emitting isotopes that can be shipped in a package compliant with 10 CFR Part 71 external radiation level limits regulations. These regulations require packaging for the shipment of radioactive materials perform, under both normal and accident conditions, the essential functions of material containment, subcriticality, and maintain external radiation levels within regulatory limits. 10 CFR 71.33(b)(1)(2)&(3) state radioactive and fissile materials must be identified and their maximum quantity, chemical and physical forms be included in an application. Furthermore, the U.S. Federal Regulations require application contain an evaluation demonstrating the package (i.e., the packaging and its contents) satisfies the external radiation standards for all packages (10 CFR 71.31(2), 71.35(a), & 71.47). By placing the contents in a He leak-tight containment vessel, and limiting the mass to ensure subcriticality, the first two essential functions are readily met. Some isotopes emit sufficiently strong photon radiation that small amounts of material can yield a large external dose rate. Quantifying of the dose rate for a proposed content is a challenging issue for the SGQ approach. It is essential to quantify external radiation levels from several common gamma and neutron sources that can be safely placed in a specific packaging, to ensure compliance with federal regulations. The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) Methodology for Determining Dose Rate for Small Gram Quantities in Shipping Packagings described in this report provides bounding mass limits for a set of proposed SGQ isotopes. Methodology calculations were performed to estimate external radiation levels

  18. Optimal trading quantity integration as a basis for optimal portfolio management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Žiković

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The author in this paper points out the reason behind calculating and using optimal trading quantity in conjunction with Markowitz’s Modern portfolio theory. In the opening part the author presents an example of calculating optimal weights using Markowitz’s Mean-Variance approach, followed by an explanation of basic logic behind optimal trading quantity. The use of optimal trading quantity is not limited to systems with Bernoulli outcome, but can also be used when trading shares, futures, options etc. Optimal trading quantity points out two often-overlooked axioms: (1 a system with negative mathematical expectancy can never be transformed in a system with positive mathematical expectancy, (2 by missing the optimal trading quantity an investor can turn a system with positive expectancy into a negative one. Optimal trading quantity is that quantity which maximizes geometric mean (growth function of a particular system. To determine the optimal trading quantity for simpler systems, with a very limited number of outcomes, a set of Kelly’s formulas is appropriate. In the conclusion the summary of the paper is presented.

  19. Direct and efficient stereological estimation of total cell quantities using electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb

    2006-01-01

    and local stereological probes through arbitrarily fixed points for estimation of total quantities inside cells are presented. The quantities comprise (total) number, length, surface area, volume or 3D spatial distribution for organelles as well as total amount of gold particles, various compounds...

  20. David Hume's Monetary Theory Revisited: Was He Really a Quantity Theorist and an Inflationist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennerlind, Carl

    2005-01-01

    David Hume's monetary theory has been controversial since its formulation. Lately, the focus has been on Hume's alleged misapplication of the quantity theory of money. While he appears to subscribe to a simple quantity theory with money neutrality, in a famously contested passage in the essay Of Money, he violates the neutrality condition by…

  1. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of... in the domestic sugar Overall Allotment Quantity (OAQ); a reassignment of surplus sugar under...

  2. 48 CFR 852.270-2 - Bread and bakery products-quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bread and bakery products-quantities. 852.270-2 Section 852.270-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Bread and bakery products—quantities. As prescribed in 870.111-3, insert the following clause: Bread and...

  3. Lie Symmetrical Non-Noether Conserved Quantities of Poincaré-Chetaev Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng-Yu; FANG Jian-Hui

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper the Lie symmetrical non-Noether conserved quantity of the Poincaré-Chetaev equations under the general infinitesimal transformations of Lie groups is discussed. First, we establish the determining equations of Lie symmetry of the equations. Second, the Lie symmetrical non-Noether conserved quantity of the equations is deduced.

  4. The Lie symmetrical non-Noether conserved quantity of holonomic Hamiltonian system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Jian-Hui; Liao Yong-Pan; Peng Yong

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the Lie symmetrical non-Noether conserved quantity of a holonomic Hamiltonian system under the general infinitesimal transformations of groups. Firstly, we establish the determining equations of Lie symmetry of the system. Secondly, the Lie symmetrical non-Noether conserved quantity of the system is deduced. Finally,an example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  5. Many conserved quantities induced by Lie symmetries of a Lagrangian system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nucci, M.C., E-mail: nucci@unipg.i [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica and INFN Sezione Perugia, Universita di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2011-03-14

    Lie symmetries along with either Noether theorem or Jacobi Last Multiplier yield all the conserved quantities that one may seek and even more. We show that three new conserved quantities derived in Jian-Hui Fang, Ming-Jiang Zhang, Wei-Wei Zhang (2010) can be algorithmically obtained by these old methods. Even more than three.

  6. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products...

  7. Vowel quantity and the fortis-lenis distinction in North Low Saxon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prehn, M.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this phonological investigation is to establish whether the primary prosodic feature in Low German dialects is tone, quantity, or something else entirely. All in all, we find that Low German employs a combination of vowel quality and vowel quantity, which carries functional load. It is a

  8. Are Quantity Surveyors Competent to Value for Civil Engineering Works? Evaluating QSs' Competencies and Militating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olawumi, Timothy Oluwatosin; Ayegun, Olaleke Amos

    2016-01-01

    The role of the quantity surveyor is one that is often unclear amongst the general public. This study discussed the competencies of the quantity surveyor in measuring and managing civil engineering works and also carrying out the financial management for civil engineering construction projects; also outlined the various competencies and skills…

  9. Lie Symmetry and Non-Noether Conserved Quantity for Hamiltonian Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴惠彬

    2004-01-01

    A non-Noether conserved quantity for the Hamiltonian system is studied. A particular infinitesimal transformation is given and the determining equations of Lie symmetry are established. An existence theorem of the non-Noether conserved quantity is obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  10. Non-Noether conserved quantity for differential equations of motion in the phase space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A non-Noether conserved quantity for the differential equations of motion of mechanical systems in the phase space is studied. The differential equations of motion of the systems are established and the determining equations of Lie symmetry are given. An existence theorem of non-Noether conserved quantity is obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  11. Analysis of magnesium from magnesium stearate in pharmaceutical tablet formulations using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with nano quantity analyte detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, Donald S; Magnusson, Lars-Erik; Morow, Paul R; Aburub, Aktham

    2013-05-05

    This study demonstrates the use of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with a nano quantity analyte detector for the retention, separation and detection of magnesium from magnesium stearate in tablet formulations for a drug product formulation blend containing a hydrochloride salt of a weakly basic compound as the active ingredient. The nano quantity analyte detector can provide direct detection of inactive excipients and inorganic salts lacking ultraviolet chromophores, as well as, all non-volatile compounds. The separation was accomplished using a SeQuant ZIC-HILIC column and mobile phase consisting of 32.5:32.5:35 of acetone/methanol/ammonium formate buffer (150 mM, pH 4.5). Common validation parameters were evaluated to assess the method's quantitative potential for magnesium (from magnesium stearate) including: linearity, accuracy, specificity, solution stability, repeatability, and intermediate precision. Overall, the method described in this report proved to be very robust and represents a novel technique to conveniently separate and detect magnesium from magnesium stearate in pharmaceutical preparations both quickly and accurately.

  12. Influence of polyvinylpyrrolidone quantity on the solubility, crystallinity and oral bioavailability of fenofibrate in solvent-evaporated microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Kim, Dong Wuk; Kim, Dong Shik; Kim, Jong Oh; Youn, Yu Seok; Cho, Kwan Hyung; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the influence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) quantity on the solubility, crystallinity and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate in solvent-evaporated microspheres. Numerous microspheres were prepared with fenofibrate, sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and PVP using the spray-drying technique. Their aqueous solubility, dissolution, physicochemical properties and pharmacokinetics in rats were assessed. The drug in the solvent-evaporated microspheres composed of fenofibrate, PVP and SLS at the weight ratio of 1:0.5:0.25 was not entirely changed to the amorphous form and partially in the microcrystalline state. However, the microspheres at the weight ratio of 1:4:0.25 provided the entire conversion to the amorphous form. The latter microspheres, with an improvement of about 115 000-fold in aqueous solubility and 5.6-fold improvement in oral bioavailability compared with the drug powder, gave higher aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability compared with the former. Thus, PVP quantity played an important role in these properties of fenofibrate in the solvent-evaporated microspheres.

  13. Countercurrent chromatographic with upright multilayer coil plante centrifuge for large-scale preparation%一种用于大容量逆流色谱制备的立式多层螺旋管行星式离心机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴世华; 孙翠荣; 戴元柏; 周慧; 潘远江; 张虹

    2003-01-01

    Owing to no complications caused by solid supports, such as adsorptive sample loss and deactivation, tailing of solute peaks, and contamination, countercurrent chromatography (CCC) has been an area of intense research since the first introduction of CCC in 1970,[1] and various apparatus and broad applications have been advanced[2,3]. For these developments, the type-J synchronous planet centrifuge has received considerable attention, which relies not only on its relatively simple mechanic design, but also on its high partition efficiency and short elution time caused by mixing and settling for the efficient chromatographic separations. In the past, however, almost all of type-J centrifuges rotated slowly were disposed horizontally due to the original design and some experiments that gravis plays an important role at a low rotary speed as similar to type-V rotating multilayer helical tube in unit gravity[4-9]. In fact,we discovered that the upright apparatus holds more retention of stationary phase than the horiziontal aparatus when large standard tubings were used as mutilayer coil column and the aparatus was operated under same contions. We report here a new coil planet centrifuge with four upright cylindrical columns for large scale countercurrent chromatographic preparation. The design principle and apparatus of UCCC is as samilar to type-J multilayer coil planet centrifuge. Four uptight cylindrical column holders are symmetrically arranged around the centrifuge axis as similar to the type-J HSCCC with three horizontal multilayer coils connected in series[8] . A series of experiments indicat that upright CCC has many advantages over the horizontal CCC when using a large-bore tube as multilayer coil column for large scale countercurrent chromatographic separation.Upright CCC provide a versatile countercurrent chromatographic method for large-scale preparation from very crude sample. It has good preparative capacity and flexible suitability to various sample and

  14. Light matter in the core of the Earth: its identity, quantity and temperature using tricritical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Aitta, A

    2008-01-01

    Light elements in the iron-rich core of the Earth are important indicators for the evolution of our planet. Their amount and distribution, and the temperature in the core, are essential for understanding how the core and the mantle interact and for modelling the geodynamo which generates the planetary magnetic field. However, there is a longstanding controversy surrounding the identity and quantity of the light elements. Here, the theory of tricritical phenomena is employed as a precise theoretical framework to study solidification at the high pressures and temperatures where both experimental and numerical methods are complicated to implement and have large uncertainties in their results. Combining the theory with the most reliable iron melting data and the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM) seismic data, one obtains the solidification temperature at the inner core boundary (ICB) for both pure iron and for the alloy of iron and light elements in the actual core melt. One also finds a value of about 2.5...

  15. Fundamental properties of five Kepler stars using global asteroseismic quantities and ground-based observations

    CERN Document Server

    Creevey, O L; Frasca, A; Thygesen, A O; Basu, S; Bhattacharya, J; Biazzo, K; Brandão, I M; Bruntt, H; Mazumdar, A; Niemczura, E; Shrotriya, T; Sousa, S G; Stello, D; Subramaniam, A; Campante, T L; Handberg, R; Mathur, S; Bedding, T R; García, R A; Régulo, C; Salabert, D; Molenda-Żakowicz, J; Quirion, P -O; White, T R; Bonanno, A; Chaplin, W J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Christiansen, J L; Elsworth, Y; Fanelli, M N; Karoff, C; Kinemuchi, K; Kjeldsen, H; Gai, N; Monteiro, M J P F G; Suárez, J C

    2011-01-01

    We present an asteroseismic study of the solar-like stars KIC 11395018, KIC 10273246, KIC 10920273, KIC 10339342, and KIC 11234888 using short-cadence time series of more than eight months from the Kepler satellite. For four of these stars, we derive atmospheric parameters from spectra acquired with the Nordic Optical Telescope. The global seismic quantities (average large frequency separation and frequency of maximum power), combined with the atmospheric parameters, yield the mean density and surface gravity with precisions of 2% and ~0.03 dex, respectively. We also determine the radius, mass, and age with precisions of 2-5%, 7-11%, and ~35%, respectively, using grid-based analyses. We determine asteroseismic distances to these stars with a precision better than 10%, and constrain the stellar inclination for three of the stars. An Li abundance analysis yields an independent estimate of the age, but this is inconsistent with the asteroseismically determined age for one of the stars. We compare the results fro...

  16. Complementary ecosystem services provided by pest predators and pollinators increase quantity and quality of coffee yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Alice; Peters, Marcell K; Ferger, Stefan W; Helbig-Bonitz, Maria; Schmack, Julia M; Maassen, Genevieve; Schleuning, Matthias; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2014-03-22

    Wild animals substantially support crop production by providing ecosystem services, such as pollination and natural pest control. However, the strengths of synergies between ecosystem services and their dependencies on land-use management are largely unknown. Here, we took an experimental approach to test the impact of land-use intensification on both individual and combined pollination and pest control services in coffee production systems at Mount Kilimanjaro. We established a full-factorial pollinator and vertebrate exclosure experiment along a land-use gradient from traditional homegardens (agroforestry systems), shaded coffee plantations to sun coffee plantations (total sample size = 180 coffee bushes). The exclusion of vertebrates led to a reduction in fruit set of ca 9%. Pollinators did not affect fruit set, but significantly increased fruit weight of coffee by an average of 7.4%. We found no significant decline of these ecosystem services along the land-use gradient. Pest control and pollination service were thus complementary, contributing to coffee production by affecting the quantity and quality of a major tropical cash crop across different coffee production systems at Mount Kilimanjaro.

  17. Chemical investigation of the medicinal and ornamental plant Angelonia angustifolia Benth. reveals therapeutic quantities of lupeol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyrup, Stephen T; Asghar, Khush B; Chacko, Ann; Hebert, Jakob M; Samson, Eric; Talone, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Angelonia angustifolia Benth. is a small herbaceous plant with documented use as an anti-inflammatory remedy by indigenous cultures in Latin America. It has subsequently been developed as an ornamental annual widely available in nurseries in the United States. Chemical investigation led to the discovery that lupeol is the major organic soluble constituent in the roots, and is present in large quantities in the aerial structures of the plant. Lupeol was identified by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and quantified by HPLC-MS. The concentration of lupeol (9.14 mg/g in roots) in A. angustifolia is approximately 3 times higher than any previously reported sources. Therefore, the amount of lupeol in the roots of a single individual of A. angustifolia greatly exceeds the previously determined topical threshold for significant reduction of inflammation. The presence of topically therapeutic levels of lupeol in A. angustifolia provides chemical rationale for its indigenous use. In addition, the established cultivation of A. angustifolia could allow this plant to be used as a source of the important bioactive molecule lupeol, or to be developed as a nutraceutical without damaging wild populations.

  18. First Forcer results on deep-inelastic scattering and related quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Ruijl, B; Vermaseren, J A M; Davies, J; Vogt, A

    2016-01-01

    We present results on the fourth-order splitting functions and coefficient functions obtained using Forcer, a four-loop generalization of the Mincer program for the parametric reduction of self-energy integrals. We have computed the respective lowest three even-N and odd-N moments for the non-singlet splitting functions and the non-singlet coefficient functions in electromagnetic and nu+nu(bar) charged-current deep-inelastic scattering, and the N=2 and N=4 results for the corresponding flavour-singlet quantities. Enough moments have been obtained for an LLL-based determination of the analytic N-dependence of the nf^3 and nf^2 parts, respectively, of the singlet and non-singlet splitting functions. The large-N limit of the latter provides the complete nf^2 contributions to the four-loop cusp anomalous dimension. Our results also provide additional evidence of a non-vanishing contribution of quartic group invariants to the cusp anomalous dimension.

  19. Generation of Transition Probability Data: Can quantity and quality be balanced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, J. J.; Froese Fisher, C.

    2008-10-01

    The possibility of truly predictive plasma modeling rests on the availability of large quantities of accurate atomic and molecular data. These include a variety of collision cross-sections and radiative transition data. An example of current interest concerns radiative transition probabilities for neutral Ce, an additive in highly-efficient metal-halide lamps. Transition probabilities have been measured for several hundred lines (Bisson et al., JOSA B 12, 193, 1995 and Lawler et al., unpublished), but the number of observed and classified transitions in the range of 340 nm to 1 μm is in excess of 21,000 (Martin, unpublished). Since the prospect for measuring more than a thousand or so of these transitions is rather low, an important question is whether calculation can adequately fill the void. In this case, we are interested only in electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, we require only that the transition probabilities have an average accuracy of ˜20%. We will discuss our efforts to calculate a comprehensive set of transition probabilities for neutral Ce using the Cowan (The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra, 1981) and GRASP (J"onsson et al. Comput. Phys. Commun. 176, 559-579, 2007) codes. We will also discuss our efforts to quantify the accuracy of the results.

  20. Spatial and temporal patterns of dissolved organic matter quantity and quality in the Mississippi River Basin, 1997–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpoole, Sarah M.; Stets, Edward G.; Clow, David W.; Burns, Douglas A.; Aiken, George R.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Creed, Irena F.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Laudon, Hjalmar; Pellerin, Brian; Striegl, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have found insignificant or decreasing trends in time-series dissolved organic carbon (DOC) datasets, questioning the assumption that long-term DOC concentrations in surface waters are increasing in response to anthropogenic forcing, including climate change, land use, and atmospheric acid deposition. We used the weighted regressions on time, discharge, and season (WRTDS) model to estimate annual flow-normalized concentrations and fluxes to determine if changes in DOC quantity and quality signal anthropogenic forcing at 10 locations in the Mississippi River Basin. Despite increases in agriculture and urban development throughout the basin, net increases in DOC concentration and flux were significant at only 3 of 10 sites from 1997 to 2013 and ranged between −3.5% to +18% and −0.1 to 19%, respectively. Positive shifts in DOC quality, characterized by increasing specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm, ranged between +8% and +45%, but only occurred at one of the sites with significant DOC quantity increases. Basinwide reductions in atmospheric sulfate deposition did not result in large increases in DOC either, likely because of the high buffering capacity of the soil. Hydroclimatic factors including annual discharge, precipitation, and temperature did not significantly change during the 17-year timespan of this study, which contrasts with results from previous studies showing significant increases in precipitation and discharge over a century time scale. Our study also contrasts with those from smaller catchments, which have shown stronger DOC responses to climate, land use, and acidic deposition. This temporal and spatial analysis indicated that there was a potential change in DOC sources in the Mississippi River Basin between 1997 and 2013. However, the overall magnitude of DOC trends was not large, and the pattern in quantity and quality increases for the 10 study sites was not consistent throughout the basin.

  1. Combined alcian blue and silver staining of subnanogram quantities of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H J; Heinegård, D; Poulsen, J H

    1993-01-01

    Proteoglycans stain weakly in polyacrylamide gels by traditional protein stains such as coomassie brilliant blue or silver. In the present work preparations of large aggregating proteoglycan from human articular cartilage were used to evaluate a convenient staining method based on successive stai...

  2. Complementary energy principle for large elastic deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Yuchen

    2006-01-01

    Using the "base forces" as the fundamental unknowns to determine the state of an elastic system, the complementary energy principle for large elastic deformation is constructed for the conjugate quantities being displacement gradients, which possesses exactly the same form as that of classical linear elasticity. It is revealed that the complementary energy contains deformation part and rotation part.

  3. How high: Quantity as a predictor of cannabis-related problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earleywine Mitch

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on cannabis use has emphasized frequency as a predictor of problems. Studies of other drugs reveal that frequency relates to psychological and physiological outcomes, but quantity also plays an important role. In the study of cannabis, quantity has been difficult to assess due to the wide range of products and means of consumption. Methods The present study introduces three new measures of quantity, and examines their contribution to cannabis-related problems. Over 5,900 adults using cannabis once or more per month completed an internet survey that inquired about use, dependence, social problems and respiratory health. In addition to detailing their frequency of cannabis use, participants also reported three measures of quantity: number of quarter ounces consumed per month, usual intensity of intoxication, and maximum intensity of intoxication. Results Frequency of use, monthly consumption, and levels of intoxication predicted respiratory symptoms, social problems and dependence. What is more, each measure of quantity accounted for significant variance in outcomes after controlling for the effects of frequency. Conclusion These findings indicate that quantity is an important predictor of cannabis-related outcomes, and that the three quantity measures convey useful information about use.

  4. Food quality affects secondary consumers even at low quantities: an experimental test with larval European lobster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoo, Katherina L; Aberle, Nicole; Malzahn, Arne M; Boersma, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    The issues of food quality and food quantity are crucial for trophic interactions. Although most research has focussed on the primary producer-herbivore link, recent studies have shown that quality effects at the bottom of the food web propagate to higher trophic levels. Negative effects of poor food quality have almost exclusively been demonstrated at higher food quantities. Whether these negative effects have the same impact at low food availability in situations where the majority if not all of the resources are channelled into routine metabolism, is under debate. In this study a tri-trophic food chain was designed, consisting of the algae Rhodomonas salina, the copepod Acartia tonsa and freshly hatched larvae of the European lobster Homarus gammarus. The lobster larvae were presented with food of two different qualities (C:P ratios) and four different quantities to investigate the combined effects of food quality and quantity. Our results show that the quality of food has an impact on the condition of lobster larvae even at very low food quantities. Food with a lower C:P content resulted in higher condition of the lobster larvae regardless of the quantity of food. These interacting effects of food quality and food quantity can have far reaching consequences for ecosystem productivity.

  5. Quantity of plant leaf area on three major public squares in Kunming City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONGYan; ZHAOLin-sen; ZHAOYu-xiang

    2004-01-01

    Regressive formulae to calculate the quantity of plant leaf area for 13 species of ornamental plants were set up based on investigation data of 30 species on 3 major public squares (Dongfeng square, Shengli square and Guandu square) in Kunruing City, China, which were applied to calculate quantities of plant leaf area of these 13 species. The quantities of plant leaf area for the other 17 ornamental plant species on these squares were directly measured, and the total quantity of plant leaf area of each studied square was obtained individually. The results showed that the quantity of plant leaf area on Shengli square with ornamental plants structure composed of arbor tree species, shrub tree species and turf grass was highest among the three squares. It is believed that the design model of multi-storied vertical structure and proper tending of plant community could not only increase the quantity of plant leaf area, but also play an important role in generating ecological and landscaping benefits.Some corresponding suggestions were put forward on the basis of comprehensive analyses on the plant leaf area quantity of the three representative squares in Kunming urban area.

  6. New non-Noether conserved quantities of mechanical system in phase space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xiang-Hong; Fang Jian-Hui

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on studying non-Noether conserved quantities of Lie symmetry and of form invariance for a mechanical system in phase space under the general infinitesimal transformation of groups. We obtain a new non-Noether conserved quantity of Lie symmetry of the system, and Hojman and Mei's results are of special cases of our conclusion. We find a condition under which the form invariance of the system will lead to a Lie symmetry, and, further,obtain a new non-Noether conserved quantity of form invariance of the system. An example is given finally to illustrate these results.

  7. Exact Solutions and Conserved Quantities in f(R,T) Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Sharif, M

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores Noether and Noether gauge symmetries of anisotropic universe model in $f(R,T)$ gravity. We consider two particular models of this gravity and evaluate their symmetry generators as well as associated conserved quantities. We also find exact solution by using cyclic variable and investigate its behavior via cosmological parameters. The behavior of cosmological parameters turns out to be consistent with recent observations which indicates accelerated expansion of the universe. Next we study Noether gauge symmetry and corresponding conserved quantities for both isotropic and anisotropic universe models. We conclude that symmetry generators and the associated conserved quantities appear in all cases.

  8. Lie symmetries and non-Noether conserved quantities for Hamiltonian canonical equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Jing-Li; Chen Li-Qun; Xie Feng-Ping

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on studying Lie symmetries and non-Noether conserved quantities of Hamiltonian dynamical systems in phase space. Based on the infinitesimal transformations with respect to the generalized coordinates and generalized momenta, we obtain the determining equations and structure equation of the Lie symmetry for Hamiltonian dynamical systems. This work extends the research of non-Noether conserved quantity for Hamilton canonical equations,and leads directly to a new type of non-Noether conserved quantities of the systems. Finally, an example is given to illustrate these results.

  9. Coordinated Lot-sizing and Dynamic Prizing under a Supplier All-units Quantity Discount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Transchel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider an economic order quantity model where the supplier offers an all-units quantity discount and a price sensitive customer demand. We compare a decentralized decision framework where selling price and replenishment policy are determined independently to simultaneous decision making. Constant and dynamic pricing are distinguished. We derive structural properties and develop algorithms that determine the optimal pricing and replenishment policy and show how quantity discounts not only influence the purchasing strategy but also the pricing policy. A sensitivity analysis indicates the impact of the fixed-holding cost ratio, the discount policy, and the customers' price sensitivity on the optimal decisions.

  10. Researching the possibility of production of dried porcine meat with decreased quantity of salt

    OpenAIRE

    Lilić Slobodan; Karan Dragica; Vidanović D.

    2004-01-01

    When manufacturing dried meat products the meat is usualy being conserved with 5-7% salt what results in a pretty high quantity of NaCl in end products (6-11%), and therefore sodium which is one of the major causes of hypertension nowadays. Data regarding the quantity of NaCl in end products are different. In hams at the end of ripening quantity of NaCl is 3,5-11,6% depending on whether the piece of meat was taken from middle or outer part. Dried meat from China usually has 7,6% NaCl (10). Af...

  11. Noether-Lie symmetry and conserved quantities of mechanical system in phase space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Jian-Hui; Liao Yong-Pan; Ding Ning; Wang Peng

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new kind of symmetry and its conserved quantities of a mechanical system in phase space are studied. The definition of this new symmetry, i.e. a Noether-Lie symmetry, is presented, and the criterion of this symmetry is also given. The Noether conserved quantity and the generalized Hojman conserved quantity of the NoetherLie symmetry of the system are obtained. The Noether-Lie symmetry contains the Nocthcr symmetry and the Lie symmetry, and has more generalized significance.

  12. Non-Noether symmetries and Lutzky conservative quantities of nonholonomic nonconservative dynamical ystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Shi-Wang; Tang Yi-Fa; Fu Jing-Li

    2006-01-01

    Non-Noether symmetries and conservative quantities of nonholonomic nonconservative dynamical systems are investigated in this paper. Based on the relationships among motion, nonconservative forces, nonholonomic constrained forces and Lagrangian, non-Noether symmetries and Lutzky conservative quantities are presented for nonholonomic nonconservative dynamical systems. The relation between non-Noether symmetry and Noether symmetry is discussed and it is further shown that non-Noether conservative quantities can be obtained by a complete set of Noether invariants. Finally, an example is given to illustrate these results.

  13. High Resolution RPCs for Large TOF Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira-Marques, R; CERN. Geneva; Carolino, N; Policarpo, Armando; Fonte, P

    1999-01-01

    Here we report on a particular type of RPC that presents above 95% efficiency for minimum ionizing particles and a very sharp time resolution, below 80 ps sigma. Our 9cm2 cells, made with glass and metal electrodes that form accurately spaced gaps of a few hundred micrometers, are operated at atmospheric pressure in non-flammable gases and can be economically produced in large quantities, opening perspectives for the construction of large area timeof flight systems.

  14. Preparing Slide Presentations on Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberfeld, John K.

    1982-01-01

    Suggest use of well-organized slide presentation as effective way to introduce computers to large audiences and discusses how to get started--state objective, analyze audience, outline presentation, prepare slides--and equipment needed to obtain slides from television screens, miniature components, and book illustrations. References and sources…

  15. Simplifying Chemical Reactor Design by using Molar Quantities Instead of Fractional Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee F.; Falconer, John L.

    1987-01-01

    Explains the advantages of using molar quantities in chemical reactor design. Advocates the use of differential versions of reactor mass balances rather than the integrated forms. Provides specific examples and cases to illustrate the principles. (ML)

  16. 21 CFR 701.13 - Declaration of net quantity of contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of net quantity blown, embossed, or molded on a glass or plastic surface is permissible when all... practice or by unavoidable deviations in good manufacturing practice will be recognized. Variations...

  17. New conserved quantities of Noether-Mei symmetry of mechanical system in phase space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Jian-Hui; Liu Yang-Kui; Zhang Xiao-Ni

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies two new types of conserved quantities deduced by Noether-Mei symmetry of mechanical system in phase space. The definition and criterion of Noether-Mei symmetry for the system are given. A coordination function is introduced, and the conditions under which the Noether-Mei symmetry leads to the two types of conserved quantities and the forms of the two types of conserved quantities are obtained. An illustrative example is given. The coordination function can be selected according to the demand for finding the gauge function, and the choice of the coordination function has multiformity, so more conserved quantities deduced from Noether-Mei symmetry of mechanical system can be obtained.

  18. Maximization of integral outlet quantities of an axisymmetric synthetic jet actuator based on a loudspeaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordík J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to find an optimal nozzle size of an axisymmetric synthetic jet actuator based on a loudspeaker. The desirable maximized output quantities are: volumetric flow, momentum flux, and kinetic energy flux. To evaluate these quantities velocity profiles were measured using a hot-wire probe at the actuator nozzle exit. Six different nozzle diameters and three supplied real power levels were tested to find the maxima of the quantities. The actuator operated always at resonance during experiments. It was found out that the momentum flux and the kinetic energy flux reach distinguishable local maxima at particular diameters of the nozzle. Besides, the maxima of the particular quantities do not coincide and the best nozzle size slightly increases with the supplied real power to the actuator.

  19. Experimental research on influence of emulsifier on crystallization quantity of emulsion explosives under dynamic pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wen-yao; YAN Shi-long; WU Hong-bo; YUAN Sheng-fang

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic pressure was applied on emulsion explosive by using an underwater explosion measuring apparatus, and the crystallization quantity was measured by dissolution method after emulsion explosive was pressed; the influence of emulsi fier content and type was analyzed. The experimental results show that emulsifier content and type have an important effect on crystallization quantity of emulsion explosive. The crystallization quantity will reduce with Span-80 content from 2% to 4%, so the demulsification and crystallization will decrease if the emulsifier content improves appropriately and the dynamic pressure resistance will increase. For emulsion explosive emulsified by T-152 and Span-80, the crystallization quantity with T-152 is less than that of Span-80 under the same dynamic pressure. This shows that the emulsifying effect of T-152 is better than Span-80.

  20. Quantity judgments in the context of risk/reward decision making in striped field mice: first “count,” then hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleeva, Sofia; Reznikova, Zhanna; Vygonyailova, Olga

    2013-01-01

    We simulated the situation of risky hunting in the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius in order to examine whether these animals are able to make a choice between small and large quantities of live prey (ants). In the first (preliminary) experiment we investigated to what extent mice were interested in ants as a live prey and how their hunting activity depended on the quantity of these edible but rather aggressive insects. We placed mice one by one into arenas together with ant groups of different quantities, from 10 to 60. Surprisingly, animals, both wild-caught and laboratory-reared, displayed rather skilled predatory attacks: mice killed and ate from 0.37 ± 003 to 4 ± 0.5 ants per minute. However, there was a threshold number of ants in the arenas when rodents expressed signs of discomfort and started to panic, likely because ants bit them. This threshold corresponds to the dynamic density (about 400 individuals per m2 per min) in the vicinity of anthills and ants' routes in natural environment. In the second experiment mice had to choose between different quantities of ants placed in two transparent tunnels. Ants here served both as food items and as a source of danger. As far as we know, this is the first experimental paradigm based on evaluation of quantity judgments in the context of risk/reward decision making where the animals face a trade-off between the hedonistic value of the prey and the danger it presents. We found that when mice have to choose between 5 vs. 15, 5 vs. 30, and 10 vs. 30 ants, they always tend to prefer the smaller quantity, thus displaying the capacity for distinguishing more from less in order to ensure comfortable hunting. The results of this study are ecologically relevant as they reflect situations and challenges faced by free-living small rodents. PMID:23407476

  1. On the five base quantities of nature and SI (The International System of Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaptay G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown here that five base quantities (and the corresponding five base units of nature are sufficient to define all derived quantities (and their units and to describe all natural phenomena. The base quantities (and their base units are: length (m, mass (kg, time (s, temperature (K and electric charge (C. The amount of substance (mole is not taken as a base quantity of nature and the Avogadro constant is not considered as a fundamental constant of nature, as they are both based on an arbitrary definition (due to the arbitrary value of 0.012 kg for the mass of 1 mole of C-12 isotope. Therefore, the amount of substance (mole is moved from the list of base quantities to the category of the supplementary units (to be re-created after its abrogation in 1995. Based on its definition, the luminous intensity (cd is not a base quantity (unit, therefore it is moved to the list of derived quantities (units. The ampere and coulomb are exchanged by places in the list of base and derived units, as ampere is a speed of coulombs (but SI defines meter, not its speed as a base unit. The five base quantities are re-defined in this paper by connecting them to five fundamental constants of nature (the most accurately known frequency of the hydrogen atom, the speed of light, the Planck constant, the Boltzmann constant and the elementary charge with their numerical values fixed in accordance with their CODATA 2006 values (to be improved by further experiments.

  2. Determinants of chestnuts demanded quantities : an empirical estimation using panel data

    OpenAIRE

    Mourão, Paulo; Mourão, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we studied the economic determinants of chestnuts demanded quantities. It concludes by stating that chestnuts are only demanded in countries with the tradition of their presence in people’s diets, receiving strong challenges from the globalisation process. We also have found a significant dependence on real income per capita of chestnuts demanded quantities. Price effects were concluded as not influencing CDQ in the panel estimations.

  3. Management contracts and competition in prices or quantities as strategic tools for differentiated duopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Velosa, Monique; Jácome Liévano, Flavio

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes a differentiated duopoly, in which each business use twos strategic tools to compete with its rival: management incentive contracts, and a choice between prices and quantities. Using the non-cooperative game theory, it is found in equilibrium that (i) when the businesses (i) do not hire managers with substitute (complementary) price contracts are the dominant strategy; with complementary items,quantity (price) contracts become the dominant strategy; (ii) when the compani...

  4. Testing the Children Quantity-Quality Trade-Off in India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Santosh; Kugler, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a representative sample from India, we test the empirical validity of Quantity-Quality tarde-off model of Becker and Lewis (1973). To address the endogeneity arising from the joint determination of quantity and quality of children by parents, we instrument the family size by sex of the first child. We find a negative relationship between family size and children's educational attainment, even after controlling for parent's characteristics and birth order of children. ...

  5. Lie Symmetrical Non-Noether Conserved Quantity of Mechanical System in Phase Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jian-Hui; PENG Yong; LIAO Yong-Pan; LI Hong

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the Lie symmetrical non-Noether conserved quantity of the differential equations ofmotion of mechanical system in phase space under the general infinitesimal transformations of groups. Firstly, we givethe determining equations of the Lie symmetry of the system. Secondly, the non-Noether conserved quantity of the Liesymmetry is derived. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  6. Lie Symmetrical Non-Noether Conserved Quantity of Mechanical System in Phase Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANGJian-Hui; PENGYong; LIAOYong-Pan; LIHong

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the Lie symmetrical non-Noether conserved quantity of the differential equations of motion of mechanical system in phase space under the general infinitesimal transformations of groups. Firstly. we give the determining equations of the Lie symmetry of the system. Secondly, the non-Noether conserved quantity of the Lie symmetry is derived. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  7. Conformal invariance and generalized Hojman conserved quantities of mechanico-electrical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yuan-Cheng; Xia Li-Li; Wang Xiao-Ming

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies conformal invariance and generalized Hojman conserved quantities of mechanico-electrical systems. The definition and the determining equation of conformal invariance for mechanico-electrical systems are provided. The conformal factor expression is deduced from conformal invariance and Lie symmetry under the infinitesimal singleparameter transformation group. The generalized Hojman conserved quantities from the conformal invariance of the system are given. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  8. Quantity discount contracts for supply chain coordination under asymmetric information and disruptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The quantity discount contracts are investigated for a one-supplier-one-retailer supply chain with asymmetric information when the retailer's cost is disrupted. While the retailer's cost structure is asymmetric information, two all-unit quantity discount contract models, fixed expected-profit percentage discount(FEPD) and fixed wholesale-pricing percentage discount(FWPD) under asymmetric information are proposed in a regular scenario. When the retailer's cost distribution fluctuates due to disruptions, the ...

  9. The Effect of Quantity, Quality and Timing of Headquarters-Initiated Knowledge Flows on Subsidiary Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Yen; Mahnke, Volker; Ambos, Björn

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops and tests a model that explains how the quality, quantity and timing of knowledge flows from headquarters influence subsidiary performance. It extends recent research on vertical knowledge flows between global headquarters and international subsidiaries. We find a positive...... quality/performance relationship and a curvilinear quantity/performance relationship, indicating that too much knowledge sharing can be detrimental to the receiving subsidiary. Most importantly, we show that the timing of a knowledge flow significantly affects subsidiary sales performance....

  10. Critical point quantities and integrability conditions for a class of quintic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘一戎; 肖萍

    2004-01-01

    For a class of quintic systems, the first 16 critical point quantities are obtained by computer algebraic system Mathematica, and the necessary and sufficient conditions that there exists an exact integral in a neighborhood of the origin are also given. The technique employed is essentially different from usual ones. The recursive formula for computation of critical point quantities is linear and then avoids complex integral operations. Some results show an interesting contrast with the related results on quadratic systems.

  11. Conformal invariance and a kind of Hojman conserved quantity of the Nambu system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan; Fang Jian-Hui; Zhang Ke-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Conformal invariance and a kind of Hojman conserved quantity of the Nambu system under infinitesimal transformations are studied. The definition and the determining equation of conformal invariance of the system are presented. The necessary and sufficient condition under which the conformal invariance of the system would have Lie symmetry under infinitesimal transformations is derived. Then, the condition of existence and a kind of Hojman conserved quantity are obtained. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  12. Non-Noether Conserved Quantity of Poincaré-Chetaev Equations of a Generalized Classical Mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng-Yu; FANG Jian-Hui; WANG Peng; DING Ning

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper the Lie symmetrical non-Noether conserved quantity of the Poincaré-Chetaev equations of a generalized classical mechanics under the general infinitesimal transformations of Lie groups is discussed. First, we establish the determining equations of Lie symmetry of the equations. Second, the Lie symmetrical non-Noether conserved quantity of the equations is deduced. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  13. Relative quantity judgments in the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) and the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, José Z; Hernández-Lloreda, Victoria; Call, Josep; Colmenares, Fernando

    2013-06-01

    Numerous studies have documented the ability of many species to make relative quantity judgments using an analogue magnitude system. We investigated whether one beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas, and three bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, were capable of selecting the larger of two sets of quantities, and analyzed if their performance matched predictions from the object file model versus the analog accumulator model. In Experiment 1, the two sets were presented simultaneously, under water, and they were visually (condition 1) or echoically (condition 2) available at the time of choice. In experiment 2, the two sets were presented above the water, successively (condition 1) or sequentially, item-by-item (condition 2), so that they were not visually available at the time of choice (condition 1) or at any time throughout the experiment (condition 2). We analyzed the effect of the ratio between quantities, the difference between quantities, and the total number of items presented on the subjects' choices. All subjects selected the larger of the two sets of quantities above chance levels in all conditions. However, unlike most previous studies, the subjects' choices did not match the predictions from the accumulator model. Whether these findings reflect interspecies differences in the mechanisms which underpin relative quantity judgments remains to be determined.

  14. Establishment and Evaluation of Decommissioning Plant Inventory DB and Waste Quantity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Yong; Moon, Sang-Rae; Yun, Taesik; Kim, Hee-Geun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Nak-Hoon; Jung, Seung Hyuk [KONES Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) made a decision for permanent shutdown of Kori-1 and has progressed the strategy determination and R and D for the decommissioning of Kori-1. Decommissioning waste, Structure, System and Components (SSCs) is one of the most important elements. Decommissioning waste quantity is calculated based on Plant Inventory Database (PI DB) with activation and contamination data. Due to the largest portion of waste management and disposal in decommissioning, it is necessary to exactly evaluate waste quantity (applying the regulation, guideline and site-specific characterization) for economic feasibility. In this paper, construction of PI DB and evaluation of waste quantity for Optimized Pressurized Reactor (OPR-1000) are mainly described. Decommissioning waste quantities evaluated are going to be applied to calculation of the project cost. In fact, Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) in Korea expected the decommissioning waste quantity in a range of 14,500-18,850 drums, and predicted appropriate liability for decommissioning fund by using waste quantity. The result of this study is also computed by the range of 14,500-18,850 drums. Since there is no site-specific data for the NPP site, this evaluation is the preliminary analysis.

  15. 筹建大型自备电厂工艺与设备选择情况之分析%Selection of Technology and Equipment in Preparing to Construct the Large Captive Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 张宝文; 徐青芳; 张维军; 张国宗

    2014-01-01

    介绍筹建大型自备电厂各配套装置的选择情况,通过对各种工艺的优缺点以及关键设备选型的调查、考察、比较,从不同专业角度及投资、运行费用、操作等方面进行综合分析、估算,最终选择适合本地区、本企业的最佳工艺和设备,从而使企业经济效益、环境效益最大化。%Describe selection of configuration devices in constructing large captive power plant . After investigating and analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of the various processes and the key equipment , comprehensive analysis and estimation from these aspects: different professional perspectives , investment , operating cost , operation , etc ., ultimately select the best process and the equipment which suiting for the local region and the local enterprise , so the economic and environmental benefits of the enterprise are maximized .

  16. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  17. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  18. Large N

    CERN Document Server

    Hooft, G

    2002-01-01

    In the first part of this lecture, the 1/N expansion technique is illustrated for the case of the large-N sigma model. In large-N gauge theories, the 1/N expansion is tantamount to sorting the Feynman diagrams according to their degree of planarity, that is, the minimal genus of the plane onto which the diagram can be mapped without any crossings. This holds both for the usual perturbative expansion with respect to powers of {tilde g}^2=g^2 N, as well as for the expansion of lattice theories in positive powers of 1/{tilde g}^2. If there were no renormalization effects, the tilde g expansion would have a finite radius of convergence. The zero-dimensional theory can be used for counting planar diagrams. It can be solved explicitly, so that the generating function for the number of diagrams with given 3-vertices and 4-vertices, can be derived exactly. This can be done for various kinds of Feynman diagrams. We end with some remarks about planar renormalization.

  19. Quantity and quality of randomized controlled trials published by Indian physiotherapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Hariohm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs are considered as the gold standard evidence for determining efficacy of interventions. Physiotherapeutic interventions are essential in the management of various conditions. However, information on the quantity and quality of RCTs published by Indian physiotherapists is largely unknown. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to review the RCTs published by Indian physiotherapists for analyzing publication trend and its quality. Materials and Methods: Medline database was searched for eligible RCTs published by Indian physiotherapists between the years 2000 and 2013. We performed quantitative analysis of RCTs including type of participants, area of focus in physiotherapy, clinical condition and geographical location of first author′s affiliation and analyzed the methodological quality and reporting of RCTs using Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scale and consolidated standards of reporting trials (CONSORTs key criterion statement, respectively. Results: A total of 45 RCTs have been published by Indian physiotherapists. The common conditions investigated in the trials were low back pain (16.3%, followed by diabetes (6.7% and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (6.7%. The mean score of PEDro is 5.5 (standard deviation: 1.2. Trial registration (3 [7%] and sample size calculation (28.9% are the most common CONSORT items not reported in the trials. Interpretation and Conclusions: RCTs published by Indian physiotherapists is gradually increasing in numbers and the methodological qualities of studies are fair. However, there is substantial scope for improvement in conducting and reporting trials. In the future, Indian physiotherapists should focus more on conditions such as stroke, asthma, and others, which have a larger burden of illness among Indian population.

  20. Analysis of Gas Membrane Ultra-High Purification of Small Quantities of Mono-Isotopic Silane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Almeida, Valmor F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Hart, Kevin J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division

    2016-09-05

    A small quantity of high-value, crude, mono-isotopic silane is a prospective gas for a small-scale, high-recovery, ultra-high membrane purification process. This is an unusual application of gas membrane separation for which we provide a comprehensive analysis of a simple purification model. The goal is to develop direct analytic expressions for estimating the feasibility and efficiency of the method, and guide process design; this is only possible for binary mixtures of silane in the dilute limit which is a somewhat realistic case. Among the common impurities in crude silane, methane poses a special membrane separation challenge since it is chemically similar to silane. Other potential problematic surprises are: ethylene, diborane and ethane (in this order). Nevertheless, we demonstrate, theoretically, that a carefully designed membrane system may be able to purify mono-isotopic, crude silane to electronics-grade level in a reasonable amount of time and expenses. We advocate a combination of membrane materials that preferentially reject heavy impurities based on mobility selectivity, and light impurities based on solubility selectivity. We provide estimates for the purification of significant contaminants of interest. To improve the separation selectivity, it is advantageous to use a permeate chamber under vacuum, however this also requires greater control of in-leakage of impurities in the system. In this study, we suggest cellulose acetate and polydimethylsiloxane as examples of membrane materials on the basis of limited permeability data found in the open literature. We provide estimates on the membrane area needed and priming volume of the cell enclosure for fabrication purposes when using the suggested membrane materials. These estimates are largely theoretical in view of the absence of reliable experimental data for the permeability of silane. Last but not least, future extension of this work to the non-dilute limit may apply to the recovery of silane from