WorldWideScience

Sample records for preparing fuel elements

  1. Nuclear fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadowcroft, Ronald Ross; Bain, Alastair Stewart

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element wherein a tubular cladding of zirconium or a zirconium alloy has a fission gas plenum chamber which is held against collapse by the loops of a spacer in the form of a tube which has been deformed inwardly at three equally spaced, circumferential positions to provide three loops. A heat resistant disc of, say, graphite separates nuclear fuel pellets within the cladding from the plenum chamber. The spacer is of zirconium or a zirconium alloy.

  2. Fuel Element Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, H.H. [ed.

    1956-08-01

    It is the purpose of the Fuel Element Technical Manual to Provide a single document describing the fabrication processes used in the manufacture of the fuel element as well as the technical bases for these processes. The manual will be instrumental in the indoctrination of personnel new to the field and will provide a single data reference for all personnel involved in the design or manufacture of the fuel element. The material contained in this manual was assembled by members of the Engineering Department and the Manufacturing Department at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation between the dates October, 1955 and June, 1956. Arrangement of the manual. The manual is divided into six parts: Part I--introduction; Part II--technical bases; Part III--process; Part IV--plant and equipment; Part V--process control and improvement; and VI--safety.

  3. Investigation of silver and iodine transport through silicon carbide layers prepared for nuclear fuel element cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, E.; van der Berg, N. G.; Malherbe, J. B.; Hancke, J. J.; Barry, J.; Wendler, E.; Wesch, W.

    2011-03-01

    Transport of silver and iodine through polycrystalline SiC layers produced by PBMR (Pty) Ltd. for cladding of TRISO fuel kernels was investigated using Rutherford backscattering analysis and electron microscopy. Fluences of 2 × 10 16 Ag + cm -2 and 1 × 10 16 I + cm -2 were implanted at room temperature, 350 °C and 600 °C with an energy of 360 keV, producing an atomic density of approximately 1.5% at the projected ranges of about 100 nm. The broadening of the implantation profiles and the loss of diffusors through the front surface during vacuum annealing at temperatures up to 1400 °C was determined. The results for room temperature implantations point to completely different transport mechanisms for silver and iodine in highly disordered silicon carbide. However, similar results are obtained for high temperature implantations, although iodine transport is much stronger influenced by lattice defects than is the case for silver. For both diffusors transport in well annealed samples can be described by Fickian grain boundary diffusion with no abnormal loss through the surface as would be expected from the presence of nano-pores and/or micro-cracks. At 1100 °C diffusion coefficients for silver and iodine are below our detection limit of 10 -21 m 2 s -1, while they increase into the 10 -20 m 2 s -1 range at 1300 °C.

  4. Preparation for shipment of spent TRIGA fuel elements from the research reactor of the Medical University of Hannover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, Gabriele; Cordes, Harro [Medical University of Hannover, D-30625 Hannover (Germany); Ebbinghaus, Kurt; Haferkamp, Dirk [NOELL-KRC, D-97064 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    In the early seventies a research reactor of type TRIGA Mark I was installed in the Department of Nuclear Medicine at the Medical University of Hannover (MHH) for the production of isotopes with short decay times for medical use. Since new production methods have been developed, the reactor has become obsolete and the MHH decided to decommission it. Probably in the second quarter of 1999 all 76 spent TRIGA fuel elements will be shipped to Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), USA, in one cask of type GNS 16. Due to technical reasons within the MHH a special Mobile Transfer System, which is being developed by the company Noell-KRC, will be used for reloading the fuel elements and transferring them from the reactor to the cask GNS 16. A description of the main components of this system as well as the process for transferring the fuel elements follows. (author)

  5. Nuclear fuel elements design, fabrication and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Frost, Brian R T

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Elements: Design, Fabrication and Performance is concerned with the design, fabrication, and performance of nuclear fuel elements, with emphasis on fast reactor fuel elements. Topics range from fuel types and the irradiation behavior of fuels to cladding and duct materials, fuel element design and modeling, fuel element performance testing and qualification, and the performance of water reactor fuels. Fast reactor fuel elements, research and test reactor fuel elements, and unconventional fuel elements are also covered. This volume consists of 12 chapters and begins with an overvie

  6. SNTP program fuel element design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Lewis A.; Ales, Matthew W.

    1993-06-01

    The SNTP program is evaluating the feasibility of utilizing a particle bed reactor to develop a high-performance nuclear thermal rocket engine. The optimum fuel element arrangement depends on the power level desired and the intended application. The key components of the fuel element have been developed and are being tested.

  7. Vented nuclear fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Leonard N.; Kaznoff, Alexis I.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel cell for use in a thermionic nuclear reactor in which a small conduit extends from the outside surface of the emitter to the center of the fuel mass of the emitter body to permit escape of volatile and gaseous fission products collected in the center thereof by virtue of molecular migration of the gases to the hotter region of the fuel.

  8. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  9. Protected Nuclear Fuel Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, J. H.; Schumar, J. F.

    1962-12-01

    A stainless steel-clad actinide metal fuel rod for use in fast reactors is reported. In order to prevert cladding failures due to alloy formation between the actinide metal and the stainless steel, a mesh-like sleeve of expanded metal is interposed between them, the sleeve metal being of niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, zirconium, or vanadium. Liquid alkali metal is added as a heat transfer agent. (AEC)

  10. Compact Fuel Element Environment Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. E.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse (I(sub sp)) and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Conventional, storable propellants produce average I(sub sp). Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) capable of high I(sub sp) thrust have been proposed. NTR employs heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen, which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3,000 K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements that employ high melting point metals, ceramics, or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. It is not necessary to include fissile material in test samples intended to explore high-temperature hydrogen exposure of the structural support matrices. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via noncontact radio frequency heating and expose samples to hydrogen for typical mission durations has been developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This Technical Memorandum details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

  11. Study of fuel element characteristic of SM and SMP (SM-PRIMA) fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinov, A.V.; Kuprienko, V.A.; Lebedev, V.A.; Makhin, V.M.; Tuchnin, L.M.; Tsykanov, V.A. [Research Institute of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation)

    1999-07-01

    The paper discusses the techniques and results of reactor tests and post-reactor investigations of the SM reactor fuel elements and fuel elements developed in the process of designing the specialized PRIMA test reactor with the SM reactor fuel elements used as a prototype and which are referred to as the SMP fuel elements. The behavior of fuel elements under normal operating conditions and under deviation from normal operating conditions was studied to verify the calculation techniques, to check the calculation results during preparation of the SM reactor safety substantiation report and to estimate the possibility of using such fuel elements in other projects. During tests of fuel rods under deviation from normal operating conditions their advantages were shown over fuel elements, the components of which were produced using the Al-based alloys. (author)

  12. Low cost, lightweight fuel cell elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    New fuel cell elements for use in liquid feed fuel cells are provided. The elements including biplates and endplates are low in cost, light in weight, and allow high efficiency operation. Electrically conductive elements are also a part of the fuel cell elements.

  13. Thermionic fuel element technology status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. W.; Horner, M. W.; Yang, L.

    1985-01-01

    The results of research, conducted between the mid-1960s and 1973, on the multiconverter thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) that comprise the reactor core of an SP-100 thermionic reactor system are presented. Fueled-emitter technology, insulator technology and cell and TFE assembly technology of the prototypical TFEs which were tested in-pile and out-of-pile during these years are described. The proto-TFEs have demonstrated reproducible performance within 5 percent and no premature failures within the 1.5 yr of operation (with projected 3-yr lifetimes). The two primary life-limiting factors had been identified as thermionic emitter dimensional increase due to interactions with the fuel and electrical insulator structural damage from fast neutrons. Multiple options for extending TFE lifetimes to 7 yr or longer are available and will be investigated in the 1984-1985 SP-100 program for resolution of critical technology issues. Design diagrams and test graphs are included.

  14. A high temperature fuel element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekido, A.; Nakai, M.; Ninomiya, Y.

    1982-12-21

    A solid electrolyte which conducts electricity with heating by oxygen ions and operates at a temperature of 1,000C is used in the element. The cathode, besides the ionic conductivity in oxygen, has an electron conductivity. The anode has electron conductivity. Substances such as Bi203, into which oxides of alkaline earth metals are added, are used for making the cathode. The electrolyte consists of ZrO2 and Y2O3, to which CaO is added. WC, to which an H2 type fuel is fed, serves as the anode. The element has a long service life.

  15. HTGR spent fuel composition and fuel element block flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, C.J.; Holder, N.D.; Pierce, V.H.; Robertson, M.W.

    1976-07-01

    The High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) utilizes the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. Fully enriched uranium fissile material and thorium fertile material are used in the initial reactor core and for makeup fuel in the recycle core loadings. Bred /sup 233/U and unburned /sup 235/U fissile materials are recovered from spent fuel elements, refabricated into recycle fuel elements, and used as part of the recycle core loading along with the makeup fuel elements. A typical HTGR employs a 4-yr fuel cycle with approximately one-fourth of the core discharged and reloaded annually. The fuel element composition, including heavy metals, impurity nuclides, fission products, and activation products, has been calculated for discharged spent fuel elements and for reload fresh fuel and recycle fuel elements for each cycle over the life of a typical HTGR. Fuel element compositions are presented for the conditions of equilibrium recycle. Data describing compositions for individual reloads throughout the reactor life are available in a detailed volume upon request. Fuel element block flow data have been compiled based on a forecast HTGR market. Annual block flows are presented for each type of fuel element discharged from the reactors for reprocessing and for refabrication.

  16. Fuel elements of thermionic converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, R.L. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Systems Assessment Dept.; Gontar, A.S.; Nelidov, M.V.; Nikolaev, Yu.V.; Schulepov, L.N. [RI SIA Lutch, Podolsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-01-01

    Work on thermionic nuclear power systems has been performed in Russia within the framework of the TOPAZ reactor program since the early 1960s. In the TOPAZ in-core thermionic convertor reactor design, the fuel element`s cladding is also the thermionic convertor`s emitter. Deformation of the emitter can lead to short-circuiting and is the primary cause of premature TRC failure. Such deformation can be the result of fuel swelling, thermocycling, or increased unilateral pressure on the emitter due to the release of gaseous fission products. Much of the work on TRCs has concentrated on preventing or mitigating emitter deformation by improving the following materials and structures: nuclear fuel; emitter materials; electrical insulators; moderator and reflector materials; and gas-exhaust device. In addition, considerable effort has been directed toward the development of experimental techniques that accurately mimic operational conditions and toward the creation of analytical and numerical models that allow operational conditions and behavior to be predicted without the expense and time demands of in-pile tests. New and modified materials and structures for the cores of thermionic NPSs and new fabrication processes for the materials have ensured the possibility of creating thermionic NPSs for a wide range of powers, from tens to several hundreds of kilowatts, with life spans of 5 to 10 years.

  17. Fuel elements of thermionic converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, R.L. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Systems Assessment Dept.; Gontar, A.S.; Nelidov, M.V.; Nikolaev, Yu.V.; Schulepov, L.N. [RI SIA Lutch, Podolsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-01-01

    Work on thermionic nuclear power systems has been performed in Russia within the framework of the TOPAZ reactor program since the early 1960s. In the TOPAZ in-core thermionic convertor reactor design, the fuel element`s cladding is also the thermionic convertor`s emitter. Deformation of the emitter can lead to short-circuiting and is the primary cause of premature TRC failure. Such deformation can be the result of fuel swelling, thermocycling, or increased unilateral pressure on the emitter due to the release of gaseous fission products. Much of the work on TRCs has concentrated on preventing or mitigating emitter deformation by improving the following materials and structures: nuclear fuel; emitter materials; electrical insulators; moderator and reflector materials; and gas-exhaust device. In addition, considerable effort has been directed toward the development of experimental techniques that accurately mimic operational conditions and toward the creation of analytical and numerical models that allow operational conditions and behavior to be predicted without the expense and time demands of in-pile tests. New and modified materials and structures for the cores of thermionic NPSs and new fabrication processes for the materials have ensured the possibility of creating thermionic NPSs for a wide range of powers, from tens to several hundreds of kilowatts, with life spans of 5 to 10 years.

  18. Nuclear reactor fuel element. Kernreaktorbrennelement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippert, H.J.

    1985-03-28

    The fuel element box for a BWR is situated with a corner bolt on the inside in one corner of its top on the top side of the top plate. This corner bolt is screwed down with a bolt with a corner part which is provided with leaf springs outside on two sides, where the bolt has a smaller diameter and an expansion shank. The bolt is held captive to the bolt head on the top and the holder on the bottom of the corner part. The holder is a locknut. If the expansion forces are too great, the bolt can only break at the expansion shank.

  19. Visual examinations of K east fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitner, A.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-03

    Selected fuel elements stored in both ``good fuel`` and ``bad fuel`` canisters in K East Basin were extracted and visually examined full length for damage. Lower end damage in the ``bad fuel`` canisters was found to be more severe than expected based on top end appearances. Lower end damage for the ``good fuel`` canisters, however, was less than expected based on top end observations. Since about half of the fuel in K East Basin is contained in ``good fuel`` canisters based on top end assessments, the fraction of fuel projected to be intact with respect to IPS processing considerations remains at 50% based on these examination results.

  20. MRT fuel element inspection at Dounreay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J.

    1997-08-01

    To ensure that their production and inspection processes are performed in an acceptable manner, ie. auditable and traceable, the MTR Fuel Element Fabrication Plant at Dounreay operates to a documented quality system. This quality system, together with the fuel element manufacturing and inspection operations, has been independently certified to ISO9002-1987, EN29002-1987 and BS5750:Pt2:1987 by Lloyd`s Register Quality Assurance Limited (LRQA). This certification also provides dual accreditation to the relevant German, Dutch and Australian certification bodies. This paper briefly describes the quality system, together with the various inspection stages involved in the manufacture of MTR fuel elements at Dounreay.

  1. Fuels Preparation Department monthly report, January 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-02-28

    This report describes the operation of the fuels preparation department for the month of January, 1958. Manufacturing, employee relations, process development, plant improvements, and financial operations are described.

  2. Fuels Preparation Department monthly report, October 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1960-11-07

    This report describes the operation of the fuels preparation department for the month of October, 1960. Manufacturing, process development, employee relations, financial operations, and plant improvements are discussed.

  3. Fundamental aspects of nuclear reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    The book presented is designed to function both as a text for first-year graduate courses in nuclear materials and as a reference for workers involved in the materials design and performance aspects of nuclear power plants. The contents are arranged under the following chapter headings: statistical thermodynamics, thermal properties of solids, crystal structures, cohesive energy of solids, chemical equilibrium, point defects in solids, diffusion in solids, dislocations and grain boundaries, equation of state of UO/sub 2/, fuel element thermal performance, fuel chemistry, behavior of solid fission products in oxide fuel elements, swelling due to fission gases, pore migration and fuel restructuring kinetics, fission gas release, mechanical properties of UO/sub 2/, radiation damage, radiation effects in metals, interaction of sodium and stainless steel, modeling of the structural behavior of fuel elements and assemblies. (DG)

  4. Dual-radial cell thermionic fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Charles W.

    A dual-radial cell thermionic fuel element (TFE) has been proposed and partially evaluated. The cell has the capacity to produce considerably more power per gram of fuel than does a single-cell TFE, with a total electrical power in a fast reactor system of several hundred kWs, conservatively operated.

  5. Visual examinations of K west fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitner, A.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-03

    Over 250 fuel assemblies stored in sealed canisters in the K West Basin were extracted and visually examined for damage. Substantial damage was expected based on high cesium levels previously measured in water samples taken from these canisters. About 11% of the inner elements and 45% of the outer elements were found to be failed in these examinations. Canisters that had cesium levels of I curie or more generally had multiple instances of major fuel damage.

  6. Nuclear fuel elements having a composite cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gerald M.; Cowan, II, Robert L.; Davies, John H.

    1983-09-20

    An improved nuclear fuel element is disclosed for use in the core of nuclear reactors. The improved nuclear fuel element has a composite cladding of an outer portion forming a substrate having on the inside surface a metal layer selected from the group consisting of copper, nickel, iron and alloys of the foregoing with a gap between the composite cladding and the core of nuclear fuel. The nuclear fuel element comprises a container of the elongated composite cladding, a central core of a body of nuclear fuel material disposed in and partially filling the container and forming an internal cavity in the container, an enclosure integrally secured and sealed at each end of said container and a nuclear fuel material retaining means positioned in the cavity. The metal layer of the composite cladding prevents perforations or failures in the cladding substrate from stress corrosion cracking or from fuel pellet-cladding interaction or both. The substrate of the composite cladding is selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably is a zirconium alloy.

  7. Structural analysis of reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of fuel-element modeling is presented that traces the development of codes for the prediction of light-water-reactor and fast-breeder-reactor fuel-element performance. It is concluded that although the mathematical analysis is now far advanced, the development and incorporation of mechanistic constitutive equations has not kept pace. The resultant reliance on empirical correlations severely limits the physical insight that can be gained from code extrapolations. Current efforts include modeling of alternate fuel systems, analysis of local fuel-cladding interactions, and development of a predictive capability for off-normal behavior. Future work should help remedy the current constitutive deficiencies and should include the development of deterministic failure criteria for use in design.

  8. HTGR fuel element structural design considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alloway, R.; Gorholt, W.; Ho, F.; Vollman, R.; Yu, H.

    1986-09-01

    The structural design of the large HTGR prismatic core fuel elements involve the interaction of four engineering disciplines: nuclear physics, thermo-hydraulics, structural and material science. Fuel element stress analysis techniques and the development of structural criteria are discussed in the context of an overview of the entire design process. The core of the proposed 2240 MW(t) HTGR is described as an example where the design process was used. Probabalistic stress analysis techniques coupled with probabalistic risk analysis (PRA) to develop structural criteria to account for uncertainty are described. The PRA provides a means for ensuring that the proposed structural criteria are consistent with plant investment and safety risk goals. The evaluation of cracked fuel elements removed from the Fort St. Vrain reactor in the USA is discussed in the context of stress analysis uncertainty and structural criteria development.

  9. Research Development of MOX Fuel Element Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Qi-fa; YANG; Ting-gui; SHANG; Gai-bin; YIN; Bang-yue; ZHOU; Guo-liang; LI; Qiang; JIANG; Bao-jun

    2015-01-01

    The project of"MOX Fuel Element Research"led by China Institute of Atomic Energy,404Company Ltd.and CNPE Zhengzhou Branch are members of the project research team.The research task of 2015had been accomplished successfully,and the research productions of this year build up a basis for the future research,also

  10. Automatic inspection for remotely manufactured fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifman, J.; Vitela, J.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gibbs, K.S.; Benedict, R.W. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Two classification techniques, standard control charts and artificial neural networks, are studied as a means for automating the visual inspection of the welding of end plugs onto the top of remotely manufactured reprocessed nuclear fuel element jackets. Classificatory data are obtained through measurements performed on pre- and post-weld images captured with a remote camera and processed by an off-the-shelf vision system. The two classification methods are applied in the classification of 167 dummy stainless steel (HT9) fuel jackets yielding comparable results.

  11. Liquid fuel injection elements for rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, George B., Jr. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Thrust chambers for liquid propellant rocket engines include three principal components. One of these components is an injector which contains a plurality of injection elements to meter the flow of propellants at a predetermined rate, and fuel to oxidizer mixture ratio, to introduce the mixture into the combustion chamber, and to cause them to be atomized within the combustion chamber so that even combustion takes place. Evolving from these injectors are tube injectors. These tube injectors have injection elements for injecting the oxidizer into the combustion chamber. The oxidizer and fuel must be metered at predetermined rates and mixture ratios in order to mix them within the combustion chamber so that combustion takes place smoothly and completely. Hence tube injectors are subject to improvement. An injection element for a liquid propellant rocket engine of the bipropellant type is provided which includes tangential fuel metering orifices, and a plurality of oxidizer tube injection elements whose injection tubes are also provided with tangential oxidizer entry slots and internal reed valves.

  12. Fuel element concept for long life high power nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Rom, F. E.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear reactor fuel elements have burnups that are an order of magnitude higher than can currently be achieved by conventional design practice. Elements have greater time integrated power producing capacity per unit volume. Element design concept capitalizes on known design principles and observed behavior of nuclear fuel.

  13. Fuel cell elements with improved water handling capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Lee, Albany (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    New fuel cell components for use in liquid feed fuel cell systems are provided. The components include biplates and endplates, having a hydrophilic surface and allow high efficiency operation. Conductive elements and a wicking device also form a part of the fuel cell components of the invention.

  14. Thermal analysis of IRT-T reactor fuel elements

    OpenAIRE

    Naymushin, Artem Georgievich; Chertkov, Yuri Borisovich; Lebedev, Ivan Igorevich; Anikin, Mikhail Nikolaevich

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the method and results of thermo-physical calculations of IRT-T reactor core. Heat fluxes, temperatures of cladding, fuel meat and coolant were calculated for height of core, azimuth directions of FA and each fuel elements in FA. Average calculated values of uniformity factor of energy release distribution for height of fuel assemblies were shown in this research. Onset nucleate boiling temperature and ONB-ratio were calculated. Shows that temperature regimes of fuel ele...

  15. CHF Enhancement of Advanced 37-Element Fuel Bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hwan Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A standard 37-element fuel bundle (37S fuel bundle has been used in commercial CANDU reactors for over 40 years as a reference fuel bundle. Most CHF of a 37S fuel bundle have occurred at the elements arranged in the inner pitch circle for high flows and at the elements arranged in the outer pitch circle for low flows. It should be noted that a 37S fuel bundle has a relatively small flow area and high flow resistance at the peripheral subchannels of its center element compared to the other subchannels. The configuration of a fuel bundle is one of the important factors affecting the local CHF occurrence. Considering the CHF characteristics of a 37S fuel bundle in terms of CHF enhancement, there can be two approaches to enlarge the flow areas of the peripheral subchannels of a center element in order to enhance CHF of a 37S fuel bundle. To increase the center subchannel areas, one approach is the reduction of the diameter of a center element, and the other is an increase of the inner pitch circle. The former can increase the total flow area of a fuel bundle and redistributes the power density of all fuel elements as well as the CHF. On the other hand, the latter can reduce the gap between the elements located in the middle and inner pitch circles owing to the increasing inner pitch circle. This can also affect the enthalpy redistribution of the fuel bundle and finally enhance CHF or dry-out power. In this study, the above two approaches, which are proposed to enlarge the flow areas of the center subchannels, were considered to investigate the impact of the flow area changes of the center subchannels on the CHF enhancement as well as the thermal characteristics by applying a subchannel analysis method.

  16. IN-CELL visual examinations of K east fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitner, A.L.; Pyecha, T.D., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    Nine outer fuel elements were recovered from the K East Basin and transferred to a hot cell for examination. Extensive testing planned for these elements will support the process design for the Integrated Process Strategy (IPS), with emphasis on drying and conditioning behavior. Visual examinations of the fuel elements confirmed that they are appropriate to meet testing objectives to provide design guidance for IPS processing parameters.

  17. Fuels Preparation Department monthly report for November 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-12-20

    This report describes the operation of the fuels preparation department for the month of November 1957. Manufacturing employee relations, process development, plant improvements and financial operations are described.

  18. Fuels Preparation Department monthly report for September 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-10-23

    This report describes the operation of the fuels preparation department for the month of September, 1958. Manufacturing employee relations, process development, plant improvements and financial operations are described.

  19. Fuels Preparation Department monthly report for October 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-11-18

    This report describes the operation of the fuels preparation department for the month of October, 1958. Manufacturing employee relations, process development, plant improvements and financial operations are described.

  20. Fuels preparation department monthly report for April 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-05-23

    This report describes the operation of the fuels preparation department for the month of April 1957. Manufacturing, employee relations, process development, plant improvements, and financial operations are described.

  1. Fuels Preparation Department monthly report for April 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-05-15

    This report describes the operation of the fuels preparation department for the month of April 1958. Manufacturing, employee relations, process development, plant improvements, and financial operations are described.

  2. Corrosion studies in fuel element reprocessing environments containing nitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavers, J A; White, R R; Berry, W E; Griess, J C

    1982-04-01

    Nitric acid is universally used in aqueous fuel element reprocessing plants; however, in the processing scheme being developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, some of the equipment will be exposed to nitric acid under conditions not previously encountered in fuel element reprocessing plants. A previous report presented corrosion data obtained in hyperazeotropic nitric acid and in concentrated magnesium nitrate solutions used in its preparation. The results presented in this report are concerned with the following: (1) corrosion of titanium in nitric acid; (2) corrosion of nickel-base alloys in a nitric acid-hydrofluoric acid solution; (3) the formation of Cr(VI), which enhances corrosion, in nitric acid solutions; and (4) corrosion of mechanical pipe connectors in nitric acid. The results show that the corrosion rate of titanium increased with the refreshment rate of boiling nitric acid, but the effect diminished rapidly as the temperature decreased. The addition of iodic acid inhibited attack. Also, up to 200 ppM of fluoride in 70% HNO/sub 3/ had no major effect on the corrosion of either titanium or tantalum. In boiling 8 M HNO/sub 3/-0.05 M HF, Inconel 671 was more resistant than Inconel 690, but both alloys experienced end-grain attack. In the case of Inconel 671, heat treatment was very important; annealed and quenched material was much more resistant than furnace-cooled material.The rate of oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) increased significantly as the nitric acid concentration increased, and certain forms of ruthenium in the solution seemed to accelerate the rate of formation. Mechanical connectors of T-304L stainless steel experienced end-grain attack on the exposed pipe ends, and seal rings of both stainless steel and a titanium alloy (6% Al-4% V) underwent heavy attack in boiling 8 M HNO/sub 3/.

  3. Repurposing an irradiated instrumented TRIGA fuel element for regular use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Paulo F.; Souza, Luiz C.A., E-mail: pfo@cdtn.br, E-mail: lcas@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    TRIGA IPR-R1 is a research reactor also used for training and radioisotope production, located at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear da Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (Nuclear Technology Development Centre, Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission - CDTN/CNEN). Its first criticality occurred in November 1960. All original fuel elements were aluminum-clad. In 1971 nine new fuel elements, stainless steel-clad were acquired. One of them was an instrumented fuel element (IFE), equipped with 3 thermocouples. The IFE was introduced into the core only on August 2004, and remained there until July 2007. It was removed from the core after the severing of contacts between the thermocouples and their extension cables. After an unsuccessful attempt to recover electrical access to the thermocouples the IFE was transferred from the reactor pool to an auxiliary spent fuel storage well, with water, in the reactor room. In December 2011 the IFE was transferred to an identical well, dry, where it remains so far. This work is a proposal for recovery of this instrumented fuel element, by removing the cable guide rod and adaptation of a superior terminal plug similar to conventional fuel elements. This will enable its handling through the same tool used for regular fuel elements and its return to the reactor core. This is a delicate intervention in terms of radiological protection, and will require special care to minimize the exposure of operators. (author)

  4. Inspection of state of spent fuel elements stored in RA reactor spent fuel storage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, V.G.; Bulkin, S.Yu.; Sokolov, A.V. [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation); Matausek, M.V.; Vukadin, Z. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Science, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1999-07-01

    About five thousand spent fuel elements from RA reactor have been stored for over 30 years in sealed aluminum barrels in the spent fuel storage pool. This way of storage does not provide complete information about the state of spent fuel elements or the medium inside the barrels, like pressure or radioactivity. The technology has recently been developed and the equipment has been manufactured to inspect the state of the spent fuel and to reduce eventual internal pressure inside the aluminum barrels. Based on the results of this inspection, a procedure will be proposed for transferring spent fuel to a more reliable storage facility. (author)

  5. Design and Testing of Prototypic Elements Containing Monolithic Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; M.K. Meyer; D.M. Wachs

    2011-10-01

    The US fuel development team has performed numerous irradiation tests on small to medium sized specimens containing low enriched uranium fuel designs. The team is now focused on qualification and demonstration of the uranium-molybdenum Base Monolithic Design and has entered the next generation of testing with the design and irradiation of prototypic elements which contain this fuel. The designs of fuel elements containing monolithic fuel, such as AFIP-7 (which is currently under irradiation) and RERTR-FE (which is currently under fabrication), are appropriate progressions relative to the technology life cycle. The culmination of this testing program will occur with the design, fabrication, and irradiation of demonstration products to include the base fuel demonstration and design demonstration experiments. Future plans show that design, fabrication, and testing activities will apply the rigor needed for a demonstration campaign.

  6. Research on Measuring Technology for In-pile Fuel Element Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The tested fuel assembly for In-pile test for PWR fuel element with instrumentation consisted of 4instrumented fuel elements and total 12 sets of transducers. Double claddings are adopted to raise fueltemperature. Two fuel elements each have 2 thermocouples for measuring separately the fuel centerlinetemperature and the cladding surface temperature. The other two elements have membrane type oressure

  7. Technology Status of Thermionic Fuel Elements for Space Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. W.; Yang, L.

    1984-01-01

    Thermionic reactor power systems are discussed with respect to their suitability for space missions. The technology status of thermionic emitters and sheath insulator assemblies is described along with testing of the thermionic fuel elements.

  8. Remote fabrication and irradiation test of recycled nuclear fuel prepared by the oxidation and reduction of spent oxide fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin Ryu, Ho; Chan Song, Kee; Il Park, Geun; Won Lee, Jung; Seung Yang, Myung

    2005-02-01

    A direct dry recycling process was developed in order to reuse spent pressurized light water reactor (LWR) nuclear fuel in CANDU reactors without the separation of sensitive nuclear materials such as plutonium. The benefits of the dry recycling process are the saving of uranium resources and the reduction of spent fuel accumulation as well as a higher proliferation resistance. In the process of direct dry recycling, fuel pellets separated from spent LWR fuel rods are oxidized from UO2 to U3O8 at 500 °C in an air atmosphere and reduced into UO2 at 700 °C in a hydrogen atmosphere, which is called OREOX (oxidation and reduction of oxide fuel). The pellets are pulverized during the oxidation and reduction processes due to the phase transformation between cubic UO2 and orthorhombic U3O8. Using the oxide powder prepared from the OREOX process, the compaction and sintering processes are performed in a remote manner in a shielded hot cell due to the high radioactivity of the spent fuel. Most of the fission gas and volatile fission products are removed during the OREOX and sintering processes. The mini-elements fabricated by the direct dry recycling process are irradiated in the HANARO research reactor for the performance evaluation of the recycled fuel pellets. Post-irradiation examination of the irradiated fuel showed that microstructural evolution and fission gas release behavior of the dry-recycled fuel were similar to high burnup UO2 fuel.

  9. Simulation on reactor TRIGA Puspati core kinetics fueled with thorium (Th) based fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Abdul Aziz; Pauzi, Anas Muhamad; Rahman, Shaik Mohmmed Haikhal Abdul; Zin, Muhamad Rawi Muhammad; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Idris, Faridah Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    In confronting global energy requirement and the search for better technologies, there is a real case for widening the range of potential variations in the design of nuclear power plants. Smaller and simpler reactors are attractive, provided they can meet safety and security standards and non-proliferation issues. On fuel cycle aspect, thorium fuel cycles produce much less plutonium and other radioactive transuranic elements than uranium fuel cycles. Although not fissile itself, Th-232 will absorb slow neutrons to produce uranium-233 (233U), which is fissile. By introducing Thorium, the numbers of highly enriched uranium fuel element can be reduced while maintaining the core neutronic performance. This paper describes the core kinetic of a small research reactor core like TRIGA fueled with a Th filled fuel element matrix using a general purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code.

  10. Simulation on reactor TRIGA Puspati core kinetics fueled with thorium (Th) based fuel element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Abdul Aziz, E-mail: azizM@uniten.edu.my; Rahman, Shaik Mohmmed Haikhal Abdul [Universiti Tenaga Nasional. Jalan Ikram-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Pauzi, Anas Muhamad, E-mail: anas@uniten.edu.my; Zin, Muhamad Rawi Muhammad; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Idris, Faridah Mohamad [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    In confronting global energy requirement and the search for better technologies, there is a real case for widening the range of potential variations in the design of nuclear power plants. Smaller and simpler reactors are attractive, provided they can meet safety and security standards and non-proliferation issues. On fuel cycle aspect, thorium fuel cycles produce much less plutonium and other radioactive transuranic elements than uranium fuel cycles. Although not fissile itself, Th-232 will absorb slow neutrons to produce uranium-233 ({sup 233}U), which is fissile. By introducing Thorium, the numbers of highly enriched uranium fuel element can be reduced while maintaining the core neutronic performance. This paper describes the core kinetic of a small research reactor core like TRIGA fueled with a Th filled fuel element matrix using a general purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code.

  11. Failed MTR Fuel Element Detect in a Sipping Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeituni, C.A.; Terremoto, L.A.A.; da Silva, J.E.R.

    2004-10-06

    This work describes sipping tests performed on Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to find out which one failed in the core during a routine operation. Radioactive iodine isotopes {sup 131}I and {sup 133}I, employed as failure monitors, were detected in samples corresponding to the failed fuel element. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for {sup 137}Cs. The nuclear fuels U{sub 3}O{sub 8} - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of {sup 137}Cs.

  12. Weld Joint Design for SFR Metallic Fuel Element Closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Soo Sung; Woo, Yoon Myeng; Kim, Hyung Tae; Kim, Ki Hwan; Yoon, Kyung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) system is among the six systems selected for Gen-IV promising systems and expected to become available for commercial introduction around 2030. In Korea, the R and D on SFR has been begun since 1997, as one of the national long-term nuclear R and D programs. The international collaborative research is under way on fuel developments within Advanced Fuel Project for Gen-IV SFR with the closed fuel cycle of full actinide recycling, while TRU bearing metallic fuel, U-TRU-Zr alloy fuel, was selected and is being developed. For the fabrication of SFR metallic fuel elements, the endplug welding is a crucial process. The sealing of endplug to cladding tube should be hermetically perfect to prevent a leakage of fission gases and to maintain a good reactor performance. In this study, the joint designs for endplug welding were investigated. For the irradiation test of SFR metallic fuel element, the TIG welding technique was adopted and the welding joint design was developed based on the welding conditions and parameters established. In order to make SFR metallic fuel elements, the weld joint design was developed based on the TIG welding technique.

  13. A method for limitation of probability of accumulation of fuel elements claddings damage in WWER

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey N. Pelykh; Mark V. Nikolsky; S. D. Ryabchikov

    2014-01-01

    The aim is to reduce the probability of accumulation of fuel elements claddings damage by developing a method to control the properties of the fuel elements on stages of design and operation of WWER. An averaged over the fuel assembly WWER-1000 fuel element is considered. The probability of depressurization of fuel elements claddings is found. The ability to predict the reliability of claddings by controlling the factors that determine the properties of the fuel elements is proved. The expedi...

  14. Use of silicide fuel in the Ford Nuclear Reactor - to lengthen fuel element lifetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretscher, M.M.; Snelgrove, J.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Burn, R.R.; Lee, J.C. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Phoenix Memorial Lab.

    1995-12-31

    Based on economic considerations, it has been proposed to increase the lifetime of LEU fuel elements in the Ford Nuclear Reactor by raising the {sup 235}U plate loading from 9.3 grams in aluminide (UAl{sub x}) fuel to 12.5 grams in silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) fuel. For a representative core configuration, preliminary neutronic depletion and steady state thermal hydraulic calculations have been performed to investigate core characteristics during the transition from an all-aluminide to an all-silicide core. This paper discusses motivations for this fuel element upgrade, results from the calculations, and conclusions.

  15. New Element no. 112 prepared from Zink and Lead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    The preparation of element no. 112 in the Periodic Table of the Elements has been reviewed in a popular scientific magazine.......The preparation of element no. 112 in the Periodic Table of the Elements has been reviewed in a popular scientific magazine....

  16. Uranium density reduction on fuel element side plates assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Ilka A. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, Delvonei A.; Domingos, Douglas B.; Umbehaun, Pedro E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    During operation of IEA-R1 research reactor, located at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP, an abnormal oxidation on some fuel elements was noted. It was also verified, among the possible causes of the problem, that the most likely one was insufficient cooling of the elements in the core. One of the propositions to solve or minimize the problem is to reduce uranium density on fuel elements side plates. In this paper, the influence of this change on neutronic and thermal hydraulic parameters for IEA-R1 reactor is verified by simulations with the codes HAMMER and CITATION. Results are presented and discussed. (author)

  17. Highest average burnups achieved by MTR fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damy, Margaret A.; Terremoto, Luis A.A.; Silva, Jose E.R.; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Castanheira, Myrthes; Teodoro, Celso A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear (CEN)]. E-mail: madamy@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Different nuclear fuels were employed in the manufacture of plate type at IPEN , usually designated as Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements. These fuel elements were used at the IEA-R1 research reactor. This work describes the main characteristics of these nuclear fuels, emphasizing the highest average burn up achieved by these fuel elements. (author)

  18. Attempt to produce silicide fuel elements in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soentono, S. (Nuclear Fuel Element Centre, BATAN Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong (Indonesia)); Suripto, A. (Nuclear Fuel Element Centre, BATAN Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong (Indonesia))

    1991-01-01

    After the successful experiment to produce U[sub 3]Si[sub 2] powder and U[sub 3]Si[sub 2]-Al fuel plates using depleted U and Si of semiconductor quality, silicide fuel was synthesized using <20% enriched U metal and silicon chips employing production train of UAl[sub x]-Al available at the Fuel Element Production Installation (FEPI) at Serpong, Indonesia. Two full-size U[sub 3]Si[sub 2]-Al fuel elements, having similar specifications to the ones of U[sub 3]O[sub 8]-Al for the RSG-GAS (formerly known as MPR-30), have been produced at the FEPI. All quality controls required have been imposed to the feeds, intermediate, as well as final products throughout the production processes of the two fuel elements. The current results show that these fuel elements are qualified from fabrication point of view, therefore it is expected that they will be permitted to be tested in the RSG-GAS, sometime by the end of 1989, for normal ([proportional to]50%) and above normal burn-up. (orig.)

  19. Core analysis during transition from 37-element fuel to CANFLEX-NU fuel in CANDU 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    An 1200-day time-dependent fuel-management for the transition from 37-element fuel to CANFLEX-NU fuel in a CANDU 6 reactor has been simulated to show the compatibility of the CANFLEX-NU fuel with the reactor operation. The simulation calculations were carried out with the RFSP code, provided by cell averaged fuel properties obtained from the POWDERPUFS-V code. The refueling scheme for both fuels was an eight bundle shift at a time. The simulation results show that the maximum channel and bundle powers were maintained below the license limit of the CANDU 6. This indicates that the CANFLEX-NU fuel bundle is compatible with the CANDU 6 reactor operation during the transition period. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  20. The manufacture of LEU fuel elements at Dounreay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J.

    1997-08-01

    Two LEU test elements are being manufactured at Dounreay for test irradiation in the HFR at Petten, The Netherlands. This paper describes the installation of equipment and the development of the fabrication and inspection techniques necessary for the manufacture of LEU fuel plates. The author`s experience in overcoming the technical problems of stray fuel particles, dog-boning, uranium homogeneity and the measurement of uranium distribution is also described.

  1. Research Progress About Gas-Exhaust-Device for Fuel Element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG; Wu-ye

    2012-01-01

    <正>UO2-x stack applied in the fuel element has a form of a cylinder with a central hole, where temperature field characterized by high temperature and high gradient is formed due to irradiation. Then nearly all of the gaseous fission products (GFPs) can release into central cavity. However, uranium oxide will evaporate form the fuel stack’s inner surface because of its high temperature (about 1 800-2 000 ℃),

  2. Analysis of the ATR fuel element swaging process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richins, W.D.; Miller, G.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a detailed evaluation of the swaging process used to connect fuel plates to side plates in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel elements. The swaging is a mechanical process that begins with fitting a fuel plate into grooves in the side plates. Once a fuel plate is positioned, a lip on each of two side plate grooves is pressed into the fuel plate using swaging wheels to form the joints. Each connection must have a specified strength (measured in terms, of a pullout force capacity) to assure that these joints do not fail during reactor operation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the swaging process and associated procedural controls, and to provide recommendations to assure that the manufacturing process produces swaged connections that meet the minimum strength requirement. The current fuel element manufacturer, Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) of Lynchburg, Virginia, follows established procedures that include quality inspections and process controls in swaging these connections. The procedures have been approved by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies and are designed to assure repeatability of the process and structural integrity of each joint. Prior to July 1994, ATR fuel elements were placed in the Hydraulic Test Facility (HTF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (AGNAIL), Test Reactor Area (TRA) for application of Boehmite (an aluminum oxide) film and for checking structural integrity before placement of the elements into the ATR. The results presented in this report demonstrate that the pullout strength of the swaged connections is assured by the current manufacturing process (with several recommended enhancements) without the need for- testing each element in the HTF.

  3. Volatile Elements Retention During Injection Casting of Metallic Fuel Slug for a Recycling Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Oh, Seok-Jin; Kuk, Seoung-Woo; Keum, Chang-Woon; Lee, Jung-Won; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The as-cast fuels prepared by injection casting were sound and the internal integrities were found to be satisfactory through gamma-ray radiography. U and Zr were uniform throughout the matrix of the slug, and the impurities, i.e., oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen, satisfied the specification of the total impurities of less than 2000 ppm. The losses of the volatile Mn were effectively controlled using argon over pressures, and dynamic pumping for a period of time before injection showed no detrimental effect on the Mn loss by vaporization. This result suggests that volatile minor actinide-bearing fuels for SFRs can be prepared by improved injection methods. A practical process of metallic fuel fabrication for an SFR needs to be cost efficient, suitable for remote operation, and capable of mass production while reducing the amount of radioactive waste. Injection casting was chosen as the most promising technique, and this technique has been applied to fuel slug fabrication for the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) driver and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel pins. Because of the simplistic nature of the process and equipment, compared to other processes examined, this process has been successfully used in a remote operation environment for fueling of the EBR-II reactor. In this study, several injection casting methods were applied in order to prepare metallic fuel for an fast reactor that control the transport of volatile elements during fuel melting and casting. Mn was selected as a surrogate alloy since it possesses a total vapor pressure equivalent to that of a volatile minor actinide-bearing fuel. U.10Zr and U.10Zr.5Mn (wt%) metallic fuels were injection cast under various casting conditions and their soundness was characterized.

  4. Low Cost Nuclear Thermal Rocket Cermet Fuel Element Environment Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, David E.; Mireles, Omar R.; Hickman, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse (Isp) and relatively high thrust in order to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Conventional, storable propellants produce average Isp. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTR) capable of high Isp thrust have been proposed. NTR employs heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements is limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements which employ high-melting-point metals, ceramics or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. It is not necessary to include fissile material in test samples intended to explore high temperature hydrogen exposure of the structural support matrices. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via non-contact RF heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This paper details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

  5. The OSU Hydro-Mechanical Fuel Test Facility: Standard Fuel Element Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade R. Marcum; Brian G. Woods; Ann Marie Phillips; Richard G. Ambrosek; James D. Wiest; Daniel M. Wachs

    2001-10-01

    Oregon State University (OSU) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) are currently collaborating on a test program which entails hydro-mechanical testing of a generic plate type fuel element, or standard fuel element (SFE), for the purpose of qualitatively demonstrating mechanical integrity of uranium-molybdenum monolithic plates as compared to that of uranium aluminum dispersion, and aluminum fuel plates due to hydraulic forces. This test program supports ongoing work conducted for/by the fuel development program and will take place at OSU in the Hydro-Mechanical Fuel Test Facility (HMFTF). Discussion of a preliminary test matrix, SFE design, measurement and instrumentation techniques, and facility description are detailed in this paper.

  6. GEH-4-63, 64: Proposal for irradiation of production brazed Zircaloy-2 clad fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tverberg, J.C.

    1961-05-18

    A brazed end closure is currently being used on prototypical NPR fuel elements. The production closure will use a braze alloy composed of 5% Be + 95% Zry-2 to braze the Zircaloy-2 cap to the jacket and to the metallic uranium core. A similar MTR test, a GEH-4-57, 58, used a braze alloy of the composition 4% Be + 12% Fe + 84% Zry-2 which melts at a lower temperature. In this previous test, element GEH-4-57 failed through a cladding defect located at the base of the braze heat affected zone. Because of this failure it would be desirable to subject a fuel element, which had been subjected to more severe brazing conditions, to the same conditions as GEH-4-57, 58. For this reason the thermal conditions of this test essentially match those of GEH-4-57, 58. This irradiation test consists of two identical fuel elements. The fuel material is normal metallic uranium, Zircaloy-2 clad of the tubular geometry, NPR inner size. The fuel was coextruded at Hanford by General Electric`s Fuels Preparation Department. Each element is 10.8 inches in length with flat Zircaloy-2 end caps brazed to the jacket and uranium core with the 5 Be + 95 Zry-2 brazing alloy, then TIG welded to further insure closure integrity. The elements ar 1.254 inches OD and 0.439 inches ID. For hydraulic purposes a 0.343 inch diamater flow restrictor has been fitted into the central flow channel of both elements.

  7. Induction Heating Model of Cermet Fuel Element Environmental Test (CFEET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Carlos F.; Bradley, D. E.; Cavender, D. P.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.; Trent, D.; Stewart, E.

    2013-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Nuclear Thermal Rockets (NTR) are capable of producing a high specific impulse by employing heat produced by a fission reactor to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000 K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements due to large thermal gradients; therefore, high-melting-point ceramics-metallic matrix composites (cermets) are one of the fuels under consideration as part of the Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Advance Exploration System (AES) technology project at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The purpose of testing and analytical modeling is to determine their ability to survive and maintain thermal performance in a prototypical NTR reactor environment of exposure to hydrogen at very high temperatures and obtain data to assess the properties of the non-nuclear support materials. The fission process and the resulting heating performance are well known and do not require that active fissile material to be integrated in this testing. A small-scale test bed; Compact Fuel Element Environmental Tester (CFEET), designed to heat fuel element samples via induction heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed at MSFC to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without utilizing fissile material. This paper details the analytical approach to help design and optimize the test bed using COMSOL Multiphysics for predicting thermal gradients induced by electromagnetic heating (Induction heating) and Thermal Desktop for radiation calculations.

  8. Modeling the Thermal Rocket Fuel Preparation Processes in the Launch Complex Fueling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zolin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to carry out fuel temperature preparation for space launch vehicles using hydrocarbon propellant components. A required temperature is reached with cooling or heating hydrocarbon fuel in ground facilities fuel storages. Fuel temperature preparing processes are among the most energy-intensive and lengthy processes that require the optimal technologies and regimes of cooling (heating fuel, which can be defined using the simulation of heat exchange processes for preparing the rocket fuel.The issues of research of different technologies and simulation of cooling processes of rocket fuel with liquid nitrogen are given in [1-10]. Diagrams of temperature preparation of hydrocarbon fuel, mathematical models and characteristics of cooling fuel with its direct contact with liquid nitrogen dispersed are considered, using the numerical solution of a system of heat transfer equations, in publications [3,9].Analytical models, allowing to determine the necessary flow rate and the mass of liquid nitrogen and the cooling (heating time fuel in specific conditions and requirements, are preferred for determining design and operational characteristics of the hydrocarbon fuel cooling system.A mathematical model of the temperature preparation processes is developed. Considered characteristics of these processes are based on the analytical solutions of the equations of heat transfer and allow to define operating parameters of temperature preparation of hydrocarbon fuel in the design and operation of the filling system of launch vehicles.The paper considers a technological system to fill the launch vehicles providing the temperature preparation of hydrocarbon gases at the launch site. In this system cooling the fuel in the storage tank before filling the launch vehicle is provided by hydrocarbon fuel bubbling with liquid nitrogen. Hydrocarbon fuel is heated with a pumping station, which provides fuel circulation through the heat exchanger-heater, with

  9. Modeling and Simulation of a Nuclear Fuel Element Test Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert P.; Emrich, William

    2011-01-01

    "The Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator" test section closely simulates the internal operating conditions of a thermal nuclear rocket. The purpose of testing is to determine the ideal fuel rod characteristics for optimum thermal heat transfer to their hydrogen cooling/working fluid while still maintaining fuel rod structural integrity. Working fluid exhaust temperatures of up to 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit can be encountered. The exhaust gas is rendered inert and massively reduced in temperature for analysis using a combination of water cooling channels and cool N2 gas injectors in the H2-N2 mixer portion of the test section. An extensive thermal fluid analysis was performed in support of the engineering design of the H2-N2 mixer in order to determine the maximum "mass flow rate"-"operating temperature" curve of the fuel elements hydrogen exhaust gas based on the test facilities available cooling N2 mass flow rate as the limiting factor.

  10. Fuel burnup calculation of a research reactor plate element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Nadia Rodrigues dos; Lima, Zelmo Rodrigues de; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes, E-mail: nadiasam@gmail.com, E-mail: zrlima@ien.gov.br, E-mail: malu@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This work consists in simulating the burnup of two different plate type fuel elements, where one is the benchmark MTR of the IAEA, which is made of an alloy of uranium and aluminum, while the other belonging to a typical multipurpose reactor is composed of an alloy of uranium and silicon. The simulation is performed using the WIMSD-5B computer code, which makes use of deterministic methods for solving neutron transport. In developing this task, fuel element equivalent cells were calculated representing each of the reactors to obtain the initial concentrations of each isotope constituent element of the fuel cell and the thicknesses corresponding to each region of the cell, since this information is part of the input data. The compared values of the k∞ showed a similar behavior for the case of the MTR calculated with the WIMSD-5B and EPRI-CELL codes. Relating the graphs of the concentrations in the burnup of both reactors, there are aspects very similar to each isotope selected. The application WIMSD-5B code to calculate isotopic concentrations and burnup of the fuel element, proved to be satisfactory for the fulfillment of the objective of this work. (author)

  11. Preparation of U–Zr–Mn, a Surrogate Alloy for Recycling Fast Reactor Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hwan Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic fuel slugs of U–10Zr–5Mn (wt%, a surrogate alloy for the U–TRU–Zr (TRU: a transuranic element alloys proposed for sodium-cooled fast reactors, were prepared by injection casting in a laboratory-scale furnace, and their characteristics were evaluated. As-cast U–Zr–Mn fuel rods were generally sound, without cracks or thin sections. Approximately 68% of the original Mn content was lost under dynamic vacuum and the resulting slug was denser than those prepared under Ar pressure. The concentration of volatile Mn was as per the target composition along the entire length of the rods prepared under 400 and 600 Torr. Impurities, namely, oxygen, carbon, silicon, and nitrogen, totaled less than 2,000 ppm, satisfying fuel criteria.

  12. Some parametric flow analyses of a particle bed fuel element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranich, D.

    1993-05-01

    Parametric calculations are performed, using the SAFSIM computer program, to investigate the fluid mechanics and heat transfer performance of a particle bed fuel element. Both steady-state and transient calculations are included, addressing such issues as flow stability, reduced thrust operation, transpiration drag, coolant conductivity enhancement, flow maldistributions, decay heat removal, flow perturbations, and pulse cooling. The calculations demonstrate the dependence of the predicted results on the modeling assumptions and thus provide guidance as to where further experimental and computational investigations are needed. The calculations also demonstrate that both flow instability and flow maldistribution in the fuel element are important phenomena. Furthermore, results are encouraging that geometric design changes to the element can significantly reduce problems related to these phenomena, allowing improved performance over a wide range of element power densities and flow rates. Such design changes will help to maximize the operational efficiency of space propulsion reactors employing particle bed fuel element technology. Finally, the results demonstrate that SAFSIM is a valuable engineering tool for performing quick and inexpensive parametric simulations addressing complex flow problems.

  13. Low Cost Nuclear Thermal Rocket Cermet Fuel Element Environment Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. E.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.

    2011-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames.1,2 Conventional storable propellants produce average specific impulse. Nuclear thermal rockets capable of producing high specific impulse are proposed. Nuclear thermal rockets employ heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen, which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000 K), and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited.3 The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements that employ high-melting-point metals, ceramics, or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. The purpose of the testing is to obtain data to assess the properties of the non-nuclear support materials, as-fabricated, and determine their ability to survive and maintain thermal performance in a prototypical NTR reactor environment of exposure to hydrogen at very high temperatures. The fission process of the planned fissile material and the resulting heating performance is well known and does not therefore require that active fissile material be integrated in this testing. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via non-contact radio frequency heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This paper details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

  14. Nuclear reactor fuel element with vanadium getter on cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carl E.; Carroll, Kenneth G.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element is described which has an outer cladding, a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material and a layer of vanadium as an oxygen getter on the inner surface of the cladding. The vanadium reacts with oxygen released by the fissionable material during irradiation of the core to prevent the oxygen from reacting with and corroding the cladding. Also described is a method for coating the inner surface of small diameter tubes of cladding with a layer of vanadium.

  15. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing High Flux Isotope Reactor fuel elements - 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.W.; Morin, R.A.

    1999-12-01

    The original fabrication procedures written in 1968 delineated the manufacturing procedures at that time. Since 1968, there have been a number of procedural changes. This rewrite of the fabrication procedures incorporates these changes. The entire fuel core of this reactor is made up of two fuel elements. Each element consists of one annular array of fuel plates. These annuli are identified as the inner and outer fuel elements, since one fits inside the other. The inner element consists of 171 identical fuel plates, and the outer element contains 369 identical fuel plates differing slightly from those in the inner element. Both sets of fuel plates contain U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder as the fuel, dispersed in an aluminum powder matrix and clad with aluminum. Procedures for manufacturing and inspection of the fuel elements are described and illustrated.

  16. Licos, a fuel performance code for innovative fuel elements or experimental devices design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfer, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.helfer@cea.fr; Bejaoui, Syriac, E-mail: syriac.bejaoui@cea.fr; Michel, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.michel@cea.fr

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The Licos fuel performance code is introduced. • Advanced features, such as dependency algorithm and kriging are described. • First results on three dimensional modelling of the SFR fuel pin are given. • Application to the DIAMINO design computations is discussed. - Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the Licos fuel performance code which has been developed for several years within the platform pleiades, co-developed by the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and its industrial partners Électricité de France (EDF) and AREVA. CEA engineers have been using Licos to back multidimensional thermo-mechanical studies on innovative fuel elements design and experimental device pre-and post-irradiation computations. Studies made with Licos thus encompass a wide range of situations, including most nuclear systems used or studied in France in recent years (PWR, SFR or GFR), normal and off-normal operating conditions, and a large selection of materials (either for fuel, absorber, coolant and cladding). The aim of this paper is to give some insights about some innovative features in the design of Licos (dependency management, kriging, mfront, etc.). We also present two studies that demonstrate the flexibility of this code. The first one shows how Licos can be combined with the Germinal monodimensional fuel performance code to demonstrate the interest of a three dimensional modelling of the fuel relocation phenomenon in the Sodium Fast Reactor fuel pin. The second one describes how Licos was used to model the DIAMINO experiment.

  17. Method for measuring recovery of catalytic elements from fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Lawrence [Edison, NJ; Matlin, Ramail [Berkeley, NJ

    2011-03-08

    A method is provided for measuring the concentration of a catalytic clement in a fuel cell powder. The method includes depositing on a porous substrate at least one layer of a powder mixture comprising the fuel cell powder and an internal standard material, ablating a sample of the powder mixture using a laser, and vaporizing the sample using an inductively coupled plasma. A normalized concentration of catalytic element in the sample is determined by quantifying the intensity of a first signal correlated to the amount of catalytic element in the sample, quantifying the intensity of a second signal correlated to the amount of internal standard material in the sample, and using a ratio of the first signal intensity to the second signal intensity to cancel out the effects of sample size.

  18. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR EXAMINING FUEL ELEMENTS FOR LEAKAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.R.; Echo, M.W.; Doe, C.B.

    1963-12-31

    A process and a device for the continuous monitoring of fuel elements while in use in a liquid-metal-cooled, argonblanketed nuclear reactor are presented. A fraction of the argon gas is withdrawn, contacted with a negative electrical charge for attraction of any alkali metal formed from argon by neutron reaction, and recycled into the reactor. The electrical charge is introduced into water, and the water is examined for radioactive alkali metals. (AEC)

  19. The element technology of clean fuel alcohol plant construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.S; Lee, D.S. [Sam-Sung Engineering Technical Institute (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C.Y [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    The fuel alcohol has been highlighted as a clean energy among new renewable energy sources. However, the production of the fuel alcohol has following problems; (i)bulk distillate remains is generated and (ii) benzene to be used as a entertainer in the azeotropic distillation causes the environmental problem. Thus, we started this research on the ground of preserving the cleanness in the production of fuel alcohol, a clean energy. We examined the schemes of replacing the azotropic distillation column which causes the problems with MSDP(Molecular Sieve Dehydration Process) system using adsorption technology and of treating the bulk distillate remains to be generated as by-products. In addition, we need to develop the continuous yea station technology for the continuous operation of fuel alcohol plant as a side goal. Thus, we try to develop a continuous ethanol fermentation process by high-density cell culture from tapioca, a industrial substrate, using cohesive yeast. For this purpose, we intend to examine the problem of tapioca, a industrial substrate, where a solid is existed and develop a new process which can solve the problem. Ultimately, the object of this project is to develop each element technology for the construction of fuel alcohol plant and obtain the ability to design the whole plant. (author) 54 refs., 143 figs., 34 tabs.

  20. Improvements in the fabrication of HTR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braehler, Georg, E-mail: georg.braehler@nukemtechnologies.de [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Industriestrasse 13, 63755 Alzenau (Germany); Hartung, Markus [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Industriestrasse 13, 63755 Alzenau (Germany); Fachinger, Johannes; Grosse, Karl-Heinz [FNAG Furnaces Nuclear Applications Grenoble S.A.S., Wilhelm-Rohn Strasse 35, 63450 Hanau (Germany); Seemann, Richard [ALD Vacuum Technologies GmbH, Wilhelm-Rohn Strasse 35, 63450 Hanau (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The application of High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Technology in the course of the continuously increasing world wide demand on energy is taken more and more under serious consideration in the power supply strategy of various countries. Especially for the emerging nations the HTR Technology has become of special interest because of its inherent safety feature and due to the alternative possibilities of applications, e.g. in the production of liquid hydrocarbons or the alternative application in H{sub 2} generation. The HTR fuel in its various forms (spheres or prismatic fuel blocks) is based on small fuel kernels of about 500 {mu}m in diameter. Each of these uranium oxide or carbide kernels are coated with several layers of pyrocarbon (PyC) as well as an additional silicon carbide (SiC) layer. While the inner pyrocarbon layer is porous and capable to absorb gaseous fission products, the dense outer PyC layer forms the barrier against fission product release. The SiC layer improves the mechanical strengths of this barrier and considerably increases the retention capacity for solid fission products that tent to diffuse at these temperatures. Especially the high quality German LEU TRISO spherical fuel based on the NUKEM design, has demonstrated the best fission product release rate, particular at high temperatures. The {approx}10% enriched uranium triple-coated particles are embedded in a moulded graphite sphere. A fuel sphere consists of approximately 9 g of uranium (some 15,000 particles) and has a diameter of 60 mm. As the unique safety features, especially the inherent safety of the HTR is based on the fuel design, this paper shall reflect the complexity but also developments and economical aspects of the fabrication processes for HTR fuel elements.

  1. A novel microbial fuel cell sensor with biocathode sensing element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong; Liang, Peng; Liu, Panpan; Wang, Donglin; Miao, Bo; Huang, Xia

    2017-03-02

    The traditional microbial fuel cell (MFC) sensor with bioanode as sensing element delivers limited sensitivity to toxicity monitoring, restricted application to only anaerobic and organic rich water body, and increased potential fault warning to the combined shock of organic matter/toxicity. In this study, the biocathode for oxygen reduction reaction was employed for the first time as the sensing element in MFC sensor for toxicity monitoring. The results shown that the sensitivity of MFC sensor with biocathode sensing element (7.4±2.0 to 67.5±4.0mA%(-1)cm(-2)) was much greater than that showed by bioanode sensing element (3.4±1.5 to 5.5±0.7mA%(-1)cm(-2)). The biocathode sensing element achieved the lowest detection limit reported to date using MFC sensor for formaldehyde detection (0.0005%), while the bioanode was more applicable for higher concentration (>0.0025%). There was a quicker response of biocathode sensing element with the increase of conductivity and dissolved oxygen (DO). The biocathode sensing element made the MFC sensor directly applied to clean water body monitoring, e.g., drinking water and reclaimed water, without the amending of background organic matter, and it also decreased the warning failure when challenged by a combined shock of organic matter/toxicity.

  2. Preparation and emission characteristics of ethanol-diesel fuel blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Run-duo; HE Hong; SHI Xiao-yan; ZHANG Chang-bin; HE Bang-quan; WANG Jian-xin

    2004-01-01

    The preparation of ethanol-diesel fuel blends and their emission characteristics were investigated. Results showed the absolute ethanol can dissolve in diesel fuel at an arbitrary ratio and a small quantity of water(0.2%) addition can lead to the phase separation of blends. An organic additive was synthesized and it can develop the ability of resistance to water and maintain the stability of ethanol-diesel-trace amounts of water system. The emission characteristics of 10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol-diesel fuel blends, with or without additives, were compared with those of diesel fuel in a direct injection(DI) diesel engine. The experimental results indicated that the blend of ethanol with diesel fuel significantly reduced the concentrations of smoke, hydrocarbon(HC), and carbon monoxide(CO) in exhaust gas. Using 20% ethanol-diesel fuel blend with the additive of 2% of the total volume, the optimum mixing ratio was achieved, at which the bench diesel engine testing showed a significant decrease in exhaust gas. Bosch smoke number was reduced by 55%, HC emission by 70%, and CO emission by 45%, at 13 kW/1540 r/min. However, ethanol-diesel fuel blends produced a few ppm acetaldehydes and more ethanol in exhaust gas.

  3. Assessments of Fuels for Military Use Preparation and Distribution of Synthetic Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Kerosene (SPK), Hydrotreated Renewable Jet Fuel, JP-8 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME...Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator cSt Centistokes DCN Derived Cetane Number HFRR High Frequency Reciprocating Test Rig HRJ Hydrotreated Renewable Jet...3.3 HEFA-SPK (HRJ) BLENDS TFLRF prepared several 50/50 % blends of hydrotreated renewable jet fuel (HRJ) and JP-8. Both HRJ-8 and HRJ-5 were

  4. Gamma-ray spectroscopy on irradiated MTR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terremoto, L.A.A. E-mail: laaterre@net.ipen.br; Zeituni, C.A.; Perrotta, J.A.; Silva, J.E.R. da

    2000-08-11

    The availability of burnup data is an important requirement in any systematic approach to the enhancement of safety, economics and performance of a nuclear research reactor. This work presents the theory and experimental techniques applied to determine, by means of nondestructive gamma-ray spectroscopy, the burnup of Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements irradiated in the IEA-R1 research reactor. Burnup measurements, based on analysis of spectra that result from collimation and detection of gamma-rays emitted in the decay of radioactive fission products, were performed at the reactor pool area. The measuring system consists of a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector together with suitable fast electronics and an on-line microcomputer data acquisition module. In order to achieve absolute burnup values, the detection set (collimator tube+HPGe detector) was previously calibrated in efficiency. The obtained burnup values are compared with ones provided by reactor physics calculations, for three kinds of MTR fuel elements with different cooling times, initial enrichment grades and total number of fuel plates. Both values show good agreement within the experimental error limits.

  5. Recapturing Graphite-Based Fuel Element Technology for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trammell, Michael P [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL; Miller, James Henry [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    ORNL is currently recapturing graphite based fuel forms for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). This effort involves research and development on materials selection, extrusion, and coating processes to produce fuel elements representative of historical ROVER and NERVA fuel. Initially, lab scale specimens were fabricated using surrogate oxides to develop processing parameters that could be applied to full length NTP fuel elements. Progress toward understanding the effect of these processing parameters on surrogate fuel microstructure is presented.

  6. Disposition of Unirradiated Sodium Bonded EBR-II Driver Fuel Elements and HEU Scrap: Work Performed for FY 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen A Moore

    2007-04-01

    Specific surplus high enriched uranium (HEU) materials at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) will be transferred to a designated off-site receiving facility. The DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO) will determine which materials, if any, will be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for nuclear reactors. These surplus HEU materials include approximately 7200 kg unirradiated sodium-bonded EBR-II driver fuel elements, and nearly 800 kg of HEU casting scrap from the process which formed various sodium-bonded fuels (including the EBR-II driver elements). Before the driver fuel can be packaged for shipment, the fuel elements will require removal of the sodium bond. The HEU scrap will also require repackaging in preparation for off-site transport. Preliminary work on this task was authorized by BWXT Y-12 on Nov 6, 2006 and performed in three areas: • Facility Modifications • Safety Documentation • Project Management

  7. Triaxial Swirl Injector Element for Liquid-Fueled Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muss, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    A triaxial injector is a single bi-propellant injection element located at the center of the injector body. The injector element consists of three nested, hydraulic swirl injectors. A small portion of the total fuel is injected through the central hydraulic injector, all of the oxidizer is injected through the middle concentric hydraulic swirl injector, and the balance of the fuel is injected through an outer concentric injection system. The configuration has been shown to provide good flame stabilization and the desired fuel-rich wall boundary condition. The injector design is well suited for preburner applications. Preburner injectors operate at extreme oxygen-to-fuel mass ratios, either very rich or very lean. The goal of a preburner is to create a uniform drive gas for the turbomachinery, while carefully controlling the temperature so as not to stress or damage turbine blades. The triaxial injector concept permits the lean propellant to be sandwiched between two layers of the rich propellant, while the hydraulic atomization characteristics of the swirl injectors promote interpropellant mixing and, ultimately, good combustion efficiency. This innovation is suited to a wide range of liquid oxidizer and liquid fuels, including hydrogen, methane, and kerosene. Prototype testing with the triaxial swirl injector demonstrated excellent injector and combustion chamber thermal compatibility and good combustion performance, both at levels far superior to a pintle injector. Initial testing with the prototype injector demonstrated over 96-percent combustion efficiency. The design showed excellent high -frequency combustion stability characteristics with oxygen and kerosene propellants. Unlike the more conventional pintle injector, there is not a large bluff body that must be cooled. The absence of a protruding center body enhances the thermal durability of the triaxial swirl injector. The hydraulic atomization characteristics of the innovation allow the design to be

  8. Design and in-core fuel management of reload fuel elements for reactors made by other manufacturers. Auslegung und Einsatzplanung von Nachlade-Brennelementen fuer Reaktoren anderer Hersteller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufert, A.; Urban, P.

    1990-12-01

    By the end of 1990 Siemens had performed fuel element designs and in-core fuel management for 94 operating cycles in 27 pressurized and boiling water reactors of other manufacturers. Together with the client different fuel element designs are developed and proof is furnished of the reactor physics compatibility of different fuel elements from various producers, and of plant safety. (DG).

  9. Post irradiation examination of HANARO nucler mini-element fuel (metallographic and density test)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Ok; Hong, K. P.; Park, D. G.; Choo, Y. S.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, H. C.; Jung, Y. H

    2001-05-01

    The post irradiation examination of a HANARO mini-element nuclear fuel, KH96C-004, was done in June 6, 2000. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the in-core performance and reliability of mini-element nuclear fuel for HANARO developed by the project ''The Nuclear Fuel Material Development of Research Reactor''. And, in order to examine the performance of mini-element nuclear fuel in normal output condition, the post irradiation examination of a nuclear fuel bundle composed by 6 mini nuclear fuel rods and 12 dummy fuel rods was performed. Based on these examination results, the safety and reliability of HANARO fuel and the basic data on the design of HANARO nuclear fuel can be ensured and obtained,.

  10. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Fuel Element Testing in the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    To satisfy the Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) testing milestone, a graphite composite fuel element using a uranium simulant was received from the Oakridge National Lab and tested in the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES) at various operating conditions. The nominal operating conditions required to satisfy the milestone consisted of running the fuel element for a few minutes at a temperature of at least 2000 K with flowing hydrogen. This milestone test was successfully accomplished without incident.

  11. Safety assessment for the CANFLEX-NU fuel bundles with respect to the 37-element fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, H. C.; Lim, H. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-11-01

    The KAERI and AECL have jointly developed an advanced CANDU fuel, called CANFLEX-NU fuel bundle. CANFLEX 43-element bundle has some improved features of increased operating margin and enhanced safety compared to the existing 37-element bundle. Since CANFLEX fuel bundle is designed to be compatible with the CANDU-6 reactor design, the behaviour in the thermalhydraulic system will be nearly identical with 37-element bundle. But due to different element design and linear element power distribution between the two bundles, it is expected that CANFLEX fuel behaviour would be different from the behaviour of the 37-element fuel. Therefore, safety assessments on the design basis accidents which result if fuel failures are performed. For all accidents selected, it is observed that the loading of CANFLEX bundle in an existing CANDU-6 reactor would not worsen the reactor safety. It is also predicted that fission product release for CANFLEX fuel bundle generally is lower than that for 37-element bundle. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  12. Thermionic Fuel Element performance: TFE Verification Program. Final test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW(e) range, and a full power life of 7 years. A TFE was designed that met the reliability and lifetime requirements for a 2 MW(e) conceptual reactor design. Analysis showed that this TFE could be used over the range of 0.5 to 5 megawatts. This was used as the basis for designing components for test and evaluation. The demonstration of a 7-year component lifetime capability was through the combined use of analytical models and accelerated, confirmatory tests in a fast test reactor. Iterative testing was performed in which the results of one test series led to evolutionary improvements in the next test specimens. The TFE components underwent screening and initial development testing in ex-reactor tests. Several design and materials options were considered for each component. As screening tests permitted, down selection occurred to very specific designs and materials. In parallel with ex-reactor testing, and fast reactor component testing, components were integrated into a TFE and tested in the TRIGA test reactor at GA. Realtime testing of partial length TFEs was used to test support, alignment and interconnective TFE components, and to verify TFE performance in-reactor with integral cesium reservoirs. Realtime testing was also used to verify the relation between TFE performance and fueled emitter swelling, to test the durability of intercell insulation, to check temperature distributions, and to verify the adequacy over time of the fission gas venting channels. Predictions of TFE lifetime rested primarily on the accelerated component testing results, as correlated and extended to realtime by the use of analytical models.

  13. Criticality safety evaluation for the Advanced Test Reactor enhanced low enriched uranium fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montierth, Leland M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-07-19

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) convert program is developing a high uranium density fuel based on a low enriched uranium (LEU) uranium-molybdenum alloy. Testing of prototypic GTRI fuel elements is necessary to demonstrate integrated fuel performance behavior and scale-up of fabrication techniques. GTRI Enhanced LEU Fuel (ELF) elements based on the ATR-Standard Size elements (all plates fueled) are to be fabricated for testing in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). While a specific ELF element design will eventually be provided for detailed analyses and in-core testing, this criticality safety evaluation (CSE) is intended to evaluate a hypothetical ELF element design for criticality safety purposes. Existing criticality analyses have analyzed Standard (HEU) ATR elements from which controls have been derived. This CSE documents analysis that determines the reactivity of the hypothetical ELF fuel elements relative to HEU ATR elements and whether the existing HEU ATR element controls bound the ELF element. The initial calculations presented in this CSE analyzed the original ELF design, now referred to as Mod 0.1. In addition as part of a fuel meat thickness optimization effort for reactor performance other designs have been evaluated. As of early 2014 the most current conceptual designs are Mk1A and Mk1B that were previously referred to as conceptual designs Mod 0.10 and Mod 0.11, respectively. Revision 1 evaluates the reactivity of the ATR HEU Mark IV elements for a comparison with the Mark VII elements.

  14. Criticality safety evaluation for the Advanced Test Reactor enhanced low enriched uranium fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montierth, Leland M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-07-19

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) convert program is developing a high uranium density fuel based on a low enriched uranium (LEU) uranium-molybdenum alloy. Testing of prototypic GTRI fuel elements is necessary to demonstrate integrated fuel performance behavior and scale-up of fabrication techniques. GTRI Enhanced LEU Fuel (ELF) elements based on the ATR-Standard Size elements (all plates fueled) are to be fabricated for testing in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). While a specific ELF element design will eventually be provided for detailed analyses and in-core testing, this criticality safety evaluation (CSE) is intended to evaluate a hypothetical ELF element design for criticality safety purposes. Existing criticality analyses have analyzed Standard (HEU) ATR elements from which controls have been derived. This CSE documents analysis that determines the reactivity of the hypothetical ELF fuel elements relative to HEU ATR elements and whether the existing HEU ATR element controls bound the ELF element. The initial calculations presented in this CSE analyzed the original ELF design, now referred to as Mod 0.1. In addition, as part of a fuel meat thickness optimization effort for reactor performance, other designs have been evaluated. As of early 2014 the most current conceptual designs are Mk1A and Mk1B, that were previously referred to as conceptual designs Mod 0.10 and Mod 0.11, respectively. Revision 1 evaluates the reactivity of the ATR HEU Mark IV elements for a comparison with the Mark VII elements.

  15. The quality of meal elements for professional prepared meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løje, Hanne; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    Meal elements are convenience products which are partially prepared meal components to be used in professional kitchens. Examples are meat, vegetables or fish which are preprepared for example by heat-treatment before distribution to the professional kitchens. The pre-fried vegetables and meat can...... robust against freezing, thawing and reheating without excessive drip losses as observed from raw or blanched vegetables. The results show that the pre-fried vegetables have a potential to be used as meal elements for professional prepared meals....... for examples be used as ingredients in hot or cold dishes. We have evaluated the quality of several kinds of pre-fried vegetables. The vegetables were prepared in pilot plan using a continuous stir-frying process, frozen and analysis during the thawing period. The results show that the shelf life determined...

  16. Formation of intermetallic compound at interface between rare earth elements and ferritic-martensitic steel by fuel cladding chemical interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Hwan Kim; Byoung Oon Lee; Chan Bock Lee; Seung Hyun Jee; Young Soo Yoon

    2012-01-01

    The intermetallic compounds formation at interface between rare earth elements and clad material were investigated to demonstrate the effects of rare earth elements on fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) behavior.Mischmetal (70Ce-30La) and Nd were prepared as rare earth elements.Diffusion couple testing was performed on the rare earth elements and cladding (9Cr2W steel) near the operation temperature of(sodium-cooled fast reactor) SFR fuel.The performance of a diffusion barrier consisting of Zr and V metallic foil against the rare earth elements was also evaluated.Our results showed that Ce and Nd in the rare earth elements and Fe in the clad material interdiffused and reacted to form intermetallic species according to the parabolic rate law,describing the migration of the rare earth element.The diffusion of Fe limited the reaction progress such that the entire process was governed by the cubic rate law.Rare earth materials could be used as a surrogate for high burnup metallic fuels,and the performance of the barrier material was demonstrated to be effective.

  17. ZrC COATING ON FUEL ELEMENT CLADDING ZIRCALOY-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etty Mutiara

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ZrC COATING ON FUEL ELEMENT ZIRCALOY-2 CLADDING. The intensive researchs on high discharge burn-up of Light Water Reactor (LWR fuel element were performed due to the extension of fuel element’s utility life. One of these researches was allowing for alteration of the existing zirconium-based clad system through coating. This technique is supposed to improve the corrosion resistance of cladding without changing the dimension of fuel cladding. In current research, the ZrC film was coated on the zircaloy-2 cladding surface by dipping process of zircaloy-2 specimens in colloidal graphite at room temperature. The dip-coated specimens then undergone heating process at 700oC, 900oC and 1100oC respectively in Argon gas atmosphere for 1 hour. The microstructure and crystal structure of the coated cladding were characterized by optical microscope and XRD respectively. The optical microscope showed the growth of the grains with increasing temperature. XRD examination on the specimens revealed that the ZrC crystal structure on the cladding surface occurred only at 1100oC, but it did not appear at 700oC and 900oC. It can be concluded that dipping process of specimen in colloidal graphite with subsequent heating at 1100oC provided ZrC film coated on zircaloy-2 cladding. The heating process at this temperature allowed carbon atoms to diffuse into zircaloy surface to form ZrC film. PELAPISAN ZrC PADA KELONGSONG ELEMEN BAKAR NUKLIR ZIRKALOI-2. Riset yang intensif pada elemen bakar reaktor berpendingin air dengan fraksi bakar tinggi terus dilakukan dalam rangka memperpanjang umur operasi elemen bakar. Salah satu riset tersebut berupa proses untuk mengubah kelongsong berbasis zirkonium yang ada saat ini dengan cara pelapisan. Cara ini diharapkan akan memperbaiki ketahanan korosi kelongsong tanpa mengubah dimensi kelongsong tersebut. Pada riset ini, lapisan tipis ZrC dilapiskan pada permukaan kelongsong zirkaloi-2 melalui proses pencelupan (dipping spesimen

  18. Subcritical Noise Analysis Measurements with Fresh and Spent Research Reactor Fuels Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Kryter, R.C.; Miller, V.C.

    1999-02-01

    The verification of the subcriticality is of utmost importance for the safe transportation and storage of nuclear reactor fuels. Transportation containers and storage facilities are designed such that nuclear fuels remain in a subcritical state. Such designs often involve excess conservatism because of the lack of relevant experimental data to verify the accuracy of Monte Carlo codes used in nuclear criticality safety analyses. A joint experimental research program between Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Westinghouse Safety Management Solutions, Inc., and the University of Missouri was initiated to obtain measured quantities that could be directly related to the subcriticality of simple arrays of Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) fuel elements. A series of measurement were performed to assess the reactivity of materials such as BORAL, stainless steel, aluminum, and lead that are typically used in the construction of shipping casks. These materials were positioned between the fuel elements. In addition, a limited number of measurements were performed with configurations of fresh and spent (irradiated) fuel elements to ascertain the reactivity of the spent fuel elements. In these experiments, fresh fuel elements were replaced by spent fuel elements such that the subcritical reactivity change could be measured. The results of these measurements were used by Westinghouse Safety Management Solutions to determine the subcriticality of MURR fuel elements isolated by absorbing materials. The measurements were interpreted using the MCNP-DSP Monte Carlo code to obtain the subcritical neutron multiplication factor k(sub eff), and the bias in K(sub eff) that are used in criticality safety analyses.

  19. Multidisciplinary Simulation of Graphite-Composite and Cermet Fuel Elements for NTP Point of Departure Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark E.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares the expected performance of two Nuclear Thermal Propulsion fuel types. High fidelity, fluid/thermal/structural + neutronic simulations help predict the performance of graphite-composite and cermet fuel types from point of departure engine designs from the Nuclear Thermal Propulsion project. Materials and nuclear reactivity issues are reviewed for each fuel type. Thermal/structural simulations predict thermal stresses in the fuel and thermal expansion mis-match stresses in the coatings. Fluid/thermal/structural/neutronic simulations provide predictions for full fuel elements. Although NTP engines will utilize many existing chemical engine components and technologies, nuclear fuel elements are a less developed engine component and introduce design uncertainty. Consequently, these fuel element simulations provide important insights into NTP engine performance.

  20. Post-irradiation data on fuel elements from KER Loop 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, E.C.

    1963-01-10

    Fourteen NAE1 fuel elements were discharged from KER Loop-4, after irradiation to an average exposure of 1250 MWD, at prototype N-Reactor coolant temperature and pressure. The elements were disassembled and measured in the KE fuel examination facility. This report includes all measurements, except the profilometer data.

  1. Advancements in the behavioral modeling of fuel elements and related structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M.C.; Montgomery, R.O.; Rashid, Y.R.; Head, J.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); ANATECH Research Corp., San Diego, CA (USA); Royal Naval Coll., Greenwich (UK))

    1989-01-01

    An important aspect of the design and analysis of nuclear reactors is the ability to predict the behavior of fuel elements in the adverse environment of a reactor system. By understanding the thermomechanical behavior of the different materials which constitute a nuclear fuel element, analysis and predictions can be made regarding the integrity and reliability of fuel element designs. The SMiRT conference series, through the division on fuel elements and the post-conference seminars on fuel element modeling, provided technical forums for the international participation in the exchange of knowledge concerning the thermomechanical modeling of fuel elements. This paper discusses the technical advances in the behavioral modeling of fuel elements presented at the SMiRT conference series since its inception in 1971. Progress in the areas of material properties and constitutive relationships, modeling methodologies, and integral modeling approaches was reviewed and is summarized in light of their impact on the thermomechanical modeling of nuclear fuel elements. 34 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. Ground test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G. C.; Beck, D. F.; Harmon, C. D.; Shipers, L. R.

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and design issues of a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program.

  3. Fatigue analysis of CANFLEX-NU fuel elements subjected to power-cyclic loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Ki Seob; Suk, Ho Chun

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the fatigue analysis of the CANDU advanced fuel, so-called CANFLEX-NU, subjected to power-cyclic loads more than 1,000. The CANFLEX-NU bundle is composed of 43 elements with natural uranium fuel. As a result, the CANFLEX-NU fuel elements will maintain good integrity under the condition of 1,500 power-cycles. (author). 4 refs., 19 figs.

  4. Preliminary Studies of New Water Removal Element in Purification Applications of Diesel Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To effectively and efficiently remove water contamination dispersed in petrodiesel fuels, a new water removal element with both coalescence and separation features is studied in this paper. The unique droplet coalescence and separation mechanism occurring in the new water removal element is proposed. The conceptual design of this filter element is presented and the basic features of FCP filtration systems are briefly introduced. A laboratory test stand and fuel analysis procedure are described. The results from preliminary water removal tests with number 2 petrodiesel fuel demonstrate the filtration performance of the new water removal element. For example, within one single fuel flow pass through FCP filtration system equipped with the new water removal element and running at 2 GPM flow rate, the water content in 80°F, number 2 petrodiesel fuel stream can be reduced from up to 40,000 ppm upstream to 64.8 ppm or less downstream.

  5. Preliminary Nuclear Analysis for the HANARO Fuel Element with Burnable Absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Chul Gyo; Kim, So Young; In, Won Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Burnable absorber is used for reducing reactivity swing and power peaking in high performance research reactors. Development of the HANARO fuel element with burnable absorber was started in the U-Mo fuel development program at HANARO, but detailed full core analysis was not performed because the current HANARO fuel management system is uncertain to analysis the HANARO core with burnable absorber. A sophisticated reactor physics system is required to analysis the core. The McCARD code was selected and the detailed McCARD core models, in which the basic HANARO core model was developed by one of the McCARD developers, are used in this study. The development of nuclear fuel requires a long time and correct developing direction especially by the nuclear analysis. This paper presents a preliminary nuclear analysis to promote the fuel development. Based on the developed fuel, the further nuclear analysis will improve reactor performance and safety. Basic nuclear analysis for the HANARO and the AHR were performed for getting the proper fuel elements with burnable absorber. Addition of 0.3 - 0.4% Cd to the fuel meat is promising for the current HANARO fuel element. Small addition of burnable absorber may not change any fuel characteristics of the HANARO fuel element, but various basic tests and irradiation tests at the HANARO core are required.

  6. Nonuniform Oxidation on the Surface of Fuel Element in HTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The graphite oxidation of fuel element has obtained high attention in air ingress accident analysis of high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR. The shape function, defined as the relationship between the maximum and the average of the oxidation, is an important factor to estimate the consequence of the accident. There are no detailed studies on the shape function currently except two experiments several decades ago. With the development of computer technology, CFD method is used in the numerical experiment about graphite oxidation in pebble bed of HTR in this paper. Structured packed beds are used in the calculation instead of random packed beds. The result shows the nonuniform distribution of oxidation on the sphere surface and the shape function in the condition of air ingress accident. Furthermore, the sensitive factors of shape function, such as temperature and Re number, are discussed in detail and the relationship between the shape function and sensitive factors is explained. According to the results in this paper, the shape function ranges from 1.05 to 4.7 under the condition of temperature varying from 600°C to 1200°C and Re varying from 16 to 1600.

  7. Mesocarbon microbead based graphite for spherical fuel element to inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt in molten salt reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yajuan; Zhang, Junpeng; Lin, Jun; Xu, Liujun; Zhang, Feng; Xu, Hongxia; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Haitao; Li, Ziwei; Zhu, Zhiyong; Guo, Quangui

    2017-07-01

    Mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) and quasi-isostatic pressing method were used to prepare MCMB based graphite (MG) for spherical fuel element to inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt in molten salt reactor (MSR). Characteristics of mercury infiltration and molten salt infiltration in MG were investigated and compared with A3-3 (graphite for spherical fuel element in high temperature gas cooled reactor) to identify the infiltration behaviors. The results indicated that MG had a low porosity about 14%, and an average pore diameter of 96 nm. Fluoride salt occupation of A3-3 (average pore diameter was 760 nm) was 10 wt% under 6.5 atm, whereas salt gain did not infiltrate in MG even up to 6.5 atm. It demonstrated that MG could inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt effectively. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of MG lies in 6.01 × 10-6 K-1 (α∥) and 6.15 × 10-6 K-1 (α⊥) at the temperature range of 25-700 °C. The anisotropy factor of MG calculated by CTE maintained below 1.02, which could meet the requirement of the spherical fuel element (below 1.30). The constant isotropic property of MG is beneficial for the integrity and safety of the graphite used in the spherical fuel element for a MSR.

  8. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID ELECTROLYTES: FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambabu Bobba; Josef Hormes; T. Wang; Jaymes A. Baker; Donald G. Prier; Tommy Rockwood; Dinesha Hawkins; Saleem Hasan; V. Rayanki

    1997-12-31

    The intent of this project with Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC)/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is to develop research infrastructure conductive to Fuel Cell research at Southern University and A and M College, Baton Route. A state of the art research laboratory (James Hall No.123 and No.114) for energy conversion and storage devices was developed during this project duration. The Solid State Ionics laboratory is now fully equipped with materials research instruments: Arbin Battery Cycling and testing (8 channel) unit, Electrochemical Analyzer (EG and G PAR Model 273 and Solartron AC impedance analyzer), Fuel Cell test station (Globe Tech), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC-10), Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA), Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM), UV-VIS-NIR Absorption Spectrometer, Fluorescence Spectrometer, FT-IR Spectrometer, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) measurement capability at Center for Advanced Microstructure and Devices (CAMD- a multimillion dollar DOE facility), Glove Box, gas hood chamber, high temperature furnaces, hydraulic press and several high performance computers. IN particular, a high temperature furnace (Thermodyne 6000 furnace) and a high temperature oven were acquired through this project funds. The PI Dr. R Bobba has acquired additional funds from federal agencies include NSF-Academic Research Infrastructure program and other DOE sites. They have extensively used the multimillion dollar DOE facility ''Center'' for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) for electrochemical research. The students were heavily involved in the experimental EXAFS measurements and made use of their DCM beamline for EXAFS research. The primary objective was to provide hands on experience to the selected African American undergraduate and graduate students in experimental energy research.The goal was to develop research skills and involve them in the Preparation and Characterization of Solid

  9. Refuse-derived fuels and fuel preparation plants of proven quality from REMONDIS; Guetegesicherte Sekundaerbrennstoffe und Brennstoffanlagen von REMONDIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendel, A. [Remondis AG und Co. KG, Luenen (Germany); Glorius, T. [Remondis Trade and Sales, Essen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Efforts to conserve resources have been reinvigorated by a number of factors, including the interest of various waste-producing industries in reutilisation and, initially on the part of the cement and lime industry but later also power plant operators, the search for a quantitatively and qualitatively reliable source of less expensive refuse-derived fuels of the greatest possible homogeneity. Other factors that have stimulated the demand for partially biogenic refuse-derived fuels have been the requirements imposed for the purpose of reducing climatically harmful emissions in accordance with the Kyoto Treaty and the now established market for CO{sub 2} emission trading. Rising primary energy prices are a powerful incentive for operators of power plants and industrial firing installations to lower their energy costs through the use of refuse-derived fuels. The refuse-derived fuel must be brought to a quality level where it can substitute fossil fuels without operational or technical constraints. This applies in particular to power plants and cement and lime works, since these depend on cocombustion. Refuse-derived fuels are therefore subject to very stringent quality requirements. In the ideal case this will result in a refuse-derived fuel whose properties come very close to those of the fuel being substituted. Novel preparation technologies have facilitated the breakthrough of two new generations of refuse-derived fuels, namely BPG registered and SBS registered. The quality requirements agreed upon with the purchasers of these fuels necessitate very extensive and involved preparation processes.

  10. Single-element coaxial injector for rocket fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, L. L.

    1969-01-01

    Improved injector for oxygen difluoride and diborane has better mixing characteristics and is able to project fuel onto the wall of the combustion chamber for better cooling. It produces an essentially conical, diverging, continuous sheet of propellant mixture formed by similarly shaped and continuously impinging sheets of fuel and oxidant.

  11. 77 FR 16868 - Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... COMMISSION Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test...-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test Reactors,'' is temporarily identified... verifying the quality of plate-type uranium-aluminum fuel elements used in research and test reactors (RTRs...

  12. 78 FR 33132 - Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... COMMISSION Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test... Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test Reactors.'' This guide... plate-type uranium-aluminum fuel elements used in research and test reactors (RTRs). ADDRESSES: Please...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix O to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant... Appendix O to Part 110—Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority Note: Nuclear fuel elements are manufactured from source or...

  14. A simple gamma spectrometry method for evaluating the burnup of MTR-type HEU fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makmal, T.; Aviv, O.; Gilad, E.

    2016-10-01

    A simple method for the evaluation of the burnup of a materials testing reactor (MTR) fuel element by gamma spectrometry is presented. The method was applied to a highly enriched uranium MTR nuclear fuel element that was irradiated in a 5 MW pool-type research reactor for a total period of 34 years. The experimental approach is based on in-situ measurements of the MTR fuel element in the reactor pool by a portable high-purity germanium detector located in a gamma cell. To corroborate the method, analytical calculations (based on the irradiation history of the fuel element) and computer simulations using a dedicated fuel cycle burnup code ORIGEN2 were performed. The burnup of the MTR fuel element was found to be 52.4±8.8%, which is in good agreement with the analytical calculations and the computer simulations. The method presented here is suitable for research reactors with either a regular or an irregular irradiation regime and for reactors with limited infrastructure and/or resources. In addition, its simplicity and the enhanced safety it confers may render this method suitable for IAEA inspectors in fuel element burnup assessments during on-site inspections.

  15. Toxic element contamination of natural health products and pharmaceutical preparations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Genuis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concern has recently emerged regarding the safety of natural health products (NHPs-therapies that are increasingly recommended by various health providers, including conventional physicians. Recognizing that most individuals in the Western world now consume vitamins and many take herbal agents, this study endeavored to determine levels of toxic element contamination within a range of NHPs. METHODS: Toxic element testing was performed on 121 NHPs (including Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese, and various marine-source products as well as 49 routinely prescribed pharmaceutical preparations. Testing was also performed on several batches of one prenatal supplement, with multiple samples tested within each batch. Results were compared to existing toxicant regulatory limits. RESULTS: Toxic element contamination was found in many supplements and pharmaceuticals; levels exceeding established limits were only found in a small percentage of the NHPs tested and none of the drugs tested. Some NHPs demonstrated contamination levels above preferred daily endpoints for mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic or aluminum. NHPs manufactured in China generally had higher levels of mercury and aluminum. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to toxic elements is occurring regularly as a result of some contaminated NHPs. Best practices for quality control-developed and implemented by the NHP industry with government oversight-is recommended to guard the safety of unsuspecting consumers.

  16. Accelerator-driven transmutation of spent fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venneri, Francesco; Williamson, Mark A.; Li, Ning

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method is described for transmuting higher actinides, plutonium and selected fission products in a liquid-fuel subcritical assembly. Uranium may also be enriched, thereby providing new fuel for use in conventional nuclear power plants. An accelerator provides the additional neutrons required to perform the processes. The size of the accelerator needed to complete fuel cycle closure depends on the neutron efficiency of the supported reactors and on the neutron spectrum of the actinide transmutation apparatus. Treatment of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWRs) using uranium-based fuel will require the largest accelerator power, whereas neutron-efficient high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) or CANDU reactors will require the smallest accelerator power, especially if thorium is introduced into the newly generated fuel according to the teachings of the present invention. Fast spectrum actinide transmutation apparatus (based on liquid-metal fuel) will take full advantage of the accelerator-produced source neutrons and provide maximum utilization of the actinide-generated fission neutrons. However, near-thermal transmutation apparatus will require lower standing

  17. Pumped lithium loop test to evaluate advanced refractory metal alloys and simulated nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburf, G. P.; Hoffman, E. E.; Smith, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The performance was determined of refractory metal alloys and uranium nitride fuel element specimens in flowing 1900F (1083C) lithium. The results demonstrate the suitability of the selected materials to perform satisfactorily from a chemical compatibility standpoint.

  18. Douglas United Nuclear, Inc. report to the Working Committee of the Fuel Element Development Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringer, J.T.

    1966-05-04

    This document provides the report to the working committee of the fuel element development committee for small and K reactor production fuels. Topics discussed are: Uranium core production data; uranium specification; future planning -- five year R&D program; thoria development; heat treating; UO{sub 2} irradiation; and alternate process development.

  19. Experimental investigation of fuel evaporation in the vaporizing elements of combustion chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezhba, I.

    1979-01-01

    A description is given of the experimental apparatus and the methods used in the investigation of the degree of fuel (kerosene) evaporation in two types of vaporizing elements in combustion chambers. The results are presented as dependences of the degree of fuel evaporation on the factors which characterize the functioning of the vaporizing elements: the air surplus coefficient, the velocity of flow and temperature of the air at the entrance to the vaporizing element and the temperature of the wall of the vaporizing element.

  20. Non-destructive control of cladding thickness of fuel elements for research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlov, Y.; Zhukov, Y.; Chashchin, S

    1997-07-01

    The control method of fuel elements for research reactors by means of measuring beta particles back scattering made it possible to perform complete automatic non-destructive control of internal and external claddings at our plant. This control gives high guarantees of the fuel element correspondence to the requirements. The method can be used to control the three-layer items of different geometry, including plates. (author)

  1. Multiphysics Modeling of a Single Channel in a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Grooved Ring Fuel Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J., Jr.; Barkett, Laura A.; Mathias, Adam D.; Cassibry, Jason T.

    2013-01-01

    In the past, fuel rods have been used in nuclear propulsion applications. A new fuel element concept that reduces weight and increases efficiency uses a stack of grooved discs. Each fuel element is a flat disc with a hole on the interior and grooves across the top. Many grooved ring fuel elements for use in nuclear thermal propulsion systems have been modeled, and a single flow channel for each design has been analyzed. For increased efficiency, a fuel element with a higher surface-area-to-volume ratio is ideal. When grooves are shallower, i.e., they have a lower surface area, the results show that the exit temperature is higher. By coupling the physics of turbulence with those of heat transfer, the effects on the cooler gas flowing through the grooves of the thermally excited solid can be predicted. Parametric studies were done to show how a pressure drop across the axial length of the channels will affect the exit temperatures of the gas. Geometric optimization was done to show the behaviors that result from the manipulation of various parameters. Temperature profiles of the solid and gas showed that more structural optimization is needed to produce the desired results. Keywords: Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, Fuel Element, Heat Transfer, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Coupled Physics Computations, Finite Element Analysis

  2. Distribution of fission products in Peach Bottom HTGR fuel element E11-07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichner, R.P.; Dyer, F.F.; Martin, W.J.; Bate, L.C.

    1977-04-01

    This is the second in a projected series of six post-irradiation examinations of Peach Bottom High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor driver fuel elements. Element E11-07, the subject of this report, received an equivalent of 701 full-power days of irradiation prior to scheduled withdrawal. The examination procedures emphasized the determination of fission product distributions in the graphite portions of the fuel element. Continuous axial scans indicated a /sup 137/Cs inventory of 17 Ci in the graphite sleeve and 8.3 Ci in the spine at the time of element withdrawal from the core. In addition, the nuclides /sup 134/Cs, /sup 110m/Ag, /sup 60/Co, and /sup 154/Eu were found in the graphite portions of the fuel element in significant amounts. Radial distributions of these nuclides plus the distribution of the beta emitters /sup 3/H, /sup 14/C, and /sup 90/Sr were obtained at six axial locations, four within the fueled region and one each above and below. The radial dissection was accomplished by use of a manipulator-operated lathe in a hot cell. These profiles reveal an increased degree of penetration of /sup 134/Cs, relative to /sup 137/Cs, evidently due to a longer time spent as xenon precursor. In addition to fission product distribution, the appearance of the element components was recorded photographically, fuel compact and graphite dimensions were recorded at numerous locations, and metallographic examinations of the fuel were performed.

  3. Preparation and elements analysis of porous fluorescent glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Dong-mei; LUO Fa; ZHOU Wan-cheng; D. E. DAY; C. S. RAY

    2006-01-01

    A large variety of porous fluorescent glasses were prepared and the concentration of different elements in these glasses was analyzed. The start porous glasses were soaked in a solution containing soluble salts and then heated at 650 ℃ for 3 h to decompose the salts in the pores into oxides. Fluorescent agents,such as UO3,Eu2O3,were impregnated into the porous glasses to prepare the fluorescent glasses. The results show that soaking is a feasible method to prepare the glass sphere with compositions distinguishable from each other and easy to be located in a complicated background. Six or more components can be impregnated together into one glass sample and the concentration of them can be analyzed accurately. UO3 and Eu2O3 can be impregnated into porous glass to make the glass strongly fluorescent. Higher concentration of Eu2O3 produces stronger fluorescence while higher concentration of UO3 reduces the fluorescence intensity because of the concentration quenching effect.

  4. Manufacturing of 37-element fuel bundles for PHWR 540 - new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, U.K.; Sastry, V.S.; Banerjee, P.K.; Rao, G.V.S.H.; Jayaraj, R.N. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Dept. Atomic Energy, Government of India, Hyderabad (India)

    2003-07-01

    Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), established in early seventies, is a major industrial unit of Department of Atomic Energy. NFC is responsible for the supply of fuel bundles to all the 220 MWe PHWRs presently in operation. For supplying fuel bundles for the forthcoming 540 MWe PHWRs, NEC is dovetailing 37-element fuel bundle manufacturing facilities in the existing plants. In tune with the philosophy of self-reliance, emphasis is given to technology upgradation, higher customer satisfaction and application of modern quality control techniques. With the experience gained over the years in manufacturing 19-element fuel bundles, NEC has introduced resistance welding of appendages on fuel tubes prior to loading of UO{sub 2} pellets, use of bio-degradable cleaning agents, simple diagnostic tools for checking the equipment condition, on line monitoring of variables, built-in process control methods and total productive maintenance concepts in the new manufacturing facility. Simple material handling systems have been contemplated for handling of the fuel bundles. This paper highlights the flow-sheet adopted for the process, design features of critical equipment and the methodology for fabricating the 37-element fuel bundles, 'RIGHT FIRST TIME'. (author)

  5. Thermalhydraulics of advanced 37-element fuel bundle in crept pressure tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Joo Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A CANDU-6 reactor, which has 380 fuel channels of a pressure tube type, is suffering from aging or creep of the pressure tubes. Most of the aging effects for the CANDU primary heat transport system were originated from the horizontal crept pressure tubes. As the operating years of a CANDU reactor proceed, a pressure tube experiences high neutron irradiation damage under high temperature and pressure. The crept pressure tube can deteriorate the Critical Heat Flux (CHF of a fuel channel and finally worsen the reactor operating performance and thermal margin. Recently, the modification of the central subchannel area with increasing inner pitch length of a standard 37-element fuel bundle was proposed and studied in terms of the dryout power enhancement for the uncrept pressure tube since a standard 37-element fuel bundle has a relatively small flow area and high flow resistance at the central region. This study introduced a subchannel analysis for the crept pressure tubes loaded with the inner pitch length modification of a standard 37-element fuel bundle. In addition, the subchannel characteristics were investigated according to the flow area change of the center subchannels for the crept pressure tubes. Also, it was discussed how much the crept pressure tubes affected the thermalhydraulic characteristics of the fuel channel as well as the dryout power for the modification of a standard 37-element fuel bundle.

  6. Enhanced Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Element for the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, M. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); DeHart, M. D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Morrell, S. R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jamison, R. K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nef, E. C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nigg, D. W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Under the current US Department of Energy (DOE) policy and planning scenario, the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and its associated critical facility (ATRC) will be reconfigured to operate on low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This effort has produced a conceptual design for an Enhanced LEU Fuel (ELF) element. This fuel features monolithic U-10Mo fuel foils and aluminum cladding separated by a thin zirconium barrier. As with previous iterations of the ELF design, radial power peaking is managed using different U-10Mo foil thicknesses in different plates of the element. The lead fuel element design, ELF Mk1A, features only three fuel meat thicknesses, a reduction from the previous iterations meant to simplify manufacturing. Evaluation of the ELF Mk1A fuel design against reactor performance requirements is ongoing, as are investigations of the impact of manufacturing uncertainty on safety margins. The element design has been evaluated in what are expected to be the most demanding design basis accident scenarios and has met all initial thermal-hydraulic criteria.

  7. BEAM 1.7: development for modelling fuel element and bundle buckling strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, G.; Xu, S.; Xu, Z.; Paul, U.K. [Atomic Energy of Canada, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes BEAM, an AECL developed computer program, used to assess mechanical integrity of CANDU fuel bundles. The BEAM code has been developed to satisfy the need for buckling strength analysis of fuel bundles. Buckling refers to the phenomenon where a compressive axial load is large enough that a small lateral load can cause large lateral deflections. The buckling strength refers to the critical compressive axial load at which lateral instability is reached. The buckling strength analysis has practical significance for the design of fuel bundles, where the buckling strength of a fuel element/bundle is assessed so that the conditions leading to bundle jamming in the pressure tube are excluded. This paper presents the development and qualification of the BEAM code, with emphasis on the theoretical background and code implementation of the newly developed fuel element/bundle buckling strength model. (author)

  8. Influence of fuel on phase formation of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} prepared by self-propagated combustion route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, K.; Babu, D. Rajan, E-mail: drajanbabu@vit.ac.in [Advanced Materials Research Centre, Crystal Growth and Crystallography Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore – 632014 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Zinc iron oxide (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles were prepared by self-propagated combustion route.The fuel plays a major role on the formation of structure and particle size. Here three different fuels like alanine, glycine and proline were used to synthesis the zinc iron oxide nanoparticle. Influence of combustion nature through the fuel, the phase formation, particle size, band gap and surface morphology has been modified. The prepared powder was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction method (PXRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and the composition of the material was analysed by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX).The elemental mapping was confirmed the uniform distribution of Zn, Fe and O elements in the prepared material of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  9. Non-destructive-Testing of Nuclear Fuel Element by Means of Neutron Imaging Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel element is the key component of nuclear reactor. People have to make strictly testing of the element to make sure the reactor operating safely. Neutron imaging is one of Non-destructive-Testing (NDT) techniques, which are very important techniques for

  10. Preparation, characterisation, engine performance and emission characteristics of coconut oil based hybrid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pranil J.; Singh, Anirudh [Division of Physics, School of Engineering and Physics, Faculty of Science, Technology and Environment, University of the South Pacific, 325 Fletcher Road, Suva (Fiji); Khurma, Jagjit [Division of Chemistry, School of Biological, Chemical and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Technology and Environment, University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji)

    2010-09-15

    In this study, hybrid fuels consisting of coconut oil, aqueous ethanol and a surfactant (butan-1-ol) were prepared and tested as a fuel in a direct injection diesel engine. After determining fuel properties such as the density, viscosity and gross calorific values of these fuels, they were used to run a diesel engine. The engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with that of diesel. The experimental results show that the efficiency of the hybrid fuels is comparable to that of diesel. As the viscosity of the hybrid fuels decreased and approached that of diesel, the efficiency increased progressively towards that of diesel. The exhaust emissions were lower than those for diesel, except carbon monoxide emissions, which increased. Hence, it is concluded that these hybrid fuels can be used successfully as an alternative fuel in diesel engines without any modifications. Their completely renewable nature ensures that they are environmentally friendly with regard to their emissions characteristics. (author)

  11. Burn-up and Operation Time of Fuel Elements Produced in IPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondin, Julio Benedito Marin; Filho, Tufic Madi

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the developed work along the operational and reliability tests of fuel elements produced in the Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research, IPEN-CNEN/SP, from the 1980's. The study analyzed the U-235 burn evolution and the element remain in the research reactor IEA-R1. The fuel elements are of the type MTR (Material Testing Reactor), the standard with 18 plates and a 12-plate control, with a nominal mean enrichment of 20%.

  12. Sipping test update device for fuel elements cladding inspections in IPR-r1 TRIGA reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R.R.; Mesquita, A.Z.; Andrade, E.P.D.; Gual, Maritza R., E-mail: rrr@cdtn.br, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br, E-mail: edson@cdtn.br, E-mail: maritzargual@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    It is in progress at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN (Nuclear Technology Development Center), a research project that aims to investigate possible leaks in the fuel elements of the TRIGA reactor, located in this research center. This paper presents the final form of sipping test device for TRIGA reactor, and results of the first experiments setup. Mechanical support strength tests were made by knotting device on the crane, charged with water from the conventional water supply, and tests outside the reactor pool with the use of new non-irradiated fuel elements encapsulated in stainless steel, and available safe stored in this unit. It is expected that tests with graphite elements from reactor pool are done soon after and also the test experiment with the first fuel elements in service positioned in the B ring (central ring) of the reactor core in the coming months. (author)

  13. Analytical Solution of Fick's Law of the TRISO-Coated Fuel Particles and Fuel Elements in Pebble-Bed High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Jian-Zhu; FANG Chao; SUN Li-Feng

    2011-01-01

    T wo kinds of approaches are built to solve the fission products diffusion models (Fick's equation) based on sphere fuel particles and sphere fuel elements exactly. Two models for homogenous TRISO-coated fuel particles and fuel elements used in pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactors are presented, respectively. The analytica,solution of Fick's equation for fission products diffusion in fuel particles is derived by variables separation.In the fuel element system, a modification of the diffusion coefficient from D to D/r is made to characterize the difference of diffusion rates in distinct areas and it is shown that the Laplace and Hankel transformations are effective as the diffusion coefficient in Fick's equation is dependant on the radius of the fuel element. Both the solutions are useful for the prediction of the fission product behaviors and could be programmed in the corresponding engineering calculations.%@@ Two kinds of approaches are built to solve the fission products diffusion models(Fick's equation) based on sphere fuel particles and sphere fuel elements exactly.Two models for homogenous TRISO-coated fuel particles and fuel elements used in pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactors are presented,respectively.The analytical solution of Fick's equation for fission products diffusion in fuel particles is derived by variables separation.In the fuel element system,a modification of the diffusion coefficient from D to D/r is made to characterize the difference of diffusion rates in distinct areas and it is shown that the Laplace and Hankel transformations are effective as the diffusion coefficient in Fick's equation is dependant on the radius of the fuel element.Both the solutions are useful for the prediction of the fission product behaviors and could be programmed in the corresponding engineering calculations.

  14. Chemical Gradients in Crud on Boiling Water Reactor Fuel Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Porter; D. E. Janney

    2007-04-01

    Crud (radioactive corrosion products formed inside nuclear reactors is a major problem in commercial power-producing nuclear reactors. Although there are numerous studies of simulated (non-radioactive) crud, characteristics of crud from actual reactors are rarely studied. This study reports scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of fragments of crud from a commercially operating boiling water reactor. Chemical analyses in the SEM indicated that the crud closest to the outer surfaces of the fuel pins in some areas had Fe:Zn ratios close to 2:1, which decreased away from the fuel pin in some of the fragments. In combination with transmission electron microsope analyses (published elsewhere), these results suggest that the innermost layer of crud in some areas may consist of franklinite (ZnFe2O4, also called zinc spinel), while outer layers in these areas may be predominantly iron oxides.

  15. Wind-Aided Firespread Across Arrays of Discrete Fuel Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    Ph.D. thesis, Department of Chemical Engineering. Fredericton , Canada: University of New Brunswick. Fang, J. B., and Steward, F. R. 1969 Flame spread... Fredericton , Canada: University of New Brunswick. Steward, F. R., and Tennankore, K. N. 1981 The measurement of the burning rate of an individual dowel in a...1973 Flame spread through uniform fuel matrices. Report, Fire Science Center. Fredericton , Canada: University of New Brunswick. Steward, F. R

  16. Fuel preparation for use in the production of medical isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policke, Timothy A.; Aase, Scott B.; Stagg, William R.

    2016-10-25

    The present invention relates generally to the field of medical isotope production by fission of uranium-235 and the fuel utilized therein (e.g., the production of suitable Low Enriched Uranium (LEU is uranium having 20 weight percent or less uranium-235) fuel for medical isotope production) and, in particular to a method for producing LEU fuel and a LEU fuel product that is suitable for use in the production of medical isotopes. In one embodiment, the LEU fuel of the present invention is designed to be utilized in an Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor (AHR) for the production of various medical isotopes including, but not limited to, molybdenum-99, cesium-137, iodine-131, strontium-89, xenon-133 and yttrium-90.

  17. Method for recovering catalytic elements from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, Lawrence [Edison, NJ; Matlin, Ramail [Berkeley Heights, NJ; Heinz, Robert [Ludwigshafen, DE

    2012-06-26

    A method for recovering catalytic elements from a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly is provided. The method includes converting the membrane electrode assembly into a particulate material, wetting the particulate material, forming a slurry comprising the wetted particulate material and an acid leachate adapted to dissolve at least one of the catalytic elements into a soluble catalytic element salt, separating the slurry into a depleted particulate material and a supernatant containing the catalytic element salt, and washing the depleted particulate material to remove any catalytic element salt retained within pores in the depleted particulate material.

  18. Standard laboratory hydraulic pressure drop characteristics of various solid and I&E fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, E.D.; Horn, G.R.

    1958-01-20

    The purpose of this report is to present a set of standard pressure-drop curves for various fuel elements in process tubes of Hanford reactors. The flow and pressures within a process tube assembly under normal conditions are dependent to a large extent on the magnitude of the pressure drop across the fuel elements. The knowledge of this pressure drop is important in determination of existing thermal conditions within the process tubes and in predicting conditions for new fuel element designs or changes in operating conditions. The pressure-flow relations for the different Hanford fuel element-process tube assemblies have all been determined at one time or another in the 189-D Hydraulics Laboratory but the data had never been collected into a single report. Such a report is presented now in the interest of establishing a set of ``standard curves`` as determined by laboratory investigations. It must be recognized that the pressure drops of fuel elements in actual process tubes in the reactors may be slightly different than those reported here. The data presented here were obtained in new process tubes while reactor process tubes are usually either corroded or filmed, depending on their past history.

  19. Oxide fuel element and blanket element development programs. Quarterly progress report, January-February-March, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Fuel pin profilometry of some 9% burnup F20-F5 pins showed small diameter increases at the fuel-insulator interface at the top of the core. Neither these secondary peaks nor the larger diameter increases near the core midplane exhibited any relationship to the local presence of once-molten fuel in any F20 fuel pin. Augmented safety analysis computations for experiment AB-1 (additional transients suggested by HEDL) showed that cumulative damage fractions from the additional transients were in every case less than 10/sup -4/. Mechanical tests have been performed that confirm previous computations for the removal end plugs to be used in a characterizer subassembly for AB-1. The resulting pin removal forces are well within the design envelope.

  20. Advanced Ceramics for Use as Fuel Element Materials in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Allen, Lee R.; Shapiro, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    With the recent start (October 2011) of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Program, there is renewed interest in developing advanced ceramics for use as fuel element materials in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems. Three classes of fuel element materials are being considered under the NCPS Program: (a) graphite composites - consisting of coated graphite elements containing uranium carbide (or mixed carbide), (b) cermets (ceramic/metallic composites) - consisting of refractory metal elements containing uranium oxide, and (c) advanced carbides consisting of ceramic elements fabricated from uranium carbide and one or more refractory metal carbides [1]. The current development effort aims to advance the technology originally developed and demonstrated under Project Rover (1955-1973) for the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) [2].

  1. Metal-Element Compounds of Titanium, Zirconium, and Hafnium as Pyrotechnic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-04

    1-11 1 METAL-ELEMENT COMPOUNDS OF TITANIUM, ZIRCONIUM , AND HAFNIUM AS PYROTECHNIC FUELS Anthony P. Shaw,* Rajendra K. Sadangi, Jay C...have started to explore the pyrotechnic properties of other inorganic compounds, particularly those of titanium, zirconium , and hafnium. The...The group 4 metals—titanium, zirconium , and hafnium—are potent pyrotechnic fuels. However, the metals themselves are often pyrophoric as fine

  2. Porous nuclear fuel element for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2011-03-01

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  3. Porous nuclear fuel element with internal skeleton for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

    2013-09-03

    Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

  4. Review: Circulation of Inorganic Elements in Combustion of Alternative Fuels in Cement Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming;

    2015-01-01

    Cement production is an energy-intensive process, which traditionally has been dependent on fossil fuels. However, the use of alternative fuels, i.e., selected waste, biomass, and byproducts with recoverable calorific value, is constantly increasing. Combustion of these fuels is more challenging......, compared to fossil fuels, because of a lack of experience and different chemical and physical properties. When complete oxidation Of fuels in the calciner and main burner is not achieved, they burn in direct contact with the bed material of the rotary kiln, causing local reducing conditions and increasing...... the internal circulation of S, Cl, Na, and K. Compounds containing these elements, such as alkali salts, evaporate when exposed to high temperatures and subsequently condense in colder parts of the plant. The transformation of the volatile inorganic species at different locations in the cement plant...

  5. Characterizing high-temperature deformation of internally heated nuclear fuel element simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov, A.I.; Fong, R.W.L.; Leitch, B.W.; Nitheanandan, T.; Williams, A., E-mail: alexander.belov@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    The sag behaviour of a simulated nuclear fuel element during high-temperature transients has been investigated in an experiment utilizing an internal indirect heating method. The major motivation of the experiment was to improve understanding of the dominant mechanisms underlying the element thermo-mechanical response under loss-of-coolant accident conditions and to obtain accurate experimental data to support development of 3-D computational fuel element models. The experiment was conducted using an electrically heated CANDU fuel element simulator. Three consecutive thermal cycles with peak temperatures up to ≈1000 {sup o}C were applied to the element. The element sag deflections and sheath temperatures were measured. On heating up to 600 {sup o}C, only minor lateral deflections of the element were observed. Further heating to above 700 {sup o}C resulted in an element multi-rate creep and significant permanent bow. Post-test visual and X-ray examinations revealed a pronounced necking of the sheath at the pellet-to-pellet interface locations. A wall thickness reduction was detected in the necked region that is interpreted as a sheath longitudinal strain localization effect. The sheath cross-sectioning showed signs of a 'hard' pellet-cladding interaction due to the applied cycles. A 3-D model of the experiment was generated using the ANSYS finite element code. As a fully coupled thermal mechanical simulation is computationally expensive, it was deemed sufficient to use the measured sheath temperatures as a boundary condition, and thus an uncoupled mechanical simulation only was conducted. The ANSYS simulation results match the experiment sag observations well up to the point at which the fuel element started cooling down. (author)

  6. Comparison of Material Behavior of Matrix Graphite for HTGR Fuel Elements upon Irradiation: A literature Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Woo; Yeo, Seunghwan; Cho, Moon Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The fuel elements for the HTGRs (i.e., spherical fuel element in pebble-bed type core design and fuel compact in prismatic core design) consists of coated fuel particles dispersed and bonded in a closely packed array within a carbonaceous matrix. This matrix is generally made by mixing fully graphitized natural and needle- or pitchcoke originated powders admixed with a binder material (pitch or phenolic resin), The resulting resinated graphite powder mixture, when compacted, may influence a number of material properties as well as its behavior under neutron irradiation during reactor operation. In the fabrication routes of these two different fuel element forms, different consolidation methods are employed; a quasi-isostatic pressing method is generally adopted to make pebbles while fuel compacts are fabricated by uni-axial pressing mode. The result showed that the hardness values obtained from the two directions showed an anisotropic behavior: The values obtained from the perpendicular section showed much higher micro hardness (176.6±10.5MPa in average) than from the parallel section ((125.6±MPa in average). This anisotropic behavior was concluded to be related to the microstructure of the matrix graphite. This may imply that the uni-axial pressing method to make compacts influence the microstructure of the matrix and hence the material properties of the matrix graphite.

  7. Countercurrent flow limited (CCFL) heat flux in the high flux isotope reactor (HFIR) fuel element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggles, A.E.

    1990-10-12

    The countercurrent flow (CCF) performance in the fuel element region of the HFIR is examined experimentally and theoretically. The fuel element consists of two concentric annuli filled with aluminum clad fuel plates of 1.27 mm thickness separated by 1.27 mm flow channels. The plates are curved as they go radially outward to accomplish constant flow channel width and constant metal-to-coolant ratio. A full-scale HFIR fuel element mock-up is studied in an adiabatic air-water CCF experiment. A review of CCF models for narrow channels is presented along with the treatment of CCFs in system of parallel channels. The experimental results are related to the existing models and a mechanistic model for the annular'' CCF in a narrow channel is developed that captures the data trends well. The results of the experiment are used to calculate the CCFL heat flux of the HFIR fuel assembly. It was determined that the HFIR fuel assembly can reject 0.62 Mw of thermal power in the CCFL situation. 31 refs., 17 figs.

  8. Vibration behavior of fuel-element vibration suppressors for the advanced power reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D. W.; Fiero, I. B.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary shock and vibration tests were performed on vibration suppressors for the advanced power reactor for space application. These suppressors position the fuel pellets in a pin type fuel element. The test determined the effect of varying axial clearance on the behavior of the suppressors when subjected to shock and vibratory loading. The full-size suppressor was tested in a mockup model of fuel and clad which required scaling of test conditions. The test data were correlated with theoretical predictions for suppressor failure. Good agreement was obtained. The maximum difference with damping neglected was about 30 percent. Neglecting damping would result in a conservative design.

  9. Clad thickness variation N-Reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E.A.

    1966-05-12

    The current specifications for the cladding on {open_quotes}N{close_quotes} fuels were established early in the course of process development and were predicted on several basic considerations. Among these were: (a) a desire to provide an adequate safety factor in cladding thickness to insure against corrosion penetration and rupture from uranium swelling stresses; (b) an apprehension that the striations in the zircaloy cladding of the U/zircaloy interface and on the exterior surface might serve as stress-raisers, leading to untimely failures of the jacket; and (c) then existing process capability - the need to maintain a specified ratio between zircaloy and uranium in the billet assembly to effect satisfactory coextrusion. It now appears appropriate to review these specifications in an effort to determine whether some of them may be revised, with attendant gains in economy and/or operating smoothness.

  10. Burnup measurements on spent fuel elements of the RP-10 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela Mora, Mariano; Gallardo Padilla, Alberto; Palomino, Jose Luis Castro, E-mail: mvela@ipen.gob.p [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN/Peru), Lima (Peru). Grupo de Calculo, Analisis y Seguridad de Reactores; Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac, E-mail: laaterre@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work describes the measurement, using nondestructive gamma-ray spectroscopy, of the average burnup attained by Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements irradiated in the RP-10 research reactor. Measurements were performed at the reactor storage pool area using {sup 137}Cs as the only burnup monitor, even for spent fuel elements with cooling times much shorter than two years. The experimental apparatus was previously calibrated in efficiency to obtain absolute average burnup values, which were compared against corresponding ones furnished by reactor physics calculations. The mean deviation between both values amounts to 6%. (author)

  11. Nerva Fuel Element Development Program Summary Report - July 1966 through June 1972 Extrusion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, J. M.

    1973-09-21

    This part of the completion report pertaining to the NERVA graphite fuel element program covers data collected during the extrusion studies. The physical properties of the fuel element reached the following values: coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) - 7.0 x 10-6/o C (25 - l,OOOo C); modulus of elasticity - 1.5 x lo6 psi; flexural strength - - 8,000 psi; ultimate strain to failure - 5,500 pidin; good thermal stress resistance. Matrices were produced which could be vapor coated with crack-free films of zirconium carbide. The CTE of the matrix was almost equal to the CTE of the zirconium carbide coating.

  12. Preparation, characterisation and dissolution of a CeO2 analogue for UO2 nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stennett, Martin C.; Corkhill, Claire L.; Marshall, Luke A.; Hyatt, Neil C.

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour of spent nuclear fuel under geological conditions is a major issue underpinning the safety case for final disposal. This work describes the preparation and characterisation of a non-radioactive UO2 fuel analogue, CeO2, to be used to investigate nuclear fuel dissolution under realistic repository conditions as part of a developing EU research programme. The densification behaviour of several cerium dioxide powders, derived from cerium oxalate, were investigated to aid the selection of a suitable powder for fabrication of fuel analogues for powder dissolution tests. CeO2 powders prepared by calcination of cerium oxalate at 800 °C and sintering at 1700 °C gave samples with similar microstructure to UO2 fuel and SIMFUEL. The suitability of the optimised synthesis route for dissolution was tested in a dissolution experiment conducted at 90 °C in 0.01 M HNO3.

  13. Molybdenum-99-producing 37-element fuel bundle neutronically and thermal-hydraulically equivalent to a standard CANDU fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichita, E., E-mail: Eleodor.Nichita@uoit.ca; Haroon, J., E-mail: Jawad.Haroon@uoit.ca

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • A 37-element fuel bundle modified for {sup 99}Mo production in CANDU reactors is presented. • The modified bundle is neutronically and thermal-hydraulically equivalent to the standard bundle. • The modified bundle satisfies all safety criteria satisfied by the standard bundle. - Abstract: {sup 99m}Tc, the most commonly used radioisotope in diagnostic nuclear medicine, results from the radioactive decay of {sup 99}Mo which is currently being produced at various research reactors around the globe. In this study, the potential use of CANDU power reactors for the production of {sup 99}Mo is investigated. A modified 37-element fuel bundle, suitable for the production of {sup 99}Mo in existing CANDU-type reactors is proposed. The new bundle is specifically designed to be neutronically and thermal-hydraulically equivalent to the standard 37-element CANDU fuel bundle in normal, steady-state operation and, at the same time, be able to produce significant quantities of {sup 99}Mo when irradiated in a CANDU reactor. The proposed bundle design uses fuel pins consisting of a depleted-uranium centre surrounded by a thin layer of low-enriched uranium. The new molybdenum-producing bundle is analyzed using the lattice transport code DRAGON and the diffusion code DONJON. The proposed design is shown to produce 4081 six-day Curies of {sup 99}Mo activity per bundle when irradiated in the peak-power channel of a CANDU core, while maintaining the necessary reactivity and power rating limits. The calculated {sup 99}Mo yield corresponds to approximately one third of the world weekly demand. A production rate of ∼3 bundles per week can meet the global demand of {sup 99}Mo.

  14. Study on the high-precision laser welding technology of nuclear fuel elements processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Sung; Yang, M. S.; Kim, W. K.; Lee, D. Y

    2001-01-01

    The proper welding method for appendage of bearing pads and spacers of PHWR nuclear fuel elements is considered important in respect to the soundness of weldments and the improvement of the performance of nuclear fuels during the operation in reactor. The probability of welding defects of the appendage parts is mostly apt to occur and it is connected directly with the safty and life prediction of the nuclear reactor in operation. Recently there has been studied all over the world to develope welding technology by laser in nuclear fuel processing, and the appendage of bearing pads and spacers of PHWR nuclear fuel elements. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the laser welded specimens and make some samples for the appendage of bearing pads of PHWR nuclear fuel elements. This study will be also provide the basic data for the fabrications of the appendage of bearing pads and spacers. Especially the laser welding is supposed to be used in the practical application such as precise materials manufacturing fields. In this respect this technology is not only a basic advanced technology with wide applications but also likely to be used for the development of directly applicable technologies for industries, with high potential benefits derived in the view point of economy and industry.

  15. An Expert System to Analyze Homogeneity in Fuel Element Plates for Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolosa, S.C.; Marajofsky, A.

    2004-10-06

    In the manufacturing control of Fuel Element Plates for Research Reactors, one of the problems to be addressed is how to determine the U-density homogeneity in a fuel plate and how to obtain qualitative and quantitative information in order to establish acceptance or rejection criteria for such, as well as carrying out the quality follow-up. This paper is aimed at developing computing software which implements an Unsupervised Competitive Learning Neural Network for the acknowledgment of regions belonging to a digitalized gray scale image. This program is applied to x-ray images. These images are generated when the x-ray beams go through a fuel plate of approximately 60 cm x 8 cm x 0.1 cm thick. A Nuclear Fuel Element for Research Reactors usually consists of 18 to 22 of these plates, positioned in parallel, in an arrangement of 8 x 7 cm. Carrying out the inspection of the digitalized x-ray image, the neural network detects regions with different luminous densities corresponding to U-densities in the fuel plate. This is used in quality control to detect failures and verify acceptance criteria depending on the homogeneity of the plate. This modality of inspection is important as it allows the performance of non-destructive measurements and the automatic generation of the map of U-relative densities of the fuel plate.

  16. TRISO-Fuel Element Performance Modeling for the Hybrid LIFE Engine with Pu Fuel Blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMange, P; Marian, J; Caro, M; Caro, A

    2010-02-18

    A TRISO-coated fuel thermo-mechanical performance study is performed for the hybrid LIFE engine to test the viability of TRISO particles to achieve ultra-high burnup of a weapons-grade Pu blanket. Our methodology includes full elastic anisotropy, time and temperature varying material properties for all TRISO layers, and a procedure to remap the elastic solutions in order to achieve fast fluences up to 30 x 10{sup 25} n {center_dot} m{sup -2} (E > 0.18 MeV). In order to model fast fluences in the range of {approx} 7 {approx} 30 x 10{sup 25} n {center_dot} m{sup -2}, for which no data exist, careful scalings and extrapolations of the known TRISO material properties are carried out under a number of potential scenarios. A number of findings can be extracted from our study. First, failure of the internal pyrolytic carbon (PyC) layer occurs within the first two months of operation. Then, the particles behave as BISO-coated particles, with the internal pressure being withstood directly by the SiC layer. Later, after 1.6 years, the remaining PyC crumbles due to void swelling and the fuel particle becomes a single-SiC-layer particle. Unrestrained by the PyC layers, and at the temperatures and fluences in the LIFE engine, the SiC layer maintains reasonably-low tensile stresses until the end-of-life. Second, the PyC creep constant, K, has a striking influence on the fuel performance of TRISO-coated particles, whose stresses scale almost inversely proportional to K. Obtaining more reliable measurements, especially at higher fluences, is an imperative for the fidelity of our models. Finally, varying the geometry of the TRISO-coated fuel particles results in little differences in the scope of fuel performance. The mechanical integrity of 2-cm graphite pebbles that act as fuel matrix has also been studied and it is concluded that they can reliable serve the entire LIFE burnup cycle without failure.

  17. Preparation and characterization of polymeric membranes for fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2012-06-24

    This paper summarized part of the material development for fuel cell conducted in my group in the last 10 years, based on new functionalized polymers with phosphonic, sulfonic as well as oxadiazole and triazole sites. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. All rights reserved.

  18. Transposable elements and small RNAs: Genomic fuel for species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Federico G; McGuire, Liam P; Counterman, Brian A; Ray, David A

    2015-01-01

    While transposable elements (TE) have long been suspected of involvement in species diversification, identifying specific roles has been difficult. We recently found evidence of TE-derived regulatory RNAs in a species-rich family of bats. The TE-derived small RNAs are temporally associated with the burst of species diversification, suggesting that they may have been involved in the processes that led to the diversification. In this commentary, we expand on the ideas that were briefly touched upon in that manuscript. Specifically, we suggest avenues of research that may help to identify the roles that TEs may play in perturbing regulatory pathways. Such research endeavors may serve to inform evolutionary biologists of the ways that TEs have influenced the genomic and taxonomic diversity around us.

  19. Jojoba methyl ester as a diesel fuel substitute: Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwan, M.S.; Ismail, M.A.; Elfeky, S.M.S.; Abu-Elyazeed, O.S.M. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Mattaria, University of Helwan, Masakin Elhelmia, Mattaria, Cairo 11718 (Egypt)

    2007-02-15

    The aim of the present work is to prepare jojoba methyl ester (JME) as a diesel fuel substitute. This was carried out experimentally and its chemical and physical properties were determined. Esterification method is used to produce methyl ester from raw jojoba oil. This method is optimized to produce the highest amount of fuel using a minimum amount of methyl alcohol. To achieve the above aim, a test rig for fuel production was developed. To measure the JME burning velocity a constant volume bomb was developed. The bomb was fully instrumented with a piezoelectric pressure transducer, charge amplifier, digital storage oscilloscope, A/D converter and a personal computer. Several grades of fuel were produced but, two grades only were selected and tested as an economical alternative fuel. The chemical and physical properties of these grades of fuel are measured as well as the laminar burning velocity. It is found that JME liquid fuel exhibited lower burning velocities than iso-octane. The new fuel is found to be suitable for compression ignition engine particularly in the indirect-injection ones, while for direct-injection, and high-speed engines fuel modifications are required. The new fuel is safe, has no sulphur content and reduces the engine wear as well as lengthens the lifetime of lubricating oil. (author)

  20. Fuel-element failures in Hanford single-pass reactors 1944--1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gydesen, S.P.

    1993-07-01

    The primary objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. To estimate the doses, the staff of the Source Terms Task use operating information from historical documents to approximate the radioactive emissions. One source of radioactive emissions to the Columbia River came from leaks in the aluminum cladding of the uranium metal fuel elements in single-pass reactors. The purpose of this letter report is to provide photocopies of the documents that recorded these failures. The data from these documents will be used by the Source Terms Task to determine the contribution of single-pass reactor fuel-element failures to the radioactivity of the reactor effluent from 1944 through 1971. Each referenced fuel-element failure occurring in the Hanford single-pass reactors is addressed. The first recorded failure was in 1948, the last in 1970. No records of fuel-element failures were found in documents prior to 1948. Data on the approximately 2000 failures which occurred during the 28 years (1944--1971) of Hanford single-pass reactor operations are provided in this report.

  1. Aerothermal modeling program, Phase 2, Element C: Fuel injector-air swirl characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, A. A.; Mongia, H. C.; Mcdonnel, V. G.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    1987-01-01

    The main objectives of the NASA sponsored Aerothermal Modeling Program, Phase 2, Element C, are to collect benchmark quality data to quantify the fuel spray interaction with the turbulent swirling flows and to validate current and advanced two phase flow models. The technical tasks involved in this effort are discussed.

  2. Review of Rover fuel element protective coating development at Los Alamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Terry C.

    1991-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) entered the nuclear propulsion field in 1955 and began work on all aspects of a nuclear propulsion program with a target exhaust temperature of about 2750 K. A very extensive chemical vapor deposition coating technology for preventing catastrophic corrosion of reactor core components by the high temperature, high pressure hydrogen propellant gas was developed. Over the 17-year term of the program, more than 50,000 fuel elements were coated and evaluated. Advances in performance were achieved only through closely coupled interaction between the developing fuel element fabrication and protective coating technologies. The endurance of fuel elements in high temperature, high pressure hydrogen environment increased from several minutes at 2000 K exit gas temperature to 2 hours at 2440 K exit gas temperature in a reactor test and 10 hours at 2350 K exit gas temperature in a hot gas test. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the rationale for selection of coating materials used (NbC and ZrC), identify critical fuel element-coat interactions that had to be modified to increase system performance, and review the evolution of protective coating technology.

  3. Discrete element method study of fuel relocation and dispersal during loss-of-coolant accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, K.; Verwerft, M.

    2016-09-01

    The fuel fragmentation, relocation and dispersal (FFRD) during LOCA transients today retain the attention of the nuclear safety community. The fine fragmentation observed at high burnup may, indeed, affect the Emergency Core Cooling System performance: accumulation of fuel debris in the cladding ballooned zone leads to a redistribution of the temperature profile, while dispersal of debris might lead to coolant blockage or to debris circulation through the primary circuit. This work presents a contribution, by discrete element method, towards a mechanistic description of the various stages of FFRD. The fuel fragments are described as a set of interacting particles, behaving as a granular medium. The model shows qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental observations, such as the packing efficiency in the balloon, which is shown to stabilize at about 55%. The model is then applied to study fuel dispersal, for which experimental parametric studies are both difficult and expensive.

  4. Burnup determination of a fuel element concerning different cooling times; Seguimiento del quemado de un elemento combustible, para diferentes tiempos de enfriamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriquez, C.; Navarro, G.; Pereda, C.; Mutis, O. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile). Dept. de Aplicaciones Nucleares. Unidad de Reactores; Terremoto, Luis A.A.; Zeituni, Carlos A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    In this work we report a complete set of measurements and some relevant results regarding the burnup process of a fuel element containing low enriched nuclear fuel. This fuel element was fabricated at the Plant of Fuel Elements of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN). Measurements were carried out using gamma-ray spectroscopy and the absolute burnup of the fuel element was determined. (author)

  5. Development of TUF-ELOCA - a software tool for integrated single-channel thermal-hydraulic and fuel element analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, A.I.; Wu, E.; Yousef, W.W.; Pascoe, J. [Nuclear Safety Solutions Ltd., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Parlatan, Y. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kwee, M. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The TUF-ELOCA tool couples the TUF and ELOCA codes to enable an integrated thermal-hydraulic and fuel element analysis for a single channel during transient conditions. The coupled architecture is based on TUF as the parent process controlling multiple ELOCA executions that simulate the fuel elements behaviour and is scalable to different fuel channel designs. The coupling ensures a proper feedback between the coolant conditions and fuel elements response, eliminates model duplications, and constitutes an improvement from the prediction accuracy point of view. The communication interfaces are based on PVM and allow parallelization of the fuel element simulations. Developmental testing results are presented showing realistic predictions for the fuel channel behaviour during a transient. (author)

  6. Preparation and research on properties of castor oil as a diesel fuel additive

    OpenAIRE

    Nurbakhit Imankulov

    2012-01-01

    The research shows an opportunity of preparing biodiesel fuel on the basis of local diesel fuel and the bioadditive - castor oil. Limiting optimum concentration of introduction of the bioadditive equal was established as 5% mass ratio. The castor oil released from seeds of Palma Christi grown on experimental field. All physical and chemical characteristics of the oil including IR-spectra were determined. Operating conditions of castor oil introduction (temperature, solubility, concentra-tion,...

  7. Test design description Volume 2, Part 1. IFR-1 metal fuel irradiation test (AK-181) element as-built data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodds, N. E.

    1986-06-01

    The IFR-1 Test, designated as the AK-181 Test Assembly, will be the first irradiation test of wire wrapped, sodium-bonded metallic fuel elements in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The test is part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuels program conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in support of the Innovative Reactor Concepts Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). One subassembly, containing 169 fuel elements, will be irradiated for 600 full power days to achieve 10 at.% burnup. Three metal fuel alloys (U-10Zr, U-8Pu-10Zr) will be irradiated in D9 cladding tubes. The metal fuel elements have a fuel-smeared density of 75% and each contains five slugs. The enriched zone contains three slugs and is 36-in. long. One 6.5-in. long depleted uranium axial blanket slug (DU-10Zr) was loaded at each end of the enriched zone. the fuel elements were fabricated at ANL-W and delivered to Westinghouse-Hanford for wirewrapping and assembly into the test article. This Test Design Description contains relevant data on compositions, densities, dimensions and weights for the cast fuel slugs and completed fuel elements. The elements conform to the requirements in MG-22, "Users` Guide for the Irradiation of Experiments in the FTR."

  8. Fuel composition optimization in a 78-element fuel bundle for use in a pressure tube type supercritical water-cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, D.W.; Novog, D.R. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    A 78-element fuel bundle containing a plutonium-thorium fuel mixture has been proposed for a Generation IV pressure tube type supercritical water-cooled reactor. In this work, using a lattice cell model created with the code DRAGON,the lattice pitch, fuel composition (fraction of PuO{sub 2} in ThO{sub 2}) and radial enrichment profile of the 78-element bundle is optimized using a merit function and a metaheuristic search algorithm.The merit function is designed such that the optimal fuel maximizes fuel utilization while minimizing peak element ratings and coolant void reactivity. A radial enrichment profile of 10 wt%, 11 wt% and 20 wt% PuO{sub 2} (inner to outer ring) with a lattice pitch of 25.0 cm was found to provide the optimal merit score based on the aforementioned criteria. (author)

  9. Prediction of the thermal behavior of a particle spherical fuel element using GITT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, C.V. [Brazilian Army, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Science and Technology. Technological Center of the Army]. E-mail: pessoapen@gmail.com; Oliveira, Claudio L. de [Engineering Military Institute, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Science and Technology]. E-mail: d7luiz@ime.eb.br; Jian, Su [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: sujian@con.ufrj.br

    2008-07-01

    In this work, the transient and steady state heat conduction in a spherical fuel element of a pebble-bed high temperature were studied. This pebble element is composed by a particulate region with spherical inclusions, the fuel UO{sub 2} particles, dispersed in a graphite matrix. A convective heat transfer by helium occurs on the outer surface of the fuel element. The two-energy equation model for the case of pure conduction was applied to this particulate spherical element, generating two macroscopic temperatures, respectively, of the inclusions and of the matrix. The transient analysis was carried out by using the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT) that requires low computational efforts and allows a fast evaluation of the two macroscopic transient temperatures of the particulate region. The solution by GITT leads to a system of ordinary differential equations with the unknown transformed potentials. The mechanical properties (thermal conductivity and specific heat) of the materials were supposed not to depend on the temperature and to be uniform in each region. (author)

  10. Development of novel extractants for the recycle system of transuranium elements from nuclear fuel-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Masahiro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-03-01

    Novel bi-functional extractants which have two organophosphorus moieties in the molecular structure were designed and synthesized for the recycle system of transuranium elements using liquid-liquid extraction. The separation efficiency and extraction ability of the newly synthesized extractants were investigated for rare earth metals. The new extractants have an high extractability to the rare earth metals compared with that of commercially available phosphorus extractants. The obtained results suggest that the extraction and separation abilities are highly sensitive to the molecular structure of the spacer connecting the two functional phosphorus groups. The results of thermodynamic analysis for extraction equilibrium indicate that the entropy effect on the extraction is one of the key factors to enhance the selectivity in the rare earth extractions. Furthermore, a computer analysis was carried out to evaluate the extraction properties for the extraction of rare earth metals by the bi-functional extractants. It is demonstrated that the new concept to connect some functional moieties with a spacer is very useful and is a promising method to develop new extractants for the treatment of nuclear fuel. We have proposed a novel molecular imprinting technique for the treatment of waste nuclear solutions. A surface-imprinting resin was prepared by an emulsion polymerization using a novel organophosphorus extractant as a host monomer for rare earth metals. The host monomer which has amphiphilic nature forms a complex with a rare earth metal ion at the interface, and the complex remains as it is. After the matrix is polymerized, the coordination structure is `imprinted` at the resin interface. The imprinted resins exhibited a high adsorption selectivity to the target Dy ion. We believe that the novel imprint techniques will be useful for the treatment of nuclear waste water. (J.P.N.)

  11. Fabrication of simulated plate fuel elements: Defining role of out-of-plane residual shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh, R.; Kohli, D.; Sinha, V. P.; Prasad, G. J.; Samajdar, I.

    2014-02-01

    Bond strength and microstructural developments were investigated during fabrication of simulated plate fuel elements. The study involved roll bonding of aluminum-aluminum (case A) and aluminum-aluminum + yttria (Y2O3) dispersion (case B). Case B approximated aluminum-uranium silicide (U3Si2) 'fuel-meat' in an actual plate fuel. Samples after different stages of fabrication, hot and cold rolling, were investigated through peel and pull tests, micro-hardness, residual stresses, electron and micro-focus X-ray diffraction. Measurements revealed a clear drop in bond strength during cold rolling: an observation unique to case B. This was related to significant increase in 'out-of-plane' residual shear stresses near the clad/dispersion interface, and not from visible signatures of microstructural heterogeneities.

  12. Sample preparation for thermo-gravimetric determination and thermo-gravimetric characterization of refuse derived fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T; Bronson, B; Gogolek, P; Mehrani, P

    2016-02-01

    Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) is a useful method for characterizing fuels. In the past it has been applied to the study of refuse derived fuel (RDF) and related materials. However, the heterogeneity of RDF makes the preparation of small representative samples very difficult and this difficulty has limited the effectiveness of TGA for characterization of RDF. A TGA method was applied to a variety of materials prepared from a commercially available RDF using a variety of procedures. Applicability of TGA method to the determination of the renewable content of RDF was considered. Cryogenic ball milling was found to be an effective means of preparing RDF samples for TGA. When combined with an effective sample preparation, TGA could be used as an alternative method for assessing the renewable content of RDF.

  13. Fuel cell membrane preparation: effects of base polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brack, H.P.; Scherer, G.G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Radiation grafted films and membranes prepared from the partially fluorinated base copolymer poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) or ETFE have better mechanical properties than those prepared from poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-hexafluoropropylene) or FEP. The influence of the base copolymer film type on the grafting rate and yields is reported in the present investigation. An understanding of the effects of these parameters is important so that the grafting process can be carried out reproducibly in as short a time as possible. The grafting rate and yield as a function of the irradiation dose has been found to be much higher for the partially fluorinated base copolymer ETFE. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 5 refs.

  14. Model for solid oxide fuel cell cathodes prepared by infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio; Søgaard, Martin; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2017-01-01

    A 1-dimensional model of a cathode has been developed in order to understand and predict the performance of cathodes prepared by infiltration of La0.6Sr0.4Co1.05O3-δ (LSC) into porous backbones of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO). The model accounts for the mixed ionic and electronic conductivity of LSC......, ionic conductivity of CGO, gas transport in the porous cathode, and the oxygen reduction reaction at the surface of percolated LSC. Geometrical variations are applied to reflect a changing microstructure of LSC under varying firing temperatures. Using microstructural parameters obtained from detailed...... parameter variations are presented and discussed with the aim of presenting specific guidelines for optimizing the microstructure of cathodes prepared by infiltration....

  15. Preparation of liquid fuels from chark chemical tar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the course of study the optimal conditions of conduction of the process hydrogenization are found. Optimal temperature for preparation of motor oils from chark chemical tar is 4000С. On the increase of temperature from 3500С to 4000С the yield of liquid products on Mo-containing catalyst increases from 47.1 mass. % to 65.2 mass. % compared to the yield of liquid products obtained without the catalyst. The yield of gasoil fraction constitutes 15 mass. %. Optimal quantity of catalyst for preparation of liquid products from the tar is 0.05 mass. %. According to the results of study the catalytic effect of synthesized from emulsion catalyst appears at low concentration of molybdenum (0.05 mass.%. But the double increase of concentration of molybdenum weakly effects the improvement of indicators of the process.

  16. Demonstration tests for HTGR fuel elements and core components with test sections in HENDEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Hino, Ryutaro; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1995-03-01

    In the fuel stack test section (T{sub 1}) of the Helium Engineering Demonstration Loop (HENDEL), thermal and hydraulic performances of helium gas flows through a fuel rod channel and a fuel stack have been investigated for the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) core thermal design. The test data showed that the turbulent characteristics appearing in the Reynolds number above 2000: no typical behavior in the transition zone, and friction factors and heat transfer coefficients in the fuel channel were found to be higher than those in a smooth annular channel. Heat transfer behavior of gas flow in a fuel element channel with blockage and cross-flow through a gap between upper and lower fuel elements stacked was revealed using the mock-up models. On the other hand, demonstration tests have been performed to verify thermal and hydraulic characteristics and structural integrity related to the core bottom structure using a full-scale test facility named as the in-core structure test section (T{sub 2}). The sealing performance test revealed that the leakage of low-temperature helium gas through gaps between the permanent reflector blocks to the core was very low level compared with the HTTR design value and no change of the leakage flow rate were observed after a long term operation. The heat transfer tests including thermal transient at shutdown of gas circulators verified good insulating performance of core insulation structures in the core bottom structure and the hot gas duct; the temperature of the metal portion of these structure was below the design value. Examination of the thermal mixing characteristics indicated that the mixing of the hot helium gas started at a hot plenum and finished completely at downstream of the outlet hot gas duct. The present results obtained from these demonstration tests have been practically applied to the detailed design works and licensing procedures of the HTTR. (J.P.N.) 92 refs.

  17. Fusion option to dispose of spent nuclear fuel and transuranic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohar, Y.

    2000-02-10

    The fusion option is examined to solve the disposition problems of the spent nuclear fuel and the transuranic elements. The analysis of this report shows that the top rated solution, the elimination of the transuranic elements and the long-lived fission products, can be achieved in a fusion reactor. A 167 MW of fusion power from a D-T plasma for sixty years with an availability factor of 0.75 can transmute all the transuranic elements and the long-lived fission products of the 70,000 tons of the US inventory of spent nuclear fuel generated up to the year 2015. The operating time can be reduced to thirty years with use of 334 MW of fusion power, a system study is needed to define the optimum time. In addition, the fusion solution eliminates the need for a geological repository site, which is a major advantage. Meanwhile, such utilization of the fusion power will provide an excellent opportunity to develop fusion energy for the future. Fusion blankets with a liquid carrier for the transuranic elements can achieve a transmutation rate for the transuranic elements up to 80 kg/MW.y of fusion power with k{sub eff} of 0.98. In addition, the liquid blankets have several advantages relative to the other blanket options. The energy from this transmutation is utilized to produce revenue for the system. Molten salt (Flibe) and lithium-lead eutectic are identified as the most promising liquids for this application, both materials are under development for future fusion blanket concepts. The Flibe molten salt with transuranic elements was developed and used successfully as nuclear fuel for the molten salt breeder reactor in the 1960's.

  18. Fabrication of simulated plate fuel elements: Defining role of stress relief annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, D.; Rakesh, R.; Sinha, V. P.; Prasad, G. J.; Samajdar, I.

    2014-04-01

    This study involved fabrication of simulated plate fuel elements. Uranium silicide of actual fuel elements was replaced with yttria. The fabrication stages were otherwise identical. The final cold rolled and/or straightened plates, without stress relief, showed an inverse relationship between bond strength and out of plane residual shear stress (τ13). Stress relief of τ13 was conducted over a range of temperatures/times (200-500 °C and 15-240 min) and led to corresponding improvements in bond strength. Fastest τ13 relief was obtained through 300 °C annealing. Elimination of microscopic shear bands, through recovery and partial recrystallization, was clearly the most effective mechanism of relieving τ13.

  19. Analytical assessment for stress corrosion fatigue of CANDU fuel elements under load following conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horhoianu, Grigore; Ionescu, Drags; Pauna, Eduard [Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti (Romania). Nuclear Fuel Engineering Lab.

    2012-03-15

    When nuclear power reactors are operated in a load following (LF) mode, the nuclear fuel may be subjected to step changes in power on weekly, daily, or even hourly basis, depending on the grid's needs. Two load following tests performed in TRIGA Research Reactor of Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) Pitesti were simulated with finite elements computer codes in order to evaluate Stress Corrosion Fatigue (SCF) of the sheath arising from expansion and contraction of the pellets in the corrosive environment. The 3D finite element analyses show that the cyclic strains give highly multiaxial stresses in the sheath at ridge region. This paper summarizes the results of the analytical assessment for SCF and their relation to CANDU fuel performance in LF tests conditions. (orig.)

  20. Research on the interfacial behaviors of plate-type dispersion nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiming; Yan, Xiaoqing; Ding, Shurong; Huo, Yongzhong

    2010-04-01

    The three-dimensional constitutive relations are constructed, respectively, for the fuel particles, the metal matrix and the cladding of dispersion nuclear fuel elements, allowing for the effects of large deformation and thermal-elastoplasticity. According to the constitutive relations, the method of modeling their irradiation behaviors in ABAQUS is developed and validated. Numerical simulations of the interfacial performances between the fuel meat and the cladding are implemented with the developed finite element models for different micro-structures of the fuel meat. The research results indicate that: (1) the interfacial tensile stresses and shear stresses for some cases will increase with burnup, but the relative stresses will decrease with burnup for some micro-structures; (2) at the lower burnups, the interfacial stresses increase with the particle sizes and the particle volume fractions; however, it is not the case at the higher burnups; (3) the particle distribution characteristics distinctly affect the interfacial stresses, and the face-centered cubic case has the best interfacial performance of the three considered cases.

  1. Atrium and HTP fuel elements for the U. S. market. Atrium- und HTP-Brennelemente fuer den US-Markt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, J.N. (Siemens Power Corp. Nuclear Div., Engineering and Manufacturing Facility, Richland, WA (United States)); Krebs, W.D. (Technik Brennelemente und Reaktorkern, Siemens AG Bereich Energieerzeugung (KWU), Erlangen (Germany))

    1994-07-01

    The international acitivities of Siemens in the nuclear fuel sector are the responsibility of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Unit of the Power Generation Division (KWU) in Germany, the Nuclear Dividion of Siemens Power Corporation (SPC) in the Unites States, and the German Siemens subsidiaries, ANF GmbH (fuel element fabrication) in Lingen and NRG - Nuklearrohr Gesellschaft mbH (cladding tube production) in Duisburg. The requirements of the U.S. market for light water reactor fuel elements are met by products from the European market. (orig.)

  2. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine, reusable thrust chamber program. Task 6: Data dump hot fuel element investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurick, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of reusable thrust chambers for the space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine was conducted. Tests were conducted using subscale injector hot-fire procedures for the injector configurations designed for a regenerative cooled engine. The effect of operating conditions and fuel temperature on combustion chamber performance was determined. Specific objectives of the evaluation were to examine the optimum like-doublet element geometry for operation at conditions consistent with a fuel regeneratively cooled engine (hot fuel, 200 to 250 F) and the sensitivity of the triplet injector element to hot fuels.

  3. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Catalytic Decomposing Element with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  4. Plan and safety analysis on the high power irradiation test program of full length fuel element for Hanaro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.S.; Kim, C.K.; Park, H.D.; Kim, K.H.; Park, J.M.; Lee, D.B.; Kim, J.D.; Ko, Y.M.; Jang, S.J.; Ahn, H.S.; Woo, Y.M.; Kim, E.S.; Kim, H.R.; Chae, H.T.; Lee, C.S

    1999-06-01

    The advanced research reactor fuel development project has been carried out for a localization of HANARO nuclear fuels. The design and fabrication technologies of the localized fuel are almost developed, and the quality assurance procedure and assessment criteria were established. The characteristics of the fuel fabricated in KAERI were investigated through out-pile test. In order to verify the localized fuel performance, irradiation test plan of the developed fuel has been worked out. It consists of 3 stages. The 1st stage is normal power irradiation test and the final burn-up of the test fuel was supposed to be 85 at%. The fuel has been successfully irradiated until now and will be unloaded in June. The 2nd irradiation test will be done to confirm the fuel performance and to get the in-pile data under the high neutron flux level. This test fuel is identical with the 36-element fuel assembly. After the 1st and 2nd irradiation tests are completed with acceptable results, the 3rd irradiation test of final stage will be carried out as a demonstration. In this report, the results of the 1st irradiation test is introduced. Then the objectives, schedule and test condition, the design documents of fuel elements and bundle, the methods of fabrication, out-pile test results, post-irradiation examination scheme, calculation of linear power distribution, and safety analysis results for the 2nd irradiation test bundle are described. (author). 2 refs., 14 tabs., 12 figs.

  5. Modeling of the heat transfer performance of plate-type dispersion nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shurong; Huo, Yongzhong; Yan, XiaoQing

    2009-08-01

    Considering the mutual actions between fuel particles and the metal matrix, the three-dimensional finite element models are developed to simulate the heat transfer behaviors of dispersion nuclear fuel plates. The research results indicate that the temperatures of the fuel plate might rise more distinctly with considering the particle swelling and the degraded surface heat transfer coefficients with increasing burnup; the local heating phenomenon within the particles appears when their thermal conductivities are too low. With rise of the surface heat transfer coefficients, the temperatures within the fuel plate decrease; the temperatures of the fuel plate are sensitive to the variations of the heat transfer coefficients whose values are lower, but their effects are weakened and slight when the heat transfer coefficients increase and reach a certain extent. Increasing the heat generation rate leads to elevating the internal temperatures. The temperatures and the maximum temperature differences within the plate increase along with the particle volume fractions. The surface thermal flux goes up along with particle volume fractions and heat generation rates, but the effects of surface heat transfer coefficients are not evident.

  6. Preparation and characterization of anode catalysts for the direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC): methanol and ethanol

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of high performance electrode materials has been the key research objective in the field of direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC) [1, 2, and 3]. A promising way to attain higher catalytic performance is to add a third element to the best...

  7. Preparation and research on properties of castor oil as a diesel fuel additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbakhit Imankulov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The research shows an opportunity of preparing biodiesel fuel on the basis of local diesel fuel and the bioadditive - castor oil. Limiting optimum concentration of introduction of the bioadditive equal was established as 5% mass ratio. The castor oil released from seeds of Palma Christi grown on experimental field. All physical and chemical characteristics of the oil including IR-spectra were determined. Operating conditions of castor oil introduction (temperature, solubility, concentra-tion, etc. were determined. The received biofuel was tested at oil refinery and its bench tests with a positive effect were also carried out. Technical requirements and technological regulation (temporary on manufacture of this biodiesel fuel were prepared.

  8. New methodology of preparation support for solid oxide fuel cells using different pore forming agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, Raigenis da P.; Guedes, Bruna C.F.; Silva, Marcos A. da; Carvalho, Luiz F.V. de; Boaventura, Jaime S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Pontes, Luiz A.M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (EP/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The development of environment-friendly energy sources has been of the most important scientific and technological area. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are very promising alternative for their ability to handle renewable fuels with low emissions and high efficiency. However, this device requires massive improvement before commercial application. This work studies the pore formation in the cell anode and cathode with NaHCO{sub 3} or citric acid, comparing to graphite. The three agents make pore with similar features, but the use of NaHCO{sub 3} and citric acid considerably improves the adhesion of the electrode-electrolyte interface, critical characteristic for good cell efficiency. The prepared anode-electrolyte-cathode structure was studied by SEM technique. The SOFC prepared using citric acid was tested with gaseous ethanol, natural gas and hydrogen. For all these three fuels the SOFC shows virtually no overpotential, indicating the good ionic conductance of the electrodes-electrolyte interface.. (author)

  9. [Preparation of ethanol-diesel fuel blends and exhausts emission characteristics in diesel engine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runduo; He, Hong; Zhang, Changbin; Shi, Xiaoyan

    2003-07-01

    The technology that diesel oil is partly substituted by ethanol can reduce diesel engine exhausts emission, especially fuel soot. This research is concentrated on preparation of ethanol-diesel blend fuel and exhausts emission characteristics using diesel engine bench. Absolute ethanol can dissolve into diesel fuel at an arbitrary ratio. However, a trace of water (0.2%) addition can lead to the phase separation of blends. Organic additive synthesized during this research can develop the ability of resistance to water and maintain the stability of ethanol-diesel-trace amounts of water system. The effects of 10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol-diesel fuel blends on exhausts emission, were compared with that of diesel fuel in direct injection (DI) diesel engine. The optimum ethanol percentage for ethanol-diesel fuel blends was 20%. Using 20% ethanol-diesel fuel blend with 2% additive of the total volume, bench diesel engine showed a large amount decrease of exhaust gas, e.g. 55% of Bosch smoke number, 70% of HC emission, and 45% of CO emission at 13 kW and 1540 r/min. Without the addition of additive, the blend of ethanol produced new organic compounds such as ethanol and acetaldehyde in tail gas. However, the addition of additive obviously reduced the emission of ethanol and acetaldehyde.

  10. Development of the manufacture and process for DUPIC fuel elements; development of the quality evaluation techniques for end cap welds of DUPIC fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Tae; Choi, Myong Seon; Yang, Hyun Tae; Kim, Dong Gyun; Park, Jin Seok; Kim, Jin Ho [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this research is to set up the quality evaluation techniques for end cap welds of DUPIC fuel element. High temperature corrosion test and the SCC test for Zircaloy-4 were performed, and also the possibility of the ultrasonic test technique was verified for the quality evaluation and control of the laser welds in the DUPIC fuel rod end cap. From the evaluation of corrosion properties with measuring the weight gain and observing oxide film of the specimen that had been in the circumstance of steam(400 .deg. C, 1,500 psi) by max. 70 days later, the weight gain of the welded specimens was larger than original tube and the weight increasing rate increased with the exposed days. For the Development of techniques for ultrasonic test, semi-auto ultrasonic test system has been made based on immersion pulse-echo technique using spherically concentrated ultrasonic beam. Subsequently, developed ultrasonic test technique is quite sensible to shape of welds in the inside and outside of tube as well as crack, undercut and expulsion, and also this ultrasonic test, together with metallurgical fracture test, has good reliance as enough to be used for control method of welding process. 43 refs., 47 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  11. Biodiesel fuel from rapeseed oil as prepared in supercritical methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saka, S.; Kusdiana, D. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science

    2001-01-01

    Transesterification reaction of rapeseed oil in supercritical methanol was investigated without using any catalyst. An experiment has been carried out in the batch-type reaction vessel preheated at 350 and 400{degree}C and at a pressure of 45-65 MPa, and with a molar ratio of 1:42 of the rapeseed oil to methanol. It was consequently demonstrated that, in a preheating temperature of 350{degree}C, 240 s of supercritical treatment of methanol was sufficient to convert the rapeseed oil to methyl esters and that, although the prepared methyl esters were basically the same as those of the common method with a basic catalyst, the yield of methyl esters by the former was found to be higher than that by the latter. In addition, it was found that this supercritical methanol process requires the shorter reaction time and simpler purification procedure because of the unused catalyst. 16 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Information on the evolution of severe LWR fuel element damage obtained in the CORA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanz, G.; Hagen, S.; Hofmann, P.; Schumacher, G.; Sepold, L.

    1992-06-01

    In the CORA program a series of out-of-pile experiments on LWR severe accidental situations is being performed, in which test bundles of LWR typical components and arrangements (PWR, BWR) are exposed to temperature transients up to about 2400°C under flowing steam. The individual features of the facility, the test conduct, and the evaluation will be presented. In the frame of the international cooperation in severe fuel damage (SFD) programs the CORA tests are contributing confirmatory and complementary informations to the results from the limited number of in-pile tests. The identification of basic phenomena of the fuel element destruction, observed as a function of temperature, is supported by separate-effects test results. Most important mechanisms are the steam oxidation of the Zircaloy cladding, which determines the temperature escalation, the chemical interaction between UO 2 fuel and cladding, which dominates fuel liquefaction, relocation and resulting blockage formation, as well as chemical interactions with Inconel spacer grids and absorber units ((Ag, In, Cd) alloy or B 4C), which are leading to extensive low-temperature melt formation around 1200°C. Interrelations between those basic phenomena, resulting for example in cladding deformation ("flowering") and the dramatic hydrogen formation in response to the fast cooling of a hot bundle by cold water ("quenching") are determining the evolution paths of fuel element destruction, which are to be identified. A further important task is the abstraction from mechanistic and microstructural details in order to get a rough classification of damage regimes (temperature and extent), a practicable analytical treatment of the materials behaviour, and a basis for decisions in accident mitigation and management procedures.

  13. Phase characteristics of rare earth elements in metallic fuel for a sodium-cooled fast reactor by injection casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Seoung Woo; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Oh, Seok Jin; Park, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Chan Bock; Youn, Young-Sang; Kim, Jong-Yun

    2017-04-01

    Uranium-zirconium-rare earth (U-Zr-RE) fuel slugs for a sodium-cooled fast reactor were manufactured using a modified injection casting method, and investigated with respect to their uniformity, distribution, composition, and phase behavior according to RE content. Nd, Ce, Pr, and La were chosen as four representative lanthanide elements because they are considered to be major RE components of fuel ingots after pyroprocessing. Immiscible layers were found on the top layers of the melt-residue commensurate with higher fuel slug RE content. Scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) data showed that RE elements in the melt-residue were distributed uniformly throughout the fuel slugs. RE element agglomeration did not contaminate the fuel slugs but strongly affected the RE content of the slugs.

  14. Studies on disintegrating spherical fuel elements of high temperature gas-cooled reactor by a electrochemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lifang; Wen, Mingfen; Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Spherical fuel elements of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor were disintegrated through a electrochemical method with NaNO3 as electrolyte. The X-ray diffraction spectra and total carbon contents of the graphite fragments were determined, and the results agreed with those from simulated fuel elements. After conducting the characterization analysis and the leaching experiment of coated fuel particles, the uranium concentrations of leaching solutions and spent electrolyte were found to be at background levels. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the improved electrochemical method with NaNO3 as electrolyte in disintegrating the unirradiated fuel elements without any damage to the coated fuel particles. Moreover, the method avoided unexpected radioactivity contamination to the graphite matrix and spent electrolyte.

  15. Preparation and evaluation of advanced catalysts for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehart, P.; Baris, J.; Hockmuth, J.; Pagliaro, P.

    1984-01-01

    The platinum electrocatalysts were characterized for their crystallite sizes and the degree of dispersion on the carbon supports. One application of these electrocatalysts was for anodic oxidation of hydrogen in hot phosphoric acid fuel cells, coupled with the influence of low concentrations of carbon monoxide in the fuel gas stream. In a similar way, these platinum on carbon electrocatalysts were evaluated for oxygen reduction in hot phosphoric acid. Binary noble metal alloys were prepared for anodic oxidation of hydrogen and noble metal-refractory metal mixtures were prepared for oxygen reduction. An exemplar alloy of platinum and palladium (50/50 atom %) was discovered for anodic oxidation of hydrogen in the presence of carbon monoxide, and patent disclosures were submitted. For the cathode, platinum-vanadium alloys were prepared showing improved performance over pure platinum. Preliminary experiments on electrocatalyst utilization in electrode structures showed low utilization of the noble metal when the electrocatalyst loading exceeded one weight percent on the carbon.

  16. Electrolyser and fuel cells, key elements for energy and life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockstahler, Klaus; Funke, Helmut; Lucas, Joachim

    Both, Electrolyser and Fuel Cells are key elements for regenerative energy and life support systems. Electrolyser technology is originally intended for oxygen production in manned space habitats and in submarines, through splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen. Fuel cells serve for energy production through the reaction, triggered in the presence of an electrolyte, between a fuel and an oxidant. Now combining both technologies i.e. electrolyser and fuel cell makes it a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS). In charge mode, i.e. with energy supplied e.g. by solar cells, the electrolyser splits water into hydrogen and oxygen being stored in tanks. In discharge mode, when power is needed but no energy is available, the stored gases are converted in the fuel cell to generate electricity under the formation of water that is stored in tanks. Rerouting the water to the electrolyser makes it a closed-loop i.e. regenerative process. Different electrolyser and fuel cell technologies are being evolved. At Astrium emphasis is put on the development of an RFCS comprised of Fixed Alkaline Electrolyser (FAE) and Fuel Cell (AFC) as such technology offers a high electrical efficiency and thus reduced system weight, which is important in space applications. With increasing power demand and increasing discharge time an RFCS proves to be superior to batteries. Since the early technology development multiple design refinements were done at Astrium, funded by the European Space Agency ESA and the German National Agency DLR as well as based on company internal R and T funding. Today a complete RFCS energy system breadboard is established and the operational behavior of the system is being tested. In parallel the electrolyser itself is subject to design refinement and testing in terms of oxygen production in manned space habitats. In addition essential features and components for process monitoring and control are being developed. The present results and achievements and the dedicated

  17. Evaluation of plate type fuel elements by eddy current test method; Avaliacao de combustiveis nucleares tipo placa pelo metodo de correntes parasitas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frade, Rangel Teixeira

    2015-07-01

    Plate type fuel elements are used in MTR research nuclear reactors. The fuel plates are manufactured by assembling a briquette containing the fissile material inserted in a frame, with metal plates in both sides of the set, to act as a cladding. This set is rolled under controlled conditions in order to obtain the fuel plate. In Brazil, this type of fuel is manufactured by IPEN and used in the IEA-R1 reactor. After fabrication of three batches of fuel plates, 24 plates, one of them is taken, in order to verify the thickness of the cladding. For this purpose, the plate is sectioned and the thickness measurements are carried out by using optical microscopy. This procedure implies in damage of the plate, with the consequent cost. Besides, the process of sample preparation for optical microscopy analysis is time consuming, it is necessary an infrastructure for handling radioactive materials and there is a generation of radioactive residues during the process. The objective of this study was verify the applicability of eddy current test method for nondestructive measurement of cladding thickness in plate type nuclear fuels, enabling the inspection of all manufactured fuel plates. For this purpose, reference standards, representative of the cladding of the fuel plates, were manufactured using thermomechanical processing conditions similar to those used for plates manufacturing. Due to no availability of fuel plates for performing the experiments, the presence of the plate’s core was simulated using materials with different electrical conductivities, fixed to the thickness reference standards. Probes of eddy current testing were designed and manufactured. They showed high sensitivity to thickness variations, being able to separate small thickness changes. The sensitivity was higher in tests performed on the reference standards and samples without the presence of the materials simulating the core. For examination of the cladding with influence of materials simulating the

  18. ACR fuel storage analysis: finite element heat transfer analysis of dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khair, K.; Baset, S.; Millard, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Over the past decade Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has designed and licensed air-cooled concrete structures used as above ground dry storage containers (MACSTOR) to store irradiated nuclear fuel from CANDU plants. A typical MACSTOR 200 module is designed to store 12,000 bundles in 20 storage cylinders. MACSTOR 200 modules are in operation at Gentilly-2 in Canada and at Cernavoda in Romania. The MACSTOR module is cooled passively by natural convection and by conduction through the concrete walls and roof. Currently AECL is designing the Advanced Candu Reactor (ACR) with CANFLEX slightly enriched uranium fuel to be used. AECL has initiated a study to explore the possibility of storing the irradiated nuclear fuel from ACR in MACSTOR modules. This included work to consider ways of minimizing footprint both in the spent fuel storage bay and in the dry storage area. The commercial finite element code ANSYS has been used in this study. The FE model is used to complete simulations with the higher heat source using the same concrete structural dimensions to assess the feasibility of using the MACSTOR design for storing the ACR irradiated fuel. This paper presents the results of the analysis. The results are used to confirm the possibility of using, with minimal changes to the design of the storage baskets and the structure, the proven design of the MACSTOR 200 containment to store the ACR fuel bundles with higher enrichment and burnup. This has thus allowed us to confirm conceptual feasibility and move on to investigation of optimization. (author)

  19. Preparation and Evaluation of Multi-Layer Anodes of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Diana; Farmer, Serene C.; Setlock, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The development of an energy device with abundant energy generation, ultra-high specific power density, high stability and long life is critical for enabling longer missions and for reducing mission costs. Of all different types of fuel cells, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is a promising high temperature device that can generate electricity as a byproduct of a chemical reaction in a clean way and produce high quality heat that can be used for other purposes. For aerospace applications, a power-to-weight of (is) greater than 1.0 kW/kg is required. NASA has a patented fuel cell technology under development, capable of achieving the 1.0 kW/kg figure of merit. The first step toward achieving these goals is increasing anode durability. The catalyst plays an important role in the fuel cells for power generation, stability, efficiency and long life. Not only the anode composition, but its preparation and reduction are key to achieving better cell performance. In this research, multi-layer anodes were prepared varying the chemistry of each layer to optimize the performance of the cells. Microstructure analyses were done to the new anodes before and after fuel cell operation. The cells' durability and performance were evaluated in 200 hrs life tests in hydrogen at 850 C. The chemistry of the standard nickel anode was modified successfully reducing the anode degradation from 40% to 8.4% in 1000 hrs and retaining its microstructure.

  20. Calibration of the Failed-Fuel-Element Detection Systems in the Aagesta Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strindehag, O.

    1966-06-15

    Results from a calibration of the systems for detection of fuel element ruptures in the Aagesta reactor are presented. The calibration was carried out by means of foils of zirconium-uranium alloy which were placed in a special fuel assembly. The release of fission products from these foils is due mainly to recoil and can be accurately calculated. Before the foils were used in the reactor their corrosion behaviour in high temperature water was investigated. The results obtained with the precipitator systems for bulk detection and localization are in good agreement with the expected performance. The sensitivity of these systems was found to be high enough for detection and localization of small defects of pin-hole type ({nu} = 10{sup -8}/s ). The general performance of the systems was satisfactory during the calibration tests, although a few adjustments are desirable. A bulk detecting system for monitoring of activities in the moderator, in which the {gamma}-radiation from coolant samples is measured directly after an ion exchanger, showed lower sensitivity than expected from calculations. It seems that the sensitivity of the latter system has to be improved to admit the detection of small defects. In the ion exchanger system, and to some extent in the precipitator systems, the background from A{sup 41} in the coolant limits the sensitivity. The calibration technique utilized seems to be of great advantage when investigating the performance of failed-fuel-element detection systems.

  1. Studies on production planning of IPEN fuel-element plant in order to meet RMB demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, Miguel L.M.; Saliba-Silva, Adonis M.; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: mlnegro@ipen.br, E-mail: saliba@ipen.br, E-mail: mdurazzo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The plant of the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) will have to change its current laboratorial production level to an industrial level in order to meet the fuel demand of RMB and of IEA-R1. CCN's production process is based on the hydrolysis of UF6, which is not a frequent production route for nuclear fuel. The optimization of the production capacity of such a production route is a new field of studies. Two different approaches from the area of Operations Research (OR) were used in this paper. The first one was the PERT/CPM technique and the second one was the creation of a mathematical linear model for minimization of the production time. PERT/CPM's results reflect the current situation and disclose which production activities may not be critical. The results of the second approach show a new average time of 3.57 days to produce one Fuel Element and set the need of inventory. The mathematical model is dynamic, so that it issues better results if performed monthly. CCN's management team will therefore have a clearer view of the process times and production and inventory levels. That may help to shape the decisions that need to be taken for the enlargement of the plant's production capacity. (author)

  2. SUB-LEU-METAL-THERM-001 SUBCRITICAL MEASUREMENTS OF LOW ENRICHED TUBULAR URANIUM METAL FUEL ELEMENTS BEFORE & AFTER IRRADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHWINKENDORF, K.N.

    2006-05-12

    With the shutdown of the Hanford PUREX (Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant) reprocessing plant in the 1970s, adequate storage capacity for spent Hanford N Reactor fuel elements in the K and N Reactor pools became a concern. To maximize space utilization in the pools, accounting for fuel burnup was considered. Calculations indicated that at typical fuel exposures for N Reactor, the spent-fuel critical mass would be twice the critical mass for green fuel. A decision was reached to test the calculational result with a definitive experiment. If the results proved positive, storage capacity could be increased and N Reactor operation could be prolonged. An experiment to be conducted in the N Reactor spent-fuel storage pool was designed and assembled and the services of the Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNWL) (now Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL]) critical mass laboratory were procured for the measurements. The experiments were performed in April 1975 in the Hanford N Reactor fuel storage pool. The fuel elements were MKIA fuel assemblies, comprising two concentric tubes of low-enriched metallic uranium. Two separate sets of measurements were performed: one with ''green'' (fresh) fuel and one with spent fuel. Both the green and spent fuel, were measured in the same geometry. The spent-fuel MKIA assemblies had an average burnup of 2865 MWd (megawatt days)/t. A constraint was imposed restricting the measurements to a subcritical limit of k{sub eff} = 0.97. Subcritical count rate data was obtained with pulsed-neutron and approach-to-critical measurements. Ten (10) configurations with green fuel and nine (9) configurations with spent fuel are described and evaluated. Of these, 3 green fuel and 4 spent fuel loading configurations were considered to serve as benchmark models. However, shortcomings in experimental data failed to meet the high standards for a benchmark problem. Nevertheless, the data provided by these subcritical measurements can

  3. Dispersion Performance of Methanol-Diesel Emulsiifed Fuel Prepared by High Gravity Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao Weizhou; Li Jing; Liu Youzhi; Zhang Qiaoling; Liu Wenli; Xu Chengcheng; Guo Liang

    2014-01-01

    A new continuous process for preparing methanol-diesel emulsified fuel with an Impinging Stream-Rotating Packed Bed is proposed. The droplet size of dispersed phase (methanol) of the emulsiifed fuel has a signiifcant effect on the combustion of methanol-diesel emulsiifed fuel. In this paper, the methanol-diesel emulsiifed fuel uses diesel as the continu-ous phase and methanol as the dispersed phase. The Sauter mean diameter of the dispersed phase of methanol-diesel emulsi-ifed fuel was characterized with microphotography and arithmetic method. The experimental result showed that the Sauter mean diameter of the dispersed phase, which was decreased with the augmentation of the high gravity factor, liquid lfow rate and emulsiifer dosage, was inversely proportional to the methanol content. The Sauter mean diameter of the dispersed phase can be controlled and adjusted in the range of 12-40μm through the change of operating conditions. The correlative expressions of the Sauter mean diameter of emulsiifed fuel were obtained and the calculated values agreed well with the ex-perimental values.

  4. The life of some metallic uranium based fuel elements; Duree de vie de quelques combustibles a base d'uranium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohr, J.A.; Englander, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Description of some theoretical and experimental data concerning the design and most economic preparation of metallic uranium based fuel elements, which are intended to produce an energy of 3 kW days/g of uranium in a thermal reactor, at a sufficiently high mean temperature. Experimental results obtained by testing by analogy or by actually trying out fuel elements obtained by alloying uranium with other metals in proportions such that the resistance to deformation of the alloy produced is much higher than that of pure metallic uranium and that the thermal utilisation factor is only slightly different from that of the uranium. (author) [French] Description de quelques donnees theoriques et experimentales concernant la conception et la preparation la plus economique d'elements combustibles a base d'uranium metallique naturel, destines a degager dans un reacteur thermique une energie de l'ordre de 3 kWj/g d'uranium a une temperature moyenne suffisamment elevee. Resultats experimentaux acquis par tests analogiques ou reels sur combustibles obtenus par alliage de l'uranium avec des elements metalliques en proportions telles que la resistance a la deformation soit bien superieure a celle de l'uranium metal pur et que le facteur propre d'utilisation thermique n ne soit que peu affecte. (auteur)

  5. Experimental evaluation of thermal ratcheting behavior in UO2 fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of thermal cycling of UO2 at high temperatures has been experimentally evaluated to determine the rates of distortion of UO2/clad fuel elements. Two capsules were rested in the 1500 C range, one with a 50 C thermal cycle, the other with a 100 C thermal cycle. It was observed that eight hours at the lower cycle temperature produced sufficient UO2 redistribution to cause clad distortion. The amount of distortion produced by the 100 C cycle was less than double that produced by the 50 C, indicating smaller thermal cycles would result in clad distortion. An incubation period was observed to occur before the onset of distortion with cycling similar to fuel swelling observed in-pile at these temperatures.

  6. Fuel element failure detection experiments, evaluation of the experiments at KNK II/1 (Intermediate Report)

    CERN Document Server

    Bruetsch, D

    1983-01-01

    In the frame of the fuel element failure detection experiments at KNK II with its first core the measurement devices of INTERATOM were taken into operation in August 1981 and were in operation almost continuously. Since the start-up until the end of the first KNK II core operation plugs with different fuel test areas were inserted in order to test the efficiency of the different measuring devices. The experimental results determined during this test phase and the gained experiences are described in this report and valuated. All three measuring techniques (Xenon adsorption line XAS, gas-chromatograph GC and precipitator PIT) could fulfil the expectations concerning their susceptibility. For XAS and GC the nuclide specific sensitivities as determined during the preliminary tests could be confirmed. For PIT the influences of different parameters on the signal yield could be determined. The sensitivity of the device could not be measured due to a missing reference measuring point.

  7. Fusion solution to dispose of spent nuclear fuel, transuranic elements, and highly enriched uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohar, Yousry E-mail: gohar@anl.gov

    2001-11-01

    The disposal of the nuclear spent fuel, the transuranic elements, and the highly enriched uranium represents a major problem under investigation by the international scientific community to identify the most promising solutions. The investigation of this paper focused on achieving the top rated solution for the problem, the elimination goal, which requires complete elimination for the transuranic elements or the highly enriched uranium, and the long-lived fission products. To achieve this goal, fusion blankets with liquid carrier, molten salts or liquid metal eutectics, for the transuranic elements and the uranium isotopes are utilized. The generated energy from the fusion blankets is used to provide revenue for the system. The long-lived fission products are fabricated into fission product targets for transmutation utilizing the neutron leakage from the fusion blankets. This paper investigated the fusion blanket designs for small fusion devices and the system requirements for such application. The results show that 334 MW of fusion power from D-T plasma for 30 years with an availability factor of 0.75 can dispose of the 70,000 tons of the U.S. inventory of spent nuclear fuel generated up to the year 2015. In addition, this fusion solution eliminates the need for a geological repository site, which is a major advantage. Meanwhile, such utilization of the fusion power will provide an excellent opportunity to develop fusion energy for the future.

  8. Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur from Coal-Derived Fuel Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Todd H.; Berry, David A.; Lyons, K. David; Beer, Stephen K.; Monahan, Michael J.

    2001-11-06

    The development of low cost, highly efficient, desulfurization technology with integrated sulfur recovery remains a principle barrier issue for Vision 21 integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation plants. In this plan, the U. S. Department of Energy will construct ultra-clean, modular, co-production IGCC power plants each with chemical products tailored to meet the demands of specific regional markets. The catalysts employed in these co-production modules, for example water-gas-shift and Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, are readily poisoned by hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a sulfur contaminant, present in the coal-derived fuel gases. To prevent poisoning of these catalysts, the removal of H{sub 2}S down to the parts-per-billion level is necessary. Historically, research into the purification of coal-derived fuel gases has focused on dry technologies that offer the prospect of higher combined cycle efficiencies as well as improved thermal integration with co-production modules. Primarily, these concepts rely on a highly selective process separation step to remove low concentrations of H{sub 2}S present in the fuel gases and produce a concentrated stream of sulfur bearing effluent. This effluent must then undergo further processing to be converted to its final form, usually elemental sulfur. Ultimately, desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases may cost as much as 15% of the total fixed capital investment (Chen et al., 1992). It is, therefore, desirable to develop new technology that can accomplish H{sub 2}S separation and direct conversion to elemental sulfur more efficiently and with a lower initial fixed capital investment.

  9. The role of sample preparation in interpretation of trace element concentration variability in moss bioindication studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Lamothe, P.J.; Crock, J.G.; Galuszka, A.; Dolegowska, S.

    2011-01-01

    Trace element concentrations in plant bioindicators are often determined to assess the quality of the environment. Instrumental methods used for trace element determination require digestion of samples. There are different methods of sample preparation for trace element analysis, and the selection of the best method should be fitted for the purpose of a study. Our hypothesis is that the method of sample preparation is important for interpretation of the results. Here we compare the results of 36 element determinations performed by ICP-MS on ashed and on acid-digested (HNO3, H2O2) samples of two moss species (Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi) collected in Alaska and in south-central Poland. We found that dry ashing of the moss samples prior to analysis resulted in considerably lower detection limits of all the elements examined. We also show that this sample preparation technique facilitated the determination of interregional and interspecies differences in the chemistry of trace elements. Compared to the Polish mosses, the Alaskan mosses displayed more positive correlations of the major rock-forming elements with ash content, reflecting those elements' geogenic origin. Of the two moss species, P. schreberi from both Alaska and Poland was also highlighted by a larger number of positive element pair correlations. The cluster analysis suggests that the more uniform element distribution pattern of the Polish mosses primarily reflects regional air pollution sources. Our study has shown that the method of sample preparation is an important factor in statistical interpretation of the results of trace element determinations. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Simulation of irradiation hardening of Zircaloy within plate-type dispersion nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yijie; Wang, Qiming; Cui, Yi; Huo, Yongzhong; Ding, Shurong

    2011-06-01

    Within plate-type dispersion nuclear fuel elements, the metal matrix and cladding attacked continuously by fast neutrons undergo irradiation hardening, which might have remarkable effects upon the mechanical behaviors within fuel elements. In this paper, with the irradiation hardening effect of metal materials mainly considered together with irradiation growth effect of the cladding, the three-dimensional large-deformation constitutive relations for the metal matrix and cladding are developed. The method of virtual temperature increase in the previous studies is further developed to model the irradiation swelling of fuel particles; the method of anisotropic thermal expansion is introduced to model irradiation growth of the cladding; and a method of multi-step-temperature loading is proposed to simulate the coupling features of irradiation-induced swelling of the fuel particles together with irradiation growth of the cladding. Above all, based on the developed relationship between irradiation growth at certain burnup and the loaded virtual temperatures, with considering that certain burnup corresponds to certain fast neutron fluence, the time-dependent constitutive relation due to irradiation hardening effect is replaced by the virtual-temperature-dependent one which is introduced into the commercial software to simulate the irradiation hardening effects of the matrix and cladding. Numerical simulations of the irradiation-induced mechanical behaviors are implemented with the finite element method in consideration of the micro-structure of the fuel meat. The obtained results indicate that when the irradiation hardening effects are introduced into the constitutive relations of the metal matrix and cladding: (1) higher maximum Mises stresses for certain burnup at the matrix exist with the equivalent plastic strains remaining almost the same at lower burnups; (2) the maximum Mises stresses for certain burnup at the cladding are enhanced while the maximum equivalent

  11. Sipping test on a failed MTR fuel element; Teste de sipping em um elemento combustivel tipo placa falhado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac; Zeituni, Carlos Alberto; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Perrotta, Jose Augusto; Silva, Jose Eduardo Rosa da [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    This work describes sipping tests performed on MTR fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to determinate which one failed in the core during a routine operation of the reactor. radioactive iodine isotopes {sup 131} I and {sup 133} I, employed as failure indicators, were detected in samples corresponding to the fuel element IEA-156. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for {sup 137} Cs. The nuclear fuels U{sub 3} O{sub 8} - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of {sup 137} Cs. (author)

  12. Characterization of spent fuel elements stored at IEA-R1 research reactor based on visual inspections and sipping tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Eduardo Rosa da; Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac; Teodoro, Celso Antonio; Castanheira, Myrthes; Lucki, Georgi; Damy, Margaret de Almeida; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: jersilva@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    Aluminum spent nuclear fuels are susceptible to corrosion attack, or mechanical damage from improper handling, while in pool reactor storage. Storage practices have been modified to reduce the potential for damage, based on recommendations presented at second WS on Spent Fuel Characterization, promoted by IAEA. In this work, we present the inspection program proposed to the IEA-R1 stored spent fuel elements, in order to provide information on the physical condition during the interim storage time under wet condition at the reactor pool. The inspection program is based on non-destructive tests results (visual inspection and sipping tests) already periodically performed to exam the IEA-R1 stored spent fuel and fuel elements from the core reactor. To record the available information and examination results it was elaborated a document in the format of a catalogue containing the proposed inspection program for the IEA-R1 stored spent fuel, the description of the visual inspection and sipping tests systems, a compilation of information and images result from the tests performed for all stored standard spent fuel element and, in annexes, copies of the reference documents. That document constitutes an important step of the effective implementation of the referred IEA-R1 spent fuel inspection program and can be used to address regulatory and operational needs for the demonstration, for example, of safe storage throughout the pool storage period. (author)

  13. Preparation and analysis of new proton conducting membranes for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Peter Brilner

    2007-01-01

    A range of potential new fuel cell membranes were prepared by inserting zirconium phosphate (ZrP) into divinylbenzene (DVB) crosslinked, sulfonated, polystyrene grafted poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) and poly(vinyl difluoride) membranes using an ion exchange procedure. In short, the prefo......A range of potential new fuel cell membranes were prepared by inserting zirconium phosphate (ZrP) into divinylbenzene (DVB) crosslinked, sulfonated, polystyrene grafted poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) and poly(vinyl difluoride) membranes using an ion exchange procedure. In short....... Additional zirconium phosphate treatment resulted in composite ETFE samples containing up to 15 wt.% ZrP and composite PVdF samples containing up to 27 wt.%. TG analyses of the ETFE-g-PSSA and PVdF-g-PSSA composite membranes indicated no significant changes of the thermal stability in comparison...

  14. Preparation of electrolyte membranes for micro tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) micro tubular electrolyte membranes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) were prepared via the combined wet phase inversion and sintering technique. The as-derived YSZ mi- cro tubes consist of a thin dense skin layer and a thick porous layer that can serve as the electrode of fuel cells. The dense and the porous electrolyte layers have the thickness of 3-5 μm and 70-90 μm, respectively, while the inner surface porosity of the porous layer is higher than 28.1%. The two layers are perfectly integrated together to preclude the crack or flake of electrolyte film from the electrode. The presented method possesses distinct advantages such as technological simplicity, low cost and high reliability, and thus provides a new route for the preparation of micro tubular SOFCs.

  15. Experimental investigation on fuel properties of biodiesel prepared from cottonseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payl, Ashish Naha; Mashud, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    In recent time's world's energy demands are satisfied by coal, natural gas as well as petroleum though the prices of these are escalating. If this continues, global recession is unavoidable and diminution of world reserve accelerates undoubtedly. Recently, Biodiesel is found to be more sustainable, non-toxic and energy efficient alternative which is also biodegradable. The use of biofuels in compression ignition engines is now a contemplation attention in place of petrochemicals. In view of this, cottonseed oil is quite a favorable candidate as an alternative fuel. The present study covers the various aspects of biodiesels fuel prepared from cottonseed oil. In this work Biodiesel was prepared from cottonseed oil through transesterification process with methanol, using sodium hydroxide as catalyst. The fuel properties of cottonseed oil methyl esters, kinematic viscosity, flash point, density, calorific value, boiling point etc. were evaluated and discussed in the light of Conventional Diesel Fuel. The properties of biodiesel produced from cotton seed oil are quite close to that of diesel except from flash point. And so the methyl esters of cottonseed oil can be used in existing diesel engines without any modifications.

  16. Preparation of yttria-stabilized zirconia films for solid oxide fuel cells by electrophoretic deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Tatsumi; Sato, Keiji; Mizuhara, Yukako; Takita, Yusaku (Oita Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1992-06-01

    The electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method was applied for the preparation of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Dense YSZ films with uniform thickness can be readily prepared by EPD method. When the planar SOFC was fabricated by using La[sub 0.6]Sr[sub 0.4]MnO[sub 3] as a cathode and electroless plating Pt as an anode, the open circuit voltage and the maximum power density attained were 1.03 V and 1.87 W cm[sup -2], respectively. (author).

  17. Elemental characterization of particulate matter emitted from biomass burning: Wind tunnel derived source profiles for herbaceous and wood fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turn, S. Q.; Jenkins, B. M.; Chow, J. C.; Pritchett, L. C.; Campbell, D.; Cahill, T.; Whalen, S. A.

    1997-02-01

    Particulate matter emitted from wind tunnel simulations of biomass burning for five herbaceous crop residues (rice, wheat and barley straws, corn stover, and sugar cane trash) and four wood fuels (walnut and almond prunings and ponderosa pine and Douglas fir slash) was collected and analyzed for major elements and water soluble species. Primary constituents of the particulate matter were C, K, Cl, and S. Carbon accounted for roughly 50% of the herbaceous fuel PM and about 70% for the wood fuels. For the herbaceous fuels, particulate matter from rice straw in the size range below 10 μm aerodynamic diameter (PM10) had the highest concentrations of both K (24%) and Cl, (17%) and barley straw PM10 contained the highest sulfur content (4%). K, Cl, and S were present in the PM of the wood fuels at reduced levels with maximum concentrations of 6.5% (almond prunings), 3% (walnut prunings), and 2% (almond prunings), respectively. Analysis of water soluble species indicated that ionic forms of K, Cl, and S made up the majority of these elements from all fuels. Element balances showed K, Cl, S, and N to have the highest recovery factors (fraction of fuel element found in the particulate matter) in the PM of the elements analyzed. In general, chlorine was the most efficiently recovered element for the herbaceous fuels (10 to 35%), whereas sulfur recovery was greatest for the wood fuels (25 to 45%). Unique potassium to elemental carbon ratios of 0.20 and 0.95 were computed for particulate matter (PM10 K/C(e)) from herbaceous and wood fuels, respectively. Similarly, in the size class below 2.5 μm, high-temperature elemental carbon to bromine (PM2.5 C(eht)/Br) ratios of ˜7.5, 43, and 150 were found for the herbaceous fuels, orchard prunings, and forest slash, respectively. The molar ratios of particulate phase bromine to gas phase CO2 (PM10 Br/CO2) are of the same order of magnitude as gas phase CH3Br/CO2 reported by others.

  18. STAT, GAPS, STRAIN, DRWDIM: a system of computer codes for analyzing HTGR fuel test element metrology data. User's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saurwein, J.J.

    1977-08-01

    A system of computer codes has been developed to statistically reduce Peach Bottom fuel test element metrology data and to compare the material strains and fuel rod-fuel hole gaps computed from these data with HTGR design code predictions. The codes included in this system are STAT, STRAIN, GAPS, and DRWDIM. STAT statistically evaluates test element metrology data yielding fuel rod, fuel body, and sleeve irradiation-induced strains; fuel rod anisotropy; and additional data characterizing each analyzed fuel element. STRAIN compares test element fuel rod and fuel body irradiation-induced strains computed from metrology data with the corresponding design code predictions. GAPS compares test element fuel rod, fuel hole heat transfer gaps computed from metrology data with the corresponding design code predictions. DRWDIM plots the measured and predicted gaps and strains. Although specifically developed to expedite the analysis of Peach Bottom fuel test elements, this system can be applied, without extensive modification, to the analysis of Fort St. Vrain or other HTGR-type fuel test elements.

  19. PETER loop. Multifunctional test facility for thermal hydraulic investigations of PWR fuel elements; PETER Loop. Multifunktionsversuchstand zur thermohydraulischen Untersuchung von DWR Brennelementen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganzmann, I.; Hille, D.; Staude, U. [AREVA NP GmbH (Germany). Materials, Fluid-Structure Interaction, Plant Life Management NTCM-G

    2009-07-01

    The reliable fuel element behavior during the complete fuel cycle is one of the fundamental prerequisites of a safe and efficient nuclear power plant operation. The fuel element behavior with respect to pressure drop and vibration impact cannot be simulated by means of fluid-structure interaction codes. Therefore it is necessary to perform tests using fuel element mock-ups (1:1). AREVA NP has constructed the test facility PETER (PWR fuel element tests in Erlangen) loop. The modular construction allows maximum flexibility for any type of fuel elements. Modern measuring instrumentation for flow, pressure and vibration characterization allows the analysis of cause and consequences of thermal hydraulic phenomena. PETER loop is the standard test facility for the qualification of dynamic fuel element behavior in flowing fluid and is used for failure mode analysis.

  20. Study on the effect of the CANFLEX-NU fuel element bowing on the critical heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Ho Chun; Cho, Moon Sung; Jeon, Ji Su

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the CANFLEX-NU fuel element bowing on the critical heat flux is reviewed and analyzed, which is requested by KINS as the Government design licensing condition for the use of the fuel bundles in CANDU power reactors. The effect of the gap between two adjacent fuel elements on the critical heat flux and onset-of-dryout power is studied. The reduction of the width of a single inter-rod gap from its nominal size to the minimum manufacture allowance of 1 mm has a negligible effects on the thermal-hydraulic performance of the bundle for the given set of boundary conditions applied to the CANFLEX-43 element bundle in an uncrept channel. As expected, the in-reactor irradiation test results show that there are no evidence of the element bow problems on the bundle performance.

  1. The reliability of untempered end plug welds on HT9-clad IFR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D C; Porter, D L

    1987-02-01

    Welding generally leaves residual stresses in transformed weld zones, which can initiate cracks from flaws already present in the weld zones. When HT9 cools from welding temperatures, a martensite phase forms in the weld fusion zone and heat-affected zone. Because this martensite phase is hard and brittle, it is particularly susceptible to cracking aggravated by residual stresses. This causes concern over the use of untempered welds on HT9-clad fuel elements. To determine if residual stresses present in end-plug weld zones would affect fuel pin performance, HT9 capsules with prototypic TIG- and CD-welded end plugs (in the tempered and as-welded conditions) were pressurized to failure at room temperature, 550{sup 0}C, and 600{sup 0}C. None of the capsules failed in a weld zone. To determine the effects of reactor operating temperatures on untempered welds, prototypic TIG welds were tempered at reactor bulk sodium temperature and an expected sodium outlet temperature for various lengths of time. Subsequent tensile and burst tests of these specimens proved that any embrittling effects that may have been induced in these welds were of no consequence. Hardness tests on longitudinal sections of welds indicated the amount of tempering a weld will receive inreactor after relatively short lengths of time. The pressure burst tests proved that untemperted welds on HT9-clad fuel elements are as reliable as tempered welds; any residual stresses in untempered weld zones were of no consequence. The tempering test showed that welds used in the as-welded condition will sufficiently temper in 7 days at 550{sup 0}C, but will not, sufficiently temper in 7 days at bulk sodium temperature. A comparison of the structure of laser welds to those of CD and TIG welds indicated that untempered laser welds will perform and temper in a manner similar to the TIG welds tested in this effort.

  2. Design of Production Test IP-262-A-11-FP -- Evaluation of projection fuel elements for use in ribbed process tubes -- Demonstration loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, W.H.; Hall, R.E.

    1959-06-29

    For several years, a major category of fuel element failures has been the side corrosion type, characterized by localized accelerated fuel element jacket corrosion. Since it has been demonstrated {sup 1} that misalignment of fuel elements in a process tube will produce flow patterns and accelerated corrosion, termed ``hot spots``, failure to align the fuel elements in process tubes is considered a contributing factor in the production of side corrosion failures. Preliminary testing of both self-supporting and ``bumper`` fuel elements is underway. Data on the self-supporting fuel elements have demonstrated that the bridge-rail projections have sufficient support strength, do not of themselves create a corrosion problem and in actuality probably eliminate any hot-spot areas. Although one tube of bumper fuel elements in KW Reactor {sup 3} has been discharged, data are not as yet available. Potentially, the most sever corrosion conditions exist during the summer months when reactor inlet temperatures are high. It is desirable then, provided bumper fuel elements limit hot- spot corrosion, to evaluate the bumper concept for large scale use possibly by the summer of 1960. To accomplish this, a demonstration loading of the bumper type fuel elements must be underway by about July, 1959. The purpose of this report is to present the design of a test to evaluate the fabrication process and irradiation performance of fuel elements having projections, which may prevent misalignment in ribbed process tubes and meet the aforementioned goals.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

    2004-06-12

    This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

  4. SUB-LEU-METAL-THERM-001 SUBCRITICAL MEASUREMENTS OF LOW ENRICHED TUBULAR URANIUM METAL FUEL ELEMENTS BEFORE & AFTER IRRADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TOFFER, H.

    2006-07-18

    With the shutdown of the Hanford PUREX (Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant) reprocessing plant in the 1970s, adequate storage capacity for spent Hanford N Reactor fuel elements in the K and N Reactor pools became a concern. To maximize space utilization in the pools, accounting for fuel burnup was considered. Fuel that had experienced a neutron environment in a reactor is known as spent, exposed, or irradiated fuel. In contrast fuel that has not yet been placed in a reactor is known as green, unexposed, or unirradiated fuel. Calculations indicated that at typical fuel exposures for N Reactor, the spent-fuel critical mass would be twice the critical mass for green fuel. A decision was reached to test the calculational result with a definitive experiment. If the results proved positive, storage capacity could be increased and N Reactor operation could be prolonged. An experiment to be conducted in the N Reactor spent-fuel storage pool was designed and assembled (References 1 and 2) and the services of the Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNWL) (now Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL]) critical mass laboratory were procured for the measurements (Reference 3). The experiments were performed in April 1975 in the Hanford N Reactor fuel storage pool. The fuel elements were MKIA fuel assemblies, comprised of two concentric tubes of low-enriched metallic uranium. Two separate sets of measurements were performed: one with unirradiated fuel and one with irradiated fuel. Both the unirradiated and irradiated fuel, were measured in the same geometry. The spent-fuel MKIA assemblies had an average burnup of 2865 MWd (megawatt days)/t. A constraint was imposed restricting the measurements to a subcritical limit of k{sub eff} = 0.97. Subcritical count rate data was obtained with pulsed-neutron and approach-to-critical measurements. Ten (10) configurations with green fuel and nine (9) configurations with spent fuel are described and evaluated. Of these, three (3) green fuel

  5. 81 FR 87954 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Tri-State Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-06

    ... for the Proposed Tri-State Fuel Breaks Project, Owyhee County, ID, and Malheur County, OR AGENCY... prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a landscape level fuel break project located in Owyhee... will be in conformance with the RMPs for the Owyhee Field Office and public lands in the project...

  6. Improved lumped models for transient combined convective and radiative cooling of a two-layer spherical fuel element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Alice Cunha da; Su, Jian, E-mail: alicecs@poli.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@nuclear.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a fourth generation thermal nuclear reactor, graphite-moderated and helium cooled. The HTGRs have important characteristics making essential the study of these reactors, as well as its fuel element. Examples of these are: high thermal efficiency,low operating costs and construction, passive safety attributes that allow implication of the respective plants. The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) is a HTGR with spherical fuel elements that named the reactor. This fuel element is composed by a particulate region with spherical inclusions, the fuel UO2 particles, dispersed in a graphite matrix and a convective heat transfer by Helium happens on the outer surface of the fuel element. In this work, the transient heat conduction in a spherical fuel element of a pebble-bed high temperature reactor was studied in a transient situation of combined convective and radiative cooling. Improved lumped parameter model was developed for the transient heat conduction in the two-layer composite sphere subjected to combined convective and radiative cooling. The improved lumped model was obtained through two-point Hermite approximations for integrals. Transient combined convective and radiative cooling of the two-layer spherical fuel element was analyzed to illustrate the applicability of the proposed lumped model, with respect to die rent values of the Biot number, the radiation-conduction parameter, the dimensionless thermal contact resistance, the dimensionless inner diameter and coating thickness, and the dimensionless thermal conductivity. It was shown by comparison with numerical solution of the original distributed parameter model that the improved lumped model, with H2,1/H1,1/H0,0 approximation yielded significant improvement of average temperature prediction over the classical lumped model. (author)

  7. Preparation of recovery fuel - assumptions, quality, technology and cost; Upparbetning av returbraenslen - foerutsaettningar, kvalite, teknik och kostnader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Njurell, Rolf; Gyllenhammar, Marianne [SEP Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2000-05-01

    New laws and restrictions, in Sweden and within the EU, will change the handling of waste within the next years. The combustible wastes going to landfill today, have to be dealt with in another way in the future. The knowledge about fuel preparation has been accentuated. Preparation of wastes - properly executed - will make it a useful fuel and increase energy recovery. S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB has by the assignment of the Thermal Engineering Research Institute made this survey of required conditions technology and quality costs related to fuel preparation of recovered waste like wood, paper and plastic. Only a few fuel preparation plants for recovered waste exist in Sweden today. Most of the municipalities do not have any waste treatment except for landfill. In the future regional preparation plants will most likely be built. In that way recovered wastes can be treated in a cost-effective way and be converted into useful fuel. Transportation will increase when landfills, presently in use, will close and the waste has to be transported to regional plants. Recovered fuel can be divided into two types depending on their content. Recovered Wood Fuel is what we call RWF in this report. Recovered Commercial waste Fuel containing plastic, paper, textiles etc, is called RCF in this report. To receive a suitable fuel for a special combustion plant, the nature, quality and content of the fuel must be known. The choice of preparation equipment is guided both by the type of waste and the quality of fuel needed for the combustion plant. Different contaminations in waste are presented in the report, together with technology to separate them from the fuel. The report also focuses on some type of equipment that are available for fuel preparation in different applications. In general the waste has to be shredded or crushed and the tramp iron has to be removed. If required the waste also has to be screened. The non waste incineration plants firing RWF today and intend

  8. Release to the Gas Phase of Inorganic Elements during Wood Combustion. Part 2: Influence of Fuel Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lith, Simone Cornelia; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Combustion of wood for heat and power production may cause problems such as ash deposition, corrosion, and harmful emissions of gases and particulate matter. These problems are all directly related to the release of inorganic elements (in particular Cl, S, K, Na, Zn, and Pb) from the fuel...... to the gas phase. The aims of this study are to obtain quantitative data on the release of inorganic elements during wood combustion and to investigate the influence of fuel composition. Quantitative release data were obtained by pyrolyzing and subsequently combusting small samples of wood (~30 g) at various...... temperatures in the range of 500–1150 °C in a laboratory-scale tube reactor and by performing mass balance calculations based on the weight measurements and chemical analyses of the wood fuels and the residual ash samples. Four wood fuels with different ash contents and inorganic compositions were investigated...

  9. Water-in-diesel fuel nanoemulsions: Preparation, stability and physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Noor El-Din

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, water-in-diesel fuel nanoemulsions were prepared with mixed nonionic surfactants. Several mixtures of sorbitan monooleate and polyoxyethylene (20 sorbitan monooleate, with different Hydrophilic–Lipophilic Balance (HLB values (9.6, 9.8, 10, 10.2 and 10.4 were prepared to achieve the optimal HLB value. Three mixed surfactant concentrations were prepared at 6%, 8% and 10% to identify the optimum concentration. Five emulsions with different water contents: 5%, 6%, 7%, 8% and 9% (wt./wt. were prepared using high energy method at the optimum conditions (HLB = 10 and mixed surfactant concentration = 10%. The effect of HLB value, mixed surfactant concentration and water content on the droplet size has been studied. The interfacial tension and thermodynamic properties of the individual and the blended emulsifiers were investigated. Droplet size of the prepared nanoemulsions was determined by dynamic light scattering and the nanoemulsion stability was assessed by measuring the variation of the droplet size as a function of time. From the obtained results, it was found that the mean droplet sizes were formed between 49.55 and 104.4 nm depending on HLB value, surfactant concentration and water content of the blended emulsifiers. The physical properties, kinematic viscosity and density, of the prepared nanoemulsions and the effect of different temperatures on these properties were measured.

  10. Elemental balance of SRF production process: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Oinas, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    In the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF), certain waste components have excessive influence on the quality of product. The proportion of rubber, plastic (hard) and certain textiles was found to be critical as to the elemental quality of SRF. The mass flow of rubber, plastic (hard) and textiles (to certain extent, especially synthetic textile) components from input waste stream into the output streams of SRF production was found to play the decisive role in defining the elemental quality of SRF. This paper presents the mass flow of polluting and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in SRF production. The SRF was produced from municipal solid waste (MSW) through mechanical treatment (MT). The results showed that of the total input chlorine content to process, 55% was found in the SRF and 30% in reject material. Of the total input arsenic content, 30% was found in the SRF and 45% in fine fraction. In case of cadmium, lead and mercury, of their total input content to the process, 62%, 38% and 30%, respectively, was found in the SRF. Among the components of MSW, rubber material was identified as potential source of chlorine, containing 8.0 wt.% of chlorine. Plastic (hard) and textile components contained 1.6 and 1.1. wt.% of chlorine, respectively. Plastic (hard) contained higher lead and cadmium content compared with other waste components, i.e. 500 mg kg(-1) and 9.0 mg kg(-1), respectively.

  11. Fuel injection and mixing systems having piezoelectric elements and methods of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chien-Pei [Clive, IA; Short, John [Norwalk, IA; Klemm, Jim [Des Moines, IA; Abbott, Royce [Des Moines, IA; Overman, Nick [West Des Moines, IA; Pack, Spencer [Urbandale, IA; Winebrenner, Audra [Des Moines, IA

    2011-12-13

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided that is suitable for use with various types of fuel reformers. Preferably, the system includes a piezoelectric injector for delivering atomized fuel, a gas swirler, such as a steam swirler and/or an air swirler, a mixing chamber and a flow mixing device. The system utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to achieve fuel atomization. The fuel injection and mixing system can be used with a variety of fuel reformers and fuel cells, such as SOFC fuel cells.

  12. Internal flow measurements of the SSME fuel preburner injector element using real time neutron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, John T.; Elam, Sandy; Koblish, Ted; Lee, Phil; Mcauliffe, Dave

    1990-01-01

    Due to observations of unsteady flow in the Space Shuttle Main Engine fuel preburner injector element, several flow studies have been performed. Real time neutron radiography tests were recently completed. This technique provided real time images of MiL-c-7024 and Freon-22 flow through an aluminum liquid oxygen post model at three back pressures (0, 150, and 545 psig) and pressure drops up to 1000 psid. Separated flow appeared only while operating at back pressures of 0 and 150 psig. The behavior of separated flow was similar to that observed for water in a 3x acrylic model of the LOX post. On the average, separated flow appeared to reattach near the exit of the post when the ratio of pressure drop to supply pressure was about 0.75.

  13. Research on graphite powders used for HTR-PM fuel elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hongsheng; LIANG Tongxiang; ZHANG Jie; LI Ziqiang; TANG Chunhe

    2006-01-01

    Different batches of natural graphite powders and electrographite powders were characterized by impurity, degree of graphitization, particle size distribution, specific surface area, and shape characteristics. The graphite balls consist of proper mix-ratio of natural graphite, electrographite and phenolic resin were manufactured and characterized by thermal conductivity, anisotropy of thermal expansion, crush strength, and drop strength. Results show that some types of graphite powders possess very high purity, degree of graphitization, and sound size distribution and apparent density, which can serve for matrix graphite of HTR-PM. The graphite balls manufactured with reasonable mix-ratio of graphite powders and process method show very good properties. It is indicated that the properties of graphite balls can meet the design criterion of HTR-PM. We can provide a powerful candidate material for the future manufacture of HTR-PM fuel elements.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Vibratory Stresses in a Concentric-Ring Direct-Air-Cycle Nuclear Fuel Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarito, Patrick T.

    1957-01-01

    Preliminary tests made by the General Electric Company indicated that aerodynamic loads might cause large enough distortions in the thin sheet-metal rings of a nuclear fuel element to result in structural failure. The magnitude of the distortions in a test fuel element was determined from strains measured with airflow conditions simulating those expected during engine operation. The measured vibratory strains were low enough to indicate the improbability of failure by fatigue. A conservative estimate of the radial deflection that accompanied peak strains in the outer ring was +0.0006 inch.

  15. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF SPAES-TiO_2 HYBRID MEMBRANES FOR DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘惠玲

    2009-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)(SPAES) copolymer with degree of sulfonation of 1.0 was synthesized and characterized.A series of SPAES-TiO_2 hybrid membranes with various contents of nano-sized TiO_2 particles were prepared and characterized through sol-gel reactions.Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) images indicated the TiO_2 particles were well dispersed within polymer matrix.These composite membranes were evaluated for proton exchange membranes(PEMs) in direct methanol fuel cell(DMFC).These mem...

  16. Assessment of the impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System. [Preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this report was to evaluate four possible alternative methods of preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal against the Reference Process of unmodified spent fuel. The four alternative processes were: (1) End fitting removal, (2) Fission gas venting and resealing, (3) Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins, and (4) Fuel shearing and immobilization. Systems analysis was used to develop a basis of comparison of the alternatives. Conceptual processes and facility layouts were devised for each of the alternatives, based on technology deemed feasible for the purpose. Assessments were made of 15 principal attributes from the technical, operational, safety/risk, and economic considerations related to each of the alternatives, including both the surface packaging and underground repository operations. Specific attributes of the alternative processes were evaluated by assigning a number for each that expressed its merit relative to the corresponding attribute of the Reference Process. Each alternative process was then ranked by summing the numbers for attributes in each of the four assessment areas and collectively. Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins was ranked the preferred method of disposal of spent fuel. 63 references, 46 figures, 46 tables.

  17. Experimental approach and modelling of the mechanical behaviour of graphite fuel elements subjected to compression pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forquin, P.

    2010-06-01

    Among the activities led by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) relative to the future nuclear systems, the improvement of recycling of fuel elements and their components is a major issue. One of the studied systems by the GIF is the graphite-moderated high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). The fuel elements are composed of fuel roads half-inch in diameter named compacts. The compacts contain spherical particles made of actinide kernels about 500 m in diameter coated with three layers of carbon and silicon carbide, each about 50 m thick, dispersed in a graphite matrix. Recycling of compacts requires first a separation of triso-particles from the graphite matrix and secondly, the separation of the triso-coating from the kernels. This aim may be achieved by using pulsed currents: the compacts are placed within a cell filled by water and exposed to high voltage between 200 - 500 kV and discharge currents from 10 to 20 kA during short laps of time (about 2 µs) [1-2]. This repeated treatment leads to a progressive fragmentation of the graphite matrix and a disassembly of the compacts. In order to improve understanding of the fragmentation properties of compacts a series of quasi-static and dynamic experiments have been conducted with similar cylindrical samples containing 10% (volume fraction) of SiC particles coated in a graphite matrix. First, quasi-static compression tests have been performed to identify the mechanical behaviour of the material at low strain-rates (Fig.1). The experiments reveal a complex elasto-visco-plastic behaviour before a brittle failure. The mechanical response is characterised by a low yield stress (about 1 MPa), a strong strain-hardening in the loading phase and marked hysteresis-loops during unloading-reloading stages. Brittle failure is observed for axial stress about 13 MPa. In parallel, a series of flexural tests have been performed with the aim to characterise the quasi-static tensile strength of the particulate

  18. Experimental approach and modelling of the mechanical behaviour of graphite fuel elements subjected to compression pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forquin P.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the activities led by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF relative to the future nuclear systems, the improvement of recycling of fuel elements and their components is a major issue. One of the studied systems by the GIF is the graphite-moderated high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR. The fuel elements are composed of fuel roads half-inch in diameter named compacts. The compacts contain spherical particles made of actinide kernels about 500 m in diameter coated with three layers of carbon and silicon carbide, each about 50 m thick, dispersed in a graphite matrix. Recycling of compacts requires first a separation of triso-particles from the graphite matrix and secondly, the separation of the triso-coating from the kernels. This aim may be achieved by using pulsed currents: the compacts are placed within a cell filled by water and exposed to high voltage between 200 – 500 kV and discharge currents from 10 to 20 kA during short laps of time (about 2 µs [1-2]. This repeated treatment leads to a progressive fragmentation of the graphite matrix and a disassembly of the compacts. In order to improve understanding of the fragmentation properties of compacts a series of quasi-static and dynamic experiments have been conducted with similar cylindrical samples containing 10% (volume fraction of SiC particles coated in a graphite matrix. First, quasi-static compression tests have been performed to identify the mechanical behaviour of the material at low strain-rates (Fig.1. The experiments reveal a complex elasto-visco-plastic behaviour before a brittle failure. The mechanical response is characterised by a low yield stress (about 1 MPa, a strong strain-hardening in the loading phase and marked hysteresis-loops during unloading-reloading stages. Brittle failure is observed for axial stress about 13 MPa. In parallel, a series of flexural tests have been performed with the aim to characterise the quasi-static tensile strength of the

  19. Fuel element development committee: Annual report from the General Electric Company, Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, M.; Minor, J.E.; Stringer, J.T.

    1964-08-14

    A summary of HAPO activities is given to include separate sections on the N-Reactor and other current production reactors. Specific programs and fuel performance for current production reactor fuels is discussed. Also, the production status, fuel performance, development program and process technology for N-Reactor fuels is presented.

  20. 3D laser inspection of fuel assembly grid spacers for nuclear reactors based on diffractive optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finogenov, L. V.; Lemeshko, Yu A.; Zav'yalov, P. S.; Chugui, Yu V.

    2007-06-01

    Ensuring the safety and high operation reliability of nuclear reactors takes 100% inspection of geometrical parameters of fuel assemblies, which include the grid spacers performed as a cellular structure with fuel elements. The required grid spacer geometry of assembly in the transverse and longitudinal cross sections is extremely important for maintaining the necessary heat regime. A universal method for 3D grid spacer inspection using a diffractive optical element (DOE), which generates as the structural illumination a multiple-ring pattern on the inner surface of a grid spacer cell, is investigated. Using some DOEs one can inspect the nomenclature of all produced grids. A special objective has been developed for forming the inner surface cell image. The problems of diffractive elements synthesis, projecting optics calculation, adjusting methods as well as calibration of the experimental measuring system are considered. The algorithms for image processing for different constructive elements of grids (cell, channel hole, outer grid spacer rim) and the experimental results are presented.

  1. Continuous Preparation of Carbon Nanotube Film and Its Applications in Fuel and Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao Gang; Huang, Xin Xin; Wang, Xiao Xia; Zhong, Xin Hua; Meng, Xin Xin; Wang, Jian Nong

    2016-03-01

    So far, simultaneously realizing the continuous, controllable, and scalable preparation of carbon nanotube (CNT) film has remained a big challenge. Here, we report a scalable approach to continuously prepare CNT film with good control of film size and thickness. This is achieved through the layer-by-layer condensation and deposition of a cylindrical CNT assembly that is continuously produced from a floating catalyst CVD reactor on a paper strip. The promising applications of such a film are demonstrated by directly using it as an effective protecting layer for the Pt/C catalyst in proton exchange membrane fuel cells and as an efficient counter electrode material in quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells.

  2. Pt-Ru Catalysts Prepared by a Modified Polyol Process for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junmin; ZHU Fangfang; ZHANG Kunhua; LIU Weiping; GUAN Weiming

    2012-01-01

    Supported PtRu/C catalysts used in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) were prepared by a new modified polyol method.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM),X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammograms (CVs) were carried out to characterize the morphology,composition and the electrochemical properties of the PtRu/C catalyst.The results revealed that the PtRu nanoparticles with small average particle size (≈2.5 nm),and highly dispersed on the carbon support.The PtRu/C catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity and anti-poisoned performance than that of the JM PtRu/C.It is imply that the modified polyol method is efficient for PtRu/C catalyst preparation.

  3. Application of green chemistry techniques to prepare electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kenichi; Wang, Joanna S; Wai, Chien M

    2010-03-25

    A series of green techniques for synthesizing carbon nanotube-supported platinum nanoparticles and their high electrocatalytic activity toward methanol fuel cell applications are reported. The techniques utilize either the supercritical fluid carbon dioxide or water as a medium for depositing platinum nanoparticles on surfaces of multiwalled or single-walled carbon nanotubes. The catalytic properties of the carbon nanotubes-supported Pt nanoparticle catalysts prepared by four different techniques are compared for anodic oxidation of methanol and cathodic reduction of oxygen using cyclic voltammetry. One technique using galvanic exchange of Pt(2+) in water with zerovalent iron present on the surfaces of as-grown single-walled carbon nanotubes produces a Pt catalyst that shows an unusually high catalytic activity for reduction of oxygen but a negligible activity for oxidation of methanol. This fuel-selective catalyst may have a unique application as a cathode catalyst in methanol fuel cells to alleviate the problems caused by crossover of methanol through the polymer electrolyte membrane.

  4. Studies on Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce phosphors prepared by gel combustion using new fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muresan, L.E., E-mail: laura_muresan2003@yahoo.com [“Raluca Ripan” Institute for Research in Chemistry, Babeş Bolyai University, Fântânele 30, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Oprea, B.F.; Cadis, A.I.; Perhaita, I. [“Raluca Ripan” Institute for Research in Chemistry, Babeş Bolyai University, Fântânele 30, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ponta, O. [Faculty of Physics, Babeş Bolyai University, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce was prepared by combustion using aspartic or glutamic acid as fuels. • Combustion process occurs differently depending on the fuels amount. • Single phase X2-Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} phosphors were obtained in fuel rich conditions. • PL measurements indicate that aspartic acid is a better fuel than glutamic. • Optimal preparative conditions were established for synthesis of Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce. - Abstract: Cerium activated yttrium silicate (Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce) phosphors were prepared by combustion, using yttrium–cerium nitrate as oxidizer, aspartic or glutamic acid as fuel and TEOS as source of silicon. In this study, aspartic and glutamic acid are used for the first time for the synthesis of Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce phosphors. The fuels molar amount was varied from 0.5 mol to 1.5 mol in order to reveal the thermal behavior of intermediary products (gels and ashes) same as the structural and luminescent characteristics of final products (phosphors). According to thermal analysis correlated with FTIR and XPS investigations, the combustion process occurs differently depending on the fuel amount; unreacted nitrate compounds have been identified in fuel lean conditions and carbonate based compounds along with organic residue in rich fuel conditions. The conversion to well crystallized silicates was revealed by changes of FTIR vibration bands and confirmed by XRD measurements. Based on luminescent spectra, aspartic acid is a better fuel than glutamic acid. A positive effect on the luminescence have been observed for samples fired in air due to complete remove of organic residue. The best luminescence was obtained for combustions with 0.75 mol aspartic acid and 1.25 mol glutamic respectively, fired at 1400 °C for 4 h in air atmosphere.

  5. Electrodeposition Techniques for the Preparation of Beta-Sprectroscopy Sources of Rare-Earth Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P. Gregers; Høgh, J.; Nielsen, H. L.

    1964-01-01

    Thin, uniform radioactive deposits of rare earths and related elements can be prepared by cathodic electrodeposition of their hydroxides. The main theoretical and experimental features of this process are reviewed and plating cell design and the choice of conditions are described together...... with the associated radio-chemical methods. The use of copper-backed nickel films is shown to allow the preparation of beta sources on quite thin (down to 45 μg cm−2) backings, if the copper layer is etched selectively after the radioactivity has been plated onto the nickel....

  6. Numerical investigation of Prandtl number effect on heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of a nuclear fuel element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Abdul Razak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of liquid metal coolants (such as Sodium, Sodium potassium, Bismuth, Lead, and Lead–bismuth flowing over a nuclear fuel element having non-uniform internal energy generation numerically using finite difference method. The Full Navier Stokes Equations governing the flow were converted into stream function-Vorticity form and solved simultaneously along with energy equation using central finite difference scheme. For the two dimensional steady state heat conduction and Stream-Function Equation, the discretization was done in the form suitable to solve using ‘Line-by-Line Gauss-Seidel’ solution technique whereas the discretization of Vorticity transport and energy equations were done using Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI scheme. After discretization the systems of equations were solved using ‘Thomas Algorithm’. The complete task was done by writing a computer code. The results were obtained in the form of variation of Maximum temperature in the fuel element (hot spots and its location, mean coolant temperature at the exit .The parameters considered for the study were  aspect ratio of fuel element, Ar, conduction-convection parameter Ncc, total energy generation parameter Qt, and flow Reynolds number ReH. The results obtained can be used to minimize the Maximum temperature in the fuel element (hot spots.

  7. Experimental study of water flow in nuclear fuel elements; Estudo experimental do escoamento de agua em elementos combustiveis nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Lorena Escriche, E-mail: ler@cdtn.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Rezende, Hugo Cesar; Mattos, Joao Roberto Loureiro de; Barros Filho, Jose Afonso; Santos, Andre Augusto Campagnole dos, E-mail: hcr@cdtn.br, E-mail: jrmattos@cdtn.br, E-mail: jabf@cdtn.br, E-mail: aacs@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This work aims to develop an experimental methodology for investigating the water flow through rod bundles after spacer grids of nuclear fuel elements of PWR type reactors. Speed profiles, with the device LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry), and the pressure drop between two sockets located before and after the spacer grid, using pressure transducers were measured.

  8. Supplemental specifications of laboratory hot press process -- For CV size self-supported I&E fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, C.A.; Schweikhardt, G.M.

    1964-06-01

    Some refinements have been introduced into the hot press canning of internally and externally cooled fuel elements. This report outlines the specifications for the process including these refinements. Specifications cover components, dies, and punches, furnace condition, nickel plating, component cleaning, component assembly, sizing, hot pressing and inspection.

  9. Specifications: Laboratory hot press process for {open_quotes}C{close_quotes}size I & E fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tverberg, J.C.

    1959-09-25

    Hot press canning of internally and externally cooled fuel elements has been developed to a point where the process is feasible. Complete specifications have been written for the process covering component, dies and punches, furnace construction, nickel plating, component cleaning, component assembly, sizing, hot pressing and inspection. Drawings covering each major item are included.

  10. Finite-element procedure for calculating the three-dimensional inelastic bowing of fuel rods (AWBA development program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S E

    1982-05-01

    An incremental finite element procedure is developed for calculating the in-pile lateral bowing of nuclear fuel rods. The fuel rod is modeled as a viscoelastic beam whose material properties are derived as perturbations of the results of an axisymmetric stress analysis of the fuel rod. The effects which are taken into account in calculating the rod's lateral bowing include: (a) lateral, axial, and rotational motions and forces at the rod supports, (b) transverse gradients of temperature, fast-neutron flux, and fissioning rate, and (c) cladding circumferential wall thickness variation. The procedure developed in this report could be used to form the basis for a computer program to calculate the time-dependent bowing as a function of the fuel rod's operational and environmental history.

  11. Accumulation of Elements in Salix and Other Species Used in Vegetation Filters with Focus on Wood Fuel Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Anneli

    2007-07-01

    Woody or herbaceous perennials used as vegetation filters for treatment of different types of wastes can be suitable for production of solid biofuels when their above ground harvestable biomass yield is sufficiently high and when biomass contains appropriate concentrations of minerals with regard to fuel combustion processes. The concentrations of nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and heavy metals (especially Zn and Cd) in fuel should be low and calcium (Ca) concentrations high to avoid technical problems and environmentally harmful emissions during combustion. Since soil supplementation with essential elements improves biomass yield, a conflict might arise between yield and quality aims. There are various possibilities to influence fuel quality during the growing phase of the life cycle of perennial biomass crops. This study assessed the suitability of two deciduous woody perennials (Salix and Populus) and two summer green herbaceous perennials (Phragmites and Urtica) for phytoremediation in terms of growth and nutrient allocation patterns. Salix and Populus proved suitable as vegetation filters when nutrients were available to plants in near-optimal proportions, but when unbalanced nutrient solutions (wastewater) were applied, stem biomass fraction was strongly reduced. Phragmites was more tolerant to wastewater treatment in terms of plant biomass production and nutrient allocation patterns, so if the N:P ratio of the wastewater is suboptimal, a vegetation filter using Phragmites could be considered. In further studies, a method was developed to determine the proportions of nutrient-rich bark in coppiced Salix, while heavy metal phytoextraction capacity was assessed in two Salix vegetation filters. The relevance of proportion of bark on wood fuel quality and element removal from vegetation filters was also investigated. The concentrations of the elements studied in harvestable Salix shoot biomass were higher, meaning lower wood fuel quality, in plantations where

  12. Elemental analysis of the Al-Fe intermetallic prepared by fast solidification; Analisis elemental del intermetalico Al-Fe preparado por solidificacion rapida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval J, R.A.; Lopez M, J.; Ramirez T, J.J.; Aspiazu F, J.; Villasenor S, P. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Applying the PIXE technique samples of the Al-Fe intermetallic prepared by fast solidification, obtained starting from Al recycled were analyzed. The concentrations of the found elements are given. (Author)

  13. The upgrade and conversion of the ET-RR-1 research reactor using plate type fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashoub, N. [Reactor Physics Dept., Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Saleh, H.G. [Faculty of Girls for Arts and Education, Ain-Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt)

    2001-11-01

    The ET-RR-1 research reactor has been operated at 2 MW since 1961 using EK-10 fuel elements with 10% enriched uranium. The reactor has been used for nuclear applied research and isotope production. In order to upgrade the reactor power to a reasonable limit facing up-to-date uses, core conversion by a new type of fuel element available is necessary. Two fuel elements in plate type are suggested in this study to be used in the ET-RR-1 reactor core rather than the utilized ones. The first element has a dimension of 8 x 8 x 50 cm and consists of 19.7% enriched uranium, which is typical for that utilized in the ET-RR-2 reactor, but with a different length. The other element is proposed with a dimension of 7 x 7 x 50 cm and has the same uranium enrichment. To accomplish safety requirements for these fuel elements, thermal-hydraulic evaluation has been carried out using the PARET code. To reach a core conversion of the ET-RR-1 reactor with the above two types of fuel elements, neutronic calculations have been performed using WIMSD4, DIXY2 and EREBUS codes. Some important nuclear parameters needed in the physical design of the reactor were calculated and included in this study. (orig.) [German] Der ET-RR-1 Forschungsreaktor wird seit 1961 unter Verwendung von EK-10 Brennelementen mit einer Leistung von 2 MW betrieben. Der Reaktor wird in der angewandten Forschung und zur Isotopenherstellung eingesetzt. Um die Reaktorleistung im Hinblick auf eine zeitgemaesse Nutzung der Anlage in einem vernuenftigen Mass zu erhoehen, ist eine Umwandlung des Kerns durch Verwendung neuartiger Brennelemente noetig. In der vorliegenden Untersuchung wird vorgeschlagen, anstelle der z. Z. verwendeten Elemente zwei neue, plattenfoermige Brennelemente zu verwenden. Das erste Element hat eine Groesse von 8 x 8 x 50 cm und besteht aus 19,7% angereichertem Uran, was den im ET-RR-2 Reaktor verwendeten Elementen entspricht, allerdings mit einer anderen Groesse. Das zweite Element hat die gleiche

  14. Evaluation of specimen preparation techniques for micro-PIXE localisation of elements in hyperaccumulating plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachenko, Anthony G. [Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)], E-mail: a.kachenko@usyd.edu.au; Siegele, Rainer; Bhatia, Naveen P. [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Singh, Balwant [Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Ionescu, Mihail [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Hybanthus floribundus subsp. floribundus, a rare Australian Ni-hyperaccumulating shrub and Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana, an Australian naturalized As-hyperaccumulating fern are promising species for use in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission ({mu}-PIXE) spectroscopy was used to map the elemental distribution of the accumulated metal(loid)s, Ca and K in leaf or pinnule tissues of the two plant species. Samples were prepared by two contrasting specimen preparation techniques: freeze-substitution in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and freeze-drying. The specimens were analysed to compare the suitability of each technique in preserving (i) the spatial elemental distribution and (ii) the tissue structure of the specimens. Further, the {mu}-PIXE results were compared with concentration of elements in the bulk tissue obtained by ICP-AES analysis. In H. floribundus subsp. floribundus, {mu}-PIXE analysis revealed Ni, Ca and K concentrations in freeze-dried leaf tissues were at par with bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps illustrated that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermal tissues (1% DW) and least concentration was found in spongy mesophyll tissues (0.53% DW). Conversely, elemental distribution maps of THF freeze-substituted tissues indicated significantly lower Ni, Ca and K concentrations than freeze-dried specimens and bulk tissue concentrations. Moreover, Ni concentrations were uniform across the whole specimen and no localisation was observed. In P. calomelanos var. austroamericana freeze-dried pinnule tissues, {mu}-PIXE revealed statistically similar As, Ca and K concentrations as compared to bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps showed that As localisation was relatively uniform across the whole specimen. Once again, THF freeze-substituted tissues revealed a significant loss of As compared to freeze-dried specimens and the concentrations obtained by bulk tissue

  15. Evaluation of specimen preparation techniques for micro-PIXE localisation of elements in hyperaccumulating plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachenko, Anthony G.; Siegele, Rainer; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Singh, Balwant; Ionescu, Mihail

    2008-04-01

    Hybanthus floribundus subsp. floribundus, a rare Australian Ni-hyperaccumulating shrub and Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana, an Australian naturalized As-hyperaccumulating fern are promising species for use in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) spectroscopy was used to map the elemental distribution of the accumulated metal(loid)s, Ca and K in leaf or pinnule tissues of the two plant species. Samples were prepared by two contrasting specimen preparation techniques: freeze-substitution in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and freeze-drying. The specimens were analysed to compare the suitability of each technique in preserving (i) the spatial elemental distribution and (ii) the tissue structure of the specimens. Further, the μ-PIXE results were compared with concentration of elements in the bulk tissue obtained by ICP-AES analysis. In H. floribundus subsp. floribundus, μ-PIXE analysis revealed Ni, Ca and K concentrations in freeze-dried leaf tissues were at par with bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps illustrated that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermal tissues (1% DW) and least concentration was found in spongy mesophyll tissues (0.53% DW). Conversely, elemental distribution maps of THF freeze-substituted tissues indicated significantly lower Ni, Ca and K concentrations than freeze-dried specimens and bulk tissue concentrations. Moreover, Ni concentrations were uniform across the whole specimen and no localisation was observed. In P. calomelanos var. austroamericana freeze-dried pinnule tissues, μ-PIXE revealed statistically similar As, Ca and K concentrations as compared to bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps showed that As localisation was relatively uniform across the whole specimen. Once again, THF freeze-substituted tissues revealed a significant loss of As compared to freeze-dried specimens and the concentrations obtained by bulk tissue analysis

  16. Applying Thermodynamics to Fossil Fuels: Heats of Combustion from Elemental Compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, William G.; Davenport, Derek A.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are the calculations of heats of combustions of some selected fossil fuel compounds such as some foreign shale oils and United States coals. Heating values for coal- and petroleum-derived fuel oils are also presented. (HM)

  17. Applying Thermodynamics to Fossil Fuels: Heats of Combustion from Elemental Compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, William G.; Davenport, Derek A.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are the calculations of heats of combustions of some selected fossil fuel compounds such as some foreign shale oils and United States coals. Heating values for coal- and petroleum-derived fuel oils are also presented. (HM)

  18. Preparation and influence of performance of anodic catalysts for direct methanol fuel cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhenbo; YIN Geping; SHI Pengfei

    2007-01-01

    This research aims at increasing the utilization of platinum-ruthenium alloy (Pt-Ru) catalysts and thus lowering the catalyst loading in anodes for methanol electrooxidation.The direct methanol fuel cell's (DMFC) anodic catalysts,Pt-Ru/C,were prepared by chemical reduction with a reducing agent added in two kinds of solutions under different circumstances.The reducing agent was added in hot solution with the protection of inert gases or just air,and in cold solution with inert gases.The catalysts were treated at different temperatures.Their performance was tested by cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic polarization by utilizing their inherent powder microelectrode in 0.5 mol/L CH3OH and 0.5 mol/L H2SO4 solution.The structures and micro-surface images ofthe catalysts were determined and observed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy,respectively.The catalyst prepared in inert gases showed a better catalytic performance for methanol electrooxidation than that prepared in air.It resulted in a more homogeneous distribution of the Pt-Ru alloy in carbon.Its size is small,only about 4.5 nm.The catalytic performance is affected by the order of the reducing agent added.The performance of the catalyst prepared by adding the reductant at constant temperature of the solution is better than that prepared by adding it in the solution at 0℃ and then heating it up to the reducing temperature.The structure of the catalyst was modified,and there was an increase in the conversion of ruthenium into the alloyed state and an increase in particle size with the ascension of heat treatment temperature.In addition,the stability of the catalyst was improved after heat treatment.

  19. Transfer of elements relevant to nuclear fuel cycle from soil to boreal plants and animals in experimental meso- and microcosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuovinen, Tiina S., E-mail: tiina.tuovinen@uef.fi [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kasurinen, Anne; Häikiö, Elina [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Tervahauta, Arja [Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box FI-70211, Kuopio (Finland); Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2016-01-01

    Uranium (U), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), thorium (Th) and zinc (Zn) occur naturally in soil but their radioactive isotopes can also be released into the environment during the nuclear fuel cycle. The transfer of these elements was studied in three different trophic levels in experimental mesocosms containing downy birch (Betula pubescens), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and Scandinavian small-reed (Calamagrostis purpurea ssp. Phragmitoides) as producers, snails (Arianta arbostorum) as herbivores, and earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) as decomposers. To determine more precisely whether the element uptake of snails is mainly via their food (birch leaves) or both via soil and food, a separate microcosm experiment was also performed. The element uptake of snails did not generally depend on the presence of soil, indicating that the main uptake route was food, except for U, where soil contact was important for uptake when soil U concentration was high. Transfer of elements from soil to plants was not linear, i.e. it was not correctly described by constant concentration ratios (CR) commonly applied in radioecological modeling. Similar nonlinear transfer was found for the invertebrate animals included in this study: elements other than U were taken up more efficiently when element concentration in soil or food was low. - Highlights: • We studied transfer of elements in boreal food chain using meso- and microcosms. • Elements related to nuclear fuel cycle and mining were examined. • Higher uptake at lower soil concentrations was observed for primary producers. • Snails took up elements mainly from food but for U also soil was an element source. • Non-linear transfer of essential elements was observed for herbivore and decomposer.

  20. Preparation and burning of water-fuel (water in oil type) emulsion in boilers of heat generating installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balabyshko, A.M.; Merzlyakov, V.D. [Skochinsky Inst. of Mining, Moscow (Russian Federation). National Scientific Center for Mining Industry; Poderni, R.Y. [Moscow State Mining Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presented an effective technology used in Russia to increase the efficiency of burning petroleum and heavy oil emulsions while reducing the amount of harmful exhaust gases that are released to the atmosphere. A special fuel dispenser controls the the release of exhaust gases. The technology can be applied to heat generating installations working on liquid fuel. In addition to lowering annual fuel consumption by 5 to 10 per cent, the technology makes use of recycled waste water from fuel storage facilities when preparing the emulsion in a small, low-cost hydro-mechanical dispenser. Emissions of nitrogen oxides can be reduced by 15 to 25 per cent, and particulate matter and hydrocarbons, including carcinogens, are lowered 1.5 to 2 times. Other advantages of this technology include a small and more stable flame in the boiler and an intensified water-fuel emulsion burning process with less carbon formation on heat transfer surfaces. It also offers the ability to burn fuels of lower, non-standard quality, or to add pulverized limestone, chalk, dolomite and other admixtures to the dispenser during fuel preparation in order to neutralize acids in the exhaust gases, thereby reducing acid precipitation. The controlled addition of waste water from fuel storage facilities eliminates the risk of land and water contamination by petroleum products. Although the amount of industrial water added to the fuel is determined by the customer, it can be adjusted to between 0 and 20 per cent of the burned fuel. This paper listed the names of some Russian companies that have successfully applied this technology. 2 figs.

  1. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  2. On-line elemental analysis of fossil fuel process streams by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, W.P.

    1995-06-01

    METC is continuing development of a real-time, multi-element plasma based spectrometer system for application to high temperature and high pressure fossil fuel process streams. Two versions are under consideration for development. One is an Inductively Coupled Plasma system that has been described previously, and the other is a high power microwave system. The ICP torch operates on a mixture of argon and helium with a conventional annular swirl flow plasma gas, no auxiliary gas, and a conventional sample stream injection through the base of the plasma plume. A new, demountable torch design comprising three ceramic sections allows bolts passing the length of the torch to compress a double O-ring seal. This improves the reliability of the torch. The microwave system will use the same data acquisition and reduction components as the ICP system; only the plasma source itself is different. It will operate with a 750-Watt, 2.45 gigahertz microwave generator. The plasma discharge will be contained within a narrow quartz tube one quarter wavelength from a shorted waveguide termination. The plasma source will be observed via fiber optics and a battery of computer controlled monochromators. To extract more information from the raw spectral data, a neural net computer program is being developed. This program will calculate analyte concentrations from data that includes analyte and interferant spectral emission intensity. Matrix effects and spectral overlaps can be treated more effectively by this method than by conventional spectral analysis.

  3. Review: Circulation of Inorganic Elements in Combustion of Alternative Fuels in Cement Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Cement production is an energy-intensive process, which traditionally has been dependent on fossil fuels. However, the use of alternative fuels, i.e., selected waste, biomass, and byproducts with recoverable calorific value, is constantly increasing. Combustion of these fuels is more challenging......, compared to fossil fuels, because of a lack of experience and different chemical and physical properties. When complete oxidation Of fuels in the calciner and main burner is not achieved, they burn in direct contact with the bed material of the rotary kiln, causing local reducing conditions and increasing...

  4. Elastic analysis of thermal gradient bowing in rod-type fuel elements subjected to axial thrust (LWBR Development Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, J.B.

    1968-01-01

    Thermal radient bowing of rod type fuel elements can be analyzed in terms of the deflections of a precurved beam. The fundamental aspects of an analysis of axially compressed multispan beams are given. Elasticity of supports in both axial and transverse directions is considered; the technique is applicable to problems in which the axial thrust depends on the transverse deflection as well as problems with prescribed axial thrust. The formulas presented constitute the theory for a computer program of broad applicability, not only in the analysis of fuel rod bowing, but also to almost any multispan beam, particularly when the effects of axial loads cannot be neglected. 17 references. (NSA 22: 22866)

  5. Improvement of MEAs for direct-methanol fuel cells by tuned layer preparation and coating technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindermeir, A.; Rosenthal, G.; Kunz, U.; Hoffmann, U. [Institute for Chemical Process Engineering, Technical University of Clausthal, Leibnizstrasse 17, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Large scale production of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for fuel cells requires a fabrication technology, which is not only based on electrochemical phenomena but also takes into account aspects of materials processing and conversion. For the fabrication of MEAs for DMFC a production sequence consisting of wet ball-milling, wet spray coating and calendering was developed at the ICVT Clausthal. This has a proven ability for the preparation of diffusion backings and catalyst layers with high reproducibility. To improve MEA performance, investigations concerning the influence of layer fabrication and composition are made with respect to the resulting morphology of the structures. Intermediates and MEAs are evaluated by conductivity measurements, determination of permeability values and current density-voltage characteristics supported by SEM and optical microscopy. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. COAL MICRONIZATION STUDIES IN VIBRATING MILL IN TERMS OF COAL WATER SLURRY (CWS FUEL PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Rejdak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of coal milling tests in aspect of slurry fuel preparation. The tests were carried out with the use of vibrating mill with working chamber of 47.5 dm3. The influence of milling time, amount and composition of grinding aids on degree of fineness and particle size distribution has been investigated. It has been found that the efficiency of the grinding process (in this type of milling device depends primarily on the milling time and the share of grinding aids and - to a lesser extent - on their polydispersity. The study allows to conclude that the grinding time, composition and share of used grinding aids enable to control the final grain size of coal which has an impact on apparent viscosity of coal water slurry.

  7. Preparation of a self-humidifying membrane electrode assembly for fuel cell and its performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王诚; 毛宗强; 徐景明; 谢晓峰; 杨立寨

    2003-01-01

    A novel nano-porous material SiO2-gel was prepared. After being purified by H2O2, then protonized by H2SO4 and desiccated in vacuum, the SiO2-gel, mixed with Nafion solution, was coated between an electrode and a solid electrolyte, which made a new type of self-humidifying membrane electrode assembly. The SiO2 powder was characterized by FTIR, BET and XRD. The surface of the electrodes was characterized by SEM and EDS. The performances of the self-hu- midifying membrane electrodes were analyzed by polarization discharge and AC impedance under the operation modes of external humidification and self-humidification respectively. Experimental results indicated that the SiO2 powder held super-hydrophilicity, and the layer of SiO2 and Nafion polymer between electrode and solid electrolyte expanded three-dimension electrochemistry reaction area, maintained stability of catalyst layer and enhanced back-diffusion of water from cathode to anode, so the PEM Fuel cell can generate electricity at self-humidification mode. The power density of single PEM fuel cell reached 1.5 W/cm2 under 0.2 Mpa, 70℃ and dry hydrogen and oxygen.

  8. Preparation and combustion of coal-water fuel from the Sin Pun coal deposit, southern Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    In response to an inquiry by the Department of Mineral Resources in Thailand, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) prepared a program to assess the responsiveness of Sin Pun lignite to the temperature and pressure conditions of hot-water drying. The results indicate that drying made several improvements in the coal, notably increases in heating value and carbon content and reductions in equilibrium moisture and oxygen content. The equilibrium moisture content decreased from 27 wt% for the raw coal to about 15 wt% for the hot-water-dried (HWD) coals. The energy density for a pumpable coal-water fuel (CWF) indicates an increase from 4500 to 6100 Btu/lb by hot-water drying. Approximately 650 lb of HWD Sin Pun CWF were fired in the EERC`s combustion test facility. The fuel burned extremely well, with no feed problems noted during the course of the test. Fouling and slagging deposits each indicated a very low rate of ash deposition, with only a dusty layer formed on the cooled metal surfaces. The combustor was operated at between 20% and 25% excess air, resulting in a flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration averaging approximately 6500 parts per million.

  9. Redistribution of mineral elements in wheat grain when applying the complex enzyme preparations based on phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kuznetsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic minerals play an important role in the whole human nutrition, but they are included in the grain of the phytates that reduces their bioavailability. Whole wheat bread is generally considered a healthy food, but the presence of mineral elements in it is insignificant, because of weak phytate degradation. From all sources of exogenous phytase the most productive are microscopic fungi. To accelerate the process of transition hard mineral elements are mobilized to implement integrated cellulolytic enzyme preparation based on the actions of phytase (producer is Penicillium canescens. Phytase activity was assessed indirectly by the rate of release of phosphate from the substrate. It has been established that the release rate of the phosphoric acid substrate is dependent on the composition of the drug and the enzyme complex is determined by the presence of xylanase. The presented experimental data shows that a cellulase treatment of the grain in conjunction with the β-glucanase or xylanase leading to an increase in phytase activity could be 1.4 - 2.3 times as compared with the individual enzymes. As a result of concerted action of enzymes complex preparation varies topography grain, increase the pore sizes in seed and fruit shells that facilitate the penetration of the enzyme phytase in the aleurone layer to the site of phytin hydrolysis and leads to an increase in phytase activity. In terms of rational parameters of enzymatic hydrolysis, the distribution of mineral elements in the anatomical parts of the grain after processing complex enzyme preparation with the help of X-ray detector EMF miniCup system in a scanning electron microscope JEOL JSM 6390 were investigated. When processing enzyme preparation wheat trend in the distribution of mineral elements, characteristic of grain - the proportion of these elements in the aleurone layer decreases, and in the endosperm increases. Because dietary fiber and phytate found together in the

  10. Hydraulic demand characteristics of self-supported C-IV-N and K-I-N I&E fuel elements in a zirconium C-Reactor tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, E.D.

    1960-01-13

    This report discusses the isothermal hydraulic demand characteristics were determined by laboratory experiment for full charges of self-supported I&E fuel elements in a zirconium process tube. Pressure drop, flow rate data, and the calculations of annulus-to-hole flow ratio are presented. For self-supported fuel elements, pressure drop does not vary with temperature as much as it dies for non-self-supported furl elements.

  11. ANALYSING THE POSIBILITY OF FUEL FILTER ELEMENTS OPERATING EFFECTIVINESS EVALUATION WITH X-RAY FLUORESCENSE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Lvovich Nemchikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The author dwells upon the problems of the technical condition of refueling complexes equipment continuous monitoring, which is an important factor in ensuring the safety and regularity of flights. The article deals with the results of the research into the composition and concentration of mechanical impurities from different layers of the regular filter EFB-15/120-104 0615 production number of NGOs "Unit", which has been removed from the supply line TC-1 aviation fuel tank farm from the State Reserve in the refueling tank farm "Vnukovo" and the filter control of Velcon company brand the CDF 230F, which is removed from the tanker, in order to assess their performance and service life prediction using X-ray fluorescence method.Illustrative and graphic research results are given, which allow to assess the effectiveness of the used filters. The assessment measuring of the found elements concentrations in different areas of the test sample: 4sm2 area, 1 cm2 and 0.25 cm2, cut from a cardboard filter area is made. The author determined that the average total Fe concentration on the filter was 8.3 g / m providing the fact that due to the operator information the filter pumped 2,020 m3 or 1,582 tons of fuel. There is also made the estimation of the total amount of Fe, detained in filter, which is 1313 g. It should be noted, according to the appearance and the detected concentration of Fe, its capacity has not been fully exhausted. This allows to receive additional information on the real filter resource, and to use it for solving the problems of filter mod- ernization.The studies have shown the possibility to estimate the amount and composition of impurities, which allows to be sure that this work is promising and possible to be integrated into the practical events to ensure the safe operation of civil aircraft. The publication aims to draw the attention of operators and regulatory authorities to the possibility of using the proposed method to provide a

  12. Preparation for the Recovery of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) at Andreeva Bay, North West Russia - 13309

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, D.; McAtamney, N. [Nuvia Limited (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Andreeva Bay is located near Murmansk in the Russian Federation close to the Norwegian border. The ex-naval site was used to de-fuel nuclear-powered submarines and icebreakers during the Cold War. Approximately 22,000 fuel assemblies remain in three Dry Storage Units (DSUs) which means that Andreeva Bay has one of the largest stockpiles of highly enriched spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the world. The high contamination and deteriorating condition of the SNF canisters has made improvements to the management of the SNF a high priority for the international community for safety, security and environmental reasons. International Donors have, since 2002, provided support to projects at Andreeva concerned with improving the management of the SNF. This long-term programme of work has been coordinated between the International Donors and responsible bodies within the Russian Federation. Options for the safe and secure management of SNF at Andreeva Bay were considered in 2004 and developed by a number of Russian Institutes with international participation. This consisted of site investigations, surveys and studies to understand the technical challenges. A principal agreement was reached that the SNF would be removed from the site altogether and transported to Russia's reprocessing facility at Mayak in the Urals. The analytical studies provided the information necessary to develop the construction plan for the site. Following design and regulatory processes, stakeholders endorsed the technical solution in April 2007. This detailed the processes, facilities and equipment required to safely remove the SNF and identified other site services and support facilities required on the site. Implementation of this strategy is now well underway with the facilities in various states of construction. Physical works have been performed to address the most urgent tasks including weather protection over one of the DSUs, installation of shielding over the cells, provision of radiation

  13. Challenges of biological sample preparation for SIMS imaging of elements and molecules at subcellular resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Subhash [Cornell SIMS Laboratory, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Snee Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)], E-mail: sc40@cornell.edu

    2008-12-15

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based imaging techniques capable of subcellular resolution characterization of elements and molecules are becoming valuable tools in many areas of biology and medicine. Due to high vacuum requirements of SIMS, the live cells cannot be analyzed directly in the instrument. The sample preparation, therefore, plays a critical role in preserving the native chemical composition for SIMS analysis. This work focuses on the evaluation of frozen-hydrated and frozen freeze-dried sample preparations for SIMS studies of cultured cells with a CAMECA IMS-3f dynamic SIMS ion microscope instrument capable of producing SIMS images with a spatial resolution of 500 nm. The sandwich freeze-fracture method was used for fracturing the cells. The complimentary fracture planes in the plasma membrane were characterized by field-emission secondary electron microscopy (FESEM) in the frozen-hydrated state. The cells fractured at the dorsal surface were used for SIMS analysis. The frozen-hydrated SIMS analysis of individual cells under dynamic primary ion beam (O{sub 2}{sup +}) revealed local secondary ion signal enhancements correlated with the water image signals of {sup 19}(H{sub 3}O){sup +}. A preferential removal of water from the frozen cell matrix in the Z-axis was also observed. These complications render the frozen-hydrated sample type less desirable for subcellular dynamic SIMS studies. The freeze-drying of frozen-hydrated cells, either inside the instrument or externally in a freeze-drier, allowed SIMS imaging of subcellular chemical composition. Morphological evaluations of fractured freeze-dried cells with SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed well-preserved mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, and stress fibers. SIMS analysis of fractured freeze-dried cells revealed well-preserved chemical composition of even the most highly diffusible ions like K{sup +} and Na{sup +} in physiologically relevant concentrations. The high K

  14. Recovered fuels - The connection between fuel preparation, combustion equipments and ash quality; Returbraenslen - kopplingen mellan braensleberedning, foerbraenningsutrustning och askkvalitet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Johansson, Inge [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    The lack of bio fuel and new regulations of waste treatment have increased the interest of recovered fuels. Co-combustion is of great interest, but the consequences and permit handling involved in introducing a new fuel into a plant have to be investigated. The aim of this study is to see if it is possible to affect the ash quality by pre-treatment of the fuel, or by firing in different combustion equipments. Ashes can be used in several different types of applications. Few of these have uniform requirements of ash quality. The ongoing research will hopefully help generating unified regulations and recommendations for the uses of ashes. However, right now the knowledge is limited and very specific. Every type of ash has to be analysed for the appropriate use. It is especially the requirements of leaching that are difficult to make general. The work started with a survey of recovered fuels. It contains roughly which fuels exist and which of those are accessible for the energy market in Sweden. The survey showed that there are approximately 13 Mton/y wastes partly accessible to the energy market; 50 % are used for material recycling, 32 % for energy recovery, 1.5 % for composting and the rest are used as landfill. Three recovered fuels were chosen and studied more thoroughly. These were PTP (paper, wood and plastic), tires and impregnated wood. The project showed that the recovered fuels have different qualifications as fuels and have different possibilities at co-combustion which results in variable ash quality. A pre-treated fuel is more homogeneous which give better combustion and cleaner ashes. A fluidised bed demands a more pre-treated fuel than a grate and the fluidised bed generate more ashes because the ashes contain bed material. As a result of this the ashes from a fluidised bed is generally easier to utilize. In this project the composition of ashes from co-combustion of the three recovered fuels together with wood fuel has been estimated. The aim was to

  15. Preparation of Sulfonated PVA-TMSP Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Novel preparation and characterization of sulfonated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA–trimethoxysilyl propanethiol (TMSP membranes for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC application have been investigated. Preparation of sulfonated PVA-TMSP membrane was conducted by crosslinking steps using sol-gel method and a catalyst of concentrated HCl. TMSP concentrations were varied from 1% to 3%. The gel solution was cast on to the membrane metal plate to obtain membrane sheets. The membrane was then oxidized in H2O2 concentrations of (10-30% to convert the mercapto groups into sulfonate group. Investigations of the cross-linking process and the existence of sulfonate group were conducted by infrared spectroscopy as shown for frequencies at 1140–1200/cm and 1200–1145/cm respectively. The scanning electron microscope–energy dispersive X-rays (SEM–EDX of the membranes indicated that the distribution of silica particles from sol–gel reaction products was uneven due to the fast exchange rate of condensation. The degree of swelling decreased as methanol concentrations increase for sulfonated PVA–TMSP membrane which opposed toward the value of commercial Nafion membrane. The maximum value of ion exchange capacity of the membrane was 1.82 mmol/g whereas the highest proton conductivity was 3.9 x 10-4 S/cm. Therefore it can be concluded that the membrane was a potential candidate for application in DMFC.

  16. The Optimization of Matrix Preparation Process and Performance Testing for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A key component in the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC is electrolyte matrix, which provides both ionic conduction and gas sealing. The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of selected operating conditions on the performance of the matrix preparation. Slurries were prepared to produce matrices by the technique of tape casting. The characteristics of the slurries and matrices were examined by laser particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy, and BET surface area analyzer. The testing results revealed that a slurry composition with 40 wt.% lithium aluminate was the optimal formulation to produce a good matrix with a pore size distribution of 0.1–0.4 μm and porosity of 50 vol.%. Coarse and fine LiAlO2 particles were added in the matrix slurry to enhance the mechanical strength. Several green sheets were heated and pressed to enhance the bulk density to get a dense matrix of MCFC. Finally, a single MCFC was assembled and tested. The testing results showed the matrix with 40% solid loading gave the maximum discharge current of 20 A at 0.56 V.

  17. Costs of head-end incineration with respect to Kr separation in the reprocessing of HTR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnert-Wiemer, H.; Boehnert, R.

    1976-07-15

    The C-incinerations and the Kr-separations during head-end incineration in the reprocessing of HTR fuel elements are described. The costs for constructing an operating a head-end incineration of reprocessing capacities with 5,000 to 50,000 MW(e)-HTR power have been determined. The cost estimates are divided into investment and operating costs, further after the fraction of the N/sub 2/-content in the incineration exhaust gas, which strongly affects costs. It appears that, in the case of Kr-separation from the incineration exhaust gas, the investment costs as well as the operating costs of the head-end for N/sub 2/-containing exhaust gas are considerably greater than those for gas without N/sub 2/. The C-incineration of the graphite of the HTR fuel elements should therefore only be performed with influx gas that is free of N/sub 2/.

  18. Program ELM: A tool for rapid thermal-hydraulic analysis of solid-core nuclear rocket fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, James T.

    1992-01-01

    This report reviews the state of the art of thermal-hydraulic analysis codes and presents a new code, Program ELM, for analysis of fuel elements. ELM is a concise computational tool for modeling the steady-state thermal-hydraulics of propellant flow through fuel element coolant channels in a nuclear thermal rocket reactor with axial coolant passages. The program was developed as a tool to swiftly evaluate various heat transfer coefficient and friction factor correlations generated for turbulent pipe flow with heat addition which have been used in previous programs. Thus, a consistent comparison of these correlations was performed, as well as a comparison with data from the NRX reactor experiments from the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) project. This report describes the ELM Program algorithm, input/output, and validation efforts and provides a listing of the code.

  19. Portland clinker production with carbonatite waste and tire-derived fuel: crystallochemistry of minor and trace elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. D. Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results on the composition of Portland clinkers produced with non-conventional raw-materials and fuels, focusing on the distribution of selected trace elements. Clinkers produced with three different fuel compositions were sampled in an industrial plant, where all other parameters were kept unchanged. The fuels have chemical fingerprints, which are sulfur for petroleum coke and zinc for TDF (tire-derived fuel. Presence of carbonatite in the raw materials is indicated by high amounts of strontium and phosphorous. Electron microprobe data was used to determine occupation of structural site of both C3S and C2S, and the distribution of trace elements among clinker phases. Phosphorous occurs in similar proportions in C3S and C2S; while considering its modal abundance, C3S is its main reservoir in the clinker. Sulfur is preferentially partitioned toward C2S compared to C3S. Strontium substitutes for Ca2+ mainly in C2S and in non-silicatic phases, compared to C3S.

  20. Preparation and Evaluation of Jojoba Oil Methyl Ester as Biodiesel and as Blend Components in Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis L.) produces seeds that contain around 50 to 60 weight percent of inedible long-chain wax esters that are suitable as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. A Jojoba oil methyl ester (JME) was prepared in effort to evaluate an important fuel propertie...

  1. Preparation, characterisation and application of Pd/C nanocatalyst in passive alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (ADEFC)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, RM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the use of Pd nanocatalyst on Vulcan XC-72 (at a very low loading, 8 wt % Pd) in passive alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC). The average Pd particle size obtained with TEM was 3.5 ± 0.5 nm. The XRD results of the prepared...

  2. [Metallic Elemental Analysis of Tibetan Herbal Medicines and Tibetan Medicine Preparations by Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Fluorescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-xia; Li Cen; Du, Yu-zhi; Wei, Li-xin

    2015-06-01

    To discuss the relationship between metallic element and disease through determine the elementals in Tibetan Herbal Medicines and Tibetan Medicine Preparations that have obvious effect on hepatobiliary diseases by Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Source, then to reveal the substance foundation of pharmacological action. The results show that all the Tibetan Herbal Medicines used in the experiment have the 9 kinds of metallic elements of potassium(K), calcium(Ca), titanium(Ti), vanadium(V), chromium(Cr), manganese(Mn), ferrum(Fe), zinc(Zn) and lead(Pb), the content of the elements are in the ppb or ppm level though the element constitute and the content have obvious difference. Tibetan Medicine Preparations have another 6 kinds of metallic elements of nickel(Ni), copper(Cu), rubidium(Rb), mercury(Hg), cobalt(Co), gallium(Ga) and 1 kind of nonmetallic elements of arsenic(As) when compare with Herbal Medicines, and the element constitute and the content also have obvious difference. Take advantage of SR-XRF, the test gets the basic data of elements of Tibetan Herbal Medicines and Preparations, supply the scientific support to discuss the interaction of pharmacological mechanism and the metallic elements, and find the suitability of the technique for the metallic elements detection in Tibetan Medicines.

  3. A Multi-Dimensional Heat Transfer Model of a Tie-Tube and Hexagonal Fuel Element for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, C. F.; Mireles, O. R.; Stewart, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Space Capable Cryogenic Thermal Engine (SCCTE) effort considers a nuclear thermal rocket design based around a Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) design fission reactor. The reactor core is comprised of bundled hexagonal fuel elements that directly heat hydrogen for expansion in a thrust chamber and hexagonal tie-tubes that house zirconium hydride moderator mass for the purpose of thermalizing fast neutrons resulting from fission events. Created 3D steady state Hex fuel rod model with 1D flow channels. Hand Calculation were used to set up initial conditions for fluid flow. The Hex Fuel rod uses 1D flow paths to model the channels using empirical correlations for heat transfer in a pipe. Created a 2-D axisymmetric transient to steady state model using the CFD turbulent flow and Heat Transfer module in COMSOL. This model was developed to find and understand the hydrogen flow that might effect the thermal gradients axially and at the end of the tie tube where the flow turns and enters an annulus. The Hex fuel rod and Tie tube models were made based on requirements given to us by CSNR and the SCCTE team. The models helped simplify and understand the physics and assumptions. Using pipe correlations reduced the complexity of the 3-D fuel rod model and is numerically more stable and computationally more time-efficient compared to the CFD approach. The 2-D axisymmetric tie tube model can be used as a reference "Virtual test model" for comparing and improving 3-D Models.

  4. The effect of fuel form on trace element emissions in an industrial-scale coal fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.F.; Wincek, R.T.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Coal Utilization Lab.

    1998-12-31

    Eleven of the fourteen inorganic hazardous air pollutants identified in Title 3 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 are present in the flue gas of pulverized coal-fired boilers. The designated elements include: antimony (Sb), beryllium (Be), chlorine (Cl), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), fluorine (F), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and phosphorus (P). Determining the risk of these elements in the environment is difficult at best. However, regulating their emission into the environment has some scientific basis and merit. Approximately 137.5 tons of mercury were emitted in the US by combustion sources in 1994--1995, with coal-fired utility boilers accounting for 37.4% (or 51.6 tons) of the total. Control of trace element emissions from coal-fired utility boilers requires an understanding of the manner in which they occur in coal, their behavior during and after combustion and their form in the stack gas. The multimedia behavior of trace elements during combustion can be traced to their volatility within the combustion and post-combustion environment. The temperature distribution within the combustion system, the mechanism of char and ash formation (e.g. duration of char burnout and char and cenosphere morphology) and the combustion efficiency determine the partitioning of trace elements during combustion. These factors can be affected by the form in which a fuel is fired, e.g., pulverized coal (PC) versus coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF). This paper presents preliminary results of emissions testing aimed at determining the effect of fuel form on the penetration and partitioning of trace elements in an industrial-scale boiler. The tests were conducted on a 2 MMBtu/hr research boiler, in which Middle Kittanning Seam coal (hvA bituminous) from Jefferson County, Pennsylvania was burned in pulverized form and as a CWSF. The tests were conducted in accordance with the procedure outlined in EPA Methods 5 and 29

  5. Preparation of nanostructured PbS thin films as sensing element for NO2 gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaci, S.; Keffous, A.; Hakoum, S.; Trari, M.; Mansri, O.; Menari, H.

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that semiconducting films of AIVBVI compounds, in particular, of nanostructured lead sulfide (PbS) which prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD), can be used as a sensing element for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas. The CBD method is versatile, simple in implementation and gives homogeneous semiconductor structures. We have prepared PbS nanocrystalline thin film at different reaction baths and temperatures. In the course of deposition, variable amounts of additives, such as organic substances among them, were introduced into the baths. The energy dispersive analysis (EDX) confirms the chemical composition of PbS films. A current-voltage (I-V) characterization of Pd/nc-PbS/a-SiC:H pSi(100)/Al Schottky diode structures were studied in the presence of NO2 gas. The gas sensing behavior showed that the synthesized PbS nanocrystalline thin films were influenced by NO2 gas at room temperature. The results can be used for developing an experimental sensing element based on chemically deposited nanostructured PbS films which can be applicable in gas sensors.

  6. Determining the elemental composition of fuels by bomb calorimetry and the inverse correlation of HHV with elemental composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a method to obtain a simplified elemental analysis of an organic sample in which oxygen, nitrogen, and sulphur are lumped. The method uses a bomb calorimeter, water, and ash measurements combined with a numerical procedure based on a generalised equation for predicting highe...

  7. Chemical thermodynamics of complex systems: fission product behavior in LWR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohli, R.

    1981-03-01

    A detailed thermodynamic assessment has been made of the chemical reactions of fission products in LWR fuel rods. Using recent thermodynamic data and the in-reactor oxygen potential and temperature range of LWRs, equilibrium thermodynamic calculations were performed for the most plausible reactions of the fission products. The emphasis in this model is on the chemistry of cesium and rubidium and their reactions with the fuel, other fission products, and the zircaloy cladding. The model predictions are discussed for their implications in fuel-cladding interactions.

  8. Safe conditioning of waste for final disposal. Vitrification of spent used fuel elements; Sichere Konditionierung zur Endlagerung. Verglasung von abgebrannten Brennelementen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niessen, Stefan; Blanc, Eric [Areva GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The strategy for disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Germany requires an interim storage over a longer period. The used fuel assemblies are stored in dry storage casks. An alternative method for storage is the conditioning of the fuel elements. This technology is proven on an industrial scale and is carried out at the La Hague plant. The know-how is currently available for both, the operators as well as in industry and science in Germany.

  9. Capacity of the equipment family SICOM to inspect fuel elements; Capacidad de los equipos familia SICOM para inspeccionar elementos de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Siguero, A.; Sola, A.

    2013-07-01

    To check the status where the fuel assemblies are after has been operating in the core of nuclear plants, inspections have been conducted to carry out an improvement in the behavior of alloys used in pods of fuel, the control of corrosion of these pods because of heat, reducing the transfer of heat due to the oxide and with the support of visual inspections monitor the physical integrity of the fuel elements.

  10. Examining Rhodium Catalyst complexes for Use with Conducting Polymers Designed for Fuel Cells in Preparing Biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpio, M.M.; Kerr, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Biosensing devices are important because they can detect, record, and transmit information regarding the presence of, or physiological changes in, different chemical or biological materials in the environment. The goal of this research is to prepare a biosensing device that is effective, quick, and low cost. This is done by examining which chemicals will work best when placed in a biosensor. The first study involved experimenting on a rhodium catalyst complexed with ligands such as bipyridine and imidazole. The rhodium catalyst is important because it is reduced from RhIII to RhI, forms a hydride by reaction with water and releases the hydride to react with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to selectively produce 1,4-NADH, the reduced form of NAD+. The second study looked at different types of ketones and enzymes for the enzyme-substrate reaction converting a ketone into an alcohol. Preliminary results showed that the rhodium complexed with bipyridine was able to carry out all the reactions, while the rhodium complexed with imidazole was not able to produce and release hydrides. In addition, the most effective ketone to use is benzylacetone with the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase from baker’s yeast. Future work includes experimenting with bis-imidazole, which mimics the structure of bipyridine to see if it has the capability to reduce and if the reduction rate is comparable to the bipyridine complex. Once all testing is completed, the fastest catalysts will be combined with polymer membranes designed for fuel cells to prepare biosensing devices that can be used in a variety of applications including ones in the medical and environmental fields.

  11. Porous Carbon Materials for Elements in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlodarczyk R.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The porosity, distribution of pores, shape of pores and specific surface area of carbon materials were investigated. The study of sintered graphite and commercial carbon materials used in low-temperature fuel cells (Graphite Grade FU, Toray Teflon Treated was compared. The study covered measurements of density, microstructural examinations and wettability (contact angle of carbon materials. The main criterion adopted for choosing a particular material for components of fuel cells is their corrosion resistance under operating conditions of hydrogen fuel cells. In order to determine resistance to corrosion in the environment of operation of fuel cells, potentiokinetic curves were registered for synthetic solution 0.1M H2SO4+ 2 ppmF-at 80°C.

  12. ANALYSING THE POSIBILITY OF FUEL FILTER ELEMENTS OPERATING EFFECTIVINESS EVALUATION WITH X-RAY FLUORESCENSE METHOD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mikhail Lvovich Nemchikov; Alexander Nicolaevich Kozlov; Konstantin Igorevich Gryadunov; Anton Mihailovich Meleshnikov

    2017-01-01

    ... of NGOs "Unit", which has been removed from the supply line TC-1 aviation fuel tank farm from the State Reserve in the refueling tank farm "Vnukovo" and the filter control of Velcon company brand...

  13. The Influence of Distance and Atmospheric Elements on the Concentration of Odour from Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaini Sakawi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Odour is an environmental element that occurs as varieties of aroma, either pleasant or otherwise to its immediate community. The various sources of odour pollution may come from either natural or of human activities. Odour concentration may change due to environmental factors such as atmosphere, topography, distance and mitigation efforts. This study describes a study on the influence of distance and athmospheric elements on concentration of odour generated by the Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF operations. The distribution of odour concentration was measured using Odour concentration meter XP-329 III series per its distance from the RDF operations. The results indicated that distance factors did influence the odour concentration. Results at test stations of distances farther from the RDF showed incrementally higher distribution of odour concentration compared to those nearer to the RDF. In addition, athmosperic elements like temperatures, humidity, wind speed and directions also evidenlty linked to the distribution of odour concentration.

  14. Fuel element design for the enhanced destruction of plutonium in a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Douglas C.; Porter, Douglas L.; Hayes, Steven L.; Hill, Robert N.

    1997-12-01

    A uranium-free fuel for a fast nuclear reactor comprising an alloy of Pu, Zr and Hf, wherein Hf is present in an amount less than about 10% by weight of the alloy. The fuel may be in the form of a Pu alloy surrounded by a Zr-Hf alloy or an alloy of Pu-Zr-Hf or a combination of both.

  15. Nanostructured Carbon Materials as Supports in the Preparation of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Lázaro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Different advanced nanostructured carbon materials, such as carbon nanocoils, carbon nanofibers, graphitized ordered mesoporous carbons and carbon xerogels, presenting interesting features such as high electrical conductivity and extensively developed porous structure were synthesized and used as supports in the preparation of electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs. The main advantage of these supports is that their physical properties and surface chemistry can be tailored to adapt the carbonaceous material to the catalytic requirements. Moreover, all of them present a highly mesoporous structure, diminishing diffusion problems, and both graphitic character and surface area can be conveniently modified. In the present work, the influence of the particular features of each material on the catalytic activity and stability was analyzed. Results have been compared with those obtained for commercial catalysts supported on Vulcan XC-72R, Pt/C and PtRu/C (ETEK. Both a highly ordered graphitic and mesopore-enriched structure of these advanced nanostructured materials resulted in an improved electrochemical performance in comparison to the commercial catalysts assayed, both towards CO and alcohol oxidation.

  16. Activated carbons prepared from refuse derived fuel and their gold adsorption characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buah, William K; Williams, Paul T

    2010-02-01

    Activated carbons produced from refuse derived fuel (RDF), which had been prepared from municipal solid waste have been characterized and evaluated for their potential for gold adsorption from gold chloride solution. Pyrolysis of the RDF produced a char, which was then activated via steam gasification to produce activated carbons. Steam gasification of the char at 900 degrees C for 3 h yielded 73 wt% activated carbon. The derived activated carbon had a surface area of 500 m2 g(-1) and a total pore volume of 0.19 cm3 g(-1). The gold adsorption capacity of the activated carbon was 32.1 mg Au g(-1) of carbon when contacted with an acidified gold chloride solution. The gold adsorption capacity was comparable to that of a commercial activated carbon tested under the same conditions and was well in the range of values of activated carbons used in the gold industry. Demineralization of the RDF activated carbon in a 5 M HCl solution resulted in enhancement of its textural properties but a reduction in the gold adsorption rate, indicating that the metal content of the RDF activated carbon influenced its gold adsorption rate.

  17. Thermally Sprayed Large Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Its Stack: Geometry Optimization, Preparation, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shan-Lin; Li, Cheng-Xin; Liu, Shuai; Li, Chang-Jiu; Yang, Guan-Jun; He, Peng-Jiang; Yun, Liang-Liang; Song, Bo; Xie, Ying-Xin

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we develop a large tubular solid oxide fuel cells design with several cells in series on a porous cermet support, which has many characteristics such as self-sealing, low Ohmic loss, high strength, and good thermal expansion coefficient matching. Here, we investigate aspects of the cell design, manufacture, performance, and application. Firstly, the cell length and number of cells in series are optimized by theoretical analysis. Then, thermal spraying is applied as a cost-effective method to prepare all the cell components. Finally, the performance of different types of cells and two types of stacks is characterized. The maximum output power of one tube, which had 20 cells in series, reaches 31 and 40.5 W at 800 and 900 °C, respectively. Moreover, the output power of a stack assembled with 56 tubes, each with ten cells in series, reaches 800 W at 830 °C. The excellent single tube and cell stack performance suggest that thermally sprayed tubular SOFCs have significant potential for commercialized application.

  18. Fuel properties and combustion kinetics of hydrochar prepared by hydrothermal carbonization of bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Meng; Zhu, Jiayu; Zhou, Jie; Wu, Shengji

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization, an environmental friendly treatment method was employed to pretreat bamboo for hydrochar preparation in the present study. Hydrothermal carbonization could elevate the fuel properties and combustion behavior of bamboo. The combustion kinetic parameters of raw bamboo and hydrochars were calculated by a simple Arrhenius equation based on the thermogravimetric curves. Two distinct zones were observed for raw bamboo and hydrochars. The activation energies of raw bamboo in zone 1 and zone 2 were 109.5kJ/mol and 46.6kJ/mol, respectively, in the heating rate of 20°C/min. The activation energy of hydrochar in zone 1 increased at the hydrothermal carbonization temperature under 220°C and then decreased at higher hydrothermal carbonization temperature, due to the decomposition of relative reactive compounds in bamboo, and destruction of cellulose and hemicellulose structures, respectively. The activation energies of hydrochars in zone 2 were among 52.3-57.5kJ/mol, lower than that of lignin extracted from bamboo.

  19. Enhanced performance of microbial fuel cell with in situ preparing dual graphene modified bioelectrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junfeng; Hu, Yongyou; Tan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Lihua; Huang, Wantang; Sun, Jian

    2017-10-01

    This study proposed a three-step method to prepare dual graphene modified bioelectrode (D-GM-BE) by in situ microbial-induced reduction of GO and polarity reversion in microbial fuel cell (MFC). Both graphene modified bioanode (GM-BA) and biocathode (GM-BC) were of 3D graphene/biofilm architectures; the viability and thickness of microbial biofilm decreased compared with control bioelectrode (C-BE). The coulombic efficiency (CE) of GM-BA was 2.1 times of the control bioanode (C-BA), which demonstrated higher rate of substrates oxidation; the relationship between peak current and scan rates data meant that GM-BC was of higher efficiency of catalyzing oxygen reduction than the control biocathode (C-BC). The maximum power density obtained in D-GM-BE MFC was 122.4±6.9mWm(-2), the interfacial charge transfer resistance of GM-BA and GM-BC were decreased by 79% and 75.7%. The excellent electrochemical performance of D-GM-BE MFC was attributed to the enhanced extracellular electron transfer (EET) process and catalyzing oxygen reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Low temperature preparation and fuel cell properties of rare earth doped barium cerate solid electrolytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋凯; 何志奇; 孟建; 任玉芳; 苏锵

    1999-01-01

    The solid electrolytes, BaCe0.8 Ln0.2O2.9 (Ln: Gd, Sm, Eu), were prepared by the sol-gel method. XRD indicated that a pure orthorhombic phase was formed at 900℃. The synthesis temperature by the sol-gel method was about 600℃ lower than the high temperature solid phase reaction method, The electrical conductivity and impedance spectra were measured and the conduction mechanism was studied. The grain-boundary resistance of the solid electrolyte could be reduced or eliminated by the sol-gel method. The conductivity of BaCe0.8Gd0.2O2.9 is 7.87×10-2 S·cm-1 at 800℃. The open-circuit voltage of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell using BaCe0.8 Gd0.2O2.9 as electrolyte was near to 1 V and its maximum power density was 30 mW·cm-2.

  1. Thermally Sprayed Large Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Its Stack: Geometry Optimization, Preparation, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shan-Lin; Li, Cheng-Xin; Liu, Shuai; Li, Chang-Jiu; Yang, Guan-Jun; He, Peng-Jiang; Yun, Liang-Liang; Song, Bo; Xie, Ying-Xin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we develop a large tubular solid oxide fuel cells design with several cells in series on a porous cermet support, which has many characteristics such as self-sealing, low Ohmic loss, high strength, and good thermal expansion coefficient matching. Here, we investigate aspects of the cell design, manufacture, performance, and application. Firstly, the cell length and number of cells in series are optimized by theoretical analysis. Then, thermal spraying is applied as a cost-effective method to prepare all the cell components. Finally, the performance of different types of cells and two types of stacks is characterized. The maximum output power of one tube, which had 20 cells in series, reaches 31 and 40.5 W at 800 and 900 °C, respectively. Moreover, the output power of a stack assembled with 56 tubes, each with ten cells in series, reaches 800 W at 830 °C. The excellent single tube and cell stack performance suggest that thermally sprayed tubular SOFCs have significant potential for commercialized application.

  2. Characterization of pitch prepared from pyrolysis fuel oil via electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong Gun; Park, Mira; Kim, Hak-Yong; Kwac, Lee Ku; Shin, Hye Kyoung

    2017-06-01

    Pitch samples were obtained from pyrolysis fuel oil by thermal treatment for 2 h at 300 °C after electron beam irradiation (EBI) treatment and by thermal treatment alone for different temperature of 250 °C, 300 °C, and 350 °C. EBI treatment was found to be an effective treatment for preparing pitch compare to the pitch obtained without EBI treatment. These results were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) analyses, which showed the increase in the intensities of peaks corresponding to aromatic compounds. In the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) spectra, the amount of components with medium molecular weights in the pitch was found to increase with the temperature; likewise, in the case of the pitch obtained via EBI treatment, we found that the amount of components with higher molecular weight over 1000 (m/v) similarly increased. Further, the thermal stability and carbon yield at 850 °C of the pitch obtained by EBI were greater than those of samples subjected to thermal treatment at 250 and 300 °C.

  3. Analysis of selected elements in water in the drinking water preparation plants in Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antanasijević Davor Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Belgrade's water supply relies mainly on the River Sava and groundwater supply wells, which are located in the vicinity of the river and Ada Ciganlija. In this paper, the content of aluminum, boron, chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, barium and lead was analyzed in raw water as well as drinking water distributed by the Water Supply and Sewage of Belgrade. A total of 14 samples were examined from all water treatment plants that are part of the distribution system. The measurements were conducted using the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS technique. The aim of this research was to examine the effectiveness of drinking water preparation process in the plants belonging to the Water Supply and Sewage of Belgrade. The content of certain elements varies considerably in raw water (river and groundwater: the concentration of boron in river water is two to three times lower than the concentration in groundwater; the concentration of arsenic in river water is ten to twenty five times lower than the concentration in groundwater; the concentration of aluminum in all groundwater samples was below the detection limit of the instrument (0.50 μg/dm3, whilst in the river water the content of aluminum was about 50 μg/dm3 and the concentration of manganese in the river water was up to 10 times lower than the concentrations in groundwater. In all drinking water samples the concentration of the elements were bellow the maximum allowed levels according to the Serbian regulations. Correlation coefficients determined for boron, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, barium and lead, which were analyzed in raw waters, show that four groups of elements can be distinguished. Boron, manganese, arsenic and barium are related to each other and probably have a common natural origin; copper and lead probably have a common anthropogenic origin; correlation of nickel and cobalt was observed, while zinc was not in

  4. QUANTITATIVE AAS STIMATION OF HEAVY METALS AND TRACE ELEMENTS IN MARKETED AYURVEDIC CHURNA PREPARATIONS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munish Garg* and Jaspreet Singh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Churna preparations are an important and widely used form of Ayurvedic herbal formulations in India. These are prepared by mixing powdered form of single or mixture of several crude drugs meant to be dispensed as such. Since the quality of raw material plays an important role in the overall quality of a herbal formulation due to common practice of collecting and processing medicinal plants from different geographical sources and the fact presence of certain trace elements and heavy metals have a great significance in this matter, the present study is based on the screening of 19 popular herbal Churna preparations sold in the Indian market for the quantitative analysis of essential trace and toxic heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrometry. Heavy metals like Pb, Cd and trace metals like Ca, Mg, Al, Cu, Zn were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS and heavy metals such as As and Hg were determined by hydride generation technique (cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometery. The results reveal that among the trace (micronutrients metals Ca and Mg were found in highest amount. Sixteen samples for Hg content and eight for Pb content were exceeding the WHO permissible limits. Arsenic was found below the permissible limit while Cd was above the permissible limit in all the tested samples. In conclusion, the quality of herbal Churna preparations sold in India market is questionable and need to be regulated efficiently before launching in to the market. Besides, the present paper provides a simple, convenient and reliable AAS method for the quantitative analysis of trace and heavy metals in herbal products which can be utilized for industrial purpose.

  5. Preparation and characterization of mono-sheet bipolar membranes by pre-irradiation grafting method for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yingjie; Fang, Jun; Fu, Tao; Zhou, Huili; Wang, Xin; Deng, Zixiang; Zhao, Jinbao

    2016-09-01

    A new method for the preparation of the mono-sheet bipolar membrane applied to fuel cells was developed based on the pre-irradiation grafting technology. A series of bipolar membranes were successfully prepared by simultaneously grafting of styrene onto one side of the poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) base film and 1-vinylimidazole onto the opposite side, followed by the sulfonation and alkylation, respectively. The chemical structures and microstructures of the prepared membranes were investigated by ATR-FTIR and SEM-EDS. The TGA measurements demonstrated the prepared bipolar membranes have reasonable thermal stability. The ion exchange capacity, water uptake and ionic conductivity of the membranes were also characterized. The H2/O2 single fuel cells using these membranes were evaluated and revealed a maximum power density of 107 mW cm-2 at 35 °C with unhumidified hydrogen and oxygen. The preliminary performances suggested the great prospect of these membranes in application of bipolar membrane fuel cells.

  6. Production Cycle for Large Scale Fission Mo-99 Separation by the Processing of Irradiated LEU Uranium Silicide Fuel Element Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hadi Ali Sameh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uranium silicide fuels proved over decades their exceptional qualification for the operation of higher flux material testing reactors with LEU elements. The application of such fuels as target materials, particularly for the large scale fission Mo-99 producers, offers an efficient and economical solution for the related facilities. The realization of such aim demands the introduction of a suitable dissolution process for the applied U3Si2 compound. Excellent results are achieved by the oxidizing dissolution of the fuel meat in hydrofluoric acid at room temperature. The resulting solution is directly behind added to an over stoichiometric amount of potassium hydroxide solution. Uranium and the bulk of fission products are precipitated together with the transuranium compounds. The filtrate contains the molybdenum and the soluble fission product species. It is further treated similar to the in-full scale proven process. The generated off gas stream is handled also as experienced before after passing through KOH washing solution. The generated alkaline fluoride containing waste solution is noncorrosive. Nevertheless fluoride can be selectively bonded as in soluble CaF2 by addition of a mixture of solid calcium hydroxide calcium carbonate to the sand cement mixture used for waste solidification. The generated elevated amounts of LEU remnants can be recycled and retargeted. The related technology permits the minimization of the generated fuel waste, saving environment, and improving processing economy.

  7. Transfer of elements relevant to nuclear fuel cycle from soil to boreal plants and animals in experimental meso- and microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuovinen, Tiina S; Kasurinen, Anne; Häikiö, Elina; Tervahauta, Arja; Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Uranium (U), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), thorium (Th) and zinc (Zn) occur naturally in soil but their radioactive isotopes can also be released into the environment during the nuclear fuel cycle. The transfer of these elements was studied in three different trophic levels in experimental mesocosms containing downy birch (Betula pubescens), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and Scandinavian small-reed (Calamagrostis purpurea ssp. Phragmitoides) as producers, snails (Arianta arbostorum) as herbivores, and earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) as decomposers. To determine more precisely whether the element uptake of snails is mainly via their food (birch leaves) or both via soil and food, a separate microcosm experiment was also performed. The element uptake of snails did not generally depend on the presence of soil, indicating that the main uptake route was food, except for U, where soil contact was important for uptake when soil U concentration was high. Transfer of elements from soil to plants was not linear, i.e. it was not correctly described by constant concentration ratios (CR) commonly applied in radioecological modeling. Similar nonlinear transfer was found for the invertebrate animals included in this study: elements other than U were taken up more efficiently when element concentration in soil or food was low.

  8. MR-6 type fuel elements cooling in natural convection conditions after the reactor shut down

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pytel, K.; Bykowski, W.; Moldysz, A. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock Swierk (Poland)

    2002-07-01

    Natural cooling conditions of the nuclear fuel in the channel type reactor after its shut down are commonly determined with relatively high uncertainty. This is not only to he lack of adequate measurements of thermal parameters i.e. the residual power generation, the coolant flow and temperatures, but also due to indeterminate model of convection mechanism. The numerical simulation of natural convection in multitube fuel assembly in the fuel channel leads to various convection modes including evidently chaotic behaviour. To determine the real cooling conditions in the MARIA research reactor a series of experiments has been performed with fuel assembly equipped with a set of thermocouples. After some forced cooling period (the shortest was half an hour after the reactor shut down) the reactor was left with the only natural convection. Two completely different cooling modes have been observed. The MARIA core consists of series of individual fuel channel and so called bypasses, maintaining the hydraulic properties of the fuel channel, connected in parallel. Initially, the convection cells were established trough few so-called bypasses providing a very effective mode of cooling. In this mode the flow charts were identical to those existing in forced cooling mode. After certain period the system switched on the second cooling mode with natural circulation within the individual fuel cells. Higher temperatures and temperature fluctuations were characteristic for this mode approaching 30 deg in amplitude. In almost all the cases the system was switching few times between modes, but eventually remained in the second mode. The switching times were not regular and the process has a chaotic behaviour. (author)

  9. {alpha} grain refining and metallurgical study of alloyed uranium, Sicral F1, used for fuel elements; Affinage du grain {alpha} et etude metallurgique de l'alliage d'uranium sicral F1 pour elements combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnier, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This study was made to know more about grain refining in low alloyed uranium of composition not very different from SICRAL F 1. Alpha grain refining of fuel elements made of these alloys was studied after casting and quenching by the methods used for mass production. The author describes the effect: - of the metallurgical history before quenching: - casting - purity - rate of solidification - of quenching parameters: - annealing temperature before quenching - annealing time - quenching rate - of the composition of the alloy. For the graphite gas fuel elements of various dimensions, he suggests some modifications to give a better adaptation of fabrication to size. He describes the grain refining made during quenching and the {beta} -> {alpha} and {gamma} -> {alpha} transformation types. He proposes the use of a U-Fe-Si especially useful from the point of view of grain refining. (author) [French] Le but de l'etude est de determiner les facteurs metallurgiques favorables a l'affinage du grain {alpha} des alliages d'uranium a tres faibles teneurs en elements d'addition voisins du SICRAL F 1 au cours du cycle de fabrication et de trempe industrielle des elements combustibles nucleaires prepares avec ces alliages. L'auteur met en evidence l'influence: - de l'histoire metallurgique avant trempe: - coulee - teneur en impuretes - vitesse de solidification - des parametres de la trempe: - temperature de trempe - temps et maintien a cette temperature - vitesse de trempe - des variations de composition de l'alliage. Il envisage les modifications a apporter au cycle de fabrication du SICRAL F 1 de facon a l'adapter aux differentes geometries des elements combustibles des reacteurs de la filiere graphite-gaz. L'auteur presente a cette occasion les mecanismes de l'affinage du grain {alpha} par trempe dans les alliages d'uranium et les modes de transformation {beta} -> {alpha} et {gamma} -> {alpha} au cours de la trempe

  10. Partitioning behavior of trace elements during pilot-scale combustion of pulverized coal and coal-water slurry fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodelman; Pisupati; Miller; Scaroni

    2000-05-29

    Release pathways for inorganic hazardous air pollutants (IHAPs) from a pilot-scale, down-fired combustor (DFC) when firing pulverized coal (PC) and coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) were identified and quantified to demonstrate the effect of fuel form on IHAP partitioning, enrichment and emissions. The baghouse capturing efficiency for each element was calculated to determine the effectiveness of IHAP emission control. Most of the IHAPs were enriched in the fly ash and depleted in the bottom ash. Mercury was found to be enriched in the flue gas, and preferentially emitted in the vapor phase. When firing CWSF, more IHAPs were partitioned in the bottom ash than when firing PC. Significant reduction of Hg emissions during CWSF combustion was also observed.

  11. Comparison of Theoretical Models and Finite Element Simulation of ZrO{sub 2}-based Composites for Inert Matrix Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, Vivek [Indian Institute of Technology-Kanpur, Kanpur (India); Mistarihi, Qusai M.; Ryu, Ho Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The improvement of thermal properties of ZrO{sub 2} has been investigated in many ways to enhance the performance of inert matrix fuel (IMF). Inert matrix fuel is a useful concept to burn transuranic elements (TRU) without increasing extra plutonium. The addition of reinforcements with a high thermal conductivity has been proposed in the previous studies. Molybdenum and silicon carbide are good candidate materials for the reinforcement because of their high thermal conductivities and low neutron absorption cross sections. Recently, ZrO{sub 2}-based composites reinforced with Mo-wire mesh or carbon foam were fabricated by spark plasma sintering. When the effects of the structures of reinforcements were compared, interconnected structures provided more enhanced thermal conductivity than discrete structures. The effective thermal conductivity of composite materials with various reinforcement structures can be calculated by using the finite element analyses. The finite element analyses presented a good agreement with theoretical models in estimating the effects of the reinforcement on the thermal conductivities of discrete Mo reinforced ZrO{sub 2} nanocomposites. It is found that the effects of interconnected thermal reinforcements on the effective thermal conductivity can be estimated by using the percolation model.

  12. Solid recovered fuels in the cement industry--semi-automated sample preparation unit as a means for facilitated practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Pomberger, Roland; Lorber, Karl E; Sipple, Ernst-Michael

    2016-03-01

    One of the challenges for the cement industry is the quality assurance of alternative fuel (e.g., solid recovered fuel, SRF) in co-incineration plants--especially for inhomogeneous alternative fuels with large particle sizes (d95⩾100 mm), which will gain even more importance in the substitution of conventional fuels due to low production costs. Existing standards for sampling and sample preparation do not cover the challenges resulting from these kinds of materials. A possible approach to ensure quality monitoring is shown in the present contribution. For this, a specially manufactured, automated comminution and sample divider device was installed at a cement plant in Rohožnik. In order to prove its practical suitability with methods according to current standards, the sampling and sample preparation process were validated for alternative fuel with a grain size >30 mm (i.e., d95=approximately 100 mm), so-called 'Hotdisc SRF'. Therefore, series of samples were taken and analysed. A comparison of the analysis results with the yearly average values obtained through a reference investigation route showed good accordance. Further investigations during the validation process also showed that segregation or enrichment of material throughout the comminution plant does not occur. The results also demonstrate that compliance with legal standards regarding the minimum sample amount is not sufficient for inhomogeneous and coarse particle size alternative fuels. Instead, higher sample amounts after the first particle size reduction step are strongly recommended in order to gain a representative laboratory sample.

  13. Sensitivity analysis of a PWR fuel element using zircaloy and silicon carbide claddings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Rochkhudson B. de; Cardoso, Fabiano; Salome, Jean A.D.; Pereira, Claubia; Fortini, Angela, E-mail: rochkhudson@ufmg.br, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    The alloy composed of zirconium has been used effectively for over 50 years in claddings of nuclear fuel, especially for PWR type reactors. However, to increase fuel enrichment with the aim of raising the burning and maintaining the safety of nuclear plants is of great relevance the study of new materials that can replace safely and efficiently zircaloy cladding. Among several proposed material, silicon carbide (SiC) has a potential to replace zircaloy as fuel cladding material due to its high-temperature tolerance, chemical stability and low neutron affinity. In this paper, the goal is to expand the study with silicon carbide cladding, checking its behavior when submitted to an environment with boron, burnable poison rods, and temperature variations. Sensitivity calculation and the impact in multiplication factor to both claddings, zircaloy and silicon carbide, were performed during the burnup. The neutronic analysis was made using the SCALE 6.0 (Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation) code. (author)

  14. Transmutation of present transuranics elements in the fuel nuclear radiated; Transmutacion de elementos transuranicos presentes en los combustible nucleares irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, E.; Alvarez, F.; Blazquez, J.; Cano-Ott, D.; Fernandez Ordonez, M.; Guerrero, C.; Martin-Fuertes, F.; Martinez, T.; Vicente, C.; Villamarin, D.

    2008-07-01

    This technical report of ENRESA refers to the transmutation of some transuranic elements, mainly plutonium and minor actinides (Np, Am and Cm). The transmutation of minor actinides (MA) could be efficiently made by very energetic neutrons, using fast reactors of Generation IV or accelerator driven systems (ADS). This publication is dedicated to expose the state-of-the-art situation of the ADS, mainly the activities developed by CIEMAT within the R+D projects of the EU. This technical publication of ENRESA on Transmutation is the second volume, of a set of two, on Partitioning and Transmutation. The first volume, entitled Partitioning of transuranic elements and some fission products from spent nuclear fuels, was published in 2006. The present report has ten chapters; the first one is an introduction on the spent fuels management, mainly in Spain. In the second one a summary of the main characteristics of spent fuels is provided; in the third the transmutation concept including their nuclear reactions is described; and in the fourth one a description of the present management options of the spent fuels is given. In the fifth chapter several new advanced closed cycles with transmutation of Pu and MA are given and in the sixth one the main proposed transmutation systems are de scribed. Among these, a great emphasis is given to the ADS including its main parts, as they are: the proton accelerator, the spallation source for neutrons production and the subcritical core. Also a re view of different fuels and proposed cool ants for the ADS is made, as well as proposed reprocessing of the transmuted spent fuel from ADS. In this chapter a description of some R+D projects is given, most of them supported by the European Union, with participation of CIEMAT. Chapters seven and eight show the progress on the measurement of new nuclear data to complete the simulation of the transmutation basic processes and systems, together in chapter nine with new R+D activities on

  15. Theoretical design and preparation of high thermal-stable jet fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU GuoZhu; QU HaiJie; SHEN HuiMing; ZHANG XiangWen; MI ZhenTao

    2008-01-01

    A high thermal-stable jet fuel design method was developed using composition-properties relations and basic specification properties of jet fuel.Tannery diagrams were provided to visualize relationships among three main components (n-paraffins,iso-paraffins, cycloparaffins, or aromatics) with four major specification properties (density, flash point, freezing point, net heat of combustion) and thermal sta-bility.An optimum chemical composition was established to meet performance requirements: n-paraffins 25%-45%, iso-paraffins 15%-30%, cycloparaffins 30%-50%, and aromatics 5%.The thermal stability test on four fuel samples with and without optimal composition indicated that the thermal stabilities of fuel samples with optimal composition are higher than RP-3 jet fuel, and that the theoretical design method is a reliable method to screen the basic oil for the high thermal-stable jet fuel.

  16. Theoretical design and preparation of high thermal-stable jet fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A high thermal-stable jet fuel design method was developed using composition-properties relations and basic specification properties of jet fuel. Tannery diagrams were provided to visualize relationships among three main components (n-paraffins, iso-paraffins, cycloparaffins, or aromatics) with four major specification properties (density, flash point, freezing point, net heat of combustion) and thermal sta- bility. An optimum chemical composition was established to meet performance requirements: n-paraffins 25%-45%, iso-paraffins 15%-30%, cycloparaffins 30%-50%, and aromatics 5%. The thermal stability test on four fuel samples with and without optimal composition indicated that the thermal stabilities of fuel samples with optimal composition are higher than RP-3 jet fuel, and that the theoretical design method is a reliable method to screen the basic oil for the high thermal-stable jet fuel.

  17. Preparation and characterization of zirconium dioxide catalyst supports modified with rare earth elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, Masakuni; Kimura, Mareo (Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan))

    1991-08-15

    ZrO{sub 2} catlyst supports modified with rare earth elements were prepared by coprecipitation from an aqueous solution of zirconium oxychloride and rare earth chlorides. The crystallization of amorphous hydrous ZrO{sub 2} was inhibited by doping with rare earths; the crystallization temperature was elevated as the amount and ionic radius of the rare earth modifiers was increased. Only modification using cerium had no effect on the crystallization process. The behavior of cerium was different from that of other rare earth elements with valency +3. A metastable cubic phase was formed for ZrO{sub 2} modified with 10 mol.% lanthanum, neodymium and samarium by heating at 600degC. X-ray diffraction and Raman data indicated that the metastable phase had large microstrain and short-range ordering similar to tetragonal symmetry. Rare earth modified ZrO{sub 2} showed a large surface area and good thermal stability as a catalyst support. The carbon monoxide oxidation activity of iron was enhanced by modification with neodymium of ZrO{sub 2} supports. The results suggest the effectiveness of rare earth modified ZrO{sub 2} as catalyst supports. (orig.).

  18. State and history of heart tissue preparation for proton microprobe elemental analysis at the Eindhoven Cyclotron Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaedackers, J.A.; Mutsaers, P.H.A.; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Voigt, M.J.A. de; Vusse, G.J. van der

    1999-09-02

    Proton microprobe techniques are useful in investigating ischemia-reperfusion induced ion shifts between cardiac muscle cells and interstitial fluid. Preliminary results have shown that proper analysis of ion concentrations in various cardiac compartments is hampered by dislocation of elements during sample preparation. In this study the different stages of the preparation were evaluated as possible sources of artifacts. After improvements of the sample preparation procedure, sharp ion concentration gradients within heart tissue preparations were obtained, indicating no noticeable ion dislocation at the scale of the measurements.

  19. Preparation and antioxidant capacity of element selenium nanoparticles sol-gel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan; Qin, Biyin; Zhou, Yanhui; Wang, Yudong; Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wenjie

    2011-06-01

    This paper reported the preparation and antioxidant capacities of element selenium nanoparticles (nanoSe(0))-ascorbic acid (Vc) sol and nanSe(0)/Vc/selenocystine (SeCys) sol-gel compounds. NanoSe(0)-Vc sol was prepared by reduction of selenious dioxide (SeO2) with Vc. In the nanoSe(0)-Vc sol, highly concentrated Vc was also used as a modifier to modulate the diameter of Se(0) nanoparticles in the liquid phase. Then excellent nanoSe(0) sol-gel compounds were obtained by adding SeCys into the nanoSe(0)-Vc sol. The structure of the nanoSe(0)/Vc/SeCys sol-gel compounds was defined, which was constructed via C-Se, Se-H and O=C-Se valences and by interaction between SeCys and Vc via peptide bonds, esterification and dehydration. The antioxidant capacities of the nanoSe(0)-Vc sol and the nanoSe(0)Vc/SeCys sol-gel compounds were estimated by oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) assay. The nanoSe(0)/Vc/SeCys sol-gel compounds possessed a strong antioxidant capacity due to forming the perfect three-dimensional (3D) frameworks structure. The results suggested that the nanoSe(0)-Vc sol and the nanoSe(0)Vc/SeCys sol-gel compounds might be potential medicine, especially antioxidant.

  20. Technology requirements for an orbiting fuel depot: A necessary element of a space infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, R. M.; Corban, R. R.; Willoughby, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced planning within NASA has identified several bold space exploration initiatives. The successful implementation of these missions will require a supporting space infrastructure which would include a fuel depot, an orbiting facility to store, transfer and process large quantities of cryogenic fluids. In order to adequately plan the technology development programs required to enable the construction and operation of a fuel depot, a multidisciplinary workshop was convened to assess critical technologies and their state of maturity. Since technology requirements depend strongly on the depot design assumptions, several depot concepts are presented with their effect on criticality ratings. Over 70 depot-related technology areas are addressed.

  1. Technology requirements for an orbiting fuel depot - A necessary element of a space infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, R. M.; Corban, R. R.; Willoughby, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced planning within NASA has identified several bold space exploration initiatives. The successful implementation of these missions will require a supporting space infrastructure which would include a fuel depot, an orbiting facility to store, transfer and process large quantities of cryogenic fluids. In order to adequately plan the technology development programs required to enable the construction and operation of a fuel depot, a multidisciplinary workshop was convened to assess critical technologies and their state of maturity. Since technology requirements depend strongly on the depot design assumptions, several depot concepts are presented with their effect of criticality ratings. Over 70 depot-related technology areas are addressed.

  2. A comparison of sample preparation strategies for biological tissues and subsequent trace element analysis using LA-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonta, Maximilian; Török, Szilvia; Hegedus, Balazs; Döme, Balazs; Limbeck, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is one of the most commonly applied methods for lateral trace element distribution analysis in medical studies. Many improvements of the technique regarding quantification and achievable lateral resolution have been achieved in the last years. Nevertheless, sample preparation is also of major importance and the optimal sample preparation strategy still has not been defined. While conventional histology knows a number of sample pre-treatment strategies, little is known about the effect of these approaches on the lateral distributions of elements and/or their quantities in tissues. The technique of formalin fixation and paraffin embedding (FFPE) has emerged as the gold standard in tissue preparation. However, the potential use for elemental distribution studies is questionable due to a large number of sample preparation steps. In this work, LA-ICP-MS was used to examine the applicability of the FFPE sample preparation approach for elemental distribution studies. Qualitative elemental distributions as well as quantitative concentrations in cryo-cut tissues as well as FFPE samples were compared. Results showed that some metals (especially Na and K) are severely affected by the FFPE process, whereas others (e.g., Mn, Ni) are less influenced. Based on these results, a general recommendation can be given: FFPE samples are completely unsuitable for the analysis of alkaline metals. When analyzing transition metals, FFPE samples can give comparable results to snap-frozen tissues. Graphical abstract Sample preparation strategies for biological tissues are compared with regard to the elemental distributions and average trace element concentrations.

  3. Flow tests of a single fuel element coolant channel for a compact fast reactor for space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springborn, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    Water flow tests were conducted on a single-fuel-element cooling channel for a nuclear concept to be used for space power. The tests established a method for measuring coolant flow rate which is applicable to water flow testing of a complete mockup of the reference reactor. The inlet plenum-to-outlet plenum pressure drop, which approximates the overall core pressure drop, was measured and correlated with flow rate. This information can be used for reactor coolant flow and heat transfer calculations. An analytical study of the flow characteristics was also conducted.

  4. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF SPAES-TiO_2 HYBRID MEMBRANES FOR DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Zhang; Hui-ling Liu; Jun-jing Li; Zhi Xia

    2009-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES) copolymer with degree of sulfonation of 1.0 was synthesized and characterized. A series of SPAES-TiO_2 hybrid membranes with various contents of nano-sized TiO_2 particles were prepared and characterized through sol-gel reactions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated the TiO_2 particles were well dispersed within polymer matrix. These composite membranes were evaluated for proton exchange membranes (PEMs) in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). These membranes showed good thermal stability and mechanical properties. It was found that the water uptake of these membranes increased with the increase of the TiO_2 contents in the hybrid membranes. Meanwhile, the introduction of inorganic particles increased the proton conductivity and reduced the methanol permeability. The proton conductivities (0.118-0.162 S/cm) of SPAES-TiO_2 hybrid membranes with 8% TiO_2 particles are much higher than those of Nation 117 membrane (0.095-0.117 S/cm) and pure SPAES membrane (0.100-0.124 S/cm) with degree of sulfonation of 1.0 at all temperatures (25-100℃). Especially, the methanol diffusion coefficient (8.4×10~(-7) cm~2/s) of SPAES-TiO_2 hybrid membranes with 8% TiO_2 is much lower than that of Nation 117 membrane (2.1 ×10~(-6) cm~2/s). SPAES-TiO_2 hybrid membranes were therefore proposed as candidates of material for PEM in DMFC.

  5. Resin-based preparation of HTGR fuels: operation of an engineering-scale uranium loading system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, P.A.

    1977-10-01

    The fuel particles for recycle of /sup 233/U to High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors are prepared from uranium-loaded carboxylic acid ion exchange resins which are subsequently carbonized, converted, and refabricated. The development and operation of individual items of equipment and of an integrated system are described for the resin-loading part of the process. This engineering-scale system was full scale with respect to a hot demonstration facility, but was operated with natural uranium. The feed uranium, which consisted of uranyl nitrate solution containing excess nitric acid, was loaded by exchange with resin in the hydrogen form. In order to obtain high loadings, the uranyl nitrate must be acid deficient; therefore, nitric acid was extracted by a liquid organic amine which was regenerated to discharge a NaNO/sub 3/ or NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ solution waste. Water was removed from the uranyl nitrate solution by an evaporator that yielded condensate containing less than 0.5 ppM of uranium. The uranium-loaded resin was washed with condensate and dried to a controlled water content via microwave heating. The loading process was controlled via in-line measurements of the pH and density of the uranyl nitrate. The demonstrated capacity was 1 kg of uranium per hour for either batch loading contractors or a continuous column as the resin loading contractor. Fifty-four batch loading runs were made without a single failure of the process outlined in the chemical flowsheet or any evidence of inability to control the conditions dictated by the flowsheet.

  6. Two dimensional structural analysis of reactor fuel element claddings due to local effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, R; Wolf, L

    1978-04-01

    Two dimensional thermoelastic and inelastic stresses and deformation of typical LWR (PWR) and LMFBR (CRBR) claddings are evaluated by utilizing the following codes, for (1) Thermoelastic analysis (a) STRESS Code (b) SEGPIPE Code (2) Thermoinelastic analysis (a) Modified version of the GOGO code (b) One dimensional GRO-II code. The primary objective of this study is to analyze the effect of various local perturbations in the clad temperature field, namely eccentrically mounted fuel pellet, clad ovality, power tilt across the fuel and clad-coolant heat transfer variation on the cladding stress and deformation. In view of the fact that the thermoelastic analysis is always the first logical choice entering the structural field, it was decided to start the analysis with the two dimensional codes such as STRESS and SEGPIPE. Later, in order to assess the validity and compare the thermoelastic results to those obtained for actual reactor conditions, a two dimensional code, namely a modified version of the GOGO code, was used to account for inelastic effects such as irradiation and thermal creep and swelling in the evaluation. The comparison of thermoelastic and inelastic results shows that the former can be used effectively to analyze LWR fuel pin over 350 hours of lifetime under the most adverse condition and 500 hours of lifetime for an LMFBR fuel pin. Beyond that the inelastic solution must be used. The impact of the individual thermal perturbation and combinations thereof upon the structural quantity is also shown. Finally, the effect of rod displacement on the two dimensional thermal and structural quantities of the LMFBR fuel pin cladding is analyzed.

  7. Effect of the Pd/MWCNTs anode catalysts preparation methods on their morphology and activity in a direct formic acid fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesiak, B., E-mail: blesiak-orlowska@ichf.edu.pl [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland); Mazurkiewicz, M.; Malolepszy, A. [Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Waryńskiego 1, 00-645 Warszawa (Poland); Stobinski, L. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland); Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Waryńskiego 1, 00-645 Warszawa (Poland); Mierzwa, B.; Mikolajczuk-Zychora, A.; Juchniewicz, K.; Borodzinski, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland); Zemek, J.; Jiricek, P. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 162-53 Prague 6, Cukrovarnicka 10 (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Catalysts properties studied by XRD, STEM, XPS methods. • Differences in Pd particle size, content of Pd, functional groups, PdC{sub x.}. • Catalytic activity studied in a Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cell. • Highest activity–catalyst prepared using a strong reducing agent (NaBH{sub 4}). - Abstract: Impact of Pd/MWCNTs catalysts preparation method on the catalysts morphology and activity in a formic acid electrooxidation reaction was investigated. Three reduction methods of Pd precursor involving reduction in a high pressure microwave reactor (Pd1), reduction with NaBH{sub 4} (Pd2) and microwave-assisted polyol method (Pd3) were used in this paper. Crystallites size and morphology were studied using the scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), whereas elemental composition, Pd chemical state and functional groups content by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The prepared catalysts were tested in a direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) as an anode material. The catalytic activity was correlated with a mean fraction of the total Pd atoms exposed at the surface (FE). The value of FE was calculated from the crystallites size distribution determined by the STEM measurements. Non-linear dependence of a current density versus FE, approaching the maximum at FE≈0.25 suggests that the catalytic process proceeded at Pd nanocrystallites faces, with inactive edges and corners. Pd2 catalyst exhibited highest activity due to its smallest Pd crystallites (3.2 nm), however the absence of Pd crystallites aggregation and low content of carbon in PdC{sub x} phase, i.e. x = 4 at.% may also affect the observed.

  8. Evaluation of the potential of different high calorific waste fractions for the preparation of solid recovered fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés, Diego; Díaz, Eva; Sastre, Herminio; Ordóñez, Salvador; González-LaFuente, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Solid recovered fuels constitute a valuable alternative for the management of those non-hazardous waste fractions that cannot be recycled. The main purpose of this research is to assess the suitability of three different wastes from the landfill of the local waste management company (COGERSA), to be used as solid recovered fuels in a cement kiln near their facilities. The wastes analyzed were: End of life vehicles waste, packaging and bulky wastes. The study was carried out in two different periods of the year: November 2013 and April 2014. In order to characterize and classify these wastes as solid recovered fuels, they were separated into homogeneous fractions in order to determine different element components, such as plastics, cellulosic materials, packagings or textile compounds, and the elemental analysis (including chlorine content), heavy metal content and the heating value of each fraction were determined. The lower heating value of the waste fractions on wet basis varies between 10 MJ kg(-1) and 42 MJ kg(-1). One of the packaging wastes presents a very high chlorine content (6.3 wt.%) due to the presence of polyvinylchloride from pipe fragments, being the other wastes below the established limits. Most of the wastes analyzed meet the heavy metals restrictions, except the fine fraction of the end of life vehicles waste. In addition, none of the wastes exceed the mercury limit content, which is one of the parameters considered for the solid recovered fuels classification. A comparison among the experimental higher heating values and empirical models that predict the heating value from the elemental analysis data was carried out. Finally, from the three wastes measured, the fine fraction of the end of life vehicles waste was discarded for its use as solid recovered fuels due to the lower heating value and its high heavy metals content. From the point of view of the heating value, the end of life vehicles waste was the most suitable residue with a lower

  9. Preparation and evaluation of multifunctional branched diesters as fuel property enhancers for biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of eight highly branched diesters were prepared by Fischer esterification of alcohols to acids in high yield that were similar in molecular weight to typical fatty acid methyl esters encountered in biodiesel. Examination of the properties of the synthetic diesters revealed that several poss...

  10. FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION FOR STRUCTURAL RESPONSE OF U7MO DISPERSION FUEL PLATES VIA FLUID-THERMAL-STRUCTURAL INTERACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakan Ozaltun; Herman Shen; Pavel Madvedev

    2010-11-01

    This article presents numerical simulation of dispersion fuel mini plates via fluid–thermal–structural interaction performed by commercial finite element solver COMSOL Multiphysics to identify initial mechanical response under actual operating conditions. Since fuel particles are dispersed in Aluminum matrix, and temperatures during the fabrication process reach to the melting temperature of the Aluminum matrix, stress/strain characteristics of the domain cannot be reproduced by using simplified models and assumptions. Therefore, fabrication induced stresses were considered and simulated via image based modeling techniques with the consideration of the high temperature material data. In order to identify the residuals over the U7Mo particles and the Aluminum matrix, a representative SEM image was employed to construct a microstructure based thermo-elasto-plastic FE model. Once residuals and plastic strains were identified in micro-scale, solution was used as initial condition for subsequent multiphysics simulations at the continuum level. Furthermore, since solid, thermal and fluid properties are temperature dependent and temperature field is a function of the velocity field of the coolant, coupled multiphysics simulations were considered. First, velocity and pressure fields of the coolant were computed via fluidstructural interaction. Computed solution for velocity fields were used to identify the temperature distribution on the coolant and on the fuel plate via fluid-thermal interaction. Finally, temperature fields and residual stresses were used to obtain the stress field of the plates via fluid-thermal-structural interaction.

  11. Corrigendum to "Preparation of Nafion-sulfonated clay nanocomposite membrane for direct menthol fuel cells via a film coating process" [J. Power Sources 165 (2007) 1-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kang, Myeongsoon; Choi, Yeong Suk; Kim, Hae Kyung; Lee, Wonmok; Chang, Hyuk; Seung, Doyoung

    The author regrets that the above paper was printed with an error in the title. The correct title reads: "Preparation of Nafion-sulfonated clay nanocomposite membrane for direct methanol fuel cells via a film coating process".

  12. Ceria-thoria pellet manufacturing in preparation for plutonia-thoria LWR fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drera, Saleem S.; Björk, Klara Insulander; Sobieska, Matylda

    2016-10-01

    Thorium dioxide (thoria) has potential to assist in niche roles as fuel for light water reactors (LWRs). One such application for thoria is its use as the fertile component to burn plutonium in a mixed oxide fuel (MOX). Thor Energy and an international consortium are currently irradiating plutonia-thoria (Th-MOX) fuel in an effort to produce data for its licensing basis. During fuel-manufacturing research and development (R&D), surrogate materials were utilized to highlight procedures and build experience. Cerium dioxide (ceria) provides a good surrogate platform to replicate the chemical nature of plutonium dioxide. The project's fuel manufacturing R&D focused on powder metallurgical techniques to ensure manufacturability with the current commercial MOX fuel production infrastructure. The following paper highlights basics of the ceria-thoria fuel production including powder milling, pellet pressing and pellet sintering. Green pellets and sintered pellets were manufactured with average densities of 67.0% and 95.5% that of theoretical density respectively.

  13. Pt-free carbon-based fuel cell catalyst prepared from spherical polyimide for enhanced oxygen diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabae, Yuta; Nagata, Shinsuke; Hayakawa, Teruaki; Niwa, Hideharu; Harada, Yoshihisa; Oshima, Masaharu; Isoda, Ayano; Matsunaga, Atsushi; Tanaka, Kazuhisa; Aoki, Tsutomu

    2016-03-01

    The development of a non-precious metal (NPM) fuel cell catalyst is extremely important to achieve globalization of polymer electrolyte fuel cells due to the cost and scarcity of platinum. Here, we report on a NPM cathode catalyst prepared by the pyrolysis of spherical polyimide nanoparticles that contain small amounts of Fe additive. 60 nm diameter Fe-containing polyimide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by the precipitation polymerization of pyromellitic acid dianhydride and 1,3,5-tris(4-aminophenyl)benzene with Fe(acac)3 (acac = acetylacetonate) as an additive. The particles were subsequently carbonized by multistep pyrolysis to obtain the NPM catalyst while retaining the small particle size. The catalyst has good performance and promising durability for fuel cell applications. The fuel cell performance under a 0.2 MPa air atmosphere at 80 °C of 1.0 A cm‑2 at 0.46 V is especially remarkable and better than that previously reported.

  14. Highly dispersed TaOx nanoparticles prepared by electrodeposition as oxygen reduction electrocatalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, Jeongsuk

    2013-06-06

    Based on the chemical stability of group IV and V elements in acidic solutions, TaOx nanoparticles prepared by electrodeposition in an ethanol-based Ta plating bath at room temperature were investigated as novel nonplatinum electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Electrodeposition conditions of Ta complexes and subsequent various heat treatments for the deposited TaOx were examined for the best performance of the ORR. TaOx particles on carbon black (CB), electrodeposited at a constant potential of -0.5 V Ag/AgCl for 10 s and then heat-treated by pure H2 flow at 523 K for 1 h, showed excellent catalytic activity with an onset potential of 0.93 VRHE (for 2 μA cm-2) for the ORR. Surface characterizations of the catalysts were performed by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The loading amounts of the electrodeposited material on the CB were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). All the physical results suggested that high dispersion of TaOx particles on the CB surface with 2-3 nm size was critical and key for high activity. The chemical identity and modified surface structure for the deposited TaOx catalysts before and after H 2 heat treatment were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The formation of more exposed active sites on the electrode surface and enhanced electroconductivity of the tantalum oxide promoted from the H 2 treatment greatly improved the ORR performance of the electrodeposited TaOx nanoparticles on CB. Finally, the highly retained ORR activity after an accelerated durability test in an acidic solution confirmed and proved the chemical stability of the oxide nanoparticles. The high utilization of the electrodeposited TaOx nanoparticles uniformly dispersed on CB for the ORR was comparable to that of commercial Pt/CB catalysts

  15. Drag and distribution measurements of single-element fuel injectors for supersonic combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    The drag caused by several vortex generating fuel injectors for scramjet combustors was measured in a Mach 2 to 3.5 airstream. Injector drag was found to be strongly dependent on injector thickness ratio. The distribution of helium injected into the stream was measured both in the near field and the far field of the injectors for a variety of pressure ratios. The far field results differed appreciably from measurements in the near field. Injection pressure ratio was found to profoundly influence the penetration. One of the aerowing configurations tested yielded low drag consistent with desirable penetration and spreading characteristics.

  16. A New Innovative Spherical Cermet Nuclear Fuel Element to Achieve an Ultra-Long Core Life for use in Grid-Appropriate LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senor, David J.; Painter, Chad L.; Geelhood, Ken J.; Wootan, David W.; Meriwether, George H.; Cuta, Judith M.; Adkins, Harold E.; Matson, Dean W.; Abrego, Celestino P.

    2007-12-01

    Spherical cermet fuel elements are proposed for use in the Atoms For Peace Reactor (AFPR-100) concept. AFPR-100 is a small-scale, inherently safe, proliferation-resistant reactor that would be ideal for deployment to nations with emerging economies that decide to select nuclear power for the generation of carbon-free electricity. The basic concept of the AFPR core is a water-cooled fixed particle bed, randomly packed with spherical fuel elements. The flow of coolant within the particle bed is at such a low rate that the bed does not fluidize. This report summarizes an approach to fuel fabrication, results associated with fuel performance modeling, core neutronics and thermal hydraulics analyses demonstrating a ~20 year core life, and a conclusion that the proliferation resistance of the AFPR reactor concept is high.

  17. Preparation of NiO-YSZ/YSZ bi-layers for solid oxide fuel cells by electrophoretic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besra, Laxmidhar; Zha, Shaowu; Liu, Meilin

    A simple and cost-effective method, starting with electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on a carbon sheet, has been developed for preparation of a NiO-YSZ anode and thin, gas-tight YSZ electrolyte layer on it for use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The innovative feature of this approach enables the deposition of anode materials as well as the YSZ electrolyte, which were subsequently co-fired in air at high temperatures to remove the carbon and form an anode-supported dense YSZ electrolyte. A functional SOFC constructed by brush painting a layer of mixed cathode consisting of La 0.8Sr 0.2MnO 3 (LSM) and YSZ on the electrolyte layer followed by firing at 1250 °C, displayed a peak power density of 434 mW cm -2 at 800 °C when tested with H 2 as fuel and ambient air as oxidant.

  18. Release and Transformation of Inorganic Elements in Combustion of a High-Phosphorus Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Castro, Maria; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2011-01-01

    The release and transformation of inorganic elements during grate-firing of bran was studied via experiments in a laboratory-scale reactor, analysis of fly ash from a grate-fired plant, and equilibrium modeling. It was found that K, P, S, and to a lesser extent Cl and Na were released to the gas...

  19. Finite Element Simulation for Equivalent Elastic Properties of Dispersion Fuel Elements%弥散型燃料等效弹性性质的有限元模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜馨; 丁淑蓉; 霍永忠

    2011-01-01

    The safety and reliability of the dispersion fuel elements in the reactors are the focus of relative researches. They depend on the mechanical property of the fuel elements. In the present work, several representative volume elements are chosen from the fuel elements according to the arrangement styles of the fuel particles in the matrix and the finite element analysis is applied to study the effective elastic property of the fuel element. The effects of temperature and volume fraction of the fuel particles on the property are investigated in details. As the particles are distributed randomly, the numerical results are compared with several analytical equations, and the comparison indicates that the Moriu-Tanaka model provides the best agreement with the FEM data.%弥散型核燃料元件在反应堆中的安全和可靠性与元件芯体的等效力学性能密切相关.本研究采用细观力学的方法,假设芯体中的燃料颗粒在基体中周期性排列,从中取出代表性体积元,运用有限元方法计算弥散型燃料在不同温度和颗粒体积含量下的等效弹性模量.分析比较了颗粒的体积含量和分布形式对弥散型燃料等效弹性性质的影响,并在颗粒随机排列时,将有限元计算结果和解析模型的结果进行了比较.结果表明,计算值和Mori-Tanaka模型的预测值最为接近.

  20. Thermal compatibility studies of U 3Si 2 dispersion fuels prepared with centrifugally atomized powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Park, Jong-Man; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Hofman, Gerard L.; Paik, Kyung-Wook

    The interaction between atomized U 3Si 2 and aluminum in dispersion fuel samples has been characterized and compared with that of comminuted U 3Si 2. Fuel samples with atomized powder showed a smaller volume increase compared to those with the comminuted powder, irrespective of heat treatment, and volume fraction of U 3Si 2 powder. The possible reasons for this seem to be as follows: (1) the smaller specific surface area of the atomized spherical powder compared to the irregular comminuted powder translating in a smaller U 3Si 2-Al interface area for the former affecting what appears to be a diffusion-controlled interaction process, (2) the atomized fuel samples also contain lower fraction of as-fabricated porosity than the comminuted fuel samples, which may enhance the restraint force in the swelling fuel meat, (3) the comminuted powder particles have distinctive aluminum penetration paths in the form of deformation zones that originated from the comminution process. There appear to be two pronounced penetration paths of aluminum into atomized U 3Si 2 powder; (1) through the phase interface, leaving a central unreacted island, (2) along grain boundaries, leaving several unreacted islands.

  1. Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  2. Eucalyptus Biodiesel as an Alternative to Diesel Fuel: Preparation and Tests on DI Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyes Tarabet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v% at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  3. Effect of the Pd/MWCNTs anode catalysts preparation methods on their morphology and activity in a direct formic acid fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiak, B.; Mazurkiewicz, M.; Malolepszy, A.; Stobinski, L.; Mierzwa, B.; Mikolajczuk-Zychora, A.; Juchniewicz, K.; Borodzinski, A.; Zemek, J.; Jiricek, P.

    2016-11-01

    Impact of Pd/MWCNTs catalysts preparation method on the catalysts morphology and activity in a formic acid electrooxidation reaction was investigated. Three reduction methods of Pd precursor involving reduction in a high pressure microwave reactor (Pd1), reduction with NaBH4 (Pd2) and microwave-assisted polyol method (Pd3) were used in this paper. Crystallites size and morphology were studied using the scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), whereas elemental composition, Pd chemical state and functional groups content by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The prepared catalysts were tested in a direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) as an anode material. The catalytic activity was correlated with a mean fraction of the total Pd atoms exposed at the surface (FE). The value of FE was calculated from the crystallites size distribution determined by the STEM measurements. Non-linear dependence of a current density versus FE, approaching the maximum at FE≈0.25 suggests that the catalytic process proceeded at Pd nanocrystallites faces, with inactive edges and corners. Pd2 catalyst exhibited highest activity due to its smallest Pd crystallites (3.2 nm), however the absence of Pd crystallites aggregation and low content of carbon in PdCx phase, i.e. x = 4 at.% may also affect the observed.

  4. Changes of the elemental distributions in marine diatoms as a reporter of sample preparation artefacts. A nuclear microscopy application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godinho, R.M. [Instituto de Bioengenharia e Biociências, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera, Lisboa (Portugal); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Cabrita, M.T. [Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera, Lisboa (Portugal); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Sacavém (Portugal); Pinheiro, T., E-mail: murmur@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Bioengenharia e Biociências, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-04-01

    Studies of the elemental composition of whole marine diatoms cells have high interest as they constitute a direct measurement of environmental changes, and allow anticipating consequences of anthropogenic alterations to organisms, ecosystems and global marine geochemical cycles. Nuclear microscopy is a powerful tool allowing direct measurement of whole cells giving qualitative imaging of distribution, and quantitative determination of intracellular concentration. Major obstacles to the analysis of marine microalgae are high medium salinity and the recurrent presence of extracellular exudates produced by algae to maintain colonies in natural media and in vitro. The objective of this paper was to optimize the methodology of sample preparation of marine unicellular algae for elemental analysis with nuclear microscopy, allowing further studies on cellular response to metals. Primary cultures of Coscinodiscus wailesii maintained in vitro were used to optimize protocols for elemental analysis with nuclear microscopy techniques. Adequate cell preparation procedures to isolate the cells from media components and exudates were established. The use of chemical agents proved to be inappropriate for elemental determination and for intracellular morphological analysis. The assessment of morphology and elemental partitioning in cell compartments obtained with nuclear microscopy techniques enabled to infer their function in natural environment and imbalances in exposure condition. Exposure to metal affected C. wailesii morphology and internal elemental distribution.

  5. A feasibility study on the use of the MOOSE computational framework to simulate three-dimensional deformation of CANDU reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Kyle A., E-mail: Kyle.Gamble@inl.gov [Royal Military College of Canada, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 13 General Crerar Crescent, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7K 7B4 (Canada); Williams, Anthony F., E-mail: Tony.Williams@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Fuel and Fuel Channel Safety, 1 Plant Road, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada K0J 1J0 (Canada); Chan, Paul K., E-mail: Paul.Chan@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 13 General Crerar Crescent, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7K 7B4 (Canada); Wowk, Diane, E-mail: Diane.Wowk@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 13 General Crerar Crescent, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • This is the first demonstration of using the MOOSE framework for modeling CANDU fuel. • Glued and frictionless contact algorithms behave as expected for 2D and 3D cases. • MOOSE accepts and correctly interprets functions of arbitrary form. • 3D deformation calculations accurately compare against analytical solutions. • MOOSE is a viable simulation tool for modeling accident reactor conditions. - Abstract: Horizontally oriented fuel bundles, such as those in CANada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors present unique modeling challenges. After long irradiation times or during severe transients the fuel elements can laterally deform out of plane due to processes known as bow and sag. Bowing is a thermally driven process that causes the fuel elements to laterally deform when a temperature gradient develops across the diameter of the element. Sagging is a coupled mechanical and thermal process caused by deformation of the fuel pin due to creep mechanisms of the sheathing after long irradiation times and or high temperatures. These out-of-plane deformations can lead to reduced coolant flow and a reduction in coolability of the fuel bundle. In extreme cases element-to-element or element-to-pressure tube contact could occur leading to reduced coolant flow in the subchannels or pressure tube rupture leading to a loss of coolant accident. This paper evaluates the capability of the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework developed at the Idaho National Laboratory to model these deformation mechanisms. The material model capabilities of MOOSE and its ability to simulate contact are also investigated.

  6. Elemental Modes of Occurrence in an Illinois #6 Coal and Fractions Prepared by Physical Separation Techniques at a Coal Preparation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huggins, F.; Seidu, L; Shah, N; Huffman, G; Honaker, R; Kyger, J; Higgins, B; Robertson, J; Pal, S; Seehra, M

    2009-01-01

    In order to gain better insight into elemental partitioning between clean coal and tailings, modes of occurrence have been determined for a number of major and trace elements (S, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Se, Pb) in an Illinois No.6 coal and fractions prepared by physical separation methods at a commercial coal preparation plant. Elemental modes of occurrence were largely determined directly by XAFS or Moessbauer spectroscopic methods because the concentrations of major minerals and wt.% ash were found to be highly correlated for this coal and derived fractions, rendering correlations between individual elements and minerals ambiguous for inferring elemental modes of occurrence. Of the major elements investigated, iron and potassium are shown to be entirely inorganic in occurrence. Most (90%) of the iron is present as pyrite, with minor fractions in the form of clays and sulfates. All potassium is present in illitic clays. Calcium in the original coal is 80-90% inorganic and is divided between calcite, gypsum, and illite, with the remainder of the calcium present as carboxyl-bound calcium. In the clean coal fraction, organically associated Ca exceeds 50% of the total calcium. This organically-associated form of Ca explains the poorer separation of Ca relative to both K and ash. Among the trace elements, V and Cr are predominantly inorganically associated with illite, but minor amounts (5-15% Cr, 20-30% V) of these elements are also organically associated. Estimates of the V and Cr contents of illite are 420 ppm and 630 ppm, respectively, whereas these elements average 20 and 8 ppm in the macerals. Arsenic in the coal is almost entirely associated with pyrite, with an average As content of about 150 ppm, but some As ({approx} 10%) is present as arsenate due to minor oxidation of the pyrite. The mode of occurrence of Zn, although entirely inorganic, is more complex than normally noted for Illinois basin coals; about 2/3 is present in sphalerite, with lesser

  7. Elemental modes of occurrence in an Illinois 6 coal and fractions prepared by physical separation techniques at a coal preparation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huggins, F.E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Seidu, L.B.A.; Honaker, R.Q. [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Kyger, J.R.; Higgins, B.L.; Robertson, J.D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri at Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Pal, S.; Seehra, M.S. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2009-03-01

    In order to gain better insight into elemental partitioning between clean coal and tailings, modes of occurrence have been determined for a number of major and trace elements (S, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Se, Pb) in an Illinois 6 coal and fractions prepared by physical separation methods at a commercial coal preparation plant. Elemental modes of occurrence were largely determined directly by XAFS or Moessbauer spectroscopic methods because the concentrations of major minerals and wt.% ash were found to be highly correlated for this coal and derived fractions, rendering correlations between individual elements and minerals ambiguous for inferring elemental modes of occurrence. Of the major elements investigated, iron and potassium are shown to be entirely inorganic in occurrence. Most (90%) of the iron is present as pyrite, with minor fractions in the form of clays and sulfates. All potassium is present in illitic clays. Calcium in the original coal is 80-90% inorganic and is divided between calcite, gypsum, and illite, with the remainder of the calcium present as carboxyl-bound calcium. In the clean coal fraction, organically associated Ca exceeds 50% of the total calcium. This organically-associated form of Ca explains the poorer separation of Ca relative to both K and ash. Among the trace elements, V and Cr are predominantly inorganically associated with illite, but minor amounts (5-15% Cr, 20-30% V) of these elements are also organically associated. Estimates of the V and Cr contents of illite are 420 ppm and 630 ppm, respectively, whereas these elements average 20 and 8 ppm in the macerals. Arsenic in the coal is almost entirely associated with pyrite, with an average As content of about 150 ppm, but some As ({proportional_to} 10%) is present as arsenate due to minor oxidation of the pyrite. The mode of occurrence of Zn, although entirely inorganic, is more complex than normally noted for Illinois basin coals; about 2/3 is present in sphalerite, with lesser

  8. The effect of preparation height and taper on cement lute stress: a three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, P H; Wakefieldt, A J; O'Doherty, D M; Rees, J S

    2006-12-01

    Three dimensional finite element models of an upper second premolar and molar with full veneer gold crown preparations were developed from extracted samples. The cement lute width was kept constant at 40 microm, but the height and preparation taper were varied. For both models the preparation height was either 1.5 mm (short preparation) or 3 mm (long preparation). The preparation taper was either 10 degree or 30 degree, giving a total of eight models. Each model was loaded with a 10 N horizontal load, a 10 N vertical load or a 10 N load distributed across the occlusal surface. The maximum shear stress and the maximum Von Mises' stress in the cement lute of each model were recorded. For the premolar, the maximum shear stresses ranged from 0.3-5.43 MPa and the maximum Von Mises' stress ranged from 1.44-14.98 MPa. For the molar, the maximum shear stresses ranged from 0.15-5.22 MPa and the maximum Von Mises' stress ranged from 0.3 7-15.02 MPa. The stress fields were consistently higher in the premolar with a 30 degree preparation taper compared to the 10 degree taper. The attainment of a cavity taper of 100 is still important to minimise stress in the cement lute and is particularly important in teeth with a lower preparation surface area such as a premolar

  9. Reasonable Ball Size of Ball Mill for Preparing Coal Water Fuel and Forecasting Productive Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣曾; 刘炯天; 徐志强; 郑明

    2002-01-01

    By using the matrix theory, a 5-parameter grinding mathema tical model is established. Based on the properties of feed coal and requirement s for size distribution of final product, the model gives the required grinding probability for various particles and corresponding ball size distribution. By u sing this model, 3 different sizes of ball mill are designed and put into commer cial use for coal water fuel. The forecasted ball mill capacity, the particle si zes and particle size distribution as well as the coal water fuel quality parame ters are all in line with industrial operation results, which have proved the su itability of the model.

  10. Preparation of Stable Pt-Clay Nanocatalysts for Self-humidifying Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenjing

    ultrasonication and a rigorous mechanical agitation of Ptclay in the Nafion solution during the membrane casting process. Planar and hygroscopic clay reduced fuel crossover and balanced the water content. In situ water production for humidification of the dry membranes without any external humidification......One of the critical challenges in making proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells commercially viable is the inability of Nafion (the most used PEM) to conduct protons at low water content level. Both external humidifier and physical seal of the fixture in commercial products increase the cost...

  11. ELM - A SIMPLE TOOL FOR THERMAL-HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS OF SOLID-CORE NUCLEAR ROCKET FUEL ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    ELM is a simple computational tool for modeling the steady-state thermal-hydraulics of propellant flow through fuel element coolant channels in nuclear thermal rockets. Written for the nuclear propulsion project of the Space Exploration Initiative, ELM evaluates the various heat transfer coefficient and friction factor correlations available for turbulent pipe flow with heat addition. In the past, these correlations were found in different reactor analysis codes, but now comparisons are possible within one program. The logic of ELM is based on the one-dimensional conservation of energy in combination with Newton's Law of Cooling to determine the bulk flow temperature and the wall temperature across a control volume. Since the control volume is an incremental length of tube, the corresponding pressure drop is determined by application of the Law of Conservation of Momentum. The size, speed, and accuracy of ELM make it a simple tool for use in fuel element parametric studies. ELM is a machine independent program written in FORTRAN 77. It has been successfully compiled on an IBM PC compatible running MS-DOS using Lahey FORTRAN 77, a DEC VAX series computer running VMS, and a Sun4 series computer running SunOS UNIX. ELM requires 565K of RAM under SunOS 4.1, 360K of RAM under VMS 5.4, and 406K of RAM under MS-DOS. Because this program is machine independent, no executable is provided on the distribution media. The standard distribution medium for ELM is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. ELM was developed in 1991. DEC, VAX, and VMS are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. Sun4 and SunOS are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. IBM PC is a registered trademark of International Business Machines. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

  12. Development of numerical methodology for stress analysis in fuel element nozzles; Desenvolvimento de metodologia numerica para analise de tensoes nos bocais de elementos combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrilho, Leo A.; Dotto, Rosvita M. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil SA, Resende, RJ (Brazil); Gouvea, Jayme P. de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    Calculations of stresses and deformations of the bottom end piece of fuel elements of Angra-2 were performed with finite element method for the load case handling, zero load cold and full power operation, considering the same load of the actual and well established methodology, but applying shell elements instead of solid. The obtained results show that the application of this element is conservative and shall be used in future mechanical analysis of design alterations of this component when performed by the INB engineering group. (author)

  13. Low-temperature co-pyrolysis of a low-rank coal and biomass to prepare smokeless fuel briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blesa, M.J.; Miranda, J.L.; Moliner, R.; Izquierdo, M.T. [Instituto de Carboquimica CSIC, P.O. Box 589, 50080 Zaragoza (Spain); Palacios, J.M. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2003-12-01

    Smokeless fuel briquettes have been prepared with low-rank coal and biomass. These raw materials have been mixed in different ratios and have been pyrolysed at 600C with the aim to reduce both the volatile matter and the sulphur content, and to increase the high calorific value (HCV). The co-pyrolysis of coal and biomass has shown a synergetic effect. The biomass favours the release of hydrogen sulphide during the thermal treatment. This fact can be explained in terms of the hydrogen-donor character of the biomass. Moreover, the optimisation of the amount of binder and the influence of different types of biomass in the blend have been studied with respect to the mechanical properties of the briquettes (impact resistance, compression strength and abrasion). Briquettes prepared with sawdust (S) present better mechanical properties than those with olive stones (O) because of its fibrous texture.

  14. Physical characterization of biomass fuels prepared for suspension firing in utility boilers for CFD modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lasse; Yin, Chungen; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2007-01-01

    shapes. The sample is subdivided by straw type, and coherent size, type and mass distribution parameters are reported for the entire sample. This type of data is necessary in order to use CFD reliably as a design and retrofit tool for co-firing biomass with fossil fuels, as the combustion processes...

  15. 76 FR 38117 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment Regarding DLA Energy's Mobility Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Mobility Fuel Purchasing Programs AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency Energy (DLA Energy), DoD. ACTION: Notice... Programs. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is America's combat logistics support agency responsible.... Scoping is used to gain insight into the issues to be addressed and to identify other significant issues...

  16. Thermomechanical evaluation of BWR fuel elements for procedures of preconditioned with FEMAXI-V; Evaluacion termomecanica de elementos combustible BWR para procedimientos de preacondicionado con FEMAXI-V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez L, H.; Lucatero, M.A.; Ortiz V, J. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km 36.5, La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: hhl@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    The limitations in the burnt of the nuclear fuel usually are fixed by the one limit in the efforts to that undergo them the components of a nuclear fuel assembly. The limits defined its provide the direction to the fuel designer to reduce to the minimum the fuel failure during the operation, and they also prevent against some thermomechanical phenomena that could happen during the evolution of transitory events. Particularly, a limit value of LHGR is fixed to consider those physical phenomena that could lead to the interaction of the pellet-shirt (Pellet Cladding Interaction, PCI). This limit value it is related directly with an PCI limit that can be fixed based on experimental tests of power ramps. This way, to avoid to violate the PCI limit, the conditioning procedures of the fuel are still required for fuel elements with and without barrier. Those simulation procedures of the power ramp are carried out for the reactor operator during the starting maneuvers or of power increase like preventive measure of possible consequences in the thermomechanical behavior of the fuel. In this work, the thermomechanical behavior of two different types of fuel rods of the boiling water reactor is analyzed during the pursuit of the procedures of fuel preconditioning. Five diverse preconditioning calculations were carried out, each one with three diverse linear ramps of power increments. The starting point of the ramps was taken of the data of the cycle 8 of the unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central. The superior limit superior of the ramps it was the threshold of the lineal power in which a fuel failure could be presented by PCI, in function of the fuel burnt. The analysis was carried out with the FEMAXI-V code. (Author)

  17. Surface chemistry effects in finite element modeling of heat transfer in (micron)-fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havstad, M

    2000-12-07

    Equations for modeling surface chemical kinetics by the interaction of gaseous and surface species are presented. The formulation is embedded in a finite element heat transfer code and an ordinary differential equation package is used to solve the surface system of chemical kinetic equations for each iteration within the heat transfer solver. The method is applied to a flow which includes methane and methanol in a microreactor on a chip. A simpler more conventional method, a plug flow reactor model, is then applied to a similar problem. Initial results for steam reforming of methanol are given.

  18. Report of the CCQM-K123: trace elements in biodiesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroiwa, T.; Zhu, Y.; Inagaki, K.; Long, S. E.; Christopher, S. J.; Puelles, M.; Borinsky, M.; Hatamleh, N.; Murby, J.; Merrick, J.; White, I.; Saxby, D.; Sena, R. C.; Almeida, M. D.; Vogl, J.; Phukphatthanachai, P.; Fung, W. H.; Yau, H. P.; Okumu, T. O.; Kang'iri, J. N.; Télle, J. A. S.; Campos, E. Z.; Gal&vacute; n, E. C.; Kaewkhomdee, N.; Taebunpakul, S.; Thiengmanee, U.; Yafa, C.; Tokman, N.; Tunç, M.; Can, S. Z.

    2017-01-01

    The CCQM-K123 key comparison was organized by the Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of CCQM to assess and document the capabilities of the national metrology institutes (NMIs) or the designated institutes (DIs) to measure the mass fractions of sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium phosphorous and sulfur in biodiesel fuel (BDF). National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) acted as the coordinating laboratories. Results were submitted by 11 NMIs and DIs. Most of the participants used inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), isotope dilution technique with ICP-MS and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) with microwave acid digestion. Accounting for relative expanded uncertainty, comparability of measurement results for each of Na, Ca, K, Mg and P was successfully demonstrated by the participants. Concerning S, the variation in results between participants, particularly those using IDMS methods was observed. According to the additional evaluation and investigation, the revised results were overlapping between IDMS measurements at the k = 2 level. However, this KC does not support S measurements. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  19. Disposal of irradiated fuel elements from German research reactors. Status and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamm, G. [Central Research Reactor and Nuclear Operations Division, Research Centre Juelich, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    There will be a quantity of highly radioactive spent nuclear fuel (snf) from German research reactors amounting to about 9.1 t by the end of the next decade, which has to be disposed of. About 4.1 t of this quantity are intended to be returned to the USA. The remaining approximately 5 t can be loaded into approximately 30 CASTOR-2 casks and will be stored in a central German dry interim store for about 30 to 50 years (first step of the domestic disposal concept). Of course, snf arising from the operation of research reactors beyond 2010 has to be disposed of in the same way (3 MTR-2 casks every two years for BER-II and FRM-II). It is expected that snf from the zero-power facilities probably will be recycled for reusing the uranium. Due to the amendment of the German Atomic Energy Act intended by the new Federal German Government, the interim dry storage of snf from power reactors in central storage facilities like Ahaus or Gorleben will be stopped and the power reactors have to store snf at their own sites. Although the amendment only concerns nuclear power reactors, it could not be excluded that snf from research reactors, too, cannot be stored at Ahaus or Gorleben at present. (author)

  20. A green preparation method of battery grade α-PbO based on Pb-O2 fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pingyuan; Pan, Junqing; Gong, Shumin; Sun, Yanzhi

    2017-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of high pollution and high energy consumption of the current lead oxide (PbO) preparation processes, a new clean and energy saving preparation method for high purity α-PbO via discharge of a Pb-O2 fuel cell is reported. The fuel cell with metallic lead anode, oxygen cathode, and 30% NaOH electrolyte can provide a discharge voltage of 0.66-0.38 V corresponding to discharge current range of 5-50 mA cm-2. PbO is precipitated from the NaHPbO2-containing electrolyte through a cooling crystallization process after discharge process, and the XRD patterns indicate the structure is pure α-PbO. The mother liquid after crystallization can be recycled for the next batch. The obtained PbO mixed with 60% Shimadzu PbO is superior to the pure Shimadzu PbO in discharge capacity and cycle ability.

  1. Stress Analysis of Coated Particle Fuel Using Finite Element Method%包覆燃料颗粒应力的有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹彬; 刘兵; 唐春和

    2014-01-01

    高温气冷堆的燃料元件由包覆燃料颗粒弥散在石墨基体中组成。在反应堆运行过程中,辐照及各复杂的物理化学反应产生的应力会使包覆燃料颗粒发生破损,对包覆燃料颗粒进行应力分析是评价燃料元件和反应堆运行安全性能的主要内容之一。本文基于压力壳模式,主要考虑内压作用下的球形壳层应力及包覆燃料颗粒的非球形因素,用有限元法对应力进行了分析。%The fuel element of high temperature gas-cooled reactor is composed of coated particle fuel w hich is dispersed in graphite matrix .In normal operation ,the stress due to irradiation and a variety of complex physical and chemical reactions will cause failure of the coated particle fuel . Therefore , the stress analysis of coated particle fuel is important for the safety of fuel element and reactor .The stress was analyzed by the finite element method based on the inner pressure failure mechanism considering asphericity of the particles .

  2. Numerical analysis of a nuclear fuel element for nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; Schutzenhofer, Luke

    1991-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics model with porosity and permeability formulations in the transport equations has been developed to study the concept of nuclear thermal propulsion through the analysis of a pulsed irradiation of a particle bed element (PIPE). The numerical model is a time-accurate pressure-based formulation. An adaptive upwind scheme is employed for spatial discretization. The upwind scheme is based on second- and fourth-order central differencing with adaptive artificial dissipation. Multiblocked porosity regions have been formulated to model the cold frit, particle bed, and hot frit. Multiblocked permeability regions have been formulated to describe the flow shaping effect from the thickness-varying cold frit. Computational results for several zero-power density PIPEs and an elevated-particle-temperature PIPE are presented. The implications of the computational results are discussed.

  3. Characterization of U Nb Zr dispersion fuel prepared by centrifugal atomization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Man; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Sohn, Dong-Seong; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Hofman, Gerard L.

    1999-02-01

    The dispersions of U-Nb-Zr alloy particles in aluminum were characterized in order to assess the applicability of this dispersion as research reactor fuel. Heat treatment revealed that the 9 wt% Nb alloy powder had, as expected, higher γ-phase stability that the 5 wt% Nb alloy powder. A lamellar structure consisting of an α-U phase and γ-phase was observed to start at the grain boundaries during heat treatment. The U-Nb-Zr alloy dispersion exhibited large volume increases during annealing when compared with similar experimental results for U 3Si, U 3Si 2 and U-Mo dispersion fuel systems. The reaction product (U,Nb,Zr)Al 3 forms preferentially by diffusion of aluminum in the α-U phase which, in turn, forms during the diffusion process as the metastable γ-phase decomposes.

  4. Photoelectroactivity of Bismuth Vanadate Prepared by Combustion Synthesis: Effect of Different Fuels and Surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso,Renata; Serafim, Jessica A.; Lucilha,Adriana C.; Marcelo R. Silva; Lepre, Luiz F.; Ando, Romulo A.; Dall'Antonia,Luiz H.

    2014-01-01

    The bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is a semiconductor that has attracted much attention due to the photocatalytic efficiency in the visible light region. The objective of this work was to synthesize monoclinic BiVO4 by solution combustion synthesis, with different surfactants and fuels and apply it as photoelectrodes. The characterization by infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy showed that all samples showed characteristic bands of the monoclinic structure BiVO4. The samples synthesized wit...

  5. Preparation and investigation of cheap polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mikkel Juul; Ma, Yue; Lund, Peter Brilner

    The electrolyte of choice for low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) has tra­di­ti­o­nal­ly been DuPontTM Nafion® membranes or similar poly(perfluorosulfonic acid)s. The chemical struc­ture and morphology in the hydrated state of Nafion® is shown in figure 1 from which it is seen...... found that crosslinking by divinylbenzene clear­ly improves the chemical stability of both sulfonated styrene- and methylstyrene/t-butylstyrene-grafted ETFE membranes. How­ever, the crosslinking reduces the proton conductivity due to decreased water uptake, thus downgrading the membranes' elec­tro­ly­tic.......; Schuster, M.; Chemical Reviews 104 (2004) 4637-4678 [ii] Skou, E.; Kauranen, P.; Hentschel, J.; Solid State Ionics 97 (1997) 333-337 [iii] Fuel Cell Handbook; Seventh Edition; EG&G Technical Services, Inc.; 2004; p. 3.1-3.25 [iv] Doyle, M.; Rajendran, G. in Handbook of Fuel Cells - Fundamentals, Technology...

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Components for Intermediate Temperature Fuel Cells And Electrolyzers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annemette Hindhede

    range. For the electrodes, carbon cloth and carbon paper were tested as gas diffusion layers with different catalytic compositions, and of the two, carbon paper with a platinum loading of 7 mg cm−2 had the better performance. However, carbon is unstable at the conditions in the fuel cell cathode...... conductivity of the electrolyte, a high level of humidification was necessary. Composites with CsH2PO4 were made to improve the properties of the electrolyte material. Composites in formation with mechanically strong materials including ZrO2, TiO2 and NdPO4·0.5H2O improved the densification of the electrolyte......, which further resulted in improved stability of the fuel cell. Open circuit voltages (OCVs) using such fuel cells were found to be high, above 0.9 V, and stable up to 250°C. Composite formation with ZrO2 furthermore resulted in increased conductivity at higher temperatures probably due to the physical...

  7. Welding procedures used in the fabrication of fuel elements for the DON Reactor exponential experiment; La soldadura en la fabricacion de elementos combustibles destinados a una experiencia exponencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Beltran, A.; Jaraiz Franco, E.; Rivas Diaz, M. de las

    1965-07-01

    This exponential experiment required 74 units (37 loaded with UO{sub 2} and 37 with UC) to simulate the Reactor fuel channels. Each unit was enclosed in a tube similar to the calandria ones. It contained the pressure tube, the shroud and the 19 rods cluster. Within the pressure tube, in touch with the elements, was the organic liquid. (Author)

  8. VENUS: cold prototype installation of the head-end of the reprocessing of HTR fuel elements. Activity report, 1 July 1976--31 December 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnert, R.; Walter, C.

    1977-02-15

    The purpose of the VENUS Project is advance planning for the construction of a cold prototype system to incinerate HTR fuel element graphite. The Venus Project is organized into four phases between advance planning and experimental operation, corresponding to the maturity of the work. It is in the advance planning phase. Status of individual studies is given. (LK)

  9. Solid mineral fuels - vocabulary - part 1: terms relating to coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    A glossary consisting of a systematic list of terms commonly employed in coal preparation and their definitions. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 1213-1:1982) of which it constitutes a technical revision.

  10. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements; Procedimentos de fabricacao de elementos combustiveis a base de dispersoes com alta concentracao de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, J.A.B.; Durazzo, M., E-mail: jasouza@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    IPEN developed and made available for routine production the technology for manufacturing dispersion type fuel elements for use in research reactors. However, the fuel produced at IPEN is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 gU/cm{sup 3} by using the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion. Increasing the uranium concentration of the fuel is interesting by the possibility of increasing the reactor core reactivity and lifetime of the fuel. It is possible to increase the concentration of uranium in the fuel up to the technological limit of 4.8 gU/cm{sup 3} for the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion, which is well placed around the world. This new fuel will be applicable in the new Brazilian-Multipurpose Reactor RMB. This study aimed to develop the manufacturing process of high uranium concentration fuel, redefining the procedures currently used in the manufacture of IPEN. This paper describes the main procedures adjustments that will be necessary. (author)

  11. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, Naeem; Bäckström, Mattias

    2014-12-01

    Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine content have significant effects on partitioning characteristics by increasing the formation and vaporization of highly volatile metal chlorides. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in fly ash increase with the incineration temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of a Neutron Beam Following Reconfiguration of the Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD Core and Addition of New Fuel Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron E. Craft

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The neutron radiography reactor (NRAD is a 250 kW Mark-II Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics (TRIGA reactor at Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID, USA. The East Radiography Station (ERS is one of two neutron beams at the NRAD used for neutron radiography, which sits beneath a large hot cell and is primarily used for neutron radiography of highly radioactive objects. Additional fuel elements were added to the NRAD core in 2013 to increase the excess reactivity of the reactor, and may have changed some characteristics of the neutron beamline. This report discusses characterization of the neutron beamline following the addition of fuel to the NRAD. This work includes determination of the facility category according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM standards, and also uses an array of gold foils to determine the neutron beam flux and evaluate the neutron beam profile. The NRAD ERS neutron beam is a Category I neutron radiography facility, the highest possible quality level according to the ASTM. Gold foil activation experiments show that the average neutron flux with length-to-diameter ratio (L/D = 125 is 5.96 × 106 n/cm2/s with a 2σ standard error of 2.90 × 105 n/cm2/s. The neutron beam profile can be considered flat for qualitative neutron radiographic evaluation purposes. However, the neutron beam profile should be taken into account for quantitative evaluation.

  13. Analysis of high fidelity of a BWR fuel element with COBRA-TF/PARCS codes and TRACE; Analisis de Alta Fidelidad de un Elemento Combustible BWR con los codigos COBRA-TF/PARCS y TRACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abarca, A.; Miro, R.; Barrachina, T.; Verdu, G.; Solar, A.; Concejal, A.; Melara, J.; Albendea, M.

    2013-07-01

    It has been modeled a 10 x 10 BWR fuel element, containing 91 fuel rods (81 of 10 partial length and total length) and a great water bar of square section in the central part of it. Such fuel element has been modeled in detail: at the level of sub-channel code COBRA-TF and using parametric models for fuel elements BWR that owns the plant code TRACE. Has been an exercise in comparison of the results obtained by both codes in the simulation of a stationary and a small transient flow injection, highlighting the differences observed.

  14. The preparation technique optimization of epoxy/compressed expanded graphite composite bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chao; Ming, Pingwen; Hou, Ming; Fu, Jie; Fu, Yunfeng; Luo, Xiaokuan; Shen, Qiang; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian

    Vacuum resin impregnation method has been used to prepare polymer/compressed expanded graphite (CEG) composite bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this research, three different preparation techniques of the epoxy/CEG composite bipolar plate (Compression-Impregnation method, Impregnation-Compression method and Compression-Impregnation-Compression method) are optimized by the physical properties of the composite bipolar plates. The optimum conditions and the advantages/disadvantages of the different techniques are discussed respectively. Although having different characteristics, bipolar plates obtained by these three techniques can all meet the demands of PEMFC bipolar plates as long as the optimum conditions are selected. The Compression-Impregnation-Compression method is shown to be the optimum method because of the outstanding properties of the bipolar plates. Besides, the cell assembled with these optimum composite bipolar plates shows excellent stability after 200 h durability testing. Therefore the composite prepared by vacuum resin impregnation method is a promising candidate for bipolar plate materials in PEMFCs.

  15. Forensic Applications of Light-Element Stable Isotope Ratios of Ricinus communis Seeds and Ricin Preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, Helen W.; West, Jason B.; Ehleringer, James

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis, also known as castor beans, are of forensic interest because they are the source of the poison ricin. We have tested whether stable isotope ratios of castor seeds and ricin prepared by various methods can be used as a forensic signature. We collected over 300 castor seed samples from locations around the world and measured the C, N, O, and H stable isotope ratios of the whole seeds, oil, and three types of ricin preparations. Our results demonstrate that N isotope ratios can be used to correlate ricin prepared by any of these methods to source seeds. Further, stable isotope ratios distinguished >99% of crude and purified ricin protein samples in pair-wise comparison tests. Stable isotope ratios therefore constitute a valuable forensic signature for ricin preparations.

  16. Forensic applications of light-element stable isotope ratios of Ricinus communis seeds and ricin preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, Helen W; West, Jason B; Ehleringer, James R

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis are of forensic interest because they are the source of the poison ricin. We tested whether stable isotope ratios of castor seeds and ricin preparations can be used as a forensic signature. We collected over 300 castor seed samples worldwide and measured the C, N, O, and H isotope ratios of the whole seeds and oil. We prepared ricin by three different procedures, acetone extraction, salt precipitation, and affinity chromatography, and compared their isotope ratios to those of the source seeds. The N isotope ratios of the ricin samples and source seeds were virtually identical. Therefore, N isotope ratios can be used to correlate ricin prepared by any of these methods to source seeds. Further, stable isotope ratios distinguished >99% of crude and purified ricin protein samples in pairwise comparison tests. Stable isotope ratios therefore constitute a valuable forensic signature for ricin preparations. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Preparation and investigation of cheap polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mikkel Juul; Ma, Yue; Lund, Peter Brilner

    The electrolyte of choice for low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) has tra­di­ti­o­nal­ly been DuPontTM Nafion® membranes or similar poly(perfluorosulfonic acid)s. The chemical struc­ture and morphology in the hydrated state of Nafion® is shown in figure 1 from which it is seen...... crossover, and relatively poor thermal stability constitute seri­ous drawbacks with respect to their fuel cell use.[ii],[iii],[iv] These aspects propel the search for cheaper and better alternatives.           In this study membrane systems consisting of a hydrophobic poly...... found that crosslinking by divinylbenzene clear­ly improves the chemical stability of both sulfonated styrene- and methylstyrene/t-butylstyrene-grafted ETFE membranes. How­ever, the crosslinking reduces the proton conductivity due to decreased water uptake, thus downgrading the membranes' elec­tro­ly­tic...

  18. Light water reactor fuel element suitable for thorium employment in a discrete seed and blanket configuration with the aim to attain conversion ratios above the range of one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrovat, M.F.; Grosse, K.H.; Seemann, R. [ALD Vacuum Technologies GmbH, Hanau (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The thorium resources in the world are relatively large. According to the IAEA-NEA-publication ''Red Book'' they amount to 4.5 10E6 metric tons and are about 4 times greater than the resources of Uranium. The fuel element described in this paper could be used in light water reactor (LWR) preferably in pressurized water reactor (PWR). The seed (feed) rods contain uranium 235 as fissionable material and the blanket (breed) rods contain thorium and uranium. The thorium in the blanket rods is converted to fissionable U-233 by irradiation with thermal neutrons. The U-233 produced is a valuable fissionable material and is characterized by high revalues, where t is defined as the number of fission neutrons per absorption in fissile materials. By optimized configuration and loading of the seed- and blanket rods the thorium is converted to U-233 and the U-238 is converted to fissionable Plutonium isotopes. Consequently more fissionable material is generated than is used. The fuel cycle is also flexible. Thus U-235, Pu-239 or weapons-grade Plutonium can be used.Based on knowledge obtained in the development of fuel elements for material test reactors (MTR), high temperature reactors (HTR) and light water reactors (LWR), a new design of fuel element suitable for thorium employment in PWR is described.

  19. Preparation of NiO-YSZ/YSZ bi-layers for solid oxide fuel cells by electrophoretic deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besra, Laxmidhar; Zha, Shaowu; Liu, Meilin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States)

    2006-09-29

    A simple and cost-effective method, starting with electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on a carbon sheet, has been developed for preparation of a NiO-YSZ anode and thin, gas-tight YSZ electrolyte layer on it for use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The innovative feature of this approach enables the deposition of anode materials as well as the YSZ electrolyte, which were subsequently co-fired in air at high temperatures to remove the carbon and form an anode-supported dense YSZ electrolyte. A functional SOFC constructed by brush painting a layer of mixed cathode consisting of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSM) and YSZ on the electrolyte layer followed by firing at 1250{sup o}C, displayed a peak power density of 434mWcm{sup -2} at 800{sup o}C when tested with H{sub 2} as fuel and ambient air as oxidant. (author)

  20. Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules: scalable preparation and high-performance applications in fuel cells and lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuangang; Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Zhipan; Cao, Minhua; Qu, Liangti

    2013-04-07

    Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules (hN-CCs) have been successfully prepared by using inexpensive melamine and glyoxal as precursors via solvothermal reaction and carbonization. With a great promise for large scale production, the hN-CCs, having large surface area and high-level nitrogen content (N/C atomic ration of ca. 13%), possess superior crossover resistance, selective activity and catalytic stability towards oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells in alkaline medium. As a new anode material in lithium-ion battery, hN-CCs also exhibit excellent cycle performance and high rate capacity with a reversible capacity of as high as 1046 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 50 mA g(-1) after 50 cycles. These features make the hN-CCs developed in this study promising as suitable substitutes for the expensive noble metal catalysts in the next generation alkaline fuel cells, and as advanced electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Gel-sphere-pac reactor fuel fabrication and its application to a variety of fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Judkins, R.R. (comps.)

    1979-12-01

    The gel-sphere-pac fuel fabrication option was evaluated for its possible application to commercial scale fuel fabrication for 19 fuel element designs that use oxide fuel in metal clad rods. The dry gel spheres are prepared at the reprocessing plant and are then calcined, sintered, inspected, and loaded into fuel rods and packed by low-energy vibration. A fuel smear density of 83 to 88% theoretical can be obtained. All fuel fabrication process steps were defined and evaluated from fuel receiving to finished fuel element shipping. The evaluation also covers the feasibility of the process, the current status of technology, estimates of the required time and cost to develop the technology to commercial status, and the safety and licensability of commercial scale plants. The primary evaluation was for a Light-Water Reactor fuel element containing (U,Pu)O/sub 2/ fuel. The other 18 fuel element types - 3 for Light-Water Reactors, 1 for a Heavy-Water Reactor, 1 for a Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor, 7 for Liquid-Metal-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors, and 3 pairs for Light-Water Prebreeder and Breeder Reactors - were compared with the Light-Water Reactor. The gel-sphere-pac option was found applicable to 17 of the 19 element types; the characteristics of a commercial scale plant were defined for these for making cost estimates for such plants. The evaluation clearly shows the gel-sphere-pac process to be a viable fuel fabrication option. Estimates indicate a significant potential fabrication cost advantage for the gel-sphere-pac process if a remotely operated and remotely maintained fuel fabrication plant is required.

  2. ESCHER: An interactive mesh-generating editor for preparing finite-element input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, W. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    ESCHER is an interactive mesh generation and editing program designed to help the user create a finite-element mesh, create additional input for finite-element analysis, including initial conditions, boundary conditions, and slidelines, and generate a NEUTRAL FILE that can be postprocessed for input into several finite-element codes, including ADINA, ADINAT, DYNA, NIKE, TSAAS, and ABUQUS. Two important ESCHER capabilities, interactive geometry creation and mesh archival storge are described in detail. Also described is the interactive command language and the use of interactive graphics. The archival storage and restart file is a modular, entity-based mesh data file. Modules of this file correspond to separate editing modes in the mesh editor, with data definition syntax preserved between the interactive commands and the archival storage file. Because ESCHER was expected to be highly interactive, extensive user documentation was provided in the form of an interactive HELP package.

  3. ESCHER: An interactive mesh-generating editor for preparing finite-element input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, W. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    ESCHER is an interactive mesh generation and editing program designed to help the user create a finite-element mesh, create additional input for finite-element analysis, including initial conditions, boundary conditions, and slidelines, and generate a NEUTRAL FILE that can be postprocessed for input into several finite-element codes, including ADINA, ADINAT, DYNA, NIKE, TSAAS, and ABUQUS. Two important ESCHER capabilities, interactive geometry creation and mesh archival storge are described in detail. Also described is the interactive command language and the use of interactive graphics. The archival storage and restart file is a modular, entity-based mesh data file. Modules of this file correspond to separate editing modes in the mesh editor, with data definition syntax preserved between the interactive commands and the archival storage file. Because ESCHER was expected to be highly interactive, extensive user documentation was provided in the form of an interactive HELP package.

  4. Photoelectroactivity of bismuth vanadate prepared by combustion synthesis: effect of different fuels and surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso, Renata; Serafim, Jessica A.; Lucilha, Adriana C.; Dall' Antonia, Luiz H., E-mail: luizh@uel.br [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. Quimica. Lab. de Eletroquimica e Materiais; Silva, Marcelo R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (CTI/UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Colegio Tecnico Industrial; Lepre, Luiz F.; Ando, Romulo A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Espectroscopia Molecular

    2014-04-15

    The bismuth vanadate (BiVO{sub 4}) is a semiconductor that has attracted much attention due to the photocatalytic efficiency in the visible light region. The objective of this work was to synthesize monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} by solution combustion synthesis, with different surfactants and fuels and apply it as photoelectrodes. The characterization by infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy showed that all samples showed characteristic bands of the monoclinic structure BiVO{sub 4}. The samples synthesized with glycine and glycine/Tween® 80 had V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The film obtained from the alanine/ Tween® 80 showed highest photocurrent values, which may be related to smaller size particles (200 to 300 nm) observed by scanning electron microscopy images. The films obtained using alanine showed highest values of rate constant reaction and percentage discoloration of methylene blue. (author)

  5. Preparation and evaluation of advanced electrocatalysts for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehart, P.; Baris, J.; Hochmuth, J.; Pagliaro, P.

    1981-01-01

    Two cooperative phenomena are required the development of highly efficient porous electrocatalysts: (1) is an increase in the electrocatalytic activity of the catalyst particle; and (2) is the availability of that electrocatalyst particle for the electromechanical reaction. The two processes interact with each other so that improvements in the electrochemical activity must be coupled with improvements in the availability of the electrocatalyst for reaction. Cost effective and highly reactive electrocatalysts were developed. The utilization of the electrocatalyst particles in the porous electrode structures was analyzed. It is shown that a large percentage of the electrocatalyst in anode structures is not utilized. This low utilization translates directly into a noble metal cost penalty for the fuel cell.

  6. Preparation, characterization, and high performance of RuSe/C for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, Alexey Alexandrovich; Min, Myoungki; Chai, Geunseok; Han, Sangil; Kang, Soonki; Kwak, Chan

    RuSe/C catalysts prepared by different methods have been tested for oxygen reduction and the results analyzed based on the active species and particle size distribution. Inorganic precursor methods exhibit higher catalytic performance than the carbonyl method. Selenious acid is an excellent inorganic precursor. X-ray photoelectron spectra indicate that selenium in a high oxidation state is more active than that with zero valence. The effect of operating conditions is analyzed for catalysts prepared by the inorganic precursor method. The optimum heat-treatment temperature for both active phase formation and particle size distribution is 300 °C. A performance of 62 mW cm -2 at 80 °C is obtained using 80 wt.% RuSe/C in the cathode.

  7. Trace elements and mineral composition of waste produced in the process of combustion of solid fuels in individual household furnaces in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smołka-Danielowska Danuta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents preliminary research results, with regard to the concentration of chosen trace elements (Mn, Cr, Tl, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Ba, Pb in waste, which was produced in the process of combustion of solid fuels (hard coal and flotation concentrate of bituminous coal in individual household furnaces in Poland (in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region. 27 samples of ash, 4 samples of hard coal and 2 samples of flotation concentrate of bituminous coal were prepared for the research. Methods such as: ICP-MS, X-ray diffraction by means of the powder method and scanning electron microscopy were used during the research. In the ash samples obtained from the combustion of hard coal, the highest average concentrations were: Mn (1477.7 ppm, Ba (1336.4 ppm and Zn (599.7 ppm. In the samples obtained from the combustion of flotation concentrate of bituminous coal, the highest average concentrations was stated for: Zn (762.4 ppm, Mn (668.5 ppm, Pb (552.1 ppm and Ba (211.7 ppm. Crystalline components were determined by used the X-ray diffraction method and the samples of ash obtained from the combustion of hard coal contained: anhydrite, gypsum, hematite, magnetite, quartz, calcite, mullite, periclase, kaolinite, dolomite, pyrite, sphalerite, galena and feldspars (albite-anorthite. The samples of ash obtained from the combustion of flotation concentrate of bituminous coal contain: pyrite, quartz, potassium feldspar, muscovite and kaolinite. The scanning electron microscope analysis enabled the identification of the chemical composition of single ash grains and determined their morphology (aluminosilicate forms, substance PbS and ZnS, oxides of Ni, Cu and Mn, monazite, xenotime.

  8. LOAD-CHECK, program supported optimization of the fuel element disposal in cask CASTOR {sup registered} V casks; LOAD-CHECK, programmunterstuetzte Optimierung der Brennelemententsorgung in CASTOR {sup registered} V-Behaeltern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amian, D.; Braun, A. [WTI Wissenschaftlich-Technische Ingenieurberatung GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Graf, R.; Hoffmann, V. [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    LOAD-CHECK is an interactive program module for the systematic and strategic spent fuel disposal planning. Using physical fuel element data the loading scenarios for the routine operation and the post-closure operation phase can be simulated for free selectable time periods. The basis for the loading license application are the available spent fuel casks according to the regulations of the interim storage facility. LOAD-CHECK allows the optimization of the loading campaigns with respect to the time schedule and the number of casks including the planning of optimized disposal of special spent fuel (MOX fuel elements or high-burnup fuel elements). Possibilities for a reduced post-closure operating phase of nuclear power plants might be the consequence.

  9. Preparation of Pt–Ru/C as an Oxygen-Reduction Electrocatalyst in Microbial Fuel Cells for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaixiu Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-supported Pt–Ru alloys with a Pt/Ru ratio of 1:1 were prepared by NaBH4 reduction at room temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD measurements indicate that the as-prepared Pt–Ru nanoparticles had a face-centered cubic (fcc structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analyses demonstrate that alloying with Ru can decrease the 4f electron density of Pt, which results in a positive binding energy shift of 0.2 eV for the Pt 4f peaks. The catalytic properties of the synthesized Pt–Ru alloy catalysts were compared with those of commercial Pt/C catalysts by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV. The results show that the mass activity of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR is enhanced by 2.3 times as much mass activity of Pt relative to the commercial Pt/C catalyst. Single-chambered microbial fuel cell tests also confirm that the Pt–Ru alloys as cathode catalysts have better performance than that of commercial Pt/C catalysts.

  10. Radiolytic Preparation of Electrocatalysts with Pt-Co and Pt-Sn Nanoparticles for a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kyum Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized Pt-Sn/VC and Pt-Co/VC electrocatalysts were prepared by a one-step radiation-induced reduction (30 kGy process using distilled water as the solvent and Vulcan XC72 as the supporting material. While the Pt-Co/VC electrodes were compared with Pt/VC (40 wt%, HiSpec 4000, in terms of their electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of H2, the Pt-Co/VC electrodes were evaluated in terms of their activity towards the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR and compared with Pt/VC (40 wt%, HiSpec 4000, Pt-Co/VC, and Pt-Sn/VC in a single cell. Additionally, the prepared electrocatalyst samples (Pt-Co/VC and Pt-Sn/VC were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscope (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, electrochemical surface area (ECSA, and fuel cell polarization performance.

  11. Preparation of {sup 183,184}Re samples for modelling a rapid gas phase chemistry of Nielsbohrium (Ns), element 107

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichler, R.; Gaeggeler, H.W.; Eichler, B.; Tuerler, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Chemical gas phase reactions of the heavier group 7 elements in the system O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O are presumably best suited for a separation of Nielsbohrium from the lighter transactinides. We expect a higher reaction velocity using the more reactive gas system O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. For the experimental verification of this idea we prepared {sup 183}Re/{sup 184}Re samples for thermochromatography experiments with both gas systems. (author) 8 refs.

  12. Development of numerical methodology for determination of natural frequencies of fuel elements; Desenvolvimento de metodologia numerica para determinacao de frequencias naturais de elementos combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrilho, Leo A.; Dotto, Rosvita M. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil SA, Resende, RJ (Brazil); Gouvea, Jayme P. de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The analysis of the effects of postulated accidents on the structure of the fuel assemblies is done by INB through a bidimensional model resolved by a finite element program and considering an average lateral stiffness obtained experimentally. In order to to develop an equivalent ANSYS model with the capability of guide-thimble stress analysis during normal operation vibrations, one modal analysis on a tridimensional model is performed as a first step, considering the average lateral stiffness as obtained numerically from the models with and without sliding of the fuel rods on the spacers. Natural frequencies are presented to the sixth mode together with the relative most external guide-thimble stresses at the first mode, which is the base for a future analysis of absolute stresses on fuel assembly during vibration. (author)

  13. Preparation and characterization of Pt supported on graphene with enhanced electrocatalytic activity in fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yuchen; Liu, Jian-guo; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Wenming; Gao, Jian; Xie, Yun; Yin, Ying; Zou, Zhigang

    Pt nanoparticles are deposited onto graphene sheets via synchronous reduction of H 2PtCl 6 and graphene oxide (GO) suspension using NaBH 4. Lyophilization is introduced to avoid irreversible aggregation of graphene (G) sheets, which happens during conventional drying process. Pt/G catalysts reveal a high catalytic activity for both methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reaction compared to Pt supported on carbon black (Pt/C). The performance of Pt/G catalysts is further improved after heat treatment in N 2 atmosphere at 300 °C for 2 h, and the peak current density of methanol oxidation for Pt/G after heat treatment is almost 3.5 times higher than Pt/C. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images show that the Pt particles are uniformly distributed on graphene sheets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results demonstrate that the interaction between Pt and graphene is enhanced during annealing. It suggests that graphene has provided a new way to improve electrocatalytic activity of catalyst for fuel cell.

  14. The Manufacture of W-UO2 Fuel Elements for NTP Using the Hot Isostatic Pressing Consolidation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, Jeramie; Hickman, Robert; Mireles, Omar

    2012-01-01

    NTP is attractive for space exploration because: (1) Higher Isp than traditional chemical rockets (2)Shorter trip times (3) Reduced propellant mass (4) Increased payload. Lack of qualified fuel material is a key risk (cost, schedule, and performance). Development of stable fuel form is a critical path, long lead activity. Goals of this project are: Mature CERMET and Graphite based fuel materials and Develop and demonstrate critical technologies and capabilities.

  15. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of the outermost fuel plates of a MTR5 fuel element used in the IEA-R1 research reactor; Analise termo-hidraulica das placas externas de um elemento combustivel tipo placa utilizado no reator de pesquisas IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umbehaun, Pedro Ernesto; Torres, Walmir Maximo; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: umbehaun@ipen.br; wmtorres@ipen.br; delvonei@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    This work presents the thermal-hydraulic analysis for the outermost fuel plates for 5 MW reactor operation power, considering internal flow distribution experimentally measured, and by using the flow through the channels between two fuel elements, external flow. Results showed the necessity of changing the fuel element design, which was taken into account through the reduction of uranium concentration for external plates in order to guarantee its suitable cooling.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Structural Changes In U-Mo Dispersed Fuel of Full-Size Fuel Elements And Mini-Rods Irradiated In The MIR Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izhutov, Aleksey L.; Iakovlev, Valeriy V.; Novoselov, Andrey E. and others

    2013-12-15

    The paper summarizes the irradiation test and post-irradiation examination (PIE) data for the U-Mo low-enriched fuel that was irradiated in the MIR reactor under the RERTR Program. The PIE data were analyzed for both full-size fuel rods and mini-rods with atomized powder dispersed in Al matrix as well as with additions of 2%, 5% and 13% of silicon in the matrix and ZrN protective coating on the fuel particles. The full-size fuel rods were irradiated up to an average burnup of ∼ 60%{sup 235}U; the mini-rods were irradiated to an average burnup of ∼ 85%{sup 235}U. The presented data show a significant increase of the void fraction in the U-Mo alloy as the U-235 burnup rises from ∼ 40% up to ∼ 85%. The effect of irradiation test conditions and U-235 burnup were analyzed with regard to the formation of an interaction layer between the matrix and fuel particles as well as generation of porosity in the U-Mo alloy. Shown here are changes in distribution of U fission products as the U-235 burnup increases from ∼ 40% up to ∼ 85%.

  17. Experimental detailed power distribution in a fast spectrum thermionic reactor fuel element at the core/BeO reflector interface region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, P. G.; Lantz, E.

    1973-01-01

    A zero-power critical assembly was designed, constructed, and operated for the prupose of conducting a series of benchmark experiments dealing with the physics characteristics of a UN-fueled, Li-7-cooled, Mo-reflected, drum-controlled compact fast reactor for use with a space-power conversion system. The critical assembly was modified to simulate a fast spectrum advanced thermionics reactor by: (1) using BeO as a reflector in place of some of the existing molybdenum, (2) substituting Nb-1Zr tubing for some of the existing Ta tubing, and (3) inserting four full-scale mockups of thermionic type fuel elements near the core and BeO reflector boundary. These mockups were surrounded with a buffer zone having the equivalent thermionic core composition. In addition to measuring the critical mass of this thermionic configuration, a detailed power distribution in one of the thermionic element stages in the mixed spectrum region was measured. A power peak to average ratio of two was observed for this fuel stage at the midplane of the core and adjacent to the reflector. Also, the power on the outer surface adjacent to the BeO was slightly more than a factor of two larger than the power on the inside surface of a 5.08 cm (2.0 in.) high annular fuel segment with a 2.52 cm (0.993 in. ) o.d. and a 1.86 cm (0.731 in.) i.d.

  18. Development of Nano-Sulfide Sorbent for Efficient Removal of Elemental Mercury from Coal Combustion Fuel Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailong; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Jun; Li, Liqing; Shih, Kaimin

    2016-09-06

    The surface area of zinc sulfide (ZnS) was successfully enlarged using nanostructure particles synthesized by a liquid-phase precipitation method. The ZnS with the highest surface area (named Nano-ZnS) of 196.1 m(2)·g(-1) was then used to remove gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg(0)) from simulated coal combustion fuel gas at relatively high temperatures (140 to 260 °C). The Nano-ZnS exhibited far greater Hg(0) adsorption capacity than the conventional bulk ZnS sorbent due to the abundance of surface sulfur sites, which have a high binding affinity for Hg(0). Hg(0) was first physically adsorbed on the sorbent surface and then reacted with the adjacent surface sulfur to form the most stable mercury compound, HgS, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and a temperature-programmed desorption test. At the optimal temperature of 180 °C, the equilibrium Hg(0) adsorption capacity of the Nano-ZnS (inlet Hg(0) concentration of 65.0 μg·m(-3)) was greater than 497.84 μg·g(-1). Compared with several commercial activated carbons used exclusively for gas-phase mercury removal, the Nano-ZnS was superior in both Hg(0) adsorption capacity and adsorption rate. With this excellent Hg(0) removal performance, noncarbon Nano-ZnS may prove to be an advantageous alternative to activated carbon for Hg(0) removal in power plants equipped with particulate matter control devices, while also offering a means of reusing fly ash as a valuable resource, for example as a concrete additive.

  19. Behaviour of the elements introduced with the fuels in their distribution and immobilization between the coal-petroleum coke IGCC solid products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramon Alvarez-Rodriguez; Carmen Clemente-Jul; Juan A. Martin-Rubi [Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain). Mining School

    2007-09-15

    In this research on the solid products of the Elcogas IGCC plant (Puertollano, Spain) the influence of the two fuels, coal and pet coke, on the composition of the fly ashes and slag is demonstrated and how the majority of the elements are provided by the coal and only some as V, Ni and Mo are provided by the pet coke. The different nature of slag and fly ashes is highlighted and how the different elements are distributed between them that in general follow the indications of the mathematical models. The passage of the elements into gaseous phase is calculated. The fly ashes are some products of very fine granulometry that present problems of solubilization of a series of elements and therefore of deposition. Their inertization has been investigated by calcination at 1000{sup o}C and with additives. Some good results have been obtained. 20 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Improvement of proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrical performance by optimization of operating parameters and electrodes preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadjo, A.J.-J.; Garnier, J.-P.; Martemianov, S. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, UMR6608, ESIP-Universite de Poitiers, CNRS, Poitiers F-86022 (France); Brault, P.; Caillard, A. [Groupe de Recherche sur l' Energetique des Milieux Ionises, UMR6606 Universite d' Orleans, CNRS Polytech' Orleans BP6744, F-45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Coutanceau, C. [Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique, UMR6503 Universite de Poitiers, CNRS, Poitiers F-86022 (France)

    2007-10-25

    The effect of operating parameters (cell temperature, humidifiers temperature, gases flows and pressures) on the performance of a 25 cm{sup 2} surface area fuel cell is performed. After optimization, a homemade MEA fitted with electrodes prepared via the colloidal route leads to achieve reproducibly maximum power densities higher than 1.2 W cm{sup -2} with a total catalyst loading of 0.7 mg{sub Pt} cm{sup -2} (corresponding to 1.7kW g{sub Pt}{sup -1}). This electrical performance is higher to that obtained with a commercial MEA provided by fuel cell store (total platinum loading of 1.2 mg cm{sup -2} and power density close to 1 W cm{sup -2}, corresponding to 0.75kW g{sub Pt}{sup -1}). Based on this experience, two different homemade MEAs are tested under optimal operating conditions and compared to the commercial one. The final goal is to decrease significantly the platinum loading preserving at least equivalent PEMFC electrical performance. The method of catalyst deposition by plasma sputtering is used to further decrease the total catalyst loading down to 0.45 mg{sub Pt} cm{sup -2}. Very interesting performances (close to 0.7 W cm{sup -2}) were obtained with this low-platinum loading MEA (corresponding to 1.6kW g{sub Pt}{sup -1}). However, it was shown that the decrease of the platinum loading in the cathode from 0.35 to 0.1 mg cm{sup -2} affects the kinetics of oxygen reduction (exchange current density j{sub 0} and Tafel slope b) and the resistance of the cell R, and hence the cell electrical performance. (author)

  1. Preparation of nanostructured PbS thin films as sensing element for NO{sub 2} gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaci, S., E-mail: k_samira05@yahoo.fr [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteurs pour l’Energétique (CRTSE) Division Couches Minces et Interfaces, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140, 7 Merveilles, 16038 Algiers (Algeria); Keffous, A.; Hakoum, S. [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteurs pour l’Energétique (CRTSE) Division Couches Minces et Interfaces, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140, 7 Merveilles, 16038 Algiers (Algeria); Trari, M. [Université des Sciences et Technologies Houari Boumediene (USTHB), Laboratoire de Stockage et de Valorisation des Eneriges Renouvelables, Faculté de Chimie, BP 32, EL Alia, 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Mansri, O.; Menari, H. [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteurs pour l’Energétique (CRTSE) Division Couches Minces et Interfaces, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140, 7 Merveilles, 16038 Algiers (Algeria)

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that semiconducting films of A{sub IV}B{sub VI} compounds, in particular, of nanostructured lead sulfide (PbS) which prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD), can be used as a sensing element for nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) gas. The CBD method is versatile, simple in implementation and gives homogeneous semiconductor structures. We have prepared PbS nanocrystalline thin film at different reaction baths and temperatures. In the course of deposition, variable amounts of additives, such as organic substances among them, were introduced into the baths. The energy dispersive analysis (EDX) confirms the chemical composition of PbS films. A current–voltage (I–V) characterization of Pd/nc-PbS/a-SiC:H pSi(100)/Al Schottky diode structures were studied in the presence of NO{sub 2} gas. The gas sensing behavior showed that the synthesized PbS nanocrystalline thin films were influenced by NO{sub 2} gas at room temperature. The results can be used for developing an experimental sensing element based on chemically deposited nanostructured PbS films which can be applicable in gas sensors.

  2. Research on Precaution and Detection Technology for Flow Blockage of Plate-type Fuel Element in Research Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING; Li; QIAO; Ya-xin; ZHANG; Nian-peng; LUO; Bei-bei; HUA; Xiao; JIA; Shu-jie; YAN; Hui-yang

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to offer the technical support for safety operation and management of research reactors using plate-type fuel assemblies in China,which is performed from analysis of precaution measures for flow blockage and detection methods of accidents.Study shows that most accidents were induced by in-core foreign objects and the swelling of fuel

  3. Recent Progress on the DUPIC Fuel Fabrication Technology at KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung-Won Lee; Ho-Jin Ryu; Geun-Il Park; Kee-Chan Song [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-ku, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Since 1991, KAERI has been developing the DUPIC fuel cycle technology. The concept of a direct use of spent PWR fuel in Candu reactors (DUPIC) is based on a dry processing method to re-fabricate Candu fuel from spent PWR fuel without any intentional separation of the fissile materials and fission products. A DUPIC fuel pellet was successfully fabricated and the DUPIC fuel element fabrication processes were qualified on the basis of a Quality Assurance program. Consequently, the DUPIC fuel fabrication technology was verified and demonstrated on a laboratory-scale. Recently, the fuel discharge burn-up of PWRs has been extended to reduce the amount of spent fuel and the fuel cycle costs. Considering this trend of extending the fuel burn-up in PWRs, the DUPIC fuel fabrication technology should be improved to process high burn-up spent fuels. Particularly the release behavior of cesium from the pellet prepared with a high burn-up spent fuel was assessed. an improved DUPIC fuel fabrication technology was experimentally established with a fuel burn-up of 65,000 MWd/tU. (authors)

  4. Magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process: Preparation and optimization of particles for removal of transuranic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.; Bradley, C.; Buchholz, B.A.; Aase, S.B.; Tuazon, H.E.; Vandegrift, G.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Landsberger, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process combines the selectivity afforded by solvent extractants with magnetic separation by using specially coated magnetic particles to provide a more efficient chemical separation of transuranic (TRU) elements, other radionuclides, and heavy metals from waste streams. Development of the MACS process uses chemical and physical techniques to elucidate the properties of particle coatings and the extent of radiolytic and chemical damage to the particles, and to optimize the stages of loading, extraction, and particle regeneration. This report describes the development of a separation process for TRU elements from various high-level waste streams. Polymer-coated ferromagnetic particles with an adsorbed layer of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) diluted with tributyl phosphate (TBP) were evaluated for use in the separation and recovery of americium and plutonium from nuclear waste solutions. Due to their chemical nature, these extractants selectively complex americium and plutonium contaminants onto the particles, which can then be recovered from the solution by using a magnet. The partition coefficients were larger than those expected based on liquid[liquid extractions, and the extraction proceeded with rapid kinetics. Extractants were stripped from the particles with alcohols and 400-fold volume reductions were achieved. Particles were more sensitive to acid hydrolysis than to radiolysis. Overall, the optimization of a suitable NMCS particle for TRU separation was achieved under simulant conditions, and a MACS unit is currently being designed for an in-lab demonstration.

  5. Novel technology for sewage sludge utilization: preparation of amino acids chelated trace elements (AACTE) fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangsheng; Kong, Sifang; Li, Yaqiong; Zeng, Hui

    2009-11-15

    This study developed a novel technology for sewage sludge utilization. The bacteria proteins in the sewage sludge were extracted to produce the amino acid chelated trace elements (AACTE) fertilizer by virtue of several chemical processes. Firstly, the sewage sludge was hydrolyzed under hot hydrochloric acid solution to obtain protein solution. The effects of hydrolysis temperature, reaction time and pH on the extraction ratio of protein from the sewage sludge were investigated. Secondly, the protein solution was further hydrolyzed into amino acids under hot acid condition. The effects of the HCl dosage, hydrolysis temperature and reaction time on the yields of amino acids were investigated in detail. Thirdly, the raw amino acids solution was purified by activated carbon decolorization and glacial acetic acid dissolution. Finally, the purified amino acids were used to produce the AACTE fertilizer by chelating with trace elements. Results showed that, under optimum hydrolysis conditions, 78.5% of protein was extracted from the sewage sludge and the amino acids yield was 10-13 g per 100g of dry sludge. The AACTE fertilizer produced was in accordance with China Standard for Amino Acids Foliar Fertilizer. This novel technology is more environmentally friendly compared with the conventional sludge treatments.

  6. Preparation and characterization of the PVDF-based composite membrane for direct methanol fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu, Laizhou Song, Zhihui Zhang, Xiaowei Liu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The polyvinylidene fluoride-sulfonated polystyrene composite membrane with proton exchange performance, denoted as PVDF-SPS, was prepared using a thermally induced polymerization technique. The thermal stability of the PVDF-SPS composite membrane was investigated using thermogravimetric (TG analysis. The complex formation of the composite membrane was ascertained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The surface compositions of the PVDF-SPS membrane were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The morphology of the composite membrane was characterized by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM. The proton conductivity of the PVDF-SPS membrane was measured using impedance spectroscopy in the hydrated condition. The PVDF-SPS membrane has a stronger hydrophilic character than the pristine PVDF membrane and the polyvinylidene fluoride-polystyrene composite membrane (PVDF-PS, which is caused by the incorporation of sulfonic acid groups. The proton conductivity and the methanol permeability of the PVDF-SPS membrane measured at 298 K are 29.3 mS.cm-1 and 8.6×10-8 cm2.s-1, respectively. Although PVDF-SPS composite membrane possesses the lower oxidative stability than Nafion-117 membrane, the composite membrane displays lower methanol permeability than the Nafion-117 membrane, and the selectivity (the ratio of proton conductivity and methanol permeability of the composite membrane is almost 20 times than that of Nafion-117.

  7. Preparation of catalyst for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell using a novel spherical carbon support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Mika; Okubo, Atsuhiko; Kobayashi, Yoshio [Department of Biomolecular Functional Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1, Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Yamamoto, Shun [Material and Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1, Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Kikuchi, Mayuko; Nishitani-Gamo, Mikka [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Uno, Katsuhiro [Department of Media and Telecommunications Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1, Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Ando, Toshihiro [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    In this study, the support Pt catalyst was supported by a novel spherical carbon using a convenient technique. Two different preparation methods utilizing a nanocolloidal solution method without heat treatment were developed (methods 1 and 2). The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations showed that the Pt nanoparticles (particle size) were supported, with higher dispersion being achieved with method 2 than method 1. The peak of the Pt metal was confirmed from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement. Based on the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements, Pt loading was 19.5 wt.% in method 1 and approximately 50 wt.% in method 2. The Pt specific surface area of the Pt/novel spherical carbon catalyst calculated from the cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurement result was larger than that of the commercially available Pt/Ketjen catalyst. These results indicated that the Pt nanoparticles were supported in high dispersion without heat treatment using novel spherical carbon as a carbon support. (author)

  8. Preparation and characterization of the PVDF-based composite membrane for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Qian; Song Laizhou; Zhang Zhihui; Liu Xiaowei [Department of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2010-07-01

    The polyvinylidene fluoride-sulfonated polystyrene composite membrane with proton exchange performance, denoted as PVDF-SPS, was prepared using a thermally induced polymerization technique. The thermal stability of the PVDF-SPS composite membrane was investigated using thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. The complex formation of the composite membrane was ascertained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The surface compositions of the PVDF-SPS membrane were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The morphology of the composite membrane was characterized by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The proton conductivity of the PVDF-SPS membrane was measured using impedance spectroscopy in the hydrated condition. The PVDF-SPS membrane has a stronger hydrophilic character than the pristine PVDF membrane and the polyvinylidene fluoride-polystyrene composite membrane (PVDF-PS), which is caused by the incorporation of sulfonic acid groups. The proton conductivity and the methanol permeability of the PVDF-SPS membrane measured at 298 K are 29.3 mS.cm-1 and 8.6x10-8 cm2.s-1, respectively. Although PVDF-SPS composite membrane possesses the lower oxidative stability than Nafion-117 membrane, the composite membrane displays lower methanol permeability than the Nafion-117 membrane, and the selectivity (the ratio of proton conductivity and methanol permeability) of the composite membrane is almost 20 times than that of Nafion-117.

  9. A novel electroless method to prepare a platinum electrocatalyst on diamond for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Xiao; Hu, Jingping; Foord, John S.; Wang, Qiang

    2013-11-01

    A novel electroless deposition method was demonstrated to prepare a platinum electrocatalyst on boron doped diamond (BDD) substrates without the need for pre-activation. This green method addresses the uniformity and particle size issues associated with electrodeposition and circumvents the pre-activation procedure which is necessary for conventional electroless deposition. The inert BDD substrate formed a galvanic couple with an iron wire, to overcome the activation barrier associated with conventional electroless deposition on diamond, leading to the formation of Pt nanoparticles on the electrode surface in a galvanic process coupled to a chemical process. When sodium hypophosphite was employed as the reducing agent to drive the electroless reaction Pt deposits which were contaminated with iron and phosphorus resulted. In contrast, the reducing agent ascorbic acid gave rise to high purity Pt nanoparticles. Optimal deposition conditions with respect to bath temperature, pH value and stabilizing additives are identified. Using this approach, high purity and uniformly distributed platinum nanoparticles are obtained on the diamond electrode surface, which demonstrate a high electrochemical activity towards methanol oxidation.

  10. Physical and chemical characteristics of ultrasonically-prepared water-in-diesel fuel: effects of ultrasonic horn position and water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yoshihiro; Imazu, Hiroki; Nishida, Keiichi

    2014-03-01

    An ultrasonic technique was applied to preparation of two-phase water-in-oil (W/O) emulsified fuel of water/diesel oil/surfactant. In this study, an ultrasonic apparatus with a 28 kHz rod horn was used. The influence of the horn tip position during ultrasonic treatment, sonication time and water content (5 or 10 vol%) on the emulsion stability, viscosity, water droplet size and water surface area of emulsion fuels prepared by ultrasonication was investigated. The emulsion stability of ultrasonically-prepared fuel significantly depended on the horn tip position during ultrasonic irradiation. It was found that the change in the stability with the horn tip position was partly related to that in the ultrasonic power estimated by calorimetry. Emulsion stability, viscosity and sum of water droplets surface area increased and water droplet size decreased with an increase in sonication time, and they approached each limiting value in the longer time. The maximum values of the viscosity and water surface area increased with water content, while the limiting values of the emulsion stability and water droplet size were almost independent of water content. During ultrasonication of water/diesel oil mixture, the hydrogen and methane were identified and the cracking of hydrocarbon components in the diesel oil occurred. The combustion characteristics of ultrasonically-prepared emulsion fuel were studied and compared with those of diesel oil. The soot and NOx emissions during combustion of the emulsified fuel with higher water contents were significantly reduced compared with those during combustion of diesel oil.

  11. Batteries and fuel cells in the transport sector and stationary energy supply. Current status of the NIP federal market preparation programme and the electromobility model regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Tilman [NOW GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Hydrogen and fuel cells as well as batteries are key technologies in the context of achieving climate goals and for the transformation of the energy sector. Their successful commercial introduction requires joint efforts from public and private stakeholders. In a first step R and D and demonstration programs were implemented to accelerate their respective market preparation. The National Innovation Program for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies (NIP) as well as large field tests of battery electric vehicles are ongoing combining technological development with market relevant aspects such as safety or public acceptance. (orig.)

  12. 喷气燃料中元素硫的定量测定%QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF ELEMENTAL SULFUR IN JET FUEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡泽祥; 杨官汉; 王立光; 娄方

    2001-01-01

    采用将喷气燃料中的元素硫与汞反应转化生成汞的化合物后由冷原子吸收 法测汞的 方法,获得油样中元素硫含量。此法灵敏度高,元素硫最低检测浓度为1.6×10-3 μ g /ml; 元素硫浓度在0~0.05 μg/ml范围内与紫外光吸收值存在良好线性关系,方法精密度和准确 度好。%In order to measure the elemental sulfur in jet fuel,the method can be used,that is the elemental sulfur in jet fuel reacts quantitatively with mercury to produce mercury sulfide,and then the mercury content in mercury sulfide is measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.This measurement method possesses high sensitivity,good precision and accuracy,the minimum detectable concentration of elemental sulfur is 1.6×10-3μg/ml,and the linear range of elemental sulfur is 0 to 0.05 μg/ml.

  13. Bacterial community shift and improved performance induced by in situ preparing dual graphene modified bioelectrode in microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junfeng; Hu, Yongyou; Zhang, Lihua; Huang, Wantang; Sun, Jian

    2017-08-01

    Dual graphene modified bioelectrode (D-GM-BE) was prepared by in situ microbial-induced reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and polarity reversion in microbial fuel cell (MFC). Next Generation Sequencing technology was used to elucidate bacterial community shift in response to improved performance in D-GM-BE MFC. The results indicated an increase in the relative ratio of Proteobacteria, but a decrease of Firmicutes was observed in graphene modified bioanode (GM-BA); increase of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were observed in graphene modified biocathode (GM-BC). Genus analysis demonstrated that GM-BE was beneficial to enrich electrogens. Typical exoelectrogens were accounted for 13.02% and 8.83% in GM-BA and GM-BC. Morphology showed that both GM-BA and GM-BC formed 3D-like graphene/biofilm architectures and revealed that the biofilm viability and thickness would decrease to some extent when GM-BE was formed. D-GM-BE MFC obtained the maximum power density by 124.58±6.32mWm(-2), which was 2.34 times over C-BE MFC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Refuse Derived Fuel for Pyrolysis and Gasification by Bindless High Pressure Briquetting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宪生; 解强; 厉伟; 沈吉敏

    2004-01-01

    A new type of refuse derived fuel (RDF) for pyrolysis and gasification was prepared from municipal solid waste (MSW) in the presence of a small quantity of coal by bindless high pressure technology at room temperature. The physicochemical property of RDF was tested. Orthogonal experiment method was used to optimize the process parameters using dropping strength (mechanical strength) and thermal stability of the RDF as indices for quality of RDF. The result shows that the mixture of MSW and coal with a total moisture ranging from 5% to 17% can be easily compressed into RDF briquettes at a pressure above 70 MPa. When the briquetting pressure is higher than 100 kN and moisture content is about 10%, the qualified RDF can be obtained. The orthogonal experiment shows that the moisture can greatly affect the mechanical strength of RDF, while all the technique parameters have no obvious influence on thermal stability of RDF. The optimal parameters are a shaping pressure of 106 MPa, a moisture content of 10%, and a coal content of 20%.

  15. Career Preparation: An Often Omitted Element of the Advisor-Graduate Student Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, D. A.

    2001-05-01

    Most graduate research advisors care about the education of their graduate students. However, they often define "graduate education" so narrowly that it consists only of solving a research problem. This narrow definition is consistent with their principal goal as geoscientists, to understand the Earth better, and with the reward system typical of research universities, with its emphasis on research. As a result, most advisors usually well prepare students to be researchers in research universities. Research, however, is only part of a faculty member's duties. Commonly omitted is mentoring in the teaching and service duties of a faculty member. Students interested in teaching, in positions in other academic institutions, or in careers outside of academia may be perceived as questioning the advisors' career values and may not be encouraged in these interests. Graduate students should take an active role in their education. In addition to seeking information on career preparation from the campus career center and teaching center and from books, newsmagazines, newspapers, and seminars, students should also seek mentors who have demonstrated an interest in what the student is interested in: teaching and service, as well as research, or in careers outside academia. These mentors may be the students' committee members, other faculty members, or other professional geoscientists. With a broad base of information and some personal decisions, students will have a rationale for exploring careers. The questions students ask can now be more specific: How do they gain the requisite breadth in knowledge and the beneficial skills, beyond the depth of the research experience, and how do they gain opportunities to practice these skills? In short, how can they experience, and preferably practice, what professional geoscientists do in particular careers? If necessary, graduate students can work together to answer these questions by inviting experts to offer workshops in the department

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN U-MO DISPERSED FUEL OF FULL-SIZE FUEL ELEMENTS AND MINI-RODS IRRADIATED IN THE MIR REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEKSEY. L. IZHUTOV

    2013-12-01

    The full-size fuel rods were irradiated up to an average burnup of ∼ 60%235U; the mini-rods were irradiated to an average burnup of ∼ 85%235U. The presented data show a significant increase of the void fraction in the U-Mo alloy as the U-235 burnup rises from ∼ 40% up to ∼ 85%. The effect of irradiation test conditions and U-235 burnup were analyzed with regard to the formation of an interaction layer between the matrix and fuel particles as well as generation of porosity in the U-Mo alloy. Shown here are changes in distribution of U fission products as the U-235 burnup increases from ∼ 40% up to ∼ 85%.

  17. Preparation of a nanosized micro element fertilizer formulation by using gamma-irradiation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae Jun; Kim, Hwa Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    In this study, we addressed a novel nanosized curdlan-silica complex, which is curdlan bound to silica, for the development of a sustain-releasing micro element fertilizer formulation. The complex was obtained as follow steps: First, Curdlan polymer, sodium silicate (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) and isopropyl alcohol were dissolved in DDW. Next the resultant solution was irradiated by {sup 60}Co gamma-irradiator (150 TBq of capacity: ACEL, Canada). Then MgSO{sub 4} was treated with the resultant solution. The obtained colloidal solution was dried by freeze dryer. Finally, we obtained a novel nanosized curdlan-silica formulation containing MgSO{sub 4} from the colloidal solution. The morphology of the complex was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanosized curdlan-silica complex has particle size ranging from 20 to 80nm and high stability. Our results suggested that the nano-complex can be applicable to use in various sustain-releasing formulation formulation for pesticide delivery system (PDS)

  18. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capossela, Harry J.; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Luce, Robert G.; McCoy, Daniel F.; Merriman, Floyd C.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect.

  19. Effect of rare earth element cerium on preparation of tungsten powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何文; 谭敦强; 李亚蕾; 杨欣; 陆磊; 陆德平

    2015-01-01

    Tungsten powders and Ce doped powders were prepared by hydrogen reduction combined with the liquid-solid doping method. The phase composition, particle size and powder morphology of Ce doped tungsten powders were analyzed by X-ray diffrac-tion, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicated that 10000 ppm Ce doped tungsten oxide powders were consisted of WO3 phase and Ce4W9O33 phase. The hydrogen reduction of Ce doped tungsten powders was basically accomplished at 800 ºC for 3 h. The size of Ce doped W powders was remarkably decreased compared to the undoped W powders. The phase of Ce4W9O33 was reduced to Ce2 (WO4)3 phase and Ce2W2O9 phase during the process of hydrogen reduction. Moreover, Ce2 (WO4)3 phase and Ce2W2O9 phase were observed form their morphologies, where the doping content of Ce was more than 100 ppm. The ternary phase embedding into W particles was assigned to Ce2 (WO4)3, while the ternary phase distrib-uting among W particles corresponded to Ce2W2O9. The phase of Ce2 (WO4)3 might be the nucleus of W particles and increase the number of the nucleus. And the particles of Ce2W2O9 covered WO2 particles and might inhibit the growth of W particles. These two reasons resulted in the decrease of the size of Ce doped W particles. Uniform fine W powders were fabricated with the doping content of Ce more than 100 ppm.

  20. Development of finite element analysis code SPOTBOW for prediction of local velocity and temperature fields around distorted fuel pin in LMFBR assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takeshi [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Lab.

    1996-05-01

    A two-dimensional steady-state distributed parameter code SPOTBOW has been developed for predicting the fine structure of cladding temperature in an liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuel assembly where the deformation of fuel pins is induced by irradiation swelling, creep and thermal distortion under high burn-up operating condition. When the deformed fuel pin approaches adjacent pins and wrapper tube and comes in contact with those, the peak temperature, known as the hot spot temperature, can appear somewhere on the outer surface of the cladding. The temperature rise across the film is an important consideration in the cladding temperature analysis. Fully developed turbulent momentum and heat transfer equations based on the empirical turbulent model are solved by using the Galerkin finite element method which is suitable for the problem of the complicated boundary shape, such as the wire-wrapped fuel pin bundle. A new iteration procedure has been developed for solving the above equations by using the rise in coolant temperature, which is obtained with subchannel analysis codes, as a boundary condition. Calculated results are presented for local temperature distribution in normal and bowing pin bundle geometry, as compared with experiments. (author).

  1. Humidity Sensing Elements Based on Zn-doped TiO2 Films Prepared via a Sol-gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvezditza Nenova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Humidity sensing elements have been prepared via a sol-gel method on the basis of titanium n-butoxide, doped with ZnO. By this method Zn-modified titania films have been deposited on alumina substrates with interdigitated silver palladium electrodes and subsequent sintering at temperatures of 400°С and 800°С. Scanning electron microscopy has been employed to determine the surface morphology of the films obtained. Structural and compositional characterization has been done by X-ray diffraction analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Electrical measurements of the characteristics and parameters of the obtained samples have been taken by an impedance analyzer within a frequency range from 100Hz to 1MHz. The impact of the Zn-dopant and sintering temperature on the samples electrical properties has been studied. The samples obtained by the sol-gel method described can be used as humidity sensing elements which change their resistance given changes in relative humidity at frequencies of up to about 1kHz.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.6244

  2. IEA-R1 reactor spent fuel element surveillance; Acompanhamento da irradiacao dos elementos combustiveis do reator IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damy, Margaret de Almeida; Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac; Silva, Jose Eduardo Rosa da; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Teodoro, Celso A.; Lucki, Georgi; Castanheira, Myrthes [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: madamy@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    The irradiation surveillance is an important part of a qualification program of the U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion nuclear fuels manufactured in IPEN/CNEN-SP. This work presents the surveillance results regarding the fuel and control elements irradiated in the IEA-R1 research reactor during the period from June/1999 until December/2003, which embraced register of visual inspections, irradiation conditions, burn-up calculations, thermal hydraulic parameters and failure occurrences. Also providing information that helps the safe operation of the IEA-R1 research reactor, the irradiation surveillance is a collaboration work involving researchers of the Centro de Engenharia Nuclear (CEN) and the operators' staff of the Centro do Reator de Pesquisas (CRPq), both from IPEN/CNEN-SP. (author)

  3. Microstructural changes in NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics prepared with powders derived from different fuels in sol-gel auto-combustion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Lalita, E-mail: chauhan.lalita5@gmail.com; Sreenivas, K. [Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Bokolia, Renuka

    2016-05-23

    Structural properties of Nickel ferrite (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) ceramics prepared from powders derived from sol gel auto-combustion method using different fuels (citric acid, glycine and Dl-alanine) are compared. Changes in the structural properties at different sintering temperatures are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of single phase material with cubic structure. Ceramics prepared using the different powders obtained from different fuels show that that there are no significant changes in lattice parameters. However increasing sintering temperatures show significant improvement in density and grain size. The DL-alanine fuel is found to be the most effective fuel for producing NIFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders by the sol-gel auto combustion method and yields highly crystalline powders in the as-burnt stage itself at a low temperature (80 °C). Subsequent use of the powders in ceramic manufacturing produces dense NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics with a uniform microstructure and a large grain size.

  4. Evaluation of Erosion of the Dummy “EE” Plate 19 in YA Type ATR Fuel Element During Reactor PALM Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Jeffrey O. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Advanced Test Reactor; Glazoff, Michael V. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Advanced Test Reactor; Eiden, Thomas J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Advanced Test Reactor; Rezvoi, Aleksey V. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Advanced Test Reactor

    2016-08-01

    Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 153B-1 was a 14-day, high-power, powered axial locator mechanism (PALM) operating cycle that completed on April 12, 2013. Cycle 153B-1 was a typical operating cycle for the ATR and did not result in any unusual plant transients. ATR was started up and shut down as scheduled. The PALM drive physically moves the selected experiments into and out of the core to simulate reactor startup and heat up, and shutdown and cooldown transients, while the reactor remains in steady state conditions. However, after the cycle was over, when the fuel elements were removed from the core and inspected, several thousand flow-assisted erosion pits and “horseshoeing” defects were readily observed on the surface of the several YA-type fuel elements (these are aluminum “dummy” plates that contain no fuel). In order to understand these erosion phenomena a thermal-hydraulic model of coolant channel 20 on a YA-M fuel element was generated. The boundaries of the model were the aluminum EE plate of a YA-M fuel element and a beryllium reflector block with 13 horizontal saw cuts which represented regions of zero flow. The heat generated in fuel plates 1 through 18 was modeled to be passing through the aluminum EE plate. The coolant channel 20 width was set at 0.058 in. (58 mils). It was established that the horizontal saw cuts had a significant effect on the temperature of the coolant. The flow, which was expected to vary linearly with gradual heating of the coolant as it passed through the channel, was extremely turbulent. The temperature rise, which was expected to be a smooth “S” curve, was represented by a series temperature rise “humps,” which occurred at each horizontal saw cut in the beryllium reflector block. Each of the 13 saw cuts had a chamfered edge which resulted in the coolant flow being re-directed as a jet across the coolant channel into the surface of the EE plate, which explained the temperature rise and the observed scalloping

  5. Stiffness evaluation of the welded connection between guide thimbles and the spacer grids 16 X 16 fuel assemblies types, using the finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schettino, Carlos Frederico Mattos; Sakamiti, Guilherme Pennachin; Gaspar Junior, Joao Carlos Aguiar, E-mail: carlosschettino@inb.gov.br, E-mail: guilhermesakamiti@inb.gov.br, E-mail: joaojunior@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Producao Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    The present work aims to evaluate, structurally, the increase in the number of spot welds to properly join the guide thimbles and the spacer grids in 16 x 16 fuel assemblies. This new and improved process can provide more stiffness to the whole structure, since the number of spots raised from four to eight. A 3-D geometric model of a guide thimble section was generated in the program SOLIDWORKS. After that, the geometric model was imported to ANSYS program, where the finite element model was built, considering the guide thimble geometry assembled with the spacer grid and the welded connections. Boundaries conditions were implemented in the model in order to simulate the correct physical behavior due to the operation of the fuel assembly inside the reactor. The analysis covered specific loads and displacements acting on the entire structure. The method used to develop this finite element analysis was a linear static simulation that performing a single connection between a spacer grid cell and a guide thimble section. Hence four models was evaluated, differing on the spot weld number in the spacer grid and guide thimble connection. The rotational stiffness results of each model were compared. The results acquired from four and eight spot weld were validated with physical test results.The behavior of the structure under the acting force/displacement and the related results of the analysis, mainly the stiffness, were satisfied. The results of this analysis were used to prove that the increasing of the spot welds number is an improvement in the dimensional stability when submitted to loads and displacements required on the fuel assembly design. This analysis aid to get more information of extreme importance such as, the pursuance to develop better manufacturing process and to improve the fuel assembly performance due to the increasing of the burn-up. (author)

  6. Utilization of plutonium in a high temperature gas-cooled reactor with spherical fuel elements; Nutzung von Plutonium im Kugelhaufen-Hochtemperaturreaktor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorochev, M.

    1998-09-01

    This thesis deals with the use of reactor and weapon grade plutonium in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTR) with spherical fuel elements. As an example, a 350 MW{sub th} MODUL type reactor is investigated in detail. The purpose of the study was to find the possibilities and limits of using plutonium effectively in a Pebble Bed HTR. Fuel cycles were optimized with respect to different goals under the condition that safety requirements must be strictly fulfilled. A compromise between opposite optimization criteria (e.g., higher destruction rate or smaller residual amount of plutonium in the spent fuel) was achieved. Calculational studies of plutonium cycles in a Pebble Red Reactor were performed using the VSOP Code. The results show that a Pebble Red Reactor potentially provides for extremely high burnup of plutonium. The high burnup was achieved by separate loading of the plutonium in feed and of uranium in breed type fuel elements. Both fuel element types undergo different numbers of passes through the reactor until the intended burnup is achieved. Two reference cases are derived from a parametric study, one for the use of reactor grade plutonium with uranium, and another one for weapon grade plutonium with thorium as the breed material. Both reference cycles prove that the HTR-350 Module reactor offers a good concept for the destruction of both plutonium grades. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird der Einsatz von Waffen- und Reaktorplutonium in Hochtemperaturreaktoren mit kugelfoermigen Brennelementen behandelt. Als Anwendungsbeispiel wird eine modulare Anlage mit einer Leistung von 350 MW{sub th} im Detail untersucht. Das Ziel der Arbeit bestand darin, die Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen fuer einen effektiven Abbrand von Plutonium in Kugelhaufenreaktoren kennenzulernen. Unter Wahrung hoher Sicherheitsansprueche wurden Brennstoffkreislaeufe identifiziert, welche fuer unterschiedliche Zielvorgaben optimiert wurden. Schliesslich wurde ein Kompromiss

  7. Estimation of the activity and isotopic composition of the fuel elements of the reactor in decaying; Estimacion de la actividad y composicion isotopica de los elementos combustibles del reactor en decaimiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-03-15

    At the present time its are had 59 fuel elements, 3 control bars with follower and 2 instrumented irradiated fuels that its are decaying in the pool of the reactor. The burnt one that its have these fuels is not uniform, the quantity of U-235 that contain at the moment it varies between 33.5 g up to 35.2 and its have a decay of at least 12 years. The burnt of the fuels was obtained with the CREMAT code, this burnt was takes like base to estimate the current isotopic inventory and the activity of the same ones using the ORIGEN2 code. (Author)

  8. Fuel elements assembling for the DON project exponential experience; Montaje de los elementos combustibles para la experiencia exponencial del proyecto DON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anca Abati, R. de

    1966-07-01

    It is described the fuel unit used in the DON exponential experience, the manufacturing installments and tools as well as the stages in the fabrication.These 74 elements contain each 19 cartridges loaded with synterized urania, uranium carbide and indium, gold, and manganese probes. They were arranged in calandria-like tubes and the process-tube. This last one containing a cooling liquid simulating the reactor organic. Besides being used in the DON reactor exponential experience they were used in critic essays by the substitution method in the French reactor AQUILON II. (Author) 6 refs.

  9. Simulation of a hybrid fuel cell electric powered vehicle; intermediary elements of power storage; Simulation d'un vehicule electrique a source hybridee pile a combustible; elements intermediaires de stockage de la puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candusso, D.; Rulliere, E.; Yonnet, J.P. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Ingenieurs Electriciens de Grenoble, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Baurens, P. [CEA/Grenoble, Dept. d' Etudes des Materiaux, DEM, 38 (France)

    2000-07-01

    Studies carried out by the LEG ('Laboratoire Electrotechnique de Grenoble') on the modelling of the different elements of the traction chains of batteries electric powered vehicles (motors, electric converters..) and on the coupling batteries - super-capacitors by a converter allowing to manage the energy exchanges between these different storage elements are basic works for the future studies of fuel cells vehicles. In this article is shown that the electric size range of each components of the traction chain is strongly conditioned by those of its neighbours and that a global simulation of the chain is a precious tool of decision assistance. The interest to combine the energy source is presented too. (O.M.)

  10. COMPARISON OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS AND ELEMENTAL PARTITIONING FROM THE COMBUSTION OF PULVERIZED COAL AND RESIDUAL FUEL OIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of experimental efforts in which three coals and a residual fuel oil were combusted in three different systems simulating process and utility boilers. Particloe size distributions (PSDs) were determined using atmospheric and low-pressure impaction, electr...

  11. Spatially resolved modelling of the fission product behaviour in a HTR-core with spherical or prismatic fuel elements; Raeumlich hoch aufgeloeste Modellierung des Spaltproduktverhaltens in einem HTR-Core mit kugelfoermigen oder prismatischen Brennelementen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xhonneux, Andre

    2014-07-01

    One of the most important aspects during the licensing procedure of nuclear facilities is the release of radioactive isotopes. The transport from the origin to the environment is called release chain. In the scope of this work, the spatially distributed fission product release from both spherical and prismatic fuel elements, the transport with the coolant as well as the deposition on reactor internals are simulated in detail. The fission product release codes which were developed at Forschungszentrum Juelich are analyzed, shortcomings are identified and resolved. On this basis, a consistent simulation module, named STACY, was developed, which contains all capabilities of the stand-alone codes and at the same time exceeds the methodology towards new aspects. The physics models were extended, for example to take the radial temperature profile within the fuel element and the realistic time-depending nuclide inventory into account. A central part of this work is the automated treatment of the release behavior of a representative number of fuel elements. This allows for a spatially resolved release calculation, where an individual release rate is calculated for each space region. The coupling with the depletion code Topological Nuclide Transmutation (TNT) allows for conducting an individual depletion calculation for each considered fuel element. It is shown, that the released inventory is representative for a certain number of fuel elements. By using this model, the fission product release is being studied for a reference plant (HTR-Modul). Both the releases from the equilibrium core as well as the release during a core heat-up after a fast depressurization accident are being studied. In comparison to former studies, the cumulative release of long-lived nuclides during the core heat-up phase is lower and the release of short-lived nuclides is about two times higher. The release calculation can also be conducted for prismatic fuel elements (e.g. those of the Japanese

  12. Thermohydraulic study of a MTR fuel element aimed at the construction of an irradiation facility; Estudo termohidraulico de um elemento combustivel tipo MTR visando a construcao de um dispositivo de irradiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coragem, Helio Boemer de Oliveira

    1980-07-01

    A thermohydraulic study of MTR fuel element is presented as a basic requirement for the development of an irradiation facility for testing fuel elements. A computer code named 'Thermo' has been developed for this purpose, which can stimulate different working conditions, such as, cooling, power elements and neutron flux, performing all pertinent thermohydraulic calculations. Thermocouples were used to measure the temperature gradients of the cooling fluid throughout the IEAR-1 reactor core. All experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical model applied in this work. Finally, a draft of the proposed facility and its safety system is presented. (author)

  13. Interim report spent nuclear fuel retrieval system fuel handling development testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketner, G.L.; Meeuwsen, P.V.; Potter, J.D.; Smalley, J.T.; Baker, C.P.; Jaquish, W.R.

    1997-06-01

    Fuel handling development testing was performed in support of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Sub-Project at the Hanford Site. The project will retrieve spent nuclear fuel, clean and remove fuel from canisters, repackage fuel into baskets, and load fuel into a multi-canister overpack (MCO) for vacuum drying and interim dry storage. The FRS is required to retrieve basin fuel canisters, clean fuel elements sufficiently of uranium corrosion products (or sludge), empty fuel from canisters, sort debris and scrap from whole elements, and repackage fuel in baskets in preparation for MCO loading. The purpose of fuel handling development testing was to examine the systems ability to accomplish mission activities, optimization of equipment layouts for initial process definition, identification of special needs/tools, verification of required design changes to support performance specification development, and validation of estimated activity times/throughput. The test program was set up to accomplish this purpose through cold development testing using simulated and prototype equipment; cold demonstration testing using vendor expertise and systems; and graphical computer modeling to confirm feasibility and throughput. To test the fuel handling process, a test mockup that represented the process table was fabricated and installed. The test mockup included a Schilling HV series manipulator that was prototypic of the Schilling Hydra manipulator. The process table mockup included the tipping station, sorting area, disassembly and inspection zones, fuel staging areas, and basket loading stations. The test results clearly indicate that the Schilling Hydra arm cannot effectively perform the fuel handling tasks required unless it is attached to some device that can impart vertical translation, azimuth rotation, and X-Y translation. Other test results indicate the importance of camera locations and capabilities, and of the jaw and end effector tool design. 5 refs., 35 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Evaluation of Corrosion of the Dummy “EE” Plate 19 in YA Type ATR Fuel Element During Reactor PALM Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Jeffrey Owen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Glazoff, Michael Vasily [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Eiden, Thomas John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rezvoi, Aleksey Victor [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 153B-1 was a 14-day, high-power, powered axial locator mechanism (PALM) operating cycle that completed on April 12, 2013. Cycle 153B-1 was a typical operating cycle for the ATR and did not result in any unusual plant transients. ATR was started up and shut down as scheduled. The PALM drive physically moves the selected experiments into and out of the core to simulate reactor startup and heat up, and shutdown and cooldown transients, while the reactor remains in steady state conditions. However, after the cycle was over, several thousand of the flow-assisted corrosion pits and “horseshoeing” defects were readily observable on the surface of the several YA-type fuel elements (these are “dummy” plates that contain no fuel). In order understand these corrosion phenomena a thermal-hydraulic model of coolant channel 20 on a YA-M fuel element was generated. The boundaries of the model were the aluminum EE plate of a YA-M fuel element and a beryllium reflector block with 13 horizontal saw cuts which represented regions of zero flow. The heat generated in fuel plates 1 through 18 was modeled to be passing through the aluminum EE plate. The coolant channel 20 width was set at 0.058 in. (58 mils). It was established that the horizontal saw cuts had a significant effect on the temperature of the coolant. The flow, which was expected to vary linearly with gradual heating of the coolant as it passed through the channel, was extremely turbulent. The temperature rise, which was expected to be a smooth “S” curve, was represented by a series temperature rise “humps,” which occurred at each horizontal saw cut in the beryllium reflector block. Each of the 13 saw cuts had a chamfered edge which resulted in the coolant flow being re-directed as a jet across the coolant channel into the surface of the EE plate, which explained the temperature rise and the observed sscalloping and possibly pitting degradation on the YA-M fuel elements. In

  15. FINITE-ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF ROCK FALL ON UNCANISTERED FUEL WASTE PACKAGE DESIGNS (SCPB: N/A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Ceylan

    1996-10-18

    The objective of this analysis is to explore the Uncanistered Fuel (UCF) Tube Design waste package (WP) resistance to rock falls. This analysis will also be used to determine the size of rock that can strike the WP without causing failure in the containment barriers from a height based on the starter tunnel dimensions. The purpose of this analysis is to document the models and methods used in the calculations.

  16. 球形燃料元件中包覆燃料颗粒的化学分析%Chemical analysis of coated particles in spherical fuel element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文革; 倪晓军

    2001-01-01

    The free uranium content (the ratio of free uranium which is notentirely coated with SiC layer in coated fuel particles to total uranium in coated fuel particles) and the uranium content were studied and determined by laser-induced fluorimetric method and titration with a potentiometer. The sample was burned in air first, then immersed and refluxed in nitric acid to separate the free uranium with coated fuel particles to the nitric acid solution. The uranium content in sample solution can be directly measured by laser-induced fluorimetric method, other elements had no interference on the determination of uranium. The method is simpler, faster and more accurate than traditional method in uranium analysis. The method has low measurement error of below 10%, and satisfies the needs of the specifications in the manufacture of coated fuel particles.%报道了高温气冷堆球形燃料元件中包覆燃料颗粒的表面铀沾污、自由铀含量及包覆燃料颗粒的装铀量等性能指标的测试方法、范围及测量误差。利用激光荧光法测量并计算了包覆燃料颗粒中的自由铀含量及表面铀沾污,利用电位滴定法测量了包覆燃料颗粒的装铀量。结果表明,经4层连续包覆的包覆燃料颗粒的质量符合并满足高温气冷堆球形燃料元件对包覆燃料颗粒的设计要求。

  17. Preparation and properties of carbon nanotube/polypropylene nanocomposite bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu-Hang; Yen, Chuan-Yu; Weng, Cheng-Chih; Lin, Yu-Feng; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Yang, Ching-Hung; Tsai, Ming-Chi; Yen, Ming-Yu; Hsiao, Min-Chien; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Xie, Xiao-Feng; Hsiao, Yi-Hsiu

    This study aims at the fabrication of lightweight and high performance nanocomposite bipolar plates for the application in polymer electrode membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The thin nanocomposite bipolar plates (the thickness polypropylene (PP) with different crystallinities including high crystallinity PP (HC-PP), medium crystallinity PP (MC-PP), low crystallinity PP (LC-PP) were prepared to investigate the influence of crystallinity on the dispersion of MWCNTs in PP matrix. The optimum composition of original composite bipolar plates was determined at 80 wt.% graphite content and 20 wt.% PP content based on the measurements of electrical and mechanical properties with various graphite contents. Results also indicate that MWCNTs was dispersed better in LC-PP than other PP owing to enough dispersed regions in nanocomposite bipolar plates. This good MWCNT dispersion of LC-PP would cause better bulk electrical conductivity, mechanical properties and thermal stability of MWCNTs/PP nanocomposite bipolar plates. In the MWCNTs/LC-PP system, the bulk electrical conductivities with various MWCNT contents all exceed 100 S cm -1. The flexural strength of the MWCNTs/LC-PP nanocomposite bipolar plate with 8 phr of MWCNTs was approximately 37% higher than that of the original nanocomposite bipolar plate and the unnotched Izod impact strength of MWCNTs/LC-PP nanocomposite bipolar plates was also increased from 68.32 J m -1 (0 phr) to 81.40 J m -1 (8 phr), increasing 19%. In addition, the coefficient of thermal expansion of MWCNTs/LC-PP nanocomposite bipolar plate was decreased from 32.91 μm m -1 °C -1 (0 phr) to 25.79 μm m -1 °C -1 (8 phr) with the increasing of MWCNT content. The polarization curve of MWCNTs/LC-PP nanocomposite bipolar plate compared with graphite bipolar plate was also evaluated. These results confirm that the addition of MWCNTs in LC-PP leads to a significant improvement on the cell performance of the nanocomposite bipolar plate.

  18. Evaluation of the potential of different high calorific waste fractions for the preparation of solid recovered fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés, Diego; Díaz, Eva; Ordóñez, Salvador; Sastre, Herminio; González-La, J.M. (José)

    2016-01-01

    Solid recovered fuels constitute a valuable alternative for the management of those non-hazardous waste fractions that cannot be recycled. The main purpose of this research is to assess the suitability of three different wastes from the landfill of the local waste management company (COGERSA), to be used as solid recovered fuels in a cement kiln near their facilities. The wastes analyzed were: End of life vehicles waste, packaging and bulky wastes. The study was carried out in two different p...

  19. Properties of unirradiated fuel element graphites H-451 and SO818. [Bulk density, tensile properties, thermal expansion, thermal conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engle, G.B.; Johnson, W.R.

    1976-10-08

    Nuclear graphites H-451, lot 440 (Great Lakes Carbon Corporation (GLCC)), and SO818 (Airco Speer Division, Air Reduction Corporation (AS)) are described, and physical, mechanical, and chemical property data are presented for the graphites in the unirradiated state. A summary of the mean values of the property data and of data on TS-1240 and H-451, lot 426, is tabulated. A direct comparison of H-451, lot 426, chosen for Fort St. Vrain (FSV) fuel reload production, TS-1240, and SO818 may be made from the table. (auth)

  20. Sensitivity analysis for heat diffusion in a fin on a nuclear fuel element; Analise de sensitividade na difusao de calor em uma aleta de um elemento combustivel nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tito, Max Werner de Carvalho

    2001-11-15

    The modern thermal systems generally present a growing complexity, as is in the case of nuclear power plants. It seems that is necessary the use of complex computation and mathematical tools in order to increase the efficiency of the operations, reduce costs and maximize profits while maintaining the integrity of its components. The use of sensitivity calculations plays an important role in this process providing relevant information regarding the resultant influence of variation or perturbation of its parameters as the system works. This technique is better known as sensitivity analysis and through its use makes possible the understanding of the effects of the parameters, which are fundamental for the project preparation, and for the development of preventive and corrective handling measurements of many pieces of equipment of modern engineering. The sensitivity calculation methodology is based generally on the response surface technique (graphic description of the functions of interest based in the results obtained from the system parameter variation). This method presents a lot of disadvantages and sometimes is even impracticable since many parameters can cause alterations or perturbations to the system and the model to analyse it can be very complex as well. The utilization of perturbative methods result appropriate as a practical solution to this problem especially in the presence of complex equations. Also it reduces the resultant computational calculus time considerably. The use of these methods becomes an essential tool to simplify the sensitivity analysis. In this dissertation, the differential perturbative method is applied in a heat conduction problem within a thermal system, made up of a one-dimensional circumferential fin on a nuclear fuel element. The fins are used to extend the thermal surfaces where convection occurs; thus increasing the heat transfer to many thermal pieces of equipment in order to obtain better results. The finned claddings are

  1. Development and optimization of the procedure of gas- chromatographic elemental analysis of high-carbon solid fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Shvykin, A.Y.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Podshibyakin, S.I.; Chilachava, K.B.; Khmarin, E.M.; Solov' ev, A.S. [Tolstoy Tula State Pedagogical University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    A procedure was developed for gas-chromatographic elemental analysis of coals. The conditions of exhaustive oxidation of weighed microportions of the coals were optimized. The procedure of calculating the results of analysis was modified with the aim to improve its reproducibility.

  2. Fission product release model for failed plate-type fuel element and storage under water; Modelo para liberacao de produtos de fissao por placa combustivel falhada e armazenada sob agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terremoto, L.A.A.; Zeituni, C.A.; Silva, J.E.R. da; Castanheira, M.; Lucki, G.; Silva, A.T. e; Teodoro, C.A.; Damy, M. de A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: laaterre@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    Plate-type fuel elements burned-up inside the core of nuclear research reactors are stored mainly under deionized water of storage pools. When cladding failure occurs in such elements, radioactive fission products are released into the storage pool water. This work proposes a model to describe the release mechanism considering the diffusion through a postulated small cylindrical failure. As a consequence, an analytical expression is obtained for the activity released into the water as a function of the total storage time of a failed fuel plate. The proposed model reproduces the linear increasing of {sup 137}Cs specific activity observed in sipping tests already performed on failed plate-type fuel elements. (author)

  3. Removal performance of elemental mercury by low-cost adsorbents prepared through facile methods of carbonisation and activation of coconut husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Khairiraihanna; Alias, Afidatul Shazwani; Saman, Norasikin; Song, Shiow Tien; Mat, Hanapi

    2015-01-01

    The preparation of chars and activated carbon as low-cost elemental mercury adsorbents was carried out through the carbonisation of coconut husk (pith and fibre) and the activation of chars with potassium hydroxide (KOH), respectively. The synthesised adsorbents were characterised by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis. The elemental mercury removal performance was measured using a conventional flow type packed-bed adsorber. The physical and chemical properties of the adsorbents changed as a result of the carbonisation and activation process, hence affecting on the extent of elemental mercury adsorption. The highest elemental mercury (Hg°) adsorption capacity was obtained for the CP-CHAR (3142.57 µg g(-1)), which significantly outperformed the pristine and activated carbon adsorbents, as well as higher than some adsorbents reported in the literature.

  4. Year-round Source Contributions of Fossil Fuel and Biomass Combustion to Elemental Carbon on the North Slope Alaska Utilizing Radiocarbon Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, T. E.; Gustafsson, O.; Winiger, P.; Moffett, C.; Back, J.; Sheesley, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    It is well documented that the Arctic has undergone rapid warming at an alarming rate over the past century. Black carbon (BC) affects the radiative balance of the Arctic directly and indirectly through the absorption of incoming solar radiation and by providing a source of cloud and ice condensation nuclei. Among atmospheric aerosols, BC is the most efficient absorber of light in the visible spectrum. The solar absorbing efficiency of BC is amplified when it is internally mixed with sulfates. Furthermore, BC plumes that are fossil fuel dominated have been shown to be approximately 100% more efficient warming agents than biomass burning dominated plumes. The renewal of offshore oil and gas exploration in the Arctic, specifically in the Chukchi Sea, will introduce new BC sources to the region. This study focuses on the quantification of fossil fuel and biomass combustion sources to atmospheric elemental carbon (EC) during a year-long sampling campaign in the North Slope Alaska. Samples were collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) climate research facility in Barrow, AK, USA. Particulate matter (PM10) samples collected from July 2012 to June 2013 were analyzed for EC and sulfate concentrations combined with radiocarbon (14C) analysis of the EC fraction. Radiocarbon analysis distinguishes fossil fuel and biomass burning contributions based on large differences in end members between fossil and contemporary carbon. To perform isotope analysis on EC, it must be separated from the organic carbon fraction of the sample. Separation was achieved by trapping evolved CO2 produced during EC combustion in a cryo-trap utilizing liquid nitrogen. Radiocarbon results show an average fossil contribution of 85% to atmospheric EC, with individual samples ranging from 47% to 95%. Source apportionment results will be combined with back trajectory (BT) analysis to assess geographic source region impacts on the EC burden in the western Arctic.

  5. Fabrication of CeO2 by sol-gel process based on microfluidic technology as an analog preparation of ceramic nuclear fuel microspheres

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Bin; Li, Jiaolong; Zhao, Zichen; Chang, Zhenqi; Serra, Christophe A

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidics integrated with sol-gel processes is introduced in preparing monodispersed MOX nuclear fuel microspheres using nonactive cerium as a surrogate for uranium or plutonium. The detailed information about microfluidic devices and sol-gel processes are provided. The effects of viscosity and flow rate of continuous and dispersed phase on size and size distribution of CeO2 microspheres have been investigated. A comprehensive characterization of the CeO2 microspheres has been conducted, including XRD pattern, SEM, density, size and size distribution. The size of prepared monodisperse particles can be controlled precisely in range of 10{\\mu}m to 1000{\\mu}m and the particle CV is below 3%.

  6. 75 FR 33565 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for New Medium- and Heavy-Duty Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... the report recently issued by the National Academy of Sciences. Transportation Research Board... comments from Federal, State, and local agencies, Indian tribes, and the public to help identify the... Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Final Rule, 75 FR 25324 (May 7, 2010)....

  7. 76 FR 26996 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for New Corporate Average Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... (Sept. 2010) \\17\\ See 75 FR 62739 (Oct. 13, 2010). In response to the President's call to provide... Regulations, 46 FR 18026 (1981) (emphasis added). Alternatives calculated at the upper point and at the lower... Environmental Impact Statement for New Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards AGENCY: National Highway...

  8. Investigating how fundamental parameters of XRF sample preparation and analysis affect the observed elemental concentration: an experiment using fluvial sediment from Sabah, Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higton, Sam; Walsh, Rory

    2015-04-01

    X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) is an important technique for measuring the concentrations of geochemical elements and inorganic contaminants adsorbed to sediments as an input to sediment tracing methods used to evaluate sediment transport dynamics in river catchments. In addition to traditional laboratory-based XRF instruments, the advent of increasingly advanced portable handheld XRF devices now mean that samples of fluvial sediment can be analysed in the field or in the laboratory following appropriate sample preparation procedures. There are limitations and sources of error associated with XRF sample preparation and analysis, however. It is therefore important to understand how fundamental parameters involved in sample preparation and analysis, such as sample compression and measurement exposure duration, affect observed variability in measurement results. Such considerations become important if the resulting measurement variability is high relative to the natural variability in element concentrations at a sample site. This paper deployed a simple experimental design to assess the impacts of varying a number of sample preparation and XRF analysis parameters on recorded measurements of elemental concentrations of the fine fraction (weight and sample quantity was sufficient to satisfy the assumption of 'infinite thickness' of sample. Standard plastic sample cups were used for both the Rigaku laboratory machine and the Niton portable XRF machine. A computer-controlled desktop laboratory stand was used in conjunction with the Niton handheld XRF analyser to ensure consistent repeated measurements. Parameters investigated related to sample preparation included consistent mechanical compression of samples within the sample cup and film thickness. Parameters investigated related to XRF analysis included the XRF machine selected and measurement exposure duration. As XRF is a non-destructive technique, wherever possible the same sample material was used to test different

  9. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  10. Spent nuclear fuel retrieval system fuel handling development testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, D.R.; Meeuwsen, P.V.

    1997-09-01

    Fuel handling development testing was performed in support of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Sub-Project, a subtask of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The FRS will be used to retrieve and repackage K-Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) currently stored in old K-Plant storage basins. The FRS is required to retrieve full fuel canisters from the basin, clean the fuel elements inside the canister to remove excessive uranium corrosion products (or sludge), remove the contents from the canisters and sort the resulting debris, scrap, and fuel for repackaging. The fuel elements and scrap will be collected in fuel storage and scrap baskets in preparation for loading into a multi canister overpack (MCO), while the debris is loaded into a debris bin and disposed of as solid waste. This report describes fuel handling development testing performed from May 1, 1997 through the end of August 1997. Testing during this period was mainly focused on performance of a Schilling Robotic Systems` Conan manipulator used to simulate a custom designed version, labeled Konan, being fabricated for K-Basin deployment. In addition to the manipulator, the camera viewing system, process table layout, and fuel handling processes were evaluated. The Conan test manipulator was installed and fully functional for testing in early 1997. Formal testing began May 1. The purposes of fuel handling development testing were to provide proof of concept and criteria, optimize equipment layout, initialize the process definition, and identify special needs/tools and required design changes to support development of the performance specification. The test program was set up to accomplish these objectives through cold (non-radiological) development testing using simulated and prototype equipment.

  11. Preparation of anode-electrolyte structures using graphite, sodium bicarbonate or citric acid as pore forming agents for application in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz Fiuza, Raigenis da; Silva, Marcos Aurelio da; Guedes, Bruna C.; Pontes, Luiz A.; Boaventura, Jaime Soares [UFBA, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil). Energy and Materials Science Group

    2010-07-01

    Cermets based on Ni supported on YSZ or GDC were prepared for use as anode in direct reform SOFCs. NaHCO3 (Na-Ni-YSZ and Na-Ni-GDC) or citric acid (Ac-Ni-YSZ and Ac-Ni-GDC) were used as pore forming agents (PFAs). The SOFC anode was also prepared using graphite (G-Ni-YSZ and G-Ni-GDC) as PFA for the purposes of comparison. The testing unitary SOFC, planar type, was made by pressing the anode-electrolyte assembly, followed by sintering at 1500 C. After this, LSM (lanthanum and strontium manganite) paint was used for the cathode deposition. The powdered cermets were evaluated in ethanol steam reforming at 650 C. The ethanol conversion was 84% and 32% for cermets Na-Ni-YSZ and G-Ni-YSZ, respectively and the selectivity to H{sub 2} was 32 and 20% for the two cermets, respectively. The Na-Ni-YSZ cermet was ten times more resistant to carbon deposition than the G-Ni-YSZ cermet. SEM micrographs of the anode-electrolyte assembly showed that the use of NaHCO{sub 3} as PFA created a well formed interface between layers with homogeneously distributed pores. In contrast, graphite as PFA formed a loose interface between anode and electrolyte. The performance of the unitary SOFC was evaluated using ethanol, hydrogen or methane as fuel. The cell operated well using any of these fuels; however, they exhibited different electrochemical behavior. (orig.)

  12. Effect of fuels on conductivity, dielectric and humidity sensing properties of ZrO2 nanocrystals prepared by low temperature solution combustion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.C. Madhusudhana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ZrO2 nanopowders were synthesized by low temperature solution combustion method using two different fuels namely glycine and oxalyldihydrazide (ODH. The phase confirmation was done by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD and Raman spectral analysis. Use of glycine resulted in ZrO2 with mixture of tetragonal and monoclinic phase with average crystallite size of ∼30 nm. However, ODH as fuel aids in the formation of ZrO2 with mixture of tetragonal and cubic phase with average crystallite size ∼20 nm. Further, in present work we present novel way to tune conductivity property of the nano ZrO2. We show that merely changing the fuel from glycine to ODH, we obtain better DC conductivity and dielectric constant. On the other hand use of glycine leads to the formation of ZrO2 with better AC conductivity and humidity sensing behavior. The dielectric constants calculated for samples prepared with glycine and ODH were found to be 45 and 26 respectively at 10 MHz. The AC and DC conductivity values of the samples prepared with glycine was found to be 9.5 × 10−4 S cm−1, 1.1 × 10−3 S cm−1 and that of ODH was 7.6 × 10−4 S cm−1, 3.6 × 10−3 S cm−1 respectively.

  13. Evaluating focused ion beam and ultramicrotome sample preparation for analytical microscopies of the cathode layer of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    de A. Melo, Lis G.; Hitchcock, Adam P.; Berejnov, Viatcheslav; Susac, Darija; Stumper, Juergen; Botton, Gianluigi A.

    2016-04-01

    Optimizing the structure of the porous electrodes of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEM-FC) can improve device power and durability. Analytical microscopy techniques are important tools for measuring the electrode structure, thereby providing guidance for structural optimization. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), with either Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) or Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) analysis, and Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopy (STXM) are complementary methods which, together, provide a powerful approach for PEM-FC electrode analysis. Both TEM and STXM require thin (50-200 nm) samples, which can be prepared either by Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling or by embedding and ultramicrotomy. Here we compare TEM and STXM spectromicroscopy analysis of FIB and ultramicrotomy sample preparations of the same PEM-FC sample, with focus on how sample preparation affects the derived chemical composition and spatial distributions of carbon support and ionomer. The FIB lamella method, while avoiding pore-filling by embedding media, had significant problems. In particular, in the FIB sample the carbon support was extensively amorphized and the ionomer component suffered mass loss and structural damage. Although each sample preparation technique has a role to play in PEM-FC optimization studies, it is important to be aware of the limitations of each method.

  14. Preparation and electrochemistry of Pd-Ni/Si nanowire nanocomposite catalytic anode for direct ethanol fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Fengjuan; Tao, Bairui; Chu, Paul K

    2012-04-28

    A new silicon-based anode suitable for direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) is described. Pd-Ni nanoparticles are coated on Si nanowires (SiNWs) by electroless co-plating to form the catalytic materials. The electrocatalytic properties of the SiNWs and ethanol oxidation on the Pd-Ni catalyst (Pd-Ni/SiNWs) are investigated electrochemically. The effects of temperature and working potential limit in the anodic direction on ethanol oxidation are studied by cyclic voltammetry. The Pd-Ni/SiNWs electrode exhibits higher electrocatalytic activity and better long-term stability in an alkaline solution. It also yields a larger current density and negative onset potential thus boding well for its application to fuel cells.

  15. Preparation of UC0.07-0.10N0.90-0.93 spheres for TRISO coated fuel particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Jack Lee [ORNL; Hunt, Rodney Dale [ORNL; Johnson, Jared A [ORNL; Silva, Chinthaka M [ORNL; Lindemer, Terrence [Harbach Engineering and Solutions

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is considering a new nuclear fuel, which should be much more impervious during a loss of coolant accident. The fuel would consist of tristructural isotropic coated particles with dense uranium nitride (UN) kernels. The objectives of this effort are to make uranium oxide microspheres with adequately dispersed carbon nanoparticles and to convert these microspheres into UN kernels. Recent improvements to internal gelation process were successfully applied to the production of uranium gel spheres with different concentrations of carbon black. After the spheres were washed, a simple, two-step heat profile was used to produce kernels with a chemical composition of UC0.07 0.10N0.90 0.93. The first step involved heating the microspheres to 2023 K in a vacuum, and in the second step, the microspheres were held at 1873 K for 6 hrs in nitrogen.

  16. Electrolytic reduction of a simulated oxide spent fuel and the fates of representative elements in a Li2O-LiCl molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wooshin; Choi, Eun-Young; Kim, Sung-Wook; Jeon, Sang-Chae; Cho, Young-Hwan; Hur, Jin-Mok

    2016-08-01

    A series of electrolytic reduction experiments were carried out using a simulated oxide spent fuel to investigate the reduction behavior of elements in a mixed oxide condition and the fates of elements in the reduction process with 1.0 wt% Li2O-LiCl. It was found out that 155% of the theoretical charge was enough to reduce the simulated. Te and Eu were expected to possibly exist in the precipitate and on the anode surface, whereas Ba and Sr showed apparent dissolution behaviors. Rare earths showed relatively low metal fractions from 28.2 to 34.0% except for Y. And the solubility of rare earths was observed to be low due to the low concentration of Li2O. The reduction of U was successful as expected showing 99.8% of a metal fraction. Also it was shown that the reduction of ZrO2 would be effective when a relatively small amount was included in a metal oxide mixture.

  17. Hydrogen and fuel cells: the preparation is following; Hydrogene et piles a combustible: la gestation se poursuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The first applications of the fuel cells for the public are announced for 2007 in the portable domain (computers, phones...). Some technological locks remain to overcome in order to decrease the the hydrogen and cells production costs and to improve their longevity, especially for the automotive sector. The author discusses the static and the moving applications, the embedded applications, the platinum and the catalyzers, the hydrogen storage, the robotization and the hydrogen production. (A.L.B.)

  18. The health physics of installations for decladding irradiated fuels or for handling radio-elements at Marcoule; La radioprotection des installations de degainage des combustibles irradies et des radio-elements a Marcoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassany, J.; Guillermin, P.; Mallet, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule, 30 - Chusclan (France)

    1966-07-01

    Radiation protection practices for handling reactor fuel elements are described. Elements of considerable specific radioactivity are handled under water. A study was made of water filtration and of ventilation in the building. The installations are divided up into zones depending on the radioactive risks, and the radiation level atmospheric contamination are the object of a systematic control at various points. A description is given of all aspects of health physics which have been encountered during six years: storage, transfer of radioactive material; decladding, rolling, waste disposal, specialized operations, installations in operation and at rest, and transport. In spite of the gradual increase in the activity of these installations, the total doses received by the personnel have hardly altered and the number of cases of physical contamination has diminished. (authors) [French] Dans ces installations, se manipulent sous l'eau des elements a radioactivite specifique considerable. La filtration de l'eau, la ventilation ont ete particulierement etudiees. L'ensemble a ete divise en lieux classes en fonction des risques radioactifs et des appareils controlent en permanence l'irradiation et la contamination atmospherique en certains points. Tous les aspects de la radioprotection resultant de six annees d'experience relatifs: au stockage, au deconteneurage, au degainage, au laminage, a l'evacuation des residus, aux travaux particuliers, installations en marche et a l'arret, et aux transports sont successivement decrits. Malgre l'accroissement progressif de l'activite de cet ensemble, les doses integrees par le personnel n'ont pratiquement pas augmente et le nombre des cas de contamination corporelle a diminue. (auteurs)

  19. Identification of cytoskeletal elements enclosing the ATP pools that fuel human red blood cell membrane cation pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Haiyan; Puchulu-Campanella, Estela; Galan, Jacob A; Tao, W Andy; Low, Philip S; Hoffman, Joseph F

    2012-07-31

    The type of metabolic compartmentalization that occurs in red blood cells differs from the types that exist in most eukaryotic cells, such as intracellular organelles. In red blood cells (ghosts), ATP is sequestered within the cytoskeletal-membrane complex. These pools of ATP are known to directly fuel both the Na(+)/K(+) and Ca(2+) pumps. ATP can be entrapped within these pools either by incubation with bulk ATP or by operation of the phosphoglycerate kinase and pyruvate kinase reactions to enzymatically generate ATP. When the pool is filled with nascent ATP, metabolic labeling of the Na(+)/K(+) or Ca(2+) pump phosphoproteins (E(Na)-P and E(Ca)-P, respectively) from bulk [γ-(32)P]-ATP is prevented until the pool is emptied by various means. Importantly, the pool also can be filled with the fluorescent ATP analog trinitrophenol ATP, as well as with a photoactivatable ATP analog, 8-azido-ATP (N(3)-ATP). Using the fluorescent ATP, we show that ATP accumulates and then disappears from the membrane as the ATP pools are filled and subsequently emptied, respectively. By loading N(3)-ATP into the membrane pool, we demonstrate that membrane proteins that contribute to the pool's architecture can be photolabeled. With the aid of an antibody to N(3)-ATP, we identify these labeled proteins by immunoblotting and characterize their derived peptides by mass spectrometry. These analyses show that the specific peptides that corral the entrapped ATP derive from sequences within β-spectrin, ankyrin, band 3, and GAPDH.

  20. Finite element analysis of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high pressure fuel turbopump turbine blade (HPFTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. M.; Faile, G. C.; Perkins, L. B.; Yaksh, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    Cracking of the turbine blades of the SSME HPFTP is studied using two- and three-dimensional finite element analysis. The development and composition of the two- and three-dimensional models are described. Analyses are conducted under the speed, pressure, and thermal load conditions that occur during the full power level of the engine. The effects of friction on the two-dimensional model are examined. The strain and life cycle data reveal that the LCF cracking in the first stage is not probable unless the effects of fit-up tolerance between the blade and rotor are present, and for the second stage it is predicted that hydrogen assisted LCF cracking will occur under the present thermal environment. Design modifications to alleviate this cracking are discussed.

  1. Nuclear reactor composite fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Donn M. (Richland, WA); Marr, Duane R. (West Richland, WA); Cappiello, Michael W. (Richland, WA); Omberg, Ronald P. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01

    A core and composite fuel assembly for a liquid-cooled breeder nuclear reactor including a plurality of elongated coextending driver and breeder fuel elements arranged to form a generally polygonal bundle within a thin-walled duct. The breeder elements are larger in cross section than the driver elements, and each breeder element is laterally bounded by a number of the driver elements. Each driver element further includes structure for spacing the driver elements from adjacent fuel elements and, where adjacent, the thin-walled duct. A core made up of the fuel elements can advantageously include fissile fuel of only one enrichment, while varying the effective enrichment of any given assembly or core region, merely by varying the relative number and size of the driver and breeder elements.

  2. High pressure organic colloid method for the preparation of high performance carbon nanotube-supported Pt and PtRu catalysts for fuel cell applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; KateNing; Viola; BIRSS

    2010-01-01

    Highly dispersed,high performance Pt and PtRu catalysts,supported on multiwalled carbon nanotubes(CNTs),were prepared by a high pressure organic colloid method.The particle sizes of the active components were as small as 1.2 nm for Pt and 1.1 nm for PtRu,and the active Pt surface areas were 295 and 395 m2/g,respectively.The catalysts showed very high activities toward the anodic oxidation of methanol,evaluated by cyclic voltammetry,being up to 4 times higher than that of commercial Johnson Matthey Hispec 2000 Pt/XC-72R and 5 times better than Hispec 5000 PtRu/XC-72R catalysts.In a full air/hydrogen fuel cell,a membrane-electrode assembly prepared using our Pt/CNT and PtRu/CNT catalysts showed 50% and 100% higher performances than those prepared with commercial Johnson Matthey Pt/XC-72R and PtRu/XC-72R catalysts for the same Pt loading and operating conditions.

  3. 直接涂膜技术用于质子交换膜燃料电池膜电极制备%MEA PREPARATION FOR POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL BY APPLYING DIRECTLY PRINTING CATALYST ON MEMBRANE TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋淇忠; 马紫峰; Oumarou Savadogo

    2004-01-01

    A new membrane electrolyte assembly (MEA) preparation method for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was developed by applying the directly printing catalyst on membrane technique. This method was simple and easy to be controlled as verified by repetition experiment. When the membrane with catalyst prepared by the new technique and the electrode with diffusion layer was only sandwiched but not hot pressed, this kind of MEA was called not-hot-press MEA (NPMEA) and its fuel cell performance was better than that of MEA which was hot pressed (HPMEA). The effects of 6 different kinds of solvents in catalyst mixture ink on the performance of fuel cell were assessed. It was discovered that iso-propanol was the best solvent in catalyst mixture ink and showed the best performance of fuel cell. Finally several MEAs prepared by different ways were tested on fuel cell station and it was reported that the performance of MEA prepared by the directly printing catalyst on membrane technique was the best in the whole voltage region.

  4. Thermal Safety Analysis and Experimental Validation of New Fuel Element Transportation Container%新燃料元件运输容器热工安全分析及试验验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春秋; 邹佳讯; 衣大勇; 张金山

    2016-01-01

    The new fuel element transportation container is a specific equipment de‐signed for transporting 493 reactor’s fuel elements .In order to insure the safety of fuel elements during transportation and fulfill the requirements of standard GB 11806—2004 ,thermal design calculation and validation experiments were carried out .The accu‐racy of the container’s thermal design was proven by comparing thermal design results with thermal experimental data .The safety of the new fuel elements can be insured and the requirements of GB 11806—2004 can be fulfilled by using the new fuel elements transportation container under both normal transport condition and accidental transport condition .%新燃料元件运输容器是为运输493反应堆燃料元件设计的专用设备。为保证燃料元件在运输过程中的安全性,使运输容器及燃料元件的各项性能指标符合标准GB 11806—2004的要求,对运输容器进行了热工设计计算和验证试验。通过计算与相应热工试验结果的比较,验证了运输容器热工设计的准确性。采用该运输容器运输新燃料元件,在正常运输工况和事故运输工况下可保证燃料元件的安全,完全满足GB 11806—2004的规定。

  5. Preparation of carbon alloy catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells from nitrogen-containing rigid-rod polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chokai, Masayuki [Department of Organic and Polymeric Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Integrative Technology Research Institute, Teijin Ltd., 4-3-2, Asahigaoka, Hino, Tokyo 191-8512 (Japan); Taniguchi, Masataka; Shinoda, Tsuyoshi; Nabae, Yuta; Kuroki, Shigeki; Hayakawa, Teruaki; Kakimoto, Masa-aki [Department of Organic and Polymeric Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Moriya, Shogo; Matsubayashi, Katsuyuki [Department of Organic and Polymeric Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Business Development Division, Nisshinbo Holdings, Inc., 1-2-3, Onodai, Midori-ku, Chiba 267-0056 (Japan); Ozaki, Jun-ichi [Department of Organic and Polymeric Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Department of Nanomaterial Systems, Graduate School of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1, Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Miyata, Seizo [Department of Organic and Polymeric Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, 1310 Omiya-cho, Saiwai-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 212-8554 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    Carbon alloy catalysts (CAC), non-precious metal catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), were prepared from various kinds of nitrogen-containing rigid-rod aromatic polymers, polyimides, polyamides and azoles, by carbonization at 900 C under nitrogen flow. The catalytic activity for ORR was evaluated by the onset potential, which was taken at a current density of -2 {mu}A cm{sup -2}. Carbonized polymers having high nitrogen content showed higher onset potential. In particular, CACs derived from azole (Az5) had an onset potential of 0.8 V, despite being was prepared without any metals. (author)

  6. Effects of temperature distribution on failure probability of coated particles in spherical fuel elements%球形燃料元件温度分布对包覆燃料颗粒失效概率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永栋; 林俊; 朱天宝; 张海青; 朱智勇

    2016-01-01

    Background:Particles coated by TRISO (Tristructural isotropic) embedded in spherical fuel elements are used in solid fuel molten salt reactor. Temperature distribution during operation can affect the failure probability of TRISO particles embedded in different parts of fuel elements. Purpose: This study aims to investigate the temperature distribution effects on failure probability of coated fuel particles. Methods: Micro-volume element analysis of temperature distribution effect on the failure probability of coated particles was carried out for the first time, and the impact of spherical fuel element size on the average failure probability of TRISO particles was also evaluated. Results: At a given power density, the failure probability of TRISO particles would be deviated by an order of magnitude when either core temperature or average temperature of the fuel element was used to calculate the average failure probability. With the same power density and the same burnups, the average failure probability of coated particles could be lowered by two orders of magnitude through reducing the diameter of fuel element by 1 cm. Conclusion:It is necessary to take the temperature distribution into account for calculating the failure probability of coated fuel particles. In addition, it is found that the average failure probability of coated fuel particles can be lowered by reducing the sizes of the fuel element. This may be a proper way to secure the fuel elements working at high power densities.%固态熔盐堆采用TRISO (Tristructural isotropic)包覆颗粒球形燃料元件。在运行工况下,燃料元件内部存在一定的温度分布,填充在燃料元件内部不同位置的TRISO颗粒的失效概率会因此受到影响。利用体积微元的方法分析了温度分布对包覆颗粒失效概率的影响,并进一步研究了球形燃料元件尺寸对TRISO颗粒平均失效概率的影响。结果表明,在一定的功率密度下,如果利用球心

  7. Studies on plutonium-zirconium co-precipitation and carbothermal reduction in the internal gelation process for nitride fuel preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Marcus; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Sol-gel based techniques are one way to lower the handling of highly radioactive powders when producing transuranium-containing fuel. In this work inert matrix (Zr0.6,Pu0.4)N fuel has been produced by internal gelation followed by carbothermal reduction. No co-gelation was observed during internal gelation and a two phase material could be detected by scanning electron microscopy in the nitrided microspheres. Sintering has been performed in both Ar and N2. X-ray diffraction revealed that sintering in N2 produced a solid solution, while sintering in Ar did not. The final metal composition in the microspheres was determined by ICP-MS to be about 41% Pu and 59% Zr. Vegard's law was applied to estimate the nitride purity in the solid solution pellet to be Zr0.6Pu0.4N0.87C0.13 making the final material more of a carbonitride than a pure nitride.

  8. Preparation of UC0.07-0.10N0.90-0.93 spheres for TRISO coated fuel particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R. D.; Silva, C. M.; Lindemer, T. B.; Johnson, J. A.; Collins, J. L.

    2014-05-01

    The US Department of Energy is considering a new nuclear fuel that would be less susceptible to ruptures during a loss-of-coolant accident. The fuel would consist of tristructural isotropic coated particles with dense uranium nitride (UN) kernels with diameters of 650 or 800 μm. The objectives of this effort are to make uranium oxide microspheres with adequately dispersed carbon nanoparticles and to convert these microspheres into UN spheres, which could be then sintered into kernels. Recent improvements to the internal gelation process were successfully applied to the production of uranium gel spheres with different concentrations of carbon black. After the spheres were washed and dried, a simple two-step heat profile was used to produce porous microspheres with a chemical composition of UC0.07-0.10N0.90-0.93. The first step involved heating the microspheres to 2023 K in a vacuum, and in the second step, the microspheres were held at 1873 K for 6 h in flowing nitrogen.

  9. Preparation of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s containing amino groups/epoxy resin composite membranes and their in situ crosslinking for application in fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Meimei; Liu, Baijun; Li, Long; Liu, Chang; Wang, Lifeng; Jiang, Zhenhua [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2010-01-01

    A series of amino-containing sulfonated poly(aryl ether ketone)/4,4'-diglycidyl(biphenyl) epoxy resin (DGBP) composite membranes for proton exchange membranes fuel cells (PEMFCs) are prepared by solution blending and casting. The reaction kinetics and the effects of introduction of DGBP content on the properties of the composite membranes are thoroughly investigated. The crosslinked composite membranes after treatment at either 120 C or 200 C have improved oxidative and dimensional stability than those without crosslinking. Despite the fact that crosslinked membranes generally have lower proton conductivity in comparison with the original ones, the proton conductivities of the membranes treated at 120 C are above 2.22 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} at room temperature and 9.42 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} at 100 C. Even for the samples treated at 200 C, their proton conductivities are still higher than 1.26 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} at room temperature and higher than 8.67 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} at 100 C, which are well satisfied with elementary requirement of fuel cells. In addition, all the evaluated membranes have low methanol permeability. For example, the methanol permeability of AP6FSPEEK/DGBP1 cured at 200 C is 0.33 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, which is an order magnitude lower than Nafion 117. Therefore, these novel crosslinked composite membranes could be potential usage in fuel cells. (author)

  10. Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1999-03-17

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  11. Design package for fuel retrieval system fuel handling tool modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1998-11-09

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports.

  12. Influence of extended storage on fuel properties of methyl esters prepared from canola, palm, soybean, and sunflower oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid methyl esters prepared from canola, palm, soybean, and sunflower oils by homogenous base-catalyzed methanolysis were stored for 12 months at three constant temperatures (-15, 22, and 40 deg C) and properties such as oxidative stability, acid value, kinematic viscosity, low temperature ope...

  13. Preparation and properties of thin epoxy/compressed expanded graphite composite bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chao; Ming, Pingwen; Hou, Ming; Fu, Jie; Shen, Qiang; Liang, Dong; Fu, Yunfeng; Luo, Xiaokuan; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian

    Although the composite bipolar plates prepared by the method of the vacuum resin impregnation in compressed expanded graphite (CEG) sheets have been applied in the KW-class stacks, there have been few investigations of the preparation and properties of them so far. In this research, the influences of the microstructure on the physical properties of the thin epoxy/CEG composites (the thickness is 1 mm) are investigated for the first time and the optimum preparation conditions are obtained. Results demonstrated that the mechanical property and the impermeability of the composites increases evidently with the resin content changing from 4% to 30%, while the electrical properties keep nearly constant. It can be attributed to the continuous expanded graphite (EG) conductive network of the raw CEG sheet. The epoxy (30 wt.%)/CEG composite is shown to be the optimum composite, displaying in-plane conductivity of 119.8 S cm -1, through-plane resistance of 17.13 mΩ cm 2, density of 1.95 g cm -3, gas permeability of 1.94 × 10 -6 cm 3 cm -2 s -1 and flexural strength of 45.8 MPa. The alcohol scrubbing is the optimum method of surface post-processing. The performance of a single cell with the optimum composite bipolar plates is tested and demonstrated to be outstanding. Above all, the composite prepared by resin vacuum impregnation in the CEG sheet is a promising candidate for bipolar plate materials in PEMFCs.

  14. Cells for the examination of irradiated plutonium fuel elements - two years operation - may 1961/may 1963 (1963); Cellules pour examen d'elements combustibles au plutonium irradies - deux ans d'exploitation - mai 1961/mai 1963 (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentin, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    Within the framework of the 'Rapsodie' fast reactor program, prototype plutonium fuel elements are irradiated and then examined in an {alpha} {beta} {gamma} laboratory at Saclay. This laboratory consists of five in line cells and a lead enclosure microscope. Each cell contains an {alpha} sealed removable box 4 ft 3 in. high, 4 ft 11 in. wide and 5 ft 1 in. deep, fitted with one or two magnetic transmission indirect manipulators. The boxes are contained in an {beta} {gamma} shielded enclosure whose front face is constructed of cast iron panels 21-2/3 in. thick. Nitrogen circulating in a closed loop forms the atmosphere of the boxes. This laboratory is essentially intended for metallurgical research. The functions of the various cells are as follows: transferring and packing, cutting, density measurement and cathodic etching, storage and metallography. Work on radioactive materials began in April 1961. Operational incidents have always been of a material nature only. (author) [French] Dans le cadre du projet de reacteur rapide Rapsodie, des elements combustibles prototypes au plutonium sont, apres irradiation, examines a Saclay dans un laboratoire {alpha} {beta} {gamma}. Celui-ci comprend cinq cellules en ligne et une enceinte en plomb contenant un microscope telecommande. Chaque cellule est constituee d'un caisson etanche (1, 3 m x 1, 5 m x 1, 56m) equipee d'un ou deux manipulateurs indirects a transmissions magnetiques. Les caissons sont places, dans une enceinte {beta} {gamma} dont la face avant est formee de blocs en fonte ayant 55 cm d'epaisseur. L'atmosphere des caissons est de l'azote, circulant en circuit ferme. Ce laboratoire est destine essentiellement a des recherches metallurgiques. Les fonctions des differentes cellules sont: conditionnement et transferts, tronconnage, mesure de densite et polissage ionique, stockage, metallographie. Le travail sur materiaux radioactifs a commence en avril 1961. Les incidents d

  15. Air-cathode preparation with activated carbon as catalyst, PTFE as binder and nickel foam as current collector for microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shaoan; Wu, Jiancheng

    2013-08-01

    A cathode is a critical factor that limits the practical application of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) in terms of cost and power generation. To develop a cost-effective cathode, we investigate a cathode preparation technique using nickel foam as a current collector, activated carbon as a catalyst and PTFE as a binder. The effects of the type and loading of conductive carbon, the type and loading of activated carbon, and PTFE loading on cathode performance are systematically studied by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The nickel foam cathode MFC produces a power density of 1190±50 mW m(-2), comparable with 1320 mW m(-2) from a typical carbon cloth Pt cathode MFC. However, the cost of a nickel foam activated carbon cathode is 1/30 of that of carbon cloth Pt cathode. The results indicate that a nickel foam cathode could be used in scaling up the MFC system.

  16. Low Temperature Preparation of Ceria Solid Solutions Doubly Doped with Rare-Earth and Alkali-Earth and Their Properties as Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任引哲; 蒋凯; 王海霞; 孟健; 苏锵

    2003-01-01

    A series of solid electrolytes, (Ce0.8Ln0.2)1-xMxO2-δ (Ln= La, Nd, Sm, Gd, M:Alkali-earth), were prepared by amorphous citrate gel method. XRD patterns indicate that a pure fluorite phase is formed at 800 ℃. The electrical conductivity and the AC impedance spectra were measured. XPS spectra show that the oxygen vacancies increase owing to the MO doping, which results in the increase of the oxygen ionic transport number and conductivity. The performance of ceria-based solid electrolyte is improved. The effects of rare-earth and alkali-earth ions on the electricity were discussed. The open-circuit voltages and maximum power density of planar solid oxide fuel cell using (Ce0.8Sm0.2)1-0.05Ca0.05O2-δ as electrolyte are 0.86 V and 33 mW*cm-2, respectively.

  17. Fast preparation of PtRu catalysts supported on carbon nanofibers by the microwave-polyol method and their application to fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Masaharu; Kubokawa, Masatoshi; Yano, Ryuto; Miyamae, Nobuhiro; Tsuji, Takeshi; Jun, Mun-Suk; Hong, Seonghwa; Lim, Seongyop; Yoon, Seong-Ho; Mochida, Isao

    2007-01-16

    PtRu alloy nanoparticles (24 +/- 1 wt %, Ru/Pt atomic ratios = 0.91-0.97) supported on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared within a few minutes by using a microwave-polyol method. Three types of CNFs with very different surface structures, such as platelet, herringbone, and tubular ones, were used as new carbon supports. The dependence of particles sizes and electrochemical properties on the structures of CNFs was examined. It was found that the methanol fuel cell activities of PtRu/CNF catalysts were in the order of platelet > tubular > herringbone. The methanol fuel cell activities of PtRu/CNFs measured at 60 degrees C were 1.7-3.0 times higher than that of a standard PtRu (29 wt %, Ru/Pt atomic ratio = 0.92) catalyst loaded on carbon black (Vulcan XC72R) support. The best electrocatalytic activity was obtained for the platelet CNF, which is characterized by its edge surface and high graphitization degree.

  18. Elemental fingerprinting of Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort) herb and preparations using ICP-OES and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jade D; Kirton, Stewart B; Evans, Sara J; Stair, Jacqueline L

    2016-06-05

    St. John's wort (SJW) (Hypericum perforatum) is a herbal remedy commonly used to treat mild depression. The elemental profiles of 54 samples (i.e., dry herbs, tablets and capsules) were evaluated by monitoring 25 elements using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The major elemental constituents in the SJW samples were Ca (300-199,000μg/g), Mg (410-3,530μg/g), Al (4.4-900μg/g), Fe (1.154-760μg/g), Mn (2.4-261μg/g), Sr (0.88-83.6μg/g), and Zn (7-64μg/g). For the sixteen elements that could be reliably quantified, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate underlying patterns in the data. PCA models identified 7 key elements (i.e., Ba, Ca, Cd, Mg, Mo, Ni and Y), which described 85% of the variance in the dataset in the first three principal components. The PCA approach resulted in a general delineation between the three different formulations and provides a basis for monitoring product quality in this manner.

  19. Preparation method of Ni@Pt/C nanocatalyst affects the performance of direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell: Improved power density and increased catalytic oxidation of borohydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mir Ghasem; Mahmoodi, Raana

    2017-08-15

    The Ni@Pt/C electrocatalysts were synthesized using two different methods: with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and without SDS. The metal loading in synthesized nanocatalysts was 20wt% and the molar ratio of Ni: Pt was 1:1. The structural characterizations of Ni@Pt/C electrocatalysts were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The electrocatalytic activity of Ni@Pt/C electrocatalysts toward BH4(-) oxidation in alkaline medium was studied by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronopotentiometry (CP), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that Ni@Pt/C electrocatalyst synthesized without SDS has superior catalytic activity toward borohydride oxidation (22016.92AgPt(-1)) in comparison with a catalyst prepared in the presence of SDS (17766.15AgPt(-1)) in NaBH4 0.1M at 25°C. The Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) used in fuel cell set-up was fabricated with catalyst-coated membrane (CCM) technique. The effect of Ni@Pt/C catalysts prepared with two methods as anode catalyst on the performance of direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell was studied. The maximum power density was obtained using Ni@Pt/C catalyst synthesized without SDS at 60°C, 1M NaBH4 and 2M H2O2 (133.38mWcm(-2)). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Calculation and analysis of fuel concentration at the rear of spray injecting element%直射式喷孔后方燃油浓度场计算及其分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永卫; 朱永刚; 牛志刚; 王健

    2011-01-01

    Because of its simple structure,arrangement and convenient adjustment,spray injecting element is extensively applied to the combustion chamber of ramjet engine,and the rear concentration of spray injecting element has important influence on flame stability and combustion efficiency,thus the precognition of fuel concentration is very important to spray injecting element arrangement and the relative position between spray injecting element and flame holder is extremely important.According to test result,this paper deduced the formula of fuel concentration at the rear of spray injecting element,and developed the calculation procedure of fuel concentration,thus fuel concentration at the rear of spray injecting element is analyzed.%由于直射式喷油孔的结构简单、布置和调整方便,因此已被广泛地应用于冲压发动机的燃烧室中,而且喷孔后方的燃油浓度分布对火焰稳定及燃烧效率有很大影响,由此预知喷孔后方燃油浓度分布对喷孔布置、确定喷孔与稳定器的相对位置是十分重要的。根据试验结果,推导得到了直射式喷孔后方燃油浓度分布的计算公式,编制燃油浓度分布的计算程序,以分析直射式喷油孔后方的燃油浓度场分布。

  1. Structural and magnetic properties of manganese zinc ferrite nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion method using mixture of fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angadi, V. Jagadeesha; Rudraswamy, B. [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560056 (India); Sadhana, K. [Department of Physics, University College of Science, Osmania University, Saifabad, Hyderabad 500004 (India); Praveena, K., E-mail: praveenaou@gmail.com [School of Physics, Eternal University, Baru Sahib 173101, Himachal Pradesh (India)

    2016-07-01

    The structural analysis and magnetic investigation Mn{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with stoichiometry (x=0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 and 1.0) were synthesized by solution combustion method using mixture of fuel this is first of its kind. As synthesized Mn–Zn nanoferrites were characterized by X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at room temperature. The magnetic domain relaxation was investigated by inductance spectroscopy (IS) and the observed magnetic domain relaxation frequency (f{sub r}) was increased with the increase in grain size. The Room temperature magnetic properties were studied using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). It was observed that the real and imaginary part of permeability (μ′ and μ″), saturation magnetization (M{sub s}), remanance magnetization (M{sub r}) and magneton number (M{sub r}/M{sub s}) were decreases gradually with increasing Zn{sup 2+} concentration. The decrease in the saturation magnetization may be explained as, the Zn{sup 2+} concentration increases the relative number of ferric ions on the A sites diminishes and this reduces the A–B interaction. Hence synthesized materials are good for high frequency applications. - Highlights: • Mixture of fuels used for synthesis. • Preferred existence of Fe{sup 3+} oxidation states. • Reduction in magnetic interaction between Fe ions due to Zn{sup 2+} dilutions. • These materials are useful for high frequency applications.

  2. 多层套管燃料元件工程热点因子敏感性分析%Sensitivity Analysis of Engineering Hot Spot Factor for Multi-layer Tube Fuel Element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡跃春; 邓才玉; 李海涛; 徐涛忠

    2014-01-01

    为保证反应堆的安全,并对燃料元件的制造加工提出合理可行的要求,从元件制造加工和反应堆运行测量两方面对多层套管燃料元件工程热点因子的敏感性进行了分析。结果表明:流道间隙偏差直接影响元件热源的导出,由此引起的工程热点因子造成的温升较大。%For ensuring reactor safety and putting forward reasonable requirements of fuel element manufacture , the sensitivity analysis of engineering hot spot factor for multi-layer tube fuel element was completed from both aspects of fuel manufacture and reactor operation measurement .The result shows that the flow channel deviation is of direct effect on fuel element heat transfer ,yielding a higher temperature rise caused by the relevant engineering hot spot factor .

  3. Fuel slugs considered for use in the high flux reactor EL3; Elements combustibles envisages pour la pile a haut flux EL 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohr, J.A.; Caillat, R.; Gauthron, M.; Montagne, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    EL3 was designed essentially for the study, under irradiation conditions, of materials used in the construction of atomic reactors. The study schedule allocates considerable time and effort to new types of fuel slugs. The present report described the various types of slug being tested or scheduled for tests. After laboratory study, each slug is tested in an experimental cell in the pile. The best are retained and used to charge the reactor (the present charge is purely provisional to permit first criticality and power rise tests)ren. [French] La pile EL3 est essentiellement destinee a l'etude sous irradiation des materiaux utilises dans la construction des reacteurs atomiques. Dans ce programme, une tres large part est reservee a l'etude de nouveaux elements combustibles. Le present rapport decrit les differentes solutions de cartouches dont l'essai est envisage ou en cours. Apres etude en laboratoire, chacune de ces solutions est testee dans une cellule experimentale en pile. Les meilleures seront retenues pour constituer le chargement normal de la pile (le chargement actuel etant essentiellement une solution provisoire qui a permis la divergence de la pile et les premiers essais de montee en puissance). (auteur)

  4. Preparation and characterization of Cu-Ce-La mixed oxide as water-gas shift catalyst for fuel cells application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHI Keduan; LIU Quansheng; ZHAO Ruigang; HE Runxia; ZHANG Lifeng

    2008-01-01

    Cu-Ce-La mixed oxides were prepared by three precipitation methods (coprecipitation, homogeneous precipitation, and deposition precipitation) with variable precipitators and characterized using X-ray diffraction, BET, temperature-programmed reduction, and catalytic reaction for the water-gas shift. The Cu-Ce-La mixed oxide prepared by coprecipitation method with NaOH as precipitator presented the highest activity and thermal stability. Copper ion substituted quadrevalent ceria entered CeO2 (111) framework was in favor of activity and thermal stability of catalyst. The crystallinity of fresh catalysts increased with the reduction process. La3+ or Ce4+ substituted copper ion entered the CeO2 framework during reduction process. The coexistence of surface copper oxide (crystalline) and pure bulk crystalline copper oxide both contributed to the high activity and thermal stability of Cu-Ce-La mixes oxide catalyst.

  5. Optimization of the distribution of bars with gadolinium oxide in reactor fuel elements PWR; Optimizacion de la distribucion de barras con oxido de gadolinio en elementos combustibles para reactores PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melgar Santa Cecilia, P. A.; Velazquez, J.; Ahnert Iglesias, C.

    2014-07-01

    In the schemes of low leakage, currently used in the majority of PWR reactors, it makes use of absorbent consumables for the effective control of the factors of peak, the critical concentration of initial boron and the moderator temperature coefficient. One of the most used absorbing is the oxide of gadolinium, which is integrated within the fuel pickup. Occurs a process of optimization of fuel elements with oxide of gadolinium, which allows for a smaller number of configurations with a low peak factor for bar. (Author)

  6. Preparation and Performance of Co-N-C Electro-Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell%直接甲醇燃料电池用Co-N-C电催化剂的制备及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨伟; 陈胜洲; 董新法; 林维明

    2012-01-01

    以三聚氰胺甲醛树脂和硝酸钴为前驱体,在Ar保护下采用高温碳化方法制备用于直接甲醇燃料电池( DMFC)阴极的含氮碳载钴(Co-N-C)氧还原电催化剂.利用热重与红外光谱联用、X射线衍射分析、元素分析等方法表征了催化剂的制备过程和结构,采用旋转圆盘电极测试考察了不同碳化温度对Co-N-C电催化剂氧还原催化活性的影响及电催化剂的耐醇性能,并采用该催化剂为阴极催化剂进行DMFC单电池测试.结果表明:Co-N-C电催化剂具有较高的电催化活性和较好的耐醇性能;其氧还原起始电位在0.5 V(vs.SCE)左右;700℃碳化温度下制备的Co-N-C电催化剂具有最高的氧还原催化活性.%Co-N-C oxygen reduction electro-catalysts for the cathode of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) were first prepared via the pyrolysis in Ar atmosphere, with melamine formaldehyde resin and cobalt nitrate as the precursors. Then, the preparation and structure of the electro-catalysts were investigated by means of TG-FTIR, XRD and element analysis, and the electro-catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction as well as the methanol tolerance of the electro-catalysts was detected by using a rotating disk electrode. Finally, a DMFC single-cell test was carried out by using the prepared electro-catalysts as the cathode catalysts. The results indicate that Co-N-C electro-catalysts are of high electro-catalytic activity and strong methanol tolerance, and that the onset potential of the electro-catalysts for oxygen reduction is about 0.5 V (vs. SCE). Moreover, it is found that the catalyst prepared at 7001 possesses the highest electro-catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction.

  7. Micro-structural study and Rietveld analysis of fast reactor fuels: U-Mo fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, S.; Choudhuri, G.; Banerjee, J.; Agarwal, Renu; Khan, K. B.; Kumar, Arun

    2015-12-01

    U-Mo alloys are the candidate fuels for both research reactors and fast breeder reactors. In-reactor performance of the fuel depends on the microstructural stability and thermal properties of the fuel. To improve the fuel performance, alloying elements viz. Zr, Mo, Nb, Ti and fissium are added in the fuel. The first reactor fuels are normally prepared by injection casting. The objective of this work is to compare microstructure, phase-fields and hardness of as-cast four different U-Mo alloy (2, 5, 10 and 33 at.% Mo) fuels with the equilibrium microstructure of the alloys. Scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer and optical microscope have been used to characterize the morphology of the as-cast and annealed alloys. The monoclinic α'' phase in as-cast U-10 at.% Mo alloy has been characterized through Rietveld analysis. A comparison of metallographic and Rietveld analysis of as-cast (dendritic microstructure) and annealed U-33 at.% Mo alloy, corresponding to intermetallic compound, has been reported here for the first time. This study will provide in depth understanding of microstructural and phase evolution of U-Mo alloys as fast reactor fuel.

  8. Preparation of Pt-Re/Vulcan carbon nanocomposites using a single-source molecular precursor and relative performance as a direct methanol fuel cell electrooxidation catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Angela D; Deluga, Gregg A; Moore, Joshua T; Vergne, Matthew J; Hercules, David M; Kenik, Edward A; Lukehart, C M

    2004-09-01

    Pt-Re/Vulcan carbon powder nanocomposites have been prepared with total metal loadings of 18 wt.% and 40 wt.% using a new non-cluster (1:1)-PtRe bimetallic precursor as the source of metal. Pt-Re nanoparticles having an average diameter of ca. 6 nm and atomic stoichiometry near 1:1 are formed. TEM, on-particle HR-EDS, and powder XRD data are consistent with the formation of Pt-Re alloy nanoparticles having a hexagonal unit cell with cell constants of a = 2.77 A and c = 4.47 A. A nanocomposite prepared at higher total metal loading under more rigorous thermal treatment also contains Pt-Re alloy nanoparticles having a fcc unit cell structure (a = 3.95 A). The precise dependence of Pt-Re nanocrystal structure on the thermal history of the nanocomposite specimen has not been investigated in detail. While these Pt-Re/carbon nanocomposites are active as anode catalysts in operating direct methanol fuel cells, the measured performance is less than that of commercial Pt-Ru/carbon catalysts and has marginal practical importance.

  9. Ni/Carbon Hybrid Prepared by Hydrothermal Carbonization and Thermal Treatment as Support for PtRu Nanoparticles for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcelo Marques Tusi; Michele Brandalise; Nataly Soares de Oliveira Polanco; Olandir Vercino Correa; Antonio Carlos da Silva; Juan Carlo Villalba; Fauze Jaco Anaissi

    2013-01-01

    Ni/Carbon was prepared in two steps:initially cellulose as carbon source and NiCl2.6H20 as catalyst of the carbonization process were submitted to hydrothermal treatment at 200 ℃ and further to thermal treatment at 900 ℃ under argon atmosphere.The obtained material contains Ni nanoparticles with face-centered cubic (fcc) structure dispersed on amorphous carbon with graphitic domains.PtRu/C electrocatalysts (carbonsupported PtRu nanoparticles) were prepared by an alcohol-reduction process using Ni/Carbon as support.The materials were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis,energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,X-ray diffraction,transmission electron microscopy and tested as anodes in single direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC).The performances of PtRu/C electrocatalysts using Ni/Carbon as support were superior to those obtained for PtRu/C using commercial carbon black Vulcan XC72 as support.

  10. Preparation of LiMO2(M=Co,Ni) cathode materials for intermediate temperature fuel cells by sol-gel processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, S.W.; Wu, Q.Y.; Zhan, Z.L.

    1999-01-01

    LiMO2 (M = Co, Ni) was prepared by complexing sol-gel processes. The phase and thermal stability were characterized by XRD and TG analyses. LiCoO2 and LiNiO2 phases are formed around 400 degrees C and 700 degrees C respectively in our synthesis process. LiNiO2 exhibit higher electrical conductivi...... and better H-2/O-2 fuel cell performance than LiCoO2 when used as cathode materials. But its thermal stability is relatively poorer than the later at intermediate temperature. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science BN. All rights reserved.......LiMO2 (M = Co, Ni) was prepared by complexing sol-gel processes. The phase and thermal stability were characterized by XRD and TG analyses. LiCoO2 and LiNiO2 phases are formed around 400 degrees C and 700 degrees C respectively in our synthesis process. LiNiO2 exhibit higher electrical conductivity...

  11. Impact of uranium concentration reduction in side plates of the fuel elements of IEA-R1 reactor on neutronic and thermal hydraulic analyses; Impacto da reducao na concentracao de uranio nas placas laterais dos elementos combustiveis do reator IEA-R1 nas analises neutronica e termo-hidraulica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Ilka Antonia

    2013-09-01

    This master thesis presents a study to verify the impact of the uranium concentration reduction in the side plates of the reactor IEA-R1 fuel elements on the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analyses. To develop such study, a previous IPEN-CNEN/SP research was reproduced by simulating the fuel elements burn-up, with side plate uranium density reduced to 50, 60 and 70% of the standard fuel element plates. This research begins with the neutronic analysis using the computer code HAMMER and the first step consists in the calculation of the cross section of all materials presented at the reactor core, with their initial concentration; the second step consists in the calculation of the fast and thermal neutron group fluxes and power densities for fuel elements using the computer code CITATION. HAMMER output data is used as input data. Once the neutronic analysis is finished and the most critical fuel elements with highest power density have been defined, the thermal-hydraulics analysis begins. This analysis uses MCTR-IEA-R1 thermal-hydraulics model, which equations are solved by commercial code EES. Thermalhydraulics analysis input is the power density data calculated by CITATION: it is considered the highest power density on each fuel element, where there is a higher energy release and, consequently, higher temperatures. This data is used on energy balance equations to calculate temperatures on critical fuel element regions. Reactor operation comparison for three different uranium densities on fuel side plates is presented. Uranium density reduction contributes to the cladding surface temperature to remain below the established limit, as reactor operation safety requirement and it does not affect significantly fuel element final burn-up nor reactor reactivity. The reduction of uranium in the side plates of the fuel elements of the IEA-R1 showed to be a viable option to avoid corrosion problems due to high temperatures. (author)

  12. Preparation of Nafion-sulfonated clay nanocomposite membrane for direct menthol fuel cells via a film coating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kang, Myeongsoon; Choi, Yeong Suk; Kim, Hae Kyung; Lee, Wonmok; Chang, Hyuk; Seung, Doyoung

    Nafion sulfonated clay nanocomposite membranes were successfully produced via a film coating process using a pilot coating machine. For producing the composite membranes, we optimized the solvent ratio of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) to N, N‧-dimethylacetamide (DMAc), the amount of sulfonated montmorillonite (S-MMT) in composite membranes and the overall concentration of composite dispersions. Based on the optimized viscosity and composition, the composite dispersions were coated on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate film. The distance between a metering roll and a PET film and the ratio of metering roll speed versus coating roll speed of the pilot coating machine were varied to control membrane thickness. The film coated composite membrane exhibited enhanced properties in the swelling behavior against MeOH solution, ion conductivity and MeOH permeability, compared to the cast Nafion composite membrane due to the higher dispersion state of S-MMT in Nafion matrix and the uniform distribution of small-size ion clusters. These properties influenced a cell performance test of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), showing the film coated composite membrane had a higher power density than that of Nafion 115. The power density was also related with the higher selectivity of the composite membrane than Nafion 115.

  13. Antitubercular activity of ZnO nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion synthesis using lemon juice as bio-fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopala Krishna, Prashanth; Paduvarahalli Ananthaswamy, Prashanth; Trivedi, Priyanka; Chaturvedi, Vinita; Bhangi Mutta, Nagabhushana; Sannaiah, Ananda; Erra, Amani; Yadavalli, Tejabhiram

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis, structural and morphological characteristics of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles using solution combustion synthesis method where lemon juice was used as the fuel. In vitro anti-tubercular activity of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles and their biocompatibility studies, both in vitro and in vivo were carried out. The synthesized nanoparticles showed inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra strain at concentrations as low as 12.5μg/mL. In vitro cytotoxicity study performed with normal mammalian cells (L929, 3T3-L1) showed that ZnO nanoparticles are non-toxic with a Selectivity Index (SI) >10. Cytotoxicity performed on two human cancer cell lines DU-145 and Calu-6 indicated the anti-cancer activity of ZnO nanoparticles at varied concentrations. Results of blood hemolysis indicated the biocompatibility of ZnO nanoparticles. Furthermore, in vivo toxicity studies of ZnO nanoparticles conducted on Swiss albino mice (for 14days as per the OECD 423 guidelines) showed no evident toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Crumpled rGO-supported Pt-Ir bifunctional catalyst prepared by spray pyrolysis for unitized regenerative fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Gyeom; Nah, In Wook; Oh, In-Hwan; Park, Sehkyu

    2017-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) crumpled reduced graphene oxide supported Pt-Ir alloys that served as bifunctional oxygen catalysts for use in untized regenerative fuel cells were synthesized by a facile spray pyrolysis method. Pt-Ir catalysts supported on rGO (Pt-Ir/rGOs) were physically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to observe change in composition by heat treatment, alloying, and morphological transition of the catalysts. Their catalytic activities and stabilities for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) conditions were electrochemically investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), potential cycling and hold tests on the rotating disk electrode (RDE). Pt-Ir/rGO with no post heat-treatment (Pt-Ir/rGO_NP) showed a lower activity for ORR and OER although metal nanoparticles decorated on the support are relatively small. However, Pt-Ir/rGO showed remarkably enhanced activity following heat treatment, depending on temperature. Pt-Ir/rGO heat-treated at 600 °C after spray pyrolysis (Pt-Ir/rGO_P600) exhibited a higher activity and stability than a commercially available Pt/C catalyst kept under the ORR condition, and it also revealed a comparable OER activity and durability versus the commercial unsupported Ir catalyst.

  15. Development of plurimetallic electrocatalysts prepared by decomposition of polymeric precursors for EtOH/O{sub 2} fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, Livia M.; Almeida, Thiago S.; Andrade, Adalgisa R. de, E-mail: ardandra@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    This work aimed to develop plurimetallic electrocatalysts composed of Pt, Ru, Ni, and Sn supported on C by decomposition of polymeric precursors (DPP), at a constant metal:carbon ratio of 40:60 wt.%, for application in direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC). The obtained nanoparticles were physico-chemically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). XRD results revealed a face-centered cubic crystalline Pt with evidence that Ni, Ru, and Sn atoms were incorporated into the Pt structure. Electrochemical characterization of the nanoparticles was accomplished by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) in slightly acidic medium (0.05 mol L{sup -1}H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), in the absence and presence of ethanol. Addition of Sn to PtRuNi/C catalysts significantly shifted the ethanol and CO onset potentials toward lower values, thus increasing the catalytic activity, especially for the quaternary composition Pt{sub 64}Sn{sub 15}Ru{sub 13}Ni{sub 8}/C. Electrolysis of ethanol solutions at 0.4 V vs. RHE allowed determination of acetaldehyde and acetic acid as the main reaction products. The presence of Ru in alloys promoted formation of acetic acid as the main product of ethanol oxidation. The Pt{sub 64}Sn{sub 15}Ru{sub 13}Ni{sub 8}/C catalyst displayed the best performance for DEFC. (author)

  16. Investigation of stacked elemental layers for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin film preparation by rapid thermal selenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroth, Christiane; Ohland, Joerg; Mikolajczak, Ulf; Madena, Thomas; Keller, Jan; Parisi, Juergen; Hammer, Maria; Riedel, Ingo [Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oldenburg, 26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Rapid thermal selenization of pure metallic (Cu-In-Ga) or selenium-containing (Cu-In-Ga-Se) precursors is a favorable method to fabricate Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} absorber films for application in thin film solar cells. Because of its upscaling potential and the short process time it is a promising approach for the fabrication of CIGSe photovoltaic modules on industrial scale. As a preliminary work for prospective plasma-enhanced selenization of stacked elemental layers (SEL) the elements copper, indium and gallium were sequentially deposited on molybdenum coated soda-lime glass by thermal evaporation. The stacking order was varied and the precursors were annealed with different heating rates. Morphology, elemental depth distribution and phases of the layers were investigated before and after annealing using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore the influence of different heating rates on phase transitions during annealing was studied by in-situ X-ray diffraction.

  17. Effect of the catalytic ink preparation method on the performance of high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, J.; Rodrigo, M. A.; Linares, J. J.; Scott, K.

    Two methods of preparation of the membrane-electrode-assemblies based on polybenzimidazole membranes have been studied for high temperatures PEMFCs. One is called the "colloidal method" (using acetone as solvent), and the other is the "solution method" (using dimethylacetamide as solvent). Physical property studies (SEM micrographs and pore size distribution) and electrochemical analyses in half-cell (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Polarization Curves for Oxygen Reduction and Cyclic Voltammetry) were carried out to characterise the structural and electrochemical behaviour of both methods. Finally, a cell performance investigation, using electrodes prepared by both methods was carried out at three different temperatures (125, 150, and 175 °C), in a single PEMFC setup. A better behaviour was obtained for the "solution method" at the two highest temperatures at intermediate current densities, whereas at 125 °C the best results were obtained with the "colloidal method" in all the current densities ranges. A discussion of the behaviours observed with the different characterisation techniques is made.

  18. Effect of the catalytic ink preparation method on the performance of high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, J.; Rodrigo, M.A.; Linares, J.J. [Chemical Engineering Department, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); Scott, K. [School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Merz Court NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-19

    Two methods of preparation of the membrane-electrode-assemblies based on polybenzimidazole membranes have been studied for high temperatures PEMFCs. One is called the 'colloidal method' (using acetone as solvent), and the other is the 'solution method' (using dimethylacetamide as solvent). Physical property studies (SEM micrographs and pore size distribution) and electrochemical analyses in half-cell (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Polarization Curves for Oxygen Reduction and Cyclic Voltammetry) were carried out to characterise the structural and electrochemical behaviour of both methods. Finally, a cell performance investigation, using electrodes prepared by both methods was carried out at three different temperatures (125, 150, and 175{sup o}C), in a single PEMFC setup. A better behaviour was obtained for the 'solution method' at the two highest temperatures at intermediate current densities, whereas at 125{sup o}C the best results were obtained with the 'colloidal method' in all the current densities ranges. A discussion of the behaviours observed with the different characterisation techniques is made. (author)

  19. Preparation and properties of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polypropylene nanocomposite bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu-Hang; Weng, Cheng-Chih; Yen, Chuan-Yu; Hsiao, Min-Chien; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Tsai, Ming-Chi; Su, Ay; Yen, Ming-Yu; Lin, Yu-Feng; Liu, Po-Lan

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are covalently modified with different molecular weights 400 and 2000 poly(oxyalkylene)-amine bearing the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy (POA400-DGEBA and POA2000-DGEBA) oligomers. The oxidized MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH) are converted to the acid chloride-functionalized MWCNTs, followed by the reaction with POA-DGEBAs to prepare the MWCNTs/POA400-DGEBA and MWCNTs/POA2000-DGEBA. FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) reveal that the POA-DGEBAs are covalently attached to the surface of MWCNTs. The morphology of MWCNTs/POA-DGEBA is observed by TEM. The POA400-DGEBA coated on the MWCNTs is thicker and more uniform. However, the coating of POA2000-DGEBA on the MWCNTs shows a worm-like bulk substance and the MWCNT surface is bare. In addition, the flexural strength and the bulk electrical conductivity of the MWCNTs/polypropylene nanocomposite bipolar plates are measured 59% and 505% higher than those of the original composite bipolar plates by adding 8 phr of MWCNTs/POA400-DGEBA. The maximum current density and power density of the single cell test for the nanocomposite bipolar plate with 4 phr MWCNTs/POA400-DGEBA are 1.32 A cm -2 and 0.533 W cm -2, respectively. The overall performance confirms the functionalized MWCNTs/polypropylene nanocomposite bipolar plates prepared in this study are suitable for PEMFC application.

  20. Preparation and properties of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polypropylene nanocomposite bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Shu-Hang; Weng, Cheng-Chih; Yen, Chuan-Yu.; Hsiao, Min-Chien; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Yen, Ming-Yu.; Liu, Po-Lan [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsin-Chu 30043 (China); Tsai, Ming-Chi [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsin-Chu 30043 (China); Su, Ay [Fuel Cell Center, Yuan Ze University, Tao-Yuan 32003 (China); Lin, Yu-Feng [Plastics Industry Development Center, Tai-Chung 40768 (China)

    2010-01-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are covalently modified with different molecular weights 400 and 2000 poly(oxyalkylene)-amine bearing the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy (POA400-DGEBA and POA2000-DGEBA) oligomers. The oxidized MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH) are converted to the acid chloride-functionalized MWCNTs, followed by the reaction with POA-DGEBAs to prepare the MWCNTs/POA400-DGEBA and MWCNTs/POA2000-DGEBA. FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) reveal that the POA-DGEBAs are covalently attached to the surface of MWCNTs. The morphology of MWCNTs/POA-DGEBA is observed by TEM. The POA400-DGEBA coated on the MWCNTs is thicker and more uniform. However, the coating of POA2000-DGEBA on the MWCNTs shows a worm-like bulk substance and the MWCNT surface is bare. In addition, the flexural strength and the bulk electrical conductivity of the MWCNTs/polypropylene nanocomposite bipolar plates are measured 59% and 505% higher than those of the original composite bipolar plates by adding 8 phr of MWCNTs/POA400-DGEBA. The maximum current density and power density of the single cell test for the nanocomposite bipolar plate with 4 phr MWCNTs/POA400-DGEBA are 1.32 A cm{sup -2} and 0.533 W cm{sup -2}, respectively. The overall performance confirms the functionalized MWCNTs/polypropylene nanocomposite bipolar plates prepared in this study are suitable for PEMFC application. (author)