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Sample records for preparing food sand

  1. Guide to preparing SAND reports. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, T.K. [ed.

    1996-04-01

    This guide contains basic information needed to produce a SAND report. Its guidelines reflect DOE regulation and Sandia policy. The guide includes basic writing instructions in an annotated sample report; guidance for organization, format, and layout of reports produced by line organizations; and information about conference papers, journal articles, and brochures. The appendixes contain sections on Sandia`s preferred usage, equations, references, copyrights and permissions, and publishing terms.

  2. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  3. Food irradiation dosimetry using thermoluminescence of quartz sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.M.; Ehlermann, D.A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Thermoluminescence of quartz sand, which is inert and concomitant to several food materials, has been investigated for applications in food irradiation dosimetry and detection of irradiated foods. The glow curves consist of at least three overlapping peaks from 100 to 420 C. The peak at lower temperature is not stable and decays quickly at room temperature. However, the peaks at higher temperature are stable and more useful for dosimetry work. The intensity of the peak at 360 C, measured using different optical filters, shows a linear response in the range of 0.05 to 23 kGy. Stability of these signals at different annealing temperatures has been investigated. Thermoluminescence from adhering minerals and contaminating dust in different food materials has been found useful for the detection of irradiation treatment. Since quartz is frequently one of these minerals, further computerized deconvolution of individual glow peaks from the complex glow curves of quartz sand was carried out which improves the dosimetric results. Possible applications of thermoluminescence of quartz sand in food irradiation dosimetry and detection of irradiated foods have been discussed. (orig.)

  4. Food conditions of the sand goby

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freitas, V.; Lika, K.; Witte, J.IJ.; van der Veer, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    Several epibenthic species aggregate in large numbers in shallow waters during summer, feeding on the available benthic meio- and macrofauna. Whether this concentration leads to periods of food limitation affecting habitat quality for some of these species is not clear at present. In this study we

  5. Food Preparation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    Dewatering Equipment . . . Dispensers • • • • • Egg -Processing Equipment . . . . . . . Fillers • • • • • • • • • • . . . . . Food-Forming Equipment...miscellaneous unit operations to be con· ducted in the CFPF. Such operations include opening and draining of cans:, egg breaking, nut chopping, and...Jitney (with load scale) • Silent cutter • Dicer • Chunker • Loaf former • Patty former • Meatball former • Salisbury steak former • Walk-in

  6. Influence of sand base preparation on properties of chromite moulding sands with sodium silicate hardened with selected methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stachowicz M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a research on the relation between thermal preparation of chromite sand base of moulding sands containing sodium silicate, hardened with selected physical and chemical methods, and structure of the created bonding bridges. Test specimens were prepared of chromite sand - fresh or baked at 950°C for 10 or 24 hours - mixed with 0.5 wt.% of the selected non-modified inorganic binder and, after forming, were hardened with CO2 or liquid esters, dried traditionally or heated with microwaves at 2.45 GHz. It was shown on the grounds of SEM observations that the time of baking the base sand and the hardening method significantly affect structure of the bonding bridges and are correlated with mechanical properties of the moulding sands. It was found that hardening chromite-based moulding mixtures with physical methods is much more favourable than hardening with chemical methods, guaranteeing also more than ten times higher mechanical properties.

  7. Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and other communication products : quick reference guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-01

    This Quick Reference Guide supplements the more complete Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and Other Communication Products. It provides limited guidance on how to prepare SAND Reports at Sandia National Laboratories. Users are directed to the in-depth guide for explanations of processes.

  8. Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products : quick reference guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-03-01

    This 'Quick Reference Guide' supplements the more complete 'Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and Other Communication Products'. It provides limited guidance on how to prepare SAND Reports at Sandia National Laboratories. Users are directed to the in-depth guide for explanations of processes.

  9. Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-09-01

    This guide describes the R&A process, Common Look and Feel requirements, and preparation and publishing procedures for communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Samples of forms and examples of published communications products are provided. This guide takes advantage of the wealth of material now available on the Web as a resource. Therefore, it is best viewed as an electronic document. If some of the illustrations are too small to view comfortably, you can enlarge them on the screen as needed. The format of this document is considerably different than that usually expected of a SAND Report. It was selected to permit the large number of illustrations and examples to be placed closer to the text that references them. In the case of forms, covers, and other items that are included as examples, a link to the Web is provided so that you can access the items and download them for use. This guide details the processes for producing a variety of communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Figure I-1 shows the general publication development process. Because extensive supplemental material is available from Sandia on the internal web or from external sources (Table I-1), the guide has been shortened to make it easy to find information that you need.

  10. Food Safety When Preparing Holiday Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Health Current: Remember Food Safety when Preparing Holiday Meals Services and Programs Regulation & Licensure Vital Records ... food safety is especially important as they prepare holiday meals. Many holiday dinners include meat and poultry, ...

  11. Effect on the Grain Size Distribution when Preparing Sand Using Poker Vibrators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Dam

    2017-01-01

    At Aalborg University and other research institutions, model tests are performed on small -scale foundations. These foundations are often installed in sand which has to be prepared in a reproductive way. At Aalborg University the preparation is done by using poker vibrators. This paper investigat...

  12. Guide to preparing SAND Reports and other communication products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-02-01

    This guide describes the R&A process, Common Look and Feel requirements, and preparation and publishing procedures for communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Samples of forms and examples of published communications products are provided.

  13. Carbon dynamics, food web structure and reclamation strategies in Athabasca oil sands wetlands (CRFAW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciborowski, J.; Dixon, G.; Foote, L.; Liber, K.; Smits, J.

    2010-01-01

    This abstract provided details of the Carbon Dynamics, Food Web Structure and Reclamation Strategies in Athabasca Oil Sands Wetlands (CFRAW) program, a collaboration between oil sands industry partners and university laboratories. CFRAW researchers are investigating the effects of mine tailings and process waters on the development, health, and function of wetland communities in post-mining landscapes. The aim of the program is to accurately predict how quickly the reclaimed wetlands will approach conditions seen in reference wetland systems. The program is also examining the effects of hydrocarbons as a surrogate source of carbon after they are metabolized by bacteria. The biological uptake, pathways, and movement through the food web of materials used by the biota in constructed wetlands are also being studied. Flux estimates will be used to determine if wetlands amended with peat will maintain their productivity. A conceptual model of carbon pathways and budgets is also being developed.

  14. Experimental Study on Artificial Cemented Sand Prepared with Ordinary Portland Cement with Different Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Artificial cemented sand test samples were prepared by using ordinary Portland cement (OPC as the cementing agent. Through uniaxial compression tests and consolidated drained triaxial compression tests, the stress-strain curves of the artificial cemented sand with different cementing agent contents (0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.08 under various confining pressures (0.00 MPa, 0.25 MPa, 0.50 MPa and 1.00 MPa were obtained. Based on the test results, the effect of the cementing agent content (Cv on the physical and mechanical properties of the artificial cemented sand were analyzed and the Mohr-Coulomb strength theory was modified by using Cv. The research reveals that when Cv is high (e.g., Cv = 0.03, 0.05 or 0.08, the stress-strain curves of the samples indicate a strain softening behavior; under the same confining pressure, as Cv increases, both the peak strength and residual strength of the samples show a significant increase. When Cv is low (e.g., Cv = 0.01, the stress-strain curves of the samples indicate strain hardening behavior. From the test data, a function of Cv (the cementing agent content with c′ (the cohesion force of the sample and Δϕ′ (the increment of the angle of shearing resistance is obtained. Furthermore, through modification of the Mohr-Coulomb strength theory, the effect of cementing agent content on the strength of the cemented sand is demonstrated.

  15. Experimental Study on Artificial Cemented Sand Prepared with Ordinary Portland Cement with Different Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongliang; Liu, Xinrong; Liu, Xianshan

    2015-07-02

    Artificial cemented sand test samples were prepared by using ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as the cementing agent. Through uniaxial compression tests and consolidated drained triaxial compression tests, the stress-strain curves of the artificial cemented sand with different cementing agent contents (0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.08) under various confining pressures (0.00 MPa, 0.25 MPa, 0.50 MPa and 1.00 MPa) were obtained. Based on the test results, the effect of the cementing agent content ( C v ) on the physical and mechanical properties of the artificial cemented sand were analyzed and the Mohr-Coulomb strength theory was modified by using C v . The research reveals that when C v is high (e.g., C v = 0.03, 0.05 or 0.08), the stress-strain curves of the samples indicate a strain softening behavior; under the same confining pressure, as C v increases, both the peak strength and residual strength of the samples show a significant increase. When C v is low (e.g., C v = 0.01), the stress-strain curves of the samples indicate strain hardening behavior. From the test data, a function of C v (the cementing agent content) with c ' (the cohesion force of the sample) and Δϕ' (the increment of the angle of shearing resistance) is obtained. Furthermore, through modification of the Mohr-Coulomb strength theory, the effect of cementing agent content on the strength of the cemented sand is demonstrated.

  16. EX8000 ramps up preparation phase in Horizon oil sands project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2006-07-15

    This article presented details of Hitachi's EX8000 hydraulic shovel, a key piece of equipment that will be used throughout the extensive mine preparation phase of the Horizon oil sands project. Within 2 years, the project expects to produce over 200,000 barrels of oil per day. However, more than 400 million cubic metres of soil will need to be moved before production can begin. In order to remain on schedule, overburden must be removed in massive volumes. With a 52.3 cubic yard bucket, the Hitachi EX8000 has the capacity to feed a dozen 320 metric tonne haul trucks as well as several smaller 282 metric tonne trucks, and can fill each truck in 4 passes. Material is now being moved by to an area in which dikes are being constructed to house water generated in the refining process. Stockpiling, relocation and reclamation phases will follow as the project progresses. In order to reach the oil, as much as 75 feet of overburden must be removed, including layers of sandstone, limestone, trap rock and other materials. Once the overburden has been removed, oil sand layers are also often intermixed with other materials. The EX8000 can separate the tramp material from the oil sands, improving the overall efficiency of the operation. The Alberta-based North American Construction Group, who have a 10-year contract with Canadian Natural Resources Ltd. for the Horizon project, owns more than 100 Hitachi units in various sizes and has already purchased another EX8000 which is slated for delivery in the Fall of 2006. It was concluded that the company has purchased hundreds of new trucks to handle added volumes of materials being moved as the oil sands industry gains momentum. 3 figs.

  17. Formation of trans fats during food preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Oman; Aladedunye, Felix A

    2012-01-01

    An investigation was completed to determine how typical cooking procedures used in food preparation, such as baking and stir-frying, affect trans fats formation. Canola oil was used as the main fat ingredient. Zucchini cake and gingersnap cookies were baked at 180o C and 200o C, while stir-fried chicken was prepared at 200o C and 275o C. The lipids from the food were extracted following the Folch procedure, and analyzed for trans fatty acids according to ISO official method 15304. Minimal changes were observed in the amount of trans fats during baking. Application of extreme temperatures during baking, which caused carbonization of the outer layer of products, yielded an insignificant increase in the amount of trans isomers. As with baking, stir-frying did not result in significant isomerization of the fatty acids, even when the oil was heated to 275o C and smoking heavily before the food was placed in it. Irrespective of the cooking procedure, linolenic acid was the most prone to isomerization with the highest amount of trans isomers formation. Baking and stir-frying at normal and/or extreme temperatures do not significantly affect the amounts of trans fats. Likewise, heating oil to the smoking point during stir-frying may decrease the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids because of oxidative degradation.

  18. Polysialates binders preparation and their influence to shear strength of foundry sand mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fridrich

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with polysialates water-glasses preparation. There were used various procedures with the goal to create inorganic polymer on silicon and aluminum base. The one composed of SiO2 and AlO4 tetrahedron chains. For the preparation was concentrated NaOH solution used together with metakaolinite in a way low-temperature synthesis in the presence of alkaline silicate: higher pressure and temperature (autoclave to direct making of alkaline silicate made of sand, NaOH with metakaolinite addition and by melting fritted glass together with metakaolinite and dissolution in autoclave. The dissolving effectivity was evaluated by the concentration of aluminum in alkaline silicate and by the influence to reduce strengths after heat exposition with this inorganic binder.

  19. Stonefish "Okoze" envenomation during food preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ryo; Suzuki, Masaru; Hori, Shingo; Aikawa, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    Stonefish is a dangerous and venomous fish commonly found in the shallow waters of the Pacific region. Its envenomation is reported worldwide with increasing frequency. Although envenomation usually occurs in those engaged in marine sports, chefs may suffer envenomation during cutting stonefish, which is eaten either sliced raw, boiled, or deep-fried by Japanese. Since many people cook and eat Japanese food, it is important to know that cutting a stonefish for cooking carries the risk of envenomation. However, most primary and emergency physicians have not encountered cases of envenomation during food preparation. Here we describe a case of envenomation occurring while cooking. The patient was a healthy 33-year-old man working as a chef in a Japanese restaurant. He was presented to an academic emergency department after suddenly developing severe pain in his right fourth finger while cutting a stonefish. The finger was reddish, swollen, and tender. The pain reduce d after immersing his hand in hot water, and disappeared within 18 h without any complication. In this report, we describe the history of stonefish envenomation and provide a brief review of the literature related to this form of envenomation.

  20. Preparation of food supplements from oilseed cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, L; Appaiah, Prakruthi; Prasanth Kumar, P K; Gopala Krishna, A G

    2015-05-01

    Oilseed cakes have been in use for feed preparation. Being rich in proteins, antioxidants, fibers, vitamins and minerals, oilseed cakes have been considered ideal for food supplementation. These oilseed cakes can be processed and made more palatable and edible by suitable treatments and then incorporated as food supplements for human consumption. Rice bran pellets (RBP), stabilized rice bran (SRB), coconut cake (CC) and sesame cake (SC) were taken up for the study. These were mixed with distilled water and cooked in such a way to separate the cooked solid residue and liquid extract followed by freeze drying to get two products from each. The raw, cooked dried residue and extract were analyzed for various parameters such as moisture (0.9-27.4 %), fat (2.1-16.1 %), ash (3.3-9.0 %), minerals (2.6-633.2 mg/100 g), total dietary fiber (23.2-58.2 %), crude fiber (2.7-10.5 %), protein (3.2-34.0 %), and the fat further analyzed for fatty acid composition, oryzanol (138-258 mg/100 g) and lignan (99-113 mg/100 g) contents and also evaluated sensory evaluation. Nutritional composition of products as affected by cooking was studied. The cooked products (residue and extract) showed changes in nutrients content and composition from that of the starting cakes and raw materials, but retained more nutrients in cooked residue than in the extract. The sensory evaluation of cooked residue and extract showed overall higher acceptability by the panelists than the starting cakes and raw materials. On the basis of these findings it can be concluded that these cooked residue and extract products are highly valuable for food supplementation than the raw ones.

  1. Seasonal energy, water, and food consumption of Negev Chukars and sand partridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, M.; Degen, A.A.; Nagy, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Chukars (Alectoris chukar) and Sand Partridges (Ammoperdix heyl), two ground-dwelling phasianids, are permanent residents of the Negev desert and are sympatric over much of their ranges. Sand Partridges (body mass = 150-250 g), however, inhabit only arid and very arid areas, whereas Chukars (m/sub b/ = 350-600 g) are widely distributed and inhabit deserts only at the margins of their ranges. They compared some of the desert adaptations of these phasianids by measuring the seasonal field metabolic rates (FMR) and water influxes (using doubly labelled water), diet selection, and food requirements of free-living Chukars and Sand Partridges at a site where both species occurred. Both species showed adaptation in the form of low energy metabolism, which ranged from 43 to 81% of that expected for birds of similar body mass. During summer, Sand Partridges had lower energy expenditures (5.47 kJ x g/sup -0.61/ x d -1 ) and water influxes (72.3 mL kg/sup -0.75/ d -1 ) than did Chukars (6.42 kJ g/sup -0.61/ d -1 and 93.5 mL x kg/sup -0.75/ x d -1 , respectively), indicating more pronounced adjustments to arid conditions in the desert specialist. However, both species obtained more than half of their water influx in summer by drinking. Their summer diet was relatively dry, consisting mainly of seeds (80%) along with some green vegetation (18%) and, in Chukars, occasional arthropods. This situation changed abruptly after winter rains, which induced germination and reduced the availability of seeds. Chukars were unable to maintain energy balance in the face of low ambient temperatures and a diet (90% green vegetation) that contained much water but comparatively little energy, and they mobilized fat reserves to meet energy requirements. Most Sand Partridges left the study area after winter rains, apparently migrating to the lower elevation, warmer, and drier Arava (part of the Rift Valley)

  2. Carbon dynamics, food web structure and reclamation strategies in Athabasca oil sands wetlands (CFRAW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciborowski, J.J.; Dixon, G.; Foote, L.; Liber, K.; Smits, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    The remediation and ecology of oilsands constructed wetlands was discussed with reference to a project known as the Carbon dynamics, Food web structure and Reclamation strategies in Athabasca oil sands Wetlands (CFRAW). This joint project between 7 mining partners and 5 universities documents how tailings in constructed wetlands modify maturation leading to natural conditions in a reclaimed landscape. Since wetlands are expected to make up 20-50 per cent of the final reclamation landscape of areas surface mined for oil sands in northeastern Alberta, the project focuses on how quickly wetlands amended with reclamation materials approach the conditions seen in reference wetland systems. This study provided a conceptual model of carbon pathways and budgets to evaluate how the allocation of carbon among compartments changes as newly formed wetlands mature in the boreal system. It is likely that succession and community development will accelerate if constructed wetlands are supplemented with stockpiled peat or topsoil. The bitumens and naphthenic acids found in wetlands constructed with mine tailings materials are initially toxic, but may ultimately serve as an alternate source of carbon once they degrade or are metabolized by bacteria. This study evaluated the sources, biological uptake, pathways, and movement through the food web of materials used by the biota in constructed wetlands, with particular reference to how productivity of new wetlands is maintained. Net ecosystem productivity is being monitored along with rates of organic carbon accumulation from microbial, algal, and macrophyte production, and influx of outside materials. The rates of leaf litter breakdown and microbial respiration are also being monitored to determine how constituents speed or slow food web processes of young and older wetlands. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope measurements indicate which sources are incorporated into the food web as wetlands age, and how this influences community

  3. Evaluation of research methods to study domestic food preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongoni, R.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Steenbekkers, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Domestic preparation practices influence the sensory properties and nutritional composition of food products. Information on the variability in actual domestic preparation practices is needed to assess the influence of applied conditions on the sensory and nutritional quality of food. The

  4. Safety of vendor-prepared foods: evaluation of 10 processing mobile food vendors in Manhattan.

    OpenAIRE

    Burt, Bryan M.; Volel, Caroline; Finkel, Madelon

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Unsanitary food handling is a major public health hazard. There are over 4,100 mobile food vendors operating in New York City, and of these, approximately forty percent are processing vendors--mobile food units on which potentially hazardous food products are handled, prepared, or processed. This pilot study assesses the food handling practices of 10 processing mobile food vendors operating in a 38-block area of midtown Manhattan (New York City) from 43rd Street to 62nd Street bet...

  5. Perceived motivators to home food preparation: focus group findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sheila A; Walter, Janelle; Soliah, LuAnn; Phifer, Janna T

    2014-10-01

    Family meals are positively associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and numerous nutrients, promoting good eating habits and disease prevention. Families benefiting from home-cooked meals are more likely to consume smaller portions and fewer calories, less fat, less salt, and less sugar. Some Western cultures have lost confidence in preparing meals and tend to rely on foods prepared outside the home. The ability of young adults to prepare foods at home may be impaired. The purpose of our study is to identify motivators and, consequently, barriers to preparing foods at home vs purchasing preprepared foods from a deli or eating in a restaurant. Focus groups of college students (n=239) from two universities were asked questions about motivators to preparing meals at home in two subsequent sessions. The primary motivators among the students were that they desired to save money; had a model in food preparation; were familiar with cooking techniques; and had enough time to shop, cook, and clean up after meals. Food and nutrition practitioners have opportunities to promote cost-effective, simple, and time-saving home food preparation techniques as healthful habits. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Methods of preparation of Swazi traditional fermented foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protus Simatende

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Umcombotsi, emahewu, buganu, and emasi were the fermented foods commonly prepared at a household level in the Hhohho region, Swaziland. The main ingredient used for preparing umcombotsi and emahewu was maize meal. Unmilled sorghum malt was also added during preparation of umcombotsi. However, typically no malt was added during the preparation of emahewu. Buganu and emasi also play an important role in the diet and socioeconomic activities of the population in Swaziland.

  7. Applications of the systems theory to the designing of the sand preparation sub-system in foundry plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wrona

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study provides the basic principles for designing the functional structure of manufacturing systems and their components. The analysis of functional values is applied to create the technological and manufacturing model underlying the design of the foundry equipment with machine units and materials handling systems. Quoted examples illustrate the approved procedure to be applied to control the sand preparation process in a foundry.

  8. Food Preparation. I: Food Facts for Home. II: Facts about Foodservice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter and Gamble Educational Services, Cincinnati, OH.

    This package is intended for use in home economics classes focusing on nutrition and food preparation and service. The teaching guide is divided into two parts. The first centers on selected first-time facts on nutrition, meal planning, and basic food preparation skills. It includes modules on nutrition, meal management, initial steps in food…

  9. Food Preparation and Service: Cluster Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Michigan Univ., Mount Pleasant.

    This teacher's guide is one of a series of publications focusing on the occupational preparation of persons with special education needs. The material was developed and tested by cooperating teachers over a period of three years. Task analysis information is presented using occupational descriptions from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles,…

  10. Notes on sample preparation of food: food of plant and animal origins, and daily meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilgeist, M.

    1992-01-01

    The procedure of food sample preparation to determine their specific radioactivity, analogous to chemical residue analysis, is laid down in the relevant sets of regulations. Several procedural steps of sample preparation of single food and composite food are dealt with. The sample size necessary for gamma spectroscopy and Sr-89/Sr-90 analysis, and the incineration step to enrich radionuclides are explained. Finally, enrichment by freeze drying of the high-volatile radionuclide I-131 is considered. (orig.) [de

  11. Effects of consumer food preparation on acrylamide formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lauren S; Al-Taher, Fadwa

    2005-01-01

    Acrylamide is formed in high-carbohydrate foods during high temperature processes such as frying, baking, roasting and extrusion. Although acrylamide is known to form during industrial processing of food, high levels of the chemical have been found in home-cooked foods, mainly potato- and grain-based products. This chapter will focus on the effects of cooking conditions (e.g. time/temperature) on acrylamide formation in consumer-prepared foods, the use of surface color (browning) as an indicator of acrylamide levels in some foods, and methods for reducing acrylamide levels in home-prepared foods. As with commercially processed foods, acrylamide levels in home-prepared foods tend to increase with cooking time and temperature. In experiments conducted at the NCFST, we found that acrylamide levels in cooked food depended greatly on the cooking conditions and the degree of "doneness", as measured by the level of surface browning. For example, French fries fried at 150-190 degrees C for up to 10 min had acrylamide levels of 55 to 2130 microg/kg (wet weight), with the highest levels in the most processed (highest frying times/temperatures) and the most highly browned fries. Similarly, more acrylamide was formed in "dark" toasted bread slices (43.7-610.7 microg/kg wet weight), than "light" (8.27-217.5 microg/kg) or "medium" (10.9-213.7 microg/kg) toasted slices. Analysis of the surface color by colorimetry indicated that some components of surface color ("a" and "L" values) correlated highly with acrylamide levels. This indicates that the degree of surface browning could be used as an indicator of acrylamide formation during cooking. Soaking raw potato slices in water before frying was effective at reducing acrylamide levels in French fries. Additional studies are needed to develop practical methods for reducing acrylamide formation in home-prepared foods without changing the acceptability of these foods.

  12. Complexity of food preparation and food security status in low-income young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Stringer, Bernadette; Haines, Ted

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore whether preparing more complex meals was associated with higher food security status. This mixed-methods, community-based study involved the use of semistructured interviews to examine the cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal. Fifty participants aged 18 to 35 were recruited at 10 locations in five low-income neighbourhoods. Food security status was the main outcome measure and the main exposure variable, "complex food preparation," combined the preparation of three specific food types (soups, sauces, and baked goods) using basic ingredients. Low-income women preparing a variety of meals using basic ingredients at least three times a week were more than twice as likely to be food secure as were women preparing more complex meals less frequently. Women who prepared more complex meals more frequently had higher food security. Whether this means that preparing more complex foods results in greater food security remains unclear, as this was an exploratory study.

  13. Slice&Dice: Recognizing Food Preparation Activities Using Embedded Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Cuong; Olivier, Patrick

    Within the context of an endeavor to provide situated support for people with cognitive impairments in the kitchen, we developed and evaluated classifiers for recognizing 11 actions involved in food preparation. Data was collected from 20 lay subjects using four specially designed kitchen utensils incorporating embedded 3-axis accelerometers. Subjects were asked to prepare a mixed salad in our laboratory-based instrumented kitchen environment. Video of each subject's food preparation activities were independently annotated by three different coders. Several classifiers were trained and tested using these features. With an overall accuracy of 82.9% our investigation demonstrated that a broad set of food preparation actions can be reliably recognized using sensors embedded in kitchen utensils.

  14. Preparation and characterization of poly(acrylic acid)—corn starch blend for use as chemical sand-fixing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Xugang; Chen, Hui; Shan, Zhihua

    2017-07-01

    One chemical sand-fixing materials based on poly(acrylic acid)-corn starch (PACS) blend was studied in this work. The PACS blend was prepared by solution mixing method between PA and CS. In order to prepare sand-fixing materials for environmental applications using the well-established method of spraying evenly PACS blend solution on the surfaces of fine sand. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed the existence of the intermolecular interactions between the blend components. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed a continuous phase of blend, and it also showed the good sand-fixing capacity. The test results of hygroscopicity and water retention experiments indicated that the blends had excellent water-absorbing and water-retention capacity. The results of contact angle measurements between the PACS solutions and fine sand showed that the PACS blend has a satisfactory effect on fine sand wetting. And the PACS, as a sand-fixation material, has excellent sand-fixation rate up to 99.5%.

  15. Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.; Mohamed, D. A.

    2012-07-01

    Adjuvant arthritis is an animal model that closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis in humans. It is a successful working model used to study new anti-inflammatory agents. In previous studies (animal and clinical) we have shown that evening primrose oil, fish oil and the methanol extract of date fruits and fenugreek seeds have anti-inflammatory activity and that the methanol extract of dates has an antioxidant effect. Based on these studies, the aim of the present study was to prepare 7 functional foods containing such bioactive fractions separately or in combination and to evaluate them in adjuvant arthritis in rats, study the stability of bioactive ingredients and evaluate their sensory properties. The studied biochemical parameters were erythrocyte sedimentation rate, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and plasma copper, zinc and interlukin 2. Nutritional parameters, including body weight gain, food intake and food efficiency ratio were monitored during the feeding of the functional foods. The bioactive ingredients assessed were total phenolic contents and fatty acids. The results showed improvement in the biochemical parameters, body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of arthritic rats fed on the functional foods with different degrees. All the prepared functional foods were sensory accepted. The active ingredients showed stability during storage. In conclusion, all the tested functional foods showed promising antiinflammatory activity and were determined to be acceptable through sensory evaluation which means that their potential beneficial use as dietary supplements in rheumatoid arthritis patients may be recommended. (Author) 42 refs.

  16. Social disparities in food preparation behaviours: a DEDIPAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méjean, Caroline; Si Hassen, Wendy; Gojard, Séverine; Ducrot, Pauline; Lampuré, Aurélie; Brug, Hans; Lien, Nanna; Nicolaou, Mary; Holdsworth, Michelle; Terragni, Laura; Hercberg, Serge; Castetbon, Katia

    2017-09-20

    The specific role of major socio-economic indicators in influencing food preparation behaviours could reveal distinct socio-economic patterns, thus enabling mechanisms to be understood that contribute to social inequalities in health. This study investigated whether there was an independent association of each socio-economic indicator (education, occupation, income) with food preparation behaviours. A total of 62,373 adults participating in the web-based NutriNet-Santé cohort study were included in our cross-sectional analyses. Cooking skills, preparation from scratch and kitchen equipment were assessed using a 0-10-point score; frequency of meal preparation, enjoyment of cooking and willingness to cook better/more frequently were categorical variables. Independent associations between socio-economic factors (education, income and occupation) and food preparation behaviours were assessed using analysis of covariance and logistic regression models stratified by sex. The models simultaneously included the three socio-economic indicators, adjusting for age, household composition and whether or not they were the main cook in the household. Participants with the lowest education, the lowest income group and female manual and office workers spent more time preparing food daily than participants with the highest education, those with the highest income and managerial staff (P cooks than those with the highest education level (Women: OR = 3.36 (1.69;6.69); Men: OR = 1.83 (1.07;3.16)) while female manual and office workers and the never-employed were less likely to be non-cooks (OR = 0.52 (0.28;0.97); OR = 0.30 (0.11;0.77)). Female manual and office workers had lower scores of preparation from scratch and were less likely to want to cook more frequently than managerial staff (P cooking meal daily (OR = 0.68 (0.45;0.86)) than those with the highest income. Lowest socio-economic groups, particularly women, spend more time preparing food than high socioeconomic

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Microfiltration Ceramic Membranes Based on Natural Quartz Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Ivanets

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of phase and chemical composition of natural quartz sand, binder and burnable additives was studied. The conditions of application of the membrane and biocide layers on the formation of porous ceramic and microfiltration membranes were investigated. It is shown that a crystalline oxide of Si(IV is determinant for obtaining the ceramic materials. The presence of carbonates (calcite, dolomite, aragonite, etc. and crystalline aluminosilicates (microcline, albite, phlogopit, etc. leads to a decrease in mechanical strength of ceramics. The biocide coating designed to protect the ceramic membrane surfaces from biofouling was applied and its anti-bacterial activity was shown.

  18. Social disparities in food preparation behaviours: a DEDIPAC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Méjean, C.; Si Hassen, W.; Gojard, S.; Ducrot, P.; Lampuré, A.; Brug, H.; Lien, N.; Nicolaou, M.; Holdsworth, M.; Terragni, L.; Hercberg, S.; Castetbon, K.

    2017-01-01

    Background The specific role of major socio-economic indicators in influencing food preparation behaviours could reveal distinct socio-economic patterns, thus enabling mechanisms to be understood that contribute to social inequalities in health. This study investigated whether there was an

  19. Social disparities in food preparation behaviours: a DEDIPAC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Méjean, Caroline; Si Hassen, Wendy; Gojard, Séverine; Ducrot, Pauline; Lampuré, Aurélie; Brug, Hans; Lien, Nanna; Nicolaou, Mary; Holdsworth, Michelle; Terragni, Laura; Hercberg, Serge; Castetbon, Katia

    2017-01-01

    Background: The specific role of major socio-economic indicators in influencing food preparation behaviours could reveal distinct socio-economic patterns, thus enabling mechanisms to be understood that contribute to social inequalities in health. This study investigated whether there was an

  20. Community Living Skills Guide: Cooking/Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickovich, Marti; Kreps, Alice Roelofs

    One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Cooking/Food Preparation. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized…

  1. Carbon dynamics, food web structure and reclamation strategies in Athabasca oil sands wetlands (CFRAW) : overview and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciborowski, J.; Dixon, D.G.; Foote, L.; Liber, K.; Smits, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Seven oil sand mining partners and 5 university labs have joined forces to study the effects of mine tailings and process waters on development, health and function of wetland communities formed in post-mining landscapes. The collaborative effort, know as the carbon dynamics, food web structure and reclamation strategies in Athabasca oil sands wetlands (CRFAW), aims to identify the materials and strategies most effective and economical in producing a functioning reclamation landscape. This presentation reported on part of the study that tested predictions about how quickly wetlands amended with reclamation materials approach the conditions of reference wetland systems. It provided a conceptual model of carbon pathways and budgets to assess how the allocation of carbon among compartments changes as newly formed wetlands mature in the boreal system. It was assumed that stockpiling constructed wetlands with peat or topsoil would accelerate succession and community development. Although the bitumen and the naphthenic acids found in constructed wetlands are initially toxic, they may serve as an alternate source of carbon once they degrade. This study also assessed the sources, biological uptake, pathways, and movement through the food web of materials used by the biota in constructed wetlands. Additional studies are examining how the productivity of new wetlands is maintained. Net ecosystem productivity is being monitored along with rates of organic carbon accumulation from microbial, algal, and macrophyte production, and influx of outside materials. The rates of leaf litter breakdown and microbial respiration are being compared to determine how constituents speed or slow food web processes of young and older wetlands. Carbon and nitrogen isotope values in food web compartments indicate which sources are incorporated into the food web as wetlands age. The values are used to determine how this influences community development, food web structure and complexity, and the

  2. [Risk assessment for food preparation, cooking and service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottica, Danilo; Grignani, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The restaurant and food preparation, cooking and distribution sector includes hotels, restaurants, catering, fast food, ecc. The restaurant and food preparation, cooking and distribution sector form a significant part of the Italian economy; they provide employment for a large number of people, both direct employees as well as part-time and contract staff. In this sector there are many hazards that can lead to a broad range of injuries and/or diseases to the workers. For the safety these hazards principally are slick floors, open flames, high temperature cooking surfaces, steam, knives and other cutting instruments and machineries. For the health: cleaning and disinfecting chemicals substances, cooking fumes and vapors, biological agents, heavy loads handling, thermal comfort, ecc. The paper presents an overview of the hazards in the sector and then make a focus on chemical risks identification and assessment to evaluate the workers' exposure (by skin adsorption and inhalation).

  3. Safety of vendor-prepared foods: evaluation of 10 processing mobile food vendors in Manhattan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Bryan M; Volel, Caroline; Finkel, Madelon

    2003-01-01

    Unsanitary food handling is a major public health hazard. There are over 4,100 mobile food vendors operating in New York City, and of these, approximately forty percent are processing vendors--mobile food units on which potentially hazardous food products are handled, prepared, or processed. This pilot study assesses the food handling practices of 10 processing mobile food vendors operating in a 38-block area of midtown Manhattan (New York City) from 43rd Street to 62nd Street between Madison and Sixth Avenues, and compares them to regulations stipulated in the New York City Health Code. Ten processing mobile food vendors located in midtown Manhattan were observed for a period of 20 minutes each. Unsanitary food handling practices, food storage at potentially unsafe temperatures, and food contamination with uncooked meat or poultry were recorded. Over half of all vendors (67%) were found to contact served foods with bare hands. Four vendors were observed vending with visibly dirty hands or gloves and no vendor once washed his or her hands or changed gloves in the 20-minute observation period. Seven vendors had previously cooked meat products stored at unsafe temperatures on non-heating or non-cooking portions of the vendor cart for the duration of the observation. Four vendors were observed to contaminate served foods with uncooked meat or poultry. Each of these actions violates the New York City Code of Health and potentially jeopardizes the safety of these vendor-prepared foods. More stringent adherence to food safety regulations should be promoted by the New York City Department of Health.

  4. Food interactions with sustained-release theophylline preparations. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, J H

    1989-03-01

    Currently, theophylline is being used predominantly as sustained-release capsules or tablets. In the mid-seventies the first preparations for use with a dosage interval of 12 hours (twice-daily preparations) were introduced. Since 1983, theophylline preparations that can be given with an interval of 24 hours (once-daily preparations) have become available. The release of theophylline from some of these products can be influenced (either increased or decreased) by concomitant intake of food. With some preparations the composition of the meal (especially the fat content) has an influence on the degree of effect. The consequence may be an effect on the rate of absorption or on the amount absorbed, or both simultaneously. This could result in an unexpected shift of the plasma theophylline concentration. Such a shift is therapeutically undesirable, because theophylline has a fairly narrow therapeutic range. A review is given of those food interactions with the sustained-release theophylline preparations, both twice-daily and once-daily products, that are currently on the world market. Special attention is paid to the specific (bio)pharmaceutical characteristics of the different products, and to the influence of the composition and timing of the meals. For each preparation the effect of food on the following pharmacokinetic parameters is discussed: area under the plasma concentration-time curve, peak plasma drug concentration and time to reach this peak. Where possible, the results for both adults and children are discussed. There are indications that children are more susceptible to food-effects than adults. The regulatory aspects are mentioned briefly. Clinically important effects of food have been observed with the following twice-daily products: 'Theo-Dur Sprinkle', 'Theolair SR' (= 'Nuelin SR') and 'Theograd'. Pronounced effects could have an even greater impact with once-daily preparations, as the total daily dose will be given at a single time. A particularly

  5. Food preparation in colonial America. A Bicentennial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, M

    1976-07-01

    Both regional and national influences have pervaded America's culinary arts from colonial times until the present. In the South, for instance, indigenous foods, such as sweet potatoes--as well as an abundance of fruits and fowl--were commonly served. In the North, maple sirup was a New England product, as was codfish. Throughout the colonies, corn was easily grown and became a staple. Immigrants from the Old World brought their recipes to meld or adapt to conditions they met here. Recounted also is the unfolding of an American cuisine, especially in the southern colonies as it evolved from European food preparation practices. Cooking was done in great fireplaces, with equipment designed to fit. Meat was generally boiled or stewed in pots hung in the fireplace, although it might be slow-roasted on a hand-turned spit. Hot breads, the hallmark of southern cooking, date from colonial days. In the Noth, the Dutch farmer's wife developed real skill in using flour from home-grown wheat and rye, creating pancakes, waffles, doughnuts, crullers, and so on. After the first hard winter, food in New England became more plentiful. Boston brown bread was made from corn, wheat, or rye and probably sweetened with maple sirup. Imports of coffee, tea, and spices from the Orient and fruit from the tropics were later added to the cuisine. Colonial Americans understood well the art of food preparation and appreciated the taste of well prepared, well seasoned dishes.

  6. Preparation of Fe3O4/Bentonite Nanocomposite from Natural Iron Sand by Co-precipitation Method for Adsorbents Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebayang, Perdamean; Kurniawan, Candra; Aryanto, Didik; Arief Setiadi, Eko; Tamba, Konni; Djuhana; Sudiro, Toto

    2018-03-01

    An adsorption method is one of the effective ways to filter the heavy metals wastes in aqueous system. In this paper, the Fe3O4/bentonite nanocomposites were successfully prepared from natural iron sand by co-precipitation method. The chemical process was carried out by dissolving and hot stirring the milled iron sand and bentonite in acid solution and precipitating it by NH4OH. The sediment was then washed using distilled water to neutralize pH and dried at 100 °C for 5 hours to produce Fe3O4/bentonite powders. The samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, BET, TEM, VSM and AAS. All samples were composed by Fe3O4 single phase with a spinnel structure and lattice parameter of 8.373 Å. The transmittance peak of FTIR curve proved that the Fe3O4 particles and bentonite had a molecular bonding. The addition of bentonite to Fe3O4 nanoparticles generally reduced the magnetic properties of Fe3O4/bentonite nanocomposites. The optimum condition of 30 wt% bentonite resulted 105.9 m2/g in surface area, 14 nm in an average particle size and 3.2 nm in pore size. It can be used as Cu and Pb adsorbent materials.

  7. Fabrication of Radiation Shielding Glasses Based on Lead-free High Refractive Index Glasses Prepared from Local Sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dararutana, Pisutti; Dutchaneepet, Jirapan; Sirikulrat, Narin

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Lead glasses that show high refractive index are the best know and most popular for radiation shielding. Due to harmful effects of lead and considering the health as well as the environmental issues, lead-free glasses were developed. In this work, content of Chumphon sand was fixed at 40 % (by weight) as a main composition but concentrations of BaCO3 were varied from 6 to 30 % (by weight). It was found that the absorption coefficient of the glass samples containing 30 % BaCO3 was 0.233 cm-1 for Ba-133. The density was also measured. It can be concluded that the prepared lead free glasses offered adequate shielding to gamma radiation in comparison with the lead ones. These glasses were one of the environmental friendly materials

  8. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements...... evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines for causality assessment. Data were obtained for 66 plants that are common ingredients of plant food supplements; of the 492 papers selected, 402 (81.7%) dealt with adverse effects directly associated with the botanical and 89 (18.1%) concerned......) the number of severe clinical reactions was very limited, but some fatal cases have been described. Data presented in this review were assessed for quality in order to make the results maximally useful for clinicians in identifying or excluding deleterious effects of botanicals....

  9. Involving children in meal preparation. Effects on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Ferrage, Aurore; Rytz, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The question of how to promote healthy eating habits in children is relevant because most children do not meet the recommended vegetable intake. Involving children in food preparation could be an opportunity to develop healthy eating behaviors and to increase vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of children's involvement in meal preparation on their food and vegetable intake. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 47 children aged 6 to 10 years. In condition 1 (n = 25), children prepared a lunch meal (pasta, breaded chicken, cauliflower, and salad) with the assistance of a parent. In condition 2 (n = 22), the meal was prepared by the parent alone. Independent samples t-tests were conducted to compare intake in the "child cooks" and "parent cooks" conditions. Children in the child cooks condition ate significantly more salad 41.7 g (76.1%), more chicken 21.8 g (27.0%), and more calories 84.6 kcal (24.4%) than children in the parent cooks condition. Between before cooking and directly after cooking the meal, children in the child cooks condition reported significantly increased feelings of valence (feeling positive) and dominance (feeling in control). This study confirms that involving children in meal preparation can increase vegetable intake. Because of the potential effect on energy intake, parents need to be made aware of appropriate portion sizes for their children. Taking this into account, encouraging parents to involve their children in the preparation of healthy and balanced meals could be a valuable intervention strategy to improve the diets and vegetable intake of children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Safety issues of botanicals and botanical preparations in functional foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroes, R.; Walker, R.

    2004-01-01

    Although botanicals have played a role in the marketing of health products for ages, there is an increased interest today due to their perceived health benefits. Not only do consumers increasingly take charge of their health, but the scientific information and understanding of the beneficial health effects of bioactive substances in food, functional foods and food supplements have improved. Increasing use of these products has also led to concerns about their actual safety. Recorded cases of intoxications have triggered such concerns. The safety assessment of these substances is complicated by, amongst others, the variability of composition. Furthermore, consumption of such functional products is expected to produce physiological effects, which may lead to low margins of safety as the margin between exposure of such products and the safe level of intake are likely to be small. The safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations in food and food supplement should at least involve: - the characterisation and quality of the material, its quality control; - the intended use and consequent exposure; - history of use and exposure; - product comparison(s); - toxicological information gathering; - Risk characterisation/safety assessment; As a guidance tool, a decision tree approach is proposed to assist in determining the extent of data requirements based on the nature of the such product. This guidance tool in safety assessment was developed by an expert group of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), European Branch, and is currently in press. In this paper a summarised version of this tool is presented

  11. MECHANICAL REGENERATION OF SAND WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Gnir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental activation of the sand regenerator of the firm SINTO is carried out at ОАО “MZOO". It is shown that sand grains are cleared from films of binding agents, that allows to use the treated sand for preparation of agglutinant and core sands.

  12. Domestic food practices: A study of food management behaviors and the role of food preparation planning in reducing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Simona; Grappi, Silvia; Bagozzi, Richard P; Barone, Ada Maria

    2018-02-01

    Recent research has started to show the key role of daily food provision practices in affecting household food waste. Building on and extending these previous contributions, the objective of this paper is to investigate how individuals' everyday practices regarding food (e.g., shopping, cooking, eating, etc.) lead to food waste, and how policy makers and the food industry can implement effective strategies to influence such practices and ultimately help consumers reduce food waste. The research performs three Studies; a critical incident qualitative study (Study 1; N = 514) and a quantitative, survey-based study (Study 2; N = 456) to identify and examine relevant food management behaviors associated with domestic waste. Lastly, findings from a field experiment (Study 3; N = 210) suggest that a specific educational intervention, directed at increasing consumers' perceived skills related to food preparation planning behaviors, reduces domestic food waste. Implications of the research for policy makers and the food industry are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions: A qualitative interview study with photo-elicitation

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Susanna; White, Martin; Wrieden, Wendy; Brown, Heather; Stead, Martine; Adams, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Food-related choices have an important impact on health. Food preparation methods may be linked to diet and health benefits. However, the factors influencing people's food choices, and how they are shaped by food preparation experiences, are still not fully understood. We aimed to study home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions amongst adults in North East England. A matrix was used to purposively sample participants with diverse socio-demographic characteristics. Participa...

  14. Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products : version 2.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Debra M.; Brittenham, Phillip W.

    2005-12-01

    This guide describes the R&A process, Common Look and Feel requirements, and preparation and publishing procedures for communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Samples of forms and examples of published communications products are provided. This guide details the processes for producing a variety of communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Figure I-1 shows the general publication development process. Because extensive supplemental material is available from Sandia on the internal Web or from external sources (Table I-1), the guide has been shortened to make it easy to find information that you need.

  15. Food adulteration analysis without laboratory prepared or determined reference food adulterant values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, John H; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Moira, Marianna; Tsafaras, Ilias; Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Mousdis, George A

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative analysis of food adulterants is an important health and economic issue that needs to be fast and simple. Spectroscopy has significantly reduced analysis time. However, still needed are preparations of analyte calibration samples matrix matched to prediction samples which can be laborious and costly. Reported in this paper is the application of a newly developed pure component Tikhonov regularization (PCTR) process that does not require laboratory prepared or reference analysis methods, and hence, is a greener calibration method. The PCTR method requires an analyte pure component spectrum and non-analyte spectra. As a food analysis example, synchronous fluorescence spectra of extra virgin olive oil samples adulterated with sunflower oil is used. Results are shown to be better than those obtained using ridge regression with reference calibration samples. The flexibility of PCTR allows including reference samples and is generic for use with other instrumental methods and food products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Iron contents of Malawian foods when prepared in iron cooking pots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen Geerligs, P. D.; Brabin, B. J.; Hart, D. J.; Fairweather-Tait, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the iron content of Malawian foods prepared in iron pots and to examine the effects of continuous cooking time and added oil on the iron content of the food prepared. Foods prepared, which included a staple (Nsima), relish vegetables, and beans, had an

  17. Food preparation supplies predict children's family meal and home-prepared dinner consumption in low-income households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-05-01

    Frequent family meals and home food preparation are considered important for children's nutritional health and weight maintenance. This cross-sectional study tested whether these parent-driven behaviors are related to the availability of food preparation supplies in low-income urban households. Caregivers of children ages 6-13 provided information on family meal frequency, child consumption of home-prepared dinners, household food insecurity, and attitudes towards cooking. Researchers used a newly developed Food Preparation Checklist (FPC) to assess the availability of 41 food preparation supplies during a physical audit of the home environment. Caregivers and children provided anthropometric measurements and jointly reported on child dietary intake. In ordinal logistic regression models, greater home availability of food preparation supplies was associated with more frequent family meals and child consumption of home-prepared dinners. Associations were independent of household financial strain, food insecurity, caregiver attitudes toward cooking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Fewer food preparation supplies were available in households characterized by greater food insecurity, lower income, and negative caregiver attitudes towards cooking, but did not differ by child or caregiver weight status. As in prior studies, more frequent family meals and consumption of home-prepared dinners were associated with healthier child dietary intake in several areas. We conclude that food preparation supplies are often limited in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged households, and their availability is related to the frequency with which children consume family meals and home-prepared dinners. The potential role of food preparation supplies as contributors to socioeconomic disparities in child nutritional health and obesity deserves further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hunting, Food Preparation, and Consumption of Rodents in Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Suwannarong

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 villages of Khamkeuth District in Bolikhamxay Province in the Lao PDR during March to May 2013. The study aimed to determine the characteristics associated with rodent consumption and related behaviors among different ethnic groups, ages, and genders. Five-hundred-eighty-four (584 males and females from 18-50 years of age participated in this study. Half of them were Hmong (292, 50% while 152 respondents were Lao-Tai (26% or other ethnic groups (140, 24%. Most of the respondents (79.5% had farming as their main occupation. Prevalences of the studied outcomes were high: 39.9 for hunting or capturing rodents in the previous year, 77.7% for preparing rodents as food, and 86.3% for rodent consumption. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that likelihood of these types of rodent contact was more consistently associated with behavioral factors (gathering things from the forest and elsewhere, cultivation-related activities, and taking measures to prevent rodent-borne disease than with socio-demographic, environmental, or cultural factors. The strongest associations were observed for gathering things; these associations were consistently positive and statistically significant. Although this study did not directly assess rodent-borne zoonosis risk, we believe that study findings raise concern that such risk may be substantial in the study area and other similar areas. Further epidemiological studies on the association between rodent-borne disease infection and rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption are recommended. Moreover, further studies are needed on the association between these potential exposure factors (i.e., rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption and rodent-borne infections, especially among ethnic groups like the Hmong in Lao PDR and those in neighboring countries with similar socio-demographic, environmental, behavioral and cultural contexts.

  19. Food Consumption Patterns and Micronutrient Density of Complementary Foods Consumed by Infants Fed Commercially Prepared Baby Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Kathleen C; Bailey, Regan Lucas; Deming, Denise M; O'Neill, Lynda; Carr, B Thomas; Lesniauskas, Ruta; Johnson, Wendy

    2018-03-01

    Nutrition is critically important in the first 1000 days, and while most American babies are fed commercial baby foods, there is little or no evidence from nationally representative data to understand the implications of such consumption. We used 24-hour dietary recall data for 505 infants from The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study to describe food consumption patterns and micronutrient density of complementary foods consumed by infants fed commercially prepared baby food fruit, vegetables, and dinners and compared with those eaten by nonconsumers of these products. Results show that consumers were significantly more likely to report eating all vegetables (excluding white potatoes, 71% vs 51%), deep yellow vegetables (42% vs 18%), and fruits (79% vs 65%) and were less likely to report eating white potatoes (10% vs 24%), dark green vegetables (4% vs 20%), and sweets (23% vs 47%) than were nonconsumers. Nutrient density of the complementary foods of consumers was greater for fiber, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and magnesium, but lower in sodium and vitamin D. We conclude that infants fed commercially prepared baby foods were more likely to eat vegetables and fruits, and their diets were higher in several micronutrients. These findings provide important insights on complementary feeding and are useful to support the development of evidence-based infant-feeding guidelines.

  20. Food Consumption Patterns and Micronutrient Density of Complementary Foods Consumed by Infants Fed Commercially Prepared Baby Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Kathleen C.; Bailey, Regan Lucas; Deming, Denise M.; O’Neill, Lynda; Carr, B. Thomas; Lesniauskas, Ruta; Johnson, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Nutrition is critically important in the first 1000 days, and while most American babies are fed commercial baby foods, there is little or no evidence from nationally representative data to understand the implications of such consumption. We used 24-hour dietary recall data for 505 infants from The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study to describe food consumption patterns and micronutrient density of complementary foods consumed by infants fed commercially prepared baby food fruit, vegetables, and dinners and compared with those eaten by nonconsumers of these products. Results show that consumers were significantly more likely to report eating all vegetables (excluding white potatoes, 71% vs 51%), deep yellow vegetables (42% vs 18%), and fruits (79% vs 65%) and were less likely to report eating white potatoes (10% vs 24%), dark green vegetables (4% vs 20%), and sweets (23% vs 47%) than were nonconsumers. Nutrient density of the complementary foods of consumers was greater for fiber, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and magnesium, but lower in sodium and vitamin D. We conclude that infants fed commercially prepared baby foods were more likely to eat vegetables and fruits, and their diets were higher in several micronutrients. These findings provide important insights on complementary feeding and are useful to support the development of evidence-based infant-feeding guidelines. PMID:29706668

  1. Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvant arthritis is an animal model that closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis in humans. It is a successful working model used to study new anti-inflammatory agents. In previous studies (animal and clinical we have shown that evening primrose oil, fish oil and the methanol extract of date fruits and fenugreek seeds have anti-inflammatory activity and that the methanol extract of dates has an antioxidant effect. Based on these studies, the aim of the present study was to prepare 7 functional foods containing such bioactive fractions separately or in combination and to evaluate them in adjuvant arthritis in rats, study the stability of bioactive ingredients and evaluate their sensory properties. The studied biochemical parameters were erythrocyte sedimentation rate, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and plasma copper, zinc and interlukin 2. Nutritional parameters, including body weight gain, food intake and food efficiency ratio were monitored during the feeding of the functional foods. The bioactive ingredients assessed were total phenolic contents and fatty acids. The results showed improvement in the biochemical parameters, body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of arthritic rats fed on the functional foods with different degrees. All the prepared functional foods were sensory accepted. The active ingredients showed stability during storage. In conclusion, all the tested functional foods showed promising antiinflammatory activity and were determined to be acceptable through sensory evaluation which means that their potential beneficial use as dietary supplements in rheumatoid arthritis patients may be recommended.

    La artritis adyuvante es un modelo utilizado en animales y se caracteriza por ser muy parecida a la artritis reumatoide en humanos. Se trata de un modelo de trabajo utilizado con éxito para estudiar nuevos agentes anti-inflamatorios. En estudios previos (animales y clínica hemos demostrado que

  2. 78 FR 55727 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-0928] Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food Additive... guidance for industry (GFI 221) entitled ``Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

  3. 78 FR 74154 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-0928] Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food Additive... for industry (GFI 221) entitled ``Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

  4. Preparing School Personnel to Assist Students with Life-Threatening Food Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Genevieve H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge of and preparation for life-threatening food allergies will enable school personnel to better respond to students who have severe allergic reactions. Given the high incidence of food-related anaphylaxis in public places, teachers and school personnel should be aware of and prepared to handle severe food allergy reactions. (SM)

  5. Microbial characteristics of food preparations in Benevento province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Ricci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary study was to determine the microbiological quality of pastry products and gastronomic preparations served in food service establishments in Benevento province, Southern Italy. A total of 125 samples were collected from food service establishments. Parameters investigated were: aerobic plate counts (APCs, total Coliform bacteria counts, beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia (E. coli counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts, coagulase-positive Staphylococci counts, isolation of Salmonella spp., Bacillus (B. cereus counts, and isolation of Listeria (L. monocytogenes. The microbiological quality was good, with absence of the pathogens L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. and extremely rare presence of E. coli. The fresh pastry and the uncooked gastronomy products were the most contaminated groups; also, cooked cold-served gastronomy products were susceptible to microbiological risk, as a result of the inadequate reheating and the interruption of the warm chain. On the contrary, dried pastry and cooked warm-served gastronomy products showed an excellent hygienic profile. In fact, the amount of compliant samples was 74.4%.

  6. Defending the Military Food Supply Acquisition, Preparation, and Protection of Food at U.S. Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    former KGB official, with polonium - 210 in 2006.25 However, a number of factors make radiological contamination of food unlikely. First, it is...Defense University September 2009 Defending the Military Food Supply Acquisition, Preparation, and Protection of Food at U.S. Military...DATE SEP 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defending the Military Food Supply Acquisition

  7. The MELISSA food data base: space food preparation and process optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creuly, Catherine; Poughon, Laurent; Pons, A.; Farges, Berangere; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    Life Support Systems have to deal with air, water and food requirement for a crew, waste management and also to the crew's habitability and safety constraints. Food can be provided from stocks (open loops) or produced during the space flight or on an extraterrestrial base (what implies usually a closed loop system). Finally it is admitted that only biological processes can fulfil the food requirement of life support system. Today, only a strictly vegetarian source range is considered, and this is limited to a very small number of crops compared to the variety available on Earth. Despite these constraints, a successful diet should have enough variety in terms of ingredients and recipes and sufficiently high acceptability in terms of acceptance ratings for individual dishes to remain interesting and palatable over a several months period and an adequate level of nutrients commensurate with the space nutritional requirements. In addition to the nutritional aspects, others parameters have to be considered for the pertinent selection of the dishes as energy consumption (for food production and transformation), quantity of generated waste, preparation time, food processes. This work concerns a global approach called MELISSA Food Database to facilitate the cre-ation and the management of these menus associated to the nutritional, mass, energy and time constraints. The MELISSA Food Database is composed of a database (MySQL based) con-taining multiple information among others crew composition, menu, dishes, recipes, plant and nutritional data and of a web interface (PHP based) to interactively access the database and manage its content. In its current version a crew is defined and a 10 days menu scenario can be created using dishes that could be cooked from a set of limited fresh plant assumed to be produced in the life support system. The nutritional covering, waste produced, mass, time and energy requirements are calculated allowing evaluation of the menu scenario and its

  8. Time spent on home food preparation and indicators of healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-12-01

    The amount of time spent on food preparation and cooking may have implications for diet quality and health. However, little is known about how food-related time use relates to food consumption and spending, either at restaurants or for food consumed at home. To quantitatively assess the associations among the amount of time habitually spent on food preparation and patterns of self-reported food consumption, food spending, and frequency of restaurant use. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,319 adults in a population-based survey conducted in 2008-2009. The sample was stratified into those who spent 2 hours/day on food preparation and cleanup. Descriptive statistics and multivariable regression models examined differences between time-use groups. Analyses were conducted in 2011-2013. Individuals who spent the least amount of time on food preparation tended to be working adults who placed a high priority on convenience. Greater amount of time spent on home food preparation was associated with indicators of higher diet quality, including significantly more frequent intake of vegetables, salads, fruits, and fruit juices. Spending food preparation was associated with significantly more money spent on food away from home and more frequent use of fast food restaurants compared to those who spent more time on food preparation. The findings indicate that time might be an essential ingredient in the production of healthier eating habits among adults. Further research should investigate the determinants of spending time on food preparation. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of particle size of dietary prey on food consumption and ecological conversion efficiency of young-of-the-year sand lance, Ammodytes personatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yao; Liu, Yong; Liu, Xinfu; Tang, Oisheng

    2010-06-01

    The Eggers model was used to study the influence of two particle sizes of dietary prey on food consumption and ecological conversion efficiency of young-of-the-year sand lance, Ammodytes personatus, in continuous flow-through seawater in 2.5-m 3 tanks in the laboratory. The sand lances (average body weight 0.85 ± 0.21 g) were fed larval (average body length 0.56 ± 0.08 mm) or adult (average body length 10.12 ± 1.61 mm) Artemia salina. The gastric evacuation rate of the fish feeding on larval Artemia was 0.214, higher than that of those feeding on adult Artemia (0.189). The daily food consumption of the fish feeding on larval Artemia was 60.14 kJ/100 g in terms of energy content, higher than that of the fish feeding on adult Artemia (51.69 kJ/100 g), but the daily growth rate of fish feeding on larval Artemia was 14.86 kJ/100 g, significantly lower than that of the fish feeding on adult Artemia (19.50 kJ/100 g), indicating that less energy was used for growth when the food particles were smaller. Slow growth of sand lances preying on larval Artemia was probably due to the high energy consumption during predation, consistent with the basic suppositions of optimal foraging theory.

  10. Quantifying parental preferences for interventions designed to improve home food preparation and home food environments during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virudachalam, Senbagam; Chung, Paul J; Faerber, Jennifer A; Pian, Timothy M; Thomas, Karen; Feudtner, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Though preparing healthy food at home is a critical health promotion habit, few interventions have aimed to improve parental cooking skills and behaviors. We sought to understand parents' preferences and priorities regarding interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments during early childhood. We administered a discrete choice experiment using maximum difference scaling. Eighty English-speaking parents of healthy 1-4 year-old children rated the relative importance of potential attributes of interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments. We performed latent class analysis to identify subgroups of parents with similar preferences and tested for differences between the subgroups. Participants were mostly white or black 21-45 year-old women whose prevalence of overweight/obesity mirrored the general population. Latent class analysis revealed three distinct groups of parental preferences for intervention content: a healthy cooking group, focused on nutrition and cooking healthier food; a child persuasion group, focused on convincing toddlers to eat home-cooked food; and a creative cooking group, focused on cooking without recipes, meal planning, and time-saving strategies. Younger, lower income, 1-parent households comprised the healthy cooking group, while older, higher income, 2-parent households comprised the creative cooking group (p cooked dinner regularly, unlike the other two groups (p food preparation practices. Such interventions are important for creating healthier home food environments and preventing obesity starting from early childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Consumption and expenditure on food prepared away from home among Mexican adults in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent A Langellier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe food expenditure and consumption of foods prepared away from home among Mexican adults. Materials and methods. Data were from 45 241 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006, a nationally-representative, cross-sectional survey of Mexican households. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between location of residence, educational attainment, socioeconomic status and the following: 1 expenditure on all food and at restaurants, and 2 frequency of consumption of comida corrida or restaurant food and street food. Results. Food expenditure and consumption of food prepared away from home were positively associated with socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and urban vs. rural residence (p menor que 0.001 for all relationships in bivariate analyses. Conclusions. Consumption of food prepared outside home may be an important part of the diet among urban Mexican adults and those with high socioeconomic status and educational attainment.

  12. Consumption and expenditure on food prepared away from home among Mexican adults in 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langellier, Brent A

    2015-01-01

    To describe food expenditure and consumption of foods prepared away from home among Mexican adults. Data were from 45 241 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006, a nationally-representative, cross-sectional survey of Mexican households. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between location of residence, educational attainment, socioeconomic status and the following: 1) expenditure on all food and at restaurants, and 2) frequency of consumption of 'comida corrida' or restaurant food and street food. Food expenditure and consumption of food prepared away from home were positively associated with socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and urban vs. rural residence (pConsumption of food prepared outside home may be an important part of the diet among urban Mexican adults and those with high socioeconomic status and educational attainment.

  13. Assessment of heterogeneity in types of vegetables served by main household food preparers and food decision influencers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sunghwan; Kanetkar, Vinay; Brauer, Paula

    2015-10-01

    While vegetables are often studied as one food group, global measures may mask variation in the types and forms of vegetables preferred by different individuals. To explore preferences for and perceptions of vegetables, we assessed main food preparers based on their preparation of eight specific vegetables and mushrooms. An online self-report survey. Ontario, Canada. Measures included perceived benefits and obstacles of vegetables, convenience orientation and variety seeking in meal preparation. Of the 4517 randomly selected consumers who received the invitation, 1013 responded to the survey (22·4 % response). Data from the main food preparers were analysed (n 756). Latent profile analysis indicated three segments of food preparers. More open to new recipes, the 'crucifer lover' segment (13 %) prepared and consumed substantially more Brussels sprouts, broccoli and asparagus than the other segments. Although similar to the 'average consumer' segment (54 %) in many ways, the 'frozen vegetable user' segment (33 %) used significantly more frozen vegetables than the other segments due to higher prioritization of time and convenience in meal preparation and stronger 'healthy=not tasty' perception. Perception of specific vegetables on taste, healthiness, ease of preparation and cost varied significantly across the three consumer segments. Crucifer lovers also differed with respect to shopping and cooking habits compared with the frozen vegetable users. The substantial heterogeneity in the types of vegetables consumed and perceptions across the three consumer segments has implications for the development of new approaches to promoting these foods.

  14. Food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs of primary food preparers in families with young children. A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meysenburg, Rebecca; Albrecht, Julie A; Litchfield, Ruth; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K

    2014-02-01

    Food preparers in families with young children are responsible for safe food preparation and handling to prevent foodborne illness. To explore the food safety perceptions, beliefs, and practices of primary food preparers in families with children 10 years of age and younger, a mixed methods convergent parallel design and constructs of the Health Belief Model were used. A random sampling of 72 primary food handlers (36.2±8.6 years of age, 88% female) within young families in urban and rural areas of two Midwestern states completed a knowledge survey and participated in ten focus groups. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for codes and common themes. Forty-four percent scored less than the average knowledge score of 73%. Participants believe children are susceptible to foodborne illness but perceive its severity to be low with gastrointestinal discomfort as the primary outcome. Using safe food handling practices and avoiding inconveniences were benefits of preventing foodborne illness. Childcare duties, time and knowledge were barriers to practicing food safety. Confidence in preventing foodborne illness was high, especially when personal control over food handling is present. The low knowledge scores and reported practices revealed a false sense of confidence despite parental concern to protect their child from harm. Food safety messages that emphasize the susceptibility and severity of foodborne illness in children are needed to reach this audience for adoption of safe food handling practices. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. OUTLINE FOR OCCUPATIONAL HOME ECONOMICS COURSE IN COMMERCIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FOOD PREPARATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Home Economics Service.

    THE EXPERIMENTAL OUTLINE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN PLANNING A TWO-SEMESTER COURSE TO PREPARE 11TH AND 12TH GRADE STUDENTS FOR ENTRY LEVEL COMMERCIAL FOOD PREPARATION JOBS SUCH AS FOOD SERVICE WORKERS, COOK HELPERS, CATERER HELPERS, SALAD MAKERS, BAKER HELPERS, SHORT ORDER COOKS, AND TRAY LINE WORKERS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY VOCATIONAL HOME ECONOMICS…

  16. Optical Properties of Fe3O4 Thin Films Prepared from the Iron Sand by Spin Coating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulfriska, N.; Rianto, D.; Murti, F.; Darvina, Y.; Ramli, R.

    2018-04-01

    Research on magnetic oxide is growing very rapidly. This magnetic oxide can be found in nature that is in iron sand. One of the beaches in Sumatera Barat containing iron sand is Tiram Beach, Padang Pariaman District, Sumatera Barat. The content of iron sand is generally in the form of magnetic minerals such as magnetite, hematite, and maghemit. Magnetite has superior properties that can be developed into thin films. The purpose of this research is to investigate the optical properties of transmittance, absorbance, reflectance and energy gap from Fe3O4 thin films. This type of research is an experimental research. The iron sand obtained from nature is first purified using a permanent magnet, then made in nanoparticle size using HEM-E3D with milling time for 30 hours. After that, the process of making thin film with sol-gel spin coating method. In this research, variation of rotation speed from spin coating is 1000 rpm, 2000 rpm and 3000 rpm. Based on XRD results indicated that the iron sand of Tiram beach contains magnetite minerals and the SEM results show that the thickness of the thin films formed is 25μm, 24μm and 11μm. The characterization tool used for characterizing optical properties is the UV-VIS Spectrophotometer. So it can be concluded that the greater the speed of rotation the thickness of the thin layer will be smaller, resulting in the transmittance and reflectance will be greater, while the absorbance will be smaller. Energy gap obtained from this research is 3,75eV, 3,75eV and 3,74eV. So the average energy gap obtained is 3,75eV.

  17. Eastern Scheldt Sand, Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. T; Madsen, E. B.; Schaarup-Jensen, A. L.

    The present data report contains data from 13 drained triaxial tests, performed on two different sand types in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Aalborg University in March, 1997. Two tests have been performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15, which has already ken extensively tested in the Soil Mechanics...... Laboratory. The remaining 11 triaxial tests have ben performed on Eastern Scheldt Sand, which is a material not yet investigated at the Soil Mechanics Laboratory. In the first pari of this data report, the characteristics of the two sand types in question will be presented. Next, a description...... will described. In this connection, the procedure for preparation of the soil specimens will be presented, and the actual performance of the tests will be briefly outlined. Finally, the procedure for processing of the measurements from the laboratory in order to obtain usable data will be described. The final...

  18. Home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions: A qualitative interview study with photo-elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Martin; Wrieden, Wendy; Brown, Heather; Stead, Martine; Adams, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Food-related choices have an important impact on health. Food preparation methods may be linked to diet and health benefits. However, the factors influencing people’s food choices, and how they are shaped by food preparation experiences, are still not fully understood. We aimed to study home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions amongst adults in North East England. A matrix was used to purposively sample participants with diverse socio-demographic characteristics. Participants developed photographic food diaries that were used as prompts during semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using the Framework Method. Interviews were conducted with 18 adults (five men and 13 women), aged approximately 20 to 80 years, to reach data saturation. Participants’ practices varied widely, from reliance on pre-prepared foods, to preparing complex meals entirely from basic ingredients. Key themes emerged regarding the cook (identity), the task (process of cooking), and the context (situational drivers). Resources, in terms of time, money and facilities, were also underpinning influences on food preparation. Participants’ practices were determined by both personal motivations to cook, and the influence of others, and generally reflected compromises between varied competing demands and challenges in life. Most people appeared to be overall content with their food preparation behaviour, though ideally aspired to cook more frequently, using basic ingredients. This often seemed to be driven by social desirability. Home food preparation is complex, with heterogeneous practices, experiences and perceptions both between individuals and within the same individual over time, according to shifting priorities and circumstances. Generalisability of these findings may be limited by the regional participant sample; however the results support and build upon previous research. Focussing interventions on life transition points at which priorities and circumstances

  19. Home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions: A qualitative interview study with photo-elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Susanna; White, Martin; Wrieden, Wendy; Brown, Heather; Stead, Martine; Adams, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Food-related choices have an important impact on health. Food preparation methods may be linked to diet and health benefits. However, the factors influencing people's food choices, and how they are shaped by food preparation experiences, are still not fully understood. We aimed to study home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions amongst adults in North East England. A matrix was used to purposively sample participants with diverse socio-demographic characteristics. Participants developed photographic food diaries that were used as prompts during semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using the Framework Method. Interviews were conducted with 18 adults (five men and 13 women), aged approximately 20 to 80 years, to reach data saturation. Participants' practices varied widely, from reliance on pre-prepared foods, to preparing complex meals entirely from basic ingredients. Key themes emerged regarding the cook (identity), the task (process of cooking), and the context (situational drivers). Resources, in terms of time, money and facilities, were also underpinning influences on food preparation. Participants' practices were determined by both personal motivations to cook, and the influence of others, and generally reflected compromises between varied competing demands and challenges in life. Most people appeared to be overall content with their food preparation behaviour, though ideally aspired to cook more frequently, using basic ingredients. This often seemed to be driven by social desirability. Home food preparation is complex, with heterogeneous practices, experiences and perceptions both between individuals and within the same individual over time, according to shifting priorities and circumstances. Generalisability of these findings may be limited by the regional participant sample; however the results support and build upon previous research. Focussing interventions on life transition points at which priorities and circumstances change

  20. Home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions: A qualitative interview study with photo-elicitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Mills

    Full Text Available Food-related choices have an important impact on health. Food preparation methods may be linked to diet and health benefits. However, the factors influencing people's food choices, and how they are shaped by food preparation experiences, are still not fully understood. We aimed to study home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions amongst adults in North East England. A matrix was used to purposively sample participants with diverse socio-demographic characteristics. Participants developed photographic food diaries that were used as prompts during semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using the Framework Method. Interviews were conducted with 18 adults (five men and 13 women, aged approximately 20 to 80 years, to reach data saturation. Participants' practices varied widely, from reliance on pre-prepared foods, to preparing complex meals entirely from basic ingredients. Key themes emerged regarding the cook (identity, the task (process of cooking, and the context (situational drivers. Resources, in terms of time, money and facilities, were also underpinning influences on food preparation. Participants' practices were determined by both personal motivations to cook, and the influence of others, and generally reflected compromises between varied competing demands and challenges in life. Most people appeared to be overall content with their food preparation behaviour, though ideally aspired to cook more frequently, using basic ingredients. This often seemed to be driven by social desirability. Home food preparation is complex, with heterogeneous practices, experiences and perceptions both between individuals and within the same individual over time, according to shifting priorities and circumstances. Generalisability of these findings may be limited by the regional participant sample; however the results support and build upon previous research. Focussing interventions on life transition points at which priorities and

  1. Preparing suitable climate scenario data to assess impacts on local food safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, C.; Hofstra, N.; Leemans, R.

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of climate change impacts on food safety requires food safety assessment with different past and future climate scenario data to compare current and future conditions. This study presents a tool to prepare climate and climate change data for local food safety scenario analysis and

  2. Food and its preparation conditions in hotels in Accra, Ghana: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although a lot of work has been done on the safety of street foods in most developing countries, not much has been done with regards to the hotel industry. A pilot study to investigate food and its preparation conditions in ten selected hotels in Accra, the capital of Ghana with respect to food safety was therefore initiated in ...

  3. Effects of home-based food preparation practices on the micronutrient content of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severi, S; Bedogni, G; Zoboli, G P; Manzieri, A M; Poli, M; Gatti, G; Battistini, N

    1998-08-01

    We studied the effects of cooking on the vitamin and mineral content of vegetables (vegetable soup, cauliflower), meat (beefsteak) and fish (sole) and those of cutting (fruit salad) and squeezing (orange juice) on the vitamin content of fruits. In cooked dishes, vitamin retention ranged between 0 (folic acid, all dishes) and 94% (retinol, sole) and mineral retention between 63 (copper, cauliflower) and 96% (iron, vegetable soup). In orange juice, ascorbic acid appeared to be protected from oxidation for at least 12 h as compared with fruit salad. Our study shows that preparation of foods with techniques available at home may be responsible for losses of vitamins and minerals. Further studies are needed to ascertain the effects of these losses on nutritional status.

  4. Fontainebleau Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    2006-01-01

    The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand.......The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand....

  5. Reducing preparation time of locally manufactured baby food at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Food Technology in Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 3 (1999) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Development of a method for controlling salt and sodium use during meal preparation for food services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Barbosa Frantz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study developed a method for controlling the amount of salt and sodium during food preparation, Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation for food services based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points principles. METHODS: The method was conceived and perfected during a study case in a commercial food service located in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Data were collected from technical cards, recipes and measurements during food preparation. The preparations were monitored and compared with criteria about the use of salt and sodium found in the literature. Critical control points were identified and corrective measures were proposed. RESULTS: The result was a method consisting of 9 stages: (1 determination of the sodium content in the ingredients; (2 and 3 analysis of menu planning and sodium content; (4 follow-up of food preparation; (5 estimate of the amount of sodium used in the preparations; (6 and 7 selection and following of the preparations with average- and high-sodium content; (8 definition of the critical points and establishment of corrective actions for the use of salt and sodium; and (9 creation of recommendations for the use of salt and sodium. CONCLUSION: The Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation may contribute to global discussions regarding the reduction of salt and sodium intakes and collaborate for the supply of nutritionally and sensorially appropriate meals with respect to salt and sodium content. It may also help to prevent non-communicable chronic diseases.

  7. The Role of Adolescents From a Low Socioeconomic Background in Household Food Preparation: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Tashara M; Aasand, Taylor A; Vickers, Zata; Reicks, Marla

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand adolescents' from low-income households perceptions of their involvement in home food preparation, reasons underlying the extent to which they were involved, and positive and negative consequences associated with their involvement. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 19 adolescents (13-18 years). Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim. Themes were identified using grounded theory and the constant comparative method. Eight adolescents described cooking as a primary responsibility due to adult work and family schedules, age, gender, and/or cultural expectations. They were typically preparing food for themselves and their family without assistance, and making decisions about what was prepared. They identified positive and negative consequences including enjoyment and satisfaction, as well as stress and less time for other activities. Eleven adolescents mostly assisted the primary food preparer, with little input in deciding what was prepared. They identified benefits such as enjoyment and family interaction. Foods prepared by many adolescents tended to be quick and easy to prepare foods. Future studies should investigate the relationship between adultified cooking responsibilities, diet quality, and health. Also, cooking education for adolescents needs to address how to prepare a healthy family meal on a budget.

  8. Who's cooking? Time spent preparing food by gender, income and household composition

    OpenAIRE

    Mancino, Lisa; Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    We use the American Time Use Survey data and multivariate analysis to explore how time allocated to food preparation differs across income groups, household composition (number of adults and presence of children), and employment status of adults in the household.

  9. Who Has Time To Cook? How Family Resources Influence Food Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Mancino, Lisa; Newman, Constance

    2007-01-01

    Households participating in the Food Stamp Program are increasingly headed by a single parent or two working parents. As this trend continues, more low-income households may find it difficult to allocate the time needed to prepare meals that fit within a limited budget and meet dietary requirements. Using Tobit analysis of the 2003-04 American Time Use Survey (ATUS), this study finds that household time resources significantly affect how much time is allocated to preparing food. In fact, work...

  10. Distribution system of prepared foods; Chorizumi shokuhin no ryutsu shisutemu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, J.

    1999-09-05

    Chains such as supermarket, convenience store, and delicatessen store are rapidly expanding business. Only of thing and value thing which is only novel enjoyably also consumer needs these cooked family restaurant food service industry menu be. The following would be expected: Goods and menu of surely coming to the hand in result of being safer and result of dealing with the diversification of the flavor, the case in which it is necessary. Recently, it came to the distribution reform of the cooked food remarkably and drastically reducing the distribution cost as the result. (NEDO)

  11. Determinants of Non-Home-Prepared Food Consumption in Two Low-Income Areas in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't H.; Hartog, den A.P.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Mwangi, A.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Street foods are an important source of nutrients for poor urban residents. This study aimed to identify determinants of the proportion of daily energy provided by non-home-prepared foods. METHODS: A survey was conducted in a slum and a low- to middle-income area of Nairobi. The survey

  12. Technological aspects of preparing affordable fermented complementary foods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Ngoddy, P.O.

    1997-01-01

    The requirements and manufacturing procedure of complementary (weaning) foods is discussed. Nutritional requirements for infants (aged 6-12 months) include approx. 3 MJ energy and 14 g digestible protein per litre, of a semi-liquid porridge. Microbiological safety is enhanced by biological

  13. Food preparation patterns in German family households. An econometric approach with time budget data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möser, Anke

    2010-08-01

    In Germany, the rising importance of out-of-home consumption, increasing usage of convenience products and decreasing knowledge of younger individuals how to prepare traditional dishes can be seen as obvious indicators for shifting patterns in food preparation. In this paper, econometric analyses are used to shed more light on the factors which may influence the time spent on food preparation in two-parent family households with children. Two time budget surveys, carried out 1991/92 and 2001/02 through the German National Statistical Office, provide the necessary data. Time budget data analyses reveal that over the last ten years the time spent on food preparation in Germany has decreased. The results point out that time resources of a household, for example gainful employment of the parents, significantly affect the amount of time spent on food preparation. The analysis confirms further that there is a more equal allocation of time spent on cooking, baking or laying the table between women and men in the last ten years. Due to changing attitudes and conceivably adaption of economic conditions, differences in time devoted to food preparation seem to have vanished between Eastern and Western Germany. Greater time spent on eating out in Germany as well as decreasing time spent on food preparation at home reveal that the food provisioning of families is no longer a primarily private task of the households themselves but needs more public attention and institutional offers and help. Among other points, the possibility of addressing mothers' lack of time as well as growing "food illiteracy" of children and young adults are discussed. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecularly imprinted polymers for sample preparation and biosensing in food analysis: Progress and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashley, Jon; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Kant, Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are biomimetics which can selectively bind to analytes of interest. One of the most interesting areas where MIPs have shown the biggest potential is food analysis. MIPs have found use as sorbents in sample preparation attributed to the high selectivity and high...... the imprinting methods which are applicable for imprinting food templates, summarize the recent progress in using MIPs for preparing and analysing food samples, and discuss the current limitations in the commercialisation of MIPs technology. Finally, future perspectives will be given....

  15. Preparation of Natural Zeolite for Air Dehumidification in Food Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Djaeni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drying with air dehumidification with solid adsorbent improves the quality of food product as well as energy efficiency. The natural zeolite is one of adsorbent having potential to adsorb the water.  Normally, the material was activated to open the pore, remove the organic impurities, and increase Si/Al rate. Hence, it can enhance the adsorbing capacity. This research studied the activation of natural zeolite mined from Klaten, Indonesia as air dehumidification for food drying. Two different methods were used involving activation by heat and NaOH introduction.  As indicators, the porosity and water loaded were evaluated. Results showed both methods improved the adsorbing capacity significantly. With NaOH, the adsorbing capacity was higher. The simple test in onion and corn drying showed the presence of activated natural zeolite can speed up water evaporation positively. This performance was also comparable with Zeolite 3A

  16. Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.; Mohamed, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    Adjuvant arthritis is an animal model that closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis in humans. It is a successful working model used to study new anti-inflammatory agents. In previous studies (animal and clinical) we have shown that evening primrose oil, fish oil and the methanol extract of date fruits and fenugreek seeds have anti-inflammatory activity and that the methanol extract of dates has an antioxidant effect. Based on these studies, the aim of the present study was to prepare 7 functio...

  17. Family Food Preparation and Its Effects on Adolescent Dietary Quality and Eating Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; MacLehose, Richard F; Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe parent and adolescent involvement in food preparation for the family and to examine whether adolescents' food preparation involvement was related to their dietary quality (e.g., fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and various common nutrients) and eating patterns (e.g., frequency of breakfast, family meals, fast food intake). Data from two linked population-based studies, Eating and Activity in Teens 2010 and Families and Eating and Activity among Teens were used in cross-sectional analyses. Mothers (n = 1,875), stepmothers (n = 18), fathers (n = 977), stepfathers (n = 105), and adolescents (n = 2,108) from socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse households participated in the study. Adolescents completed food frequency questionnaires and surveys in school. Parents individually completed surveys by mail or phone. Linear regression was used to estimate differences in adolescent dietary quality and eating patterns between those who do and do not engage in meal preparation. Parent and adolescent report of "usually preparing food for the family" was related to several sociodemographic characteristics, including race/ethnicity (minority populations), parent education (college or higher), parent employment status (part time or stay-at-home caregiver), household size (≤3 children), and adolescent gender (female). Adolescent involvement in food preparation for the family was significantly associated with several markers of better dietary quality and better eating patterns. In contrast, parent involvement in food preparation for the family was unrelated to adolescent dietary intake. Results suggest that involving adolescents in food preparation for the family is related to better adolescent dietary quality and eating patterns. Public health interventions and health care providers may want to encourage adolescents to help with food preparation for the family. Additionally, adolescents

  18. Sample preparation and EFTEM of Meat Samples for Nanoparticle Analysis in Food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lari, L; Dudkiewicz, A

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles are used in industry for personal care products and the preparation of food. In the latter application, their functions include the prevention of microbes' growth, increase of the foods nutritional value and sensory quality. EU regulations require a risk assessment of the nanoparticles used in foods and food contact materials before the products can reach the market. However, availability of validated analytical methodologies for detection and characterisation of the nanoparticles in food hampers appropriate risk assessment. As part of a research on the evaluation of the methods for screening and quantification of Ag nanoparticles in meat we have tested a new TEM sample preparation alternative to resin embedding and cryo-sectioning. Energy filtered TEM analysis was applied to evaluate thickness and the uniformity of thin meat layers acquired at increasing input of the sample demonstrating that the protocols used ensured good stability under the electron beam, reliable sample concentration and reproducibility

  19. Sample preparation and EFTEM of Meat Samples for Nanoparticle Analysis in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, L.; Dudkiewicz, A.

    2014-06-01

    Nanoparticles are used in industry for personal care products and the preparation of food. In the latter application, their functions include the prevention of microbes' growth, increase of the foods nutritional value and sensory quality. EU regulations require a risk assessment of the nanoparticles used in foods and food contact materials before the products can reach the market. However, availability of validated analytical methodologies for detection and characterisation of the nanoparticles in food hampers appropriate risk assessment. As part of a research on the evaluation of the methods for screening and quantification of Ag nanoparticles in meat we have tested a new TEM sample preparation alternative to resin embedding and cryo-sectioning. Energy filtered TEM analysis was applied to evaluate thickness and the uniformity of thin meat layers acquired at increasing input of the sample demonstrating that the protocols used ensured good stability under the electron beam, reliable sample concentration and reproducibility.

  20. Utility of eButton images for identifying food preparation behaviors and meal-related tasks in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, Margaret; Patterson, Monika; Jia, Wenyan; Sun, Mingui; Baranowski, Tom

    2018-02-24

    Food preparation skills may encourage healthy eating. Traditional assessment of child food preparation employs self- or parent proxy-reporting methods, which are prone to error. The eButton is a wearable all-day camera that has promise as an objective, passive method for measuring child food preparation practices. This paper explores the feasibility of the eButton to reliably capture home food preparation behaviors and practices in a sample of pre- and early adolescents (ages 9 to 13). This is a secondary analysis of two eButton pilot projects evaluating the dietary intake of pre- and early adolescents in or around Houston, Texas. Food preparation behaviors were coded into seven major categories including: browsing, altering food/adding seasoning, food media, meal related tasks, prep work, cooking and observing. Inter-coder reliability was measured using Cohen's kappa and percent agreement. Analysis was completed on data for 31 participants. The most common activity was browsing in the pantry or fridge. Few participants demonstrated any food preparation work beyond unwrapping of food packages and combining two or more ingredients; actual cutting or measuring of foods were rare. Although previous research suggests children who "help" prepare meals may obtain some dietary benefit, accurate assessment tools of food preparation behavior are lacking. The eButton offers a feasible approach to food preparation behavior measurement among pre- and early adolescents. Follow up research exploring the validity of this method in a larger sample, and comparisons between cooking behavior and dietary intake are needed.

  1. Characteristics of Prepared Food Sources in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Baltimore City

    OpenAIRE

    LEE, SEUNG HEE; ROWAN, MEGAN T.; POWELL, LISA M.; NEWMAN, SARA; KLASSEN, ANN CARROLL; FRICK, KEVIN D.; ANDERSON, JENNIFER; GITTELSOHN, JOEL

    2010-01-01

    The food environment is associated with obesity risk and diet-related chronic diseases. Despite extensive research conducted on retail food stores, little is known about prepared food sources (PFSs). We conducted an observational assessment of all PFSs (N = 92) in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore. The most common PFSs were carry-outs, which had the lowest availability of healthy food choices. Only a small proportion of these carry-outs offered healthy sides, whole wheat bread, or entrée ...

  2. Alternative Food Preservation Techniques, New Technology in Food Preparation and Appropriateness of Food Supply for the Permanently Manned Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Alternative food preservation techniques are defined as unique processes and combinations of currently used processes for food preservation. Food preservation is the extension of the useful shelf-life of normally perishable foods (from harvest to final consumption) by controlling micro-organisms, enzymes, chemical changes, changes in sensory characteristics and the prevention of subsequent recontamination. The resulting products must comply with all applicable food manufacturing practice regulations and be safe. Most of the foods currently used in both space and military feeding are stabilized either by dehydration or the use of a terminal sterilization process. Other available options would be formulation to reduce water activity, the refrigeration and freezing of perishable foods, chemical addition, and physical treatment (ionizing or nonionizing radiation or mechanical action). These alternatives are considered and proposals made.

  3. Food shopping, sensory determinants of food choice and meal preparation by visually impaired people. Obstacles and expectations in daily food experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyra, Eliza; Żakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Śniegocka, Katarzyna; Piotrowska, Anna

    2017-06-01

    The number of visually impaired and blind people is rising worldwide due to ageing of the global population, but research regarding the impact of visual impairment on the ability of a person to choose food and to prepare meals is scarce. The aim of this study was threefold: to investigate factors determining the choices of food products in people with various levels of impaired vision; to identify obstacles they face while purchasing food, preparing meals and eating out; and to determine what would help them in the areas of food shopping and meal preparation. The data was collected from 250 blind and visually impaired subjects, recruited with the support of the National Association of the Blind. The study revealed that majority of the visually impaired make food purchases at a supermarket or local grocery and they tend to favour shopping for food via the Internet. Direct sale channels like farmers markets were rarely used by the visually impaired. The most frequently mentioned factors that facilitated their food shopping decisions were the assistance of salespersons, product labelling in Braille, scanners that enable the reading of labels and a permanent place for products on the shop shelves. Meal preparation, particularly peeling, slicing and frying, posed many challenges to the visually impaired. More than half of the respondents ate meals outside the home, mainly with family or friends. The helpfulness of the staff and a menu in Braille were crucial for them to have a positive dining out experience. The results of the study provide valuable insights into the food choices and eating experiences of visually impaired people, and also suggest some practical implications to improve their independence and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors influencing food preparation behaviours: findings from focus groups with Mexican-American mothers in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Dunton, Genevieve F; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore food preparation behaviours, attitudes, meal planning and shopping among Mexican-American mothers. Data were collected through four focus groups with mothers of Mexican origin/ancestry who considered themselves to be the primary food preparer. Topics included food preparation behaviours and influencers (culture, family, attitudes, barriers, meal planning and shopping). Data were analysed using a qualitative grounded theory approach. All focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded for themes. Data were collected in southern California, USA in 2013. Of the sample of twenty-one Mexican-American mothers, thirteen were born outside the USA and the mean household size was five members. Participants reported that food was often prepared using traditional staples and food preparation behaviours were learned from maternal family members. Participants also suggested that health was influenced by foods eaten and how they were prepared. Salient factors influencing food preparation behaviours included culture and tradition, maternal family members' food preparation behaviours, food preparation self-efficacy and attitudes towards healthy eating. Time and busy schedules were cited as barriers. Future interventions should consider utilizing family-based approaches and teaching culturally relevant food preparation skills, especially to youth, while reinforcing more healthful dietary practices.

  5. Utility of eButton images for identifying food preparation behaviors and meal-related tasks in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food preparation skills may encourage healthy eating. Traditional assessment of child food preparation employs self- or parent proxy-reporting methods, which are prone to error. The eButton is a wearable all-day camera that has promise as an objective, passive method for measuring child food prepara...

  6. First investigation on ultrasound-assisted preparation of food products: sensory and physicochemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingret, Daniella; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Canselier, Jean-Paul; Chemat, Farid

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison between manufactured food products using conventional and ultrasound-assisted procedures. Three different foam-type products, chocolate Genoise, basic sponge cake, and chocolate mousse were prepared using both methods with subsequent evaluation of the samples using both sensory and physicochemical methods. Ultrasound-assisted preparations were considered superior according to the sensory analysis, and physicochemical data confirmed this finding. This approach of applying an emerging piece of equipment, with potential industrial application to assist food preparation, consists of a new technique that could be of great interest for the development of not only other food products created by molecular gastronomy but also for practical work carried out by students.

  7. Energy efficient cooking systems, food-preparation facilities, and human diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newborough, M.

    1987-07-01

    The opportunities for saving energy, which are available to those working within the final link of the UK food system, i.e. at, or in relation to, the points of consumption are identified. Substantial prospective savings exist, because relatively little attention has, as yet, been given to energy-thrift in food-preparation facilities. Within the food-service industry, cooking systems are characterised by high thermal capacities, excessive external surface temperatures and poorly-designed control systems. Catering staff, who use such appliances, are rarely trained to use energy wisely when preparing foods, and kitchens tend to be designed without sufficient regard to energy-thrift. Similar problems prevail in domestic kitchens. However, manufacturers still provide household appliances, which are unnecessarily energy-profligate. (author).

  8. Consumption and expenditure on food prepared away from home among Mexican adults in 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Brent A Langellier

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe food expenditure and consumption of foods prepared away from home among Mexican adults. Materials and methods. Data were from 45 241 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006, a nationally-representative, cross-sectional survey of Mexican households. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between location of residence, educational attainment, socioeconomic status and the foll...

  9. Use of Whey and Whey Preparations in the Food Industry – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Królczyk Jolanta B.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The interest in whey and whey preparations has considerably increased in recent years. Whey and whey preparations are the so-called “forgotten treasure” and, because of their unique properties, they have been “rediscovered” and have been increasingly frequently and successfully used by various production plants in the food industry. They have also been eagerly purchased by consumers who are aware of the role of whey preparations in adequate human nutrition. For many years, there has been a tendency in the food processing industry to use substitutes of ingredients in recipes of many products. This situation can be observed in the case of foods with reduced fat and sugar, or products for lacto-ovo-vegetarians. Whey - and more specifically, its preparations - can also be used as a substitute. According to many literature sources, its use can have a positive impact not only on the consumers’ health but also on the finances of many companies, by reducing the costs of raw materials, and thus production costs. This review paper presents selected uses of whey and whey preparations in the food industry. The uses of whey discussed include: meat and meat products, reduced-fat products, yoghurts and ice creams, cheeses, bakery products, confectionery and pastry products, infant formulas, and whey drinks.

  10. Molecularly imprinted polymers for sample preparation and biosensing in food analysis: Progress and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Jon; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Kant, Krishna; Chidambara, Vinayaka Aaydha; Wolff, Anders; Bang, Dang Duong; Sun, Yi

    2017-05-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are biomimetics which can selectively bind to analytes of interest. One of the most interesting areas where MIPs have shown the biggest potential is food analysis. MIPs have found use as sorbents in sample preparation attributed to the high selectivity and high loading capacity. MIPs have been intensively employed in classical solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction. More recently, MIPs have been combined with magnetic bead extraction, which greatly simplifies sample handling procedures. Studies have consistently shown that MIPs can effectively minimize complex food matrix effects, and improve recoveries and detection limits. In addition to sample preparation, MIPs have also been viewed as promising alternatives to bio-receptors due to the inherent molecular recognition abilities and the high stability in harsh chemical and physical conditions. MIPs have been utilized as receptors in biosensing platforms such as electrochemical, optical and mass biosensors to detect various analytes in food. In this review, we will discuss the current state-of-the-art of MIP synthesis and applications in the context of food analysis. We will highlight the imprinting methods which are applicable for imprinting food templates, summarize the recent progress in using MIPs for preparing and analysing food samples, and discuss the current limitations in the commercialisation of MIPs technology. Finally, future perspectives will be given. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent trends in sorption-based sample preparation and liquid chromatography techniques for food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V Soares Maciel, Edvaldo; de Toffoli, Ana Lúcia; Lanças, Fernando Mauro

    2018-04-20

    The accelerated rising of the world's population increased the consumption of food, thus demanding more rigors in the control of residue and contaminants in food-based products marketed for human consumption. In view of the complexity of most food matrices, including fruits, vegetables, different types of meat, beverages, among others, a sample preparation step is important to provide more reliable results when combined with HPLC separations. An adequate sample preparation step before the chromatographic analysis is mandatory in obtaining higher precision and accuracy in order to improve the extraction of the target analytes, one of the priorities in analytical chemistry. The recent discovery of new materials such as ionic liquids, graphene-derived materials, molecularly imprinted polymers, restricted access media, magnetic nanoparticles, and carbonaceous nanomaterials, provided high sensitivity and selectivity results in an extensive variety of applications. These materials, as well as their several possible combinations, have been demonstrated to be highly appropriate for the extraction of different analytes in complex samples such as food products. The main characteristics and application of these new materials in food analysis will be presented and discussed in this paper. Another topic discussed in this review covers the main advantages and limitations of sample preparation microtechniques, as well as their off-line and on-line combination with HPLC for food analysis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Characteristics of prepared food sources in low-income neighborhoods of Baltimore City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hee; Rowan, Megan T; Powell, Lisa M; Newman, Sara; Klassen, Ann Carroll; Frick, Kevin D; Anderson, Jennifer; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The food environment is associated with obesity risk and diet-related chronic diseases. Despite extensive research conducted on retail food stores, little is known about prepared food sources(PFSs). We conducted an observational assessment of all PFSs(N = 92) in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore. The most common PFSs were carry-outs, which had the lowest availability of healthy food choices. Only a small proportion of these carry-outs offered healthy sides, whole wheat bread, or entrée salads (21.4%, 7.1%, and 33.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that carry-out-specific interventions are necessary to increase healthy food availability in low-income urban neighborhoods.

  13. Food Preparation and Service. An Introductory Course for Food Services Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, Elaine L.

    Intended for use in a comprehensive senior high school, this curriculum guide for an introductory laboratory course focuses on the development of abilities, attitudes, and personal qualities which would lead to job success at the entry level in the food service industry, including in the areas of cooking, waitressing, supermarkets, and similar…

  14. Iron oxide shell coating on nano silicon prepared from the sand for lithium-ion battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furquan, Mohammad; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Mitra, Sagar

    2018-05-01

    Elemental silicon, due to its high specific capacity (4200 mAh g-1) and non-toxicity is expected to be an attractive anode material for Li-ion battery. But its huge expansion volume (> 300 %) during charging of battery, leads to pulverization and cracking in the silicon particles and causes sudden failure of the Li-ion battery. In this work, we have designed yolk-shell type morphology of silicon, prepared from carbon coated silicon nanoparticles soaked in aqueous solution of ferric nitrate and potassium hydroxide. The soaked silicon particles were dried and finally calcined at 800 °C for 30 minutes. The product obtained is deprived of carbon and has a kind of yolk-shell morphology of nano silicon with iron oxide coating (Si@Iron oxide). This material has been tested for half-cell lithium-ion battery configuration. The discharge capacity is found to be ≈ 600 mAh g-1 at a current rate of 1.0 A g-1 for 200 cycles. It has shown a stable performance as anode for Li-ion battery application.

  15. Food Preparation: An Instructional Package with Adaptations for Visually Impaired Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Glinda B.; And Others

    This instructional package, developed for the home economics teacher of mainstreamed visually impaired students, provides food preparation lesson plans appropriate for the junior high level. First, teacher guidelines are given, including characteristics of the visually impaired, orienting such students to the classroom, orienting class members to…

  16. Career Preparation Program Curriculum Guide for: Hospitality/Tourism Industry (Food Services).

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria. Curriculum Development Branch.

    This curriculum outline provides secondary and postsecondary instructors with detailed information on student learning outcomes for completion of the food services program requirements in the hospitality/tourism industry. A program overview discusses the aims of education; secondary school philosophy; and career preparation programs and their…

  17. Food Safety in the Domestic Environment: An Interdisciplinary Investigation of Microbial Hazards During Food Preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Jong, de A.E.I.; Asselt, van E.D.; Jonge, de R.; Frewer, L.J.; Nauta, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    It has been established that, to a considerable extent, the domestic hygiene practices adopted by consumers can result in a greater or lesser microbial load in prepared meals. In the research presented here, an interdisciplinary study is reported in which interviews, observations of consumers

  18. Data-driven Methods for the Study of Food Perception, Preparation, Consumption, and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole G. Mouritsen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of food consumption, in the broadest sense, intersects with a wide range of academic disciplines. The perception of food involves molecular biology, chemistry, soft-matter physics, neuroscience, psychology, physiology, and even machine learning. Our choices and preparation of food are of interest to anthropologists, social scientists, historians, philosophers, and linguists. The advent of information technology has enabled the accumulation and analysis of large amounts of food-related data, from the interactions of biomolecules and the chemical properties of aroma compounds to online recipes and food-related social media postings. In this perspective article, we outline several areas in which the availability and analysis of data can inform us about general principles that may underlie the perception of food and the diversity of culinary practice. One of these areas is the study of umami taste through a combination of chemical analysis and quantitative sensory evaluation for a wide range of fermented products. Another is the mapping of global culinary diversity by mining online recipes and the analysis of culinary habits recorded by individuals on social media. A third area is the study of the properties of flavor compounds and the application of these insights in the context of high-end gastronomy. These examples illustrate that large-scale data analysis is already transforming our understanding of food perception and consumption, and that it is likely to fundamentally influence our food choices and habits in the future.

  19. A new dietary model to study colorectal carcinogenesis: experimental design, food preparation, and experimental findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, P; Liberman, V; Lubin, F; Angel, S; Owen, R; Trostler, N; Shkolnik, T; Kritchevsky, D

    1996-01-01

    Experimental dietary studies of human colorectal carcinogenesis are usually based on the AIN-76A diet, which is dissimilar to human food in source, preparation, and content. The aims of this study were to examine the feasibility of preparing and feeding rats the diet of a specific human population at risk for colorectal neoplasia and to determine whether changes in the colonic morphology and metabolic contents would differ from those resulting from a standard rat diet. The mean daily food intake composition of a previously evaluated adenoma patient case-control study was used for the "human adenoma" (HA) experimental diet. Foods were prepared as for usual human consumption and processed by dehydration to the physical characteristics of an animal diet. Sixty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized and fed ad libitum the HA or the AIN-76A diet. Every eight weeks, eight rats from each group were sacrificed, and the colons and contents were examined. Analysis of the prepared food showed no significant deleterious changes; food intake and weight gain were similar in both groups. Compared with the controls, the colonic contents of rats fed the HA diet contained significantly less calcium, concentrations of neutral sterols, total lipids, and cholic and deoxycholic acids were increased, and there were no colonic histological changes other than significant epithelial hyperproliferation. This initial study demonstrated that the HA diet can be successfully processed for feeding to experimental animals and is acceptable and adequate for growth but induces significant metabolic and hyperproliferative changes in the rat colon. This dietary model may be useful for studies of human food, narrowing the gap between animal experimentation and human nutritional research.

  20. The associations among family meal frequency, food preparation frequency, self-efficacy for cooking, and food preparation techniques in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Kirby, Ashley R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe family dinner frequency (FDF) by food preparation frequency (prep), self-efficacy for cooking (SE), and food preparation techniques (techniques) among a small sample in southwestern Ontario, Canada. A cross-sectional survey was administered under the supervision of the research team. After-school programs, sports programs, and 1 elementary school. The sample included 145 participants (41% boys, 59% girls) in grades 4-8. Demographics, prep, SE, techniques, FDF, and family meal attitudes and behaviors. Exploratory 1-way ANOVA and chi-square analyses were used. An ordinal regression analysis was used to determine the associations between FDF with descriptor variables (sex, grade, and ethnicity) and prep, SE, techniques, FDF, and family meal attitudes and behaviors (P < .05). Approximately 59% reported family dinners on 6 or 7 days per week. Half of participants were involved with prep 1-6 times per week. Mean SE was 25.3 (scale 1-32), and girls performed more techniques than boys (P = .02). Participants with greater SE (odds ratio = 1.15) and higher family meal attitudes and behaviors (odds ratio = 1.15) were more likely to have a higher FDF. Future health promotion strategies for family meals should aim at increasing children's and adolescents' SE. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Work measurement for estimating food preparation time of a bioregenerative diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabi, Ammar; Hunter, Jean; Jackson, Peter; Segal, Michele; Spies, Rupert; Wang, Carolyn; Lau, Christina; Ong, Christopher; Alexander, Conor; Raskob, Evan; hide

    2003-01-01

    During space missions, such as the prospective Mars mission, crew labor time is a strictly limited resource. The diet for such a mission (based on crops grown in a bioregenerative life support system) will require astronauts to prepare their meals essentially from raw ingredients. Time spent on food processing and preparation is time lost for other purposes. Recipe design and diet planning for a space mission should therefore incorporate the time required to prepare the recipes as a critical factor. In this study, videotape analysis of an experienced chef was used to develop a database of recipe preparation time. The measurements were highly consistent among different measurement teams. Data analysis revealed a wide variation between the active times of different recipes, underscoring the need for optimization of diet planning. Potential uses of the database developed in this study are discussed and illustrated in this work.

  2. Energy-efficient cooking systems, food-preparation facilities, and human diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newborough, M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis aims at identifying the opportunities for saving energy, which are available to those working within the final link of the UK food system (i.e., at, or in relation to, the points of consumption). Substantial prospective savings exist, because relatively little attention has, as yet, been given to energy-thrift in food-preparation facilities. Within the food-service industry, cooking systems are characterized by high thermal capacities, excessive external surface temperatures and poorly-designed control systems. Catering staff, who use such appliances, are rarely trained to use energy wisely when preparing foods, and kitchens (and their associated dining facilities) tend to be designed without sufficient regard to energy-thrift. Similar problems prevail in domestic kitchens, but to a lesser extent because the cooks there usually pay (or contribute towards) the fuel bills. However, manufacturers still provide household appliances, which are unnecessarily energy-profligate. Furthermore most people have insufficient knowledge of the nutritional suitabilities and the primary-energy costs of their diets. Thus a major educational need exists, which must be satisfied if industrialized food systems are to become more energy efficient.

  3. The preparation of soy-bean foods for use in rural communities of the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, T

    1998-08-01

    Since the beginning of 1970, there has been a great breakthrough in the popularization of soy-bean-based food in Nigeria and in many parts of the developing world, especially for use in the prevention of kwashiorkor. Since 1975, soy bean has become a main source of daily dietary protein in many parts of Nigeria as a result of the successful incorporation of soy-bean products into almost all traditional Nigerian foods. This is a review of previous work in Nigeria on eliminating the beany flavour, bitter taste, and flatus factors in soy-bean milk and cooked soy-bean paste preparations.

  4. Fate of ethanol during cooking of liquid foods prepared with alcoholic beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snitkjær, Pia; Ryapushkina, Julia; Skovenborg, Erik

    2017-01-01

    To obtain an understanding of the ethanol loss during cooking of liquid foods containing alcoholic beverages, ethanol concentration was measured as a function of time and remaining volume in meat stocks prepared with wine and beer. A mathematical model describing the decline in volatile compounds...... like pot dimensions and temperature. When using a lid to cover the pot during cooking, the model was still valid but the ethanol concentrations decreased more steeply, corresponding to a higher exponent. The results provide a theoretical and empirical guideline for predicting the ethanol concentration...... in cooked liquid foods...

  5. Food safety involving ingestion of foods and beverages prepared with phthalate-plasticizer-containing clouding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Lin, Ja-Liang

    2011-11-01

    In May 2011, the illegal use of the phthalate plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in clouding agents for use in foods and beverages was reported in Taiwan. This food scandal has caused shock and panic among the majority of Taiwanese people and has attracted international attention. Phthalate exposure is assessed by ambient monitoring or human biomonitoring. Ambient monitoring relies on measuring chemicals in environmental media, foodstuff and consumer products. Human biomonitoring determines body burden by measuring the chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in human specimens. In mammalian development, the fetus is set to develop into a female. Because the female phenotype is the default, impairment of testosterone production or action before the late phase may lead to feminizing characteristics. Phthalates disrupt the development of androgen-dependent structures by inhibiting fetal testicular testosterone biosynthesis. The spectrum of effects obtained following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities with the human testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Epidemiological studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and shorter gestational age, shorter anogenital distance, shorter penis, incomplete testicular descent, sex hormone alteration, precocious puberty, pubertal gynecomastia, premature thelarche, rhinitis, eczema, asthma, low birth weight, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, low intelligence quotient, thyroid hormone alteration, and hypospadias in infants and children. Furthermore, many studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and increased sperm DNA damage, decreased proportion of sperm with normal morphology, decreased sperm concentration, decreased sperm morphology, sex hormone alteration, decreased pulmonary function, endometriosis, uterine leiomyomas, breast cancer, obesity, hyperprolactinemia, and thyroid hormone alteration in adults. Finally, the number of

  6. Food safety involving ingestion of foods and beverages prepared with phthalate-plasticizer-containing clouding agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzung-Hai Yen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In May 2011, the illegal use of the phthalate plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate in clouding agents for use in foods and beverages was reported in Taiwan. This food scandal has caused shock and panic among the majority of Taiwanese people and has attracted international attention. Phthalate exposure is assessed by ambient monitoring or human biomonitoring. Ambient monitoring relies on measuring chemicals in environmental media, foodstuff and consumer products. Human biomonitoring determines body burden by measuring the chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in human specimens. In mammalian development, the fetus is set to develop into a female. Because the female phenotype is the default, impairment of testosterone production or action before the late phase may lead to feminizing characteristics. Phthalates disrupt the development of androgen-dependent structures by inhibiting fetal testicular testosterone biosynthesis. The spectrum of effects obtained following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities with the human testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Epidemiological studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and shorter gestational age, shorter anogenital distance, shorter penis, incomplete testicular descent, sex hormone alteration, precocious puberty, pubertal gynecomastia, premature thelarche, rhinitis, eczema, asthma, low birth weight, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, low intelligence quotient, thyroid hormone alteration, and hypospadias in infants and children. Furthermore, many studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and increased sperm DNA damage, decreased proportion of sperm with normal morphology, decreased sperm concentration, decreased sperm morphology, sex hormone alteration, decreased pulmonary function, endometriosis, uterine leiomyomas, breast cancer, obesity, hyperprolactinemia, and thyroid hormone alteration in adults

  7. Probabilistic risk model for staphylococcal intoxication from pork-based food dishes prepared in food service establishments in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Griffiths, Mansel W; Fazil, Aamir M; Lammerding, Anna M

    2009-09-01

    Foodborne illness contracted at food service operations is an important public health issue in Korea. In this study, the probabilities for growth of, and enterotoxin production by, Staphylococcus aureus in pork meat-based foods prepared in food service operations were estimated by the Monte Carlo simulation. Data on the prevalence and concentration of S. aureus as well as compliance to guidelines for time and temperature controls during food service operations were collected. The growth of S. aureus was initially estimated by using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Pathogen Modeling Program. A second model based on raw pork meat was derived to compare cell number predictions. The correlation between toxin level and cell number as well as minimum toxin dose obtained from published data was adopted to quantify the probability of staphylococcal intoxication. When data gaps were found, assumptions were made based on guidelines for food service practices. Baseline risk model and scenario analyses were performed to indicate possible outcomes of staphylococcal intoxication under the scenarios generated based on these data gaps. Staphylococcal growth was predicted during holding before and after cooking, and the highest estimated concentration (4.59 log CFU/g for the 99.9th percentile value) of S. aureus was observed in raw pork initially contaminated with S. aureus and held before cooking. The estimated probability for staphylococcal intoxication was very low, using currently available data. However, scenario analyses revealed an increased possibility of staphylococcal intoxication when increased levels of initial contamination in the raw meat, andlonger holding time both before and after cooking the meat occurred.

  8. Sand consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spain, H H

    1965-01-21

    In a sand consolidation method in which there is injected a mixture of resin-forming liquids comprising an aryl-hydroxy low molecular weight compound, a water- soluble aldehyde, and a catalyst, an improvement is claimed which comprises diluting the resin-forming liquids with a diluent and with water so that the yield of the resin is sufficient to consolidate the sand particles with the minimum desirable pressure. The diluent may be mutually soluble in water and in the resin-forming liquids, and does not affect the setting time of the polymer. The aldehyde and the aryl-hydroxy compound may be in ratio of 5:1, and the diluent, methyl alcohol, is present in a ratio of 2:1 with reference to the water.

  9. Basic Studies on Sponge Cake Making as a Teaching Material of Food Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Shiratsuti, Hiroko; Ikawa, Yoshiko

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate about the basic condition for sponge cake making usable as a teaching material of food preparation. The results were as follows : 1. Egg foams were stable under high concentration of sucrose and low temperature. The cake with 34% sucrose showed a good appearance. 2. Substituting starch for wheat flour was effective to keep low viscosity of batters. 3. The data for the baking process indicated the importance of the first and second stages in baking, ...

  10. Urbanized South Asians' susceptibility to coronary heart disease: The high-heat food preparation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakde, Smitha; Bhopal, Raj S; Bhardwaj, Swati; Misra, Anoop

    2017-01-01

    Known risk factors do not fully explain the comparatively high susceptibility to coronary heart disease (CHD) in South Asians (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, and Sri Lankan populations in South Asia and overseas). The search for explanatory hypotheses and cofactors that raise susceptibility of South Asians to CHD continues. The aim of this study was to propose "the high-heat food preparation hypothesis," where neo-formed contaminants (NFCs) such as trans-fatty acids (TFAs) and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are the cofactors. We reviewed the actions of AGEs and TFAs, the burden of these products in tissues and blood in South Asians, the relationship between these products and CHD, the effects of preparing food and reheating oils at high temperatures on NFCs, and the foods and mode of preparation in South Asian and Chinese cuisines. Animal and human studies show NFCs increase the risk for CHD. Evidence on the consumption and body burden of these products across ethnic groups is not available, and comparable data on the NFC content of the cuisine of South Asians and potential comparison populations (e.g., the Chinese with lower CHD rates) are limited. South Asians' cuisine is dominated by frying and roasting techniques that use high temperatures. South Asian foods have high TFA content primarily through the use of partially hydrogenated fats, reheated oils, and high-heat cooking. Reheating oils greatly increases the TFA content. In comparison, Chinese cuisine involves mostly braising, steaming, and boiling rather than frying. We hypothesize that South Asians' susceptibility to CHD is partly attributable to high-heat treated foods producing high NFCs. Research to accrue direct evidence is proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Change in radionuclide content of crops as a result of food preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watterson, J.; Nicholson, K.W.

    1996-01-01

    Radionuclides, including 3 H, 14 C and 35 S, are periodically and routinely discharged from nuclear powered electricity generation sites and it is important to assess the radiological impact of such discharges on humans due to food consumption. Foodstuffs may be cooked before being eaten and this can change their radionuclide content. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a range of domestic food preparation techniques on the radionuclide contents of a range of food types. Radionuclide concentrations of tritium (free tritium, HTO, and organically bound tritium, (OBT), 14 C and 35 S were examined in a selection of fruit and vegetables that would form part of a typical diet. The foodstuffs included blackberries, broad beans, cabbages, carrots and potatoes (at two stages of development). The preparation techniques included boiling (potatoes, carrots, broad beans), roasting (potatoes), steaming (cabbage), or stewing (blackberries). In general, the radionuclide concentrations were reduced at the crops by at least 30% after preparation using any of the cooking techniques. The concentrations of 35 S fell by at least 60%, and this radionuclide showed the greatest reductions in the levels of HTO and 35 S. The results of this work indicate that the effects of cooking should be considered when assessing the dose received from the intake of foodstuffs. (Author)

  12. Fate of ethanol during cooking of liquid foods prepared with alcoholic beverages: Theory and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitkjær, Pia; Ryapushkina, Julia; Skovenborg, Erik; Astrup, Arne; Bech, Lene Mølskov; Jensen, Morten Georg; Risbo, Jens

    2017-09-01

    To obtain an understanding of the ethanol loss during cooking of liquid foods containing alcoholic beverages, ethanol concentration was measured as a function of time and remaining volume in meat stocks prepared with wine and beer. A mathematical model describing the decline in volatile compounds during heating of simple liquid foods was derived. The experimental results and the model show that concentration of ethanol at any given time is determined by the initial concentration and a power law function of the remaining volume fraction. The power law function is found to be independent of factors like pot dimensions and temperature. When using a lid to cover the pot during cooking, the model was still valid but the ethanol concentrations decreased more steeply, corresponding to a higher exponent. The results provide a theoretical and empirical guideline for predicting the ethanol concentration in cooked liquid foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Domestic food preparation practices: a review of the reasons for poor home hygiene practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sakkaf, Ali

    2015-09-01

    New Zealand has a much higher rate of reported campylobacteriosis cases than the rest of the developed world. It has been suggested that New Zealanders have worse home hygiene practices during food preparation than the citizens of other developed countries. Thus, it is necessary to recognize and understand the reasons for consumer's poor practices in order to help develop a more effective message to improve New Zealanders' practices in the domestic environment. This could in turn lead to a reduction in the number of campylobacteriosis cases. The objective is to review cited literature on consumer practices which is related to food poisoning and to attempt to list the factors related to poor consumer practice. There are many internationally identifiable reasons for the poor practices of consumers. These reasons include psychological, demographic and socioeconomic variables; personal interest in new information; prior knowledge; cultural influence; educational background; perception of risk, control and liability; and attitude towards the addressed practices or hazards. The results have indicated that 'optimistic bias', the 'illusion of control', habits and lack of knowledge concerning food safety during domestic food preparation are prevalent among consumers. The research indicated the influence of demographic factors (age, gender, level of education, income, work hours, race, location, culture), as they play a potential role in determining domestic food safety behaviour. It appears that all these factors are applicable for New Zealand consumers and should be addressed in any future education strategy aimed at improving New Zealanders' food handling practices. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Policy on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) and adherence to food preparation guidelines: a cross sectional survey of stakeholders in food service in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Sekyere, Kofi Boateng; Addy, Ernestine Akosua

    2013-11-04

    Food borne diseases claim more lives and are growing public health concerns. Simple preventive techniques such as adoption and adherence to hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) policy can significantly reduce this disease burden. Though food screening and inspection are done, the ultimate regulation, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point, which is known and accepted worldwide, appears not to be popular among food operators in Ghana. This paper examines the level of awareness of the existence of policy on hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) and its adherence to food preparation guidelines among food service providers in Ghana. The results revealed the mean age of food providers as 33.1 years with a standard deviation of 7.5, range of 18-55 years, more females, in full time employment and with basic education. Of the fifty institutional managers, 42 (84%) were senior officers and had worked for more than five years. Education and type of food operator had strong statistically significant relationship with the implementation of HCCP policy and adherence with food preparation guidelines. The enforcement of HACCP policy and adherence with food safety guidelines was led by the Ghana Tourist Board, Public Health officers, and KMA, respectively. While a majority of food operators 373/450 (83.3%) did not know HACCP policy is part of food safety guidelines, staff of food safety law enforcement 44/50 (88%) confirmed knowing that food operators were not aware of the HACCP policy. The study documents evidence on the practice of food safety principles or HACCP policy or adherence to food preparation guidelines. Existing food safety guidelines incorporate varying principles of HACCP, however, awareness is low among food operators. The implication is that food production is likely to fall short of acceptable standards and not be wholesome putting consumers at health risk. Repeating this study in rural and urban areas in Ghana is necessary to

  15. Mineral sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an outlook of the Australian mineral sand industry and covers the major operators. It is shown that conscious of an environmentally minded public, the Australian miners have led the way in the rehabilitation of mined areas. Moreover the advanced ceramic industry is generating exciting new perspectives for zircon producers and there is a noticeable growth in the electronic market for rare earths, but in long term the success may depend as much on environmental management and communication skills as on mining and processing skills

  16. Iron and zinc absorption from weaning foods prepared from germinated cereals and legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuizon, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a public health problem in the Philippines especially in infants, children and pregnant women. The immediate cause is inadequate intake of available iron to meet increased iron requirements. Iron supplementation studies on pregnant women showed improvement in haemoglobin level and reduction of prevalence of anaemia. A project on iron fortification of rice with ferrous sulphate is going on. It is proposed to study iron and zinc absorption from weaning food prepared from germinated rice: mungbean, germinated rice: cowpea, and germinated corn:mungbean to support the finding that these formulations will alleviate not only protein-energy malnutrition but contribute to improvement of iron status as well since iron contents are higher and anti-nutritional factors (phytates and tannin) are either reduced or eliminated. This study aims to measure the iron and zinc absorption from weaning foods prepared from germinated rice-mungbean, germinated rice-cowpea, and germinated corn-mungbean and to indicate usefullness of modifying local foods to improve iron absorption. 24 refs, 4 figs

  17. Iron and zinc absorption from weaning foods prepared from germinated cereals and legumes using isotope tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdez, D H; Kuizon, M D; Marero, L M; Mallillin, A C; Cruz, E M; Madriaga, J R [Department of Science and Technology, Manila (Philippines). Food and Nutrition Research Inst.

    1994-12-31

    Iron bioavailability from weaning foods prepared from 70:30 combination of germinated rice:mungbean (GRM); germinated rice: cowpea (GRC) and germinated corn:mungbean (GCM) was determined by radioisotopic measurements of iron absorption in human subjects. The gruels were prepared as plain with sugar and flavoring labeled by the extrinsic tag method, and served as hot porridge. It was estimated that iron-deficient infants would absorb 3.5% from GRM, 4.9% from GRC and 5.6% from GCM. Differences between absorption among the weaning foods were not statistically significant. Planning of diets for these age group should include other sources of iron especially heme. Zinc absorption from the weaning food formulations will be studied by the in vitro and in vivo methods. For the in vivo method on human subjects, the absorption of zinc will be determined from the measurement of the whole body retention of the isotope 14 days after intake of the labeled mean. Serum zinc level will be determined to assess the zinc status of the subjects. (author). 23 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. Iron and zinc absorption from weaning foods prepared from germinated cereals and legumes using isotope tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, D.H.; Kuizon, M.D.; Marero, L.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Cruz, E.M.; Madriaga, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    Iron bioavailability from weaning foods prepared from 70:30 combination of germinated rice:mungbean (GRM); germinated rice: cowpea (GRC) and germinated corn:mungbean (GCM) was determined by radioisotopic measurements of iron absorption in human subjects. The gruels were prepared as plain with sugar and flavoring labeled by the extrinsic tag method, and served as hot porridge. It was estimated that iron-deficient infants would absorb 3.5% from GRM, 4.9% from GRC and 5.6% from GCM. Differences between absorption among the weaning foods were not statistically significant. Planning of diets for these age group should include other sources of iron especially heme. Zinc absorption from the weaning food formulations will be studied by the in vitro and in vivo methods. For the in vivo method on human subjects, the absorption of zinc will be determined from the measurement of the whole body retention of the isotope 14 days after intake of the labeled mean. Serum zinc level will be determined to assess the zinc status of the subjects. (author). 23 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  19. Food consumption and growth rates of juvenile black carp fed natural and prepared feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Nathaniel C.; Schramm, Harold L.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2014-01-01

    The introduced mollusciphagic black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus poses a significant threat to native mollusks in temperate waters throughout the northern hemisphere, but consumption rates necessary to estimate the magnitude of impact on mollusks have not been established. We measured food consumption and growth rates for small (77–245 g) and large (466–1,071 g) triploid black carp held individually under laboratory conditions at 20, 25, and 30°C. Daily consumption rates (g food · g wet weight fish−1·d−1·100) of black carp that received prepared feed increased with temperature (small black carp 1.39–1.71; large black carp 1.28–2.10), but temperature-related increases in specific growth rate (100[ln(final weight) - ln(initial weight)]/number of days) only occurred for the large black carp (small black carp −0.02 to 0.19; large black carp 0.16–0.65). Neither daily consumption rates (5.90–6.28) nor specific growth rates (0.05–0.24) differed among temperatures for small black carp fed live snails. The results of these laboratory feeding trials indicate food consumption rates can vary from 289.9 to 349.5 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp receiving prepared feed, from 268.8 to 441.0 J·g−1·d−1for 800 g black carp receiving prepared feed, and from 84.8 to 90.2 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp that feed on snails. Applying estimated daily consumption rates to estimated biomass of native mollusks indicates that a relatively low biomass of bla

  20. 78 FR 41803 - Establishment of a Public Docket for Comment on the Report Prepared Under the Food and Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ... Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA) Section 1138, enacted July 9, 2012, and posted on the FDA Web... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0757] Establishment of a Public Docket for Comment on the Report Prepared Under the Food and Drug Administration...

  1. Safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations used as ingredients in food supplements: Testing an EFS tired approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijers, G.; Bottex, B.; Dusemund, B.; Lugasi, A.; Toth, J.; Amberg-Muller, J.; Galli, C.; Silano, V.; Rietjens, I.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes results obtained by testing the European Food Safety Authority-tiered guidance approach for safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food supplements. Main conclusions emerging are as follows. (i) Botanical ingredients must be identified

  2. Characteristics of Youth Food Preparation in Low-Income, African American Homes: Associations with Healthy Eating Index Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Melissa; Hopkins, Laura; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Cristello, Angelica; Mccloskey, Morgan; Gittelsohn, Joel; Hurley, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    This study explores food preparation behaviors, including types of food prepared, methods of preparation, and frequency of preparation of low-income urban African American youth ages 9-15 in Baltimore City (n = 289) and analyzes a potential association to diet quality as measured through Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI) scores. Overall, the youth prepared their own food 6.7 ± 0.33 times per week without significant differences between age groups or genders as measured through pairwise comparison of means. Cereal, noodles, and sandwiches were amongst the foods prepared most frequently. Linear regression analysis found youth food preparation frequency was not significantly associated with total HEI (p = 0.59), sodium (p = 0.58), empty calories (p = 0.96), or dairy scores (p = 0.12). Younger age was associated with higher total HEI scores (p = 0.012) and higher dairy scores (p = 0.01) and female gender was associated with higher total HEI scores (p = 0.03), higher sodium scores (p = 0.03), and lower dairy scores (p = 0.008).

  3. IRANIAN AND TURKISH FOOD CULTURES: A COMPARISON THROUGH THE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD IN TERMS OF PREPARATION, DISTRIBUTION AND CONSUMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Avcıoğlu, Gamze Gizem; Avcıoğlu, Gürcan Şevket

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make a comparative sociological analysis of Iranian and Turkish food cultures in terms of food preparation, distribution and consumption. Moreover, contribution is intended to be made to the field of applied food sociology. The research design carries features of a qualitative research. Of the qualitative research techniques, observation and interview form were used in the study. Research findings were obtained through observations made in Tehran, the capital c...

  4. Tehnika za proizvodnju hrane u terenskim uslovima / Technology for food preparation in field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko M. Tešanović

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available U terenskim uslovima osnovna sredstva za pripremanje hrane su pokretne kuhinje. One se koriste u miru za vreme izvođenja vežbi, logorovanja, za obuku vojnika kuvara i u vojnim školama za obuku studenata i učenika intendantske službe. Izuzetno, mogu se koristiti za kuvanje jela kada se vojni restorani adaptiraju ili se zbog drugih razloga hrana ne može pripremati u njima. U Vojsci Srbije danas su u upotrebi sledeće vrste pokretnih kuhinja: kuhinja autoprikolica od 250, 200, 300 i 400 l i kuhinja tovarna od 25 l. Za pripremu hrane u terenskim uslovima OS NATO koriste veoma raznovrstan park poljskih tehničkih sredstava. / In field conditions, the basic means for food preparation are mobile kitchens. Mobile kitchens are used in peace time during exercise and camping as well as for training military chefs and students of logistic support in military schools. Exceptionally, they can be used for cooking meals when repairing or adapting military restaurants or for some other valid reasons. In the Army of Serbia today, there are the following types of mobile kitchens: mobile kitchen 250, 200, 300 and 400 l and a kitchen pack of 25 l. For the preparation of food in field conditions, NATO forces use a very versatile choice of field technical resources.

  5. Impact of cooking and home food preparation interventions among adults: outcomes and implications for future programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Trofholz, Amanda C; Stang, Jamie S; Laska, Melissa N

    2014-01-01

    Cooking programs are growing in popularity; however, an extensive review has not examined their overall impact. Therefore, this study reviewed previous research on cooking/home food preparation interventions and diet and health-related outcomes among adults and identified implications for practice and research. Literature review and descriptive summative method. Dietary intake, knowledge/skills, cooking attitudes and self-efficacy/confidence, health outcomes. Articles evaluating the effectiveness of interventions that included cooking/home food preparation as the primary aim (January, 1980 through December, 2011) were identified via Ovid MEDLINE, Agricola, and Web of Science databases. Studies grouped according to design and outcomes were reviewed for validity using an established coding system. Results were summarized for several outcome categories. Of 28 studies identified, 12 included a control group with 6 as nonrandomized and 6 as randomized controlled trials. Evaluation was done postintervention for 5 studies, pre- and postintervention for 23, and beyond postintervention for 15. Qualitative and quantitative measures suggested a positive influence on main outcomes. However, nonrigorous study designs, varying study populations, and the use of nonvalidated assessment tools limited stronger conclusions. Well-designed studies are needed that rigorously evaluate long-term impact on cooking behavior, dietary intake, obesity and other health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of cooking and home food preparation interventions among adults: outcomes and implications for future programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Trofholz, Amanda C.; Stang, Jamie S; Laska, Melissa N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cooking programs are growing in popularity; however an extensive review has not examined overall impact. Therefore, this study reviewed previous research on cooking/home food preparation interventions and diet and health-related outcomes among adults and identified implications for practice and research. Design Literature review and descriptive summative method. Main outcome measures Dietary intake, knowledge/skills, cooking attitudes and self-efficacy/confidence, health outcomes. Analysis Articles evaluating effectiveness of interventions that included cooking/home food preparation as the primary aim (January 1980 through December 2011) were identified via OVID MEDLINE, Agricola and Web of Science databases. Studies grouped according to design and outcomes were reviewed for validity using an established coding system. Results were summarized for several outcome categories. Results Of 28 studies identified, 12 included a control group with six as non-randomized and six as randomized controlled trials. Evaluation was done post-intervention for five studies, pre- and post-intervention for 23 and beyond post-intervention for 15. Qualitative and quantitative measures suggested a positive influence on main outcomes. However, non-rigorous study designs, varying study populations, and use of non-validated assessment tools limited stronger conclusions. Conclusions and Implications Well-designed studies are needed that rigorously evaluate long-term impact on cooking behavior, dietary intake, obesity and other health outcomes. PMID:24703245

  7. Associations between Japanese schoolchildren's involvement in at-home meal preparation, their food intakes, and cooking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozue, Miho; Ishida, Hiromi; Hazano, Sayaka; Nakanishi, Akemi; Yamamoto, Taeko; Abe, Aya; Nishi, Nobuo; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Murayama, Nobuko

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the association of Japanese schoolchildren's involvement in at-home meal preparation with food intake and cooking skill. We included 1,207 fifth-grade children aged 10-11 years and one parent of each child. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data on involvement in at-home meal preparation. Correspondence analysis was used to classify involvement in at-home meal preparation into three groups: food-related activities (cooking only or with other activities such as shopping, table-setting, clean up, and dishwashing), non-food-related activities (table-setting and/or clean up), and no (helping) activities. Food intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to examine involvement in at-home meal preparation associations. The sample consisted of 1,207 fifth-grade children. Vegetable intake was lower in the no (helping) activities group than the food-related activities group (95% CI; boys: 1.2, 5.1, girls: 2.0, 8.9). Fewer children in the non-food-related activities group reported they were able to make a portion of their meals compared with the food-related activities group (95% CI; boys: 1.6, 3.5; girls: 1.5, 3.2). Children in the food-related activities group showed more favorable food intake and cooking skills than children in the no (helping) activities or non-food-related activities group.

  8. Associations between Japanese schoolchildren's involvement in at-home meal preparation, their food intakes, and cooking skills

    OpenAIRE

    Nozue, Miho; Ishida, Hiromi; Hazano, Sayaka; Nakanishi, Akemi; Yamamoto, Taeko; Abe, Aya; Nishi, Nobuo; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Murayama, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study aimed to examine the association of Japanese schoolchildren's involvement in at-home meal preparation with food intake and cooking skill. SUBJECTS/METHODS We included 1,207 fifth-grade children aged 10-11 years and one parent of each child. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data on involvement in at-home meal preparation. Correspondence analysis was used to classify involvement in at-home meal preparation into three groups: food-related activities (...

  9. Evaluation of the hygiene of ready-to-eat food preparation areas and practices in mobile food vendors in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Christine; Sagoo, Satnam

    2009-12-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the cleanliness of food preparation areas, cleaning methods used, and the microbiological quality of water used by 1258 mobile food vendors in the UK. Samples collected included potable water (1102), cleaning cloths (801) and environmental swabs from food preparation surfaces (2704). Cleaning cloths were more heavily contaminated with Aerobic Colony Counts, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus compared to surfaces sampled. Surfaces that were visually dirty, wet, and chopping boards that were plastic or damaged also had high levels of these bacteria. Fifty-four percent of potable water samples were of poor microbiological quality; i.e. contained coliforms, E. coli and/or enterococci. A documented food safety management system was only evident in 40.1% of vendors and cleaning schedules were only used by 43.6%. Deficiencies in the correct use of cleaning materials, such as dilution factors and the minimum contact time for disinfectants, were identified.

  10. Application of immunoaffinity columns for different food item samples preparation in micotoxins determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić Marijana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In analytical methods used for monitoring of what special attention is paid to sample preparation. Therefore, the objective of this study was testing the efficiency of immunoaffinity columns (IAC that are based on solid phase extraction principles used for samples preparation in determining aflatoxins and ochratoxins. Aflatoxins and ochratoxins concentrations were determined in totally 56 samples of food items: wheat, corn, rice, barley and other grains (19 samples, flour and flour products from grain and additives for the bakery industry (7 samples, fruits and vegetables (3 samples, hazelnut, walnut, almond, coconut flour (4 samples, roasted cocoa beans, peanuts, tea, coffee (16 samples, spices (4 samples and meat and meat products (4 samples. Obtained results indicate advantage of IAC use for sample preparation based on enhanced specificity due to binding of extracted molecules to incorporated specific antibodies and rinsing the rest molecules from sample which could interfere with further analysis. Additional advantage is the usage of small amount of organic solvents and consequently decreased exposure of staff who conduct micotoxins determination. Of special interest is increase in method sensitivity since limit of quantification for aflatoxins and ochratoxins determination method is lower than maximal allowed concentration of these toxines prescribed by national rule book.

  11. Preparation of Environmental and Food Samples to Support the Heavy Metals Detection by Stripping Electrochemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iswani S

    2002-01-01

    Preparation of environmental and food samples to support the heavy metals detection by stripping electrochemistry was done. The water samples taken directly from the ground water were acidified with 1 mL of HNO 3 acic suprapure was not digested, while the soils samples which have already dried in the oven at 105 o C, ware grinded and sieved through 150 μm, werte digested with HNO 3 acic suprapure in the digestion bomb at 150 o C for 3-4 hours. The mussels samples which have already freezed in the freezer were peeled, dried with N 2 liquid, grinded and dried again in the freeze drier at the pressure of ≅ 10 -2 mBar, and then were grinded again, weighted, digested with HNO 3 acic and HClO 4 suprapure in the digestion bomb at 150 o C for 3 hours. Food samples were homogenized by electric mixer, dried with freeze dried, homogenized again by using ZrO 2 ball mill, weighted, digested by HPA (high Pressure Asher). The heavy metals in the food samples solution of digestion product were detected by using Polarographic Analyzer EGandG of SWV and DPASV methods, while in the water, soils and the mussels solution were detected by using PDV 2000 and Polarograf E-505, DPASV method. The method validity were tested with SRM materials such as soil-5, soil-7, water W-4, and coppepoda. The heavy metals detection results in the water, soils, mussels, and food by electrochemical method were reported in this paper. (author)

  12. The importance of hygiene in the domestic kitchen: implications for preparation and storage of food and infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Elizabeth C; Griffith, Christopher J

    2009-03-01

    Public concerns relating to food safety remain high with most attention focused on manufactured foods and those served in catering operations. However, previous data have suggested that the home may be the main location for cases of food-borne disease. The aim of this paper is to review the microbiological risks associated with hygiene in the domestic kitchen related to food and infant formula safety. Compared to other food sectors, research on consumer food hygiene, domestic food-handling and preparation of infant formula is relatively understudied. Behavioural and microbiological studies of consumer hygiene and the domestic kitchen have been reviewed to incorporate research relating to the safety of infant formula. Incidence data identify the home as an important location for acquiring food-borne disease. The domestic kitchen can be used for a variety of purposes and is often contaminated with potentially harmful micro-organisms such as Campylobacter and Salmonella. Consumer hygiene habits have frequently been found to be inadequate and relate both to microbial growth, survival and cross-contamination. Due to the reduced immune response of infants, the activities associated with the preparation of infant formula and associated bottles and equipment are of particular concern. Cumulatively, the data suggest that more effort should be made to educate the consumer in food hygiene, especially when the kitchen is used to reconstitute infant formula. This information needs to be provided in a form appropriate for use by consumers.

  13. Changes in School Food Preparation Methods Result in Healthier Cafeteria Lunches in Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Timothy K; Liebert, Mina L; Peterson, Hannah J; Howard Smith, Jennifer; Sutliffe, Jay T; Day, Aubrey; Mack, Jodi

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of a districtwide food best practices and preparation changes in elementary schools lunches, implemented as part of the LiveWell@School childhood obesity program, funded by LiveWell Colorado/Kaiser Permanente Community Health Initiative. Longitudinal study examining how school changes in best practices for food preparation impacted the types of side items offered from 2009 to 2015 in elementary school cafeterias in a high-need school district in southern Colorado. Specifically, this study examined changes in side items (fruits, vegetables, potatoes, breads, and desserts). In Phase 1 (2009-2010), baseline data were collected. During Phase 2 (2010-2011), breaded and processed foods (e.g., frozen nuggets, pre-packaged pizza) were removed and school chefs were trained on scratch cooking methods. Phase 3 (2011-2012) saw an increased use of fresh/frozen fruits and vegetables after a new commodity order. During Phase 4 (2013-2015), chef consulting and training took place. The frequency of side offerings was tracked across phases. Analyses were completed in Fall 2016. Because of limited sample sizes, data from Phases 2 to 4 (intervention phases) were combined for potatoes and desserts. Descriptive statistics were calculated. After adjusting for length of time for each phase, Pearson chi-square tests were conducted to examine changes in offerings of side items by phase. Fresh fruit offerings increased and canned fruit decreased in Phases 1-4 (p=0.001). A significant difference was observed for vegetables (p=0.001), with raw and steamed vegetables increasing and canned vegetables decreasing from Phase 1 to 4. Fresh potatoes (low in sodium) increased and fried potatoes (high in sodium) decreased from Phase 1 to Phases 2-4 (p=0.001). Breads were eliminated entirely in Phase 2, and dessert changes were not significant (p=0.927). This approach to promoting healthier lunch sides is a promising paradigm for improving elementary

  14. Preparation of Some Eco-friendly Corrosion Inhibitors Having Antibacterial Activity from Sea Food Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mohamed H M; El-Hady, Mohamed F; Shehata, Hassan A H; Hegazy, Mohammad A; Hefni, Hassan H H

    2013-03-01

    Chitosan is one of the important biopolymers and it is extracted from exoskeletons of crustaceans in sea food waste. It is a suitable eco-friendly carbon steel corrosion inhibitor in acid media; the deacetylation degree of prepared chitosan is more than 85.16 %, and the molecular weight average is 109 kDa. Chitosan was modified to 2-N,N-diethylbenzene ammonium chloride N-oxoethyl chitosan (compound I), and 12-ammonium chloride N-oxododecan chitosan (compound II) as soluble water derivatives. The corrosion inhibition efficiency for carbon steel of compound (I) in 1 M HCl at varying temperature is higher than for chitosan and compound (II). However, the antibacterial activity of chitosan for Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans is higher than for its derivatives, and the minimum inhibition concentration and minimum bacterial concentration of chitosan and its derivatives were carried out with the same strain.

  15. A Dynamic Time Warping Approach to Real-Time Activity Recognition for Food Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Cuong; Plötz, Thomas; Olivier, Patrick

    We present a dynamic time warping based activity recognition system for the analysis of low-level food preparation activities. Accelerometers embedded into kitchen utensils provide continuous sensor data streams while people are using them for cooking. The recognition framework analyzes frames of contiguous sensor readings in real-time with low latency. It thereby adapts to the idiosyncrasies of utensil use by automatically maintaining a template database. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the classification approach by a number of real-world practical experiments on a publically available dataset. The adaptive system shows superior performance compared to a static recognizer. Furthermore, we demonstrate the generalization capabilities of the system by gradually reducing the amount of training samples. The system achieves excellent classification results even if only a small number of training samples is available, which is especially relevant for real-world scenarios.

  16. SPE/TLC/Densitometric Quantification of Selected Synthetic Food Dyes in Liquid Foodstuffs and Pharmaceutical Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna W. Sobańska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selected synthetic food dyes (tartrazine, Ponceau 4R, Brilliant Blue, orange yellow, and azorubine were isolated from liquid preparations (mouthwashes and beverages by Solid Phase Extraction on aminopropyl-bonded silica with diluted aqueous sodium hydroxide as an eluent. The extraction step was followed by thin layer chromatography on silica gel 60 with chloroform-isopropanol-25% aq. ammonia 1 : 3 : 1 (v/v/v as mobile phase and the densitometric quantification of dyes was achieved using quadratic calibration plots (R2>0.997; LOQ = 0.04–0.09 μgspot−1. The overall recoveries for all studied dyes were at the average level of over 90% and the repeatability of the proposed procedure (CV ≤ 4.1% was sufficient to recommend it for the routine quantification of the aforementioned dyes in liquid matrices.

  17. Home food preparation techniques impacted the availability of natural antioxidants and bioactivities in kale and broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Gao, Boyan; Li, Yanfang; Wang, Thomas T Y; Luo, Yinghua; Wang, Jing; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2018-01-24

    This study evaluated the effects of grinding and chopping with/without microwaving on the health-beneficial components, and antioxidant, anti-inflammation and anti-proliferation capacities of commercial kale and broccoli samples. The availability of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolic contents, the scavenging activities against DPPH, oxygen, hydroxyl and ABTS cation radicals, and cell-based antioxidant activities were determined for the antioxidant capacities. The results indicated that chopping released the least nutraceutical components and antioxidant compounds. Microwaving had no effect on the I3C release from kale, but resulted in an elevated (more than 2-fold) release of I3C from broccoli. In addition, the choice of a blender affected the availability of the anti-proliferative compounds from the vegetables, while it had no effect on the availability of their anti-inflammatory compounds. In summary, different food preparation methods could strongly impact the availability of bioactive factors in the selected vegetables. These findings suggest that choosing an appropriate food processing method for each vegetable might be critical to obtain desirable health-beneficial effects.

  18. Impact of the Healthy Foods North nutrition intervention program on Inuit and Inuvialuit food consumption and preparation methods in Canadian Arctic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahdooz, Fariba; Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Mead, Erin; Beck, Lindsay; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2014-07-04

    The 12-month Healthy Foods North intervention program was developed to improve diet among Inuit and Inuvialuit living in Arctic Canada and assess the impact of the intervention established for the communities. A quasi-experimental study randomly selected men and women (≥19 years of age) in six remote communities in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. Validated quantitative food frequency and adult impact questionnaires were used. Four communities received the intervention and two communities served as delayed intervention controls. Pre- and post-intervention changes in frequency of/total intake of de-promoted food groups and healthiness of cooking methods were determined. The impact of the intervention was assessed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Post-intervention data were analysed in the intervention (n = 221) and control (n = 111) communities, with participant retention rates of 91% for Nunavut and 83% for the Northwest Territories. There was a significant decrease in de-promoted foods, such as high fat meats (-27.9 g) and high fat dairy products (-19.8 g) among intervention communities (all p ≤ 0.05). The use of healthier preparation methods significantly increased (14.7%) in intervention communities relative to control communities. This study highlights the importance of using a community-based, multi-institutional nutrition intervention program to decrease the consumption of unhealthy foods and the use of unhealthy food preparation methods.

  19. Quality stabilisation of synthetic sand containing bentonite in process lines

    OpenAIRE

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2010-01-01

    Stabilisation of sand quality requires the monitoring and control of sand moisture contents and its other parameters at each stage of sandprocessing, i.e. during the preparation of return sand mix and rebonding processes. Stabilisation of sand quality necessitates the use of reliable control equipment and evaluation procedures. This study outlines the scope and results of research work aimed to improve the control equipment to enhance the performance of turbine mixers. The paper reviews the m...

  20. The role of food-related shopping, preparation and meal practices in diet quality and association with depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Toft, Madeleine Broman; Stancu, Catalin Mihai

    Purpose: Depression has become a major public health concern. Previous research indicates that depression is associated with diet quality and irregularity of meals. Yet, very few studies have addressed the role of food provisioning related behaviours, such as buying, storing and preparing food......-item instruments. Data was analysed by using cluster analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Results: The results confirmed that impulse buying and eating food on-the-go had a negative association with overall quality of diet, as well as a positive association with depressive...

  1. The role of food-related shopping and preparation practices in diet quality and association with depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Madeleine Broman; Pedersen, Susanne; Stancu, Catalin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Depression has become a major public health concern. Previous research indicates that depression is associated with diet quality and irregularity of meals. Yet, very few studies have addressed the role of food provisioning related behaviours, such as buying, storing and preparing food......-item instruments. Data was analysed by using cluster analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Results: The results confirmed that impulse buying and eating food on-the-go had a negative association with overall quality of diet, as well as a positive association with depressive...

  2. Critical control points for foods prepared in households whose members had either alleged typhoid fever or diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michanie, S; Bryan, F L; Alvarez, P; Olivo, A B; Paniagua, A

    1988-10-01

    Hazard analysis of food preparation practices were conducted in four households and eleven others were visited to survey both food preparation practices and environmental conditions. Households selected had members who were suffering from either diarrhea of unknown etiology or alleged typhoid fever. Hazard analyses and sanitary surveys included gathering data on time-temperature exposures of foods, collecting samples of food and drinking water, sampling sewage or drains, and obtaining stool specimens from persons with diarrhea and from family controls. Food samples were tested for aerobic mesophilic colony counts and common foodborne pathogens; specimens were tested for Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter and Yersinia. Campylobacter was isolated from two persons purported to have diarrhea, but neither Salmonella, Shigella nor Yersinia were recovered from alleged cases or controls. Salmonella agona was recovered from a latrine. Most foods were cooked to internal temperatures to or near to boiling. Those not promptly eaten were held at ambient room or outside temperatures until a subsequent meal, until a family member returned home, or until lunch time when taken to the fields. During these intervals, microorganisms multiplied and mesophilic aerobic organisms increased often reaching 10(8)/g or greater before consumption. None of these foods were reheated before eating. Bacillus cereus was isolated from 4 of 10 samples; one sample of 'moro' (beans and rice) exceeded 10(6)/g, two other samples exceeded 10(3)/g. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 7 of 14 samples, one exceeded 10(5)/g. Fecal coliforms were isolated from 8 of 14 food samples, five exceeded 10(5)/g. Neither Salmonella nor Shigella were isolated from any food, the community water supplies or from vessels of water within houses. Fecal coliform counts of water were less than 3/ml, except one sample from a clay vessel (9/ml). Risks associated with cooked foods which were not promptly eaten appeared to be

  3. Storage, preparation, and usage of fortified food aid among Guatemalan, Ugandan, and Malawian beneficiaries: a field study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Jonathan P; Brodegard, William C; Pike, Oscar A; Steele, Frost M; Dunn, Michael L

    2008-09-01

    An important consideration in determining the ability of fortified food-aid commodities to meet the nutritional needs of beneficiaries is the manner in which commodities are utilized and prepared and the degree to which micronutrient losses occur during handling and cooking by the beneficiaries. A field study was conducted in Uganda, Malawi, and Guatemala to obtain data on storage, preparation, and usage of fortified blended foods provided by the US Agency for International Development. Interview and observational data on the use of corn-soy blend, cornmeal, soy-fortified cornmeal, soy-fortified bulgur, and fortified vegetable oil were collected from more than 100 households and two wet-feeding sites (where food is prepared and served by staff on-site) in 32 villages. Storage practices by beneficiaries appeared to be appropriate, and all commodities observed were free from off-flavors and odors. Cooking water was typically obtained from boreholes or open wells with a pH range of 4.7 to 7.7 Food preparation usually took place in covered areas with the use of an aluminum or clay pot over a wood-fueled fire. Thin or thick porridges were the most common dishes prepared from cereal-based products, with concentration ranges of 10% to 31% (wt/ wt) in water. Cooking times for porridges ranged from 5 to 53 minutes, with a mean of 26 minutes. Tortillas and beverages were other preparations commonly observed in Guatemala. Vegetable oil was typically used for pan frying. Cooking fuel could be saved and nutritional quality probably improved if relief agencies emphasized shorter cooking times. These data can be used to simulate preparation methods in the laboratory for assessment of the nutritional impact of cooking.

  4. Preparation and application of agar/alginate/collagen ternary blend functional food packaging films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long-Feng; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2015-09-01

    Ternary blend agar/alginate/collagen (A/A/C) hydrogel films with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and grapefruit seed extract (GSE) were prepared. Their performance properties, transparency, tensile strength (TS), water vapor permeability (WVP), water contact angle (CA), water swelling ratio (SR), water solubility (WS), and antimicrobial activity were determined. The A/A/C film was highly transparent, and both AgNPs and GSE incorporated blend films (A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE)) exhibited UV-screening effect, especially, the A/A/C(GSE) film had high UV-screening effect without sacrificing the transmittance. In addition, the A/A/C blend films formed efficient hydrogel film with the water holding capacity of 23.6 times of their weight. Both A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE) composite films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) food-borne pathogenic bacteria. The test results of fresh potatoes packaging revealed that all the A/A/C ternary blend films prevented forming of condensed water on the packaged film surface, both A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE) composite films prevented greening of potatoes during storage. The results indicate that the ternary blend hydrogel films incorporated with AgNPs or GSE can be used not only as antifogging packaging films for highly respiring fresh agriculture produce, but also as an active food packaging system utilizing their strong antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact of a community-based food skills intervention on cooking confidence, food preparation methods and dietary choices - an exploratory trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrieden, Wendy L; Anderson, Annie S; Longbottom, Pat J; Valentine, Karen; Stead, Martine; Caraher, Martin; Lang, Tim; Gray, Bill; Dowler, Elizabeth

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of undertaking a food skills intervention study in areas of social deprivation aimed at altering cooking confidence, food preparation methods and dietary choices. A standardised skills programme was implemented in community-based settings. Pre- (T1) and post-intervention (T2) and 6-month follow-up (T3) measures (7-day diaries and self-administered questionnaires) were undertaken in intervention and comparison groups. Eight urban communities in Scotland. One hundred and thirteen adults living in areas of social deprivation. It was clear that many subjects led fragmented lives and found commitment to intervention classes problematic. Sixty-three subjects completed the final (T3) assessments. The response to each component varied due to inability to attend sessions, illness, study requirements, employment, moving out of the area, change in circumstances, loss of interest and loss of postal questionnaires. At baseline, reported consumption of fruit and vegetables was low (mean frequency 8.1 +/- 4.78 times per week). Fruit intake increased significantly (P food skills intervention is likely to have a small but positive effect on food choice and confidence in food preparation. A full-scale randomised controlled trial in this hard-to-reach group would require a range of flexible approaches rather than a fully defined intervention, and presents challenges for trial design.

  6. Performance of Food Safety Management Systems in Poultry Meat Preparation Processing Plants in Relation to Campylobacter spp. Contamination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampers, I.; Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.; Dumoulin, F.H.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    A diagnostic instrument comprising a combined assessment of core control and assurance activities and a microbial assessment instrument were used to measure the performance of current food safety management systems (FSMSs) of two poultry meat preparation companies. The high risk status of the

  7. Food prepared in iron cooking pots as an intervention for reducing iron deficiency anaemia in developing countries: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerligs, P. D. Prinsen; Brabin, B. J.; Omari, A. A. A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To complete a systematic review of the effect of preparing food cooked in iron pots on haemoglobin concentrations and to assess compliance with pot use. Design and Search strategy We searched The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness,

  8. 21 CFR 20.106 - Studies and reports prepared by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Administration. (a) The following types of reports and studies prepared by or with funds provided by the Food and... needs and performance. (3) Surveys, compilations, and summaries of data and information. (4) Consumer surveys. (5) Compliance surveys. (6) Compliance programs, except that names of specific firms, the...

  9. The Development of a Competency Based Food Preparations Curriculum for High School Special Needs Students in New Castle County, Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Richard Lee

    A competency-based culinary arts food preparation curriculum for Delaware high school students with special needs was developed during a project that included the following activities: review of the state's existing culinary arts curriculum for regular education students; incumbent worker survey administered to 24 restaurant…

  10. A novel sample preparation method using rapid nonheated saponification method for the determination of cholesterol in emulsified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, In-Seek; Kwak, Byung-Man; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Leem, Donggil; Yoon, Taehyung; Yoon, Changyong; Jeong, Jayoung; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Jin-Man

    2012-10-01

    In this study, nonheated saponification was employed as a novel, rapid, and easy sample preparation method for the determination of cholesterol in emulsified foods. Cholesterol content was analyzed using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The cholesterol extraction method was optimized for maximum recovery from baby food and infant formula. Under these conditions, the optimum extraction solvent was 10 mL ethyl ether per 1 to 2 g sample, and the saponification solution was 0.2 mL KOH in methanol. The cholesterol content in the products was determined to be within the certified range of certified reference materials (CRMs), NIST SRM 1544 and SRM 1849. The results of the recovery test performed using spiked materials were in the range of 98.24% to 99.45% with an relative standard devitation (RSD) between 0.83% and 1.61%. This method could be used to reduce sample pretreatment time and is expected to provide an accurate determination of cholesterol in emulsified food matrices such as infant formula and baby food. A novel, rapid, and easy sample preparation method using nonheated saponification was developed for cholesterol detection in emulsified foods. Recovery tests of CRMs were satisfactory, and the recoveries of spiked materials were accurate and precise. This method was effective and decreased the time required for analysis by 5-fold compared to the official method. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Co-surfactant free microemulsions: Preparation, characterization and stability evaluation for food application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenbo; Jin, Jun; Zheng, Minying; Zheng, Yan; Xu, Xuebing; Liu, Yuanfa; Wang, Xingguo

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study is to prepare co-surfactant free microalgal oil microemulsions and investigate their properties as well as processing stability for food application. The physicochemical characteristics of the microemulsions were investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), turbidity, conductivity, rheological measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Within the microemulsion region, when the surfactant to oil ratio was 9:1, the hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) was 18nm; when the surfactant to oil ratio was 7.5:1, the hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) was 50nm. Rheological studies proved that the microemulsion system was a pseudoplastic fluid, which followed a shear thinning flow behavior. The loss rate of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was less than 5%wt after ultra high temperature (UHT) and high temperature short time (HTST) thermal treatments. A high content of CaCl2 (10.0%wt) could not destroy the microemulsion system, and it could be stored at 4°C for two years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Healthier home food preparation methods and youth and caregiver psychosocial factors are associated with lower BMI in African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Rebecca F; Coutinho, Anastasia J; Vaeth, Elisabeth; Christiansen, Karina; Suratkar, Sonali; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2012-05-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects African American (AA) children and adolescents and leads to an increased risk of adult chronic diseases. Eating few meals at home has been implicated as a cause of obesity among youth, but to our knowledge, previous studies have not specifically investigated this relationship in AA adolescents or looked at both the healthfulness and frequency of home meals in AA households. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between home food preparation and adolescent BMI in a sample of 240 AA adolescents aged 10-15 y and their caregivers. Multiple linear regressions were used to model psychosocial characteristics, household factors, and adolescent and caregiver food preparation behaviors as predictors of adolescent BMI, and psychosocial and household factors as predictors of food preparation behavior. Adolescents in the sample had a mean BMI-for-age percentile of 70.4, and >90% of the sample families received at least one form of food assistance. Adolescent children of caregivers who used healthier cooking methods were more likely to use healthy cooking methods themselves (P = 0.02). Having more meals prepared by a caregiver was predictive of higher BMI-for-age percentile in adolescents (P = 0.02), but healthier cooking methods used by the caregiver was associated with reduced risk of adolescent overweight or obesity (P prepared at home in AA households do not necessarily promote healthy BMI in youth. Family meals are a promising adolescent obesity prevention strategy, but it is important to target both frequency and healthfulness of meals prepared at home for effective health promotion in AA families.

  13. Characteristics of SCC with Fly Ash and Manufactured Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen Kumar, K.; Radhakrishna

    2016-09-01

    Self compacting concrete (SCC) of M40 grade was designed. The binder in SCC consists of OPC and fly ash in the ratio of 65:35. River sand was replaced by manufactured sand (M-sand) at replacement levels of 20,40,60,80 and 100%. An attempt was made to evaluate the workability and strength characteristics of self compacting concrete with river sand and manufactured sand as fine aggregates. For each replacement level, constant workability was maintained by varying the dosage of superplasticizer. T50 flow time, V Funnel time, V-funnel T5 time as well as compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of SCC were found at each replacement level of M-sand. They were compared to SCC with river sand. Results indicate favourable use of M-sand in preparation of Self Compacting Concrete.

  14. Preparing Soups. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.10b. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with preparing and serving soups. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these areas: thin soups, thick soups, convenience soups,…

  15. Does involvement in food preparation track from adolescence to young adulthood and is it associated with better dietary quality? Findings from a 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Melissa N; Larson, Nicole I; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2012-07-01

    To examine whether involvement in food preparation tracks over time, between adolescence (15-18 years), emerging adulthood (19-23 years) and the mid-to-late twenties (24-28 years), as well as 10-year longitudinal associations between home food preparation, dietary quality and meal patterning. Population-based, longitudinal cohort study. Participants were originally sampled from Minnesota public secondary schools (USA). Participants enrolled in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults)-I, EAT-II and EAT-III (n 1321). Most participants in their mid-to-late twenties reported an enjoyment of cooking (73 % of males, 80 % of females); however, few prepared meals including vegetables most days of the week (24 % of males, 41 % of females). Participants in their mid-to-late twenties who enjoyed cooking were more likely to have engaged in food preparation as adolescents and emerging adults (P prepared meals including vegetables were more likely to have engaged in food preparation as emerging adults (P food preparation predicted better dietary quality five years later in the mid-to-late twenties, including higher intakes of fruit, vegetables and dark green/orange vegetables, and less sugar-sweetened beverage and fast-food consumption. Associations between adolescent food preparation and later dietary quality yielded few significant results. Food preparation behaviours appeared to track over time and engagement in food preparation during emerging adulthood, but not adolescence, was associated with healthier dietary intake during the mid-to-late twenties. Intervention studies are needed to understand whether promoting healthy food preparation results in improvements in eating patterns during the transition to adulthood.

  16. Non-home prepared foods : contribution to energy and nutrient intake of consumers living in two low-income areas in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't H.; Hartog, den A.P.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the nutritional importance of non-home prepared foods for men, women and schoolchildren living in two low-income residential areas of Nairobi, and the sources of these non-home prepared foods. Design, setting and subjects: A survey was conducted in Korogocho, a slum area, and

  17. Possible causes of variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries prepared in food service establishments: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanny, M; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S; Luning, P A

    2012-05-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, and its presence in a range of fried and oven-cooked foods has raised considerable health concern world-wide. Dietary intake studies observed significant variations in acrylamide concentrations, which complicate risk assessment and the establishment of effective control measures. The objective of this study was to obtain an insight into the actual variation in acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared under typical conditions in a food service establishment (FSE). Besides acrylamide, frying time, frying temperature, and reducing sugars were measured and the actual practices at receiving, thawing and frying during French fries preparation were observed and recorded. The variation in the actual frying temperature contributed most to the variation in acrylamide concentrations, followed by the variation in actual frying time; no obvious effect of reducing sugars was found. The lack of standardised control of frying temperature and frying time (due to inadequate frying equipment) and the variable practices of food handlers seem to contribute most to the large variation and high acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared in a restaurant type of FSE as compared to chain fast-food services, and institutional caterers. The obtained insights in this study can be used to develop dedicated control measures in FSE, which may contribute to a sustainable reduction in the acrylamide intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Three Traditional Fermented Baobab Foods from Benin, Mutchayan, Dikouanyouri and Tayohounta: Preparation, Properties and Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadare, F.J.; Gayet, D.P.; Azokpota, P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Linnemann, A.R.; Hounhouigan, M.H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Forest food resources contribute significantly to food supply in areas where they grow. Three fermented baobab foods were studied: Dikouanyouri (from seeds, pH = 6.5); Tayohounta (from seed kernels, pH = 7), and Mutchayan (from baobab pulp and sorghum, pH = 4.2). Bacillus spp. (8.5 and 9.5 Log cfu

  19. Preparation and characterization of biocomposite film based on chitosan and kombucha tea as active food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Azam; Jokar, Maryam; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza

    2018-03-01

    An active film composed of chitosan and kombucha tea (KT) was successfully prepared using the solvent casting technique. The effect of incorporation of KT at the levels 1%-3% w/w on the physical and functional properties of chitosan film was investigated. The antimicrobial activity of chitosan/KT film against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated using agar diffusion test, and its antioxidant activity was determined using DPpH assay. The results revealed that incorporation of KT into chitosan films improved the water vapor permeability (from 256.7 to 132.1gcm -2 h -1 KPa -1 mm) and enhanced the antioxidant activity of the latter up to 59% DPpH scavenging activity. Moreover, the incorporation of KT into the chitosan film increased the protective effect of the film against ultra violet (UV). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis revealed the chemical interactions between chitosan and the polyphenol groups of KT. In a minced beef model, chitosan/KT film effectively served as an active packaging and extended the shelf life of the minced beef as manifested in the retardation of lipid oxidation and microbial growth from 5.36 to 2.11logcfugr -1 in 4days storage. The present work demonstrates that the chitosan/KT film not only maintains the quality of the minced beef but also, retards microbial growth significantly, extending the shelf life of the minced beef meat up to 3days; thus, chitosan/KT film is a potential material for active food packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of residual polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in dried shiitake mushrooms as an enzyme preparation in food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, E; Konishi, Y; Tsujiyama, S

    2016-11-01

    To examine the activities of residual enzymes in dried shiitake mushrooms, which are a traditional foodstuff in Japanese cuisine, for possible applications in food processing. Polysaccharide-degrading enzymes remained intact in dried shiitake mushrooms and the activities of amylase, β-glucosidase and pectinase were high. A potato digestion was tested using dried shiitake powder. The enzymes reacted with potato tuber specimens to solubilize sugars even under a heterogeneous solid-state condition and that their reaction modes were different at 38 and 50 °C. Dried shiitake mushrooms have a potential use in food processing as an enzyme preparation.

  1. Diamond like carbon Ag nanocomposites as a control measure against Campylobacter jejuni and Listeria monocytogenes on food preparation surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Zakarienė, Gintarė; Novoslavskij, Aleksandr

    2018-01-01

    on selective agars and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) including staining with propidium monoazide (PMA). It was determined, that DLC:Ag film was the most efficient coating in the reduction of C. jejuni and L. monocytogenes numbers. Culture-based enumeration revealed that C. jejuni numbers were reduced......:Ag antimicrobial surface showed a reduced ability to grow on culture media, but maintained viability during the whole experiment. Nonetheless, DLC:Ag antimicrobial surface could be further considered for the reduction of cross-contamination risk from food preparation surfaces due to their contamination with C....... jejuni and L. monocytogenes in domestic and commercial kitchens or food establishments....

  2. Guidance for the safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations for use in food and food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilter, B; Andersson, C; Anton, R; Constable, A; Kleiner, J; O'Brien, J; Renwick, A G; Korver, O; Smit, F; Walker, R

    2003-12-01

    There is a growing interest by both consumers and industry for the development of food products with 'functional' properties, or health benefits. These products may take the form of dietary supplements or of foods. The health benefits are given by particular ingredients, and in many cases these are derived from botanicals. The variety of plants providing these functions is large, ranging from staple food sources such as cereals, fruits and vegetables, to herbals as used in traditional medicine. The food or ingredient conferring health properties may consist of the plants themselves, extracts thereof, or more purified components. The scientific literature is abundant with articles not only on the beneficial properties, but also on possible adverse health effects of plants and their components. The present report discusses the data required to determine the safe use of these types of ingredients, and provides advice on the development of risk assessment strategies consistent with due diligence under existing food regulations. Product specifications, composition and characterisation of standardised and authentic materials, documented history of use and comparison to existing products (taking into account the effect of industrial processing), description of the intended use and consequent exposure are highlighted as key background information on which to base a risk evaluation. The extent of experimental investigation required, such as in vitro, animal, and/or human studies, depends on the adequacy of this information. A decision tree is presented as an aid to determine the extent of data requirements based on product comparison. The ultimate safety in use depends on the establishment of an adequate safety margin between expected exposure and identified potential hazards. Health hazards may arise from inherent toxicities or contaminants of the plant materials, including the mechanism of the intended beneficial effect. A lower safety margin may therefore be expected

  3. Does involvement in food preparation track from adolescence to young adulthood and is it associated with better dietary quality? Findings from a ten-year longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether involvement in food preparation tracks over time, between adolescence (15–18 years), emerging adulthood (19–23 years), and the mid-to-late twenties (24–28 years), as well as examine 10-year longitudinal associations between home food preparation, dietary quality and meal patterning. Design Population-based, longitudinal cohort study. Setting Participants were originally sampled from Minnesota public secondary schools (USA). Subjects Participants enrolled in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens)-I, EAT-II, and EAT-III (n=1,321). Results Most participants in their mid-to-late twenties reported an enjoyment of cooking (73% of males, 80% of females); however, few prepared meals including vegetables most days of the week (24% males, 41% females). Participants in their mid-to-late twenties who enjoyed cooking were more likely to have engaged in food preparation as adolescents and emerging adults (pprepared meals including vegetables were more likely to have engaged in food preparation as emerging adults (pfood preparation predicted better dietary quality five years later in the mid-to-late twenties, including higher intakes of fruit, vegetables, dark green/orange vegetables, and less sugar sweetened beverage and fast food consumption. Associations between adolescent food preparation and later dietary quality yielded few significant results. Conclusions Food preparation behaviors appeared to track over time, and engagement in food preparation during emerging adulthood, but not adolescence, was associated with healthier dietary intake during the mid-to-late twenties. Intervention studies are needed to understand whether promoting healthy food preparation results in improvements in eating patterns during the transition to adulthood. PMID:22124458

  4. Safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations used as ingredients in food supplements: testing an European Food Safety Authority-tiered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speijers, Gerrit; Bottex, Bernard; Dusemund, Birgit; Lugasi, Andrea; Tóth, Jaroslav; Amberg-Müller, Judith; Galli, Corrado L; Silano, Vittorio; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2010-02-01

    This article describes results obtained by testing the European Food Safety Authority-tiered guidance approach for safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food supplements. Main conclusions emerging are as follows. (i) Botanical ingredients must be identified by their scientific (binomial) name, in most cases down to the subspecies level or lower. (ii) Adequate characterization and description of the botanical parts and preparation methodology used is needed. Safety of a botanical ingredient cannot be assumed only relying on the long-term safe use of other preparations of the same botanical. (iii) Because of possible adulterations, misclassifications, replacements or falsifications, and restorations, establishment of adequate quality control is necessary. (iv) The strength of the evidence underlying concerns over a botanical ingredient should be included in the safety assessment. (v) The matrix effect should be taken into account in the safety assessment on a case-by-case basis. (vi) Adequate data and methods for appropriate exposure assessment are often missing. (vii) Safety regulations concerning toxic contaminants have to be complied with. The application of the guidance approach can result in the conclusion that safety can be presumed, that the botanical ingredient is of safety concern, or that further data are needed to assess safety.

  5. Performance of food safety management systems in poultry meat preparation processing plants in relation to Campylobacter spp. contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampers, Imca; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Luning, Pieternel A; Marcelis, Willem J; Dumoulin, Ann; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-08-01

    A diagnostic instrument comprising a combined assessment of core control and assurance activities and a microbial assessment instrument were used to measure the performance of current food safety management systems (FSMSs) of two poultry meat preparation companies. The high risk status of the company's contextual factors, i.e., starting from raw materials (poultry carcasses) with possible high numbers and prevalence of pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., requires advanced core control and assurance activities in the FSMS to guarantee food safety. The level of the core FSMS activities differed between the companies, and this difference was reflected in overall microbial quality (mesophilic aerobic count), presence of hygiene indicators (Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), and contamination with pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter spp. The food safety output expressed as a microbial safety profile was related to the variability in the prevalence and contamination levels of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat preparations found in a Belgian nationwide study. Although a poultry meat processing company could have an advanced FSMS in place and a good microbial profile (i.e., lower prevalence of pathogens, lower microbial numbers, and less variability in microbial contamination), these positive factors might not guarantee pathogen-free products. Contamination could be attributed to the inability to apply effective interventions to reduce or eliminate pathogens in the production chain of (raw) poultry meat preparations.

  6. Food emulsion type oil in water prepared with high-protein from shrimp (Penaeus vannamei heads flour – SHF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Cano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of flour from shrimp (Penaeus vannamei heads with a high content of protein (SHF to stabilize food emulsions type oil in water (o/w is an alternative to take advantage of the by-products of the shrimp industry. The aim of this work was to prepare food emulsion type oil in water (o/w using the SHF due to the high percentage in proteins; for this procedure a physicochemical and bromatological characterization of flour of shrimps (Penaeus vannamei heads has been done, in which a percentage of protein 51 %, moisture of 11,82 %, fat 8,52 % and 22,23 % of ash has been obtained. The base emulsions may be used in food products such as salad dressing, mayonnaise, spreads, dressings and other products. The different emulsions with adequate rheological and microstructural characteristics were prepared using different concentrations of palm oil (20, 30 and 40%w/w and different concentrate of SHF (0,5, 1 and 2 % w/w. Therefore, we have obtained a food emulsion stable type oil in water (O/W with 2 % w/w of SHF, which presented a behavior non-Newtonian fluid type shear-thinning and homogeneous distribution of droplets.

  7. Financial burden of allergen free food preparation in the catering business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, A.R.; Fels, van der Ine; Bonanno, A.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify costs and benefits of allergen free food (food not containing ingredients that fall under the European labelling regime) production at a catering business under two scenarios. In scenario 1 the caterer provides information to the consumer regarding the presence of

  8. Flavour aspects of pea and its protein preparations in relation to novel protein foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, L.

    2005-01-01

    This research is part of the multidisciplinary program, PROFETAS (PROtein Foods Environment Technology And Society), which aimed to feasibly shift from animal proteins to pea proteins for the development of Novel Protein Foods (NPFs) with desirable flavour. The aim of this research is to investigate

  9. Is scratch-cooking a cost-effective way to prepare healthy school meals with US Department of Agriculture foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Kao, Janice; Kiesel, Kristin; Lewis Miller, Markell; Boyle, Maria; Drago-Ferguson, Soledad; Braff-Guajardo, Ellen; Crawford, Patricia

    2014-09-01

    Despite the resurgence of interest in scratch-cooking as a way to increase the quality and appeal of school meals, many school districts are concerned about the cost implications of switching to scratch-cooking. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Foods are the single largest source of ingredients for school meals, and about half of USDA Foods are diverted for processing before being sent to the school district. We aimed to determine whether school lunch entrées made in a district from basic or raw USDA Foods ingredients can be healthier and less expensive to prepare than those sent to external processors. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between the extent of scratch-cooking and the nutritional content and cost to prepare entrées. Information was gathered by interview with school foodservice personnel and from school foodservice records from a convenience sample of 10 school districts in California that employed varying degrees of scratch-cooking and is diverse in terms of geographic location and the sociodemographics of the student body. The sample included all elementary school lunch entrées that contain USDA Foods offered during October 2010 for a total sample of 146 entrées. Ordinary least squares regressions were used to test for statistically significant differences in cost and nutrient content of entrées according to the level of scratch-cooking. There was no significant relationship between total costs and level of scratch-cooking. Entrées with the highest scratch-cooking scores had significantly lower food costs, higher labor costs, and not significantly different total costs compared with entrées with no scratch-cooking. Nutrient content was not consistently associated with scratch-cooking, but scratch-cooked entrées did include a larger variety of non-fast-food-type entrées. The findings suggest that scratch-cooking can be a cost-effective way to expand the variety of healthy school lunches prepared with USDA Foods

  10. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Špirutová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this contribution is: “How the green sand systems are influenced by core sands?”This effect is considered by determination of selected technological properties and degree of green sand system re-bonding. From the studies, which have been published yet, there is not consistent opinion on influence of core sand dilution on green sand system properties. In order to simulation of the effect of core sands on the technological properties of green sands, there were applied the most common used technologies of cores production, which are based on bonding with phenolic resin. Core sand concentration added to green sand system, was up to 50 %. Influence of core sand dilution on basic properties of green sand systems was determined by evaluation of basic industrial properties: moisture, green compression strength and splitting strength, wet tensile strength, mixture stability against staling and physical-chemistry properties (pH, conductivity, and loss of ignition. Ratio of active betonite by Methylene blue test was also determined.

  11. Singing Sand Dunes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ble low-frequency (s. 75–105 Hz), that can some- times be heard up to 10 km away. Scientific in- vestigations suggest that the sustained low fre- quency sound of sand dunes that resembles a pure note from a musical instrument, is due to the synchronized motion of well-sorted dry sand grains when they spontaneously ...

  12. Protein preparations in the development of media fragrances in technology of food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Tolpigina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigated the sorption properties of plant and animal proteins, common on the Russian market. Installed the recommended dosage of the preparations of animal protein and vegetable origin, as well as the biological value.

  13. Protein preparations in the development of media fragrances in technology of food products

    OpenAIRE

    I. N. Tolpigina; I. E. Martemianova; L. V. Antipova; I. V. Polenov

    2013-01-01

    Investigated the sorption properties of plant and animal proteins, common on the Russian market. Installed the recommended dosage of the preparations of animal protein and vegetable origin, as well as the biological value.

  14. New generation expandable sand screens

    OpenAIRE

    Syltøy, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering This thesis aims to give a general insight into sand control and various sorts of sand control measures and applications of sand control tools. Special focus will be given to expandable sand screens – a technology which came about in the late 1990’s through the use of flexible, expandable tubulars as base pipe in sand screens. More specifically Darcy’s Hydraulic Endurance Screens, a compliant sand screen system using hydraulic activation, and the fu...

  15. The study of the antimicrobial activity of colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles prepared using food stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandin, G V; Suvorov, O A; Shaburova, L N; Podkopaev, D O; Frolova, Yu V; Ermolaeva, G A

    2015-06-01

    The bactericidal effect of colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles based on food stabilizers, gum arabic and chitosan, against bacterial cultures of microorganisms in food production is described. The antibacterial activity of nanotechnology products containing different amounts of stabilizing additives when applied to solid pH-neutral substrates is studied. For its evaluation a method making it possible to take into account the capability of nanoparticles to diffuse in solid media was applied. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of nanoparticles used against Erwinia herbicola, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina flava were found. A suggestion was made concerning the influence of the spatial structure of bacteria on the antibacterial activity of colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles. The data concerning the antibacterial activity and minimal inhibiting concentrations of nanoparticles may be used for development of products suppressing activity of microorganisms hazardous for food production.

  16. Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran and others

    2006-01-15

    This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

  17. Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran and others

    2006-01-01

    This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

  18. Guidance on the preparation and presentation of an application for authorisation of a novel food in the context of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    . This guidance presents a common format for the organisation of the information to be presented in order to assist the applicant in preparing a well-structured application to demonstrate the safety of the novel food. The application should be comprehensive and complete. This guidance outlined the data needed......Following the adoption of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283 of the European Parliament and of the Council on novel foods, the European Commission requested EFSA to update and develop scientific and technical guidance for the preparation and presentation of applications for authorisation of novel foods...... for the safety assessments of novel foods. Requirements which should be covered in all applications relate to the description of the novel food, production process, compositional data, specification, proposed uses and use levels, and anticipated intake of the novel food. Further sections on the history of use...

  19. A study of global sand seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Edwin D.

    1979-01-01

    associated with eolian hydrocarbon reservoirs. The final chapters present a discussion of the morphology and distribution of dunes as determined largely from Landsat images.Chapter K of the publication is devoted to descriptions of major sand seas based largely on thematic maps derived from Landsat (ERTS) mosaics. Although inclusion herein of the actual mosaics proved to be impractical, the maps derived from them do show the distribution and abundance of various dune types and the relations of these types to certain associated features, such as bedrock, water bodies, and juxtaposed dunes. Furthermore, sand roses included with each of these maps enable the user to draw conclusions on the probable relations of wind strength and direction to dune type in a particular area.Regional studies (chapter K) were a team effort. Analysis of the Landsat (ERTS) mosaics and mapping boundaries of individual dune types were by Carol Breed. Synthesis of the rather voluminous literature and preparation of abstracts covering it was by Camilla MacCauley. Actual preparation of maps was by Franci Lennartz and later by Sarah Andrews. The gathering of data on wind, the calculation of wind roses, and the interpretation of their relations to sand bodies were by Steven Fryberger, assisted by Gary Dean.

  20. Data collection and preparation of authoritative reviews on space food and nutrition research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The collection and classification of information for a manually operated information retrieval system on the subject of space food and nutrition research are described. The system as it currently exists is designed for retrieval of documents, either in hard copy or on microfiche, from the technical files of the MSC Food and Nutrition Section by accession number, author, and/or subject. The system could readily be extended to include retrieval by affiliation, report and contract number, and sponsoring agency should the need arise. It can also be easily converted to computerized retrieval. At present the information retrieval system contains nearly 3000 documents which consist of technical papers, contractors' reports, and reprints obtained from the food and nutrition files at MSC, Technical Library, the library at the Texas Medical Center in Houston, the BMI Technical Libraries, Dr. E. B. Truitt at MBI, and the OSU Medical Libraries. Additional work was done to compile 18 selected bibliographies on subjects of immediate interest on the MSC Food and Nutrition Section.

  1. Consumer food preparation and its implication for survival of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma, N.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Asselt, van E.D.; Zwietering, M.H.; Jong, de A.E.I.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose ¿ The disease burden caused by Campylobacter jejuni may be decreased by reduced consumption of undercooked chicken meat. However, little is known about consumer preparation of poultry and the effects of commonly applied cooking times on bacterial inactivation. This study aimed to answer

  2. Preparation and characterization of biocomposite film based on chitosan and kombucha tea as active food packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashrafi, Azam; Jokar, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    An active film composed of chitosan and kombucha tea (KT) was successfully prepared using the solvent casting technique. The effect of incorporation of KT at the levels 1%–3% w/w on the physical and functional properties of chitosan film was investigated. The antimicrobial activity of chitosan...

  3. Transgenic and cloned animals in the food chain--are we prepared to tackle it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesan, Premanandh; Bin Salem, Samara

    2015-11-01

    Transgenic and cloned animal production for various purposes has been increasing rapidly in recent times. While the actual impact of these animals in the food chain is unknown, the significance of tracking and monitoring measures to curb accidental and or deliberate release has been discussed. Religious perspectives from different faiths and traditions have been presented. Although the concept of substantial equivalence satisfies the technical and nutritional requirements of these products when assessed against comparators, public opinion and religious concerns should also be considered by the regulators while developing policy regulations. In conclusion, measures to prevent real or perceived risks of transgenic and cloned animals in food production require global coordinated action. It is worthwhile to consider establishing effective tracking systems and analytical procedures as this will be a valuable tool if a global consensus is not reached on policy regulation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Preparation and characterization of chitosan-based antimicrobial active food packaging film incorporated with apple peel polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Asad; Lei, Shicheng; Akhtar, Hafiz Muhammad Saleem; Wan, Peng; Chen, Dan; Jabbar, Saqib; Abid, Muhammad; Hashim, Malik Muhammad; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2018-07-15

    In the present study, apple peel polyphenols (APP) were incorporated into chitosan (CS) to develop a novel functional film. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyses were performed to study the structure, potential interaction and thermal stability of the prepared films. Physical properties including moisture content, density, color, opacity, water solubility, swelling ration and water vapor permeability were measured. The results revealed that addition of APP into CS significantly improved the physical properties of the film by increasing its thickness, density, solubility, opacity and swelling ratio whereas moisture content and water vapor permeability were decreased. Tensile strength and elongation at break of the CS-APP film with 1% APP was 16.48MPa and 13.33%, respectively, significantly lower than those for CS control film. Thermal stability of the prepared films was decreased while antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the CS-based APP film were significantly increased. CS-APP film with 0.50% APP concentration exhibited good mechanical and antimicrobial properties, indicating that it could be developed as bio-composite food packaging material for the food industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sand and Gravel Deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a statewide polygon coverage of sand, gravel, and stone resources. This database includes the best data available from the VT Agency of Natural...

  6. Sand and Gravel Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes sand and gravel operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  7. Sample preparation combined with electroanalysis to improve simultaneous determination of antibiotics in animal derived food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Wesley Pereira; de Oliveira, Luiz Henrique; Santos, André Luiz Dos; Ferreira, Valdir Souza; Trindade, Magno Aparecido Gonçalves

    2018-06-01

    A procedure based on liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and phase separation using magnetically stirred salt-induced high-temperature liquid-liquid extraction (PS-MSSI-HT-LLE) was developed to extract and pre-concentrate ciprofloxacin (CIPRO) and enrofloxacin (ENRO) from animal food samples before electroanalysis. Firstly, simple LLE was used to extract the fluoroquinolones (FQs) from animal food samples, in which dilution was performed to reduce interference effects to below a tolerable threshold. Then, adapted PS-MSSI-HT-LLE protocols allowed re-extraction and further pre-concentration of target analytes in the diluted acid samples for simultaneous electrochemical quantification at low concentration levels. To improve the peak separation, in simultaneous detection, a baseline-corrected second-order derivative approach was processed. These approaches allowed quantification of target FQs from animal food samples spiked at levels of 0.80 to 2.00 µmol L -1 in chicken meat, with recovery values always higher than 80.5%, as well as in milk samples spiked at 4.00 µmol L -1 , with recovery values close to 70.0%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Properties of dune sand concrete containing coffee waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Guendouz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, an increase of coffee beverages consumption has been observed all over the world; and its consumption increases the waste coffee grounds which will become an environmental problems. Recycling of this waste to produce new materials like sand concrete appears as one of the best solutions for reduces the problem of pollution. This work aims to study the possibility of recycling waste coffee grounds (Spent Coffee Grounds (SCG as a fine aggregate by replacing the sand in the manufacturing of dune sand concrete. For this; sand concrete mixes were prepared with substitution of sand with the spent coffee grounds waste at different percentage (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by volume of the sand in order to study the influence of this wastes on physical (Workability, bulk density and porosity, mechanical (compressive and flexural strength and Thermal (Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity properties of dune sand concrete. The results showed that the use of spent coffee grounds waste as partial replacement of natural sand contributes to reduce workability, bulk density and mechanical strength of sand concrete mixes with an increase on its porosity. However, the thermal characteristics are improved and especially for a level of 15% and 20% of substitution. So, it is possible to obtain an insulating material which can be used in the various types of structural components. This study ensures that reusing of waste coffee grounds in dune sand concrete gives a positive approach to reduce the cost of materials and solve some environmental problems.

  9. Retorting of bituminous sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaney, P E; Ince, R W; Mason, C M

    1872-09-26

    This method of recovering oil from mined tar sands involves forming compacted tar sands pieces by special conditioning treatment that provides low internal permeability. The compacted pieces are then retorted in fixed bed form. The conditioning treatment can involve rolling of preformed pellets, compaction in a mold or pressure extrusion. Substantial collapsing of the bed during retorting is avoided. (9 claims) (Abstract only - original article not available from T.U.)

  10. An in-home video study and questionnaire survey of food preparation, kitchen sanitation, and hand washing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Elizabeth; Herbold, Nancie

    2010-06-01

    Foodborne illnesses pose a problem to all individuals but are especially significant for infants, the elderly, and individuals with compromised immune systems. Personal hygiene is recognized as the number-one way people can lower their risk. The majority of meals in the U.S. are eaten at home. Little is known, however, about the actual application of personal hygiene and sanitation behaviors in the home. The study discussed in this article assessed knowledge of hygiene practices compared to observed behaviors and determined whether knowledge equated to practice. It was a descriptive study involving a convenience sample of 30 households. Subjects were recruited from the Boston area and a researcher and/or a research assistant traveled to the homes of study participants to videotape a standard food preparation procedure preceded by floor mopping. The results highlight the differences between individuals' reported beliefs and actual practice. This information can aid food safety and other health professionals in targeting food safety education so that consumers understand their own critical role in decreasing their risk for foodborne illness.

  11. Food Sample Preparation for the Determination of Sulfonamides by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: State-of-the-Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Bitas

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are a common practice in veterinary medicine, mainly for therapeutic purposes. Sectors of application include livestock farming, aquacultures, and bee-keeping, where bacterial infections are frequent and can be economically damaging. However, antibiotics are usually administered in sub-therapeutic doses as prophylactic and growth promoting agents. Due to their excessive use, antibiotic residues can be present in foods of animal origin, which include meat, fish, milk, eggs, and honey, posing health risks to consumers. For this reason, authorities have set maximum residue limits (MRLs of certain antibiotics in food matrices, while analytical methods for their determination have been developed. This work focuses on antibiotic extraction and determination, part of which was presented at the “1st Conference in Chemistry for Graduate, Postgraduate Students and PhD Candidates at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki”. Taking a step further, this paper is a review of the most recent sample preparation protocols applied for the extraction of sulfonamide antibiotics from food samples and their determination with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, covering a five-year period.

  12. Preparation of high purification and food grade phosphoric acid from technical grade phosphoric acid by liquid-liquid detraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimoradi, M.; Borji, F.; Kishani, A.

    2002-01-01

    Pay attention to increasing consumption of high purification and food grade phosphoric acid in various industries and food industries and on in on hand and lack of preparation between production and distribution of this products its purification is so vital. In this article of liquid-liquid extraction method with normal hexane-mixture of ammonia and acetone-diisopropyl alcohol and normal butanol solvents and these determination of distribution coefficient each one with ph-me try titration we can evaluate effectiveness and sufficiency each one. Because of proper coefficient distribution and its local production of normal butanol solvent and low price is the best solvent. To phosphoric acid modifying coefficient distribution for extraction of phosphoric acid we can add a little value sulfuric acid to the mixture and to remove flouride impurity we add a little Na 2 O. After extraction stage extracted phosphoric acid in the normal strips by evaluating with distilled water and then by passing the carbon active bed and following passes of cationic resine column and concentrated with vacuum distillation. Conclusion of this article is produce of phosphoric acid 85% w/w and food grade from impure phosphoric acid 52% w/w with technical grade

  13. Digital Materials Related to Food Science and Cooking Methods for Preparing Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    沼田, 貴美子; 渡邉, 美奈; ヌマタ, キミコ; ワタナベ, ミナ; Numata, Kimiko; Watanabe, Mina

    2009-01-01

    We studied methods that were effective for teaching cooking to elementary school pupils using home economics materials. The subject was "Iritamago (scrambled eggs)". We researched the relationship between cookery science and experimental methods of making Iritamago. The various differences in condition and texture of Iritamago were compared among the different cooking utensils, conditions, and preparations of eggs. We created digital materials related to cookery science and the cooking method...

  14. Energy intake from commercially-prepared meals by food source in Korean adults: Analysis of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Injoo; Kim, Won Gyoung

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The commercial foodservice industry in Korea has shown rapid growth recently. This study examined Korean adults' consumption of commercially-prepared meals based on where the food was prepared. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data from a 24-hour dietary recall of the 2001 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed. A total of 10,539 subjects (n = 6,152 in 2001; n = 4,387 in 2011) aged 19-64 years were included for analysis. Commercially-prepared meals were classified into four food source groups based on where the food was prepared: Korean restaurants, Chinese/Western/Japanese restaurants, fast-food restaurants, and retail stores. Subjects' energy intake, including the amount and proportion of calories, was examined for each food source. The analysis was also conducted by gender for age-stratified groups: 19-29, 30-49, and 50-64 years old. RESULTS Korean adults' energy intake from commercially-prepared meals increased in the amount of calories (551 kcal to 635 kcal, P food source of commercially-prepared meals was Korean restaurants in both years. The amount and proportion of calories from retail stores increased from 83 kcal to 143 kcal (P Korean adults consumed about one-fourth of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. In particular, males aged 30-49 years and females aged 19-29 years consumed more than one-third of their energy intake from commercially-prepared meals. Korean restaurants played a significant role in Korean adults' energy intake. Retail stores increased influence on Korean adults' energy intake. These results could be useful for developing health promotion policies and programs. PMID:28386389

  15. Association between home food preparation skills and behaviour, and consumption of ultra-processed foods: Cross-sectional analysis of the UK National Diet and nutrition survey (2008-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Matthew Chak Leung; Adams, Jean

    2017-05-23

    'Ultra-processed foods' (UPF) have been industrially processed and tend to be higher in saturated fat, sodium and sugar than other foods. There is some evidence that consumption of UPF is associated with overweight, obesity and related diseases. In developed countries more than half of dietary energy is attributed to UPF. One reason for reliance on UPF may be poor home food preparation skills or infrequent use of these. This relationship has been previously proposed but not tested. We examined the relationship between home food preparation skills and behaviour and consumption of UPF. We used data from adults in the UK National Diet & Nutrition Survey 2008-09. Home food preparation skills and behaviours of adults (n = 509) were assessed using questions on confidence using eight cooking techniques, confidence cooking 10 foods, ability to prepare a cake or biscuits without help, and whether or not participants prepared a main meal five or more days per week. Individuals' UPF consumption was determined from four-day estimated diet diaries. Associations were adjusted for age, gender, occupational social class and household composition. In fully adjusted models, individuals who were confident with all 10 foods (adjusted beta (95% CI) = -3.76 (-6.02 to -1.50)), able to bake cakes or biscuits without help (-3.87 (-6.62 to -1.12)), and cooked a main meal at least five days a week (-2.84 (-5.43 to -0.24)) consumed a lower percentage of dietary energy from UPF. In UK adults better home food preparation skills and more frequent use of these skills tended to be cross-sectionally associated with lower UPF consumption. Greater encouragement of these skills may help reduce reliance on UPF.

  16. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations: a systematic review with critical evaluation of causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Lüde, Saskia; De Souza Nascimento, Elizabeth; Dos Santos, Ariana; Colombo, Francesca; Frigerio, Gianfranco; Nørby, Karin; Plumb, Jenny; Finglas, Paul; Restani, Patrizia

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements/botanicals and conventional drugs or nutrients. PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase were searched from database inception to June 2014, using the terms 'adverse effect/s', 'poisoning/s', 'plant food supplement/s', 'misidentification/s' and 'interaction/s' in combination with the relevant plant name. All papers were critically evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines for causality assessment. Data were obtained for 66 plants that are common ingredients of plant food supplements; of the 492 papers selected, 402 (81.7%) dealt with adverse effects directly associated with the botanical and 89 (18.1%) concerned interactions with conventional drugs. Only one case was associated with misidentification. Adverse effects were reported for 39 of the 66 botanical substances searched. Of the total references, 86.6% were associated with 14 plants, including Glycine max/soybean (19.3%), Glycyrrhiza glabra/liquorice (12.2%), Camellia sinensis/green tea ( 8.7%) and Ginkgo biloba/gingko (8.5%). Considering the length of time examined and the number of plants included in the review, it is remarkable that: (i) the adverse effects due to botanical ingredients were relatively infrequent, if assessed for causality; and (ii) the number of severe clinical reactions was very limited, but some fatal cases have been described. Data presented in this review were assessed for quality in order to make the results maximally useful for clinicians in identifying or excluding deleterious effects of botanicals. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Do European Standard Disinfectant tests truly simulate in-use microbial and organic soiling conditions on food preparation surfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B; Morin, V N; Rödger, H-J; Holah, J; Bird, C

    2010-04-01

    The results from European standard disinfectant tests are used as one basis to approve the use of disinfectants in Europe. The design of these laboratory-based tests should thus simulate as closely as possible the practical conditions and challenges that the disinfectants would encounter in use. No evidence is available that the organic and microbial loading in these tests simulates actual levels in the food service sector. Total organic carbon (TOC) and total viable count (TVC) were determined on 17 visibly clean and 45 visibly dirty surfaces in two restaurants and the food preparation surfaces of a large retail store. These values were compared to reference values recovered from surfaces soiled with the organic and microbial loading, following the standard conditions of the European Surface Test for bactericidal efficacy, EN 13697. The TOC reference values for clean and dirty conditions were higher than the data from practice, but cannot be regarded as statistical outliers. This was considered as a conservative assessment; however, as additional nine TOC samples from visibly dirty surfaces were discarded from the analysis, as their loading made them impossible to process. Similarly, the recovery of test organisms from surfaces contaminated according to EN 13697 was higher than the TVC from visibly dirty surfaces in practice; though they could not be regarded as statistical outliers of the whole data field. No correlation was found between TVC and TOC in the sampled data, which re-emphasizes the potential presence of micro-organisms on visibly clean surfaces and thus the need for the same degree of disinfection as visibly dirty surfaces. The organic soil and the microbial burden used in EN disinfectant standards represent a realistic worst-case scenario for disinfectants used in the food service and food-processing areas.

  18. Improving the Supply Chain and Food Quality of Professionally Prepared Meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Jens; Akkerman, R.; Frosch, Stina

    2013-01-01

    of the meal production in order to transfer labour-intensive operations from the kitchens to the industry; 2) Systemic use of a new concept: thawing during distribution, which improves shelf-life and reduces waste; 3) Supply chain modelling to improve delivery schedules and reduce environmental impact......An increasing share of the daily meals served in Europe is prepared out-of-home by professionals in foodservice. The quality of such meals is highly debated. This paper presents and discusses obstacles to improving quality in a cost-effective way and suggests solutions: 1) Modularisation...

  19. Oil sands tax expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchum, K; Lavigne, R.; Plummer, R.

    2001-01-01

    The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  20. Bituminous sands : tax issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examined some of the tax issues associated with the production of bitumen or synthetic crude oil from oil sands. The oil sands deposits in Alberta are gaining more attention as the supplies of conventional oil in Canada decline. The oil sands reserves located in the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River areas contain about 2.5 trillion barrels of highly viscous hydrocarbons called bitumen, of which nearly 315 billion barrels are recoverable with current technology. The extraction method varies for each geographic area, and even within zones and reservoirs. The two most common extraction methods are surface mining and in-situ extraction such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS); low pressure steam flood; pressure cycle steam drive; steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD); hot water flooding; and, fire flood. This paper also discussed the following general tax issues: bituminous sands definition; bituminous sands leases and Canadian development expense versus Canadian oil and gas property expense (COGPE); Canadian exploration expense (CEE) for surface mining versus in-situ methods; additional capital cost allowance; and, scientific research and experimental development (SR and ED). 15 refs

  1. Sample preparation strategies for food and biological samples prior to nanoparticle detection and imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Löschner, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    microscopy (TEM) proved to be necessary for trouble shooting of results obtained from AFFF-LS-ICP-MS. Aqueous and enzymatic extraction strategies were tested for thorough sample preparation aiming at degrading the sample matrix and to liberate the AgNPs from chicken meat into liquid suspension. The resulting...... AFFF-ICP-MS fractograms, which corresponded to the enzymatic digests, showed a major nano-peak (about 80 % recovery of AgNPs spiked to the meat) plus new smaller peaks that eluted close to the void volume of the fractograms. Small, but significant shifts in retention time of AFFF peaks were observed...... for the meat sample extracts and the corresponding neat AgNP suspension, and rendered sizing by way of calibration with AgNPs as sizing standards inaccurate. In order to gain further insight into the sizes of the separated AgNPs, or their possible dissolved state, fractions of the AFFF eluate were collected...

  2. Healthy foods prepared at home: Diet and support as protective strategies during pregnancy for Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Allison L; Yeoman, Michelle; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    Birth outcomes tend to be better among Hispanics than among other ethnic groups, even when matched for poverty and education, and foreign-born Latinas compared to their US-born counterparts. These patterns suggest that sociocultural factors exhibited by recent immigrants have the potential to protect birth outcomes against the instability of minority and low socioeconomic status. To discover potential sociocultural factors, a pilot qualitative study was carried out in Tucson, Arizona, with 18 Hispanic mothers. The two most prevalent factors reported were (1) a healthy diet prepared at home from minimally processed ingredients, and (2) constant and comprehensive social support. When comparing responses related to diet by interview language preference, a proxy for acculturation, there was very little difference between participants who interviewed in Spanish and those who interviewed in English. This result may be explained by greater maternal social support and higher education levels among those who interviewed in English.

  3. Investigation on the hematopoietic effect of functional foods using radiation and preparing the provisional product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Oh, Heon; Lee, Song Eun; Jeong, Yong Woon [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    We performed this study to determine the effect of several oriental prescriptions as energy tonic (Chinese medical concept: Bu-Qi) or blood building (Chinese medical concept: Bu-Xie) decoction and its major ingredients on jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation, and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells of mice irradiated with high and low dose of gamma-irradiation. For the study of evaluation on the biological stability of irradiated chinese medical prescriptions, we performed the experiment to determine the effect of irradiated (10kGy) or unirradiated Si-Wu-Tang, Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang and San-Ling-Bai-Shu-San in irradiated mice. Further studies are needed to characterize better the protective nature of the total extract and its ingredients and for preparing the provisional product. (author). 61 refs., 3 figs., 21 tabs.

  4. Novel concepts on functional foods and nutrigenomics in healthy aging and chronic diseases: a review of fermented papaya preparation research progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marotta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFunctional foods are an emerging research field corresponding with genomical, epidemiological and clinical studies integrated with the food industry in accordance with the consumer demands. Consequently, the features of the functional foods are being discussed by various researchers and related institutions, and a common view has been pointed out about the availability and the nature of the components of functional foods. Recently, the outcomes of functional foods are being assessed by the help of all the available scientific tools. Genomic medicine is one of the most promising areas of research to reveal the benefits of functional foods and the bioactive ingredients. Nutrigenomics aims at studying the genetic and epigenetic interactions with a nutrient or the functional component in order to lead to a phenotype change and therefore to the cell metabolism, differentiation or even apoptosis. Papaya and its fermentation product arespecific products derived from the technologically advanced and controlled environmentalfriendly bio-fermentation process. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(5:120-136 It has been well known for a long time that the natural anti-oxidant properties of papaya, mainly depending on vitamins A and C in addition to certain amino acids, were consistent both in the fruit and derived from the papain enzyme which is no longer present in the fermented product. In this article, functional foods in genomic medicine are discussed in review of the fermented papaya preparation research progress. Clinical evidences about fermented papaya as a functional food are reported as supported by various research protocols and experimental models. The benefits of fermented papaya preparation are also discussed in nutrigenomic basis and it is reported to have an important antioxidant and transcriptomic potential which deserves further investigation. As a conclusion, fermented papaya preparation represents a Functional Food

  5. An overview of sample preparation procedures for LC-MS multiclass antibiotic determination in environmental and food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Bondi, María Cruz; Marazuela, María Dolores; Herranz, Sonia; Rodriguez, Erika

    2009-10-01

    Antibiotics are a class of pharmaceuticals that are of great interest due to the large volumes of these substances that are consumed in both human and veterinary medicine, and due to their status as the agents responsible for bacterial resistance. They can be present in foodstuffs and in environmental samples as multicomponent chemical mixtures that exhibit a wide range of mechanisms of action. Moreover, they can be transformed into different metabolites by the action of microorganisms, as well as by other physical or chemical means, resulting in mixtures with higher ecotoxicities and risks to human health than those of the individual compounds. Therefore, there is growing interest in the availability of multiclass methods for the analysis of antimicrobial mixtures in environmental and food samples at very low concentrations. Liquid chromatography (LC) has become the technique of choice for multiclass analysis, especially when coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and tandem MS (LC-MS(2)). However, due to the complexity of the matrix, in most cases an extraction step for sample clean-up and preconcentration is required before analysis in order to achieve the required sensitivities. This paper reviews the most recent developments and applications of multiclass antimicrobial determination in environmental and food matrices, emphasizing the practical aspects of sample preparation for the simultaneous extraction of antimicrobials from the selected samples. Future trends in the application of LC-MS-based techniques to multiclass antibiotic analysis are also presented.

  6. Cadmium and lead determination in foods by beam injection flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after ultrasound-assisted sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleixo, Poliana Carolina; Junior, Dario Santos; Tomazelli, Andrea Cristina; Rufini, Iolanda A.; Berndt, Harald; Krug, Francisco Jose

    2004-01-01

    A simple method for cadmium and lead determination in foods by beam injection flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (BIFF-AAS) was proposed. Food slurries were prepared by transferring an exact amount of cryogenic-ground homogenized material (50-100 mg) to centrifuge tubes, followed by addition of 5 ml (up to 2.8 mol l -1 ) nitric acid solution and sonication in an ultrasonic bath during 5-10 min. Thereafter, slurries were diluted with water to 10 ml, centrifuged during 5 min at 5400 rpm and 400 μl aliquot of the supernatant was analyzed by BIFF-AAS. The detection limits based on peak height measurements were 0.03 μg g -1 Cd and 1.6 μg g -1 Pb for 2% (m/v) slurry (200 mg/10 ml). For method validation, the certified reference materials Pig Kidney (BCR 186) and Rice Flour (NIES 10) were used. Quantitative cadmium and lead recoveries were obtained and no statistical differences were found at 95% level by applying the t-test

  7. Determination of carotenoids in yellow maize, the effects of saponification and food preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzhingi, Tawanda; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Russell, Robert M; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Qin, Jian; Tang, Guangwen

    2008-05-01

    Maize is an important staple food consumed by millions of people in many countries. Yellow maize naturally contains carotenoids which not only provide provitamin A carotenoids but also xanthophylls, which are known to be important for eye health. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the effect of saponification during extraction of yellow maize carotenoids, 2) determining the major carotenoids in 36 genotypes of yellow maize by high-performance liquid chromatography with a C30 column, and 3) determining the effect of cooking on the carotenoid content of yellow maize. The major carotenoids in yellow maize were identified as all-trans lutein, cis-isomers of lutein, all-trans zeaxanthin, alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin, all-trans beta-carotene, 9-cis beta-carotene, and 13-cis beta-carotene. Our results indicated that carotenoid extraction without saponification showed a significantly higher yield than that obtained using saponification. Results of the current study indicate that yellow maize is a good source of provitamin A carotenoids and xanthophylls. Cooking by boiling yellow maize at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes increased the carotenoid concentration, while baking at 450 degrees F for 25 minutes decreased the carotenoid concentrations by almost 70% as compared to the uncooked yellow maize flour.

  8. Sand Dunes with Frost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    9 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a suite of frost-covered sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars in early spring, 2004. The dunes indicate wind transport of sand from left to right (west to east). These landforms are located near 78.1oN, 220.8oW. This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  9. Detection of lead (pb and aluminum (Al metal as contaminant in food prepared by using locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala in Kosti City, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EI Salah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to assess the quantities of Aluminu m; lead released into the food from locally manufactured cooked pots (Aluminium pots in Kosti market. Seven types of pots (Pistons, Cartels, Kettles, Kettles + trays, Pepsi cans, Atmonia and Steel which is locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala were used. Amount of Al and Pb that leaked into the food from locally manufactured cooked pots were assessed by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The results were indicated that highly significance amount of Aluminum and lead which were leaked into the food that prepared by locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala.The analysis of urine for 10 selected randomly individuals that used locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala for preparation their food were indicated highly amount of Aluminum and Lead in their urine. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12621 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 19-26

  10. Preparation and characteristics of beta-glucan concentrate from brewer's yeast as the additive substance in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Mikuš

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE The brewer¢s yeast was used for preparation of concentrate with content of β-glucan. Hot water extraction (100°C, 5 hours and subsequently an alkaline extraction of sediment using 1 M NaOH at 90°C for 1 hour were used. β-glucan concentrate containing 59,15 % of β-glucan had good functional properties (water binding capacity 13,34 g water/1 g concentrate, fat binding capacity 6,86 g fat/1 g concentrate and indicated biological action too.  At concentration of 2 mg/ml DMSO (dimethylsulfoxid was viability of murine L1210 leukemic cells reduced to 76.15 %. When observing the antioxidant activity it was identified, that the lipid peroxidation in linoleic acid samples was decreased during the presence of β-glucan concentrate. These results and good sensory properties like a bright colour and the pleasant taste and smell indicate, that prepared β-glucan concentrate has a potential to be used to improve the health – beneficial substances in the foods.doi:10.5219/258

  11. "On-off" switchable tool for food sample preparation: merging molecularly imprinting technology with stimuli-responsive blocks. Current status, challenges and highlighted applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Raquel; Gomes da Silva, Marco D R; Cabrita, Maria João

    2018-01-01

    Sample preparation still remains a great challenge in the analytical workflow representing the most time-consuming and laborious step in analytical procedures. Ideally, sample pre-treatment procedures must be more selective, cheap, quick and environmental friendly. Molecular imprinting technology is a powerful tool in the development of highly selective sample preparation methodologies enabling to preconcentrate the analytes from a complex food matrix. Actually, the design and development of molecularly imprinted polymers-based functional materials that merge an enhancement of selectivity with a controllable and switchable mode of action by means of specific stimulus constitutes a hot research topic in the field of food analysis. Thus, combining the stimuli responsive mechanism and imprinting technology a new generation of materials are emerging. The application of these smart materials in sample preparation is in early stage of development, nevertheless new improvements will promote a new driven in the demanding field of food sample preparation. The new trends in the advancement of food sample preparation using these smart materials will be presented in this review and highlighted the most relevant applications in this particular area of knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sand (CSW4)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Estuarine and Coastal Research Unit

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available This report is one of a series on Cape Estuaries being published under the general title "The Estuaries of the Cape, Part 2". The report provides information on sand estuary: historical background, abiotic and biotic characteristics. It is pointed...

  13. Inland drift sand landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanta, J.; Siepel, H.

    2010-01-01

    Man has had a complex relationship with inland drift sands through the ages. For some centuries these landscapes were seen as a threat to society, especially agriculture and housing. At present we conserve these landscapes as important Natura 2000 priority habitats. In this book you may find these

  14. On Pluvial Compaction of Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Moust

    At the Institute of Civil Engineering in Aalborg model tests on dry sand specimens have been carried out during the last five years. To reduce deviations in test results, the sand laying technique has been carefully studied, and the sand mass spreader constructed. Preliminary results have been...

  15. Foams prepared from whey protein isolate and egg white protein: 2. Changes associated with angel food cake functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tristan K; Yang, Xin; Foegeding, E Allen

    2009-06-01

    The effects of sucrose on the physical properties and thermal stability of foams prepared from 10% (w/v) protein solutions of whey protein isolate (WPI), egg white protein (EWP), and their combinations (WPI/EWP) were investigated in wet foams and angel food cakes. Incorporation of 12.8 (w/v) sucrose increased EWP foam stability (drainage 1/2 life) but had little effect on the stability of WPI and WPI/EWP foams. Increased stability was not due to viscosity alone. Sucrose increased interfacial elasticity (E ') of EWP and decreased E' of WPI and WPI/EWP combinations, suggesting that altered interfacial properties increased stability in EWP foams. Although 25% WPI/75% EWP cakes had similar volumes as EWP cakes, cakes containing WPI had larger air cells. Changes during heating showed that EWP foams had network formation starting at 45 degrees C, which was not observed in WPI and WPI/EWP foams. Moreover, in batters, which are foams with additional sugar and flour, a stable foam network was observed from 25 to 85 degrees C for batters made from EWP foams. Batters containing WPI or WPI/EWP mixtures showed signs of destabilization starting at 25 degrees C. These results show that sucrose greatly improved the stability of wet EWP foams and that EWP foams form network structures that remain stable during heating. In contrast, sucrose had minimal effects on stability of WPI and WPI/EWP wet foams, and batters containing these foams showed destabilization prior to heating. Therefore, destabilization processes occurring in the wet foams and during baking account for differences in angel food cake quality.

  16. Preparation and Application of Starch/Polyvinyl Alcohol/Citric Acid Ternary Blend Antimicrobial Functional Food Packaging Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ternary blend films were prepared with different ratios of starch/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/citric acid. The films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, thermogravimetric analysis, as well as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR analysis. The influence of different ratios of starch/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/citric acid and different drying times on the performance properties, transparency, tensile strength (TS, water vapor permeability (WVP, water solubility (WS, color difference (ΔE, and antimicrobial activity of the ternary blends films were investigated. The starch/polyvinyl alcohol/citric acid (S/P/C1:1:0, S/P/C3:1:0.08, and S/P/C3:3:0.08 films were all highly transparent. The S/P/C3:3:0.08 had a 54.31 times water-holding capacity of its own weight and its mechanical tensile strength was 46.45 MPa. In addition, its surface had good uniformity and compactness. The S/P/C3:1:0.08 and S/P/C3:3:0.08 showed strong antimicrobial activity to Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, which were the food-borne pathogenic bacteria used. The freshness test results of fresh figs showed that all of the blends prevented the formation of condensed water on the surface of the film, and the S/P/C3:1:0.08 and S/P/C3:3:0.08 prevented the deterioration of figs during storage. The films can be used as an active food packaging system due to their strong antibacterial effect.

  17. Sample preparation for arsenic speciation analysis in baby food by generation of substituted arsines with atomic absorption spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Charles S; Vale, Maria Goreti R; Dessuy, Morgana B; Svoboda, Milan; Musil, Stanislav; Dědina, Jiři

    2017-12-01

    A slurry sampling procedure for arsenic speciation analysis in baby food by arsane generation, cryogenic trapping and detection with atomic absorption spectrometry is presented. Several procedures were tested for slurry preparation, including different reagents (HNO 3 , HCl and tetramethylammonium hydroxide - TMAH) and their concentrations, water bath heating and ultrasound-assisted agitation. The best results for inorganic arsenic (iAs) and dimethylarsinate (DMA) were reached when using 3molL -1 HCl under heating and ultrasound-assisted agitation. The developed method was applied for the analysis of five porridge powder and six baby meal samples. The trueness of the method was checked with a certified reference material (CRM) of total arsenic (tAs), iAs and DMA in rice (ERM-BC211). Arsenic recoveries (mass balance) for all samples and CRM were performed by the determination of the tAs by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave-assisted digestion and its comparison against the sum of the results from the speciation analysis. The relative limits of detection were 0.44, 0.24 and 0.16µgkg -1 for iAs, methylarsonate and DMA, respectively. The concentrations of the most toxic arsenic species (iAs) in the analyzed baby food samples ranged between 4.2 and 99µgkg -1 which were below the limits of 300, 200 and 100µgkg -1 set by the Brazilian, Chinese and European legislation, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental Impacts of Sand Exploitation. Analysis of Sand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dan Gavriletea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sand is an indispensable natural resource for any society. Despite society’s increasing dependence on sand, there are major challenges that this industry needs to deal with: limited sand resources, illegal mining, and environmental impact of sand mining. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to present an overview of the sand market, highlighting the main trends and actors for production, export and import, and to review the main environmental impacts associated with sand exploitation process. Based on these findings, we recommend different measures to be followed to reduce negative impacts. Sand mining should be done in a way that limits environmental damage during exploitation and restores the land after mining operations are completed.

  19. Effectiveness of SCADA Systems in Control of Green Sands Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaszak Z.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper undertakes an important topic of evaluation of effectiveness of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems, used for monitoring and control of selected processing parameters of classic green sands used in foundry. Main focus was put on process studies of properties of so-called 1st generation molding sands in the respect of their preparation process. Possible methods of control of this processing are presented, with consideration of application of fresh raw materials, return sand (regenerate and water. The studies conducted in one of European foundries were aimed at pointing out how much application of new, automated plant of sand processing incorporating the SCADA systems allows stabilizing results of measurement of selected sand parameters after its mixing. The studies concerned two comparative periods of time, before an implementation of the automated devices for green sands processing (ASMS - Automatic Sand Measurement System and MCM – Main Control Module and after the implementation. Results of measurement of selected sand properties after implementation of the ASMS were also evaluated and compared with testing studies conducted periodically in laboratory.

  20. Evaluation of a Cooperative Extension Service Curriculum on Empowering Older Adults with Assistive Technology to Grocery Shop, Prepare Food, and Eat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Janice R.; Johnston, Jan H.; Brosi, Whitney A.; Jaco, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The Empowering Older Adults with Assistive Technology to Shop, Cook and Eat curriculum was designed to provide education about concepts of empowerment and assistive technology for grocery shopping, preparing food, and eating. The curriculum included examples and hands-on demonstrations of assistive technology devices for grocery shopping, food…

  1. Used Furan Sand Reclamation in REGMAS Vibratory Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dańko J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper, especially dealt with problems of reclamation of used furan sand, carried out in new, vibratory sand reclamation unit REGMAS developed by researches from AGH-University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering in Cracow (Poland. Functional characteristics of reclamation unit as well as the results of reclamation of used sand with furfuryl resin are discussed in the paper. The quality of reclaim was tested by means of the LOI and pH value, dust content in the reclaim and at least by the the quality of the castings produced in moulds prepared with the use of reclaimed matrix.

  2. Western tight gas sands advanced logging workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, J B; Carroll, Jr, H B [eds.

    1982-04-01

    An advanced logging research program is one major aspect of the Western Tight Sands Program. Purpose of this workshop is to help BETC define critical logging needs for tight gas sands and to allow free interchange of ideas on all aspects of the current logging research program. Sixteen papers and abstracts are included together with discussions. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 12 papers. (DLC)

  3. Comparison of green sample preparation techniques in the analysis of pyrethrins and pyrethroids in baby food by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrarca, Mateus Henrique; Ccanccapa-Cartagena, Alexander; Masiá, Ana; Godoy, Helena Teixeira; Picó, Yolanda

    2017-05-12

    A new selective and sensitive liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method was developed for simultaneous analysis of natural pyrethrins and synthetic pyrethroids residues in baby food. In this study, two sample preparation methods based on ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) and salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) were optimized, and then, compared regarding the performance criteria. Appropriate linearity in solvent and matrix-based calibrations, and suitable recoveries (75-120%) and precision (RSD values≤16%) were achieved for selected analytes by any of the sample preparation procedures. Both methods provided the analytical selectivity required for the monitoring of the insecticides in fruit-, cereal- and milk-based baby foods. SALLE, recognized by cost-effectiveness, and simple and fast execution, provided a lower enrichment factor, consequently, higher limits of quantification (LOQs) were obtained. Some of them too high to meet the strict legislation regarding baby food. Nonetheless, the combination of ultrasound and DLLME also resulted in a high sample throughput and environmental-friendly method, whose LOQs were lower than the default maximum residue limit (MRL) of 10μgkg -1 set by European Community for baby foods. In the commercial baby foods analyzed, cyhalothrin and etofenprox were detected in different samples, demonstrating the suitability of proposed method for baby food control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Oil sands supply outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, R.

    2004-01-01

    In March 2004, The Canadian Energy Research Institute released a report on the expected future supply from Alberta's oil sands. The report indicates that the future for the already well-established oil sands industry is promising, particularly given the outlook for oil prices. The challenges facing the industry include higher industry supply costs and the need for innovative commercial and technological solutions to address the risks of irregularities and changes in crude oil prices. In 2003, the industry produced 874 thousand barrels per day of synthetic crude oil and unprocessed crude bitumen. This represents 35 per cent of Canada's total oil production. Current production capacity has increased to 1.0 million barrels per day (mbpd) due to new projects. This number may increase to 3.5 mbpd by 2017. Some new projects may be deferred due to the higher raw bitumen and synthetic crude oil supply costs. This presentation provided supply costs for a range of oil sands recovery technologies and production projections under various business scenarios. tabs., figs

  5. Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food and pharmaceutical preparations by ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q C; Wang, J

    2001-12-07

    A novel ion chromatographic method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K), preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid), caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. The separation was performed on an anion-exchange analytical column operated at 40 degrees C within 45 min by an isocratic elution with 5 mM aqueous NaH2PO4 (pH 8.20) solution containing 4% (v/v) acetonitrile as eluent, and the determination by wavelength-switching ultraviolet absorbance detection. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) for all analytes were below the sub-microg/ml level. Under the experimental conditions, several organic acids, including citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid and ascorbic acid, did not interfere with the determination. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of various food and pharmaceutical preparations, and the average recoveries for real samples ranged from 85 to 104%. The levels of all analytes determined by this method were in good agreement with those obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The results also indicated that ion chromatography would be possibly a beneficial alternative to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation and determination of these compounds.

  6. Liquefaction resistance of calcareous sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval Vallejo, Eimar

    2012-01-01

    Calcareous sands are unique in terms of their origin, mineralogy, shape, fragility and intra particle porosity. This article presents results from an experimental program carried out to study the liquefaction resistance of a calcareous sand retrieved from Cabo Rojo at Puerto Rico. The experimental program included mineralogical characterization, index properties, and undrained cyclic triaxial tests on isotropically consolidated reconstituted samples. Due to the large variation in the calcareous sand properties, results are compared with previous researches carried out on other calcareous sands around the world. Results showed a wide range in the liquefaction resistance of the studied calcareous sands. Cabo Rojo sand experienced greater liquefaction resistance than most of the calcareous sands used for comparison. Important differences in the excess pore pressure generation characteristics were also found.

  7. Booming Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Nathalie

    "Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local

  8. Oil sands tailings preliminary ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Chemical data collected from various oil sands soil-tailings mixtures were used to determine the ecological risk that such tailings would pose to terrestrial wildlife at the surface of a reclaimed site. A methodology that could be used to evaluate the risks posed by various reclamation options (for dry land only) was proposed. Risks associated with other reclamation options, such as wet landscapes or deeper in-pit disposal, were not evaluated. Ten constituents (eight organic and two inorganic) were found to pose a threat to terrestrial biota. The relative contribution of different exposure pathways (water and food ingestion, incidental soil ingestion, inhalation) were studied by probabilistic models. Some physical and chemical reclamation alternatives which involve incorporating oil sands tailings in the landscape to produce a surface that could sustain a productive ecosystem, were described. 53 refs., 15 tabs., 3 figs

  9. Oil sands development update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A detailed review and update of oil sands development in Alberta are provided covering every aspect of the production and economic aspects of the industry. It is pointed out that at present oil sands account for 28 per cent of Canadian crude oil production, expected to reach 50 per cent by 2005. Based on recent announcements, a total of 26 billion dollars worth of projects are in progress or planned; 20 billion dollars worth of this development is in the Athabasca area, the remainder in Cold Lake and other areas. The current update envisages up to 1,800,000 barrels per day by 2008, creating 47,000 new jobs and total government revenues through direct and indirect taxes of 118 billion dollars. Provinces other than Alberta also benefit from these development, since 60 per cent of all employment and income created by oil sands production is in other parts of Canada. Up to 60 per cent of the expansion is for goods and services and of this, 50 to 55 per cent will be purchased from Canadian sources. The remaining 40 per cent of the new investment is for engineering and construction of which 95 per cent is Canadian content. Aboriginal workforce by common consent of existing operators matches regional representation (about 13 per cent), and new developers are expected to match these standards. Planned or ongoing development in environmental protection through improved technologies and optimization, energy efficiency and improved tailings management, and active support of flexibility mechanisms such as emission credits trading, joint implementation and carbon sinks are very high on the industry's agenda. The importance of offsets are discussed extensively along with key considerations for international negotiations, as well as further research of other options such as sequestration, environmentally benign disposal of waste, and enhanced voluntary action

  10. Interlaboratory comparison of the determination of 137Cs and 90Sr in water, food and soil: preparation and characterization of test materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuks, L.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.

    2006-01-01

    Only reliable analytical results can serve as a basis of meaningful evaluation and protection of the environment against radioactive contaminants. So, laboratories dealing with the environmental radioactivity determinations should regularly demonstrate their ability to produce acceptable results. Since 2002, every two years organization of national interlaboratory comparisons (ILC) on the determination of different radionuclides in food and environmental samples is required by the Polish law. The aim of the paper is presentation how test materials applied in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT, Warsaw, Poland) for the 2004 ILC on the determination of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in water, food and soil were prepared. (author)

  11. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  12. Rheological Characterization of Green Sand Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Spangenberg, Jon; Hovad, Emil

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to characterize experimentally the flow behaviour of the green sand that is used for casting of sand moulds. After the sand casting process is performed, the sand moulds are used for metal castings. The rheological properties of the green sand is important to quantif...

  13. Sand, jams and jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, H. [James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago (United States)]. E-mail: h-jaeger@uchicago.edu

    2005-12-01

    Granular media are offering new insights into problems in condensed-matter physics and materials science, as Heinrich Jaeger explains. The remarkable properties of granular materials are so familiar that most of us do not even notice them. It is clear, for example, that we cannot walk on water unless the temperature has dropped below freezing. However, we take it for granted that sand will support our weight as if it were a solid, even though it can also be poured like a liquid under the same ambient conditions. From breakfast cereal, sugar and flour to construction materials, mining products and pharmaceuticals, granular media are present everywhere in our daily lives. (U.K.)

  14. Effect of sample preparation method on sensory quality of cooked chicken breast fillets processed for food service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken fillets (Pectoralis major) are one of popular items for food service. In the store, especially in fast food service stores, ready-to-cook meat products are commonly stored in freezers before use. The frozen meat can be cooked either directly from a frozen stage or after thawing. However, the...

  15. Riddle of the sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolheiser, P

    1998-09-01

    A geological model of the Alberta landscape during the period stretching from about 110 million to 100 million years ago during the Cretaceous period when dinosaurs roamed the earth, was sketched. Today, the region contains the Cold Lake oil sands deposit. Imperial Oil began large-scale production at Cold Lake in 1985. The formations within the area are the source of almost half of Imperial Oil`s daily crude oil production and account for one in every 20 barrels of oil produced daily in Canada. The bitumen is produced using cyclic steam stimulation where steam is injected at high pressure into the underground reservoir, fracturing the sandstone and heating the bitumen it holds to thin it so that it can then flow through well bores to the surface. Conventional geological theory suggested that the Cold Lake reservoir was the remains of a prehistoric river delta. In 1994, Imperial Oil established a Cold Lake sequence stratigraphy project to verify this theory. This highly complex project involves volumes of geophysical well-log data from the 2,500 wells at Cold Lake, core samples cut from more than 600 of these wells and microscopic fossilized remains of 100-million-year-old flora extracted from the core samples, and seismic information. The interpreted data helps to create a three-dimensional model of the reservoir`s structure and help define its boundaries. Results have shown that the Cold Lake deposit was created from at least 13 intersecting river beds. Each of the rivers flowed for a few hundred thousand years and deposited sands of varying quality in different layers and patterns. The oil came about 40 million years later after the plant and animal materials containing hydrogen and carbon were broken down by heat and pressure to form oil. 1 fig.

  16. Food Allergy Emergencies in Children – To what extent are Early Years Services Prepared? A cross-sectional survey

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacGiobuin, S

    2017-08-01

    Food allergies are common in preschool children. This study’s aims are to establish prevalence, to clarify management practices, levels of preparedness and the perceived role of General Practitioners amongst Early Years Services providers. This study is an anonymous, quantitative, cross sectional study. An online questionnaire was distributed to 282 Early Years Service providers. Data were analysed using SPSS. Response rate was 35% (n=98). Prevalence of food allergy was 3% (n=119). Allergic reactions to food had occurred on site in 16% (n=15). Written emergency action plans were available in 47% of facilities (n=46). Medications were not kept on site in 63% (n=62) of facilities. General practitioners were felt to have an important role in the management of food allergies by 76% of respondents (n=61). This study identifies significant areas for improvement in the management of food allergic child in Early Years Services

  17. Adsorption of Dyes Using Different Types of Sand: A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    properties (porosity, surface area). The pore size ... Sand materials used as adsorbents for dyes treatment. 124. 4. .... production of foods, where it is used primarily as a flow agent in powdered ..... degree of boundary layer control is indicated and also that the ... parameters such as change in standard free energy (aG°),.

  18. The Alberta oil sands story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    This report serves as a detailed introduction to the Alberta oil sands and their development. It includes a description of the oil sands deposits, an outline of crude bitumen recovery and upgrading processes, the role of Alberta Energy Company in oil sands development, environmental aspects, manpower requirements for oil sands development, research needs, and further oil sands projects. Presently proven recoverable reserves in the oil sands amount to 26.5 billion bbl of synthetic crude. Production from the Syncrude plant (125,000 bbl/d capacity) is expected to begin in 1977, followed by a Shell Canada operation around 1980. The provincial government will participate in the oil sand industry through its joint venture participation in Syncrude and its 50% share in Alberta Energy Company; the latter company participates in related aspects of the Syncrude project, such as pipelines. The result of Alberta's participation in the industry will mean that, directly or indirectly, the province will realize 60% of the total profits. The job creation potential of oil sands projects is estimated to be extensive, with a direct and indirect work force supported by oil sands activities possibly reaching 180,000 persons by the year 2000. Research needs have been identified, particularly in the area of in-situ thermal recovery technology, and the creation of the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority has been authorized in order to meet these needs. Although current reserves are sufficient to support 20-30 synthetic crude plants, a number of factors will limit expansion of the industry. 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. A Developmental Curriculum Plan To Achieve a Sequenced Curriculum between High School Courses in Food Preparation and the Mattatuck Community College Hospitality/Food Services Program. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattatuck Community Coll., Waterbury, CT.

    This document contains a developmental curriculum plan for an articulated curriculum in hospitality/food service for Connecticut's Mattatuck Community College and area high schools. The curriculum guide includes a course description, criteria for evaluation, attendance policy, objectives, a curriculum area outline, 17 content area objectives, a…

  20. Issues involved in food irradiation and its commercial application: a discussion paper prepared for the Primary and Allied Industries Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Australian Department of Primary Industries and Energy's interest in food irradiation stems from its responsibilities under the Export Control Act (1982) and the Quarantine Act (1908) and the implications this process may have for Australian food exports and quarantine control. Food irradiation is regarded by the Department as a process which may provide an alternative to some existing conventional food treatments. It is not expected to replace completely other processes, but subject to the overseas acceptance of imported irradiated foods, it could offer Australian exporters an additional processing and/or quarantine treatment. The Department's position is that foods irradiated in approved facilities in Australia could be approved for export provided they comply with the regulatory requirements of the importing country and are appropriately labelled or identified. The Department maintains the view that the choice to use this technology is a commercial decision which will depend on many factors including: acceptability of the toxicological aspects, demand for benefits it provides, its cost and competitiveness with alternative treatments, approval by Australian and international regulatory authorities, and importantly, the willingness of consumers to buy irradiated foods

  1. Food preparation methods, drinking water source, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the high-risk area of Golestan, Northeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golozar, Asieh; Etemadi, Arash; Kamangar, Farin; Fazeltabar Malekshah, Akbar; Islami, Farhad; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoosh; Khoshnia, Masoud; Pourshams, Akram; Semnani, Shahriar; Marjani, Haji Amin; Shakeri, Ramin; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Brennan, Paul; Taylor, Philip; Boffetta, Paolo; Abnet, Christian; Dawsey, Sanford; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2016-03-01

    Cooking practices and water sources have been associated with an increased risk of cancer, mainly through exposure to carcinogens such as heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and nitrates. Using data from the Golestan case-control study, carried out between 2003 and 2007 in a high-risk region for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we sought to investigate the association between food preparation and drinking water sources and ESCC. Information on food preparation methods, sources of drinking water, and dietary habits was gathered from 300 cases and 571 controls matched individually for age, sex, and neighborhood using a structured questionnaire and a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for potential confounders and other known risk factors including socioeconomic status and smoking. More than 95% of the participants reported eating meat, mostly red meat. Red meat consumption above the 75th percentile increased the odds of ESCC by 2.82-fold (95% CI: 1.21-6.57). Fish intake was associated with a significant 68% decrease in ESCC odds (26%, 86%). Among meat eaters, ORs (95% CI) for frying meat (red or white) and fish were 3.34 (1.32-8.45) and 2.62 (1.24-5.5). Drinking unpiped water increased ESCC odds by 4.25 times (2.23-8.11). The OR for each 10-year increase in the duration of drinking unpiped water was 1.47 (1.22-1.78). Our results suggest roles for red meat intake, drinking water source, and food preparation methods in ESCC, even after adjusting for a large number of potential confounders.

  2. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... precautions should be taken at every stage a food takes — from preparation to cooking to storing leftovers. A lot of this responsibility falls on grown-ups, but kids can help fight germs, too. One of the best ways is to ... to prepare foods. When should you wash? Before you start helping — ...

  3. Studying consumer behaviour related to the quality of food: A case on vegetable preparation affecting sensory and health attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongoni, R.; Steenbekkers, L.P.A.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Dekker, M.

    2013-01-01

    The domestic preparation of vegetables induces a significant change in their sensory and health attributes. The preparation of vegetables by consumers is likely to be controlled by assessing perceivable (sensory) quality attributes such as colour and texture because other quality attributes,

  4. CONCERNING THE HYGIENIC STUDY OF ENZYME PREPARATIONS PRODUCED BY MICROFUNGI AND THEIR POSSIBLE USE IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conclusions: (1) Large doses of enzyme preparations of the fungi Trichothecium roseum, Aspergillus oryzae strain No. 476I, and Aspergillus awamori...extensive industrial testing in the brewing industry, as well as enzyme preparations of the fungi Aspergillus oryzae strain No. 476I and Aspergillus

  5. Trends in US home food preparation and consumption: analysis of national nutrition surveys and time use studies from 1965-1966 to 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsey P; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2013-04-11

    It has been well-documented that Americans have shifted towards eating out more and cooking at home less. However, little is known about whether these trends have continued into the 21st century, and whether these trends are consistent amongst low-income individuals, who are increasingly the target of public health programs that promote home cooking. The objective of this study is to examine how patterns of home cooking and home food consumption have changed from 1965 to 2008 by socio-demographic groups. This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from 6 nationally representative US dietary surveys and 6 US time-use studies conducted between 1965 and 2008. Subjects are adults aged 19 to 60 years (n= 38,565 for dietary surveys and n=55,424 for time-use surveys). Weighted means of daily energy intake by food source, proportion who cooked, and time spent cooking were analyzed for trends from 1965-1966 to 2007-2008 by gender and income. T-tests were conducted to determine statistical differences over time. The percentage of daily energy consumed from home food sources and time spent in food preparation decreased significantly for all socioeconomic groups between 1965-1966 and 2007-2008 (p ≤ 0.001), with the largest declines occurring between 1965 and 1992. In 2007-2008, foods from the home supply accounted for 65 to 72% of total daily energy, with 54 to 57% reporting cooking activities. The low income group showed the greatest decline in the proportion cooking, but consumed more daily energy from home sources and spent more time cooking than high income individuals in 2007-2008 (p ≤ 0.001). US adults have decreased consumption of foods from the home supply and reduced time spent cooking since 1965, but this trend appears to have leveled off, with no substantial decrease occurring after the mid-1990's. Across socioeconomic groups, people consume the majority of daily energy from the home food supply, yet only slightly more than half spend any time cooking on a given

  6. Trends in US home food preparation and consumption: analysis of national nutrition surveys and time use studies from 1965–1966 to 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been well-documented that Americans have shifted towards eating out more and cooking at home less. However, little is known about whether these trends have continued into the 21st century, and whether these trends are consistent amongst low-income individuals, who are increasingly the target of public health programs that promote home cooking. The objective of this study is to examine how patterns of home cooking and home food consumption have changed from 1965 to 2008 by socio-demographic groups. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from 6 nationally representative US dietary surveys and 6 US time-use studies conducted between 1965 and 2008. Subjects are adults aged 19 to 60 years (n= 38,565 for dietary surveys and n=55,424 for time-use surveys). Weighted means of daily energy intake by food source, proportion who cooked, and time spent cooking were analyzed for trends from 1965–1966 to 2007–2008 by gender and income. T-tests were conducted to determine statistical differences over time. Results The percentage of daily energy consumed from home food sources and time spent in food preparation decreased significantly for all socioeconomic groups between 1965–1966 and 2007–2008 (p ≤ 0.001), with the largest declines occurring between 1965 and 1992. In 2007–2008, foods from the home supply accounted for 65 to 72% of total daily energy, with 54 to 57% reporting cooking activities. The low income group showed the greatest decline in the proportion cooking, but consumed more daily energy from home sources and spent more time cooking than high income individuals in 2007–2008 (p ≤ 0.001). Conclusions US adults have decreased consumption of foods from the home supply and reduced time spent cooking since 1965, but this trend appears to have leveled off, with no substantial decrease occurring after the mid-1990’s. Across socioeconomic groups, people consume the majority of daily energy from the home food supply, yet only

  7. Sources of atmospheric emissions in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An inventory of emissions for the Athabasca oil sands airshed that can be used as a basis for air quality assessments was presented. This report was prepared for the Suncor Steepbank Mine Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and for the Syncrude Aurora Mine EIA. Both Syncrude and Suncor have plans to develop new oil sands leases and to increase their crude oil and bitumen production. Suncor has proposed modifications to reduce SO 2 emissions to the atmosphere and Syncrude will develop additional ambient air quality, sulphur deposition and biomonitoring programs to ensure that environmental quality is not compromised because of atmospheric emissions associated with their operations. Major emission sources are controlled and monitored by regulatory statutes, regulations and guidelines. In this report, the following four types of emission sources were identified and quantified: (1) major industrial sources associated with Suncor's and Syncrude's current oil sands operations, (2) fugitive and area emission sources such as volatilization of hydrocarbons from tanks and tailings ponds, (3) other industrial emission sources in the area, including oil sands and non-oil sands related facilities, and (4) highway and residential emission sources. Emissions associated with mining operations include: SO 2 , NO x , CO, and CO 2 . The overall conclusion was that although there are other smaller sources of emissions that can influence air quality, there is no reason to doubt that Suncor and Syncrude oil sands operations are the major sources of emissions to the atmosphere. 13 refs., 12 tabs., 8 figs

  8. Geologic Controls of Sand Boil Formation at Buck Chute, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    26 5.1 Electrical resistivity tomography ...construction at Buck Chute in preparation to the 2011 Flood. ERDC/GSL TR-17-12 21 4 Methods 4.1 Electrical resistivity tomography The resistivity ...could contribute to sand boil formation is missed. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) is a subsurface investigation method that combines the

  9. A study of the effects of LCD glass sand on the properties of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Her-Yung

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the recycling of discarded liquid crystal display (LCD) glass into concrete (LCDGC), a portion of the usual river sand was replaced by sand prepared from discarded LCD glass. Three different mix designs were regulated by the ACI method (fc(28)=21, 28, and 35MPa) with 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% LCD glass sand replacements investigated; their engineering properties were determined. Test results revealed that, when compared to the design slump of 15cm, the 20% glass sand concrete for the three different mix designs kept good slump and slump flow. Furthermore, a slump loss ranging from 7 to 11cm was observed for specimens with 60% and 80% glass sand replacement for the design strengths of 28 and 35MPa. The compressive strengths of the concrete with glass sand replacement were higher than the design strengths. Moreover, the durability of the concrete with 20% glass sand replacement was better than that of the control group. Surface resistivity for specimens with different amounts of LCD glass sand replacement was also higher than that in the control group for mid to long curing ages. The sulfate attack in concrete with different amounts of glass sand replacement caused less weight loss than in the control group. Moderate chloride ion penetration was observed for glass sand concrete. Furthermore, the measured ultrasonic pulse velocities for LCD glass sand concrete specimens were higher than 4100m/s, which qualified these specimens as good concrete. OM and SEM indicate that the dense C-S-H gel hydrate was produced at the interface between the glass sand and cement paste. The test results indicate that the addition of 20% LCD glass sand to concrete satisfies the slump requirements and improves the strength and durability of concrete. This suggests that LCD glass sand can potentially be used as a recycled material in concrete applications.

  10. Direct Chlorination of Zircon Sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwiretnani Sudjoko; Budi Sulistyo; Pristi Hartati; Sunardjo

    2002-01-01

    It was investigated the direct chlorination of zircon sand in a unit chlorination equipment. The process was in semi batch. The product gas was scrubbed in aqueous NaOH. It was search the influence of time, ratio of reactant and size of particle sand to the concentration of Zr and Si in the product. From these research it was found that as the times, ratio of reactant increased, the concentration of Zr increased, but the concentration of Si decreased, while as grain size of zircon sand decreased the concentration of Zr decreased, but the concentration of Si increased. (author)

  11. Oil sands and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, R. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Calgary Research Centre

    2004-07-01

    Oil sands are a significant resource for Alberta and Canada with continuing growth opportunity. There is a need to ensure sustainable development of the oil sands resources from a social, economic and environmental perspective. The industry has succeeded in terms of proven reserves, technology advancements, reduced operating costs, reliability and market accessibility. Some of the major challenges facing the industry include high capital cost, infrastructure, social services and keeping pace with growth. This presentation outlined the proactive measures that the oil sands industry has taken to manage environmental issues such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions, greenhouse gases, water management and land reclamation. tabs., figs.

  12. Alberta oil sands royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgarpour, S.

    2004-01-01

    The long term objective of the Oil Sands Business Unit of Alberta Energy is to pave the way for Alberta's bitumen production to reach 3 million barrels per day by 2020. This presentation described the national government's role in resource development. It was emphasized that since the Crown is the owner of the oil sands resource, it would benefit by providing strategic leadership and by generating a larger royalty base. The oil sands fiscal regime was described with reference to generic royalty, risk sharing, investment, and project economics. Business rule principles were also outlined along with criteria for project expansions. Both upstream and downstream challenges and opportunities were listed. 4 figs

  13. Saltation of non-spherical sand particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengshi Wang

    Full Text Available Saltation is an important geological process and the primary source of atmospheric mineral dust aerosols. Unfortunately, no studies to date have been able to precisely reproduce the saltation process because of the simplified theoretical models used. For example, sand particles in most of the existing wind sand movement models are considered to be spherical, the effects of the sand shape on the structure of the wind sand flow are rarely studied, and the effect of mid-air collision is usually neglected. In fact, sand grains are rarely round in natural environments. In this paper, we first analyzed the drag coefficients, drag forces, and starting friction wind speeds of sand grains with different shapes in the saltation process, then established a sand saltation model that considers the coupling effect between wind and the sand grains, the effect of the mid-air collision of sand grains, and the effect of the sand grain shape. Based on this model, the saltation process and sand transport rate of non-spherical sand particles were simulated. The results show that the sand shape has a significant impact on the saltation process; for the same wind speed, the sand transport rates varied for different shapes of sand grains by as much as several-fold. Therefore, sand shape is one of the important factors affecting wind-sand movement.

  14. Reclaimability of the spent sand mixture – sand with bentonite – sand with furfuryl resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dańko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of new binding materials and new technologies of their hardening in casting moulds and cores production requires theapplication of reclamation methods adequate to their properties as well as special devices realizing tasks. The spent sands circulationsystem containing the same kind of moulding and core sands is optimal from the point of view of the expected reclamation results.However, in the face of a significant variability of applied technologies and related to them various reclamation methods, the need - of theobtained reclamation products assessment on the grounds of systematic criteria and uniform bases – arises, with a tendency of indicatingwhich criteria are the most important for the given sand system. The reclaimability results of the mixture of the spent moulding sand withGeko S bentonite and the spent core sand with the Kaltharz 404U resin hardened by acidic hardener 100 T3, are presented in the paper.Investigations were performed with regard to the estimation of an influence of core sands additions (10 –25% on the reclaimed materialquality. Dusts and clay content in the reclaim, its chemical reaction (pH and ignition loss were estimated. The verification of the reclaiminstrumental assessment was performed on the basis of the technological properties estimation of moulding sand with bentonite, where the reclaimed material was used as a matrix.

  15. Namibia : triaxial test on sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfelt, Jørgen S.; Jacobsen, Kim P.

    In connection with a harbour project the friction angle of a fine sand is required. On Friday 13 March 1998 the Danish Geotechnical Institute (DGI) delivered app. 2.5 kg sand for testing at the Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University. The present Data Report summarises the results...... of two CID, isotropically consolidated, drained triaxial tests carried out according to the instructions in DG1 letter dated 13 March 1998....

  16. Buying, Preparing, and Cooking Shellfish. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.13c. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with the various market forms of shellfish and how to clean, prepare, and cook them. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these…

  17. Using Herbs and Spices/Preparing Sauces and Gravies. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.11. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with herbs and spices and the selection and preparation of sauces and gravies. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these areas:…

  18. Technology unlocks tar sands energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, C

    1967-09-25

    Tar sand processing technology has been developed primarily in the categories of extraction techniques and in-situ processing. In October, a $235 million venture into tar sand processing will be inspected by visitors from many points on the globe. A synthetic crude of premium quality will be flowing through a 16-in. pipeline from the Tar Island plant site of Great Canadian Oil Sands to Edmonton. This processing plant uses an extractive mining technique. The tar sand pay zone in this area averages approximately 150 ft in thickness with a 50-ft overburden. It has been estimated that the tar sands cannot be exploited when the formation thickness is less than 100 ft and overburden exceeds the same amount. This indicates that extraction techniques can only be used to recover approximately 15% of the tar sand deposits. An in-situ recovery technique developed by Shell of Canada is discussed in detail. In essence it is selective hydraulic fracturing, followed by the injection of emulsifying chemicals and steam.

  19. Construction of large-thickness sand cushions for NPP foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krantsfel'd, Ya.L.; Losievskaya, I.K.; Kovalenko, R.P.; Mutalipov, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study is made on some technological peculiarities of preparation of NPP foundations and control methods of foundation density. As an example the experience of cement-sand foundation construction for two 900 MW power-units at the Koeberg South Africa NPP is briefly described. The experience of artificial foundation construction at this NPP indicates both the possibility of obtaining the required quality of cement-sand cushions and commercial construction of large volume of such cushions by acceptable rates and the necessity of unification of work quality characteristics

  20. Career Preparation in Agricultural Products (Food Processing): A Curriculum Guide for High School Vocational Agriculture. Test Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Eddie A.

    This curriculum guide in agricultural products (food processing) is one of 10 guides developed as part of a vocational project stressing agribusiness, natural resources, and environmental protection. The scope of this guide includes three occupational subgroups: meat, fish, poultry; dairy (milk) products; fruits and vegetables. It is meant as an…

  1. Possible causes of variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries prepared in food service establishments: an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanny, M.A.I.; Jinap, S.; Bakker, E.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, and its presence in a range of fried and oven-cooked foods has raised considerable health concern world-wide. Dietary intake studies observed significant variations in acrylamide concentrations, which complicate risk assessment and the establishment of

  2. The influence of product preparation, familiarity and individual traits on the consumer acceptance of insects as food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan Hui Shan, Grace; Berg, van den Eva; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Insects are highly valued as food in many cultures but have only recently gained interest in the West as a sustainable alternative to reduce the environmental impact of meat production. Despite the growing consumer interest in insect consumption, there is still a great disparity between curious

  3. Processing of commercial peanut cake into food-grade meal and its utilization in preparation of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, P V; Chavan, J K; Patil, P B; Kadam, S S

    1990-04-01

    The commercial cake produced during expeller pressing of peanuts was extracted with n-hexane, and 80% ethanol followed by sieving through 80 mesh, to remove residual oil, pigments, bitter taste and fibrous material. The processed meal exhibited comparable composition with defatted peanut flour prepared in the laboratory by solvent extraction of full-fat peanut meal. However, the processed cake meal exhibited low methionine content and in vitro protein digestibility as compared with defatted peanut flour. The processed cake meal can be blended with wheat flour to the extent of 10% (w/w) to prepare acceptable cookies with improved protein and mineral contents.

  4. Development of functional foods for radiation workers - In vivo test on the effect of functional food for stem cell protection and preparing the provisional product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Oh, Heon; Kim, Se Ra; Lee, Song Eun [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    We performed this study to determine (1) the effect of several oriental prescriptions as energy tonic (Chinese medical concept : Bu-Qi) or blood building (Chinese medical concept : Bu-Xie) decoction and its major ingredients, (2) the biological stability of irradiated Chinese medical prescriptions, and (3) the effect of several proposed prescriptions and its fractions on jejunal crypt survival (12 Gy), endogenous spleen colony formation(6.5 Gy), and apoptosis(2 Gy) in jejunal crypt cells of mice irradiated with high and low dose of gamma-irradiation. For the study of evaluation on the radioprotective effects of effective prescriptions, we tried the test on change of survival and hematological changes and finally we prepared the provisional product. 57 refs., 5 figs., 38 tabs. (Author)

  5. Preparation of curcumin microemulsions with food-grade soybean oil/lecithin and their cytotoxicity on the HepG2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuan-Chuan; Lin, Hung-Yin; Chi, Ming-Hung; Shen, Chin-Min; Chen, Hwan-Wen; Yang, Wen-Jen; Lee, Mei-Hwa

    2014-07-01

    The choice of surfactants and cosurfactants for preparation of oral formulation in microemulsions is limited. In this report, a curcumin-encapsulated phospholipids-based microemulsion (ME) using food-grade ingredients soybean oil and soybean lecithin to replace ethyl oleate and purified lecithin from our previous study was established and compared. The results indicated soybean oil is superior to ethyl oleate as the oil phase in curcumin microemulsion, as proven by the broadened microemulsion region with increasing range of surfactant/soybean oil ratio (approx. 1:1-12:1). Further preparation of two formula with different particle sizes of formula A (30nm) and B (80nm) exhibited differential effects on the cytotoxicity of hepatocellular HepG2 cell lines. At 15μM of concentration, curcumin-ME in formula A with smaller particle size resulted in the lowest viability (approx. 5%), which might be explained by increasing intake of curcumin, as observed by fluorescence microscopy. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of curcumin-ME is exclusively prominent on HepG2, not on HEK293, which showed over 80% of viability at 15μM. The results from this study might provide an innovative applied technique in the area of nutraceuticals and functional foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The use of stable isotopes to trace oil sands constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farwell, A.J.; Nero, V.; Dixon, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the biological effects of oil sands mining operations on aquatic ecosystems. The study focused on the Athabasca oil sand deposit, the largest of 4 deposits in northern Alberta. In particular, the study examined the cycling of oil sand constituents in Benthic invertebrates collected from test pits at Syncrude Canada Ltd.. The invertebrates were similar in size, but different in the quantity of process-affected water or mature fine tailings containing residual bitumen. Dragonflies and damselflies in particular, showed trends of depletion for the carbon 13 isotope and enrichment in nitrogen 15 isotope in pits where levels of process affected water was high. The depletion of carbon 13 isotope suggests that oil sand constituents assimilate into the benthic food chain. The greatest carbon 13 depletion, which was approximately 27 per cent, was found to be in test pits with high turbidity. This implies that oil sands constituents degrade microbially instead of by photosynthetic production. All benthic invertebrate group demonstrated an incremental enrichment in nitrogen 15 isotope from the control pit to the pit with greatest levels of mature fine tailings

  7. Geotechnical properties of oil-contaminated Kuwaiti sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sanad, H.A.; Eid, W.K.; Ismael, N.F.

    1995-01-01

    Large quantities of oil-contaminated sands resulted from exploded oil wells, burning oil fires, the destruction of oil storage tanks, and the formation of oil lakes in Kuwait at the end of the Gulf War. An extensive laboratory testing program was carried out to determine the geotechnical characteristics of this material. Testing included basic properties, compaction and permeability tests, and triaxial and consolidation tests on clean and contaminated sand at the same relative density. Contaminated specimens were prepared by mixing the sand with oil in the amount of 6% by weight or less to match field conditions. The influence of the type of oil, and relative density was also investigated by direct shear tests. The results indicated a small reduction in strength and permeability and an increase in compressibility due to contamination. The preferred method of disposal of this material is to use it as a stabilizing material for other projects such as road construction

  8. Geotechnical properties of oil-contaminated Kuwaiti sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Sanad, H.A.; Eid, W.K.; Ismael, N.F. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-05-01

    Large quantities of oil-contaminated sands resulted from exploded oil wells, burning oil fires, the destruction of oil storage tanks, and the formation of oil lakes in Kuwait at the end of the Gulf War. An extensive laboratory testing program was carried out to determine the geotechnical characteristics of this material. Testing included basic properties, compaction and permeability tests, and triaxial and consolidation tests on clean and contaminated sand at the same relative density. Contaminated specimens were prepared by mixing the sand with oil in the amount of 6% by weight or less to match field conditions. The influence of the type of oil, and relative density was also investigated by direct shear tests. The results indicated a small reduction in strength and permeability and an increase in compressibility due to contamination. The preferred method of disposal of this material is to use it as a stabilizing material for other projects such as road construction.

  9. Preparation and characterization of intelligent starch/PVA films for simultaneous colorimetric indication and antimicrobial activity for food packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Han; Zhao, Huiying; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Liyun; Li, Yuan

    2017-02-10

    We have developed an intelligent starch/poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) film that is capable of monitoring pH changes and inhibiting undesired microbial growth in foods. Starch and PVA polymers in the film were doubly cross-linked by sodium trimetaphosphate and boric acid to improve their water-resistance and mechanical strength. Anthocyanins (ANT) and limonene (LIM) were used to achieve simultaneous colorimetric indication and antimicrobial activity. Firstly, the characterization of surface morphology using SEM confirmed that the starch-PVA-ANT-LIM film possessed a smooth surface. Secondly, the results of the mechanical strength test showed that starch-PVA-ANT-LIM possesses the highest mechanical strength. Additionally, there was a distinguishable change of colors as the film was immersed in solutions of pH ranging from 1.0 to 14.0. Moreover, the film showed excellent antimicrobial activity for three typical undesired microorganisms in foods, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger, and Staphylococcus aureus. Finally, the film exhibited good color indication and antimicrobial activity on pasteurized milk. The results suggest that the intelligent film reported here shows good capability for both alerting and inhibiting food spoilage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation and optimization of submicron chitosan capsules by water-based electrospraying for food and bioactive packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekumar, Sruthi; Lemke, Philipp; Moerschbacher, Bruno M; Torres-Giner, Sergio; Lagaron, Jose M

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, a well-defined set of chitosans, with different degrees of acetylation (DA) and degrees of polymerization (DP), were processed by solution electrospraying from a water-based solvent. The solution properties, in terms of surface tension, conductivity, viscosity, and pH, were characterized and related to the physico-chemical properties of the chitosans. It was observed that both DA and DP values of a given chitosan, in combination with biopolymer concentration, mainly determined solution viscosity. This was, in turn, the major driving factor that defined the electrosprayability of chitosan. In addition, the physico-chemical properties of chitosans highly influenced solution conductivity and results indicated that the chitosan solutions with low or low-to-medium values of conductivity were the most optimal for electrospraying. The results obtained here also demonstrate that a good process control can be achieved by adjusting the working conditions, i.e. applied voltage, flow-rate, and tip-to-collector distance. Finally, it was also shown that electrosprayability of chitosan with inadequate physico-chemical properties can be improved by solution mixing of very different kinds of this polysaccharide. The resultant electrosprayed submicron chitosan capsules can be applied for encapsulation of food additives and to develop bioactive coatings of interest in food packaging, where these particles alone or containing functional ingredients can be released from the package into the food to promote a health benefit.

  11. Preparation of immunomagnetic iron-dextran nanoparticles and application in rapid isolation of E.coli O157:H7 from foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hui-Li; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Xin-Wei; Chao, Fu-Huan; Li, Jun-Wen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To prepare a kind of magnetic iron-dextran nanoparticles that was coated with anti-E.coli O157:H7 IgG, analyze its application conditions, and try to use it to isolate E.coli O157:H7 from foods. METHODS: Magnetic iron-dextran nanoparticles were prepared by the reaction of a mixture of ferric and ferrous ions with dextran polymers under alkaline conditions. The particles were coated with antiserum against E.coli O157:H7 by the periodate oxidation-borohydride reduction procedure. The oxidation time, amount of antibody coating the particles, amount of nanoparticles, incubation time and isolation time were varied to determine their effects on recovery of the organisms. Finally, the optimum conditions for isolating E.coli O157:H7 from food samples were established. RESULTS: E.coli O157:H7 can be isolated from samples within 15 min with the sensitivity of 101 CFU/mL or even less. In the presence of 108 CFU/mL of other organisms, the sensitivity is 101-102 CFU/mL. Nonspecific binding of other bacteria to the particles was not observed. Two and a half hours of enrichment is enough for the particles to detect the target from the food samples inoculated with 1 CFU/g. CONCLUSION: Isolation of target bacteria by immuno-magnetic nanoparticles is an efficient method with high sensitivity and specificity. The technique is so simple that it can be operated in lab and field even by untrained personnel. PMID:15968716

  12. Oil sands tailings management project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwalt, C. [Alberta WaterSMART, Calgary, AB (Canada); Kotecha, P. [Suncor Energy Inc, Calgary, AB (Canada); Aumann, C. [Alberta Innovates - Technology Futures, Alberta Governement, AB (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The Oil sands leadership initiative (OSLI) works with the Government of Alberta on the development of the oil sands industry, considering environmental, economical and social aspects. Water management was identified as one of most important areas to focus on. Alberta WaterSMART was requested to support the development and the management of projects resulting from the work done or underway in this field. The development of a regional water management solution stood out as the most interesting solution to obtain significant results. In the Athabasca Region, oil sands producers work independently on their water sourcing and disposal with particular attention to fresh water conservation and economics. The Athabasca River represents a source for mines and distant saline aquifers are the target of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operators. As part of a four-phase project aiming to study the environmental and economic footprint (EEF) benefit of alternatives for Athabasca oil sands production water supply and disposal, the purpose of the tailings water management project was to identify tailings treatment technologies that are ready to be implemented, and to design and evaluate solutions in order to improve regional oil sands production water sourcing and disposal. Alternatives were evaluated based on their total EEF, applying a lifecycle assessment methodology with a particular attention on the quantification of important performance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 figs.

  13. Oil sands tailings management project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godwalt, C.; Kotecha, P.; Aumann, C.

    2010-11-01

    The Oil sands leadership initiative (OSLI) works with the Government of Alberta on the development of the oil sands industry, considering environmental, economical and social aspects. Water management was identified as one of most important areas to focus on. Alberta WaterSMART was requested to support the development and the management of projects resulting from the work done or underway in this field. The development of a regional water management solution stood out as the most interesting solution to obtain significant results. In the Athabasca Region, oil sands producers work independently on their water sourcing and disposal with particular attention to fresh water conservation and economics. The Athabasca River represents a source for mines and distant saline aquifers are the target of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operators. As part of a four-phase project aiming to study the environmental and economic footprint (EEF) benefit of alternatives for Athabasca oil sands production water supply and disposal, the purpose of the tailings water management project was to identify tailings treatment technologies that are ready to be implemented, and to design and evaluate solutions in order to improve regional oil sands production water sourcing and disposal. Alternatives were evaluated based on their total EEF, applying a lifecycle assessment methodology with a particular attention on the quantification of important performance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 figs.

  14. Western Gas Sands Project status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C.H.

    1978-11-30

    Progress of government-sponsored projects directed toward increasing gas production from the low-permeability gas sands of the western United States is summarized. A Technology Implementation Plan (TIP) meeting was held at the CER office in Las Vegas, Nevada, October 16--19 to initiate the implementation phase of the Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) working group activities. A WGSP Logging Program meeting was conducted on October 24, 1978, at CER offices to define the problems associated with logs in tight gas sands. CER personnel and the project manager attended a two-day course on the fundamentals of core and reservoir analysis in Denver, Colorado, and met with USGS personnel to discuss USGS work on the WGSP. A meeting was held to discuss a contract for coring a Twin Arrow well on the Douglas Creek Arch, Colorado. CER Corporation personnel attended the Geological Society of America Annual Meeting held in Toronto, Canada, October 23--27 and a Gas Stimulation Workshop at Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 11 and 12 to discuss recent mineback experiments conducted at the Nevada Test Site. Fiscal year 1979 projects initiated by USGS and the Energy Technology Centers and National Laboratories are progressing as scheduled. Mobil Research and Development Corporation fractured zone 8 of the F-31-13G well in Rio Blanco County, Colorado. Colorado Interstate Gas Company poured the concrete pad for the compresser expected to be delivered in December and were laying pipeline between the wells at month end. The Mitchell Energy well, Muse Duke No. 1 was flowing on test at a rate of 2,100 Mcfd and preparations proceeded to fracture the well on November 15 with approximately 1,000,000 gal of fluid and 3,000,000 lb of sand. Terra Tek completed laboratory analyses of cores taken from the Mitchell Energy well.

  15. Biological evaluation of a nutritional supplement prepared with QPM Maize cultivar BR 473 and other traditional food items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Heberth de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality Protein Maize (QPM cultivar BR 473 was employed, together with soybean flour, brown sugar, banana meal and oat meal, for the preparation of a nutritional supplement.. 21-day old male Fisher rats were fed diets containing the supplement as a protein source, both with and without soybean flour; casein diets with 10 or 7% protein served as respective controls. Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER, Net Protein Utilization (NPU, Net Protein Retention (NPR and Digestibility were determined. Blood biochemical parameters (glucose, cholesterol, urea, hemoglobin, albumin and total protein were also measured in the animals and showed that all were in good health condition at the end of the experiment. The obtained results for PER, NPU and NPR indicated that the supplement prepared with QPM maize cultivar BR 473 was a good protein source, especially when soybean flour was added.

  16. Modeling and Optimization of Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Sand Mould System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chate G. R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical bonded resin sand mould system has high dimensional accuracy, surface finish and sand mould properties compared to green sand mould system. The mould cavity prepared under chemical bonded sand mould system must produce sufficient permeability and hardness to withstand sand drop while pouring molten metal through ladle. The demand for improved values of permeability and mould hardness depends on systematic study and analysis of influencing variables namely grain fineness number, setting time, percent of resin and hardener. Try-error experiment methods and analysis were considered impractical in actual foundry practice due to the associated cost. Experimental matrices of central composite design allow conducting minimum experiments that provide complete insight of the process. Statistical significance of influencing variables and their interaction were determined to control the process. Analysis of variance (ANOVA test was conducted to validate the model statistically. Mathematical equation was derived separately for mould hardness and permeability, which are expressed as a non-linear function of input variables based on the collected experimental input-output data. The developed model prediction accuracy for practical usefulness was tested with 10 random experimental conditions. The decision variables for higher mould hardness and permeability were determined using desirability function approach. The prediction results were found to be consistent with experimental values.

  17. Preparation of sucrose fatty acid esters as food emulsifiers and evaluation of their surface active and emulsification properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megahed, Mohamed G.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for the preparation of sucrose esters, from fatty acids and the least expensive sucrose, has been conducted. Fatty acids namely lauric, palmitic and oleic were used in their preparation in the absence of any organic solvent. Reasonable yields amounting to 86.5%, 87.3% and 88.6% for sucrose esters of laurate, palmitate and oleate were obtained, respectively. The products were evaluated for their hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB, surface and interfacial tension properties as well as emulsion stability. The results showed that these sucrose esters exhibit similar properties as those of the commercially prepared compounds.

    Se ha llevado a cabo un método simple para la preparación de ésteres de sacarosa a partir de ácidos grasos y sacarosa de bajo coste. Se han usado ácidos laurico, palmítico y oleico en su preparación, en ausencia de solventes orgánicos. Se obtuvieron rendimientos aceptables del 86.5%, 87.3% y 88.6% para los ásteres del láurico, palmítico y oleico respectivamente. En los productos se evaluaron sus balances hidrófilo-lipófilo (HLB, sus propiedades de tensión superficial e interfacial así como su estabilidad en emulsiones. Los resultados mostraron que estos esteres de sacarosa exhiben propiedades similares a las de los compuestos preparados comercialmente.

  18. Intra-family role expectations and reluctance to change identified as key barriers to expanding vegetable consumption patterns during interactive family-based program for Appalachian low-income food preparers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J Lynne; Wenrich, Tionni R

    2012-08-01

    Few Americans eat sufficient vegetables, especially the protective deep orange and dark green vegetables. To address this, a community-based wellness program to broaden vegetables served at evening meals targeting Appalachian food preparers and their families was tested in a randomized, controlled intervention. Food preparers (n=50) were predominately married (88%), white (98%), and female (94%), with several children living at home. Experimental food preparers (n=25) attended the program sessions and controls (n=25) were mailed relevant handouts and recipes. At program sessions, participants received nutrition information, hands-on cooking instruction, and prepared recipes to take home for family evaluation. As qualitative assessment, 10 couples from each treatment group (n=20 couples) were randomly selected for baseline and immediate post-intervention interviews to explore impact on the food preparer's family. These in-depth interviews with the food preparer and their adult partner were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Two researchers conducted thematic analysis using constant comparison. Family flexibility about food choices was assessed using roles, rules, and power concepts from Family Systems Theory. Interviews at baseline revealed dinner vegetable variety was very limited because food preparers served only what everyone liked (a role expectation) and deferred to male partner and children's narrow vegetable preferences (power). Control couples reported no change in vegetable dinner variety post-intervention. Most experimental couples reported in-home tasting and evaluation was worthwhile and somewhat broadened vegetables served at dinners. But the role expectation of serving only what everyone liked and the practice of honoring powerful family members' vegetable preferences remained major barriers to change. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Suitability Of Local Quartz Sand In The Production Of Bath Crucibles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. O. Okpanachi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of local quartz sand in the production of bath crucibles is a study that was carried out in order to impart overall strength on bath crucibles hence reduce breakages during fettling. Therefore this research constitutes a study to enhance the efficiency of production of bath crucibles by addition of quartz sand in slip preparation. The steps taken in the beneficiation of quartz sand for the production of bath crucibles are comminution which entails crushing and milling classification washing liquid dispersion sizing and reduction of iron content by magnetic separation. The slip contains materials like plastic clay feldspar kaolin talc sodium silicate water quartz sand etc. These were all milled in the ball mill for slip production casting and fettling glazing and sintering to get final bath crucibles as the end products. Quartz sand is used in a variety of products essentially as raw material for the foundry casting and glass industries and also in chemicals water filtration and ceramics the heat resistance nature of quartz sand makes it an excellent refractory substance for these industrial processes. Slip can be prepared for production of bath crucibles without the inclusion of quartz sand however the addition of quartz sand is needed to improve the mechanical performance of the slip in the production of bath crucibles.

  20. Assessment Method of Overheating Degree of a Spent Moulding Sand with Organic Binder, After the Casting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dańko R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A proper management of sand grains of moulding sands requires knowing basic properties of the spent matrix after casting knocking out. This information is essential from the point of view of the proper performing the matrix recycling process and preparing moulding sands with reclaimed materials. The most important parameter informing on the matrix quality - in case of moulding sands with organic binders after casting knocking out - is their ignition loss. The methodology of estimating ignition loss of spent moulding sands with organic binder - after casting knocking out - developed in AGH, is presented in the paper. This method applies the simulation MAGMA software, allowing to determine this moulding sand parameter already at the stage of the production preparation.

  1. Strength and Compaction Analysis of Sand-Bentonite-Coal Ash Mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobti, Jaskiran; Singh, Sanjay Kumar

    2017-08-01

    This paper deals with the strength and compaction characteristics of sand-bentonite-coal ash mixes prepared by varying percentages of sand, bentonite and coal ash to be used in cutoff walls and as a liner or cover material in landfills. The maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) of sand-bentonite mixes and sand-bentonite-coal ash mixes were determined by conducting the standard proctor test. Also, the strength and stiffness characteristics of soil mixes were furnished using unconfined compressive strength test. The results of the study reveal influence of varying percentages of coal ash and bentonite on the compaction characteristics of the sand-bentonite-coal ash mixes. Also, validation of a statistical analysis of the correlations between maximum dry density (MDD), optimum moisture content (OMC) and Specific Gravity (G) was done using the experimental results. The experimental results obtained for sand-bentonite, sand-bentonite-ash and coal ash-bentonite mixes very well satisfied the statistical relations between MDD, OMC and G with a maximum error in the estimate of MDD being within ±1 kN/m3. The coefficient of determination (R2) ranged from 0.95 to 0.967 in case of sand-bentonite-ash mixes. However, for sand-bentonite mixes, the R2 values are low and varied from 0.48 to 0.56.

  2. Prediction of Liquefaction Potential of Dredge Fill Sand by DCP and Dynamic Probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Md. Jahangir; Azad, Abul Kalam; Rahman, Ziaur

    2008-01-01

    From many research it is proved that liquefaction potential of sand is function of mainly relative density and confining pressure. During routine site investigations, high-quality sampling and laboratory testing of sands are not feasible because of inevitable sample disturbance effects and budgetary constraints. On the other hand quality control of sand fill can be done by determining in situ density of sand in layer by layer which is expensive and time consuming. In this paper TRL DCP (Transportation Research Laboratory Dynamic Cone Penetration) and DPL (Dynamic Probing Light) are calibrated to predict the relative density of sand deposit. For this purpose sand of known relative density is prepared in a calibration chamber which is a mild steel cylinder with diameter 0.5 m and height 1.0 m. Relative density of sand is varied by controlling height of fall and diameter of hole of sand discharge bowl. After filling, every time DPL and DCP tests are performed and for every blow the penetration of cone is recorded. N10 is then calculated from penetration records. Thus a database is compiled where N10 and relative densities are known. A correlation is made between N 10 and relative density for two types of sand. A good correlation of N 10 and relative density is found

  3. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack D.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Grin, E.A.; Li, Ron; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, B.; Bell, J.F.; Yingst, R. Aileen

    2014-01-01

    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  4. Surface and groundwater management in the oil sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.G.; Barker, J.

    2004-02-01

    A study was conducted to examine the sublethal effects of oil sands constituents on gill and liver histopathology and fish reproduction. Field studies of food web dynamics were conducted using stable isotopes, including oil sands constituents degradation isotope studies. The objective was to determine changes in food web dynamics associated with reclamation methods and maturity using stable isotopes. The study related changes in toxicity to changes in ground and surface naphthenic acids concentration and composition. It also demonstrated the natural attenuation of toxic chemicals as they travel through groundwater to potential surface water receptors. A methodology was developed to assess the natural attenuation capacity for future situations involving process-affected groundwater of different chemistry with different critical potential contaminants such as sulphides, metals, and specific organics. The mobility and natural attenuation of process water chemicals migrating in groundwater was also assessed. tabs., figs

  5. Safe Food

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    A healthy diet is important, but if food is mishandled or improperly prepared, a wholesome meal can result in a severe illness. In this podcast, Dr. Hannah Gould discusses ways to avoid foodborne illnesses.

  6. Modelling offshore sand wave evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemeth, Attila; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; van Damme, Rudolf M.J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional vertical (2DV) flow and morphological numerical model describing the behaviour of offshore sand waves. The model contains the 2DV shallow water equations, with a free water surface and a general bed load formula. The water movement is coupled to the sediment transport

  7. Rheology of oil sands slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, R.; Zhou, J. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Mineral Oil Sands Unit; Wallace, D. [Dean Wallace Consulting Inc., Beaumont, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This study focused on integrating rheology and colloid science to improve recovery of bitumen in surface mined oil sands. Factors that influence recovery, such as conditions of particle interaction, solids concentration and shear rate, were reviewed. In an effort to understand the rheological behaviour of clay-in-water suspensions, an elaborate procedure was developed to separate an inter-bedded clay layer from a site at Albian Sands Energy Inc. The variables were water chemistry, solids concentration, and shear rate. The research study was conducted at the Alberta Research Council with the support of the CONRAD Extraction Group. A controlled stress rheometer was used to provide the quantitative evaluations of the clay slurry properties. The research results indicate that the viscoelastic properties of the slurry are highly influenced by the shear history of the slurry, solids content, calcium concentration, and sample aging. Shear thinning behaviour was observed in all slurry samples, but the slurry viscosity increased with test time for a given shear rate. In order to classify the slurries, a method was developed to distinguish the gel strength. The slurries were then classified into 3 distinct patterns, including no gel, weak gel and strong gel. The evolution of the experimental protocols were described along with the current stability maps that correlate the domains of the gel strength according to the solids concentration, calcium ion content, and shear rate. It was concluded that the rheological properties of oil sands slurries influence bitumen recovery in commercial surface-mined oil sands operations. tabs., figs.

  8. Geology on a Sand Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  9. A lab-on-a-chip system with integrated sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid and quantitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yi; Than Linh, Quyen; Hung, Tran Quang

    2015-01-01

    was capable to detect Salmonella at concentration of 50 cells per test within 40 min. The simple design, together with high level of integration, isothermal amplification, and quantitative analysis of multiple samples in short time will greatly enhance the practical applicability of the LOC system for rapid...... amplification (LAMP) for rapid and quantitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples. The whole diagnostic procedures including DNA isolation, isothermal amplification, and real-time detection were accomplished in a single chamber. Up to eight samples could be handled simultaneously and the system...... and usually take a few hours to days to complete. In response to the demand for rapid on line or at site detection of pathogens, in this study, we describe for the first time an eight-chamber lab-on-a-chip (LOC) system with integrated magnetic beads-based sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal...

  10. THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSTRUCTION BOOK ABOUT ARCHIPELAGO CAKE MAKING IN STUDY OF COOK AND FOOD PREPARATION FOR STUDENTS WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dienda Nurmaisitha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to develop instruction book of archipelago cake making for students with hearing impairment. The research adapted the Sugiyono (2011 model which consists of 7 stages: (1 potential problems, (2 data collection, (3 product design, (4 validation of the design, (5 design revisions, (6 product testing, and (7 the revision of the product. The results of matter experts was 97%, media experts was 92%, and practitioners (teachers was 98%. The individual experimental result was 90% for student I, 95% for student II, and 80% for student III. The result of field experimental from the evaluation to the students were 82,66 in average scoring. The research result showed that the instruction book about archipelago cake making in study of cook and food preparation for students with hearing impairment in state SMPLB was proper and effective.

  11. Effects of Moisture Content on the Foundry Properties of Yola Natural Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Aondona IHOM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of moisture content of Yola natural sand has been studied. The moisture content was varied from 1 to 9%. The effect of the moisture content on the green compression strength, green permeability and bulk density was investigated. Particle size distribution of the natural sand, the grain fineness number, average grain size, grain shape and the clay content of the natural sand were also studied. 5% moisture gave the optimum green compression strength of 118.6KN/m2. The dry compression strength increased with moisture content, an optimum value of 4000KN/m2 was obtained at 9% moisture. The Yola natural sand had a grain fineness number of 88.05AFS, average grain size of 335.78 microns and a clay content of 26%. A sand mixture containing 5% moisture was prepared and used to produce a test casting with aluminium scraps, the test casting was sound.

  12. Advanced oxidation and adsorption modification of dust waste from standard moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baliński

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the process of advanced oxidation (AO with application of ultrasounds and surface modification of the dust waste collected during dry dedusting of processed moulding sands with bentonite binder. A beneficial effect of both AO and adsorption modification of dust waste, when performed with the selected type of polyelectrolyte, on the technological and mechanical properties of moulding sands prepared with an addition of this dust has been stated. In spite of the bentonite content in moulding sand reduced by 43% and replaced with modified dust waste, the mechanical properties, i.e. the compression and tensile strengths, examined on sand specimens have been improved by 10% and 13%, respectively, with no harm to other basic technological sand properties. At the same time, it was also possible to reduce by about 30% the emission rate of the main gaseous component from the BTEX group, i.e. benzene.

  13. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures - paper 1: assessing fluorosis risk, predictors of fluorosis and the potential role of food preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrady, Michael G; Ellwood, Roger P; Srisilapanan, Patcharawan; Korwanich, Narumanas; Worthington, Helen V; Pretty, Iain A

    2012-06-21

    To determine the severity of dental fluorosis in selected populations in Chiang Mai, Thailand with different exposures to fluoride and to explore possible risk indicators for dental fluorosis. Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8-13 years. For each child the fluoride content of drinking and cooking water samples were assessed. Digital images were taken of the maxillary central incisors for later blind scoring for TF index (10% repeat scores). Interview data explored previous cooking and drinking water use, exposure to fluoride, infant feeding patterns and oral hygiene practices. Data from 560 subjects were available for analysis (298 M, 262 F). A weighted kappa of 0.80 was obtained for repeat photographic scores. The prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) for subjects consuming drinking and cooking water with a fluoride concentration of cooking water >0.9 ppm F the prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) rose to 37.3%. Drinking and cooking water at age 3, water used for infant formula and water used for preparing infant food all demonstrated an increase in fluorosis severity with increase in water fluoride level (p cooking water (≥1.6 ppm). The consumption of drinking water with fluoride content >0.9 ppm and use of cooking water with fluoride content >1.6 ppm were associated with an increased risk of aesthetically significant dental fluorosis. Fluoride levels in the current drinking and cooking water sources were strongly correlated with fluorosis severity. Further work is needed to explore fluorosis risk in relation to total fluoride intake from all sources including food preparation.

  14. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures – Paper 1: assessing fluorosis risk, predictors of fluorosis and the potential role of food preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrady Michael G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the severity of dental fluorosis in selected populations in Chiang Mai, Thailand with different exposures to fluoride and to explore possible risk indicators for dental fluorosis. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8–13 years. For each child the fluoride content of drinking and cooking water samples were assessed. Digital images were taken of the maxillary central incisors for later blind scoring for TF index (10% repeat scores. Interview data explored previous cooking and drinking water use, exposure to fluoride, infant feeding patterns and oral hygiene practices. Results Data from 560 subjects were available for analysis (298 M, 262 F. A weighted kappa of 0.80 was obtained for repeat photographic scores. The prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+ for subjects consuming drinking and cooking water with a fluoride concentration of 0.9 ppm F the prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+ rose to 37.3%. Drinking and cooking water at age 3, water used for infant formula and water used for preparing infant food all demonstrated an increase in fluorosis severity with increase in water fluoride level (p  Conclusions The consumption of drinking water with fluoride content >0.9 ppm and use of cooking water with fluoride content >1.6 ppm were associated with an increased risk of aesthetically significant dental fluorosis. Fluoride levels in the current drinking and cooking water sources were strongly correlated with fluorosis severity. Further work is needed to explore fluorosis risk in relation to total fluoride intake from all sources including food preparation.

  15. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures – Paper 1: assessing fluorosis risk, predictors of fluorosis and the potential role of food preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the severity of dental fluorosis in selected populations in Chiang Mai, Thailand with different exposures to fluoride and to explore possible risk indicators for dental fluorosis. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8–13 years. For each child the fluoride content of drinking and cooking water samples were assessed. Digital images were taken of the maxillary central incisors for later blind scoring for TF index (10% repeat scores). Interview data explored previous cooking and drinking water use, exposure to fluoride, infant feeding patterns and oral hygiene practices. Results Data from 560 subjects were available for analysis (298 M, 262 F). A weighted kappa of 0.80 was obtained for repeat photographic scores. The prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) for subjects consuming drinking and cooking water with a fluoride concentration of 0.9 ppm F the prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) rose to 37.3%. Drinking and cooking water at age 3, water used for infant formula and water used for preparing infant food all demonstrated an increase in fluorosis severity with increase in water fluoride level (p 0.9 ppm and use of cooking water with fluoride content >1.6 ppm were associated with an increased risk of aesthetically significant dental fluorosis. Fluoride levels in the current drinking and cooking water sources were strongly correlated with fluorosis severity. Further work is needed to explore fluorosis risk in relation to total fluoride intake from all sources including food preparation. PMID:22720834

  16. Preparation and Evaluation of Core–Shell Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Solid-Phase Extraction and Determination of Sterigmatocystin in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Min Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs, combination of outstanding magnetism with specific selective binding capability for target molecules, have proven to be attractive in separation science and bio-applications. Herein, we proposed the core–shell magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for food analysis, employing the Fe3O4 particles prepared by co-precipitation protocol as the magnetic core and MMIP film onto the silica layer as the recognition and adsorption of target analytes. The obtained MMIPs materials have been fully characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM, and re-binding experiments. Under the optimal conditions, the fabricated Fe3O4@MIPs demonstrated fast adsorption equilibrium, a highly improved imprinting capacity, and excellent specificity to target sterigmatocystin (ST, which have been successfully applied as highly efficient solid-phase extraction materials followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. The MMIP-based solid phase extraction (SPE method gave linear response in the range of 0.05–5.0 mg·L−1 with a detection limit of 9.1 µg·L−1. Finally, the proposed method was used for the selective isolation and enrichment of ST in food samples with recoveries in the range 80.6–88.7% and the relative standard deviation (RSD <5.6%.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Antimicrobial Films Based on LDPE/Ag Nanoparticles with Potential Uses in Food and Health Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes-Quero, Gloria María; Corral, Angélica

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the antimicrobial effect of silver nanoparticles in polyethylene based nanocomposites has been investigated using a non-conventional processing method to produce homogeneous materials. High energy ball milling under cryogenic conditions was used to achieve a powder of well-blended low-density polyethylene and commercial silver nanoparticles. The final composites in the form of films were obtained by hot pressing. The effect of various silver nanoparticles content (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 wt %) on the properties of low-density polyethylene and the antimicrobial effectiveness of the composite against DH5α Escherichia coli were studied. The presence of silver nanoparticles did not seem to affect the surface energy and thermal properties of the materials. Apart from the inhibition of bacterial growth, slight changes in the aspect ratio of the bacteria with the content of particles were observed, suggesting a direct relationship between the presence of silver nanoparticles and the proliferation of DH5α E. coli (Escherichia coli) cells. Results indicate that these materials may be used to commercially produce antimicrobial polymers with potential applications in the food and health industries. PMID:29364193

  18. Effect of High-Intensity Wildfire and Silvicultural Treatments on Reptile Communities in Sand-Pine Scrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Daniel G. Neary; Larry D. Harris

    1994-01-01

    We tested whether the herpetofuunal response to clearcutting followed by site preparation was similar to high-intensity wildfire foIlowed by salvage logging in sand- pine scrub. Herpetofaunal communities were compared in three replicated 5- to 7-yearpost-disturbance treatments and mature sand-pine forest. The three disturbance treatments were (1) high-intensity...

  19. Preparation of Modified Magnetic Nanocomposites Dithiooxamide/Fe3O4 for Preconcentration and Determination of Trace Amounts of Cobalt Ions in Food and Natural Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mirabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The first study on the high efficiency of nanometer-sized magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4 coated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and dithiooxamide as a new sorbent solid phase extraction has been reported. Modified magnetic nanicomposites was used to preconcentrate and separate Co (II ions in food and environmental water samples. Magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by chemical precipitation of Fe (II and Fe (III salts from aqueous solution by ammonia solution. These magnetic nanoparticles and nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA and elemental analysis CHNS. A micro sample introduction system was employed for the nebulization micro-volume of diluted solution into flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The extraction conditions were optimized by selecting the appropriate extraction parameters including the amount of nanosorbent, pH value, volume of dithiooxamide and condition of eluting solution. The detection limit of this method for Co (II ions was 1.21 ng ml-1 and the R.S.D. was 0.9% (n=6. The advantages of this new method include rapidity, easy preparation of nanosorbents and a high preconcentration factor. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of Co (II ions at trace levels in real samples such as, kiwi, orange, cucumber, apple, green pepper, honey, potato, tap water, river water and sea water with satisfactory results.

  20. Tidal dynamics in the sand motor lagoon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, S.; Radermacher, M.; De Schipper, M.A.; Stive, M.J.F.

    2015-01-01

    The Sand Motor is a mega-nourishment characterized by a very large sand volume of around 20 million m3 placed along the Dutch coast. The Sand Motor is a pilot project to evaluate the performance of an alternative nourishment strategy with respect to different functions of the coastal system. Within

  1. Influence of the reclamation method of spent moulding sands on the possibility of creating favourable conditions for gases flow in a mould

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucarz M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations concerning the influence of the applied sand matrix (fresh sand, reclaim on the properties of moulding sands used for production of large dimensional castings (ingot moulds, ladles, are presented in the hereby paper. The performed investigations were aimed at determining the influence of various reclamation methods of spent moulding sands on the quality of the obtained reclaimed material. Moulding sands were prepared on the fresh quartz matrix as well as on sand matrices obtained after various reclamation methods. The selected moulding sand parameters were tested (strength, permeability, grindability, ignition losses, pH reactions. It can be stated, on the basis of the performed investigations, that the kind of the applied moulding sand matrix is of an essential meaning from the point of view of creating conditions minimising formation of large amounts of gases and their directional migration in a casting mould.

  2. Properties of palm oil fuel ash cement sand brick containing pulverized cockle shell as partial sand replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Aris, S.; Muthusamy, K.; Uzer, A.; Ahmad, S. Wan

    2018-04-01

    Environmental pollution caused by the disposal of solid wastes generated from both palm oil industry and cockle shell trade has motivated researches to explore the potential of these wastes. Integrating these wastes in production of construction material is one of the ways to reduce amount of waste thrown at dumping area. Thus, the present investigation investigates the performance of palm oil fuel ash (POFA) cement sand brick containing pulverized cockle shell as partial fine aggregate replacement. All mixes used contain 20% of POFA as partial cement replacement. Total of six mixes were prepared by adding a range of pulverized cockle shell that is 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% as partial sand replacement. The mixes were prepared in form of brick. All the water cured samples were tested for compressive strength and flexural strength until 28 days. Findings show that brick produced using 20% pulverized cockle shell exhibit the highest compressive strength and flexural strength also the lowest water absorption value.

  3. Study on Modified Sand Filtration Towards Water Quality of Wet Market Waste Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad F.N.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation on the potential of sand filter as a pre-treatment of waste water was done in Kangar wet market, Perlis. Besides, the best composition of filter in order to treat wastewater based on BOD, COD, SS, AN, turbidity and pH levels are further examined. In this study, there are four types of sand filter composition which the medias consist of fine sand and coarse sand while the modified sand filter are consist of sand, course sand and activated carbon prepared from rice husk and coconut shells. After 10 weeks of treatment, the results show that the concentration of BOD, COD, SS, AN, turbidity and pH were reduced up to 86%, 84%, 63%, 88%, 73%, respectively while pH nearly to neutral with 6.83. Moreover, the result also revealed that the sand filter added with rice husk almost complied with Standard B of Malaysia Environmental Quality (Sewage Regulations 2009 as well as gives the highest number of WQI with 36.81. Overall, WQI obtained in this study are ranged from 12.77 to 36.81.

  4. Two-fold sustainability – Adobe with sawdust as partial sand replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokhio, Gul A.; Syed Mohsin, Sharifah M.; Gul, Yasmeen

    2018-04-01

    Adobe is a material that is economic, environment friendly, and provides better indoor air quality. The material required for the preparation of adobe include clay, sand, and sometimes straw or other organic materials. These materials do not require industrial processing or transportation, however, sand mining has been recently posing a threat to the environment. Therefore, to enhance the existing sustainability of adobe, sand can be partially or fully replaced by other waste materials. This approach will not only solve the problem of excessive sand mining, it will also address the issue of waste management. Sawdust is one such waste material that can be used to partially replace sand in Adobe. This paper presents the results of compressive and flexural test carried out on Adobe samples with partial sand replacement by sawdust. The results show that about 4% sand replacement by volume produces higher compressive strength, whereas the flexural strength reduces with the use of sawdust. However, since flexural strength is not a critical property for adobe, it is concluded that replacing sand with sawdust by about 4% of volume will be beneficial.

  5. Recovering byproduct heavy minerals from sand and gravel, placer gold, and industrial mineral operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, J.M.; Martinez, G.M.; Wong, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines, as part of an effort to maximize minerals and metals recovery from domestic resources, has investigated the feasibility of recovering heavy minerals as byproducts from sand and gravel, placer gold, and industrial mineral operations in northern California. Sand samples from about 50 locations were treated by gravity separation to yield heavy-mineral cocentrates (black sands). Mineral compositions of the concentrates were determined by chemical analysis and mineralogical examination. Individual zircon, ilmenite, magnetite, platinum-group metals, thoria, and silica products were prepared from heavy-mineral concentrates by selective separation using low- and high-intensity magnetic, high-tension, and flotation equipment.

  6. Rationale for using integrated enzymatic preparation for receiving food fibers from secondary resources of vegetable material processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimov A. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to establish some rational modes of receipt of the food fibers (FF from secondary resources of vegetable raw materials. Studying chemical properties of research objects has been carried out by standard methods in accordance with the GOST 26183–84, GOST 7636–85, GOST 25555.3–82, GOST 28561–90. Determination of reducing and not reducing sugars content has been performed by the cyanide method; determination of pectinaceous substances' content – by the calcium-pectate method. As an enzyme medicine the earlier not studied complex enzyme medicine of proteolytic and amilolytic action of Bacillus subtilis and Penicillium emersonii cultures has been tested. Studying heat stability of complex enzyme medicine has been carried out at varying of the hydrolysis temperature from 40 °C to 80 °C. The fractional composition of carbohydrates of secondary resources of aubergines, vegetable marrows and onions conversion has been researched. Content of FF (cellulose, gemitsellyuloza, pectin in waste from conversion of vegetable marrows constitutes 42 % of general content of carbohydrates, aubergines – 39,2 %, and onion – 30,4 %. Chemical and carbohydrate structures of secondary resources of vegetable raw materials allow consider them as FF source, and also shows feasibility of their conversion without fractionation by the form of secondary resources. The rational modes of hydrolysis of vegetable raw materials secondary resources' mix for removing the accompanying organic compounds have been determined. The maximum proteolytic activity of enzyme medicine takes place at the temperature of 50 °C, amilolytic activity – at 70 °C. In case of рН increase from 2.0 to 6.0 proteolytic and amilolytic activity reaches the maximum and constitutes 94 % and 95 % respectively, in case of further increase рН the activity decreases. The rational value of рН of reactionary environment when carrying out enzymatic hydrolysis in the

  7. METHOD OF PROCESSING MONAZITE SAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welt, M.A.; Smutz, M.

    1958-08-26

    A process is described for recovering thorium, uranium, and rare earth values from monazite sand. The monazite sand is first digested with sulfuric acid and the resulting "monazite sulfate" solution is adjusted to a pH of between 0.4 and 3.0, and oxalate anions are added causing precipitation of the thorium and the rare earths as the oxalates. The oxalate precipitate is separated from the uranium containing supernatant solution, and is dried and calcined to the oxides. The thorium and rare earth oxides are then dissolved in nitric acid and the solution is contacted with tribntyl phosphate whereby an organic extract phase containing the cerium and thorium values is obtained, together with an aqueous raffinate containing the other rare earth values. The organic phase is then separated from the aqueous raffinate and the cerium and thorium are back extracted with an aqueous medium.

  8. Sea sand for reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia R, G.; Ordonez R, E.; Ordonez R, En.

    2002-01-01

    Some phosphates have the property to suck in radioactive metals in solution, what it is taken in advance to make reactive barriers which are placed in the nuclear waste repositories. In an effort for contributing to the study of this type of materials, it has been obtained the zirconium silicate (ZrSiO 4 ) and the alpha zirconium hydrogen phosphate (Zr(HPO 4 ) 2H 2 O) starting from sea sand in an easy and economic way. (Author)

  9. 26Al-containing acidic and basic sodium aluminum phosphate preparation and use in studies of oral aluminum bioavailability from foods utilizing 26Al as an aluminum tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokel, Robert A.; Urbas, Aaron A.; Lodder, Robert A.; Selegue, John P.; Florence, Rebecca L.

    2005-01-01

    We synthesized 26 Al-containing acidic and basic (alkaline) sodium aluminum phosphates (SALPs) which are FDA-approved leavening and emulsifying agents, respectively, and used them to determine the oral bioavailability of aluminum incorporated in selected foods. We selected applicable methods from published syntheses (patents) and scaled them down (∼3000- and 850-fold) to prepare ∼300-400 mg of each SALP. The 26 Al was incorporated at the beginning of the syntheses to maximize 26 Al and 27 Al equilibration and incorporate the 26 Al in the naturally-occurring Al-containing chemical species of the products. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the two SALP samples and some intermediate samples. Multi-elemental analysis (MEA) was used to determine Na, Al and P content. Commercial products were included for comparison. Satisfactory XRD analyses, near infrared spectra and MEA results confirmed that we synthesized acidic and basic SALP, as well as some of the syntheses intermediates. The 26 Al-containing acidic and basic SALPs were incorporated into a biscuit material and a processed cheese, respectively. These were used in oral bioavailability studies conducted in rats in which the 26 Al present in blood after its oral absorption was quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry. The results showed oral Al bioavailability from acidic SALP in biscuit was ∼0.02% and from basic SALP in cheese ∼0.05%, lower than our previous determination of Al bioavailability from drinking water, ∼0.3%. Both food and water can appreciably contribute to the Al absorbed from typical human Al intake

  10. 26Al-containing acidic and basic sodium aluminum phosphate preparation and use in studies of oral aluminum bioavailability from foods utilizing 26Al as an aluminum tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokel, Robert A.; Urbas, Aaron A.; Lodder, Robert A.; Selegue, John P.; Florence, Rebecca L.

    2005-04-01

    We synthesized 26Al-containing acidic and basic (alkaline) sodium aluminum phosphates (SALPs) which are FDA-approved leavening and emulsifying agents, respectively, and used them to determine the oral bioavailability of aluminum incorporated in selected foods. We selected applicable methods from published syntheses (patents) and scaled them down (∼3000- and 850-fold) to prepare ∼300-400 mg of each SALP. The 26Al was incorporated at the beginning of the syntheses to maximize 26Al and 27Al equilibration and incorporate the 26Al in the naturally-occurring Al-containing chemical species of the products. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the two SALP samples and some intermediate samples. Multi-elemental analysis (MEA) was used to determine Na, Al and P content. Commercial products were included for comparison. Satisfactory XRD analyses, near infrared spectra and MEA results confirmed that we synthesized acidic and basic SALP, as well as some of the syntheses intermediates. The 26Al-containing acidic and basic SALPs were incorporated into a biscuit material and a processed cheese, respectively. These were used in oral bioavailability studies conducted in rats in which the 26Al present in blood after its oral absorption was quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry. The results showed oral Al bioavailability from acidic SALP in biscuit was ∼0.02% and from basic SALP in cheese ∼0.05%, lower than our previous determination of Al bioavailability from drinking water, ∼0.3%. Both food and water can appreciably contribute to the Al absorbed from typical human Al intake.

  11. Desenvolvimento "in vitro" de larvas e juvenis de Emerita brasiliensis Schmitt (Crustacea, Decapoda, Hippidae sob diferentes condições de temperatura, salinidade e regime alimentar "In vitro" development of larvae and juveniles of the sand crab Emerita brasiliensis Schmitt (Crustacea, Decapoda, Hippidae under different conditions of temperature, salinity and food diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara P. Otegui

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Larvas eclodidas em laboratório e juvenis coletados em campo do tatuí Emeritabrasiliensis (Hippidae foram cultivados em diferentes temperaturas e regime alimentar com a finalidade de avaliar as melhores condições para a manutenção da espécie em laboratório. O efeito da freqüência da substituição da água de cultivo sobre o desenvolvimento larvar também foi estudado avaliando-se a sobrevivência, o crescimento e a duração dos estádios larvares. A duração das fases larvares e o crescimento das três últimas fases de zoea correlacionaramse positivamente com a temperatura. As temperaturas testadas, entre 18 e 26ºC não influenciaram a sobrevivência das larvas. Não houve influencia da alimentação e nem da troca de água no desenvolvimento, crescimento e sobrevivência das larvas, bem como das dietas de microalgas na sobrevivência e desenvolvimento dos juvenis.Hatched larvae and field sampled juveniles of the sand crab Emeritabrasiliensis were reared at different temperatures and food diet in order to evaluate the best conditions for laboratory maintenance. The effects of frequency of changing the aquarium seawater on larval development was also studied evaluating the survival, growth and duration of larval stages. The duration of larval stage and growth of the last three zoes phases correlate positively with temperature. Temperatures between 18 and 26ºC did not influence the larval survival. The kind of food and frequency of water exchange did not influence the development, growth, and survival of larvae, as well as the development, and survival of juveniles.

  12. Experimental investigation on high performance RC column with manufactured sand and silica fume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuga Priya, T.

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, the use High Performance Concrete (HPC) has increased in construction industry. The ingredients of HPC depend on the availability and characteristics of suitable alternative materials. Those alternative materials are silica fume and manufactured sand, a by products from ferro silicon and quarry industries respectively. HPC made with silica fume as partial replacement of cement and manufactured sand as replacement of natural sand is considered as sustainable high performance concrete. In this present study the concrete was designed to get target strength of 60 MPa as per guide lines given by ACI 211- 4R (2008). The laboratory study was carried out experimentally to analyse the axial behavior of reinforced cement HPC column of size 100×100×1000mm and square in cross section. 10% of silica fume was preferred over ordinary portland cement. The natural sand was replaced by 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% with Manufactured Sand (M-Sand). In this investigation, totally 6 column specimens were cast for mixes M1 to M6 and were tested in 1000kN loading frame at 28 days. From this, Load-Mid height deflection curves were drawn and compared. Maximum ultimate load carrying capacity and the least deflection is obtained for the mix prepared by partial replacement of cement with 10% silica fume & natural sand by 100% M-Sand. The fine, amorphous and pozzalonic nature of silica fume and fine mineral particles in M- Sand increased the stiffness of HPC column. The test results revealed that HPC can be produced by using M-Sand with silica fume.

  13. Sand lance: A review of biology and predator relations and annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Martin D.; Willson, Mary F.; Armstrong, Robert H.; Piatt, John F.

    1999-01-01

    Six species of sand lance (Ammodytes) in temperate and boreal regions are currently recognized. Sand lance can occupy a wide range of environmental conditions, but all appear to be dormant predominantly in winter, and one species is in summer also. They lack a swim bladder and spend much of their time buried in specific substrates. Copepods are the primary food. Spawning usually occurs in fall or winter (although some species also spawn in spring), eggs are demersal, and larvae may hatch at times of low food abundance. Sand lance usually occur in schools and are regarded as a relatively high-quality forage fish.Sand lance constitute a major prey for at least some populations of over 100 species of consumer, including 40 species of birds, 12 species of marine mammals, 45 species of fishes, and some invertebrates. Variation in the availability of sand lance (and other forage fishes) can have major effects on the breeding success and survival of their predators. Commercial fishing and other pressures on sand lance populations potentially have ramifying effects on many species of wildlife.The bibliography contains over 1,700 references on the family Ammodytidae, with an emphasis on the genus Ammodytes. Keywords are provided for each reference and have been further organized into taxonomic, geographic, subject, and predator indexes.

  14. Reclamation of zinc-contaminated soil using a dissolved organic carbon solution prepared using liquid fertilizer from food-waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Neng; Tong, Ou-Yang; Chiou, Chyow-San; Lin, Yu-An; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Liu, Cheng-Chung

    2016-01-15

    A liquid fertilizer obtained through food-waste composting can be used for the preparation of a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) solution. In this study, we used the DOC solutions for the remediation of a Zn-contaminated soil (with Zn concentrations up to 992 and 757 mg kg(-1) in topsoil and subsoil, respectively). We then determined the factors that affect Zn removal, such as pH, initial concentration of DOC solution, and washing frequency. Measurements using a Fourier Transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) revealed that carboxyl and amide were the major functional groups in the DOC solution obtained from the liquid fertilizer. Two soil washes using 1,500 mg L(-1) DOC solution with a of pH 2.0 at 25°C removed about 43% and 21% of the initial Zn from the topsoil and subsoil, respectively. Following this treatment, the pH of the soil declined from 5.4 to 4.1; organic matter content slightly increased from 6.2 to 6.5%; available ammonium (NH4(+)-N) content increased to 2.4 times the original level; and in the topsoil, the available phosphorus content and the exchangeable potassium content increased by 1.65 and 2.53 times their initial levels, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation and characterization of semi-refined kappa carrageenan-based edible film for nano coating application on minimally processed food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuhara, Godras Jati; Praseptiangga, Danar; Muhammad, Dimas Rahadian Aji; Maimuni, Bawani Hindami

    2016-02-01

    Shorter and easier processing of semi-refined kappa carrageenan extracted from Euchema cottonii red seaweed result in cheaper price of the polysaccharide. In this study, edible film was prepared from the semi-refined carrageenan without any salt addition. The effect of the carrageenan concentration (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% w/v) on physical and mechanical properties of the edible film was studied. Edible film thickness and tensile strength increased but elongation at break and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) decreased as the concentration increased. Based on the characteristic of the edible film, formulation using 2% carrageenan was recommended. The edible film demonstrated the characteristic as follow: 0.054 mm thickness, 21.14 MPa tensile strength, 12.36% elongation at break, and 9.56 g/m2.hour WVTR. It was also noted the carrageenan-based edible film indicated potential physical and mechanical characteristics for nano coating applications on minimally processed food.

  16. Studies in Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-30

    Reporte de dos casos de [a ology of a sand fly, P/mlebolomu’,s diabolicuw Hall. in forma anergica difusa. Der matol. Rev. Mex. southwestern -Texas...Contribuiin al estudio de los Phmle- CDC, Veterinary Public Health Notes. USDHEW. bwmwnn de Costa Rica (Diptera, Psychodidae). Tesis. CDC. October. pp. 6- 7...janeiron R. j. 195 pp. the Unrited States (D1)pre ra: Psscfirdidae). j. Ortiz, 1. 1965a. Contribuci~in a! estudio tie los flebor- Partrsirtrl. 30:274-275

  17. 21 CFR 113.81 - Product preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Blanching by heat, when required in the preparation of food for canning, should be effected by heating the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Product preparation. 113.81 Section 113.81 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  18. Preparation for Pick-and-Eat Food Production on the International Space Station: Flight Definition for the VEG-04 and VEG-05 Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, G. D.; Wheeler, R. M.; Romeyn, M. W.; Hummerick, M. E.; Spencer, L. E.; Morrow, R. C.; Mitchell, C. A.; Burgner, S.; Whitmire, A. M.; Young, M. H.; hide

    2018-01-01

    -handling protocol is also being evaluated to support food safety. All harvests reserve a subset of samples for microbial analysis to determine baseline microbial levels and help establish critical control points for food safety. Testing was initially conducted in hardware analogs of the standard Veggie plant pillows. However, a new Veggie watering system, the Passive Orbital Nutrient Delivery System or PONDS, has been designed and is being prepared for future flight experiments. With the selection of this growth system, ground tests have shifted to analog PONDS systems. Crop tests on ISS, designated VEG-04 for mizuna and VEG-05 for tomato, are planned in 2018 to evaluate any additional impacts of spaceflight on the light and fertilizer conditions down-selected from ground tests. A set of Veggie-specific questions has been developed to characterize the psychological impacts of plant growth and plant-care activities during spaceflight. Organoleptic questionnaires have been developed to assess produce attributes in microgravity taste sessions. These tests for plants growing in the Veggie hardware on ISS will help to mitigate the risk of an inadequate food supply for long duration missions by developing methods and determining hardware requirements to integrate fresh vegetables as a dietary supplement. This research was co-funded by the Human Research Program and Space Biology (MTL1075) in the ILSRA 2015 NRA call.

  19. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Polymer Modified White Sand Cement Mortar Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the substitution effect of standard sand of conventional cement mortar made from ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and standard sand (SS) OPC/SS 1:3; by different ratios of white sand (WS) powder to prepare three types of white sand cement mortar designated as 1OPC:2SS:1WS, 1OPC:1SS:2WS and 1OPC:0SS:3WS. The prepared samples were first cured under tap water for different time intervals namely 3, 7, 28 and 90 days. The effect of addition of 10% styrene-acrylic ester (SAE) as well as the effect of different doses of gamma rays (10, 20, 30 and 50 kGy) on the physicomechanical properties of polymer modified white sand cement mortar specimens also discussed. Compression strength test, total porosity and water absorption percentages were measured according to standard specifications. The obtained data indicated that, the cement mortar samples containing different ratios of white sand have lower values of compressive strength as compared to the conventional cement mortar while, the percentages of total porosity and water absorption increased. On the other hand, the polymer modified mortar specimens showed a noticeably enhancement in the physico-mechanical properties under the effect of gamma-radiation than those of untreated samples. These results were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) studies

  20. Galveston Island, Texas, Sand Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    billion m3 of beach quality sand . However, Texas projects to date have not utilized these sources because of transportation costs. The lack of nearby...estimate that the San Luis Pass flood shoal contains approximately 11.8 million yd3 of beach quality sand . However, it is expected that if permits...a source of beach- quality sand . 2. Sand could be intercepted before it reaches the present dry beach. ERDC/CHL TR-16-13 55 3. The volume of

  1. Crushed rock sand – An economical and ecological alternative to natural sand to optimize concrete mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mundra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the use of crushed rock sand as viable alternative to Natural River sand that is being conventionally used as fine aggregate in cement concrete. Various mix designs were developed for different grades of concrete based on IS, ACI and British codes using Natural River sand and crushed rock sand. In each case, the cube compressive strength test, and beam flexure tests were conducted. The results of the study show that, the strength properties of concrete using crushed rock sand are nearly similar to the conventional concrete. The study has shown that crushed stone sand can be used as economic and readily available alternative to river sand and can therefore help to arrest the detrimental effects on the environment caused due to excessive mining of river sand.

  2. Decontamination of Uranium-Contaminated Soil Sand Using Supercritical CO2 with a TBP–HNO3 Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangheon Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An environmentally friendly decontamination process for uranium-contaminated soil sand is proposed. The process uses supercritical CO2 as the cleaning solvent and a TBP–HNO3 complex as the reagent. Four types of samples (sea sand and coarse, medium, and fine soil sand were artificially contaminated with uranium. The effects of the amount of the reagent, sand type, and elapsed time after the preparation of the samples on decontamination were examined. The extraction ratios of uranium in all of the four types of sand samples were very high when the time that elapsed after preparation was less than a few days. The extraction ratio of uranium decreased in the soil sand with a higher surface area as the elapsed time increased, indicating the possible formation of chemisorbed uranium on the surface of the samples. The solvent of supercritical CO2 seemed to be very effective in the decontamination of soil sand. However, the extraction of chemisorbed uranium in soil sand may need additional processes, such as the application of mechanical vibration and the addition of bond-breaking reagents.

  3. Effect of moulding sand on statistically controlled hybrid rapid casting solution for zinc alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rupinder [Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana (India)

    2010-08-15

    The purpose of the present investigations is to study the effect of moulding sand on decreasing shell wall thickness of mould cavities for economical and statistically controlled hybrid rapid casting solutions (combination of three dimensional printing and conventional sand casting) for zinc alloys. Starting from the identification of component/ benchmark, technological prototypes were produced at different shell wall thicknesses supported by three different types of sands (namely: dry, green and molasses). Prototypes prepared by the proposed process are for assembly check purpose and not for functional validation of the parts. The study suggested that a shell wall with a less than recommended thickness (12mm) is more suitable for dimensional accuracy. The best dimensional accuracy was obtained at 3mm shell wall thickness with green sand. The process was found to be under statistical control

  4. Summary of the engineering assessment of radioactive sands and residues, Lowman Site, Lowman, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Lowman site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive sands and residues at Lowman, Idaho. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of radioactive sands and residues and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 191,000 tons of radioactive sands, residues, and contaminated soils at the Lowman site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown radioactive sands and external gamma radiation also are factors

  5. Engineering assessment of radioactive sands and residues, Lowman Site, Lowman, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Lowman site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive sands and residues at Lowman, Idaho. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of radioactive sands and residues and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, and investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 191,000 tons of radioactive sands, residues, and contaminated soils at the Lowman site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown radioactive sands and external gamma radiation also are factors

  6. Food retailing and food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail).

  7. Sand dune tracking from satellite laser altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabboor, Mohammed

    Substantial problems arise from sand movement in arid and semi-arid countries. Sand poses a threat to infrastructure, agricultural and urban areas. These issues are caused by the encroachment of sand on roads and railway tracks, farmland, towns and villages, and airports, to name a few. Sand movement highly depends on geomorphology including vegetation cover, shape and height of the terrain, and grain size of the sand. However, wind direction and speed are the most important factors that affect efficient sand movement. The direction of the movement depends on the main direction of the wind, but it has been shown that a minimum wind speed is required, e.g. wind gusts, to initiate sand transport. This fact prevents a simple calculation of sand transport from conventional wind data as wind records rarely contain sub-minute intervals masking out any wind gusts. An alternative of predicting sand transport is the direct observation of sand advance by in situ measurements or via satellite. Until recently, satellite imagery was the only means to compare dune shape and position for predicting dune migration over several years. In 2003, the NASA laser altimetry mission ICESat became operational and monitors elevations over all surface types including sand dunes with an accuracy of about 10-20 cm. In this study, ICESat observations from repeat tracks (tracks overlapping eachother within 50 m) are used to derive sand dune advance and direction. The method employs a correlation of the elevation profiles over several dunes and was sucessfully validated with synthetic data. The accuracy of this method is 5 meters of dune advance. One of the most active areas exhibiting sand and dune movement is the area of the Arabian Peninsula. Approximately one-third of the Arabian Peninsula is covered by sand dunes. Different wind regimes (Shamal, Kaus) cause sand dune movement in the selected study area in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula between 20-25 degrees North and 45-55 degrees

  8. Submarine sand ridges and sand waves in the eastern part of the China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziyin; Li, Shoujun; Shang, Jihong; Zhou, Jieqiong; Zhao, Dineng; Liang, Yuyang

    2016-04-01

    Integrated with multi-beam and single-beam echo sounding data, as well as historical bathymetric data, submarine bathymetric maps of the eastern part of the China Sea, including the Bohai Sea, Huanghai Sea, and East China Sea, are constructed to systematically study submarine sand ridges and sand waves in the eastern part of the China Sea, combined with high-resolution seismic, sub-bottom profile and borehole data. Submarine sand ridges are extraordinarily developed in the eastern part of the China Sea, and 7 sand ridge areas can be divided from north to south, that is, the Laotieshan Channel sand ridge area in the Bohai Sea, the Korea Bay sand ridge area in the southern Huanghai Sea, the sand ridge area in the eastern Huanghai islands and the Huanghai Troughs, the Jianggang sand ridge area in the western Huanghai Sea, the sand ridge area in the East China Sea shelf, and the sand ridge and sand wave area in the Taiwan Strait and Taiwan Banks. The distribution area of the sand ridges and sand waves covers more than 450,000 km2, wherein ~10,000 km2 in the Bohai Bay, ~200,000 km2 in the Huanghai Sea, ~200,000 km2 in the East China Sea shelf, and ~40,000 km2 in the Taiwan Strait and Taiwan Banks, respectively. The great mass of sand ridges are distributed within water depth of 5-160 m, with a total length of over 160 km and a main width of 5-10 km. The inner structure of the sand ridges presents features of high-angle inclined beddings, with main lithology of sands, sand-mud alternations partly visible, and a small number of mud cores. Dating results indicate that the sand ridges in the eastern part of the China Sea are mainly developed in the Holocene. Sea-level variation dominates the sand ridge evolution in the eastern part of the China Sea since the LGM, and the sand ridges developed in the area of < 60m water depth are appeared in bad activity, meanwhile sand ridges with good activity are still developed in large scale.

  9. Problems of bentonite rebonding of synthetic system sands in turbine mixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Turbine (rotor mixers are widely used in foundries for bentonite rebonding of synthetic system sands. They form basic equipment in modern sand processing plants. Their major advantage is the short time of the rebond mixing cycle.Until now, no complete theoretical description of the process of mixing in turbine mixers has been offered. Neither does it seem reasonable to try to adapt the theoretical backgrounds of the mixing process carried out in mixers of other types, for example, rooler mixers [1], to the description of operation of the turbine mixers. Truly one can risk the statement that the individual fundamental operations of mixing in rooler mixers, like kneading, grinding, mixing and thinning, are also performed in turbine mixers. Yet, even if so, in turbine mixers these processes are proceeding at a rate and intensity different than in the roller mixers. The fact should also be recalled that the theoretical backgrounds usually relate to the preparation of sand mixtures from new components, and this considerably restricts the field of application of these descriptions when referred to rebond mixing of the system sand. The fundamentals of the process of the synthetic sand rebonding with bentonite require determination and description of operations, like disaggregation, even distribution of binder and water within the entire volume of the rebonded sand batch, sand grains coating, binder activation and aeration.This study presents the scope of research on the sand rebonding process carried out in turbine mixers. The aim has been to determine the range and specific values of the designing and operating parameters to get optimum properties of the rebonded sand as well as energy input in the process.

  10. Fuel options for oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation examined fuel options in relation to oil sands production. Options include steam and hydrogen (H 2 ) for upgrading; natural gas by pipeline; bitumen; petroleum coke; and coal. Various cost drivers were also considered for each of the fuel options. It was noted that natural gas has high energy value but the capital cost is low, and that coke's energy value is very low but the capital cost is high. A chart forecasting energy prices was presented. The disposition of Western Canada's northern gas situation was presented. Issues concerning rail transportation for coal were considered. Environmental concerns were also examined. A chart of typical gas requirements for 75,000 B/D oil sands projects was presented. Issues concerning steam generation with gas and mining cogeneration with gas fuel and steam turbines were discussed, as well as cogeneration and H 2 with gas fuels and steam turbines. Various technology and fuel utility options were examined, along with details of equipment and processes. Boiler technologies were reviewed by type as well as fuel and steam quality and pressure. Charts of cogeneration with gas turbine and circulation fluid bed boilers were presented. Gasification processes were reviewed and a supply cost basis was examined. Cost drivers were ranked according to energy, operating considerations and capital investment. Results indicated that fuel costs were significant for gas and coal. Capital costs and capital recovery charge was most significant with coal and gasification technology. Without capital recovery, cash costs favour the use of bitumen and coke. Gasification would need lower capital and lower capital recovery to compete with direct burning. It was concluded that direct burning of bitumen can compete with natural gas. With price volatility anticipated, dual fuel capability for bitumen and gas has merit. Petroleum coke can be produced or retrieved from stockpiles. Utility supply costs of direct burning of coke is

  11. Preparing to Test Rover Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Rover engineers prepare a mixture of sandy and powdery materials to simulate some difficult Mars driving conditions inside a facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The tests in early May 2005 were designed to help plan the best way for the rover Opportunity to drive off of a soft-sand dune that the rover dug itself into the previous week.

  12. Reclamation of zinc-contaminated soil using a dissolved organic carbon solution prepared using liquid fertilizer from food-waste composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Po-Neng; Tong, Ou-Yang; Chiou, Chyow-San; Lin, Yu-An; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Liu, Cheng-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents in soil are substantially increased after the DOC washing. • The removal of Zn is dominated by proton replacement at pH 2.0, rather than by complexation with DOC. • The removal of Zn is dominated by DOC complexation between pH 3.0 and pH 5.0. - Abstract: A liquid fertilizer obtained through food-waste composting can be used for the preparation of a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) solution. In this study, we used the DOC solutions for the remediation of a Zn-contaminated soil (with Zn concentrations up to 992 and 757 mg kg −1 in topsoil and subsoil, respectively). We then determined the factors that affect Zn removal, such as pH, initial concentration of DOC solution, and washing frequency. Measurements using a Fourier Transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) revealed that carboxyl and amide were the major functional groups in the DOC solution obtained from the liquid fertilizer. Two soil washes using 1,500 mg L −1 DOC solution with a of pH 2.0 at 25 °C removed about 43% and 21% of the initial Zn from the topsoil and subsoil, respectively. Following this treatment, the pH of the soil declined from 5.4 to 4.1; organic matter content slightly increased from 6.2 to 6.5%; available ammonium (NH 4 + -N) content increased to 2.4 times the original level; and in the topsoil, the available phosphorus content and the exchangeable potassium content increased by 1.65 and 2.53 times their initial levels, respectively.

  13. Reclamation of zinc-contaminated soil using a dissolved organic carbon solution prepared using liquid fertilizer from food-waste composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Po-Neng [Experimental Forest, National Taiwan University, Chushan, Nantou County, 55750, Taiwan (China); Tong, Ou-Yang [Department of Environment Engineering, College of the Environment and Ecology, and The Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Chiou, Chyow-San; Lin, Yu-An [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Ilan University, Ilan 26047, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ming-Kuang [Department of Animal Science, National Ilan University, Ilan 26047, Taiwan (China); Liu, Cheng-Chung, E-mail: ccliu@niu.edu.tw [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents in soil are substantially increased after the DOC washing. • The removal of Zn is dominated by proton replacement at pH 2.0, rather than by complexation with DOC. • The removal of Zn is dominated by DOC complexation between pH 3.0 and pH 5.0. - Abstract: A liquid fertilizer obtained through food-waste composting can be used for the preparation of a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) solution. In this study, we used the DOC solutions for the remediation of a Zn-contaminated soil (with Zn concentrations up to 992 and 757 mg kg{sup −1} in topsoil and subsoil, respectively). We then determined the factors that affect Zn removal, such as pH, initial concentration of DOC solution, and washing frequency. Measurements using a Fourier Transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) revealed that carboxyl and amide were the major functional groups in the DOC solution obtained from the liquid fertilizer. Two soil washes using 1,500 mg L{sup −1} DOC solution with a of pH 2.0 at 25 °C removed about 43% and 21% of the initial Zn from the topsoil and subsoil, respectively. Following this treatment, the pH of the soil declined from 5.4 to 4.1; organic matter content slightly increased from 6.2 to 6.5%; available ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N) content increased to 2.4 times the original level; and in the topsoil, the available phosphorus content and the exchangeable potassium content increased by 1.65 and 2.53 times their initial levels, respectively.

  14. Study of Black Sand Particles from Sand Dunes in Badr, Saudi Arabia Using Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Abbas Khwaja

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Particulate air pollution is a health concern. This study determines the microscopic make-up of different varieties of sand particles collected at a sand dune site in Badr, Saudi Arabia in 2012. Three categories of sand were studied: black sand, white sand, and volcanic sand. The study used multiple high resolution electron microscopies to study the morphologies, emission source types, size, and elemental composition of the particles, and to evaluate the presence of surface “coatings or contaminants” deposited or transported by the black sand particles. White sand was comprised of natural coarse particles linked to wind-blown releases from crustal surfaces, weathering of igneous/metamorphic rock sources, and volcanic activities. Black sand particles exhibited different morphologies and microstructures (surface roughness compared with the white sand and volcanic sand. Morphological Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM analyses revealed that the black sand contained fine and ultrafine particles (50 to 500 nm ranges and was strongly magnetic, indicating the mineral magnetite or elemental iron. Aqueous extracts of black sands were acidic (pH = 5.0. Fe, C, O, Ti, Si, V, and S dominated the composition of black sand. Results suggest that carbon and other contaminant fine particles were produced by fossil-fuel combustion and industrial emissions in heavily industrialized areas of Haifa and Yanbu, and transported as cloud condensation nuclei to Douf Mountain. The suite of techniques used in this study has yielded an in-depth characterization of sand particles. Such information will be needed in future environmental, toxicological, epidemiological, and source apportionment studies.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of silica gel from siliceous sands of southern Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sdiri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to achieve valorization of Albian sands for the preparation of sodium silicates that are commonly used as a precursor to prepare silica gel. A siliceous sand sample was mixed with sodium carbonate and heated at a high temperature (1060 °C to prepare sodium silicates. The sodium silicates were dissolved in distilled water to obtain high quality sodium silicate solution. Hydrochloric acid was then slowly added to the hydrated sodium silicates to obtain silica gel. The collected raw siliceous sands, as well as the prepared silica gels, were characterized by different techniques, such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermal analysis (DSC. XRF confirmed that the detrital sand deposits of southern Tunisia contain high amounts of silica, with content ranging from 88.8% to 97.5%. The internal porosity varied between 17% and 22%, and the specific surface area was less than 5 m2/g. After the treatment described above, it was observed that the porosity of the obtained silica gel reached 57% and the specific surface area exceeded 340 m2/g. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms showed that the prepared silica gels are microporous and mesoporous materials with high adsorption capacities. These results suggest that the obtained silica gels are promising materials for numerous environmental applications.

  16. Understanding Colombian Amazonian white sand forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peñuela-Mora, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Although progress has been made in studies on white sand forests in the Amazon, there is still a considerable gap in our knowledge of the unique species composition of white sand forests and their structure and dynamics, especially in Western Amazon. This thesis aims to fill this gap by addressing

  17. Characterization of sand lenses embedded in tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Klint, K.E.S.; Nilsson, B.

    2012-01-01

    Tills dominate large parts of the superficial sediments on the Northern hemisphere. These glacial diamictons are extremely heterogeneous and riddled with fractures and lenses of sand or gravel. The frequency and geometry of sand lenses within tills are strongly linked to glaciodynamic processes...

  18. Japan's involvement in oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, T.

    1994-01-01

    According to Japanese national policy, exploration and development by Japanese companies in overseas countries are promoted in order to ensure stable oil supplies. Japan Canada Oil Sands Limited (JACOS), part of the JAPEX group, was established during the 1978 world oil crisis to explore and develop Canadian oil sand resources in accordance with Japan's national policy. The JAPEX group, including JACOS, has invested $123 million in oil sands projects in Alberta. JAPEX's first involvement in oil sands was in the Primrose Project operated by Norcen in the Cold Lake area. Five years of cyclic steam stimulation pilot tests did not produce sufficiently good results to justify further operation. The second involvement was the PCEJ Project, a joint effort by four companies that are participating in a bitumen recovery test project in the Athabasca Deposit. JACOS holds 2,452 km 2 of oil sands leases in Alberta. Tests conducted since 1978 in the PCEJ Project include multiwell steam injection pilot tests, some of which showed promise. JACOS is also participating in steam assisted gravity drainage projects and in federal/provincial research programs. Obstacles identified in developing Alberta oil sands are the lack of a bitumen pipeline to Edmonton and the insufficient length of oil sands leases (currently 10 years), given the difficulties of oil sand development. 10 figs

  19. Seasonal fluctuations of phlebotomines sand fly populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An entomological survey of phlebotomine sand flies was conducted in the Moulay Yacoub province, central Morocco. An anthropic niche (Ouled Aid) and a wild niche (Zliligh) were selected. Sand flies were collected twice a month between April 2011 and March 2012, using sticky traps and CDC light traps. 3675 specimens ...

  20. On shelterbelt design for combating sand invasion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammed, A.E.; Stigter, C.J.; Adam, H.S.

    1996-01-01

    After a review of the scarce literature on using trees against sand encroachment, a quantitative experiment with a wide shelterbelt to combat sand invasion is reported on. Experimental work was carried out at the northwestern border of the Gezira Scheme (Sudan), an area of severe land degradation

  1. Design of dry sand soil stratified sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erkang; Chen, Wei; Feng, Xiao; Liao, Hongbo; Liang, Xiaodong

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a design of a stratified sampler for dry sand soil, which can be used for stratified sampling of loose sand under certain conditions. Our group designed the mechanical structure of a portable, single - person, dry sandy soil stratified sampler. We have set up a mathematical model for the sampler. It lays the foundation for further development of design research.

  2. Pattern formation - Instabilities in sand ripples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. L.; v. Hecke, M.; Haaning, A.

    2001-01-01

    Sand ripples are seen below shallow wavy water and are formed whenever water oscillates over a bed of sand. Here we analyse the instabilities that can upset this perfect patterning when the ripples are subjected to large changes in driving amplitude or frequency, causing them to deform both...

  3. Flowability in crushed sand mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera, O. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experimental study explored the relationship between mortar flowability and the voids content in crushed sand to determine the effect of grain shape and surface texture as well as dust content on the behaviour of fresh mortar. The findings revealed a close correlation between voids content and the volume of paste needed for mortar to begin to flow as a continuous material, mortar flowability and the water content needed to attain a given flowability. The comparison of the empirical findings to the results obtained with the Larrard (1, 2 model provided further information on the effect of sand grain morphology on fresh mortars.

    En el presente trabajo se plantea un estudio experimental de la fluidez de morteros basado en el contenido de vacíos de arenas machacadas, para comprender la influencia de la forma y textura superficial de los granos de arena y del contenido de polvo de las mismas sobre el estado fresco de morteros. Los resultados muestran la estrecha relación entre el contenido de vacíos entre granos y los volúmenes de pasta necesarios para iniciar el escurrimiento como un material continuo, la fluidez de los morteros, el contenido de agua para alcanzar una determinada fluidez, etc. El comportamiento evaluado se compara con resultados obtenidos aplicando el modelo de F. de Larrard (1, 2, permitiendo de este modo obtener mayor información de la influencia de la morfología de los granos de la arena sobre el estado fresco de los morteros.

  4. Sand transportation and reverse patterns over leeward face of sand dune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Dun, Hongchao; Tong, Ding; Huang, Ning

    2017-04-01

    Sand saltation has complex interactions with turbulent flow and dune form. Most models of wind-blown sand consider ideal circumstances such as steady wind velocity and a flat surface, and the bulk of data on wind flow and sand transport over an individual dune has focused mostly on the influence of dune shape or inter-dune space on the wind flow, neglecting the effect of morphology on sand saltation, particularly airflow and sand transportation over the leeward slope. Wind flow structures over the leeward slope of sand dunes have a fundamental influence on the organization of sand dunes. In order to understand sand dune dynamics, lee face airflow and sediment transportation should be paid more attention. Previous field observations could not measure turbulent flow structure well because of the limited observation points and the influence of experiment structure on wind field. In addition, the reverse sand particles over leeward face could not be collected by sand trap in field. Numerous field observations could not measure turbulent flow structure because of the limited observation points and the influence of experimental structures on the wind field. In addition, the reverse transport of sand particles over leeward face could not be collected by sand traps in field. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the turbulent flow structure and sand transport pattern over the leeward slope. A numerical model of sand saltation over slope terrain is constructed, which also considers the coupling effects between air flow and sand particles. The large eddy simulation method is used to model turbulent flow. Sand transport is simulated by tracking the trajectory of each sand particle. The results show that terrain significantly alters the turbulent air flow structure and wind-blown sand movement, especially over the leeward slope. Here, mass flux increases initially and then decreases with height in the reversed flow region in the direction of wind flow, and the mass flux

  5. Developing new markets for oil sands products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a review by Purvin and Gertz of western Canadian crude oil supply. This energy consulting firm provides advise to the energy sector. It suggests that oil sands production will surpass declining conventional production. Oil sands supply includes bitumen, synthetic crude oil (SCO), and diluent. It is forecasted that oil sands will increase from 42 per cent of western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. The potential of Alberta's oil sands was discussed along with a recent study of refined products and petrochemicals from bitumen. Upgrading, refining and petrochemical case studies were presented. The author examined if a Canadian oil sands upgrading project with high capital costs can be competitive with competing projects in the United States and internationally. In addition to supply and demand issues, the presentation examined infrastructure capability and market potential in the United States. The economic potential and risks of preferred business cases compared to upgrading to SCO were also evaluated. 15 figs

  6. Numerical simulation of aeolian sand ripples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Liqiang; Guo Liejin

    2004-01-01

    With a new horizontal saltation displacement vector, a model is implemented to simulate the initiation and evolution of aeolian sand ripples. In the model, saltation distance considers the effects of surface height and slope. A linear stability analysis is also carried out for formation of sand ripples. The results show that, the model can be able to successfully reproduce sand ripples which can increase in scale by merging of small ripples. The linear stability analysis indicates that sand ripples appear when the relaxation rate parameter is below a threshold value and wind strength parameter is larger than a critical value. The results also verified that the formation of sand ripples is a self-organization process

  7. Test Procedure for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    The test procedure described in the following is used when examining the effects of static or cyclic loading on the skin friction of an axially loaded pile in dense sand. The pile specimen is only loaded in tension to avoid any contribution from the base resistance. The pile dimensions are chosen...... to resemble full scale dimension of piles used in offshore pile foundations today. In this report is given a detailed description of the soil preparation and pile installation procedures as well data acquisition methods....

  8. Adsorption of Radioactive Chromium onto Iron Oxide Coated Sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadros, N.

    2008-01-01

    Iron oxide coated sand (IOCS) has been prepared and used as granular sorbent for 51 Cr radionuclide at different and specified concentration Ievels in aqueous solutions of constant ph value. Effect of different parameters such as: ph variation, contact time, 51 Cr ion concentration and variation of temperature on the adsorption of the radionuclide onto IOCS material have been discussed. At high ph value about 9()% of 51 Cr is adsorbed onto IOCS from the aqueous solution, The sorption capability of 51 Cr and the effect of ion concentration on the adsorbitivity have been discussed. Adsorption isotherms of Langmuir and Freundlich were expressed and their adsorption isotherm parameters are tabulated

  9. Sustainable use of oil sands for geotechnical construction and road building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available of the three oil sand samples. Oil Sand ID w [%] wb [%] D10 D30 D50 D60 Cu Cc SE-09 1.4 8.5 0.07 0.12 0.17 0.19 2.9 1.17 SE-14 3.2 13.3 0.08 0.14 0.18 0.21 2.8 1.24 AU-14 2.2 14.5 0.09 0.17 0.22 0.27 3.0 1.19 w = water content; wb = bitumen content; Di... = grain size (mm) corresponding to i-percent passing by mass; Cu = coefficient of uniformity; Cc = coefficient of curvature. Sample Preparation The oil sand samples were prepared for the laboratory testing program using an Industrial Process...

  10. Improving food preservation to reduce food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Gronert, Alicja; Bikova, Borislava; Salce, Luca; Nogués, Marc; Batistelli, Patryk; Farid, Yomna

    2014-01-01

    The theme and issue of ‘Improving food preservation to reduce food waste’ is associated with all group members participating in this research project. This topic covers multiple processes including purchasing, preserving, preparing and storing food. The industry of fresh fruits and vegetables is an enormous market, which will not disappear any time soon. Food waste is mostly disregarded as fresh fruits and vegetables are mostly inexpensive. All group members believe that this mindset needs to...

  11. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2004-01-01

    healthy volunteers (median age, 63 years) underwent bowel preparation with bisacodyl and sodium phosphate. Fluid and food intake were standardized according to weight, providing adequate calorie and oral fluid intake. Before and after bowel preparation, weight, exercise capacity, orthostatic tolerance...

  12. New food policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Andersen, Lill

    The urbanisation, technical changes, and the industrialisation of the food systems on one hand and increased income and changes in lifestyles on the other hand transform the way food is produced, marketed and consumed - those changes call for changes in the nature of food policy. Concerns over food...... safety have become an important driver of reform of food policy. In particular, the BSE crisis in 1996 had a significant impact on the formulation of a change in food safety policy in the EU. The White Paper on Food Safety was prepared by the EU commision as a response to the BSE scandal as the EU felt...... a need for restablishing public confidence in its food supply, its food science, its laws and its food control. In addition, the White Paper on Food Safety points towards a farm to fork policy in that 'as the food production chain is becoming increasingly complex, the health of consumers can ony...

  13. Intermittent fasting modulation of the diabetic syndrome in sand rats. II. In vivo investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkacemi, Louiza; Selselet-Attou, Ghalem; Louchami, Karim; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J

    2010-11-01

    This study deals with the effects of daily intermittent fasting for 15 h upon the development of diabetes in sand rats exposed to a hypercaloric diet. The same pattern of daily intermittent fasting was imposed on sand rats maintained on a purely vegetal diet (control animals). Over the last 30 days of the present experiments, non-fasting animals gained weight, whilst intermittently fasting sand rats lost weight. In this respect, there was no significant difference between control animals and either diabetic or non-diabetic sand rats exposed to the hypercaloric diet. The postprandial glycemia remained fairly stable in the control animals. During a 3-week transition period from a purely vegetal to a hypercaloric diet, the post-prandial glycemia increased by 5.95 ± 1.26 mM (n=6) in diabetic sand rats, as distinct from an increase of only 0.45 ± 0.56 mM (n=6) in the non-diabetic animals. During the intermittent fasting period, the postprandial glycemia decreased significantly in the diabetic animals, but not so in the non-diabetic sand rats. Before the switch in food intake, the peak glycemia at the 30th min of an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was already higher in the diabetic than non-diabetic rats. In both the non-diabetic and diabetic sand rats, intermittent fasting prevented the progressive deterioration of glucose tolerance otherwise observed in non-fasting animals. These findings reveal that, at least in sand rats, intermittent daily fasting prevents the progressive deterioration of glucose tolerance otherwise taking place when these animals are exposed to a hypercaloric diet.

  14. Critical State of Sand Matrix Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marto, Aminaton; Tan, Choy Soon; Makhtar, Ahmad Mahir; Kung Leong, Tiong

    2014-01-01

    The Critical State Soil Mechanic (CSSM) is a globally recognised framework while the critical states for sand and clay are both well established. Nevertheless, the development of the critical state of sand matrix soils is lacking. This paper discusses the development of critical state lines and corresponding critical state parameters for the investigated material, sand matrix soils using sand-kaolin mixtures. The output of this paper can be used as an interpretation framework for the research on liquefaction susceptibility of sand matrix soils in the future. The strain controlled triaxial test apparatus was used to provide the monotonic loading onto the reconstituted soil specimens. All tested soils were subjected to isotropic consolidation and sheared under undrained condition until critical state was ascertain. Based on the results of 32 test specimens, the critical state lines for eight different sand matrix soils were developed together with the corresponding values of critical state parameters, M, λ, and Γ. The range of the value of M, λ, and Γ is 0.803–0.998, 0.144–0.248, and 1.727–2.279, respectively. These values are comparable to the critical state parameters of river sand and kaolin clay. However, the relationship between fines percentages and these critical state parameters is too scattered to be correlated. PMID:24757417

  15. Continuous adsorption of Pb(II) and methylene blue by engineered graphite oxide coated sand in fixed-bed column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Ji-Lai, E-mail: jilaigong@gmail.com [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Yong-Liang; Jiang, Yan [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zeng, Guang-Ming, E-mail: zgming@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Cui, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Ke; Deng, Can-Hui; Niu, Qiu-Ya; Deng, Jiu-Hua [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Huan, Shuang-Yan [State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-03-01

    Highlights: • GO-sand was prepared by coating GO on the surface of sand. • Pb(II) and MB were efficiently removed by GO-sand filter in column. • The removal of MB was enhanced with the presence of Pb(II). • GO-sand is low-cost and convenient for its application as packed bed filter. - Abstract: The mixture of several effluents, caused by the improper handling and management of effluents, generated multi-component wastewater containing both metals and dyes, leading to the complicated treatment process. In this study, a continuous adsorption of Pb(II) and methylene blue (MB) has been studied in single and binary solutions by using graphite oxide coated sand (GO-sand) as an adsorbent in a fixed-bed column. GO-sand was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy before and after analyte adsorption. Compared with sand filter, adsorption quantity and capacity for Pb(II) and MB by GO-sand filter were greatly increased. In Pb(II) and MB single solutions, the experimental parameters were investigated in detail including initial concentration, flow rate, bed depth and pH. Exhaustion time decreased with increasing initial concentration and flow rate, and increased with increasing bed depth and pH. In the Pb(II)-MB binary solution, exhaustion time significantly decreased for Pb(II) adsorption, but increased for MB adsorption. The reason was explained that the more favorable adsorption for MB onto the surface of GO-sand than that for Pb(II), which was derived from π–π interaction between MB and GO on sand surface in packed filter. The Yoon–Nelson model was applied at different concentration of Pb(II) and MB to predict the breakthrough curves. The experimental data were well fit with the model indicating that it was suitable for this column design.

  16. PCE and BNS admixture adsorption in sands with different composition and particle size distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.M.; Martínez-Gaitero, R.; Gismera-Diez, S.; Puertas, F.

    2017-01-01

    The choice of a superplasticiser (SP) for concrete is of great complexity, as it is well known that properties of the end product are related to admixture and its compatibility with concrete components. Very few studies have been conducted on the compatibility between SPs and the sand of mortars and concretes, however. Practical experience has shown that sand fineness and mineralogical composition affect water demand and admixture consumption. Clay-containing sand has been found also to adsorb SPs, reducing the amount available in solution for adsorption by the cement. This study analysed the isotherms for PCE and BNS superplasticiser adsorption on four sands with different fineness and compositions commonly used to prepare mortars and concretes. BNS-based SP did not adsorb on sands, while PCE-based admixtures exhibited variable adsorption depending on different factors. The adsorption curves obtained revealed that the higher the sand fineness, the finer the particle size distribution and the higher the clay material, the greater was PCE admixture adsorption/ consumption. [es

  17. PCE and BNS admixture adsorption in sands with different composition and particle size distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Alonso

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The choice of a superplasticiser (SP for concrete is of great complexity, as it is well known that properties of the end product are related to admixture and its compatibility with concrete components. Very few studies have been conducted on the compatibility between SPs and the sand of mortars and concretes, however. Practical experience has shown that sand fineness and mineralogical composition affect water demand and admixture consumption. Clay-containing sand has been found also to adsorb SPs, reducing the amount available in solution for adsorption by the cement. This study analysed the isotherms for PCE and BNS superplasticiser adsorption on four sands with different fineness and compositions commonly used to prepare mortars and concretes. BNS-based SP did not adsorb on sands, while PCE-based admixtures exhibited variable adsorption depending on different factors. The adsorption curves obtained revealed that the higher the sand fineness, the finer the particle size distribution and the higher the clay material, the greater was PCE admixture adsorption/ consumption.

  18. Influence of Reclamation Process on the Ecological Quality of Reclaim Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dereń M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, there were presented results of research on influence of reclamation process on the ecological quality of reclaim sand with furan resin used in nonferrous foundry. The quality of reclaimed sand is mainly define by two group of chemical substances from elution of reclaimed sand: Dissolves Organic Carbon (DOC and Total Dissolves Solids (TDS. Reclaimed sand used in test was prepared in experimental thermal reclaimer and mechanical vibration reclaimer REGMAS installed in Faculty of Foundry Engineering at University Of Science and Technology in Krakow. The reference point is molding sand shaking out and crumble in jaw crusher. Test of elution was made in accredited laboratory in Center For Research and Environmental Control in Katowice up to the standard with Dissolves Organic Carbon (DOC - PN-EN 1484:1999; Total Dissolves Solids (TDS - PN-EN 15216:2010. The standard for elution test is PN-EN 12457- 4:2006. Except that we were made loss of ignition test, to check how many resin was rest on sand grains.

  19. Bearing Capacity of Footings on Thin Layer of Sand on Soft Cohesive Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, J.; Sørensen, Carsten S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper contains the results of some numerical calculations performed with the aim to determine the bearing capacities of footings placed on a thin layer of sand underlain by soft cohesive soil. During the last 30-35 years different analytical and empirical calculation methods for this situation...... prepared model tests made in laboratories....

  20. Invasive plants on disturbed Korean sand dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee Dae

    2005-01-01

    The sand dunes in coastal regions of South Korea are important ecosystems because of their small size, the rare species found in this habitat, and the beautiful landscapes they create. This study investigated the current vegetative status of sand dunes on three representative coasts of the Korean peninsula, and on the coasts of Cheju Island, and assessed the conditions caused by invasive plants. The relationships between the degree of invasion and 14 environmental variables were studied. Plots of sand dunes along line transects perpendicular to the coastal lines were established to estimate vegetative species coverage. TWINSPAN (Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis), CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and DCCA (Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis) were performed to classify communities on sand dunes and assess species composition variation. Carex kobomugi, Elymus mollis, and Vitex rotundifolia were found to be the dominant species plotted on the east, the west, and the peripheral coasts of Cheju Island, respectively. Vegetation on the south coast was totally extinct. The 19 communities, including representative C. kobomugi, C. kobomugi- Ixeris repens, C. kobomugi- Oenothera biennis, E. mollis, Lolium multiflorum- Calystegia soldanella, and V. rotundifolia- C. kobomugi, were all classified according to TWINSPAN. Oenothera biennis and L. multiflorum were exotics observed within these native communities. CCA showed that invasive native and exotic species distribution was segregated significantly, according to disturbance level, exotic species number, gravel, sand and silt contents, as well as vegetation size. It further revealed that human disturbance can strongly favor the settlement of invasive and exotic species. Restoration options to reduce exotic plants in the South Korean sand dune areas were found to be the introduction of native plant species from one sand dune into other sand dune areas, prohibition of building and the introduction of exotic

  1. Niigugim Qalgadangis (Atkan Food).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Moses; Dirks, Lydia

    A history of food gathering and food preparation techniques of Alaska natives on Atka Island in the Aleutians are presented in Western Aleut and English with illustrations by J. Leslie Boffa and Mike Dirks. Directions are given for preparing: various plants, including wild rice; salted, dried, or smoked fish; baked flour; fried dough; boiled…

  2. Changes in activity of industrial enzyme preparations irradiated with sterilizing doses. Part of a coordinated programme on factors influencing the utilization of food irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, S.

    1984-03-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the efficacy of irradiation to sterilize enzyme preparations. Irradiation doses up to 25 kGy caused no changes in basic organoleptic properties of commercial rennin preparations. Dose rate (from 0.5 to 13.5 kGy/hr) has no influence on the changes in enzyme activity during the storage period of 3 months. Doses ranging from 8 to 12 kGy are sufficient to sterilize commercial enzyme preparations. Non-purified, crude rennin preparations appear to be more resistant to radiation than purified samples. Rennin preparations purified by dialysis and treated with 25 kGy resulted in a reduction of activity of 20%. The activity of preparations purified by gel filtration was reduced to 50% when treated with the same dose

  3. Watching Faults Grow in Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Accretionary sandbox experiments provide a rich environment for investigating the processes of fault development. These experiments engage students because 1) they enable direct observation of fault growth, which is impossible in the crust (type 1 physical model), 2) they are not only representational but can also be manipulated (type 2 physical model), 3) they can be used to test hypotheses (type 3 physical model) and 4) they resemble experiments performed by structural geology researchers around the world. The structural geology courses at UMass Amherst utilize a series of accretionary sandboxes experiments where students first watch a video of an experiment and then perform a group experiment. The experiments motivate discussions of what conditions they would change and what outcomes they would expect from these changes; hypothesis development. These discussions inevitably lead to calculations of the scaling relationships between model and crustal fault growth and provide insight into the crustal processes represented within the dry sand. Sketching of the experiments has been shown to be a very effective assessment method as the students reveal which features they are analyzing. Another approach used at UMass is to set up a forensic experiment. The experiment is set up with spatially varying basal friction before the meeting and students must figure out what the basal conditions are through the experiment. This experiment leads to discussions of equilibrium and force balance within the accretionary wedge. Displacement fields can be captured throughout the experiment using inexpensive digital image correlation techniques to foster quantitative analysis of the experiments.

  4. Sudan challenges the sand dragon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, J

    1978-01-01

    Formerly productive areas have become wasteland as the desert advances in the Sudan. To understand how desertification is undermining the very survival of the Sahel, one ecosystem is reviewed in detail here: the gum arabic zone of Kordofan. After cotton, gum arabic is Sudan's largest export, worth from $14-26 million in recent years. In this zone the ecologically balanced cycle of gum gardens, fire, grain crops, and fallow is now breaking down; the 1968-1973 drought having in many areas delivered the final blow. Because of a growing population, the cultivation period is extended, and the soil becomes impoverished. Overgrazing in the fallow period, and the lopping of gum trees for firewood is producing a low return on the gum trees. Without this gum to harvest for cash, farmers must repeatedly replant their subsistence crops until the land becomes useless sand. The Sudanese have recognized the problem earlier than most, and a number of imaginative and practicable pilot projects are already in use: 1) waterpoint management; 2) construction of firebreaks; 3) land threatened by shifting dunes has been enclosed by stockproof fence and afforested with local trees; and 4) shelter belts have been planted around town perimeters where old gum tree stumps have started to sprout and the grass is reseeding itself. Out of these pilot projects, and with the advice of the U.N. Environment Program, the U.N. Development Program, and FAO, the Sudanese have developed a modest $26 million desert encroachment control and rehabilitation program (DECARP).

  5. Sand to Root Transfer of PAHs and PCBs by Carrots Grown on Sand with Pure Substances and Biosolids Amended Sand

    OpenAIRE

    Sablayrolles, Caroline; Montréjaud-Vignoles, Mireille; Silvestre, Jérôme; Patria, Lucie

    2006-01-01

    A study on behaviour of trace organic compounds (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAH, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls, PCB) in a sand-plant system has been carried out, with the reclamation of wastewater treatment plant biosolids for agriculture in mind. Carrot plants (Daucus carota) were grown on soilless culture (sand), to provide optimal transfer conditions, in plant containers inside a temperature regulated greenhouse. There were two types of experiment. The trace organic compounds have i...

  6. Complementary Feeding: Review of Recommendations, Feeding Practices and Adequacy of Homemade Complementary Food Preparations in Developing Countries – lessons from Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motuma A Abeshu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding provides the ideal food during the first 6 months of life. Complementary feeding is the process starting when breast milk alone is no longer sufficient, the target age being between 6 to 23 months. The gap between nutritional requirement and amount obtained from breast milk increases with age. For energy, 200kcal, 300kcal and 550kcal per day is expected to be covered by complementary foods at 6-8, 9-11 and 12-23 months, respectively. In addition, the complementary foods must provide relatively large proportions of micronutrients such as: iron, zinc, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium and vitamin B6. In several parts of the developing world, complementary feeding continues as a challenge to good nutrition in children. In Ethiopia, only 4.2% of breastfed children of 6–23 months of age have a minimum acceptable diet. The gaps are mostly attributed to either poor dietary quality or poor feeding practices, if not both. Commercial fortified foods are often beyond the reach of the poor. Thus, homemade complementary foods remain commonly used. However, unfortified complementary foods that are predominantly plant-based provide insufficient amounts of key nutrients (particularly iron, zinc and calcium during the age of 6 – 23 months even, when based on an improved recipe. This review thus assessed complementary feeding practice and recommendation and reviewed the level of adequacy of homemade complementary foods.

  7. experimental studies of sand production from unconsolidated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    aDepartment of Chemical Engineering, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. bDepartment of Petroleum ... as risk of well failure, erosion of pipelines and surface facilities, sand separa- ... ment, theoretical and numerical analysis have lead to the ...

  8. Bioaugmentation of flow-through sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Elin Djurhuus

    for degradation performances in flow-through sand columns, with the aim of identifying a suitable inoculant strain for future environmental applications. Another aim was to identify a suitable genetic marker to monitor phenoxy acid degradation in strain Sphingobium sp. PM2. We were not able to link motility...... and biofilm formation to the strains´ ability to adhere to sand. Nevertheless, a correlation was found between cell surface hydrophobicity and adhesion and overall degradation performances in flow-through sand columns. We identified S phingobium sp. PM2 as a promising inoculant strain, displaying efficient...... MCPA degradation for prolonged periods in flow-through sand columns. In an expression study of catabolic genes with putative roles in phenoxy acid degradation, we observed a marked upregulation of catabolic genes cadA and tfdC upon exposure to MCPA, 2,4-D, dichlorprop and mecoprop in strain PM2, which...

  9. Geotechnical properties of crude oil contaminated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, V.K.; Das, B.M.; Cook, E.E.; Shin, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    Contamination of soil due to an oil spill influences its subsequent engineering behavior. An investigation was conducted to study the effect of crude oil contamination on compaction characteristics, shear strength, one-dimensional compression, and coefficient of permeability. Water permeability was also determined by using commercial grade motor oils as contaminants. The test results indicate that the compaction characteristics are influenced by oil contamination. The angle of internal friction of sand (based on total stress condition) decreases due to presence of oil within the pore spaces in sand. One dimensional compression characteristics of sand are significantly influenced by oil contamination resulting in a decrease in the value of constrained modulus with increase in the degree of oil contamination compared to the case of dry sand. Water permeability was observed to be a function of the initial viscosity and the degree of saturation due to the contaminating oil

  10. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a

  11. Experimental assessment of the liquefaction resistance of calcareous biogenous sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoval Eimar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT

    Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which soils, typically sands, suddenly loose a substantial amount of their shear strength and stiffness, this often triggered by large-magnitude earthquakes. Most liquefaction research has focused on silicate-based sands and not on other sand types, such as calcareous biogenous sands Calcareous sands are usually composed of skeletal or non-skeletal remains of marine organisms, with unique characteristics in terms of their mineralogy surface roughness, particle shape, crushability, and intraparticle porosity. The unique characteristics of calcareous sands suggest that their geotechnical engineering behaviour can be substantially different compared to that of terrigenous sands, including their behaviour under seismic loading, which have not been very well studied

    This paper presents the results of an experimental programme aimed at studying the cyclic liquefaction resistance of uncemented calcareous biogenous sands retrieved from south-western Puerto Rico Evaluation of liquefaction potential involved a comprehensive set of isotropically consolidated undrained cyclic triaxial tests on reconstituted samples of this calcareous sand. The programme also included tests on Ottawa terrigenous silica sand samples prepared and tested in similar conditions for comparison purposes.

    In general, the experimental results showed that Cabo Rojo calcareous sands had higher liquefaction resistance compared to Ottawa silica sands tested under similar conditions. Important differences between calcareous and silica sands regarding pore pressure generation characteristics and axial strain accumulation were also observed


  12. Supercritical solvent extraction of oil sand bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Tileuberdi, Ye.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Golovko, A. K.; Rudyk, S.

    2017-08-01

    The supercritical solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sand studied with organic solvents. The experiments were performed in autoclave reactor at temperature above 255 °C and pressure 29 atm with stirring for 6 h. The reaction resulted in the formation of coke products with mineral part of oil sands. The remaining products separated into SARA fractions. The properties of the obtained products were studied. The supercritical solvent extraction significantly upgraded extracted natural bitumen.

  13. Effect of manufactured sand on the durability characteristics of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. SARAVANAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most sought after material due to increase in construction activities and infrastructural developments. Availability of natural sand is decreasing thereby increase in the cost of construction. In the present work undertaken, an attempt has been made to give an alternative to natural sand. Optimization of replacement of natural sand with manufactured sand in concrete, durability studies such as water absorption, rapid chloride permeability test, sorptivity, acid resistance, alkaline resistance, impact resistance and abrasion resistance of M40 and M50 grades of concrete have been studied with manufactured sand as fine aggregate and compared the results with the conventional sand concrete. The results shows that there is an increase in the durability properties up to 70 % level of replacements of sand with manufactured sand as fine aggregate and for 100 % use of manufactured sand also gives the better durability than the conventional sand concrete.

  14. Studies on various characteristics of concrete structures using crushed sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimatsu, Makoto; Sugita, Hideaki; Yonemura, Masataka.

    1985-01-01

    With the recent advances of construction industry, the demands for concrete, hence for aggregate, are rising. The sand as such is in extreme shortage due to the exhaustion of river sand. Under the situation, the recent trends are for the use of crushed sand, i.e. the artificial sand obtained by crushing rocks, which have advantages of stabilized quality and adequate supplies. In building of nuclear power plants requiring large amounts of concrete, the usage of crushed sand is now unavoidable. The following are described : the situation of aggregate in Kyushu. production method of crushed sand and the quality standards, rocks used for crushed stone and sand and the properties, quality survey on crushed sand and the basic tests, characteristic tests of crushed-stone and -sand mixed concrete, the application of crushed sand in structures of the Sendai Nuclear Power Station. (Mori, K.)

  15. Provenance and recycling of Arabian desert sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Vermeesch, Pieter; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Valagussa, Manuel; Allen, Kate; Kadi, Khalid A.; Al-Juboury, Ali I. A.

    2013-05-01

    This study seeks to determine the ultimate origin of aeolian sand in Arabian deserts by high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral techniques combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology. Point-counting is used here as the sole method by which unbiased volume percentages of heavy minerals can be obtained. A comprehensive analysis of river and wadi sands from the Red Sea to the Bitlis-Zagros orogen allowed us to characterize all potential sediment sources, and thus to quantitatively constrain provenance of Arabian dune fields. Two main types of aeolian sand can be distinguished. Quartzose sands with very poor heavy-mineral suites including zircon occupy most of the region comprising the Great Nafud and Rub' al-Khali Sand Seas, and are largely recycled from thick Lower Palaeozoic quartzarenites with very minor first-cycle contributions from Precambrian basement, Mesozoic carbonate rocks, or Neogene basalts. Instead, carbonaticlastic sands with richer lithic and heavy-mineral populations characterize coastal dunes bordering the Arabian Gulf from the Jafurah Sand Sea of Saudi Arabia to the United Arab Emirates. The similarity with detritus carried by the axial Tigris-Euphrates system and by transverse rivers draining carbonate rocks of the Zagros indicates that Arabian coastal dunes largely consist of far-travelled sand, deposited on the exposed floor of the Gulf during Pleistocene lowstands and blown inland by dominant Shamal northerly winds. A dataset of detrital zircon U-Pb ages measured on twelve dune samples and two Lower Palaeozoic sandstones yielded fourteen identical age spectra. The age distributions all show a major Neoproterozoic peak corresponding to the Pan-African magmatic and tectonic events by which the Arabian Shield was assembled, with minor late Palaeoproterozoic and Neoarchean peaks. A similar U-Pb signature characterizes also Jafurah dune sands, suggesting that zircons are dominantly derived from interior Arabia, possibly deflated from the Wadi al

  16. Management of Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Maleknejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although food allergy is a major public health problem, currently there is no effective and safe treatment except to avoid the foods .But the need for new options is critical now as the number of children diagnosed with food allergies rises. Avoiding the offending allergen in the diet is the primary treatment of food allergy. Once a food to which the patient is sensitive has been identified, the food must be removed from the diet. People with severe food allergies must be prepared to treat an anaphylactic reaction. These individuals also always should carry a syringe of adrenaline (epinephrine [EpiPen], and be prepared to self-administer it if they think they are developing an allergic reaction. Several medications are available for treating the other symptoms of food allergy. For example, antihistamines can relieve gastrointestinal symptoms, hives, sneezing, and a runny nose. Bronchodilators can relieve the symptoms of asthma. They are not effective, however, in preventing an allergic reaction when taken prior to eating the food. In fact, no medication in any form is available to reliably prevent an allergic reaction to a certain food before eating that food.Novel therapeutic approaches to food allergy can be classified as food allergen-specific therapy(immunotherapy with native or modified recombinant allergens, or oral desensitization or food allergen-nonspecifictherapy (anti-IgE, traditional Chinese medicine.   Key Words: Children, Food Allergy, Management.  

  17. Diversity and technological properties of predominant lactic acid bacteria from fermented cassava used for the preparation of Gari, a traditional African food

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kostinek, M

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available fermentation for the preparation of Gari, and their technologically relevant characteristics were investigated with a view towards selection of appropriate starter cultures. A total of 139 predominant strains isolated from fermenting cassava were identified...

  18. Nuclear energy in the oils sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    The major Canadian oil sands are located in Alberta and Saskatchewan, with most production from the strata along the Athabasca River in Alberta. The economically recoverable oil sands reserves are estimated to be 168 billion barrels which at a current production rate of 1.8 million barrels per day (2012), are projected to last a very long time. Canada has been blessed with vast energy resources which make it potentially energy-independent and able to provide significant exports but there are concerns that their development cannot be managed in a wholly acceptable manner. Comparable concerns have been applied to nuclear energy in the past and in recent times to the oil sands. The technologies associated with these energy sources have always been controversial because they are at the confluence of economics and politics where finding a balance between risk and reward is difficult. So it should be no surprise that when these technologies get linked together in certain proposals their prospect for success is doubly difficult. The possible use of nuclear energy for production of oil from the oil sands dates back to the late 1950s, when an experiment to mine the oil by detonating an underground nuclear device was proposed. It was predicted that the heat and pressure released from such a device would create a large cavern into which oil would flow, and from where it would be pumped to the surface. Almost at the same time, oil sands research using conventional sources of energy had culminated with the development of practical refining processes, essentially those still in use today. These methods require large amounts of heat energy in the form of hot water and steam. In this century nuclear energy was proposed as the source for the heat required by the oil sands production processes. To date neither of these nuclear proposals for oil sands projects have been successful, because the economic and political balance could not be struck. (author)

  19. Nuclear energy in the oils sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2014-09-15

    The major Canadian oil sands are located in Alberta and Saskatchewan, with most production from the strata along the Athabasca River in Alberta. The economically recoverable oil sands reserves are estimated to be 168 billion barrels which at a current production rate of 1.8 million barrels per day (2012), are projected to last a very long time. Canada has been blessed with vast energy resources which make it potentially energy-independent and able to provide significant exports but there are concerns that their development cannot be managed in a wholly acceptable manner. Comparable concerns have been applied to nuclear energy in the past and in recent times to the oil sands. The technologies associated with these energy sources have always been controversial because they are at the confluence of economics and politics where finding a balance between risk and reward is difficult. So it should be no surprise that when these technologies get linked together in certain proposals their prospect for success is doubly difficult. The possible use of nuclear energy for production of oil from the oil sands dates back to the late 1950s, when an experiment to mine the oil by detonating an underground nuclear device was proposed. It was predicted that the heat and pressure released from such a device would create a large cavern into which oil would flow, and from where it would be pumped to the surface. Almost at the same time, oil sands research using conventional sources of energy had culminated with the development of practical refining processes, essentially those still in use today. These methods require large amounts of heat energy in the form of hot water and steam. In this century nuclear energy was proposed as the source for the heat required by the oil sands production processes. To date neither of these nuclear proposals for oil sands projects have been successful, because the economic and political balance could not be struck. (author)

  20. Effect of bentonite addition on residual strength of microwave-hardened waterglass-containing moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stachowicz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a preliminary research of the effect of bentonite addition on residual strength of microwave-hardened moulding sands, containing sodium waterglass. Strength was determined at ambient temperature, on cylindrical specimens baked in an oven. Moulding sands for examinations were based on high-silica sand with addition of 2.5 % of non-modified, domestic-made waterglass grade 145. The prepared standard cylindrical specimens were hardened using the innovative microwave heating process and next baked for 30 minutes at temperatures between 100 and 1200 °C. Strength parameters of the specimens were determined on the specimens cooled- down to ambient temperature. The obtained results were compared with literature data to evaluate the effect of the applied hardening method and of the special additive on residual strength as a function of baking temperature. A favourable effect was found of both the innovative heating process and the applied bentonite addition.

  1. Test Procedure for Axially Loaded Bucket Foundations in Sand (Large Yellow Box)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina

    This is a practical guide for preparing the soil, running a CPT test, installing a scaled bucket foundation model and running a test in the large yellow sand box cos(Kristina) in the geotechnical laboratory at Aalborg University. The test procedure is used for the examination of statically...... and cyclically axially loaded bucket foundation model In dense sand. The foundation model in scale of approximately 1:10 compared to the prototype size. The guide describes the step-by-step procedure for tests with and without surface pressure. A detailed description of test setup using the large yellow sand box...... for a monopile testing was provided by Thomassen (2015a), procedure for monopile testing can be found in Thomassen (2015b), while safety instructions were given by Vaitkunaite et al. (2014)....

  2. The mechanical properties of brick containing recycled concrete aggregate and polyethylene terephthalate waste as sand replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Khalid, Faisal; Bazilah Azmi, Nurul; Natasya Mazenan, Puteri; Shahidan, Shahiron; Ali, Noorwirdawati

    2018-03-01

    This research focuses on the performance of composite sand cement brick containing recycle concrete aggregate and waste polyethylene terephthalate. This study aims to determine the mechanical properties such as compressive strength and water absorption of composite brick containing recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste. The bricks specimens were prepared by using 100% natural sand, they were then replaced by RCA at 25%, 50% and 75% with proportions of PET consists of 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% by weight of natural sand. Based on the results of compressive strength, only RCA 25% with 0.5% PET achieve lower strength than normal bricks while others showed a high strength. However, all design mix reaches strength more than 7N/mm2 as expected. Besides that, the most favorable mix design that achieves high compressive strength is 75% of RCA with 0.5% PET.

  3. Comparison between predicted and observed sand waves and sand banks in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; van den Brink, G.M.

    2001-01-01

    For the first time a prediction model of regular morphological patterns on the seabed was tested against observations of sand wave and sand bank occurrence in the entire North Sea. The model, which originates from first physical principles, predicts this occurrence via two dimensionless parameters

  4. MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SAND FRACTION IN A SAND GRAIN IMAGE CAPTURE SYSTEM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Arruda Viana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Morphology studies assume significant importance in analysis of phenomena of granular systems packaging, in particular with a view to the use of the technique of soil stabilization named particle size correction in forest roads. In this context, this study aimed to develop and operationalize a Sand Grain Image Capture System and, hereby, determine the morphological indices of the sand fractions of two sandy soils called João Pinheiro (JP and Cachoeira da Prata (CP. Soil samples, air-dried, were sieved (2.0 mm nominal mesh size for removal of gravels. The materials that passed through the sieve were subjected to dispersion, washing in 0.053 mm nominal mesh size sieve, removal of organic matter and iron oxides to obtain the clean sand fractions. Subsequently, each soil sample was sieved for separation into twelve classes, between the diameters of 0.149 mm and 1.190 mm, using a Rotap shaker. Next, tests were carried out to characterize the morphometric attributes of the twelve classes of sand fractions of the soils studied. For validation of the performance of the Sand Grain Image Capture System, the results were compared to those obtained using a standard procedure for image analysis. The analysis of the results led to the following conclusions: (i the sand fraction of the JP soil presented higher values for the morphometric indices roundness, elongation and compactness compared to sand fraction of the CP soil; and (ii the Sand Grain Image Capture System worked properly, with practicality.

  5. Food Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The 3M Food Service System 2 employs a "cook/chill" concept for serving food in hospitals. The system allows staff to prepare food well in advance, maintain heat, visual appeal and nutritional value as well as reducing operating costs. The integral heating method, which keeps hot foods hot and cold foods cold, was developed by 3M for the Apollo Program. In the 1970s, the company commercialized the original system and in 1991, introduced Food Service System 2. Dishes are designed to resemble those used at home, and patient satisfaction has been high.

  6. Investigation into the Heat of Hydration and Alkali Silica Reactivity of Sustainable Ultrahigh Strength Concrete with Foundry Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Aguayo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the hydration reactivity and alkali silica reaction (ASR of ultrahigh strength concrete (UHSC that has been made more sustainable by using spent foundry sand. Spent foundry sand not only is sustainable but has supplementary cementitious material (SCM characteristics. Two series of UHSC mixtures were prepared using a nonreactive and reactive sand (in terms of ASR to investigate both the impact of a more reactive aggregate and the use of spent foundry sand. Conduction calorimetry was used to monitor the heat of hydration maintained under isothermal conditions, while ASR was investigated using the accelerated mortar bar test (AMBT. Additionally, the compressive strengths were measured for both series of mixtures at 7, 14, and 28 days to confirm high strength requirements. The compressive strengths ranged from 85 MPa (12,345 psi to 181.78 MPa (26,365 psi. This result demonstrates that a UHSC mixture was produced. The calorimetry results revealed a slight acceleration in the heat of hydration flow curve compared to the control from both aggregates indicating increased hydration reactivity from the addition of foundry waste. The combination of foundry sand and reactive sand was found to increase ASR reactivity with increasing additions of foundry sand up to 30% replacement.

  7. Heavy mineral concentration from oil sand tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chachula, F.; Erasmus, N. [Titanium Corp. Inc., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation described a unique technique to recover heavy minerals contained in the froth treatment tailings produced by oil sand mining extraction operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. In an effort to process waste material into valuable products, Titanium Corporation is developing technology to recover heavy minerals, primarily zircon, and a portion of bitumen contained in the final stage of bitumen processing. The process technology is being developed to apply to all mined oil sands operations in the Fort McMurray region. In 2004, Titanium Corporation commissioned a pilot research facility at the Saskatchewan Research Council to test dry oil sands tailings. In 2005, a bulk sampling pilot plant was connected to the fresh oil sands tailings pipeline on-site in Fort McMurray, where washed sands containing heavy minerals were processed at a pilot facility. The mineral content in both deposited tailings and fresh pipeline tailings was assessed. Analysis of fresh tailings on a daily basis identified a constant proportion of zircon and higher levels of associated bitumen compared with the material in the deposited tailings. The process flow sheet design was then modified to remove bitumen from the heavy minerals and concentrate the minerals. A newly modified flotation process was shown to be a viable processing route to recover the heavy minerals from froth treatment tailings. 8 refs., 9 tabs., 12 figs.

  8. A Improved Seabed Surface Sand Sampling Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X.

    2017-12-01

    In marine geology research it is necessary to obtain a suf fcient quantity of seabed surface samples, while also en- suring that the samples are in their original state. Currently,there are a number of seabed surface sampling devices available, but we fnd it is very diffcult to obtain sand samples using these devices, particularly when dealing with fne sand. Machine-controlled seabed surface sampling devices are also available, but generally unable to dive into deeper regions of water. To obtain larger quantities of seabed surface sand samples in their original states, many researchers have tried to improve upon sampling devices,but these efforts have generally produced ambiguous results, in our opinion.To resolve this issue, we have designed an improved andhighly effective seabed surface sand sampling device that incorporates the strengths of a variety of sampling devices. It is capable of diving into deepwater to obtain fne sand samples and is also suited for use in streams, rivers, lakes and seas with varying levels of depth (up to 100 m). This device can be used for geological mapping, underwater prospecting, geological engineering and ecological, environmental studies in both marine and terrestrial waters.

  9. Sand filter clogging by septic tank effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spychała, M; Błazejewski, R

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise conditions and factors affecting fine sand clogging by septic tank effluent on the basis of physical modelling. The physical model consisted of 12 sand columns dosed with sewage from one household (5 persons), preliminary treated in a septic tank. Hydraulic loadings of the sand filters were equal to 82 mm/d. The mean discharge from sand columns, measured as the effluent volume collected during 10 minutes, decreased significantly over the experiment period from 34 cm3/min in August 2000 to 20 cm3/min in August 2001 at the same temperature of about 20 degrees C. First the columns clogged almost completely after 480 days in December 2001, however six columns had remained unclogged till the end of the experiment (March 2002). The temperature had a significant impact on hydraulic conductivity. A vertical distribution of accumulated mass and biomass was investigated in partly clogged sand. Microscopic survey of the clogging layer showed a presence of live micro-organisms, residuals of dead micro-organisms, particularly pieces of small animal armour and many fibres. These particles accelerated the accumulation of solids in the upper clogging layer. The study indicated that temperature impact on the filter hydraulic conductivity was more significant for biological activity, than for sewage viscosity.

  10. The behavior of gaseous iodine in sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kanji

    1974-01-01

    Radioactive iodine gas was passed through 10 different sands collected at rivers and hills. The relation between the amount of the loaded gas and the amount of adsorbed gas was determined at room temperature, 50 -- 60 0 C, and 90 -- 100 0 C under humidity of 2 sand. This amount was about 1 -- 3 times as much as that of monomolecular membrane adsorption, 0.2 -- 0.3 μg/cm 2 . The decrease of adsorption amount that accompanies the increase of humidity is attributable to the decrease of effective surface area of sand due to the presence of water. The transport of iodine in sand was studied by passing gaseous iodine through a glass tubing packed with sand. The distribution in the flow direction of iodine indicated that the ease of desorption depends upon the situation of adsorption. Easily desorbed case was named Henry type adsorption. Hardly desorbed case was named absorption type. Discussion is made on experimental results. (Fukutomi, T.)

  11. Mitigating in situ oil sands carbon costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theriault, D.J.; Peterson, J. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Heinrichs, H. [Canadian Chemical Technology Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Carbon capture and sequestration is a complex problem with a variety of dimensions that need to be considered. The political, social, and regulatory pressures are forcing carbon costs on the oil sands industry in an effort to reduce the carbon footprint of oil sands operations. This paper reviewed the political, social, and regulatory pressures and obligations for the in-situ oil sands industry. It presented the views and insights of Laricina Energy on the carbon challenge. It also described the initiatives that Laricina Energy is taking to manage these imperatives and outlined the challenges the industry is facing. The purpose of the paper was to encourage dialogue and collaboration by the oil sands industry. The paper also described the dimensions of the carbon problem and how the industry can contribute to a solution. Last, the paper reviewed the parameters of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gas containment and storage issues. It was concluded that the regulatory and policy requirements need to be clarified so that industry understands the new business landscape as well as the requirements that influence the economics of in-situ oil sands development. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Midgut morphological changes and autophagy during metamorphosis in sand flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Juliana; Heerman, Matthew; Weng, Ju Lin; Fernandes, Kenner M; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

    2017-06-01

    During metamorphosis, holometabolous insects undergo significant remodeling of their midgut and become able to cope with changes in dietary requirements between larval and adult stages. At this stage, insects must be able to manage and recycle available food resources in order to develop fully into adults, especially when no nutrients are acquired from the environment. Autophagy has been previously suggested to play a crucial role during metamorphosis of the mosquito. Here, we investigate the overall morphological changes of the midgut of the sand fly during metamorphosis and assess the expression profiles of the autophagy-related genes ATG1, ATG6, and ATG8, which are associated with various steps of the autophagic process. Morphological changes in the midgut start during the fourth larval instar, with epithelial degeneration followed by remodeling via the differentiation of regenerative cells in pre-pupal and pupal stages. The changes in the midgut epithelium are paired with the up-regulation of ATG1, ATG6 and ATG8 during the larva-adult transition. Vein, a putative epidermal growth factor involved in regulating epithelial midgut regeneration, is also up-regulated. Autophagy has further been confirmed in sand flies via the presence of autophagosomes residing within the cytoplasmic compartment of the pupal stages. An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of this process should aid the future management of this neglected tropical vector.

  13. Facts about food irradiation: Irradiation and food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet focusses on the question of whether irradiation can be used to make spoiled food good. No food processing procedures can substitute for good hygienic practices, and good manufacturing practices must be followed in the preparation of food whether or not the food is intended for further processing by irradiation or any other means. 3 refs

  14. CONTEXT BASED FOOD IMAGE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    He, Ye; Xu, Chang; Khanna, Nitin; Boushey, Carol J.; Delp, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    We are developing a dietary assessment system that records daily food intake through the use of food images. Recognizing food in an image is difficult due to large visual variance with respect to eating or preparation conditions. This task becomes even more challenging when different foods have similar visual appearance. In this paper we propose to incorporate two types of contextual dietary information, food co-occurrence patterns and personalized learning models, in food image analysis to r...

  15. 1 Food and Feeding Habits of the Guppy.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    number of algae and mosquito larvae consumed, while there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the number of other food ..... Alae Diatoms Protozoans Mosquito Fish Crustanceans Organic Sand ... use of the fish for biological control of.

  16. Food and feeding performance of Pellonula leonensis (Reajon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food and feeding performance of Pellonula leonensis (Reajon, 1917) ... fed more on ants and fish larvae while juveniles fed more on detritus, crustaceans and sand. ... Pellonula was considered piscivorous and cannibalistic its feeding habit.

  17. The impact of kitchen and food service preparation practices on the volatile aroma profile in ripe tomatoes: Effects of refrigeration and blanching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both refrigeration and blanching of red stage tomatoes are common practices in Japan home kitchens and in food service operations. However, little is reported on the impact of such practices on aroma profiles in tomato fruits. In this study, ‘FL 47’ tomatoes at red stage were dipped in 50 °C hot wat...

  18. Variability of matrix effects in liquid and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis of pesticide residues after QuEChERS sample preparation of different food crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas and liquid chromatography (GC and LC) coupled to sophisticated mass spectrometry (MS) instruments are among the most powerful analytical tools currently available to monitor pesticide residues in food, among other applications. However, both GC-MS and LC-MS are susceptible to matrix effects whi...

  19. Getting Started for Preparing Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers in Terms of Sustainable Food Consumption: The Current Situation at a Public University in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alacam, Nur; Sahin, Elvan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the food consumption and nutrition perceptions of pre-service early childhood teachers using a mixed method research design. Data was gathered from 37 pre-service early childhood teachers through survey consisting of items in rating scale and open-ended questions. Descriptive analyses were conducted to report pre-service…

  20. Law regulations concerning food supplements, dietetic food and novel food containing herbal substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraniak Justyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food supplements are concentrated sources of nutrients and/or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect. However, they often contain herbal substances or their preparations. Food supplements belong to category of food and for that reason are regulated by food legislation. European Union regulations and directives established general directions for dietary supplements, dietetic food, which due to their special composition or manufacturing process are prepared for specific groups of people with special nutritional needs, and novel food/novel food ingredients to ensure product safety, suitability and appropriate consumer information.

  1. Sand transport, erosion and granular electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrison, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    is expanding our current understanding and outline the areas of advancement needed in the future. Presentation is made of current models for wind driven detachment/entrainment and the transport rates of sand and dust, including the effects of contact induced grain electrification. This ubiquitous phenomenon...... can affect grain transport through the generation of intense electric fields and processes of electrostatic assembly. Importantly the transport of sand is characterized by saltation, which is known to be an active process for erosion and therefore a source for dust and sand formation. Using novel...... erosion simulation techniques the link between grain transport rates and erosion rates has been quantified. Furthermore this can be linked to production rates for dust and has been associated with chemical and mineral alteration through a process of mechanical activation of fractured surfaces. This work...

  2. Thermoluminescent dosimetric properties of Descalvado sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, M.I.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2006-01-01

    Sand samples proceeding from Descalvado, Sao Paulo, were studied with regard to their dosimetric properties using the thermoluminescence technique (TL) for high doses. These sand samples present steady physical and chemical characteristics to the end items, and they are used in the glass industry and for casting. The TL curves of the samples were obtained after an irradiation at the Gamma-Cell system ( 60 Co), of IPEN. The glow curves present two peaks at 80 C and 220 C approximately. Calibration curves were obtained for doses between 50 Gy and 5 kGy. The results indicate that the sand samples can be used for high-doses dosimetry in several areas of applications of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  3. Development tendencies of moulding and core sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw M. Dobosz1

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Further development of the technology for making moulding and core sands will be strictly limited by tough requirements due to protection of the natural environment. These tendencies are becoming more and more tense, so that we will reach a point when even processes, that from technological point of view fulfill high requirements of the foundry industry, must be replaced by more ecologically-friendly solutions. Hence, technologies using synthetic resins as binding materials will be limited. This paper presents some predictable development tendencies of moulding and core sands. The increasing role of inorganic substances will be noticed, including silicate binders with significantly improved properties, such as improved knock-out property or higher reclamation strength. Other interesting solutions might also be moulding sands bonded by geo-polymers and phosphate binders or salts and also binders based on degradable biopolymers. These tendencies and the usefulness of these binders are put forward in this paper.

  4. Thermoluminescent dosimetric properties of Descalvado sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, M.I.; Caldas, L.V.E

    2006-07-01

    Sand samples proceeding from Descalvado, Sao Paulo, were studied with regard to their dosimetric properties using the thermoluminescence technique (TL) for high doses. These sand samples present steady physical and chemical characteristics to the end items, and they are used in the glass industry and for casting. The TL curves of the samples were obtained after an irradiation at the Gamma-Cell system ({sup 60} Co), of IPEN. The glow curves present two peaks at 80 C and 220 C approximately. Calibration curves were obtained for doses between 50 Gy and 5 kGy. The results indicate that the sand samples can be used for high-doses dosimetry in several areas of applications of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  5. Study of food habits of Goby, Porogobius schlegelii (Gunther, 1861 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the food habits of goby, Porogobius schelgelii from the artisanal fisheries of the Bonny River in the Niger Delta. The results show that detritus, diatoms and blue-green algae are the primary food items followed by sand granules, macrophytes and nematodes as secondary food items. Protozoa. Fish eggs ...

  6. Electric conductivity for laboratory and field monitoring of induced partial saturation (IPS) in sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemiroodsari, Hadi

    Liquefaction is loss of shear strength in fully saturated loose sands caused by build-up of excess pore water pressure, during moderate to large earthquakes, leading to catastrophic failures of structures. Currently used liquefaction mitigation measures are often costly and cannot be applied at sites with existing structures. An innovative, practical, and cost effective liquefaction mitigation technique titled "Induced Partial Saturation" (IPS) was developed by researchers at Northeastern University. The IPS technique is based on injection of sodium percarbonate solution into fully saturated liquefaction susceptible sand. Sodium percarbonate dissolves in water and breaks down into sodium and carbonate ions and hydrogen peroxide which generates oxygen gas bubbles. Oxygen gas bubbles become trapped in sand pores and therefore decrease the degree of saturation of the sand, increase the compressibility of the soil, thus reduce its potential for liquefaction. The implementation of IPS required the development and validation of a monitoring and evaluation technique that would help ensure that the sands are indeed partially saturated. This dissertation focuses on this aspect of the IPS research. The monitoring system developed was based on using electric conductivity fundamentals and probes to detect the transport of chemical solution, calculate degree of saturation of sand, and determine the final zone of partial saturation created by IPS. To understand the fundamentals of electric conductivity, laboratory bench-top tests were conducted using electric conductivity probes and small specimens of Ottawa sand. Bench-top tests were used to study rate of generation of gas bubbles due to reaction of sodium percarbonate solution in sand, and to confirm a theory based on which degree of saturation were calculated. In addition to bench-top tests, electric conductivity probes were used in a relatively large sand specimen prepared in a specially manufactured glass tank. IPS was

  7. A Threshold Continuum for Aeolian Sand Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C.; Ewing, R. C.; Sherman, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport marks the initial entrainment of sand particles by the force of the wind. This is typically defined and modeled as a singular wind speed for a given grain size and is based on field and laboratory experimental data. However, the definition of threshold varies significantly between these empirical models, largely because the definition is based on visual-observations of initial grain movement. For example, in his seminal experiments, Bagnold defined threshold of motion when he observed that 100% of the bed was in motion. Others have used 50% and lesser values. Differences in threshold models, in turn, result is large errors in predicting the fluxes associated with sand and dust transport. Here we use a wind tunnel and novel sediment trap to capture the fractions of sand in creep, reptation and saltation at Earth and Mars pressures and show that the threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport is best defined as a continuum in which grains progress through stages defined by the proportion of grains in creep and saltation. We propose the use of scale dependent thresholds modeled by distinct probability distribution functions that differentiate the threshold based on micro to macro scale applications. For example, a geologic timescale application corresponds to a threshold when 100% of the bed in motion whereas a sub-second application corresponds to a threshold when a single particle is set in motion. We provide quantitative measurements (number and mode of particle movement) corresponding to visual observations, percent of bed in motion and degrees of transport intermittency for Earth and Mars. Understanding transport as a continuum provides a basis for revaluating sand transport thresholds on Earth, Mars and Titan.

  8. Gasification of oil sand coke: review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-08-01

    The production of synthetic crude from the tar sands in Western Canada has been steadily increasing. Most of the delayed coke produced by Suncor is combusted on site, whereas all fluid coke produced by Syncrude is stockpiled.The database on the chemical and physical properties of the oil sand coke, including the composition and fusion properties of the mineral matter, has been established. The reactivity of the coke was determined by oxygen chemisorption, fixed bed and fluid bed bench scale gasification and pilot plant gasification. The reactivity of the oil sand coke for gasification is rather low and comparable to high rank coals, such as anthracite. Slurrability tests revealed that a solid concentration in water, approaching 70 wt%, can be achieved. Gasification is the front runner among clean technologies for the conversion of carbonaceous solids to useful products. Several commercial gasifiers are available to cover the wide range of severity. Because of the low reactivity of oil sands coke, high severity conditions are required to achieve high gasification conversion. Such conditions can be attained in entrained bed gasifiers. Gasifiers employing both dry and slurry feeding systems are suitable. A high efficiency, low SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions, as well as a low solid waste production are among the key advantages of the gasification technology compared with thecompeting technologies. Commercial gasification of oil sands coke is delayed because of the availability of natural gas on the site of the upgrading plants. Potential for the transportation of the oil sand coke to USA for electricity generation using the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology was evaluated. 27 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. On the Size Distribution of Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A model is presented of the development of the size distribution of sand while it is transported from a source to a deposit. The model provides a possible explanation of the log-hyperbolic shape that is frequently found in unimodal grain size distributions in natural sand deposits, as pointed out......-distribution, by taking into account that individual grains do not have the same travel time from the source to the deposit. The travel time is assumed to be random so that the wear on the individual grains vary randomly. The model provides an interpretation of the parameters of the NIG-distribution, and relates the mean...

  10. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  11. Log-inject-log in sand consolidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, R.P.; Spurlock, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for gathering information for the determination of the adequacy of placement of sand consolidating plastic for sand control in oil and gas wells. The method uses a high neutron cross-section tracer which becomes part of the plastic and uses pulsed neutron logging before and after injection of the plastic. Preferably, the method uses lithium, boron, indium, and/or cadmium tracers. Boron oxide is especially useful and can be dissolved in alcohol and mixed with the plastic ingredients

  12. Oil sand synfuel production using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.

    1984-10-01

    The importance of oil sand as a primary energy carrier is illustrated. The oil sand mining project 'synfuel' in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, is described. On the basis of a layout of an In-situ-process different possibilities of introducing nuclear energy to the process are described. This leads to an increase of the product yield, leading finally to a doubling of the energy output compared to the reference layout. The introduction of nuclear energy contributes to the reduction of emissions, in particular to the emission of carbon dioxide in the conversion process. (orig.)

  13. Permeability Tests on Silkeborg Sand No. 0000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Willy; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    on the characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Silkeborg Sand No. 0000. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. The apparatus, test procedures and the analysis method are described......The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends...

  14. Permeability Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    on the characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. Finally the test results are briefly summarised and a relationship between......The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends...

  15. Sand control systems used in completing wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Wittenberger

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Expandable Tubular Technology is transforming the face of well completion and construction. This technology provides: a substantially higher hydrocarbon production rates from the reservoir, a reduced well drilling and construction costs, new possibilities for previously unreachable or uneconomic reservoirs, and step a change towards the single diameter well. ESS (Expandable Sand Screen has an unrivalled performance worldwide for delivering a reliable sand control in a wide range of applications. Well costs typically cut by over 20 %, and the productivity increases up to 70 %.

  16. Experimental perforation of tubing with a hydraulic sand jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, Yu V

    1970-01-01

    A series of field tests has shown that perforation with a hydraulic sand jet improves the quality of well completion. The sand jet does not crack the cement sheath or the casing, and the perforations are larger and deeper than perforations formed by explosive charges. Fluid circulation during sand jet perforation can safely be stopped for at least 10 min. Water containing a surfactant can be used as a sand carrier. Sand jet perforation allows successful completion of wells cased by 2 tubing strings. Sand jet perforation can be used to clean the borehole well and to remove foreign objects from the well.

  17. Metakaolin sand – a promising addition for Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janotka, I.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The kaolin sand resource at the Vyšný Petrovec quarry in Slovakia comes to a total of 20 megatonnes. The metakaolin material obtained by heating kaolin sand at 650 ºC contains from 31.5 to 40% (wt metakaolinite, as well as illite, muscovite, quartz and feldspar. The aim of this study was to verify whether this calcined sand (MK1 is a pozzolanic material and characterize the cements and mortars prepared with it. The hydration reactions taking place in the blends were assessed with conduction calorimetry, X-ray diffraction (XRD and differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetry (DTA-TG. Blend and mortar strength development and pore structure were also evaluated. The results obtained showed that this metakaolin sand (MK-1 is a pozzolanic material apt for use as a cement addition and for making mortars.

    Las reservas de arena caolínica de la cantera eslovaca de Vyšný Petrovec ascienden a un total de 20 millones de toneladas. El material metacaolínico, que resulta al calentar la arena caolínica a 650 ºC, contiene entre un 31,5 y un 40% de metacaolinita, además de ilita, moscovita, cuarzo y feldespato. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido comprobar que esa arena calcinada es un material puzolánico; así como caracterizar los cementos y morteros preparados con dicha arena (MK-1. La hidratación de las mezclas se evaluó mediante calorimetría de conducción, y difracción de rayos X (DRX y Análisis térmico-diferencial y termogravimétrico (ATD-TG. Se ha evaluado el desarrollo resistente de las mezclas y morteros; así como su estructura porosa. Los resultados obtenidos han demostrado que esa arena metacolínica (MK-1 es un material puzolánico y que podría utilizarse como adición al cemento y en la preparación de morteros.

  18. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Gwang Bae; Lee, Han Gi; Kim, Se Yeol

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  19. 21 CFR 864.4400 - Enzyme preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enzyme preparations. 864.4400 Section 864.4400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4400 Enzyme...

  20. MouldingSandDB – a modern database storing moulding sands properties research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakubski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of foundry processes requires the use of modern, advanced IT tools for optimization, storage and analysis of t echnicaldata. Properties of moulding and core sands that are collected in research laboratories, manufacturers, and finally in the foundries, are not in use later on. It seems important to create a database that will allow to use the results stored, along with the possibility of searching according to set criteria, adjusted to casting practice. This paper presents part of the database named „MouldingSandDB”, which allows to collect and search data for synthetic moulding sands.

  1. Meteorology observations in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Meteorological data was collected in the Athabasca oil sands area of Alberta in support of Syncrude' application for approval to develop and operate the Aurora Mine. Meteorology controls the transport and dispersion of gaseous and particulate emissions which are vented into the atmosphere. Several meteorological monitoring stations have been set up in the Fort McMurray and Fort McKay area. The study was part of Suncor's commitment to Alberta Environmental Protection to substantially reduce SO 2 emissions by July 1996. Also, as a condition of approval of the proposed Aurora Mine, the company was required to develop additional ambient air quality, sulphur deposition and biomonitoring programs. Background reports were prepared for: (1) source characterization, (2) ambient air quality observations, (3) meteorology observations, and (4) air quality monitoring. The following factors were incorporated into dispersion modelling: terrain, wind, turbulence, temperature, net radiation and mixing height, relative humidity and precipitation. 15 refs., 9 tabs., 40 figs

  2. Development and optimization of a novel sample preparation method cored on functionalized nanofibers mat-solid-phase extraction for the simultaneous efficient extraction of illegal anionic and cationic dyes in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Feifei; Jian, Ningge; Qian, Liangliang; Cao, Weixin; Xu, Qian; Li, Jian

    2017-09-01

    A simple and efficient three-step sample preparation method was developed and optimized for the simultaneous analysis of illegal anionic and cationic dyes (acid orange 7, metanil yellow, auramine-O, and chrysoidine) in food samples. A novel solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure based on nanofibers mat (NFsM) was proposed after solvent extraction and freeze-salting out purification. The preferred SPE sorbent was selected from five functionalized NFsMs by orthogonal experimental design, and the optimization of SPE parameters was achieved through response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken design (BBD). Under the optimal conditions, the target analytes could be completely adsorbed by polypyrrole-functionalized polyacrylonitrile NFsM (PPy/PAN NFsM), and the eluent was directly analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The limits of detection (LODs) were between 0.002 and 0.01 mg kg -1 , and satisfactory linearity with correlation coefficients (R > 0.99) for each dye in all samples was achieved. Compared with the Chinese standard method and the published methods, the proposed method was simplified greatly with much lower requirement of sorbent (5.0 mg) and organic solvent (2.8 mL) and higher sample preparation speed (10 min/sample), while higher recovery (83.6-116.5%) and precision (RSDs < 7.1%) were obtained. With this developed method, we have successfully detected illegal ionic dyes in three common representative foods: yellow croaker, soybean products, and chili seasonings. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of the process of the three-step sample preparation.

  3. Undrained Cyclic Behaviour of Dense Frederikshavn Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Kjær; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Sørensen, Kris Wessel

    2013-01-01

    A modified contour diagram is created for the Frederikshavn Sand in the undrained case for a relative density of ID = 80 %. It can be used to estimate the number of cycles to failure for a given combination of pore pressure, average and cyclic load ratio. The diagram is based on a series of undra...

  4. Radiation safety in Australia's mineral sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.

    1989-06-01

    This brochure is part of a training package aiming to explain in simple terms what radiation is, how it affects people's lives and how, in the specific case of the mineral sand industry, the risk of ill-effects from low-level radioactivity could be effectively guarded against by simple and easily followed safety precautions. ills

  5. Geomechanical properties of lime stabilized clayey sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabani, M.; Karami, M. Veis

    2007-01-01

    Clayey sands that have low plasticity, low compressibility and high strength under loads, are suitable as a base material for any engineering construction projects as well as for roads and building construction. Decrease of plasticity and compressibility as well as increase in strength of these materials can be obtained by many different methods. Of these methods, lime stabilization is a common, applicable, and easy to use approach that can improve geomechanical and geotechnical properties of clayey sand fills. In this study some important geomechanical properties and geotechnical properties of clayey sands including compressive strength, CBR and elastic plastic behavior are investigated. A range of gradations representative of those gradations found in situ in the north of Iran were selected for testing and samples were artificially rebuilt in the laboratory. The mixes were then stabilized with hydrated lime and cured. Different mechanical tests were performed on mature materials. The stress-strain behavior of lime-stabilized mixes was plotted and a parabolic function was used to estimate the trend of stress-strain behavior. The data show that there is a correlation among the results of uniaxial load test, tensile strength, and CBR of the tested specimens. Also, results of the unconfined compression test and the indirect tensile strength test show that an increase in clay content up to a certain percent, in the clay-sand fills, tends to increase the strength of the materials in compression as well as in tension. (author)

  6. Market opportunities and challenges for oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    The use of Alberta bitumen as a clean fuel depends on upgrading, transportation, and refining processes. Forecasts show that oil sands production, which includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), will surpass declining conventional production from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The challenges facing the oils sands processing industry include: crude oil prices which affect the producer's market; market expansion options; diluent availability/cost; supply cost competitiveness; and, regional processing. The common market issues include light/heavy crude prices, oil sands crude qualities, prices of oil sands crudes, pipeline infrastructure, and competitive supplies. The issues facing the refiners are: refining margins, security of crude supply, refined product quality, and competitive product supply. It was noted that Alberta must retain or increase its share of the Midwest market. The market expansion options were reviewed for both downstream (refining) and upstream (upgrading) operations. New pipeline capacity is needed to reach more distant markets such as Southern Midwest, Washington, and California. The market is nearly saturated for Canada's heavy oil supply. More upgrading will be required as bitumen production increases. Market growth is still possible for Canada's SCO but according to forecasts, the market could also become saturated. To increase demand and allow supplies to grow, SCO prices may fall below light crude prices. It was noted that a balance must be achieved in order for producers to increase production and for refiner/upgraders to expand their conversion capacity. 13 figs

  7. Growing markets to sustain oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.

    2003-01-01

    The utilization of Alberta bitumen for the clean fuels market depends on upgrading, transportation, and refining processes. Forecasts show that oil sands production, which includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), will surpass declining conventional production in Western Canada. Several issues pose a challenge to the oil sands processing industry. The producers' market is affected by crude oil prices, market expansion options, diluent availability/cost, supply cost competitiveness, and regional processing. The common market issues include light/heavy crude prices, oil sands crude qualities, prices of oil sands crudes, pipeline infrastructure, and competitive supplies. The issues facing the refiners are: refining margins, security of crude supply, refined product quality, and competitive product supply. A brief review of markets for Canadian crude oil, including synthetic crude, was provided. The share of the Midwest market by Alberta must be retained and increased. The market expansion options were reviewed for both downstream (refining) and upstream (upgrading) operations. To reach more distant markets such as Southern Midwest, Washington, and California, new pipeline capacity would be required. The market is nearly saturated for Canada's heavy oil supply. More upgrading will be required as bitumen production increases. Market growth is still possible for Canada's SCO but according to forecasts, the market could also become saturated. To increase demand and allow supplies to grow, SCO prices may fall below light crude prices. It was noted that a balance must be achieved in order for producers to increase production and for refiner/upgraders to expand their conversion capacity. tabs., figs

  8. Microbial Characterization of Qatari Barchan Sand Dunes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Abdul Majid

    Full Text Available This study represents the first characterization of sand microbiota in migrating barchan sand dunes. Bacterial communities were studied through direct counts and cultivation, as well as 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequence analysis to gain an understanding of microbial abundance, diversity, and potential metabolic capabilities. Direct on-grain cell counts gave an average of 5.3 ± 0.4 x 105 cells g-1 of sand. Cultured isolates (N = 64 selected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria (58%, Firmicutes (27% and Proteobacteria (15%. Deep-sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 18 dunes demonstrated a high relative abundance of Proteobacteria, particularly enteric bacteria, and a dune-specific-pattern of bacterial community composition that correlated with dune size. Shotgun metagenome sequences of two representative dunes were analyzed and found to have similar relative bacterial abundance, though the relative abundances of eukaryotic, viral and enterobacterial sequences were greater in sand from the dune closer to a camel-pen. Functional analysis revealed patterns similar to those observed in desert soils; however, the increased relative abundance of genes encoding sporulation and dormancy are consistent with the dune microbiome being well-adapted to the exceptionally hyper-arid Qatari desert.

  9. Afyon-Sandıklı

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    δ18O and δD isotope ratios of the Sandıklı waters plot along the continental meteoric water line ... and district heating. Several studies on geology, hydrogeology along ..... precipitation; In: Handbook of Environmental Isotope. Geochemistry ...

  10. Constructing food choice decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobal, Jeffery; Bisogni, Carole A

    2009-12-01

    Food choice decisions are frequent, multifaceted, situational, dynamic, and complex and lead to food behaviors where people acquire, prepare, serve, give away, store, eat, and clean up. Many disciplines and fields examine decision making. Several classes of theories are applicable to food decision making, including social behavior, social facts, and social definition perspectives. Each offers some insights but also makes limiting assumptions that prevent fully explaining food choice decisions. We used constructionist social definition perspectives to inductively develop a food choice process model that organizes a broad scope of factors and dynamics involved in food behaviors. This food choice process model includes (1) life course events and experiences that establish a food choice trajectory through transitions, turning points, timing, and contexts; (2) influences on food choices that include cultural ideals, personal factors, resources, social factors, and present contexts; and (3) a personal system that develops food choice values, negotiates and balances values, classifies foods and situations, and forms/revises food choice strategies, scripts, and routines. The parts of the model dynamically interact to make food choice decisions leading to food behaviors. No single theory can fully explain decision making in food behavior. Multiple perspectives are needed, including constructionist thinking.

  11. Dark grains of sand: a geological storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Maresca, Magda

    2017-04-01

    In the secondary Italian school the Earth science learning begins at first year, in synergy with other natural science subjects such as Astronomy, Chemistry and Biology. Italian teachers have to focus on the landscape geomorphological aspects and often Earth processes are difficult to display since they are related to certain phenomena happened during the past and often far from the involved country. In order to better understand the environment surrounding us, very simple and poor materials, like sands, allow the teachers to create attractive lab experiences. According to the IBSE (Inquiry Based Science Education) approach, a learning unit has been implemented starting from a walking along the light carbonate beaches of the Adriatic sea: a smart look to the sands ("engage step"), stroke the students fantasy pushing them to explore some strange black grains on the sands. Dirty sands? Or rock landscape, soil degradation and Ofanto river and coastal processes (erosion, transportation and deposition)? This was the teaching challenge. Due to the youngest age, a third level, guided inquiry, was adopted so the teacher is the "guide of inquiry" encouraging the students using the research question ("Why is the sand dark?", "Do all sands look the same?", "Where does it come from?") and driving the students around their investigation plans ("How can I measure grain size?"). A procedure to answer the above questions and validate the results and explanations has been implemented to allow the students to be proactive in their study. During the learning activities will be the students to ask for field trip to elaborate their new knowledge, verify and visualize the speculated processes. The teaching skills allow to address several geosciences domains such as mineralogy, petrology, regional geology and geodynamics as well as other scientific disciplines such as mathematics (more specifically statistics), forensic science and even life sciences (the presence of bioclasts might

  12. The provenance of Taklamakan desert sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittner, Martin; Vermeesch, Pieter; Carter, Andrew; Bird, Anna; Stevens, Thomas; Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Dutt, Ripul; Xu, Zhiwei; Lu, Huayu

    2016-03-01

    Sand migration in the vast Taklamakan desert within the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous region, PR China) is governed by two competing transport agents: wind and water, which work in diametrically opposed directions. Net aeolian transport is from northeast to south, while fluvial transport occurs from the south to the north and then west to east at the northern rim, due to a gradual northward slope of the underlying topography. We here present the first comprehensive provenance study of Taklamakan desert sand with the aim to characterise the interplay of these two transport mechanisms and their roles in the formation of the sand sea, and to consider the potential of the Tarim Basin as a contributing source to the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). Our dataset comprises 39 aeolian and fluvial samples, which were characterised by detrital-zircon U-Pb geochronology, heavy-mineral, and bulk-petrography analyses. Although the inter-sample differences of all three datasets are subtle, a multivariate statistical analysis using multidimensional scaling (MDS) clearly shows that Tarim desert sand is most similar in composition to rivers draining the Kunlun Shan (south) and the Pamirs (west), and is distinctly different from sediment sources in the Tian Shan (north). A small set of samples from the Junggar Basin (north of the Tian Shan) yields different detrital compositions and age spectra than anywhere in the Tarim Basin, indicating that aeolian sediment exchange between the two basins is minimal. Although river transport dominates delivery of sand into the Tarim Basin, wind remobilises and reworks the sediment in the central sand sea. Characteristic signatures of main rivers can be traced from entrance into the basin to the terminus of the Tarim River, and those crossing the desert from the south to north can seasonally bypass sediment through the sand sea. Smaller ephemeral rivers from the Kunlun Shan end in the desert and discharge their sediment there. Both river run

  13. Growth and abundance of Pacific Sand Lance, Ammodytes hexapterus, under differing oceanographic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Martin D.; Gray, Floyd; Piatt, John F.

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic changes in seabird and marine mammal stocks in the Gulf of Alaska have been linked to shifts in abundance and composition of forage fish stocks over the past 20 years. The relative value (e.g., size and condition of individual fish, abundance) of specific forage fish stocks to predators under temporally changing oceanographic regimes is also expected to vary. We inferred potential temporal responses in abundance, growth, and age structure of a key forage fish, sand lance, by studying across spatially different oceanographic regimes. Marked meso-scale differences in abundance, growth, and mortality existed in conjunction with these differing regimes. Growth rate within stocks (between years) was positively correlated with temperature. However, this relationship did not exist among stocks (locations) and differing growth rates were better correlated to marine productivity. Sand lance were least abundant and grew slowest at the warmest site (Chisik Island), an area of limited habitat and low food abundance. Abundance and growth of juvenile sand lance was highest at the coolest site (Barren Islands), an area of highly productive upwelled waters. Sand lance at two sites located oceanographically between the Barren Islands and Chisik Island (inner- and outer-Kachemak Bay) displayed correspondingly intermediate abundance and growth. Resident predators at these sites are presented with markedly different numbers and quality of this key prey species. Our results suggest that at the decadal scale, Gulf of Alaska forage fish such as sand lance are probably more profoundly affected by changes in abundance and quality of their planktonic food, than by temperature alone.

  14. Application conditions for ester cured alkaline phenolic resin sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-he Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Five organic esters with different curing speeds: propylene carbonate (i.e. high-speed ester A; 1, 4-butyrolactone; glycerol triacetate (i.e. medium-speed ester B; glycerol diacetate; dibasic ester (DBE (i.e. low-speed ester C, were chosen to react with alkaline phenolic resin to analyze the application conditions of ester cured alkaline phenolic resin. The relationships between the curing performances of the resin (including pH value, gel pH value, gel time of resin solution, heat release rate of the curing reaction and tensile strength of the resin sand and the amount of added organic ester and curing temperature were investigated. The results indicated the following: (1 The optimal added amount of organic ester should be 25wt.%-30wt.% of alkaline phenolic resin and it must be above 20wt.%-50 wt.% of the organic ester hydrolysis amount. (2 High-speed ester A (propylene carbonate has a higher curing speed than 1, 4-butyrolactone, and they were both used as high-speed esters. Glycerol diacetate is not a high-speed ester in alkaline phenolic resin although it was used as a high-speed ester in ester cured sodium silicate sand; glycerol diacetate and glycerol triacetate can be used as medium-speed esters in alkaline phenolic resin. (3 High-speed ester A, medium-speed ester B (glycerol triacetate and low-speed ester C (dibasic ester, i.e., DBE should be used below 15 ìC, 35 ìC and 50 ìC, respectively. High-speed ester A or low-speed ester C should not be used alone but mixed with medium-speed ester B to improve the strength of the resin sand. (4 There should be a suitable solid content (generally 45wt.%-65wt.% of resin, alkali content (generally 10wt.%-15wt.% of resin and viscosity of alkaline phenolic resin (generally 50-300 mPa≤s in the preparation of alkaline phenolic resin. Finally, the technique conditions of alkaline phenolic resin preparation and the application principles of organic ester were discussed.

  15. High temperature thermal energy storage in moving sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. H.; Awaya, H. I.

    1978-01-01

    Several high-temperature (to 500 C) heat-storage systems using sand as the storage medium are described. The advantages of sand as a storage medium include low cost for sand, widespread availability, non-toxicity, non-degradation characteristics, easy containment, and safety. The systems considered include: stationary sand with closely spaced tubes throughout the volume, the use of a fluidized bed, use of conveyor belt transporter, and the use of a blower rapid transport system. For a stationary sand bed, very close spacing of heat transfer tubes throughout the volume is required, manifesting as high power related system cost. The suggestion of moving sand past or around pipes is intended to reduce the power related costs at the penalty of added system complexity. Preliminary system cost estimates are offered. These rough calculations indicate that mobile sand heat storage systems cost less than the stationary sand approach.

  16. Field test on sand compaction pile method with copper slag sand; Dosuisai slag wo mochiita SCP koho no shiken seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, K.; Matsui, H.; Naruse, E.; Kitazume, M. [Port and Harbour Research Inst., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-09-20

    This paper describes the sand compaction pile (SCP) method using copper slag sand. The SCP method is a method by which sand compaction piles are constructed in the ground, and improvement can be obtained in a short period. This method has been widely used even in the port areas for enhancing the bearing power of soft clay ground and the lateral resistance of sheet pile. A great deal of sand is required as a material. The sand requires high permeability, proper size distribution with less fine particle fraction content, easy compaction property with enough strength, and easy discharging property from the casing of construction machines as required properties. Recently, it becomes hard to secure proper sand materials. The copper slag sand is obtained from refining process of copper as a by-product which is quenched in water flow and crushed in water. The copper slag sand has higher particle density than that of sand, excellent permeability, and similar size distribution to that of sand. From compaction drainage triaxial compression test and permeability test, it was found that the mechanical properties of copper slag sand did not change by the crushing of grains with keeping excellent permeability. Through the test construction, applicability of the copper slag sand to the SCP method could be confirmed as an alternate material of sand. 17 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Southeast Florida Sediment Assessment and Needs Determination (SAND) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    sand with some shell beds, sandstone , and limestone *Miami Limestone 0 to 80 ft Oolitic limestone, quartz sand, and sandstone Anastasia 0 to 100 ft...Sand, shell beds, marl, calcareous sandstone (coquina/calcarenite) Fort Thompson 0 to 80 ft Silty limestone, silty sand, clayey marl, shell marl...highly- to moderately- weathered quartzose sandstone , and highly-weathered (saprolitic) to moderately-weathered hard limestone. North-south and

  18. Biodegradable materials as binders for IVth generation moulding sands

    OpenAIRE

    K. Major-Gabry

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the possibility of using the biodegradable materials as binders (or parts of binders?compositions) for foundry moulding and core sands. Results showed that there is a great possibility of using available biodegradable materials as foundry moulding sand binders. Using biodegradable materials as partial content of new binders, or additives to moulding sands may not only decrease the toxicity and increase reclamation ability of tested moulding sands, but also accelerate the...

  19. SPECIFIC RESISTANCE AND SPECIFIC INTENSITY OF BELT SANDING OF WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boleslaw Porankiewicz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and discusses the specific belt sanding resistance K (N·cm-2 and specific belt sanding intensity SI (g·cm-2·min-1, for wood of Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies L., Quercus robra L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., and Populus Nigra L., by different sanding pressure pS, different sanding grit NG number, and different wood grain angles Phi(v.

  20. Microbiological safety of tenderized, proteinaceous, semi-processed and processed food prepared from poultry treated with ionizing radiation and other processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, I.; Lapidot, M.

    1998-01-01

    From a microbiological point of view, poultry meat is considered to be one of the most contaminated raw foods, harbouring bacteria, including pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp. Some of these pathogens can survive the heat treatment used during the further processing of poultry meat into ready to eat products such as sausages and patties, and thus endanger consumer health, particularly in the young, the elderly and the immunocompromised. L. monocytogenes is of particular concern. This Gram positive, non-spore forming, psychrotrophic pathogen has been recognized as one of the causes of a severe food borne illness. The organism is relatively heat stable and can multiply under refrigeration conditions, but is sensitive to ionizing radiation. A survey conducted in Israel demonstrated that raw poultry meat was heavily contaminated with L. monocytogenes and that the pathogen could also be recovered from ready to eat poultry products. It was proposed that treatment of the raw meat with ionizing radiation prior to heating and use of the hazard analysis critical control point concept in the further processing plant would result in the elimination of contamination in ready to eat products. (author)

  1. Performance of soft clay stabilized with sand columns treated by silica fume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samueel Zeena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In many road construction projects, if weak soil exists, then uncontrollable settlement and critical load carrying capacity are major difficult problems to the safety and serviceability of roads in these areas. Thus ground improvement is essential to achieve the required level of performance. The paper presents results of the tests of four categories. First category was performed on saturated soft bed of clay without any treatment, the second category shed light on the improvement achieved in loading carrying capacity and settlement as a result of reinforcing with conventional sand columns at area replacement ratio = 0.196. The third set investigates the bed reinforced by sand columns stabilized with dry silica fume at different percentages (3, 5 and 7% and the fourth set investigates the behavior of sand columns treated with slurry silica fume at two percentages (10 and 12%. All sand columns models were constructed at (R.D= 60%. Model tests were performed on bed of saturated soil prepared at undrained shear strength between 16-20 kPa for all models. For all cases, the model test was loaded gradually by stress increments up to failure. Stress deformation measurements are recorded and analyzed in terms of bearing improvement ratio and settlement reduction ratio. Optimum results were indicated from soil treated with sand columns stabilized with 7% dry silica fume at medium state reflecting the highest bearing improvement ratio (3.04 and the settlement reduction ratio (0.09 after 7 days curing. While soil treated with sand columns stabilized with 10% slurry silica fume provided higher bearing improvement ratio 3.13 with lower settlement reduction ratio of 0.57 after 7-days curing.

  2. Wear and microstructural characteristics of spray atomized zircon sand reinforced LM13 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, K.; Pandey, O.P. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University Patiala, Punjab (India)

    2010-07-15

    The requirement of the high performance light weight materials demands the development of varieties of materials within the economical range to get it commercialized. Light weight aluminium alloys are used in several structural applications like automotive, aerospace, defense industry and other fields of engineering. The ceramic particle reinforced aluminium metal matrix composites (AMCs) have emerged as a suitable candidate for commercial applications. A variety of processing routes have been adopted to manufacture AMCs. In the present work LM13 alloy reinforced with zircon sand is formed via spray forming. During experimentation a self prepared convergent-divergent nozzle is used for inert gas atomization of the melt which is subsequently deposited on copper substrate placed vertically below the atomizer. The zircon sand particles are injected in the atomization zone by external injectors aligned perpendicular to the gas atomization axis. Zircon sand has been found to have new promising economical commercial candidate due to its easy availability and good mechanical properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity and good thermal stability. The microhardness of cast alloy and spray formed composite shows that the spray formed zircon sand reinforced composite has higher hardness. Also the lower wear rate has been observed in case of the zircon sand reinforced AMC as compared to LM13 alloy. This behaviour is further analyzed in light of microstructural features of the spray deposited composite using optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM). A comparative study of this material (LM13/Zircon sand) with the parent alloy (LM13) is presented in this work. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Evaluate of head loss, sediment value and copper removal in sand media (rapid sand filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daneshi Navab

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with the technology development and increasing consumption of water resources, we are experiencing low qualities in the mentioned resources. Copper brings about serious environment al pollution, threatening human health and ecosystem. This metal found variously in water resources and industrial activities. Therefore, it needs to treat the water resources from these excessive amounts. Different methods have used for this reason but the most used method during recent years has been the absorption by economic absorbers such as sand. Rapid sand filters usually used in water and wastewater treatment plants for water clarification. In this research, a single layer gravity rapid sand filter has used to reduce different concentrations of copper. sediment value and head loss arising in filter media is simulated by using combination of Carman-Kozeny, Rose and Gregory models in different discharges of rapid sand filter. Results have shown that with increasing in discharge and decreasing in input copper concentration, arriving time to given head loss, is increasing. In addition, results demonstrated that with increasing in copper concentration in influent, removal efficiency is decreasing somewhat. Results of this research can applied in an appropriate design of rapid sand filter to copper removal, a prediction of rapid sand filter ability to copper removal and an estimation of arising head loss during filter work thus evaluating of time interval backwash. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10641 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 276-286

  4. Dewatering Behaviour of Fine Oil Sands Tailings : An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Oil sands tailings are a warm aqueous suspension of sand, silt, clay, residual bitumen and naphtha. The tailings are hydraulically transported and stored in tailing ponds where they segregate, with the sand settling from suspension forming beaches and the remaining tailings flowing to the middle of

  5. Design and Fabrication of a Foundry Sand Mixer Using Locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most small foundry shops mix their sand manually which is not efficient since homogenous mix cannot be guaranteed and even when foundry mixer are available most of them are imported costing the nation huge foriegn exchange. A foundry sand mixer capable of mixing foundry sand has been designed and fabricated ...

  6. Seasonal changing sand waves and the effect of surface waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterlini, Fenneke; van Dijk, Thaiënne A.G.P.; IJzer, Steven; Hulscher, Suzanne; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Tomasicchio, Guiseppe Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Sand waves are wavelike subaqueous sediment structures that exist in large areas in shelf seas. Due to their characteristics sand waves can severely affect human offshore activities, such as navigation. This makes it important to understand the physical processes that shape and change sand waves. In

  7. Short Communications Sand moisture as a factor determining depth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-11-05

    Nov 5, 1993 ... The depths to which the animals burrow are, at least partly. determined by the moisture gradient in the sand. They are, however, incapable of burrowing into totally dry sand. Animals alter their position in the sand in response to changes in moisture content so as to ensure exposure to suitable conditions.

  8. Assessing environmental impacts of inland sand mining in parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sand is a valuable resource for construction and other purposes, however sand mining often result in serious environmental problems such as land degradation, loss of agricultural lands and biodiversity, as well increased poverty among people. This study assessed the environmental impacts of inland sand mining in six ...

  9. Acetylcholinesterase mutations and organophosphate resistance in sand flies and mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishmaniasis is an insect-borne disease caused by several protozoan species in the genus Leishmania, which are vectored by sand fly species in the genera Phlebotomus or Lutzomyia, depending on the sand fly species geographic range. Sand fly bites and leishmaniasis significantly impacted U.S. milita...

  10. Food irradiation: the facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.

    1990-01-01

    The author explains in simple question and answer form what is entailed in the irradiation of food and attempts to dispel some of the anxieties surrounding the process. Benefits and limitations, controls, labelling safety, and tests for the detection of the use irradiation in food preparation are some of the topics dealt with in outline. (author)

  11. Criteria for an advanced assessment of quality of moulding sands with organic binders and reclamation process products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reclamation of used moulding and core sands has been defined as a treatment of waste moulding refractory materials, enabling a recovery of at least one of the components having properties similar to those of the fresh component, and reuse for production of casting moulds and cores. However, at present, there is a lack of a reclaimed material assessment index, which could be applied to each type of moulding sand and reclaim. Modern investigation methods and equipment for the estimation of the quality of the moulding sands matrices with organic binders, in their circulation process, are presented in this paper. These methods, utilizing the special equipment combined with the author’s investigation methods developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH - University of Science and Technology, allow the better estimation of the matrix quality both in an aspect of its application as a fresh sand substitute in the preparation of moulding sands, and also with regard to the environmental protection. The most important criteria for the technological assessment of the reclaimed materials and the quality of sands with organic binders are presented in this paper.

  12. Depth investigation of rapid sand filters for drinking water production reveals strong stratification in nitrification biokinetic behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    The biokinetic behavior of NH4 + removal was investigated at different depths of a rapid sand filter treating groundwater for drinking water preparation. Filter materials from the top, middle and bottom layers of a full-scale filter were exposed to various controlled NH4 + loadings in a continuous...

  13. Sand Needs and Resources Offshore New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, J. M.; Flood, R. D.; White, M.; Bokuniewicz, H.; Hinrichs, C.; Wilson, R. E.

    2016-02-01

    "Superstorm" Sandy (October, 2012) accentuated the persistent problem of coastal erosion on New York's ocean coast. The New York state Department of State in cooperation with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management has initiated further identification and assessment of marine sand reserves required to improve the resiliency of coastal communities and the maintenance of coastal habitats. The historical demand for beach nourishment has been about 1.5 million cubic meters per year, but sea level rise and the occurrence of extreme conditions may increase the demand to over 5 million cubic meters annually. Forty-four historical and proposed borrow sites have been delineated. This inner shelf is both sand rich and data rich. Geophysical and geological data has been compiled and reassessed to support identification, characterization, and delineation of sand resources for potential use in future coastal restoration, beach nourishment, and/or wetland restoration efforts. The South Shore of Long Island is composed in part by the Fire Island National Seashore. Holocene sand ridges extending at an oblique angle to the cross shore in the seaward direction. Borrow pits among the sand ridges, excavated were apparent in the most recent surveys and it appears that natural replenishment of offshore borrow areas has been occurring although the rates need to be determined in order to assess their sustainability. Not only is the area one of intense societal attention, but the use of this resource for coastal resilience must fit into a diverse framework marine spatial planning including not only traditional components, like commercial fishing, but also new factors like the siting of offshore wind-farms. To extend this assessment will include a recent survey, sponsored by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and the New York Department of State, providing approximately 700 km of geophysical survey lines located between 3 and 9 nautical miles offshore, and 46 geotechnical samples

  14. The Rheology of Acoustically Fluidized Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, J. W.; Melosh, J.

    2013-12-01

    The collapse of large craters and the formation of central peaks and peak rings is well modeled by numerical computer codes that incorporate the acoustic fluidization mechanism to temporarily allow the fluid-like flow of rock debris immediately after crater excavation. Furthermore, long runout landslides require a similar mechanism to explain their almost frictionless movement, which is probably also a consequence of their granular composition coupled with internal vibrations. Many different investigators have now confirmed the ability of vibrations to fluidize granular materials. Yet it still remains to fully describe the rheology of vibrated sand as a function of stress, frequency and amplitude of the vibrations in the sand itself. We constructed a rotational viscometer to quantitatively investigate the relation between the stress and strain rate in a horizontal bed of strongly vibrated sand. In addition to the macroscopic stain rate, the amplitude and frequency of the vibrations produced by a pair of pneumatic vibrators were also measured with the aid of miniaturized piezoelectric accelerometers (B&K 4393) whose output was recorded on a digital storage oscilloscope. The initial gathering of the experimental data was difficult due to granular memory, but by having the sand compacted vibrationally for 8 minutes before each run the scatter of data was reduced and we were able to obtain consistent results. Nevertheless, our major source of uncertainty was variations in strain rate from run to run. We find that vibrated sand flows like a highly non-Newtonian fluid, in which the shear strain rate is proportional to stress to a power much greater than one, where the precise power depends on the amplitude and frequency of the applied vibrations. Rapid flow occurs at stresses less than half of the static yield stress (that is, the yield stress when no vibration is applied) when strong vibrations are present. For a Newtonian fluid, such as water, the relation between

  15. Novel foraging in the swash zone on Pacific sand crabs (Emerita analoga, Hippidae) by mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; McLaughlin, John P.; Dugan, Jenifer E.

    2013-01-01

    Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) have been observed foraging on intertidal Pacific sand crabs (Hippidae, Emerita analoga) in the swash zone of sandy beaches around Coal Oil Point Reserve, California, and several other beaches on the west coast since at least November 2010. Unlike foraging shorebirds, Mallards do not avoid incoming swashes. Instead, the incoming swash lifts and deposits them down the beach. Shorebirds and diving ducks commonly feed on sand crabs, but sand crabs appear to be a novel behavior and food source for Mallards. Previous surveys of beaches did not report foraging Mallards on regional beaches, whereas foraging Mallards were common in contemporary (recent) surveys and anecdotal reports. Observations of this potentially new behavior were separated by as much as 1,300 km, indicating that this was not a local phenomenon. Mallards foraged singly, in pairs, and in flocks. An expansion of diet to sand crabs carries risks of exposure to surf, human disturbance, high salt intake, and transmission of acanthocephalan and trematode parasites for Mallards but has the benefit of providing a dependable source of animal protein.

  16. Morphological description and DNA barcoding study of sand rice (Agriophyllum squarrosum, Chenopodiaceae) collected in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genievskaya, Yuliya; Abugalieva, Saule; Zhubanysheva, Aibatsha; Turuspekov, Yerlan

    2017-11-14

    Sand rice (Agriophyllum squarrosum (L.) Moq.) is an annual shrub-like plant adapted to the mobile sand dunes in desert and semi-desert regions of Asia. It has a balanced nutrient composition with relatively high concentration of lipids and proteins, which results in its nutrition being similar to legumes. Sand rice's proteins contain the full range of essential amino acids. However, calories content is more similar to wheat. These features together with desert stress resistance make sand rice a potential food crop resilient to ongoing climate change. It is also an important fodder crop (on young stages of growth) for cattle in arid regions of Kazakhstan. In our work, sand rice samples were collected from two distant regions of Kazakhstan as a part of the nation-wide project to determine genetic variation of the native flora. Samples were collected in western and southeastern parts of Kazakhstan separated by distances of up to 1300 km. Sequences of the nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and the chloroplast matK gene confirmed the identity of species defined by morphological traits. Comparison with GenBank sequences revealed polymorphic sequence positions among Kazakh populations and GenBank references, and suggested a distinction among local populations of sand rice. The phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences showed a clear partition of A. squarrosum (L.) Moq. from Agriophyllum minus Fisch. & C.A. Mey, which grows in the same sand dunes environment. DNA barcoding analyses of ITS and matK sequences showed a segregation of A. squarrosum from A. minus into separate clades in Maximum-Likelhood dendrograms. ITS analysis can be successfully used to characterize A. squarrosum populations growing quite distant from each other. The data obtained in this work provide the basis for further investigations on A. squarrosum population structure and may play a role in the screening of sand rice plants growing in desert and semi-desert environments of Central Asia

  17. Study on Production of Silicon Nanoparticles from Quartz Sand for Hybrid Solar Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunmetha, S.; Vinoth, M.; Srither, S. R.; Karthik, A.; Sridharpanday, M.; Suriyaprabha, R.; Manivasakan, P.; Rajendran, V.

    2018-01-01

    Nano silicon (nano Si) particles were directly prepared from natural mineral quartz sand and thereafter used to fabricate the hybrid silicon solar cells. Here, in this preparation technique, two process stages were involved. In the first stage, the alkaline extraction and acid precipitation processes were applied on quartz sand to fetch silica nanoparticles. In the second stage, magnesiothermic and modified magnesiothermic reduction reactions were applied on nano silica particles to prepare nano Si particles. The effect of two distinct reduction methodologies on nano Si particle preparation was compared. The magnesiothermic and modified magnesiothermic reductions in the silica to silicon conversion process were studied with the help of x-ray diffraction (XRD) with intent to study the phase changes during the reduction reaction as well as its crystalline nature in the pure silicon phase. The particles consist of a combination of fine particles with spherical morphology. In addition to this, the optical study indicated an increase in visible light absorption and also increases the performance of the solar cell. The obtained nano Si particles were used as an active layer to fabricate the hybrid solar cells (HSCs). The obtained results confirmed that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the magnesiothermically modified nano Si cells (1.06%) is much higher as compared to the nano Si cells that underwent magnesiothermic reduction (1.02%). Thus, this confirms the increased PCE of the investigated nano Si solar cell up to 1.06%. It also revealed that nano Si behaved as an electron acceptor and transport material. The present study provided valuable insights and direction for the preparation of nano Si particles from quartz sand, including the influence of process methods. The prepared nano Si particles can be utilized for HSCs and an array of portable electronic devices.

  18. Experimental studies in Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity of roller compacted concrete pavement containing fly ash and M-sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krishna Rao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental investigation results of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV tests conducted on roller compacted concrete pavement (RCCP material containing Class F fly ash of as mineral admixture. River sand, M-sand and combination of M-sand and River sand are used as fine aggregate in this experimental work. Three types of fly ash roller compacted concrete mixes are prepared using above three types of fine aggregates and they are designated as Series A (River sand, Series B (manufactured sand and Series C (combination of River sand and M-sand. In each series the fly ash content in place of cement is varied from 0% to 60%. In each series and for different ages of curing (i.e 3, 7, 28 and 90 days forty two cube specimens are cast and tested for compressive strength and UPV. The UPV results of fly ash containing roller compacted concrete pavement (FRCCP show lower values at all ages from 3 days to 90 days in comparison with control mix concrete (0% fly ash in all mixes. However, it is also observed that Series B and C mixes containing fly ash show better results in UPV values, compressive strength and Dynamic Elastic Modulus in comparison to Series A mixes with fly ash. Relationships between compressive strength of FRCCP and UPV and Dynamic Elastic Modulus are proposed for all series mixes. A new empirical equation is proposed to determine the Dynamic Elastic Modulus of FRCCP. Keywords: Compressive strength, Dynamic Elastic Modulus, Fly ash, Roller compacted concrete pavement, Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity

  19. The physics of wind-blown sand and dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jasper F; Parteli, Eric J R; Michaels, Timothy I; Karam, Diana Bou

    2012-10-01

    The transport of sand and dust by wind is a potent erosional force, creates sand dunes and ripples, and loads the atmosphere with suspended dust aerosols. This paper presents an extensive review of the physics of wind-blown sand and dust on Earth and Mars. Specifically, we review the physics of aeolian saltation, the formation and development of sand dunes and ripples, the physics of dust aerosol emission, the weather phenomena that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devils and other small-scale vortices. We also discuss the physics of wind-blown sand and dune formation on Venus and Titan.

  20. Longshore sediment transport at Golden Sands (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Nikolov

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on the qualitative and quantitative features of the littoral drift at Golden Sands (Bulgaria, carried out jointly by Polish and Bulgarian researchers. The mathematical modelling of physical coastal processes took wave transformation (wave diffraction and refraction; the effects of shoaling and wave breaking and longshore sediment transport into account. The computations were carried out for the mean statistical annual wave climate, determined on the basis of IO BAS wave data, simulated using the WAM method from long-term Black Sea wind data. The results of sediment transport computations clearly show that its direction off the Golden Sands shore is from north to south.

  1. Tailings dewatering in the oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longo, S.; Labelle, M. [Golder Paste Technology, Sudbury, ON (Canada); Wislesky, I. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Alberta's Directive 074 was established to reduce fluid tailings produced during oil sands extraction processes. This PowerPoint presentation examined some of the dewatering strategies available for oil sands operators and provided recommendations for implementing a dewatering plan. Sites must be evaluated in order to determine their chemistry, mineralogy, and the total quantity of material to be handled. The availability of potential additives must also be considered. Process technologies must be selected in relation to the operator's depositional strategy. Each site will require its own unique dewatering and depositional strategy. Dewatering technologies include thickening; in-line flocculation; centrifuge; co-mingling; and various new technologies such as electro-osmosis. Laboratory testing programs include index tests, primary stream thickening, and mini-pilot plant testing. The performance of various testing formats was evaluated. Thickening and depositional techniques were reviewed. tabs., figs.

  2. Radiation protection in the sand pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewson, Greg

    1997-01-01

    Radiation protection in the Western Australian minerals sands industry has attracted considerable controversy over the last 20 years: firstly, in relation to environmental and public health issues associated with the indiscriminate disposal of radioactive tailings as landfill in the mid to late 1970s and, secondly, in relation to occupational health issues associated with excessive radiation exposures to some workers at some plants in the mid to late 1980s. The industry also attracts attention through its proximity to coastal regions and population centres and consequent land use conflicts. Owing to intense political and societal scrutiny, and the emotional responses evoked by radiation, the industry's survival depends on a continuing high level of environmental and safety performance. This article summarises the successes and failures of the mineral sands industry in managing radiation protection and highlights some future issues and challenges for the industry. (Author)

  3. Oil sands market and transportation solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandahl, R.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation outlined the immense potential of the western Canadian oil sands reserves. Recoverable reserves have been estimated at 180 billion barrels, with production forecasts estimated at 5 million barrels per day by 2030. Resource development is occurring at a time when the world's largest oil importer is increasing supplies through concern for security of supply. The second and third largest oil importers in the world are experiencing economic and energy demand growth. These factors underscore the motivation for rapid growth of the Western Canadian Oil Sands reserves. One of the challenges that must be addressed is to ensure that incremental markets for the increased production are accessed. Another challenge is to ensure adequate infrastructure in terms of pipeline capacity to ensure deliverability of the product. tabs., figs

  4. Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-02-11

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future

  5. Relating zoobenthic and emergent terrestrial insect production to tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestling diet in oil sands wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoms, J.L.; Martin, J.P.; Ciborowski, J.J. [Windsor Univ., Windsor, ON (Canada); Harms, N.J.; Smits, J.E. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the influence of oil sands process materials (OSPM) on wetland macroinvertebrate community composition and production. Tree swallows are known to inhabit constructed nest boxes and forage near their nest on flying insects of terrestrial and aquatic origin. Therefore, this study evaluated the structure of wetland food webs and how it relates to the transfer of production from aquatic sediments to nestling tree swallows. The study involved 2 reference and 2 oil sands affected wetlands. Exuviae of emerging aquatic and flying insects from floating and sticky traps were collected every 3 days during the tree swallow nestling period in order to estimate benthic invertebrate composition and production. The tree swallow nest boxes, placed around the perimeter of the wetlands in spring were monitored during egg laying and incubation. Diets of the 10-14 day-old nestlings were determined by placing a ligature around the neck of each nestling, preventing the passage of food into the esophagus for 45 min. Food boluses were collected from nestlings fed by the parents during that time. The study showed that although oil sands-affected wetlands had lower aerial insect abundance, they represented over half of the total boluses collected. It was concluded that this study will help determine the ecological viability of oil sands-affected wetlands and their capability of supporting terrestrial predators that rely on zoobenthos.

  6. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Ashraf; Nasr, Ahmed

    2013-03-01

    Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21-31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18-75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

  7. Fusion of arkosic sand by intrusive andesite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Roy A.

    1954-01-01

    An andesite dike in the Valles Mountains of northern New Mexico has intruded and partly fused arkosic sediments for a distance of 50 feet from its contacts. The dike is semi-circular in form, has a maximum width of about 100 feet, and is about 500 feet long. Small associated arcuate dikes are arranged in spiral fashion around the main dike, suggesting that they were intruded along shear fractures similar to those described by Burbank (1941). The fused rocks surrounding the andesite dike are of three general types: 1) partly fused arkosic sand, 2) fused clay, and 3) hybrid rocks. The fused arkosic sand consists of relict detrital grains of quartz, orthoclose, and plagioclase, imbedded in colorless glass containing microlites of tridymite, cordierite, and magnetite. The relict quartz grains are corroded and embayed by glass; the orthoclase is sanidinized and partly fused; and the plagioclase is inverted to the high temperature form and is partly fused. The fused clay, which was originally a mixture of montmorillonite and hydromica, consists primarily of cordierite but also contains needle-like crystals of sillimanite (?) or mullite (?). The hybrid rocks originated in part by intermixing of fused arkosic sediments and andesitic liquid and in part by diffusion of mafic constituents through the fused sediments. They are rich in cordierite and magnetite and also contain hypersthene, augite, and plagioclase. The composition of pigeonite in the andesite indicates that the temperature of the andesite at the time of intrusion probably did not exceed 1200?C. Samples of arkosic sand were fused in the presence of water in a Morey bomb at 1050?C. Stability relations of certain minerals in the fused sand suggest that fusion may have taken place at a lower temperature, however, and the fluxing action of volatiles from the andesite are thought to have made this possible.

  8. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. Comparison of SAND-II and FERRET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, D.W.; Schmittroth, F.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison was made of the advantages and disadvantages of two codes, SAND-II and FERRET, for determining the neutron flux spectrum and uncertainty from experimental dosimeter measurements as anticipated in the FFTF Reactor Characterization Program. This comparison involved an examination of the methodology and the operational performance of each code. The merits of each code were identified with respect to theoretical basis, directness of method, solution uniqueness, subjective influences, and sensitivity to various input parameters

  10. Drained Triaxial Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praastrup, U.; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    In the process of understanding and developing models for geomaterials, the stress-strain behaviour is commonly studied by performing triaxial tests. In the present study static triaxial tests have been performed to gain knowledge of the stress-strain behaviour of frictional materials during...... monotonic loading. The tests reported herein are all drained tests, starting from different initial states of stress and following various stress paths. AIl the tests are performed on reconstituted medium dense specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand....

  11. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Nazir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21–31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18–75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

  12. Transport processes in intertidal sand flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Christy

    2010-05-01

    Methane rich sulfate depleted seeps are observed along the low water line of the intertidal sand flat Janssand in the Wadden Sea. It is unclear where in the flat the methane is formed, and how it is transported to the edge of the sand flat where the sulfidic water seeps out. Methane and sulfate distributions in pore water were determined along transects from low water line toward the central area of the sand flat. The resulting profiles showed a zone of methane-rich and sulfate-depleted pore water below 2 m sediment depth. Methane production and sulfate reduction are monitored over time for surface sediments collected from the upper flat and seeping area. Both activities were at 22 C twice as high as at 15 C. The rates in sediments from the central area were higher than in sediments from the methane seeps. Methanogenesis occurred in the presence of sulfate, and was not significantly accelerated when sulfate was depleted. The observations show a rapid anaerobic degradation of organic matter in the Janssand. The methane rich pore water is obviously transported with a unidirectional flow from the central area of the intertidal sand flat toward the low water line. This pore water flow is driven by the pressure head caused by elevation of the pore water relative to the sea surface at low tide (Billerbeck et al. 2006a). The high methane concentration at the low water line accumulates due to a continuous outflow of pore water at the seepage site that prevents penetration of electron acceptors such as oxygen and sulfate to reoxidize the reduced products of anaerobic degradation (de Beer et al. 2006). It is, however, not clear why no methane accumulates or sulfate is depleted in the upper 2 m of the flats.

  13. Analysis of wind-blown sand movement over transverse dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Huang, Ning; Zhu, Yuanjian

    2014-12-01

    Wind-blown sand movement often occurs in a very complicated desert environment where sand dunes and ripples are the basic forms. However, most current studies on the theoretic and numerical models of wind-blown sand movement only consider ideal conditions such as steady wind velocity, flat sand surface, etc. In fact, the windward slope gradient plays a great role in the lift-off and sand particle saltation. In this paper, we propose a numerical model for the coupling effect between wind flow and saltating sand particles to simulate wind-blown sand movement over the slope surface and use the SIMPLE algorithm to calculate wind flow and simulate sands transport by tracking sand particle trajectories. We furthermore compare the result of numerical simulation with wind tunnel experiments. These results prove that sand particles have obvious effect on wind flow, especially that over the leeward slope. This study is a preliminary study on windblown sand movement in a complex terrain, and is of significance in the control of dust storms and land desertification.

  14. Assessment of harmfulness of green sand with additions of dust from dry dedusting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, in the literature about the problems cause to the environment by foundry industry, attention has been paid to the presence and harmful effect of aromatic hydrocarbons: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and isomers of xylenes (BTEX and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The growing interest in these pollutants of the environment is a result of their biological activity; some of them are characterized by mutagenic and carcinogenic action. In foundries these hydrocarbons are emitted during the contact between mould or core sands and liquid metal.This article discusses the results of the studies made on the elution rate of some harmful compounds include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs (Table 3 and 4 from waste mould sand with bentonite and coal dust M1 (mixture Kormix 75 and this one with addition of dust from dry dedusting of sand M2 preparing station (partial replacement of bentonite and emission of BTEX gases from this moulds poured with molten cast iron. From the results given in these tables it follows that both mould sands are characterized by low values of the concentration of investigation substances and haven’t negative influence for environment during casting or management in other means. Tests were done according to the methodology developed at Faculty of Foundry Engineering University of Science and Technology in Cracow.

  15. Naphtha evaporation from oil sands tailings ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperski, K.; Munoz, V.; Mikula, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Western Research Centre

    2010-07-01

    The environmental impacts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from oil sands tailings ponds must be considered when evaluating new oil sands mining and extraction operations. Studies have suggested that only 40 percent of the solvent sent to tailings ponds is available to the environment, while the rest is irreversibly trapped. The recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands froth process water is low. This PowerPoint presentation discussed a method of distinguishing between water and hydrocarbons at low temperatures. Samples were heated to 246 degrees C at 15 degrees C and held for 10 minutes. Heating was then resumed at 750 degrees C and held for 10 minutes in a pyrolysis phase, then cooled and reheated with an oxygen addition. The method demonstrated that the diluent distribution between the solids and water phases is misinterpreted as diluent that will evaporate, and diluent that will not evaporate. The study concluded by suggesting that the definition of recoverable and unrecoverable hydrocarbon should be re-termed as easily recoverable, and difficult to recover. tabs., figs.

  16. Insight conference reports : Western Canada oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This conference presented issues of concern to the Canadian oil sands industry. Focal points included supply and the potential for market growth as well as opportunities and challenges faced by the industry in the current market. Various projects were discussed, including the Northern Lights and Fort Hill projects. Reserves and resource booking procedures were examined, as well as issues concerning the streamlining of regulatory barriers and various approaches to the Kyoto Protocol and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Oil sands portfolios were reviewed as well as issues concerning the recovery of titanium and zircon, the economics of Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) options and innovations in technology and sub-surface risk assessment for in-situ projects. Transportation initiatives were examined as well as pipeline issues and storage infrastructure development. Issues concerning financing as well as the economic environment of the oil sands industry were also discussed. The conference featured 20 presentations, of which 5 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs, figs

  17. Recycled sand in lime-based mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, M; Anastasiou, E; Georgiadis Filikas, K

    2014-12-01

    The increasing awareness of the society about safe guarding heritage buildings and at the same time protecting the environment promotes strategies of combining principles of restoration with environmentally friendly materials and techniques. Along these lines, an experimental program was carried out in order to investigate the possibility of producing repair, lime-based mortars used in historic buildings incorporating secondary materials. The alternative material tested was recycled fine aggregates originating from mixed construction and demolition waste. Extensive tests on the raw materials have been performed and mortar mixtures were produced using different binding systems with natural, standard and recycled sand in order to compare their mechanical, physical and microstructure properties. The study reveals the improved behavior of lime mortars, even at early ages, due to the reaction of lime with the Al and Si constituents of the fine recycled sand. The role of the recycled sand was more beneficial in lime mortars rather than the lime-pozzolan or lime-pozzolan-cement mortars as a decrease in their performance was recorded in the latter cases due to the mortars' structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Numerical simulation of sand jet in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azimi, A.H.; Zhu, D.; Rajaratnam, N. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-07-01

    A numerical simulation of sand jet in water was presented. The study involved a two-phase flow using two-phase turbulent jets. A literature review was also presented, including an experiment on particle laden air jet using laser doppler velocimetry (LDV); experiments on the effect of particle size and concentration on solid-gas jets; an experimental study of solid-liquid jets using particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique where mean velocity and fluctuations were measured; and an experimental study on solid-liquid jets using the laser doppler anemometry (LDA) technique measuring both water axial and radial velocities. Other literature review results included a photographic study of sand jets in water; a comparison of many two-phase turbulent flow; and direct numerical simulation and large-eddy simulation to study the effect of particle in gas jet flow. The mathematical model and experimental setup were also included in the presentation along with simulation results for sand jets, concentration, and kinetic energy. The presentation concluded with some proposed future studies including numerical simulation of slurry jets in water and numerical simulation of slurry jets in MFT. tabs., figs.

  19. Mobil Oil Canada : Kearl Oil Sands Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The upgrader design at Mobil's Kearl Oil Sands Mine were described. Included were feed characteristics, upgrader products, process schemes and their overall economics and upgrader technologies in use, including coking, deasphalting, hydrocracking, hydrotreating and visbreaking. Advantages and disadvantages of the upgrader technologies were highlighted. As far as the product is concerned, much of it is destined to U.S. refineries that are equipped to process the material. The Kearl Oil Sands Mine upgrading facility will likely use a combination of coker/hydrotreating, which is a well proven process for high value products that has been used in all five of Mobil's refineries in the U.S., and visbreaker/deasphalting, which has shown promise in bench-scale testing, but at present still has some potential commercial difficulties. Foremost among these are the high softening product of asphalt from visbroken products, questionable commercial feasibility of the low yield of pitch, and problems in the disposal of asphalt. Severe visbreaking also yields unstable products. Details of Mobil Canada's oil sands project were also summarized 2 tabs., 9 figs

  20. Experimental investigation of sanding propensity for the Andrew completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkitaraman, A.; Li, H. [Schlumberger Perforating and Testing Center (United Kingdom); Leonard, A. J.; Bowden, P. R. [BP Exploration (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    A series of laboratory experiments were performed on three reservoir core samples selected from two plot wells to confirm the likelihood of sand production during the completion phase of the planned Andrew horizontal wells, and to perform risk analysis of formation failure at the time of underbalance perforation, and expected producing conditions. CT scans revealed no perforation failure, and the core samples did not show any propensity to produce sand during single-phase oil flow. Transient sand production was observed when water cut was introduced, but sand production declined as the percentage of water cut was increased. There was no evidence of sand production in the core samples during depletion testing either, and the wells were subsequently completed with perforated cemented liners without sand control. No sand problems have been encountered in two years of production, with some wells in water cut and declined reservoir pressure of 200 psi. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.