WorldWideScience

Sample records for preparing entomocidal products

  1. Effect of entomocidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis on ion permeability of apical membranes of Tenebrio molitor larvae gut epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, I M; Bulushova, N V; Zalunin, I A; Chestukhina, G G

    2009-10-01

    Effects of entomocidal Cry-type proteins, delta-endotoxins Cry3A and Cry11A produced by Bacillus thuringiensis, on ion permeability of the apical membranes of intestinal epithelium from Tenebrio molitor larvae midgut were studied. Using potential-sensitive dyes safranine O and oxonol VI and DeltapH indicator acridine orange, it was shown that placing brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) (loaded with Mg2+ during their preparation) into a salt-free buffer medium resulted in spontaneous generation of transmembrane electric potential on the vesicular membrane (negative inside the vesicles) accompanied by acidification of the aqueous phase inside the vesicles. The generation of transmembrane ion gradients on the vesicular membrane was a result of an electrogenic efflux of Mg2+ from the vesicles as shown by abolishing of the membrane potential by such agents as MgSO4 or CaCl2 in centimolar concentrations, a highly lipophilic cation tetraphenylphosphonium, and some blockers of cell membrane Ca2+-channels in submillimolar concentrations. A passive generation of membrane potential on the vesicular membrane (but positive inside the vesicles) was also observed upon addition of centimolar concentrations of K2SO4. Addition of delta-endotoxins Cry3A and Cry11A to the vesicle suspension in a salt-free buffer medium or in the same medium supplemented with centimolar concentrations of K2SO4 exerted a pronounced hyperpolarization of the vesicular membrane. This hyperpolarization was sensitive to the same agents, which abolished the membrane potential generation in the absence of delta-endotoxin. It is concluded that Cry proteins induced in BBMV from T. molitor opening pores or ion channels, which were considerably more permeable for alkaline- and alkaline-earth metal cations than for the accompanying anions.

  2. Preparing for a Product Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiil-Nielsen, Ole; Munk, Lone; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2005-01-01

    they lead to increased sales due to more customized product as well as decreased costs due to reuse, making a product development platform a very profitable strategy for product developing companies. A successful implementation of a product development platform is not straightforward though...

  3. 21 CFR 113.81 - Product preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Production and Process Controls § 113.81 Product preparation. (a) Before using raw materials and ingredients susceptible to microbiological contamination, the processor shall ensure that those materials and ingredients... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  4. Congener Production in Blood Samples During Preparation and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Søren; Nielsen, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone......Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone...

  5. Protease activation of the entomocidal protoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R E; Bibilos, M M; Bulla, L A

    1985-01-01

    Two isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki were examined which produced different levels of intracellular proteases. Although the crystals from both strains had comparable toxicity, one of the strains, LB1, had a strong polypeptide band at 68,000 molecular weight in the protein from the crystal; in the other, HD251, no such band was evident. When the intracellular proteases in both strains were measured, strain HD251 produced less than 10% of the proteolytic activity found in LB1. These proteases were primarily neutral metalloproteases, although low levels of other proteases were detected. In LB1, the synthesis of protease increased as the cells began to sporulate; however, in HD251, protease activity appeared much later in the sporulation cycle. The protease activity in strain LB1 was very high when the cells were making crystal toxin, whereas in HD251 reduced proteolytic activity was present during crystal toxin synthesis. The insecticidal toxin (molecular weight, 68,000) from both strains could be prepared by cleaving the protoxin (molecular weight, 135,000) with trypsin, followed by ion-exchange chromatography. The procedure described gave quantitative recovery of toxic activity, and approximately half of the total protein was recovered. Calculations show that these results correspond to stoichiometric conversion of protoxin to insecticidal toxin. The toxicities of whole crystals, soluble crystal protein, and purified toxin from both strains were comparable. Images PMID:3909962

  6. Modelling preparation and consumption of pork products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swart, Arno; Nauta, Maarten; Evers, Eric

    This poster describes the retail and consumer phase of the EFSA Salmonella in Pork QMRA (Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment, funded under an Article 36 grant to support the scientific opinion required by EFS). The food chain is modelled from retail to ingestion by the consumer. Three...... types of pork are considered: minced meat, pork cuts and dry cured sausages. This particular choice was made because each product represents a clear distinct hazard. Pork cuts are usually cooked well, but there is a chance of cross contamination during cutting and handling of the meat. Minced meat...... is thoroughly mixed, and Salmonellae may be present in the interior of hamburger patties, undercooking may occur, and Salmonellae may survive. Dry cured sausages, including all variations therein like chorizo, salami, etc., are eaten uncooked. Food preparation habits are highly variable and accurate data...

  7. 9 CFR 103.1 - Preparation of experimental biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of experimental biological... PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS PRIOR TO LICENSING § 103.1 Preparation of experimental biological products. Except as otherwise provided in this section, experimental...

  8. Guide to preparing SAND Reports and other communication products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-02-01

    This guide describes the R&A process, Common Look and Feel requirements, and preparation and publishing procedures for communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Samples of forms and examples of published communications products are provided.

  9. 9 CFR 114.2 - Products not prepared under license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Biological Product License: (i) When a culture of microorganisms, isolated from a herd in a State, is... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products not prepared under license. 114.2 Section 114.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE,...

  10. Application of product modelling - seen from a work preparation viewpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars

    Manufacturing companies spends an increasing amount of the total work resources in the manufacturing planning system with the activities of e.g. specifying products and methods, scheduling, procurement etc. By this the potential for obtaining increased productivity moves from the direct costs...... the specification work. The theoretical fundament of the project include four elements. The first element (work preparation) consider methods for analysing and preparing the direct work in the production, pointing to an analogy between analysing the direct work in the production and the work in the planning systems......, over building a model, and to the final programming of an application. It has been stressed out to carry out all the phases in the outline of procedure in the empirical work, one of the reasons being to prove that it is possible, with a reasonable consumption of resources, to build an application...

  11. PHARMACODYNAMIC EFFECTS OF APPLICATION OF POLISILAR PREPARATION IN PIG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenenko M. P.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An accelerated growth of farm animals in order to obtain maximum productivity is possible due to introduction stimulating additives and preparations based on them into the rations. One of such tools is Polisilar - complex preparation, which includes components that have a positive impact on various aspects of the animal metabolism in the conditions of physiological disorders. At the same time components of the preparation due to its high bioavailability exhibit a potentiating effect in the body that allows getting a more pronounced effect on its use. Studies were conducted on pigs 3-3.5 months age and showed that the Polisilar preparation has a positive effect on the clinical and physiological status of the animals and exhibits a pronounced growth stimulating effect, increasing the weight gain of pigs by 14.3%. In addition use of the preparation in rations of growing pigs has a normalizing effect on red blood and blood forming organs, increasing the number of red blood cells by 18.7%, hemoglobin - by 24.5%. Polisilar stimulates protein, carbohydrate and mineral exchanges, stabilizes the functional activity of the liver, reducing the toxic load on hepatocytes. Therefore, the preparation Polisilar has a pronounced biological and pharmacological activity and can be used in animal husbandry as an effective stimulant

  12. Production of highly pure einsteinium and fermium preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, O.I.; Tarasov, V.A.; Zotov, E.A.; Baranov, A.Yu. [Federal State Unitary Enterprise ' ' State Scientific Center of Russian Federation Research Institute of Atomic Reactors' ' (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Highly pure einsteinium and fermium preparations are in increased demand due to the progress of the following fields of modern sciences: Fundamental and applied nuclear physics. Heavy actinides are necessary for detailed study of structure and decay of a nucleus, as well as initial material both for nuclear synthesis of new superheavy elements and for manufacturing radioactive radiation sources. Fundamental and applied radiochemistry. Einsteinium and fermium preparations are required to investigate chemical properties of these hard-to-obtain elements and to improve technology of their recovery and purification. Nuclear medicine. Biologically active compounds labeled with alpha- emitting einsteinium and fermium may be applied in prospect for a radioimmunotherapy of oncological diseases. The principal method of einsteinium and fermium production is irradiation of curium or californium isotopes in a high-flux nuclear reactor. Large-scale production of transplutonium elements at RIAR enables also to produce regularly significant quantities of einsteinium and fermium. (orig.)

  13. 9 CFR 318.24 - Product prepared using advanced meat/bone separation machinery; process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Product prepared using advanced meat... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ENTRY INTO OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.24 Product prepared using advanced meat...

  14. DNA barcoding for species Identification in prepared fishery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA MOTTOLA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that seafood mislabeling has been widely reported throughout the world and that the authentication of food components is one of the key issues in food quality, the aim of this study was to use DNA barcoding to investigate the prevalence of mislabeling among fresh prepared fishery products from markets and supermarkets located in Apulia (SE Italy. The study reveals a high occurrence of species mislabeling (42% in the prepared fillet products, further evidence of the need for increased traceability and assessment of the authenticity of food products. Given the increasing demand for transparency in the food industry and the enforcement of proper labeling have provided a driving force for the development of suitable analytical methodologies for species identification. There is therefore a great need to develop fast and reliable methods to identify meat species and to quantify their levels in seafood products, in order to ensure product quality and thus to protect consumers. The study provides further evidence that molecular investigations based on DNA barcoding may be one of the most powerful tools for the assessment of species identity, food traceability, safety and fraud.

  15. 9 CFR 590.26 - Egg products entering or prepared in official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products entering or prepared in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.26 Egg products entering or prepared in official plants. Eggs...

  16. Strategies for the preparation and concentration of mushroom aromatic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villares, Ana; Guillamon, Eva; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; D'Arrigo, Matilde; Garcia-Lafuente, Ana

    2012-08-01

    Fungal aroma comprises at least seven chemical groups of volatile organic compounds, which are plain hydrocarbons, heterocycles, alcohols, phenols, acids and derivatives, carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones), and sulfur containing molecules. This aromatic blend provides the excellent sensory properties to produce and several strategies have been employed to create aromatic products having the aroma and taste of mushrooms and truffles. Nowadays, there are several procedures to obtain aroma concentrates. Among them, the simulation of mushroom aroma by the combination of the main substances responsible for the flavour could be an efficient strategy. Nevertheless, natural procedures are gaining more importance since the concentrate is not a synthetic product and the processes commonly involve the use of mushroom waste. In this field, the maceration with precursor molecules, such as linoleic acid, or different types of enzymes is commonly used in food industry. This article provides a wide view of the most common strategies to produce fungal aroma taking into account the main advantages and disadvantages they present. The article presents some promising patents on strategies for the preparation and concentration of mushroom aromatic products.

  17. Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-09-01

    This guide describes the R&A process, Common Look and Feel requirements, and preparation and publishing procedures for communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Samples of forms and examples of published communications products are provided. This guide takes advantage of the wealth of material now available on the Web as a resource. Therefore, it is best viewed as an electronic document. If some of the illustrations are too small to view comfortably, you can enlarge them on the screen as needed. The format of this document is considerably different than that usually expected of a SAND Report. It was selected to permit the large number of illustrations and examples to be placed closer to the text that references them. In the case of forms, covers, and other items that are included as examples, a link to the Web is provided so that you can access the items and download them for use. This guide details the processes for producing a variety of communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Figure I-1 shows the general publication development process. Because extensive supplemental material is available from Sandia on the internal web or from external sources (Table I-1), the guide has been shortened to make it easy to find information that you need.

  18. Occurrence of Mislabelling in Prepared Fishery Products in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantillo, Giuseppina; Marchetti, Patrizia; Mottola, Anna; Terio, Valentina; Bottaro, Marilisa; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Di Pinto, Angela

    2015-06-30

    Fish authentication is a major concern not only for the prevention of commercial fraud, but also for the assessment of safety risks deriving from the undeclared introduction of potentially dangerous toxic or allergenic substances or environmentally damaging fish where endangered species are involved. Moreover, food authentication might affect the diet of certain groups of consumers, such as followers of religious practices. Considering the authentication of fish products is one of the key issues in food safety, quality and sustainability, the aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of mislabelling in sole (Solea solea), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and hake (Merluccius merluccius) fillets from markets and supermarkets located in Apulia (Southern Italy) using DNA barcoding. The results of the molecular investigations reveal that 42/98 (42.8%) fillet samples were not correctly labelled. In particular, 12/27 (44.4%) fillets of sole (Solea solea) were identified as belonging to Solea senegalensis. In addition, 13/28 (46.4%) plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) samples were identified as Pangasius hypophtalmus. All Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) samples were correctly labelled. Post-sequencing data analysis revealed that 17/30 (56.6%) hake fillets (Merluccius merluccius) were not correctly labelled, of which 8/30 samples identified as Merluccius hubbsi, 5/30 samples as Merluccius products and 4/30 as Merluccius capensis. The study reveals a high occurrence of species mislabelling in the prepared fish fillet products, further evidence of the need for increased traceability and assessment of the authenticity of food products.

  19. Occurrence of mislabelling in prepared fishery products in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Tantillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish authentication is a major concern not only for the prevention of commercial fraud, but also for the assessment of safety risks deriving from the undeclared introduction of potentially dangerous toxic or allergenic substances or environmentally damaging fish where endangered species are involved. Moreover, food authentication might affect the diet of certain groups of consumers, such as followers of religious practices. Considering the authentication of fish products is one of the key issues in food safety, quality and sustainability, the aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of mislabelling in sole (Solea solea, plaice (Pleuronectes platessa, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, and hake (Merluccius merluccius fillets from markets and supermarkets located in Apulia (Southern Italy using DNA barcoding. The results of the molecular investigations reveal that 42/98 (42.8% fillet samples were not correctly labelled. In particular, 12/27 (44.4% fillets of sole (Solea solea were identified as belonging to Solea senegalensis. In addition, 13/28 (46.4% plaice (Pleuronectes platessa samples were identified as Pangasius hypophtalmus. All Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar samples were correctly labelled. Post-sequencing data analysis revealed that 17/30 (56.6% hake fillets (Merluccius merluccius were not correctly labelled, of which 8/30 samples identified as Merluccius hubbsi, 5/30 samples as Merluccius products and 4/30 as Merluccius capensis. The study reveals a high occurrence of species mislabelling in the prepared fish fillet products, further evidence of the need for increased traceability and assessment of the authenticity of food products.

  20. Dermatological preparations for the tropics. A formulary of dermatological preparations and background information on choices, production and dispensing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Peter; Woerdenbag, Herman; Gooskens, Vincent; Naafs, Ben; Kaaij, Rachel van der; Wieringa, Nicolien

    2012-01-01

    This book is a formulary describing 35 preparations covering the safe treatment of a broad range of skin diseases. The formulary focuses on effective and cheap preparations, suitable for local production and use under tropical conditions. If you want to use this book, you can either download it for

  1. Toxic element contamination of natural health products and pharmaceutical preparations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Genuis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concern has recently emerged regarding the safety of natural health products (NHPs-therapies that are increasingly recommended by various health providers, including conventional physicians. Recognizing that most individuals in the Western world now consume vitamins and many take herbal agents, this study endeavored to determine levels of toxic element contamination within a range of NHPs. METHODS: Toxic element testing was performed on 121 NHPs (including Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese, and various marine-source products as well as 49 routinely prescribed pharmaceutical preparations. Testing was also performed on several batches of one prenatal supplement, with multiple samples tested within each batch. Results were compared to existing toxicant regulatory limits. RESULTS: Toxic element contamination was found in many supplements and pharmaceuticals; levels exceeding established limits were only found in a small percentage of the NHPs tested and none of the drugs tested. Some NHPs demonstrated contamination levels above preferred daily endpoints for mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic or aluminum. NHPs manufactured in China generally had higher levels of mercury and aluminum. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to toxic elements is occurring regularly as a result of some contaminated NHPs. Best practices for quality control-developed and implemented by the NHP industry with government oversight-is recommended to guard the safety of unsuspecting consumers.

  2. Two-dimensional preparative liquid chromatography system for preparative separation of minor amount components from complicated natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Ying-Kun, E-mail: qyk@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Yan, Xia; Chen, Lin; Fang, Mei-Juan; Wu, Zhen, E-mail: wuzhen@xmu.edu.cn

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Preparative MDLC system was developed for separation of complicated natural products. • Medium-pressure LC and preparative HPLC were connected by interface of SPE. • Automated multi-step preparative separation of 25 compounds was achieved by using this system. - Abstract: An on-line comprehensive two-dimensional preparative liquid chromatography system was developed for preparative separation of minor amount components from complicated natural products. Medium-pressure liquid chromatograph (MPLC) was applied as the first dimension and preparative HPLC as the second one, in conjunction with trapping column and makeup pump. The performance of the trapping column was evaluated, in terms of column size, dilution ratio and diameter-height ratio, as well as system pressure from the view of medium pressure liquid chromatograph. Satisfactory trapping efficiency can be achieved using a commercially available 15 mm × 30 mm i.d. ODS pre-column. The instrument operation and the performance of this MPLC × preparative HPLC system were illustrated by gram-scale isolation of crude macro-porous resin enriched water extract of Rheum hotaoense. Automated multi-step preparative separation of 25 compounds, whose structures were identified by MS, {sup 1}H NMR and even by less-sensitive {sup 13}C NMR, could be achieved in a short period of time using this system, exhibiting great advantages in analytical efficiency and sample treatment capacity compared with conventional methods.

  3. Design Automation Systems for Production Preparation : Applied on the Rotary Draw Bending Process

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Intensive competition on the global market puts great pressure on manufacturing companies to develop and produce products that meet requirements from customers and investors. One key factor in meeting these requirements is the efficiency of the product development and the production preparation process. Design automation is a powerful tool to increase efficiency in these two processes. The benefits of automating the production preparation process are shortened led-time, improved product perfo...

  4. 15 CFR 1180.4 - Preparing a product for transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE TRANSFER BY FEDERAL AGENCIES OF SCIENTIFIC, TECHNICAL AND ENGINEERING INFORMATION TO THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE § 1180.4 Preparing...

  5. Molybdenum-99 Isotope Production Preparation at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, S.D.; Longley, S.W.; McDonald, M.J.; Parma, E.J.; Vernon, M.E.

    1998-10-07

    `Q&c M. J. McDonald, S. D. Carson, S. W. Longley, E. J. Parma, M. E. Vern `~ I@ .,., Sandia National Laboratories*, P. .0. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM, 8 W? 1$ tl?;:q `f. (3 . 8 /'~ Abstract This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored byanagency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, make any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. loading on the Cintichem targets. These tests were designed to gain process knowledge prior to processing an irradiated target. The chemical separation tests were performed in a fime hood During cold testing, several tests were performed on individual components of the process to complete, a series of `hot' tests was designed to process irradiated targets. These were designed to optimize the process, identify problems prior to processing higher inventory targets, and to the shielded containment box (SCB). Table 1 is a summary of the tests performed prior to the Test Target Power Post irradiation Total inventory 99M0 inventory (kW)/ Irradiation decay (hrs) (TBq*) /decay (TBq)/decay Time (hrs) inventory (TBq) inventory(TBq) in the processing boxes as color comparisons. Product quality control testing was conducted for all the tests and the results were compared to The production process generates a high activity

  6. PREPARATION OF THE DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL FOR ORTHOPHOTO CR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Švec

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Orthophoto CR is produced in co-operation with the Land Survey Office and the Military Geographical and Hydrometeorological Office. The product serves to ensure a defence of the state, integrated crisis management, civilian tasks in support of the state administration and the local self-government of the Czech Republic as well. It covers the whole area of the Republic and for ensuring its up-to-datedness is reproduced in the biennial period. As the project is countrywide, it keeps the project within the same parameters in urban and rural areas as well. Due to economic reasons it can´t be produced as a true ortophoto because it requires large side and forward overlaps of the aerial photographs and a preparation of the digital surface model instead of the digital terrain model. Use of DTM without some objects of DSM for orthogonalization purposes cause undesirable image deformations in the Orthophoto. There are a few data sets available for forming a suitable elevation model. The principal source should represent DTMs made from data acquired by the airborne laser scanning of the entire area of the Czech Republic that was carried out in the years 2009-2013, the DMR4G in the grid form and the DMR5G in TIN form respectively. It can be replenished by some vector objects (bridges, dams, etc. taken from the geographic base data of the Czech Republic or obtained by new stereo plotting. It has to be taken into account that the option of applying DSM made from image correlation is also available. The article focuses on the possibilities of DTM supplement for ortogonalization. It looks back to the recent transition from grid to hybrid elevation models, problems that occurred, its solution and getting some practical remarks. Afterwards it assesses the current state and deals with the options for updating the model. Some accuracy analysis are included.

  7. An automatic refolding apparatus for preparative-scale protein production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanye Feng

    flexible strategy may provide a powerful tool for preparative scale protein production.

  8. Preparation of the Digital Elevation Model for Orthophoto CR Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švec, Z.; Pavelka, K.

    2016-06-01

    The Orthophoto CR is produced in co-operation with the Land Survey Office and the Military Geographical and Hydrometeorological Office. The product serves to ensure a defence of the state, integrated crisis management, civilian tasks in support of the state administration and the local self-government of the Czech Republic as well. It covers the whole area of the Republic and for ensuring its up-to-datedness is reproduced in the biennial period. As the project is countrywide, it keeps the project within the same parameters in urban and rural areas as well. Due to economic reasons it cańt be produced as a true ortophoto because it requires large side and forward overlaps of the aerial photographs and a preparation of the digital surface model instead of the digital terrain model. Use of DTM without some objects of DSM for orthogonalization purposes cause undesirable image deformations in the Orthophoto. There are a few data sets available for forming a suitable elevation model. The principal source should represent DTMs made from data acquired by the airborne laser scanning of the entire area of the Czech Republic that was carried out in the years 2009-2013, the DMR4G in the grid form and the DMR5G in TIN form respectively. It can be replenished by some vector objects (bridges, dams, etc.) taken from the geographic base data of the Czech Republic or obtained by new stereo plotting. It has to be taken into account that the option of applying DSM made from image correlation is also available. The article focuses on the possibilities of DTM supplement for ortogonalization. It looks back to the recent transition from grid to hybrid elevation models, problems that occurred, its solution and getting some practical remarks. Afterwards it assesses the current state and deals with the options for updating the model. Some accuracy analysis are included.

  9. Technological suitability of transglutaminase preparations in the production of cooked ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pyrcz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine effect of replacing the phosphates by the preparations containing transglutaminase enzyme on the quality of cooked ham. Accepted factors of technological variability, preparation raw material (in whole or in muscle trimmings below, the curing brine injection level (30 or 40% and two types of enzyme transglutaminase preparations slightly differentiate sensory desirability, but also physical and chemical properties of cooked hams. In spite of the transglutaminase preparations used in the experiment the reduction of cooking loss was not significantly affect and the improving the tastiness, their technological usefulness in cooked ham production is satisfactory. The beneficial effect of the impact of transglutaminase preparations can be particularly seen in the case of products derived from trimmings. Thanks to these preparations raw meat with less technological suitability or cooking can be used to produce high quality products.

  10. Fuel preparation for use in the production of medical isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policke, Timothy A.; Aase, Scott B.; Stagg, William R.

    2016-10-25

    The present invention relates generally to the field of medical isotope production by fission of uranium-235 and the fuel utilized therein (e.g., the production of suitable Low Enriched Uranium (LEU is uranium having 20 weight percent or less uranium-235) fuel for medical isotope production) and, in particular to a method for producing LEU fuel and a LEU fuel product that is suitable for use in the production of medical isotopes. In one embodiment, the LEU fuel of the present invention is designed to be utilized in an Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor (AHR) for the production of various medical isotopes including, but not limited to, molybdenum-99, cesium-137, iodine-131, strontium-89, xenon-133 and yttrium-90.

  11. Preparing Undergraduate Students for Work in Virtual Product Development Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavbi, Rdoman; Tavcar, Joze

    2005-01-01

    The development of innovative and competitive products and mastery of IT&T technologies are crucial for a company's long-term success in the global market. The main flag bearers for development are product developers, but it is questionable whether the existing systems are appropriate for the education of such professionals. For example, one…

  12. Electrochemical preparation of hematite nanostructured films for solar hydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebadzadeh T.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical water splitting is a clean and promising technique for using a renewable source of energy, i.e., solar energy, to produce hydrogen. In this work electrochemical formation of iron oxyhydroxide and its conversion to hematite (α- Fe2O3 through thermal treatment have been studied. Oxyhydroxide iron compounds have been prepared onto SnO2/F covered glass substrate by potential cycling with two different potential sweep rate values; then calcined at 520 °C in air to obtain α-Fe2O3 nanostrutured films for their implementation as photoanode in a photoelectrochemical cell. X-ray diffraction analysis allowed finding that iron oxides films have nanocrystalline character. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that films have nanostructured morphology. The obtained results are discussed considering the influence of potential sweep rate employed during the preparation of iron oxyhydroxide film on optical, structural and morphological properties of hematite nanostructured films. Results show that films have acceptable characteristics as photoanode in a photoelectrochemical cell for hydrogen generation from water.

  13. Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products : quick reference guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-03-01

    This 'Quick Reference Guide' supplements the more complete 'Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and Other Communication Products'. It provides limited guidance on how to prepare SAND Reports at Sandia National Laboratories. Users are directed to the in-depth guide for explanations of processes.

  14. Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and other communication products : quick reference guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-01

    This Quick Reference Guide supplements the more complete Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and Other Communication Products. It provides limited guidance on how to prepare SAND Reports at Sandia National Laboratories. Users are directed to the in-depth guide for explanations of processes.

  15. Preparation, characterization and in vitro antioxidative potential of synbiotic fermented dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, C.; Mokashe, N.; Mishra, V.

    2016-01-01

    The present study, evaluates the antioxidative potential of two synbiotic dairy products viz. synbiotic lassi with honey and whey based synbiotic drink with inulin and orange juice, along with their physicochemical and microbiological activity during storage period. Antioxidative potential of raw ingredients and probiotic cultures used to prepare synbiotic products was also evaluated. Synbiotic lassi with honey was prepared using Streptococcus thermophilus MTCC 5460 (MD2) and Lactobacillus he...

  16. Production of emodin from Aspergillus ochraceus at preparative scale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... It was observed that production of emodin started 2 days after the culture had ... supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (Lu et al., 2006), while the ... organic phase A (methanol with 0.05% acetic acid) and aqueous phase B ...

  17. Systems and methods for preparation and separation of products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, Ryan J.; Boggs, Bryan; Self, Kyle; Leclerc, Margarete K.; Gorer, Alexander; Weiss, Michael J.; Miller, John H.; Mohanta, Samaresh

    2015-12-01

    There are provided methods and systems for an electrochemical cell including an anode and a cathode where the anode is contacted with a metal ion that converts the metal ion from a lower oxidation state to a higher oxidation state. The metal ion in the higher oxidation state is reacted with hydrogen gas, an unsaturated hydrocarbon, and/or a saturated hydrocarbon to form products.

  18. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  19. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SULFATED ZIRCONIA FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Rustamaji

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated zirconia has been prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, BET surface area, and BJH pore distribution methods. XRD patterns reveal that the sulfated zirconia mainly consists of tetragonal crystalline zirconia with average size of about 9.8 nm. N2 adsorption data show that the nanosized sulfated zirconia has high surface area (109.4 m2/g and shows the uniform pore distribution aggregated by zirconia nanoparticles. Sulfated zirconias were used as catalysts in the alcoholysis of jatropha oil. The conversions of jatropha oil alcoholysis under good conditions (120oC, 2 h, 3 wt% of catalyst and 1000 rpm agitation speed were 79.65%.  Abstrak PREPARASI DAN KARAKTERISASI ZIRKONIA TERSULFATASI SEBAGAI KATALISATOR DALAM PEMBUATAN BIODIESEL. Zirkonia tersulfatasi berhasil dibuat dan dikarakterisasi dengan difraksi sinar X, spektroskopi inframerah, pengukuran luas permukaan dengan metode BET dan dan pengukuran distribusi pori dengan metode BJH. Pola difraksi sinar X menunjukkan bahwa susunan utama zirkonia tersulfatasi terdiri atas kristal zirkonia tetragonal dengan ukuran pori rata-rata sekitar 9,8 nm. Data adsorpsi N2 menunjukkan bahwa zirkonia tersulfatasi yang berukuran nano memiliki luas permukaan yang tinggi (109,4 m2/g dan memiliki distribusi ukuran pori yang seragam. Zirkonia tersulfatasi digunakan sebagai katalisator dalam reaksi alkoholisis minyak jarak pagar dengan konversi pada kondisi yang relatif baik (120oC, 2 jam, 3% berat katalis dan kecepatan pengadukan 1000 rpm sebesar 79,65%.

  20. Environmental contamination, product contamination and workers exposure using a robotic system for antineoplastic drug preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessink, Paul J M; Leclercq, Gisèle M; Wouters, Dominique-Marie; Halbardier, Loïc; Hammad, Chaïma; Kassoul, Nassima

    2015-04-01

    Environmental contamination, product contamination and technicians exposure were measured following preparation of iv bags with cyclophosphamide using the robotic system CytoCare. Wipe samples were taken inside CytoCare, in the clean room environment, from vials, and prepared iv bags including ports and analysed for contamination with cyclophosphamide. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was also measured in environmental air and on the technicians hands and gloves used for handling the drugs. Exposure of the technicians to cyclophosphamide was measured by analysis of cyclophosphamide in urine. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was mainly observed inside CytoCare, before preparation, after preparation and after daily routine cleaning. Contamination outside CytoCare was incidentally found. All vials with reconstituted cyclophosphamide entering CytoCare were contaminated on the outside but vials with powdered cyclophosphamide were not contaminated on the outside. Contaminated bags entering CytoCare were also contaminated after preparation but non-contaminated bags were not contaminated after preparation. Cyclophosphamide was detected on the ports of all prepared bags. Almost all outer pairs of gloves used for preparation and daily routine cleaning were contaminated with cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide was not found on the inner pairs of gloves and on the hands of the technicians. Cyclophosphamide was not detected in the stationary and personal air samples and in the urine samples of the technicians. CytoCare enables the preparation of cyclophosphamide with low levels of environmental contamination and product contamination and no measurable exposure of the technicians.

  1. Isotope production and target preparation for nuclear astrophysics data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Dorothea; Dressler, Rugard; Maugeri, Emilio Andrea; Heinitz, Stephan

    2017-09-01

    Targets are in many cases an indispensable ingredient for successful experiments aimed to produce nuclear data. With the recently observed shift to study nuclear reactions on radioactive targets, this task can become extremely challenging. Concerted actions of a certain number of laboratories able to produce isotopes and manufacture radioactive targets are urgently needed. We present here some examples of successful isotope and target production at PSI, in particular the production of 60Fe samples used for half-life measurements and neutron capture cross section experiments, the chemical processing and fabrication of lanthanide targets for capture cross section experiments at n_TOF (European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Switzerland) as well as the recently performed manufacturing of highly-radioactive 7Be targets for the measurement of the 7Be(n,α)4He cross section in the energy range of interest for the Big-Bang nucleosynthesis contributing to the solving of the cosmological Li-problem. The two future projects: "Determination of the half-life and experiments on neutron capture cross sections of 53Mn" and "32Si - a new chronometer for nuclear dating" are briefly described. Moreover, we propose to work on the establishment of a dedicated network on isotope and target producing laboratories.

  2. 77 FR 21592 - Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Licensing Applications for the Production of Radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Chapters 7-18 of Draft Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) NPR-ISG-2011-002, augmenting NUREG-1537, Part 1... Content,'' for the production of radioisotopes and NUREG-1537, Part 2, ``Guidelines for Preparing and...,'' for the production of radioisotopes. The ISG augmenting NUREG-1537, Parts 1 & 2, Chapters 1-6...

  3. [Presence of sulfites in minced meat and meat products prepared in industries of the Valencia Community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubeldia Lauzurica, L; Gomar Fayos, J

    1997-01-01

    In view of the development of harmonization provisions for food legislation with regard to additives, the aim of this study is to find out the use of sulfites in minced meats and meat products prepared in establishments located in the Valencia Region. Following planning of the types of products and number of samples to be researched, the results obtained were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively for the presence of sulfites, expressed in mg/kg of SO2. The presence of sulfites was found in 65.38% of the samples of beef and pork burgers and in 64.18% of chicken burgers. Minced meat, fresh chorizo (highly-seasoned pork sausage) and raw sausages were more in line with legislation. The extensive use of sulfites in prepared meat products was observed. The imminent application of Community legislation will bring lead to a modification in the practices when preparing these products.

  4. BioR PREPARATION EFFECTS ON PRODUCTIVE INDEXES OF SUINA YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. MACARI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of using biologicalliactive substancesin domestic animalfeedingis one of main problems of the world researchess. Our investigations studied the influence of BioR preparation on suina youth performances. BioR preparation is a biologically active one obtained using original tehnologies of oriented syhthesis, successive extraction, division and purification of bioactive priciples from cyanophit alga biomass Spirulina platensis. This preparation contains biologic active substances as aminoacids and oligopeptides, intermediary products of the glucide and lipid metabolisms, macro and microelements. The results of the investigations proved that the administration of BioR preparation had a positive influence on productive indices of suina namely: the body weight increased by 0.5-10.4%, daily body weight increased by 2.8-16.0%, but the specific consumption decreased by 18.3-23.0%.

  5. Liquid dosage forms extemporaneously prepared from commercially available products - considering new evidence on stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Alison; Glass, Beverley D

    2013-01-01

    Although the world's population is ageing and as a result of this an increasing number of patients are experiencing difficulty in swallowing, there remains a lack of commercially available oral liquids for both these older and paediatric patients. This presents a problem to health care professionals, especially the pharmacist in practice, who is often required to provide a solution for these patients by preparing oral liquids extemporaneously from commercially available products. Preparation of these oral liquids is challenging, both due to the lack of pharmacopoeial and stability-indicating formulae and the fact that their stability is not only determined by the active pharmaceutical ingredient, but also the ability of excipients from the commercial product to interact with each other and the active pharmaceutical ingredient. This increases the complexity of the stability considerations to be taken into account within these oral liquids, highlighting the number of parameters to be considered in the extemporaneous preparation of oral liquids. This paper presents new evidence on the stability of 42 oral liquids prepared from commercially available products, reported on in the literature since the previous review published in 2006. However, unlike the previous review where the stability concerns in 7.2% of the extemporaneously prepared oral liquids were mainly due to interaction between the active pharmaceutical ingredients and the excipients in the commercial product, most of these stability considerations have been recognised and this has resulted in the authors proposing solutions to these problems prior to the extemporaneous preparation of the oral liquid. As such this paper also focuses on the increased level of research that has been undertaken to solve previous issues related to stability, especially in terms of the use of commercial products, which is common practice in the extemporaneous preparation of oral liquids.

  6. Sample preparation composite and replicate strategy case studies for assay of solid oral drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Beverly; Harrington, Brent; Li, Fasheng; Guo, Michele Xuemei

    2017-08-16

    Drug product assay is one of several tests required for new drug products to ensure the quality of the product at release and throughout the life cycle of the product. Drug product assay testing is typically performed by preparing a composite sample of multiple dosage units to obtain an assay value representative of the batch. In some cases replicate composite samples may be prepared and the reportable assay value is the average value of all the replicates. In previously published work by Harrington et al. (2014) [5], a sample preparation composite and replicate strategy for assay was developed to provide a systematic approach which accounts for variability due to the analytical method and dosage form with a standard error of the potency assay criteria based on compendia and regulatory requirements. In this work, this sample preparation composite and replicate strategy for assay is applied to several case studies to demonstrate the utility of this approach and its application at various stages of pharmaceutical drug product development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. First investigation on ultrasound-assisted preparation of food products: sensory and physicochemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingret, Daniella; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Canselier, Jean-Paul; Chemat, Farid

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison between manufactured food products using conventional and ultrasound-assisted procedures. Three different foam-type products, chocolate Genoise, basic sponge cake, and chocolate mousse were prepared using both methods with subsequent evaluation of the samples using both sensory and physicochemical methods. Ultrasound-assisted preparations were considered superior according to the sensory analysis, and physicochemical data confirmed this finding. This approach of applying an emerging piece of equipment, with potential industrial application to assist food preparation, consists of a new technique that could be of great interest for the development of not only other food products created by molecular gastronomy but also for practical work carried out by students.

  8. Utilization of citrus crops processing by-products in the preparation of tarhana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Magala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available After processing of citrus fruits (e.g. lemon, orange, grapefruit, mandarin for juice and essential oils production, approximately 50% of the original fruit mass is left as waste material. Citrus crops processing by-products are valuable components as they contain nutrients such as pectins, saccharides, carotenoids, some vitamins, minerals, polyphenols and substances with antioxidant activity. Utilisation of these kind of side products in the recipe of various cereal product led to enhancement of final product nutritional value and better sensory attributes as well as improvement of product functional properties. In this work was studied the effect of orange and mandarin dietary fibre application at level 5 and 10% (w/w in tarhana preparation and the influence on tarhana fermentation process. Chemical analysis showed, that dietary fibre preparations reached higher concentration of ash, fat and total dietary fibre compared to wheat flour. Wheat flour exhibited higher moisture content and protein concentration than citrus dietary fibre preparations. Orange and mandarin dietary fibre preparations showed higher values of water and oil absorption capacity, swelling capacity and least gellation concentration compared to wheat flour. Application of fruit dietary fibre preparations to tarhana recipe caused a rapid decrease in pH from 4.70 - 5.02 to values 4.31 - 4.51 during fermentation process. Reducing saccharides served as an available source of energy for fermenting microbiota and their concentration decreased from 24.5 - 32.8 to 2.2 - 0.2 g/kg after 144 h incubation. Fermentation also led to lactic acid (1.67 - 2.09 g/kg and acetic acid (1.91 - 2.53 g/kg production as a consequence of present microorganisms metabolic activity. Sensory evaluation of samples showed, that higher proportion of citrus dietary fibre preparations (10% negatively affected taste, odour, consistency and sourness. Among all prepared tarhana samples with proportion of citrus

  9. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in meat products, meat preparations and minced meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rašeta, M.; Mrdović, B.; Janković, V.; Bečkei, Z.; Lakićević, B.; Vidanović, D.; Polaček, V.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to determine Salmonella spp. prevalence in meat products, meat preparations and minced meat. Over a period of three years, a total of 300 samples were taken (100 RTE meat products, 100 meat preparations and 100 minced meat) and examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. Sampling was carried out at the warehouses of the food manufacturers. Salmonella spp. were not detected in RTE meat products, while 7% of semi-finished meat products (fresh sausages, grill meat formed and unformed) contained Salmonella, as did 18% of minced meats (minced pork II category, minced beef II category, mixed minced meat). The 25 Salmonella isolates obtained were examined for antibiotic resistance by the disk diffusion test, according to the NCCLS and CLSI guidelines. Isolates showed resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid (80%), tetracycline (72%), cefotaxime/clavulanic acid (48%), but not to gentamicin (8%) or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (0%).

  10. Lights, Camera, Action: Advancing Learning, Research, and Program Evaluation through Video Production in Educational Leadership Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Jennifer; Militello, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes specific uses of digital video production in the field of educational leadership preparation, advancing a three-part framework that includes the use of video in (a) teaching and learning, (b) research methods, and (c) program evaluation and service to the profession. The first category within the framework examines videos…

  11. MULTIAGENT TECHNOLOGIES’ METHOD IN MANAGING BUSINESS-PROCESSES OF THE TECHNICAL PREPARING FOR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Pavlenko

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available  The method of managing the process of the extended productions technological preparation is given. The method is used for integrating the automated systems of industrial assignment of  CAD/CAM/SAPP and ERP systems.

  12. Petrographic and mineral characterization of Balkan coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yossifova, M. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Applied Mineralogy

    1995-12-31

    This paper is part of a complex petrographic, mineralogical and chemical investigation on Balkan bituminous coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation. The petrographic and phase-mineralogical composition in ten composite samples and four water extracts have been studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. 4 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. 9 CFR 318.4 - Preparation of products to be officially supervised; responsibilities of official establishments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (c) Applying for Total Plant Quality Control. Any owner or operator of an official establishment preparing meat food product who has a total plant quality control system or plan for controlling such...) Total Plant Quality Control Establishment. Such a request shall, as a minimum, include: (1) A letter...

  14. [Salmonella destruction by heating during the customary preparation of dehydrated food products (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschke, R

    1980-01-01

    Defined number of S. Senftenberg W 775 (between 300 000 and 16 000 000 colony forming units in relation to 1 ml of the ready-to-serve-product) were added to 21 different dehydrated ready-to-eat-meals (no baby and junior food) cutomary in trade, of which 11 were cooked for a certain period of time, while 10 were prepared with boiling water only. No surviving salmonellae were found in any of the products ready for consumption. All samples were subject to temperature control. In this paper 6 examples are given to show temperature control during the phase of preparation. More than 1800 examinations performed by us on comparable products revealed no salmonellae in samples between 20 and 50 g. However, in view of the ubiquity of salmonaellae today, incidental positive findings in dehydrated products of this type cannot be excluded; but such findings would not defintely mean degredation of the product. If properly prepared, the food concerned is not dangerous to the consumer.

  15. Influence of processing on total and extractable mineral content of products prepared from potato flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakra, Poonam; Sehgal, Salil

    2011-12-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) flour developed was used for preparing doughnuts, sevian, cutlet, kofta and vadi along with defatted soy (Glycine max) flour and corn (Zea mays) flour. Frying and fermentation were the major processing techniques employed for the development of these products. Significant differences in protein, ash and fat contents of all the products were observed due to their compositional differences. Processing did not affect on total mineral content. Processing increased (p mineral availability. Processed products had lower amount of anti nutrients as compared to raw counterparts and thus, higher mineral availability.

  16. Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products : version 2.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Debra M.; Brittenham, Phillip W.

    2005-12-01

    This guide describes the R&A process, Common Look and Feel requirements, and preparation and publishing procedures for communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Samples of forms and examples of published communications products are provided. This guide details the processes for producing a variety of communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Figure I-1 shows the general publication development process. Because extensive supplemental material is available from Sandia on the internal Web or from external sources (Table I-1), the guide has been shortened to make it easy to find information that you need.

  17. Preparation and application of sodium borohydride composites for portable hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300160 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, Myongji University, Yongin, Kyonggi-Do 449728 (Korea); Kim, H. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, Myongji University, Yongin, Kyonggi-Do 449728 (Korea)

    2010-02-15

    Novel composites consisting of cobalt-boron (CoB) catalyst and sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) implantation in polymers (polyethylene glycol (PEG) or sodium alginate) were prepared for portable hydrogen production. The CoB catalyst was synthesized by the reduction of cobalt salt in NaBH{sub 4} solution followed by heat treatment in nitrogen atmosphere. The catalyst was embedded in PEG gel or alginate beads and NaBH{sub 4} was directly added in PEG-dimethylformamide (DMF) gel and adsorbed in alginate beads. It is noted that the composites prepared are stable in dry air and can be easily used for hydrogen production. A rate of hydrogen production of 750 ml min{sup -1} g{sup -1} was reached when simply putting the composites into pure water. The humidified pure hydrogen can be used conveniently for fuel cells. (author)

  18. Preparation and characterization of (Zn,Cd)S photoelectrodes for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriaga, L.G.; Fernandez, A.M. [CIE-UNAM, Morelos (Mexico); Solorza, O. [CINVESTAV-IPN, (Mexico). Departamento de Quimica

    1998-12-31

    The authors report the preparation and characterization of (Zn,Cd)S (ZCS) photoelectrodes for hydrogen and oxygen production in a photoelectrolytic cell. ZCS photoelectrodes were prepared by mixing CdS and ZnS powders and sintering at high temperature in the presence of CdCl{sub 2}, as the flux. In some cases the ZCS was loaded with Mo during the preparation. These mixtures were characterized by structural analysis using X-ray diffraction (XRD), photosensitivity measurements in artificial light (halogen and xenon lamps) in solid state, and in a 0.1 M solution of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}. The results indicate that a screen printed CdS-ZnS mixture possesses high photosensitivity for its application as photocatalysts for water electrolysis. (author)

  19. Utilization of agricultural by-products to supplement gelatin in preparation of products for leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    When polyphenolic-modified gelatin-products were used as fillers, improvements were seen in the subjective properties of the leather. When the treated samples were compared to control samples, there were no significant changes in mechanical properties. Gelatin is in high demand and short supply, a...

  20. Utilization of agricultural by-products to partially replace gelatin in preparation of products for leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    When polyphenolic-modified gelatin-products were used as fillers, improvements were seen in the subjective properties of the leather. When the treated samples were compared to control samples, there were no significant changes in mechanical properties. At the present time, gelatin is in short supp...

  1. Preparation, characterization and in vitro antioxidative potential of synbiotic fermented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, C; Mokashe, N; Mishra, V

    2016-04-01

    The present study, evaluates the antioxidative potential of two synbiotic dairy products viz. synbiotic lassi with honey and whey based synbiotic drink with inulin and orange juice, along with their physicochemical and microbiological activity during storage period. Antioxidative potential of raw ingredients and probiotic cultures used to prepare synbiotic products was also evaluated. Synbiotic lassi with honey was prepared using Streptococcus thermophilus MTCC 5460 (MD2) and Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 (V3) as probiotics and honey as prebiotic. For preparation of whey based synbiotic drink, Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 and inulin were used as probiotic and prebiotic, respectively and orange juice was also incorporated. Titratable acidity and pH of both synbiotic products followed a similar pattern of increase or decrease during storage. Furthermore, no major changes were observed in viability of probiotic cultures under storage conditions adapted. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of synbiotic lassi with honey was found to significantly decrease from 107.76 to 79.41 % at the end of storage whereas, the activity of whey based synbiotic drink was 100.32 % which declined sharply to 79.21 % on 7th day but further increased to 102.59 % on 14th day. The DPPH (α, α-Diphenyl-β-Picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity of freshly prepared synbiotic lassi with honey was 28.43 % which decreased to 23.03 % on 7th day while for whey based synbiotic drink decreased from 26.85 % (0 day) to 17.12 % (7th day) and continued to decline. Moreover, probiotic strains used for synbiotic preparation also demonstrated good antioxidative activity.

  2. Preparation of low-ash products from Slovak lignitic coals – material balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Zubrík

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A preparation of low-ash coal products was performed with the aim to obtain asuitable charge for the extraction following processes of organic substances. Thus, for this purpose, the coal feeds from two collieries, namely Záhorie and Nováky were washed in the water-only cyclone with a diameter of 150 mm. The vortex finder and apex diameters were 68 mm and 14.6 mm, respectively. The cone consisting of three angle sections 135°-75°-20° was applied. The products obtained on the overflow of the cyclone were decantated to remove the rests of slurries. In such a way, washed coals with the ash content in the dry matter of 5.44 was prepared from lignite of Záhorie. Similarly, as to coal from Nováky the ash content of 9.21 % was achieved.

  3. Rational preparation of waste coal mixture for production of bricks by the method of compression molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Ivanov, A. I.; Temlyantsev, M. V.; Fomina, O. A.

    2016-10-01

    Rational preparation of the mixture containing technogenic raw material - waste coal for the production of wall ceramics is developed. It was established that the technology of high-quality ceramic bricks requires: grinding of raw materials to class 0.3 + 0 mm, its aggregation in the intensive mixers into granules 1-3 mm, compression molding of adobe to plastic deformation of granules, drying and firing.

  4. Functional capacity of immunoglobulin G preparations and the F(ab')2 split product.

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, R W

    1989-01-01

    Five immunoglobulin G preparations, including one 5S F(ab')2 split product, were compared for activity against common bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens. Standard assays were used to quantitate antibodies to tetanus, diphtheria, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, rubella virus, and Toxoplasma gondii. Opsonization and killing of bacteria were examined by chemiluminescence methods using Streptococcus pneumoniae types 5, 12F, and 14 and Staphylococcus aureus. Antibodies ...

  5. The effect of preoperative skin preparation products on surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Heather L; Reese, Sara; Knepper, Bryan; Miller, Amber; Mauffrey, Cyril; Price, Connie S

    2014-12-01

    Skin preparation products contribute to surgical site infection (SSI) prevention. In a case-control study, diabetes was associated with increased SSI (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 5.74 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.22-27.0]), while the use of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) plus isopropyl alcohol versus CHG alone was found to be protective (adjusted OR, 2.64 [95% CI, 1.12-6.20]).

  6. A Commercial Preparation of Catalase Inhibits Nitric Oxide Production by Activated Murine Macrophages: Role of Arginase

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Y.; Xing, Y.; Magliozzo, R.; Yu, K.; Bloom, B R; Chan, J

    2000-01-01

    Catalase is widely used as a pharmacological probe to evaluate the role of hydrogen peroxide in antimicrobial activities of phagocytic cells. This report demonstrates that the ability of a commercial preparation of catalase to inhibit concomitantly macrophage antimycobacterial activity and production of reactive nitrogen intermediates can be attributed, at least in part, to the depletion of l-arginine by contaminating arginase. In experimental systems that employ pharmacological probes, the e...

  7. Desymmetrization of 7-azabicycloalkenes by tandem olefin metathesis for the preparation of natural product scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deppermann Nina

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tandem olefin metathesis sequences are known to be versatile for the generation of natural product scaffolds and have also been used for ring opening of strained carbo- and heterocycles. In this paper we demonstrate the potential of these reactions for the desymmetrization of 7-azabicycloalkenes. Results We have established efficient protocols for the desymmetrization of different 7-azabicycloalkenes by intra- and intermolecular tandem metathesis sequences with ruthenium based catalysts. Conclusion Desymmetrization of 7-azabicycloalkenes by olefin metathesis is an efficient process for the preparation of common natural product scaffolds such as pyrrolidines, indolizidines and isoindoles.

  8. Desymmetrization of 7-azabicycloalkenes by tandem olefin metathesis for the preparation of natural product scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maison, Wolfgang; Büchert, Marina; Deppermann, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Background Tandem olefin metathesis sequences are known to be versatile for the generation of natural product scaffolds and have also been used for ring opening of strained carbo- and heterocycles. In this paper we demonstrate the potential of these reactions for the desymmetrization of 7-azabicycloalkenes. Results We have established efficient protocols for the desymmetrization of different 7-azabicycloalkenes by intra- and intermolecular tandem metathesis sequences with ruthenium based catalysts. Conclusion Desymmetrization of 7-azabicycloalkenes by olefin metathesis is an efficient process for the preparation of common natural product scaffolds such as pyrrolidines, indolizidines and isoindoles. PMID:18088413

  9. Microbiological features and bioactivity of a fermented manure product (preparation 500) used in biodynamic agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannattasio, Matteo; Vendramin, Elena; Fornasier, Flavio; Alberghini, Sara; Zanardo, Marina; Stellin, Fabio; Concheri, Giuseppe; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Ertani, Andrea; Nardi, Serenella; Rizzi, Valeria; Piffanelli, Pietro; Spaccini, Riccardo; Mazzei, Pierluigi; Piccolo, Alessandro; Squartini, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    The fermented manure derivative known as Preparation 500 is traditionally used as a field spray in biodynamic agriculture for maintaining and increasing soil fertility. This work aimed at characterizing the product from a microbiological standpoint and at assaying its bioactive properties. The approach involved molecular taxonomical characterization of the culturable microbial community; ARISA fingerprints of the total bacteria and fungal communities; chemical elemental macronutrient analysis via a combustion analyzer; activity assays for six key enzymes; bioassays for bacterial quorum sensing and chitolipooligosaccharide production; and plant hormonelike activity. The material was found to harbor a bacterial community of 2.38 × 10(8) CFU/g dw dominated by Grampositives with minor instances of Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. ARISA showed a coherence of bacterial assemblages in different preparation lots of the same year in spite of geographic origin. Enzymatic activities showed elevated values of beta-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase, chitinase, and esterase. The preparation had no quorum sensing-detectable signal, and no rhizobial nod gene-inducing properties, but displayed a strong auxin-like effect on plants. Enzymatic analyses indicated a bioactive potential in the fertility and nutrient cycling contexts. The IAA activity and microbial degradation products qualify for a possible activity as soil biostimulants. Quantitative details and possible modes of action are discussed.

  10. Regulation of gene expression by tobacco product preparations in cultured human dermal fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malpass, Gloria E., E-mail: gloria.malpass@gmail.com [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Arimilli, Subhashini, E-mail: sarimill@wakehealth.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Prasad, G.L., E-mail: prasadg@rjrt.com [R and D Department, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston-Salem, NC 27102 (United States); Howlett, Allyn C., E-mail: ahowlett@wakehealth.edu [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Skin fibroblasts comprise the first barrier of defense against wounds, and tobacco products directly contact the oral cavity. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to smokeless tobacco extract (STE), total particulate matter (TPM) from tobacco smoke, or nicotine at concentrations comparable to those found in these extracts for 1 h or 5 h. Differences were identified in pathway-specific genes between treatments and vehicle using qRT-PCR. At 1 h, IL1α was suppressed significantly by TPM and less significantly by STE. Neither FOS nor JUN was suppressed at 1 h by tobacco products. IL8, TNFα, VCAM1, and NFκB1 were suppressed after 5 h with STE, whereas only TNFα and NFκB1 were suppressed by TPM. At 1 h with TPM, secreted levels of IL10 and TNFα were increased. Potentially confounding effects of nicotine were exemplified by genes such as ATF3 (5 h), which was increased by nicotine but suppressed by other components of STE. Within 2 h, TPM stimulated nitric oxide production, and both STE and TPM increased reactive oxygen species. The biological significance of these findings and utilization of the gene expression changes reported herein regarding effects of the tobacco product preparations on dermal fibroblasts will require additional research. - Highlights: • Tobacco product preparations (TPPs) alter gene expression in dermal fibroblasts. • Some immediate early genes critical to the inflammatory process are affected. • Different TPPs produce differential responses in certain pro-inflammatory genes.

  11. The impact of site preparation for biofuel and sawtimber production on soil compaction and long-term soil productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Z.H.; Sucre, E.B. [Weyerhaeuser NR Co., Vanceboro, NC (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Research into renewable fuel sources has increased as a result of increasing global concerns over carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. This study assessed that potential effects of concurrent biofuel and high quality wood product production in forests along the lower coastal plain of North Carolina. The effects of intercropping and biomass management on site productivity and sustainability were investigated on loblolly pine plantations; loblolly pine and switchgrass; and loblolly pines with flat-planted pine trees planted between crop tree beds. Stands of switchgrass only were also investigated. The treatments were established on 0.81 hectare plots and replicated 4 times. The impacts of various non-traditional land management approaches on soil productivity and sustainability were assessed, as well as the site preparations needed to develop a dual crop system. The study showed no significant differences in soil compaction before and after the treatments were installed. Average soil resistance across all treatments at the soil surface was 201 kPa. Soil resistance increased to 1539 kPa and 1923 kPa at depths of 15 and 30 cm. The study indicated that dual crop systems and practices for biofuel and timber production are both economically feasible and environmentally sustainable.

  12. Preparation, Phytochemical Investigation, and Safety Evaluation of Chlorogenic Acid Products from Eupatorium adenophorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyan Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Eupatorium adenophorum is widely distributed throughout the world’s tropical and temperate regions. It has become a harmful weed of crops and natural environments. Its leaves contain bioactive compounds such as chlorogenic acid and may be used as feed additives. In this study, chlorogenic acid was extracted and separated from leaves of E. adenophorum. Three chlorogenic acid products were prepared with different purities of 6.11%, 22.17%, and 96.03%. Phytochemical analysis demonstrated that the main toxins of sesquiterpenes were almost completely removed in sample preparation procedure. The three products were evaluated for safety via in vitro and in vivo toxicological studies. All the products exhibited no cytotoxic effects at a dose of 400 μg/mL in an in vitro cell viability assay. When administered in vivo at a single dose up to 1.5 g/kg bw, all three products caused no signs or symptoms of toxicity in mice. These results encourage further exploration of extracts from E. adenophorum in feed additive application.

  13. Preparation and application of reversed phase chromatorotor for the isolation of natural products by centrifugal preparative chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method of preparation of Chromatorotor or plates with a reversed phase (RP) solid silica gel sorbent layer has been developed for preparative centrifugal chromatography. The RP-rotor plates consist of binder free RP solid SiO2 sorbent layers of different thicknesses paked between two supported cir...

  14. Storage Time and Temperature Effects on Histamine Production in Tuna Salad Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Susan; Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; Benner, Ronald

    2015-07-01

    Scombrotoxin fish poisoning (SFP), also known as histamine (Hst) poisoning, has been associated with consumption of scombroid-type fish, including tuna and tuna fish products. Preparation of commercial tuna salad contaminated with Hstproducing bacteria (HPB), combined with time-temperature abuse, can present a food safety hazard. A potential source of HPB is raw ingredients, such as celery and onions. The objectives of this study were to determine whether raw ingredients can be a source of HPB and to ascertain the effects of storage time (up to 4 days or 4 weeks) and temperature (4, 10, 18, 25, 30°C) on growth and Hst production by high-HPB (>1,000 ppm of Hst) in tuna salad preparations. Pantoea-Erwinia, Erwinia persicinus, Erwinia spp., and Enterobacter pyrinus isolated from celery in this study were used to inoculate tuna salad and tuna salad with celery or onion. HPB numbers were 0.7 to 4.3 log most probable number per g higher in the presence of celery or onion versus plain tuna salad (3:1 tuna:mayonnaise). E. pyrinus-inoculated plain tuna salad and tuna salad with celery and onion had >500 ppm of Hst after 2 days at 30°C and 4 days at 25°C. E. pyrinus-inoculated salad with celery and onion had >500 ppm of Hst after 4 days at 18°C and 2 weeks at 10°C. Raw celery can introduce HPB into tuna salad, which can cause SFP if the product is time-temperature abused. Tuna salad products must be refrigerated at ≤4°C to prevent growth and Hst production by the HPB used in this study, to protect consumers from potential SFP.

  15. [Preparation of Copper and Nickel from Metallurgical Waste Products with the Use of Acidophilic Chemolithotrophic Microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomchenko, N V; Murav'ev, M I

    2015-01-01

    The study concerns the leaching of copper, nickel, and cobalt from metallurgical production slag with trivalent iron sulphates prepared in the process of oxidation of bivalent iron ions with the use of associations of acidophilic chemolithotrophic microorganisms. At the same time, copper extraction in the solution reached 91.2%, nickel reached 74.9%, and cobalt reached 90.1%. Copper was extracted by cementation, and nickel as sulphate was extracted by electrolysis. Associations of microorganisms can then completely bioregenerate the solution obtained after leaching.

  16. Sample preparation: a critical step in the analysis of cholesterol oxidation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Christiana A; Constantinou, Michalis S; Kapnissi-Christodoulou, Constantina P

    2014-02-15

    In recent years, cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) have drawn scientific interest, particularly due to their implications on human health. A big number of these compounds have been demonstrated to be cytotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic. The main source of COPs is through diet, and particularly from the consumption of cholesterol-rich foods. This raises questions about the safety of consumers, and it suggests the necessity for the development of a sensitive and a reliable analytical method in order to identify and quantify these components in food samples. Sample preparation is a necessary step in the analysis of COPs in order to eliminate interferences and increase sensitivity. Numerous publications have, over the years, reported the use of different methods for the extraction and purification of COPs. However, no method has, so far, been established as a routine method for the analysis of COPs in foods. Therefore, it was considered important to overview different sample preparation procedures and evaluate the different preparative parameters, such as time of saponification, the type of organic solvents for fat extraction, the stationary phase in solid phase extraction, etc., according to recovery, precision and simplicity.

  17. Preparation and Cracking Performance of FCC Co-Catalyst for Enhancing Light Oil Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Feiyue; Shi Li; Weng Huixin; Wang Xin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,a FCC co-catalyst for enhancing the light oil production was prepared by the sol-gel method,and its effect on the performance of residue cracking catalysts was evaluated in a CCFFB reactor.The test results indicated that the liquid product yield increased obviously,after the surface of FCC equilibrium catalyst was impregnated with the co-catalyst.The yields of dry gas,slurry and coke decreased,while the diesel yield changed slightly.And the crackability of residue was increased; the rate of coke deposition on catalyst surface was decreased,with the thermal cracking reactions inhibited.All these results showed that the co-catalyst could improve the density of acid sites and change the catalyst acidity,which could promote to prolong the catalyst activity by depositing the co-catalyst on the surface of FCC equilibrium catalysts.

  18. Advancement in shampoo (a dermal care product): preparation methods, patents and commercial utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeksha; Malviya, Rishabha; Sharma, Pramod K

    2014-01-01

    Shampoo is a cleaning aid for hair and is the most evolving beauty products in the present scenario. Today's shampoo products are of great importance as they provide cleaning of hair with the benefits of conditioning, smoothing and good health of hair i.e. dandruff, dirt, grease and lice free hair. Various types of shampoos depending upon function, nature of ingredient, and their special effects are elaborated in this study. Generally shampoos are evaluated in terms of physical appearance, detergency, surface tension, foam quality, pH, viscosity, and percent of solid content, flow property, dirt dispersion, cleaning action, stability and wetting time. The attention should be paid at its patent portion which attracts towards itself as it provides wide knowledge related to shampoo. This article reviews the various aspects of shampoo in terms of preparation methods, various patents and commercial value.

  19. Target preparation and recovery of enriched isotopes for medical radionuclide production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Richard M.; Sajjad, Munawwar; Syed, Rashid H.; Meyer, William

    1989-10-01

    A remotely-driven internal target system with an improved stationary target head and manually controlled target transfer assembly was constructed. Methodology and techniques for the preparation of targets utilized for the routine production of 67Ga, 111In, 123I, 124I, and 201Tl with a CS-30 cyclotron are described. Experiences in recovery of isotopically enriched target materials are detailed for plating, radiochemical separation, and target recovery for 21 cycles with 68Zn; 18 cycles with 112Cd; 40 cycles with 124Te; and 24 cycles with 203Tl. This represented 84, 72, 145, and 196 targets for 67Ga, 111In, 123I + 124I, and 201Tl, respectively. Data on target stability under routine production conditions at high currents are summarized.

  20. Production and characterization of spodumene dosimetric pellets prepared by a sol-gel route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, H. R. B. R.; Nascimento, D. S.; Bispo, G. F. C.; Teixeira, V. C.; Valério, M. E. G.; Souza, S. O.

    2014-11-01

    Spodumene is an aluminosilicate that has shown good results for high-dose TL dosimetry for beta or gamma rays. Due to its chemical composition (LiAlSi2O6) it has potential to be used as a neutron dosimeter. The synthetic spodumene is usually produced by solid state reaction and conventional sol-gel, whose shortcomings arise from the need to employ high temperatures and high cost reagents, respectively. Proteic sol-gel method is promising, because it can reduce production costs and the possibility of environmental contamination. This work reports the production of the spodumene by the proteic sol-gel method using edible unflavored gelatin as a precursor. The product is characterized physically and morphologically, and investigated its applicability as a TL dosimeter. Two sets of samples were prepared using different sources of silicon, one with TEOS (Si(OC3H5)4) and one with SILICA (SiO2). The materials produced were characterized by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry in order to evaluate the structural properties, as well as possible changes in physical or chemical properties depending on the temperature. The production of spodumene was successful, with generation of the crystals in the β-phase with tetragonal structure. Sintered pellets produced from these crystals were irradiated with a 90Sr-90Y source and their TL glow curves were evaluated. Although the samples prepared by the proteic sol-gel method with TEOS presented a lower forming temperature, the samples produced with SILICA showed higher sensitivity to radiation.

  1. Preparation of Paper Mulberry Fibers and Possibility of Cotton/Paper Mulberry Yarns Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoon Jitjaicham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The novelty of yarn production from cotton/paper mulberry fiber blends was reported. The objective of this research was to prepare the paper mulberry fibers and study the possibility of production of yarns from cotton/paper mulberry fibers. For preparation of paper mulberry fibers, the inner bark was first immersed in water for 24 h. Then, the fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide at concentration of 5–10% (w/v for 1–3 h. After that, the bleaching process was conducted with hydrogen peroxide at concentration of 5–25% (v/v for different temperature and time. Finally, the fibers were washed with 10% (v/v of nonionic surfactant at temperature of 90°C for 30 minute to remove the residual gum from the fibers. The results showed that optimum condition for scouring of the paper mulberry fibers was 15% (w/v sodium hydroxide at 90°C for 2 h. The bleaching process with 15% (v/v H2O2 at 90°C for 90 minute was suitable. The obtained fibers were blended with the cotton fibers to produce yarns by open-end spinning method. The % elongation and tenacity of the blended yarns increased with the increasing of the paper mulberry ratio. Also, the antifungal property of yarns was improved by the blending of cotton fibers with the paper mulberry fibers.

  2. Marine Data Management within the EMODNet Chemistry project: data aggregation, quality control and products preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iona, Athanasia Sissy; Karagevrekis, Pelopidas; Balopoulou, Stavroula; Giorgetti, Alessandra; Schaap, Dick

    2015-04-01

    The European Commission in response to the EU Green Paper for an integrated maritime policy has initiated the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) to improve Europe's marine data infrastructure, increase the availability of high quality data and assemble them under a common framework. In 2009, six service contracts were launched by DG-MARE for creating the pilot components of the network and setting up thematic web portals covering selected marine basins. In 2012, a second call was opened by DG-MARE to continue the further expand the pilot portals in terms of geographical coverage and range of products and concluded in seven service contracts for: bathymetry, geology, physical habitats, chemistry, biology, physics and human activities. Supporting activities are also foreseen to examine how the portals meet the needs of users from industry, public authorities and scientists, to identify data gaps and arguments why these gaps should be filled in future monitoring. The second EMODNet Chemistry proposal has been prepared and submitted by the SeaDataNet consortium which is the leading data management network in Europe, covering all sea basins in European waters with data input from almost all coastal states. It is the same consortium that had been awarded the first call for the preparatory actions and has been extended with new partners. EMODnet Chemistry (www.emodnet-chemistry.eu/) is focusing on measurement data for groups of chemical variables in water, sediments and biota with relevance to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Five regional groups corresponding to the five MSFD regions are performing quality control and aggregation on the data gathered from many distributed data providers of the SeaDataNet infrastructure in order to generate regional harmonized, aggregated and validated data sets for selected groups of chemicals variables. Then these data sets are used to prepare interpolated maps of chemical variables per region over time and

  3. [Preparation of peroral delayed-action drug forms using biological polymers as the base. 4. Preparation of erosion tablets with a base of starch hydrolysis products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mank, R; Kala, H; Lorenz, A

    1989-09-01

    The preparation and investigation of erosonic tablets using a modified starch product are described. Codeine phosphate and pholedrine sulfate served as model drugs. The pharmaceutical investigations showed, that this product is a good auxiliary substance for the direct compression. When in contact with water, the tablets form a gel. This gel determines the drug release. In in vitro investigations a degradation of the starch product by enzymes was detected. Especially the amount of the release values obtained were analyzed by the equation of Noyes-Whitney.

  4. Do new cellulolytic enzyme preparations affect the industrial strategies for high solids lignocellulosic ethanol production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic materials has a promising market potential, but the process is still only at pilot/demonstration scale due to the technical and economical difficulties of the process. Operating the process at very high solids concentrations (above 20% dry matter-DM) has proven essential for economic feasibility at industrial scale. Historically, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was found to give better ethanol yields compared to separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), but data in literature are typically based on operating the process at low dry matter conditions. In this work the impact of selected enzyme preparation and processing strategy (SHF, presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation-PSSF, and SSF) on final ethanol yield and overall performance was investigated with pretreated wheat straw up to 30% DM. The experiments revealed that an SSF strategy was indeed better than SHF when applying an older generation enzyme cocktail (Celluclast-Novozym 188). In case of the newer product Cellic CTec 2, SHF resulted in 20% higher final ethanol yield compared to SSF. It was possible to close the mass balance around cellulose to around 94%, revealing that the most relevant products could be accounted for. One observation was the presence of oxidized sugar (gluconic acid) upon enzymatic hydrolysis with the latest enzyme preparation. Experiments showed gluconic acid formation by recently discovered enzymatic class of lytic polysaccharides monoxygenases (LPMO's) to be depending on the processing strategy. The lowest concentration was achieved in SSF, which could be correlated with less available oxygen due to simultaneous oxygen consumption by the yeast. Quantity of glycerol and cell mass was also depending on the selected processing strategy.

  5. Microbial diversity in a bagasse-based compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Azevedo, Raquel Santos; Braga, Claudia; da Silva, Romildo; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2009-07-01

    Edible mushrooms are renowned for their nutritional and medicinal properties and are thus of considerable commercial importance. Mushroom production depends on the chemical composition of the basic substrates and additional supplements employed in the compost as well as on the method of composting. In order to minimise the cost of mushroom production, considerable interest has been shown in the use of agro-industrial residues in the preparation of alternative compost mixtures. However, the interaction of the natural microbiota present in agricultural residues during the composting process greatly influences the subsequent colonisation by the mushroom. The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify the microbiota present in a sugar cane bagasse and coast-cross straw compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasilienses. Composting lasted for 14 days, during which time the substrates and additives were mixed every 2 days, and this was followed by a two-step steam pasteurisation (55 - 65°C; 15 h each step). Bacteria, (mainly Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. and members of the Enterobacteriaceae) were the predominant micro-organisms present throughout the composting process with an average population density of 3 x 10(8) CFU/g. Actinomycetes, and especially members of the genus Streptomyces, were well represented with a population density of 2 - 3 x 10(8) CFU/g. The filamentous fungi, however, exhibited much lower population densities and were less diverse than the other micro-organisms, although Aspergillus fumigatus was present during the whole composting process and after pasteurisation.

  6. Soybean and lactose in meat products and preparations sampled at retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Piccolo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Food allergies and intolerances have increased during the last decades and regulatory authorities have taken different measures to prevent and manage consumers’ adverse reactions, including correct labelling of foods. Aim of this work was to search for soybean and lactose in meat products and meat preparations taken from retail in some provinces of Campania Region (Southern Italy and to evaluate the food labels compliance with Regulation (EU n.1169/2011. Soybean and lactose were searched using commercial kits in n. 58 samples of meat products produced in or distributed by 19 establishments, and in n. 55 samples of meat products and n. 8 of meat preparations produced in 21 plants. All samples were selected on the basis of the absence of any information on the labels about the presence of the two searched allergens, with the exception of n. 5 samples tested for lactose. Traces of soybean were detected in 50 out of the 58 examined samples, at concentrations up to 0.93 mg kg–1. Only two samples contained levels above the detection limit of 0.31 mg kg–1. Lactose levels ranging from 0.11 to 2.95 g/100 g, i.e. above the detection limit, were found in all the tested samples (n. 63. The results of the present research underline the need for careful controls and planning by operators as part of the self-control plans, and deserve attention from the competent authorities considering not only the consumers’ health but also the great attention media pay to regulations providing consumers with information on food.

  7. Impingement drying for preparing dried apple pomace flour and its fortification in bakery and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jooyeoun; Cavender, George; Zhao, Yanyun

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate impingement drying (ID) as a rapid drying method to dry wet apple pomace (WAP) and to investigate the fortification of dried apple pomace flour (APF) or WAP in bakery and meat products. ID at ~110 °C reduced the moisture content of apple pomace from 80 % (wet basis) to 4.5 % within 3 h, compared with 24 h to 2.2 % using 40 °C forced-air drying and ~60 h to 2.3 % using freeze drying. Furthermore, ID enhanced the extractable phenolic compounds, allowing for a 58 % increase in total phenolic content (TPC) compared with wet pomace, a 110 % and 83 % higher than TPC in forced-air dried and freeze dried samples, respectively. The 15-20 % APF-fortified cookies were found to be ~44-59 % softer, ~30 % more chewy, and ~14 % moister than those of the control. WAP-fortified meat products had significantly higher dietary fiber content (0.7-1.8 % vs. 0.1-0.2 % in control) and radical scavenging activity than that of the control. These results suggest that impingement drying is a fast and effective method for preparing dried APF with highly retained bioactive compounds, and apple pomace fortified products maintained or even had improved quality.

  8. Preparation, toxicity and mutagenicity of 1-methyl-2-nitrosoimidazole. A toxic 2-nitroimidazole reduction product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noss, M B; Panicucci, R; McClelland, R A; Rauth, A M

    1988-07-01

    1-Methyl-2-nitrosoimidazole (INO), the 2-electron reduction product of 1-methyl-2-nitroimidazole (INO2), was prepared by electrochemical reduction of INO2 to 2-hydroxylamino-1-methyl-imidazole (INHOH), followed by back oxidation with iodine. Although stable in crystalline form, INO reacted in water, phosphate-buffered saline, and mammalian cell growth medium. Half-lives for decay were determined by UV-visible spectroscopy. INO was found to be highly toxic towards Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, concentrations of 10-60 microM producing significant cytotoxicity. The rate of INO decay was found to be increased in the presence of CHO cells. INO was also toxic and mutagenic towards Salmonella typhimurium TA-100. When compared on a molar basis to the parent nitro compound INO2, and the 4- and 6-electron reduction products INHOH and 2-amino-1-methylimidazole (INH2), INO was by far (two orders of magnitude) the most toxic under aerobic conditions. These results suggest that the nitroso reduction product of 2-nitroimidazoles may be the reduced species responsible for hypoxic cell selective toxicity of 2-nitroimidazoles.

  9. Magnesium Production by Silicothermic Reduction of Dolime in Pre-prepared Dolomite Pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Da-Xue; Zhang, Ting-An; Guan, Lu-Kui; Dou, Zhi-He; Wen, Ming

    2016-12-01

    A novel process has been proposed for magnesium production, in which powder materials including dolomite, ferrosilicon, fluorite and binder are mixed to produce pellets. Kinetics of the silicothermic reduction using the pre-prepared dolomite pellets was investigated by a non-isothermal, flowing argon-protected gravimetric technique at a temperature range from 1323 K to 1673 K. The results suggest that the process is controlled by a chemical reaction, with the second-order chemical reaction model providing the best representation of the process. The apparent activation energy was determined to be 280 kJ/mol. Calcium silicide (was found in the pellet after calcinations. The silicothermic process in the pre-prepared dolomite pellets is possibly a solid-liquid reaction since calcium silicide transformed into liquid alloy, which reduced diffusion resistance of silicon during the reduction process. The gas-film mass transfer may have some effect on the reduction kinetics but is not the major rate-limiting step.

  10. Preparation and evaluation of cobalt-nickel electrodes for hydrogen production by electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakeeha, A.H.; El Aleem, F.A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Hydrogen can be produced by splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen through electrolysis. Different metals and combinations of metals have been screened in order to improve electrolysis. In addition, studies have been conducted to improve the methods of preparing electrodes that give lower potential. A cobalt-nickel electrode was used in this study for hydrogen production. The electro-kinetic parameters for such electrodes and its equivalent circuit were discussed. The combined nickel-cobalt electrode prepared by electro-codeposition exhibited significant catalytic activity towards hydrogen evolution from alkaline medium. The best performance was obtained for Ni-Co electrode in KoH solution at 70 degrees C. The electro-chemical impedance measurements and analysis resulted in an equivalent circuit of the present electrode in which a complex phase element was used to account for the complex rough surface of the electrode. The roughness factor of Ni-Co electrode is 31.9 at 70 degrees C. This is in good comparison with similar values of hydrogen evolution electrodes. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs.

  11. Investigation on the hematopoietic effect of functional foods using radiation and preparing the provisional product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Oh, Heon; Lee, Song Eun; Jeong, Yong Woon [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    We performed this study to determine the effect of several oriental prescriptions as energy tonic (Chinese medical concept: Bu-Qi) or blood building (Chinese medical concept: Bu-Xie) decoction and its major ingredients on jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation, and apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells of mice irradiated with high and low dose of gamma-irradiation. For the study of evaluation on the biological stability of irradiated chinese medical prescriptions, we performed the experiment to determine the effect of irradiated (10kGy) or unirradiated Si-Wu-Tang, Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang and San-Ling-Bai-Shu-San in irradiated mice. Further studies are needed to characterize better the protective nature of the total extract and its ingredients and for preparing the provisional product. (author). 61 refs., 3 figs., 21 tabs.

  12. Production, separation and target preparation of 171Tm an 147Pm for neutron cross section measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Heinitz, S; Schumann, D; Dressler, R; Kivel, N; Guerrero, C; Köster, U; Tessler, M; Paul, M; Halfon, S

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of the neutron capture cross sections of s-process branching point isotopes represents a basic requirement for the understanding of star evolution. Since such branching point isotopes are by definition radioactive, the measurement of their cross sections from thermal to stellar energies becomes a challenging task. Considerable amounts of material have to be produced, representing a significant radioactive hazard. We report here on the production and separation of 3.5 mg 171Tm from 240 mg 170Er2O3 and 72 µg 147Pm from 100 mg 146Nd2O3 irradiated at the ILL high flux reactor. Thin targets were prepared with high chemical and radioisotopic purity suitable for neutron capture measurements at n_TOF CERN and the SARAF-LiLiT facility.

  13. Quality Analysis of Herbal Medicine Products Prepared from Herba Sarcandrae by Capillary Electrophoresis with Electrochemical Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiao-guang; SUN Jin-ying; ZHU De-rong; YUAN Bai-qing; YOU Tian-yan

    2008-01-01

    A capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection(CE-ED)method was developed for the quality analysis of herbal medicine products prepared from the sanle herb of Herba Sarcandrae:Fufang Caoshanhu tablets,Qingrexiaoyanning capsules,and Xuekang oral liquids.Under the optimal analysis conditions,the low detection limit[1.0×10-7mol/L(S/N=3)]and the wide linear range(1.0×10-7-1.0×10-4 mol/L)were obtained for quality standard compound of isofraxidin.The precisions of the peak current and the migration time(as RSDs)for the real sample analysis were 2.0%-2.6%,and 1.2%-1.8%for isofraxidin,respectively.The contents of isofraxidin detected were 15.77 μg/tablet,0.48 mg/capsule,1.2 mg/ampoule(Jiangxi),and 0.44 mg/ampoule(Dalian)for Fufang Canshanhu tablets,Qingrexiao yanning capsules,and Xuekang oral liquids from different manufacturers,respectively.Quality estimate Was conducted by comparing the contents of isofraxidin in the herbal medicine products with the demanded values of Chinese pharmacopeia.In addition,based on their own unique CE-ED profiles(namely,CE-ED electropherograrns)the Xuekang oral liquids from the different manufacturers could be easily identified.

  14. The Calculation of Ho Production by indirect Method and Preparation of Polymeric Microsphere for Radioembolisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, K. H.; Kim, J. B.; Park, U. J.; Cho, E. H.; Nam, S. S.; Yoo, K. M.; Jang, K. D. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The reactor-produced radiolanthanides have been essential for development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals because they emit proper beta energies to induce tumor necrosis. Some radiolanthanides are very useful in that they have the ability of simultaneous diagnosis and therapeutic effect. This nuclide with both capacities is called as theranostic nuclide. In general, radiolanthanides can be produced by (n,γ) and (n,γ)β reaction. Of the two reactions, (n,γ)β reaction-product, shows high specific activity which is important things to affect labeling yield, is suitable for preparing the radiophamaceuticals comprising the antibody or peptide. Some radiolanthanides show the good theranostic effect in that they have proper LET (Linear Energy Transfer) to induce apoptosis for cancer and gamma ray to use as a tracer for cancer diagnosis. Although Ho-166 has been studied for therapeutic purpose since early 1990, production has been limited to direct method. To inject Dy/Ho mixture into the microsphere, we first set-up the concepts which are prior metal-administration method and posterior administration method. The latter is shown in this paper. Metal inletting process was done by using alternating between vacuum and pressurization. To prevent the leak of metal ions from metal/microsphere hybrid, surface coating was done by using interfacial reaction between saline and THF contained Poly lactic acid. Surface coating is simply completed just swiveling the vial. All experiments in this study, we just only tested with cold state.

  15. Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products : version 4.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brittenham, Phillip W.

    2007-09-01

    This guide describes the R&A process, Common Look and Feel requirements, and preparation and publishing procedures for communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Samples of forms and examples of published communications products are provided. This guide takes advantage of the wealth of material now available on the Web as a resource. Therefore, it is best viewed as an electronic document. If some of the illustrations are too small to view comfortably, you can enlarge them on the screen as needed. The most significant changes since Version 1 involve the introduction of the electronic Review and Approval application at the Sandia/California (CA) and Sandia/New Mexico (NM) sites. Authors are advised to check the most current material on the application Web site before initiating the R&A process. The format of this document is considerably different than that expected of a SAND Report. It was selected to permit the large number of illustrations and examples to be placed closer to the text that references them. In the case of forms, covers, and other items that are included as examples, a link to the Web is provided so that you can access the items and download them for use.

  16. Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products : version 3.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brittenham, Phillip W.

    2007-03-01

    This guide describes the R&A process, Common Look and Feel requirements, and preparation and publishing procedures for communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Samples of forms and examples of published communications products are provided. This guide takes advantage of the wealth of material now available on the Web as a resource. Therefore, it is best viewed as an electronic document. If some of the illustrations are too small to view comfortably, you can enlarge them on the screen as needed. The most significant changes since Version 1 involve the introduction of the electronic Review and Approval application at the Sandia/California (CA) and Sandia/New Mexico (NM) sites. Authors are advised to check the most current material on the application Web site before initiating the R&A process. The format of this document is considerably different than that expected of a SAND Report. It was selected to permit the large number of illustrations and examples to be placed closer to the text that references them. In the case of forms, covers, and other items that are included as examples, a link to the Web is provided so that you can access the items and download them for use.

  17. Preparation of corncob grits as a carrier for immobilizing yeast cells for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Choon Geun; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Jung, Kyung-Hwan

    2012-12-01

    In this study, DEAE-corncobs [delignified corncob grits derivatized with 2-(diethylamino)ethyl chloride hydrochloride (DEAE·HCl)] were prepared as a carrier to immobilize yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) for ethanol production. The immobilized yeast cell reactor produced ethanol under optimized DEAE·HCl derivatization and adsorption conditions between yeast cells and the DEAE-corncobs. When delignified corncob grit (3.0 g) was derivatized with 0.5M DEAE·HCl, the yeast cell suspension (OD600 = 3.0) was adsorbed at >90% of the initial cell OD600. This amount of adsorbed yeast cells was estimated to be 5.36 mg-dry cells/g-DEAE corncobs. The Qmax (the maximum cell adsorption by the carrier) of the DEAE-corncobs was estimated to be 25.1 (mg/g), based on a Languir model biosorption isotherm experiment. When we conducted a batch culture with medium recycling using the immobilized yeast cells, the yeast cells on DEAE-corncobs produced ethanol gradually, according to glucose consumption, without cells detaching from the DEAE-corncobs. We observed under electron microscopy that the yeast cells grew on the surface and in the holes of the DEAEcorncobs. In a future study, DEAE-corncobs and the immobilized yeast cell reactor system will contribute to bioethanol production from biomass hydrolysates.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION AND SELECTION OF CEREALS FOR PREPARATION AND UTILIZATION OF FERMENTED FIBER-BETAGLUCAN PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Duchoňová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Whole grains flours of diverse colored wheat species (Triticum sp. and various varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare and oat (Avena sativa were analysed for their nutritional composition. The highest protein values were observed in wheat yellow variety BONA DEA (14% and also in blue variety UC 66049 (13%. Lower content of starch was determined in barley and oat varieties in compared to wheat varieties. The lowest levels of betaglucans were observed in wheat (0.3 – 0.6% and the highest content was assessed in barley and oat (2.5 – 3.8%. Variation in dietary fiber was considerable in barley and oat varieties. Barley varieties possessed significantly the highest content of total dietary fiber among all monitored cereals (≈17%, while oat grains showed significantly the lowest values (≤7%. Knowledge of the composition of healthy substances was used to select the best variety for the development of fermented product which was developed using specially prepared oat flour and potentially probiotic lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum. The series of fermentation experiments resulted in a final gelatinous product with vital bacterial cell count about 1010 CFU.g-1, significantly reduced level of starch (1.7% and following nutritional characteristics: dry matter of 12.91%, water activity of 0.977, pH value 4.6 and lactic acid content of 2.95 g/l. Final product was added into the dough in different quantities and served also as a starter culture. Rheological properties of dough were evaluated for the purpose of finding a suitable recipe.

  19. Optimized production of Serratia marcescens B742 mutants for preparing chitin from shrimp shells powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongcai; Fang, Jiyang; Deng, Yun; Zhao, Yanyun

    2014-08-01

    To improve the deproteinization (DP) efficacy of shrimp shell powders (SSP) for preparing chitin, Serratia marcescens B742 mutants were prepared using 2% diethyl sulfate (DES), UV-irradiation, and/or microwave heating treatments. Both single-stage and multi-stage mutations were investigated for optimizing S. marcescens B742 mutation conditions. Under the optimized mutation conditions (2% DES treatment for 30min plus successive 20min UV-irradiation), the protease and chitosanase activity produced by mutant S. marcescens B742 was 240.15 and 170.6mU/mL, respectively, as compared with 212.58±1.51 and 83.75±6.51mU/mL, respectively, by wild S. marcescens B742. DP efficacy of SSP by mutant S. marcescens B742 reached 91.4±4.6% after 3d of submerged fermentation instead of 83.4±4.7% from the wild S. marcescens B742 after 4d of submerged fermentation. Molecular mass of chitosanase and protease was 41.20 and 47.10kDa, respectively, and both enzymes were verified by mass spectrometry analysis. The chitosanase from both wild and mutant S. marcescens B742 was activated by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Tween 20, Tween 40, and Triton-100, and the protease and chitosanase were strongly inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). These results suggested that S. marcescens B742 mutants can be used in the biological production of chitin through deproteinization of SSP.

  20. Productivity and soil properties 45 years after timber harvest and mechanical site preparation in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke M. Cerise; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Paul McDaniel; Cole Mayn; Robert. Heinse

    2013-01-01

    Site preparation following timber harvests is widely used to increase seedling establishment postharvest. Historically, dozer piling and ripping were the most common forms of site preparation in the Intermountain West. Less commonly, terracing of hill slopes was another form of site preparation on the Bitterroot National Forest in western Montana from 1961-1970 on...

  1. A study on the preparation of value-added products from the nonmetallic minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report consists of 4 subjects. (1) preparation of value-added products for limestone : The purpose of this study is to develop the process of grade up by economical processes with low and/or middle grade of domestic limestone and of powder coating by dry base. In this year, first of all, we investigated the status of application utilize and related industries with the domestic limestone, and then being consideration with condition selected the adequate sample from Taeback, Uljin, Andong, Jungsun and Kumsan area. (2) development of value added technology of pyrophyllite ore : Considering the value added technology for pyrophyllite ore, the study was carried out for development of manufacturing technology to produce paint's filler from pyrophyllite ore reserved at Bunam mine in Cheongsong, Kyungsangbuk-do. The objective of the study is to develop a technology for not only creating an added value of pyrophyllite but also substituting the imported pyrophyllite product. (3) manufacturing technology of materials for fine chemical and electronic industry use : For use high electrically conductive film and advanced high functional solid lubricant, add new and advanced high functional propertied to fine graphite powder through surface modification with gas and organic materials. In this year, scale up test(30 l/batch) were carried out to stand firm the process of graphite surface control and modification for mass produce and to appraise characteristics of surface modified graphite powders. To arrange in order the test sample for actual apply in related company. (4) manufacturing technology of materials for fine chemical industry use (sericite, muscovite) : During the past three years, we studied on the processing technology and treatment process for recovery of concentrated sericite and muscovite, fine grinding characterization and classification of purified sericite and muscovite and the basic study of surface modification which are used as a source material of

  2. Production of bioflocculants prepared from formaldehyde wastewater for the potential removal of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haijuan; Zhong, Chunying; Chen, Honggao; Yao, Jie; Tan, Liqing; Zhang, Youlang; Zhou, Jiangang

    2016-05-01

    A novel bioflocculant (MBF-79) prepared using formaldehyde wastewater as carbon resource was investigated in the study. The optimal conditions for bioflocculant production were determined to be an inoculum size of 7.0%, initial pH of 6.0, and formaldehyde concentration of 350 mg/L. An MBF-79 of 8.97 g/L was achieved as the maximum yield. Three main elements, namely C, H, and O, were present in MBF-79 with relative weigh percentages of 39.17%, 6.74%, and 34.55%, respectively. The Gel permeation chromatography analysis indicated that the approximate molecular weight (MW) of MBF-79 was 230 kDa. MBF-79 primarily comprised polysaccharide (71.2%) and protein (27.9%). Additionally, conditions for the removal of arsenic by MBF-79 were found to be MBF-79 at 120 mg/L, an initial pH 7.0, and a contact time 60 min. Under the optimal conditions, the removal efficiencies of arsenate (0.5 mg/L) and arsenite (0.5 mg/L) were 98.9% and 84.6%, respectively. Overall, these findings indicate bioflocculation offers an effective alternative method of decreasing arsenic during water treatment.

  3. A new generation of starch products as excipient in pharmaceutical tablets .1. Preparation and binding properties of high surface area potato starch products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierik, GHPT; ArendsScholte, AW; Eissens, AC; Lerk, CF

    1996-01-01

    A new pharmaceutical excipient with a high binding capacity was prepared from potato starch by enzymatic degradation, followed by suitable dehydration of the precipitated and filtered retrograded starch to produce high specific surface area products. Thermal dehydration methods like drying at room o

  4. Preparation of salted meat products, e.g. cured bacon - by injecting liquid comprising meat proteins hydrolysed with enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    Preparation of salted meat products comprises the following:(1) meat is chopped into fine pieces and mixed with water to form a slurry; (2) enzymes hydrolyse proteins in the meat; (3) adding a culture to the resulting medium, which comprises short peptide chains or amino acids; (4) forming...... flavourings as the culture is growing, and (5) injecting the liquid into pieces of meat....

  5. Preparation of salted meat products, e.g. cured bacon - by injecting liquid comprising meat proteins hydrolysed with enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    Preparation of salted meat products comprises the following:(1) meat is chopped into fine pieces and mixed with water to form a slurry; (2) enzymes hydrolyse proteins in the meat; (3) adding a culture to the resulting medium, which comprises short peptide chains or amino acids; (4) forming...

  6. 78 FR 62319 - Golden Pass Products, LLC, Golden Pass Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Golden Pass Products, LLC, Golden Pass Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Golden Pass LNG Export Project and Golden Pass Export... operation of the Golden Pass Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Project and Golden Pass Export Pipeline...

  7. Ergonomic evaluation of the preparation of cuttings and minicuttings for eucalyptus seedling production, with the use of scissors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Eduarda Gabriela Santos; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in a nursery for eucalyptus seedling production in a forest Company, located in the southern state of Bahia, Brazil. It aimed to evaluate the ergonomic conditions of the preparation of cuttings and mini-cuttings with scissors for Eucalyptus seedling production to increase well-being, satisfaction and safety and minimizing the occurrence of occupational diseases, also improving the process efficiency and final product quality. Environmental conditions, levels of noise, postures, RSI risk and physical workload were assessed. The environmental conditions complied with the recommended norms, except at certain times of day, when workers should make compensation breaks. The workers that collect minicuttings presented postures classified as normal by OWAS. On the other hand, the posture of workers dealing with cutting preparation requires corrections in a short run. The workers were subjected to moderate RSI risk due to the high degree of repeatability found. The physical workload was classified as mild, with no need for ergonomic interventions.

  8. Studies on the preparation of value-added products for industrial minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Studies on the preparation of value-added products for limestone: This study has investigated to raise to high grade by economical processes with low grade of domestic limestone. We investigated the status of application utilize and related industries with the domestic limestone, and then being consideration with condition selected the adequate sample from Andong, Jungsun and Kumsan area. Magnetic materials were involved in impurities of sample, so magnetic separation method was applied in elimination of the ferro- and para-magnetic materials, such as chlorite, muscovite, quartz, dolomite, magnetite, feldspar and so on. Investigation of flotation was undertaken to eliminate impurities from limestone crude ore and the tests were performed to get a optimum condition adding oleic acid as a promoter, sodium silicate and sodium carbonate as a conditioning agents and MIBC as a frother, while to float the sulfide minerals added amyl xanthate as a promoter, and sulfuric acid as a pH regulator. Selective crushing and classification methods were performed to eliminate impurities depends on the mineral properties and should be the selective crushing methods are very useful at the manufacturing factory of heavy calcium carbonate with the dry milling system. 2) A study on development of value added technology of pyrophyllite and dickite: Pyrophyllite and dickite have being utilized as refractories, ceramics, cement, fiber glass, paper, rubber, paints etc. However, there are not any domestic companies to produce fillers of pyrophyllite and dickite for plastic and rubber. Moreover, several kinds of fillers are imported every year with expensive price for plastic and rubber filler. This study has purpose to develop manufacturing technologies to produce fillers for plastic and rubber of pyrophyllite and dickite. The chemical and mineralogical properties of samples, the optimum grinding condition and device for producing plastic fillers and

  9. Natural rubber latex blended polystyrene emulsion for dipping products: preparation and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovuttikulrangsie, S.

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Deproteinized natural rubber latex (DPNR was prepared using KAO protease enzyme to digest proteins from natural rubber low ammonia concentrated latex (NR-LA. Polystyrene latex (PS was synthesized by emulsion polymerization technique for blending with natural rubber. The maximum fraction of PS blended NR-LA or DPNR used to obtain a homogenous film was 20% w/w. The 300% modulus of PS blended NR film was increased before and after aging at 100ºC for 22 hrs. The tensile strength and elongation at break were increased at NR/PS = 95/5 w/w and tended to decrease as PS blended fraction increased. DPNR films had a lower friction coefficient than NR-LA films. PS blended NR-LA or DPNR would decrease the friction coefficient of films. The rubber-surfaced friction is reduced. The extractable protein of NR-LA film was higher than 200 μg/g whereas that of DPNR film was lower than 50 μg/g. PS blended NR-LA and DPNR could reduce the extractable protein to less than 60 μg/g and 30μg/g, respectively. The physical properties of PS blended NR-LA met ASTM D3577 and ASTM D3578 standards for dipping products of surgical gloves and examination gloves at the maximum fraction of PS 15% w/w and 20% w/w, respectively, whereas PS blended DPNR only met ASTM D3577 standard at the maximum fraction of PS < 5% w/w.

  10. The method of production and modification of highly disperse silica for pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina N. Mofa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The change in the dispersity, morphology and state of amorphous silicon dioxide (silica powder depending on the conditions of mechanochemical treatment (MCT in the mill of dynamic action and ultrasonic treatment (UST in different aqueous solution is considered. Production of silicon dioxide in a highly disperse state is of importance, when using it in cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations. Nanosilicic compositions are effective for delivering medicines to the connective tissues of the skin structure. When dispersing powder as surfactant and modifying additives, we used monoatomic and triatomic alcohols as well as succinic and acetylsalicylic acids, which provide a high level of grinding, modification of the particle surface and stabilization of a highly active state of silicon dioxide. Electron-microscopic investigations on the morphology of particles showed their capsulation into dense modifying films under the conditions of MCT and UST. The use of acid modifiers in the process of MCT and UST of silicon dioxide powder resulted in formation of complex composition systems consisting of an inorganic nucleus and organic capsulating film. The state of the obtained modified powders was evaluated by the change of electrical resistance as one of the most sensitive indices of structural changes of the system being treated. The use of triatomic alcohol glycerine, when treating the powder, noticeably decreased its specific electrical resistance after UST, due to formation of hydroxylic groups on the surface of particles and accumulation of charged particles, which provide a high chemical activity of the systems. An important role of the capsulating polymer component on the surface of highly disperse particles of silicon dioxide for stabilization of a highly active state of the powder is shown.

  11. Usage of Working Time for Preparation and Cutting of Cloth in Garments’ Production

    OpenAIRE

    Beļakova, Dana; Ziemele, Inese

    2014-01-01

    Production working time expenditure management and standardizing is vital in the present global apparel production market to be able to compete in the market.Working time expenditure is connected with production quality, costs and productivity and by using appropriate working time expenditure determinationmethods, it is possible to find production margins, improve working methods and to find a midway between production costs and worker salaries. Therefore it isimportant to carry out working t...

  12. Production of Artificial Lesions for Teaching Cavity Preparation in the Phantom Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treasure, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    To teach the modern concepts of cavity preparation, it is desirable to have a supply of natural teeth exhibiting suitable carious lesions. This paper describes a simple method for producing consistent artificial lesions in extracted natural teeth. (MLW)

  13. Studies on the preparation of value-added products for limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Young Bae; Jeong, Soo Bok; Ko, Won Sik; Chang, Byung Pyo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Imports of high grade limestone and calcium carbonate powder that have properties of high whiteness and grade are increased with diversification of chemical products and powder as various qualified filler, because high grade limestone are limited or few deposited in our country. There are three kinds in the importation calcium carbonate powder that have properties of high whiteness over 95 deg., high purity and hydrophobic with fatty acid coating at the powder surface. This study is to develop the process of grade up by economical processes with low and/or middle grade of domestic limestone and of powder coating by dry base. We investigated the status of application utilize and related industries with the domestic limestone, and then being consideration with condition selected the adequate sample from Taeback, Uljin, Andong, Jungsun and Kumsan area. The limestone sample has many kinds of impurity. So, the method of preparation used in this experiment is Magnetic separation, Flotation, Selective crushing and Precision Classifying according the mineral properties. Magnetic separation method was applied in elimination of the ferro-magnetic materials and para-magnetic materials, such as chlorite, muscovite, quartz dolomite, magnetite, feldspar and so on. Flotation process was undertaken to eliminate of the small size impurities form limestone crude ore and the tests were performed to get a optimum condition adding oleic acid as a promoter, sodium silicate and sodium carbonate as a conditioning agents and MIBC as a frother and sulfuric acid as a pH regulator. Selective crushing and classification methods were performed for eliminated impurities depends on the mineral properties and should be the selective crushing methods on the mineral properties and should be the selective crushing methods are very useful at the manufacturing process of heavy calcium carbonate with the dry milling system. In the heavy calcium carbonate powder coating experiments, A contact angle of

  14. Hydrogen production by ethanol steam reforming over Cu-Ni/SBA-15 supported catalysts prepared by direct synthesis and impregnation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrero, A.; Calles, J.A.; Vizcaino, A.J. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Technology, Rey Juan Carlos University, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologia (ESCET), c/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles (Spain)

    2007-07-31

    Cu-Ni/SBA-15 supported catalysts prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method were tested in the ethanol steam reforming reaction for hydrogen production. The effect of reaction temperature and metal loading was studied in order to maximize the hydrogen selectivity and the CO{sub 2}/(CO + CO{sub 2}) molar ratio. The best catalytic performance was achieved at 600 C. Products distribution was the result of the combined effects of metal particles size, metal content and Ni/Cu ratio on the catalyst. In addition, two catalysts were prepared by the method of direct insertion of Ni and Cu in the initial stage of the SBA-15 synthesis. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2}- adsorption and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) results evidenced that SBA-15 materials with long range hexagonal ordering were successfully synthesized in the presence of copper and nickel salts with the (Cu + Ni) contents around 4-6 wt.%. However, lower hydrogen selectivity as well as ethanol and water conversions were obtained with catalysts prepared by direct synthesis in comparison with those prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. Particularly, the best catalytic results were achieved with a sample impregnated with 2 and 7 wt.% of copper and nickel, respectively. (author)

  15. Steam reforming of ethanol for hydrogen production over Cu/Co-Mg-Al-based catalysts prepared by hydrotalcite route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsi, Doris; Rached, Jihane Abou; Aouad, Samer; Gennequin, Cédric; Dahdah, Eliane; Estephane, Jane; Tidahy, Haingomalala Lucette; Aboukaïs, Antoine; Abi-Aad, Edmond

    2016-08-23

    The performances of different 5Cu/CoxMg6-xAl2 (x = 0; 2; 4; 6) catalysts prepared by the wet impregnation method were investigated in the ethanol steam-reforming reaction (ESR) at 450 °C during 4 h under a steam/ethanol ratio of 3 (S/E = 3). The best catalyst among the prepared solids was 5Cu/Co6Al2 as it showed a complete ethanol conversion and the highest hydrogen and carbon dioxide productivities. However, following 50 h of aging, the catalyst deactivated due to the formation of a high amount of carbonaceous products detected by differential scanning calorimetry/thermogravimetry. On the other hand, the 5Cu/Co2Mg4Al2 catalyst showed a much lower quantity of coke deposition with no deactivation due to the basic character conferred by the magnesium oxide phase.

  16. 77 FR 69863 - Antiseptic Patient Preoperative Skin Preparation Products; Public Hearing; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... antiseptic-resistant organisms frequently identified as contaminants in patient preoperative skin... allow for ] production of a sterile preoperative skin prep product? 5. How would the market change if... do to help manufacturers overcome challenges in this area? B. Extrinsic Contamination 1. Products...

  17. A QMRA Model for Salmonella in Pork Products During Preparation and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swart, A. N.; Leusden, F.; Nauta, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    As part of a quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) food chain model, this article describes a model for the consumer phase for Salmonella‐contaminated pork products. Three pork products were chosen as a proxy for the entire pork product spectrum: pork cuts, minced meat patties...

  18. [Preparation of the first draft of environmental health criteria for acetonitrile: production process of the draft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, K; Saitoh, M; Hemmi, A; Yamamoto, M; Kaminuma, T

    1992-01-01

    Acetonitrile is a high-polarity aprotic organic solvent used in DNA synthesizers, HPLC, and electrochemistry. In addition, it is used larger amounts at petrochemical companies and pharmaceutical firms. Preparation of an Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) monograph for acetonitrile was started in 1986, and its first draft except the environmental section was completed on June 21, 1991. The environmental section has been prepared by Dr. S. Dobson (ITE/UK). The first draft was circulated to EHC Contact Points for comment in March 1992.

  19. 77 FR 42195 - Viruses, Serums, Toxins, and Analogous Products; Exemptions From Preparation Pursuant to an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 107 RIN 0579-AD66 Viruses...: We are proposing to amend the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act regulations to require that veterinary biologics... not prepared in unlicensed establishments in violation of the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act. The effect of...

  20. Preparative Protein Production from Inclusion Bodies and Crystallization: A Seven-Week Biochemistry Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Megan J.; Snyder, W. Kalani; Westerman, Shelley; McFarland, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe how to produce and purify proteins from "Escherichia coli" inclusion bodies by adapting versatile, preparative-scale techniques to the undergraduate laboratory schedule. This 7-week sequence of experiments fits into an annual cycle of research activity in biochemistry courses. Recombinant proteins are expressed as inclusion bodies,…

  1. Preparative Protein Production from Inclusion Bodies and Crystallization: A Seven-Week Biochemistry Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Megan J.; Snyder, W. Kalani; Westerman, Shelley; McFarland, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe how to produce and purify proteins from "Escherichia coli" inclusion bodies by adapting versatile, preparative-scale techniques to the undergraduate laboratory schedule. This 7-week sequence of experiments fits into an annual cycle of research activity in biochemistry courses. Recombinant proteins are expressed as inclusion bodies,…

  2. Characterization of technological features of dry yeast (strain I-7-43) preparation, product of electrofusion between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces diastaticus, in industrial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarska, Katarzyna; Kłosowski, Grzegorz; Czupryński, Bogusław

    2011-06-10

    The aim of the study was to verify the technological usability and stability of biotechnological features of active dry distillery yeast preparation (strain I-7-43 with amylolytic abilities) applied to full-scale production of agricultural distillery. Various reduced doses of glucoamylase preparation (San-Extra L) were used for starch saccharification, from 90% to 70% in relation to the full standard dose of preparation. The dry distillery yeast I-7-43 were assessed positively in respect to fermentation activity and yield of ethanol production. Application of the dry yeast I-7-43 preparation in distillery practice lowers the costs of spirit production by saving the glucoamylase preparation (up to 30%) used in the process of mash saccharification. Concentrations of the volatile fermentation by-products in raw spirits obtained from fermentations with application of I-7-43 strain were on the levels guaranteeing good organoleptic properties of distillates.

  3. TECHNICAL AND ORGANISATIONAL ASPECTS OF PRODUCTION PREPARATION ON THE EXAMPLE OF DOOR FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudawska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is the analysis of the organization of production, and door-producing undertaking to propose technical solutions that could improve production efficiency and reduce costs. On the basis of an analysis of the existing organizational and technical production plant a proposal of changes was presented. These changes depend on replacing a group of machines with one CNC EGURKO automatic line.

  4. Increased motor preparation activity during fluent single word production in DS: A correlate for stuttering frequency and severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoutte, Sarah; Santens, Patrick; Cosyns, Marjan; van Mierlo, Pieter; Batens, Katja; Corthals, Paul; De Letter, Miet; Van Borsel, John

    2015-08-01

    Abnormal speech motor preparation is suggested to be a neural characteristic of stuttering. One of the neurophysiological substrates of motor preparation is the contingent negative variation (CNV). The CNV is an event-related, slow negative potential that occurs between two defined stimuli. Unfortunately, CNV tasks are rarely studied in developmental stuttering (DS). Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate motor preparation in DS by use of a CNV task. Twenty five adults who stutter (AWS) and 35 fluent speakers (FS) were included. They performed a picture naming task while an electro-encephalogram was recorded. The slope of the CNV was evaluated at frontal, central and parietal electrode sites. In addition, a correlation analysis was performed with stuttering severity and frequency measures. There was a marked increase in CNV slope in AWS as compared to FS. This increase was observed over the entire scalp with respect to stimulus onset, and only over the right hemisphere with respect to lip movement onset. Moreover, strong positive correlations were found between CNV slope and stuttering frequency and severity. As the CNV is known to reflect the activity in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical-network, the present findings confirm an increased activation of this loop during speech motor preparation in stuttering. The more a person stutters, the more neurons of this cortical-subcortical network seem to be activated. Because this increased CNV slope was observed during fluent single word production, it is discussed whether or not this observation refers to a successful compensation strategy.

  5. Syllables in speech production : effects of syllable preparation and syllable frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cholin, J.

    2004-01-01

    The fluent production of speech is a very complex human skill. It requires the coordination of several articulatory subsystems. The instructions that lead articulatory movements to execution are the result of the interplay of speech production levels that operate above the articulatory network. Duri

  6. Fermentation and microflora of plaa-som, a Thai fermented fish product prepared with different salt concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Madsen, M.; Sophanodora, P.

    2002-01-01

    Plaa-som is a Thai fermented fish product prepared from snakehead fish, salt, palm syrup and sometimes roasted rice. We studied the effects of different salt concentrations on decrease in pH and on microflora composition during fermentation. Two low-salt batches were prepared, containing 6% and 7......% salt (w/w) as well as two high-salt batches, containing 9% and 11% salt. pH decreased rapidly from 6 to 4.5 in low-salt batches, whereas in high-salt batches, a slow or no decrease in pH was found. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts were isolated as the dominant microorganisms during fermentation...

  7. Sensory and physico-chemical characteristics of desserts prepared with egg products processed by freeze and spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Nunes de Jesús

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, three freeze-dried (FD egg products (whole egg (WE, egg yolk (EY and egg white (EW were obtained and the acceptability of confections prepared with each was evaluated. Sensory analyses for confections were performed by hedonic testing with fifty panelists in each evaluation. The studied confections were: Condensed Milk Pudding (P, Quindim (Q and Meringue (M. The results obtained for confections made with FD egg products were compared with the achieved through other formulations of the same desserts made with fresh (F or spray-dried (SD egg products. The sensory analysis results for confections made with FD egg products showed good acceptance by panelists. A principal component analysis of the sensory evaluation data was carried out to identify similarities between the different egg products. The PCA supported the conclusion that FD egg products can substitute their fresh and SD counterparts in dessert formulations with good acceptability while keeping the advantages conferred by the freeze-drying method.

  8. Mechanized methods for preparation and processing of compost from pruning residues in fruit-vine production

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper is part of research about the effects of mechanized process of fragmentation of pruning residues on the composting process. Compost, as a form of organic fertilizer, requires specific production treatment depending on the form of biomass. Pruning residues from fruit-vine production can be translated into quality organic fertilizer, but it is necessary to coordinate mechanized treatment of biomass and technology of composting process with microbiological processes for organic matter...

  9. Preparation of magnesium phosphate cement by recycling the product of thermal transformation of asbestos containing wastes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Asbestos containing wastes have been employed for the first time in the formulation of magnesium phosphate cements. Two samples were mixed with magnesium carbonate and calcined at 1100 and 1300 C. Under these conditions, complete destruction of asbestos minerals is known to occur. The product, containing MgO, after reaction with water-soluble potassium di-hydrogen phosphate, led to the formation of hydrated phases at room temperature. Crystalline and amorphous reaction products were detected,...

  10. Presence of sulphites in different types of partly processed meat products prepared for grilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korićanac, V.; Vranić, D.; Trbović, D.; Petronijević, R.; Parunović, N.

    2017-09-01

    In the period January 2016 to May 2017, the presence and levels of sulfite were examined in 270 samples of hamburger, sausage (various types), pljeskavica (Serbian-style meat patties of various types) and ćevapi or ćevapčići (grill kebabs) from the Serbian market. Some (12.59%) of these partly processed meat products contained sulfites, expressed as SO2, at levels above 10 mg/kg, and so did not meet requirements laid down in the National Regulation. In the remainder of the meat products (87.41%), sulfite contents were below 10 mg/kg, which is considered as “not detected”. By groups, 100% of hamburgers, 91.76% of sausages and 90.48% of pljeskavica met requirements of National Regulation. The meat product group with the biggest percentage of non-compliant meat products in which sulfites were detected was the ćevapi or ćevapčići – 18.10% of them contained sulfites. All in all, most of the partly processed meat products from the Serbian market met the National Regulation regarding sulfite content, and they were safe for consumption. Nonetheless, the high percentage of ćevapi or ćevapčići that contained sulfites leads us to conclude that regular and periodic control is necessary and one of the most important steps in ensuring safe and quality meat products for consumers.

  11. Using an Inducible Promoter of a Gene Encoding Penicillium verruculosum Glucoamylase for Production of Enzyme Preparations with Enhanced Cellulase Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakov, Alexander V.; Nemashkalov, Vitaly A.; Satrutdinov, Aidar D.; Sinitsyn, Arkady P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Penicillium verruculosum is an efficient producer of highly active cellulase multienzyme system. One of the approaches for enhancing cellulase performance in hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates is to enrich the reaction system with β -glucosidase and/or accessory enzymes, such as lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO) displaying a synergism with cellulases. Results Genes bglI, encoding β-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger (AnBGL), and eglIV, encoding LPMO (formerly endoglucanase IV) from Trichoderma reesei (TrLPMO), were cloned and expressed by P. verruculosum B1-537 strain under the control of the inducible gla1 gene promoter. Content of the heterologous AnBGL in the secreted multienzyme cocktails (hBGL1, hBGL2 and hBGL3) varied from 4 to 10% of the total protein, while the content of TrLPMO in the hLPMO sample was ~3%. The glucose yields in 48-h hydrolysis of Avicel and milled aspen wood by the hBGL1, hBGL2 and hBGL3 preparations increased by up to 99 and 80%, respectively, relative to control enzyme preparations without the heterologous AnBGL (at protein loading 5 mg/g substrate for all enzyme samples). The heterologous TrLPMO in the hLPMO preparation boosted the conversion of the lignocellulosic substrate by 10–43%; however, in hydrolysis of Avicel the hLPMO sample was less effective than the control preparations. The highest product yield in hydrolysis of aspen wood was obtained when the hBGL2 and hLPMO preparations were used at the ratio 1:1. Conclusions The enzyme preparations produced by recombinant P. verruculosum strains, expressing the heterologous AnBGL or TrLPMO under the control of the gla1 gene promoter in a starch-containing medium, proved to be more effective in hydrolysis of a lignocellulosic substrate than control enzyme preparations without the heterologous enzymes. The enzyme composition containing both AnBGL and TrLPMO demonstrated the highest performance in lignocellulose hydrolysis, providing a background for developing a

  12. Preparation of ansa-metallocenes for production of poly(α-olefin) lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Hae; Jang, Young Eun; Jeon, Jong Yeob; Go, Min Jeong; Lee, Junseong; Kim, Sung Kwan; Lee, Sang-Ick; Lee, Bun Yeoul

    2014-07-14

    An ansa-zirconocene bearing methyl substituents at all positions adjacent to the bridgehead [(-C(Ph)HC(Ph)H-)(η(5)-2,5-Me2C5H2)2ZrCl2] (4) was prepared in high yields (78%) through the reductive dimerization of 1,4-dimethyl-6-phenylfulvene utilizing ZrCl2·DME generated in situ. The structure of 4 was subsequently confirmed using X-ray crystallography. 4 exhibited excellent catalytic performance with regard to 1-decene oligomerization, which was carried out with the intention of preparing lubricant base stocks. High activities (21 × 10(6) g mol(-1) Zr h(-1) activity; TON = 150 000; TOF = 42 s(-1)) were observed at temperatures as high as 120 °C and the oligomer distribution was appropriate for lubricant application. The simulated distillation (SIMDIS) data confirmed that a wide range of oligomers were formed, ranging from the dimer (2-mer) to 20-mer. A minimal amount of the dimer and oligomers larger than the 10-mer was formed (13 and 25 wt%, respectively). Alternatively, a typical unbridged complex such as (η(5)-nBuC5H4)2ZrCl2 primarily produced dimers (54 wt%), whereas the ansa-zirconocene (EBI)ZrCl2 primarily produced oligomers larger than 10-mer (62 wt%). The methyl substituents at the positions adjacent to the bridgehead in 4 played a significant role in the catalytic performance.

  13. Preparation and evaluation of Ni-Zn electrode for electrolytic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakeeha, A.H.; Abdel-Aleem, F.A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). College of Engineering Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-06-01

    An important role in enhancing the economical and technical usage of water electrolysis process is the reduction of the over potential of hydrogen evolution reaction. For this study, the authors electroplated pure Nickel and co-deposited Nickel-Zinc with different loading, to prepare two groups of electrodes. A figure illustrated the over-potential for hydrogen evolution reaction of the prepared electrodes in 1 M KOH solution at 25 Celsius as function of current density. The Nickel-Zinc electrodes gave lower over-potential, as indicated by the Tafel slopes obtained. It was also revealed that as the amount of co-deposited material increased, the over-potential was reduced, within the experimental range. The equivalent circuit for the composite electrode was developed and the roughness factor was calculated from experimental data of alternating current impedance. The explanation for the superiority of the Zinc-Nickel electrode might reside in the high value obtained for the roughness factor. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  14. Fermentation quality and in vitro methane production of sorghum silage prepared with cellulase and lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khota, Waroon; Pholsen, Suradej; Higgs, David; Yimin, Cai

    2017-05-14

    The effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and cellulase enzyme on fermentation quality, microorganism population, chemical composition and in vitro gas production of sorghum silages were studied. Commercial inoculant Lactobacillus plantarum Chikuso 1 (CH), local selected strain L. casei TH 14 and Acremonium cellulase (AC) were used as additives in sorghum silage preparation. Prior to ensiling Sorghum contained 104 LAB and 106 cfu/g fresh matter coliform bacteria. The chemical compositions of sorghum were 26.6% dry matter (DM), 5.2% crude protein (CP) and 69.7% DM for neutral detergent fiber (NDF). At 30 days of fermentation after ensiling, the LAB counts increased to a dominant population; the coliform bacteria and molds decreased to below detectable level. All sorghum silages were good quality with a low pH (66.9 g/kg DM). When silage was inoculated with TH14, the pH value was significantly (P<0.05) lower and the CP content significantly (P<0.05) higher compared to control, CH and AC-treatments. The ratio of in vitro methane production to total gas production and DM in TH 14 and TH 14+AC treatments were significantly (P<0.05) reduced cf. other treatments while in vitro dry matter digestibility and gas production did not differ among treatments. The results confirmed that L. casei TH14 could improve sorghum silage fermentation, inhibit protein degradation and decrease methane production.

  15. Photodegradation of sparfloxacin and isolation of its degradation products by preparative HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R.N. SALGADO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Sparfloxacin, a third generation fluoroquinolone derivative, is a potent antibacterial agent active against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus, Legionella spp., Mycoplasma spp., Chlamydia spp. and Mycobacterium spp. A drawback of fluoroquinolones is their photoreactivity. Sparfloxacin has been studied in terms of therapeutic activities. However, there are few published of analytical methods being applied to sparfloxacin. The aim in this study was to determine the photodegradation products of sparfloxacin, when submitted to UV light, and to characterize two of these products, designated SPAX-PDP1 and SPAX-PDP2. An accelerated study of stability in methanol solution was carried out by exposing a solution of sparfloxacin to UV light (peak wavelength 290 nm for 36 hours at room temperature. The products were analyzed by NMR spectrophotometry, IR spectrometry and mass spectrophotometry. The results suggest that the products isolated here could be used to estimate the degradation of sparfloxacin in a stability study. However, the low activity exhibited by UV-irradiated sparfloxacin is a source of concern that demands further investigation of the mechanism of its photodegradation mechanism. Keywords: Degradation products, fluoroquinolone, photodegradation, quality control, sparfloxacin, stability.

  16. Optimization of the preparation conditions of ceramic products using drinking water treatment sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, R M Ramirez; Ayala, F Espesel; Garcia, L Chavez; Moreno, A Duran; Schouwenaars, R

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this work is to optimize, via Response Surface Methodology, the values of the main process parameters for the production of ceramic products using sludges obtained from drinking water treatment in order to valorise them. In the first experimental stage, sludges were collected from a drinking water treatment plant for characterization. In the second stage, trials were carried out to elaborate thin cross-section specimens and fired bricks following an orthogonal central composite design of experiments with three factors (sludge composition, grain size and firing temperature) and five levels. The optimization parameters (Y(1)=shrinking by firing (%), Y(2)=water absorption (%), Y(3)=density (g/cm(3)) and Y(4)=compressive strength (kg/cm(2))) were determined according to standardized analytical methods. Two distinct physicochemical processes were active during firing at different conditions in the experimental design, preventing the determination of a full response surface, which would allow direct optimization of production parameters. Nevertheless, the temperature range for the production of classical red brick was closely delimitated by the results; above this temperature, a lightweight ceramic with surprisingly high strength was produced, opening possibilities for the valorisation of a product with considerably higher added value than what was originally envisioned.

  17. Photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline by Ti-MCM-41 prepared at room temperature and biotoxicity of degradation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kefu; Xie, Xiao-Dan; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2017-09-01

    Ti-doped MCM-41 with different Si/Ti molar ratios was prepared at room temperature to degrade tetracycline antibiotics in aqueous solution. The Ti was doped into the skeleton structure of MCM-41. The photocatalytic activity of Ti-doped MCM-41 was investigated. The optimal catalyst had Si/Ti molar ratio of 25 and over 99% removal of oxytetracycline in 150 min, and the removal could maintain 98% after 5 reuses. Ions and soluble organic matters in natural water affected the degradation reaction when Ti-doped MCM-41 was used to treat simulated wastewater of chicken farms. The degradation products of oxytetracycline, tetracycline and chlortetracycline were detected by Escherichia coli DH5α and HPLC-MS/MS. No intermediate product with higher toxicity was detected.

  18. Preparation and performance of rare earth Zr catalyst for reforming waste plastics cracking product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁兴中; 曾光明; 陈晓青; 陈志勇; 鄢钢

    2003-01-01

    The rare earth Zr catalyst, whose carrier was Al2O3, was prepared by co-precipitation with Zr(NO3)2,Al(NO3 )3, and(NH2)2CO as the raw materials. The obtained catalyst was used to reform the waste plastic crackingproduct. As the Zr content in the catalyst increases, the yields of gasoline, gas, and the rate of carbon deposition in-crease, but the yields of diesel and heavy oil decrease. The optimum Zr content of the catalyst is 5%. At 290 ℃,with this most suitable catalyst, the yield of liquid fuel oil is the highest, about 86.10%, and research octance num-ber(RON) of the gasoline is 92.15.

  19. Nutritional composition of Annona crassiflora pulp and acceptability of bakery products prepared with its flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Villela

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Annona crassiflora offers an edible fruit native to the Savanna. This study aimed to develop a flour meal from Annona crassiflora pulp; analyze the chemical composition of the fresh pulp and its flour; develop and verify the acceptance of formulations with different concentrations of the flour of Annona crassiflora pulp. Fruit used were selected and processed. The pulp was dried in an oven at 60-65 ºC/48h. We analyzed the chemical composition, and two formulations of breads were prepared with 10 and 20% Annona crassiflora pulp. The results showed that the drying of Annona crassiflora pulp enriched its nutritional value. The Annona crassiflora pulp showed important chemical components, as insoluble fibers (pulp and flour, minerals (potassium, calcium, manganese and others and antioxidant compounds. The formulations were well-accepted in a sensory point of view and proved to be a good alternative to the exploitation of the fruit.

  20. Optimization of honey-must preparation and alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for mead production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Ferreira, A; Cosme, F; Barbosa, C; Falco, V; Inês, A; Mendes-Faia, A

    2010-11-15

    Mead fermentation is a time-consuming process, often taking several months to complete. Despite of the use of starter cultures several problems still persist such as lack of uniformity of the final products, slow or premature fermentation arrest and the production of off-flavors by yeast. Thus the aim of this study was to optimize mead production through the use of an appropriate honey-must formulation to improve yeast performance alcoholic fermentation and thereby obtain a high quality product. Honey-must was centrifuged to reduce insoluble solids, pasteurized at 65°C for 10 min, and then subjected to different conditions: nitrogen supplementation and addition of organic acids. Although the addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) reduced fermentation length, it did not guarantee the completeness of the fermentation process, suggesting that other factors could account for the reduced yeast activity in honey-must fermentations. Sixteen yeast-derived aroma compounds which contribute to the sensorial quality of mead were identified and quantified. Global analysis of aromatic profiles revealed that the total concentration of aroma compounds in meads was higher in those fermentations where DAP was added. A positive correlation between nitrogen availability and the levels of ethyl and acetate esters, associated to the fruity character of fermented beverages, was observed whereas the presence of potassium tartrate and malic acid decreased, in general, their concentration. This study provides very useful information that can be used for improving mead quality.

  1. Microwave-ultrasound combined reactor suitable for atmospheric sample preparation procedure of biological and chemical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagha, A.; Chemat, S.; Bartels, P.V.; Chemat, F.

    1999-01-01

    A compact apparatus in which a specific position can be irradiated by microwaves (MW) and ultrasound (US) simultaneously has been developed. The MW-US reactor has been designed for atmospheric pressure digestion and dissolution of biological and chemical products. The reactor can treat a range of th

  2. Preparative Production of Acetylcholinesterase and Paraoxonase in Procaryotic and Eucaryotic Expression in Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    agar and screened with the target substrate. Positive colonies (as determined by the appearance of a colored or fluorescent product) were transferred...natural amino acids, with the exception of L-methionine, 40µg/ml of seleno-L-methionine, 1µg/ml of vitamins ( Riboflavin , Niacinamide, Pyridoxine

  3. 9 CFR 318.6 - Requirements concerning ingredients and other articles used in preparation of products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bromelin or pancreatic extract to permit the enzymes contained in these substances to act on the casings to..., the small intestine must comply with the requirements in 9 CFR 310.22(d). Establishments that use... CFR 310.22(d). (2) Casings for products shall be carefully inspected by Program employees. Only...

  4. Round table part 4: Identification of the key technologies and collaboration for Food production and preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Wheeler, Raymond

    2016-07-01

    Although the two first metabolic needs are based on simple molecule (i.e. oxygen and water), the third metabolic needs considered a tremendously large number and diversity of molecules: food. Today, physical chemical technologies do not allow to synthetize all the spectrum of molecules and biological processes have to be considered. Moreover, the raw material products by plants or by microorganisms are generally not directly edible or palatable and would need either transformation, assembly and/or storage. In other words the challenges of the food cannot be reduced to the plant production but need to include as well the complete chain, from the production conditions and the biomass quality up to the final edible products and its acceptance. In other words all the steps have to be considered and characterize. Today these challenges requires a high level of plants characterization. This round table part 4 would allow the participants to present some of their results and express some domain of activities. Re4serach for collaboration will be identified.

  5. Preparation and characterization of adsorbents for treatment of water associated with oil production

    KAUST Repository

    Sueyoshi, Mark

    2012-09-01

    Two sets of adsorbents were prepared from locally available raw materials, characterized and tested. The first set consists of crushed natural attapulgite and crushed attapulgite mixed with petroleum tank-bottom sludge and carbonized at 650 °C. Another set was prepared using trunk of date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera) activated at 700 and 800°C. Both sets were characterized using BET surface area and pore distributions, FTIR, XRD, SEM and TEM. Natural attapulgite and attapulgite/sludge composite exhibited different characteristics and adsorptive capacities for oil removal from oily water. Adsorptive capacities were calculated from the breakthrough curves of a column test. An oily water solution of about 500 mg-oil/L was passed through both the attapulgite and attapulgite/sludge columns until the column effluent concentration exceeded a reference limit of 10 mg-oil/L. Uptake was calculated at this limit at 155 and 405 mg-oil/g-adsorbent, respectively. This was lower than the performance of a commercial activated carbon sample (uptake calculated at 730 mg-oil/g-adsorbent). Relatively, the date palm, carbonaceous-based adsorbent samples showed less significant differences in both bulk and surface properties. Uptake significantly improved to 1330-1425 mg-oil/g-adsorbent. Attempt was made to associate this performance with the difference in the surface areas between the two sets. However, other factors are found to be important as the second set has a range of surface area less than that of the commercial sample. As evidenced by FTIR, XRD and TEM, the activated carbonaceous materials developed porous structures which form defective graphitic sheet ensembles that serve as additional adsorption sites in the sample. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Facile preparation of hierarchically porous carbon using diatomite as both template and catalyst and methylene blue adsorption of carbon products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Yuan, Peng; Tan, Daoyong; Liu, Hongmei; Wang, Tong; Fan, Mingde; Zhu, Jianxi; He, Hongping

    2012-12-15

    Hierarchically porous carbons were prepared using a facile preparation method in which diatomite was utilized as both template and catalyst. The porous structures of the carbon products and their formation mechanisms were investigated. The macroporosity and microporosity of the diatomite-templated carbons were derived from replication of diatom shell and structure-reconfiguration of the carbon film, respectively. The macroporosity of carbons was strongly dependent on the original morphology of the diatomite template. The macroporous structure composed of carbon plates connected by the pillar- and tube-like macropores resulted from the replication of the central and edge pores of the diatom shells with disk-shaped morphology, respectively. And another macroporous carbon tubes were also replicated from canoe-shaped diatom shells. The acidity of diatomite dramatically affected the porosity of the carbons, more acid sites of diatomite template resulted in higher surface area and pore volume of the carbon products. The diatomite-templated carbons exhibited higher adsorption capacity for methylene blue than the commercial activated carbon (CAC), although the specific surface area was much smaller than that of CAC, due to the hierarchical porosity of diatomite-templated carbons. And the carbons were readily reclaimed and regenerated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Catalyst Preparation on Hydrocarbon Product Distribution in Hydrocracking of the Fischer-Tropsch Product with Low Pt-Loaded Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Hanaoka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For the effective production of hydrocarbon liquid fuel in the hydrocracking of the Fischer-Tropsch (FT product, the catalytic performance of Pt-loaded catalysts with low Pt content was investigated using an autoclave at 250 °C, an initial H2 pressure of 0.5 MPa, and a reaction time of 1 h. A screening study using Pt-loaded catalysts with a Pt content of 0.1 wt. % indicated that zeolite supports were more favorable for jet fuel (carbon numbers 9–15 production than amorphous oxide supports. The small particle size of the supported Pt particles and the high amount of medium acid sites for the supports led to higher performance of the Pt-loaded zeolite catalysts. In the hydrocracking reaction over Pt catalysts using the zeolite support with the high amount of medium acid sites, the yields of the corresponding jet fuel at 0.02 and 0.1 wt. % were almost the same. Pt-loaded catalysts with a Pt content of 0.02 wt. % were prepared using water-in-oil (w/o microemulsions and their particle size was controlled between 1.0 and 2.6 nm. While the yield of the corresponding jet fuel was independent of Pt particle size, smaller Pt particles typically promoted the production of lighter hydrocarbons.

  8. Microencapsulation of steviol glycosides (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni by a spray drying method – Evaluation of encapsulated products and prepared syrups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Chranioti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to encapsulate the steviol glycosides (SGs, derived from Stevia rebaudiana (Bert Bertoni leaves, by applying a spray-drying method. The purpose was to minimize the bitter aftertaste of the SGs as well as to ameliorate/improve their properties. The encapsulation agents used were maltodextrin (19 DE and inulin in a ratio of 80 : 20, while three levels of SGs in total solids (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 % were studied. The encapsulated SGs products were evaluated for their hygroscopicity, solubility, moisture content and microencapsulation efficiency (MEE %. Also, syrups prepared with encapsulated SGs, at 1 % w/v, were tested for their viscosity, refractive index, turbidity and sensory properties. Significant differences (P<0.05  in MEE %, moisture content, hygroscopicity and solubility values of the encapsulated SGs products were observed depending on the level of SGs in total solids. In particular, the MEE %, the hygroscopicity and the solubility values ranged from 62.36, 82.46 to 94.67 %, 21.51, 26.67 and 24.25 % and 99.93, 97.50 to 96.03 % for encapsulated SGs products produced with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 % SGs in total solids, respectively. The encapsulated product produced with 2.5 % steviol glycosides in total solids presented the most appealing sensory and quality characteristics.

  9. Microencapsulation of steviol glycosides (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni by a spray drying method – Evaluation of encapsulated products and prepared syrups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Chranioti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to encapsulate the steviol glycosides (SGs, derived from Stevia rebaudiana (Bert Bertoni leaves, by applying a spray-drying method. The purpose was to minimize the bitter aftertaste of the SGs as well as to ameliorate/improve their properties. The encapsulation agents used were maltodextrin (19 DE and inulin in a ratio of 80 : 20, while three levels of SGs in total solids (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 % were studied. The encapsulated SGs products were evaluated for their hygroscopicity, solubility, moisture content and microencapsulation efficiency (MEE %. Also, syrups prepared with encapsulated SGs, at 1 % w/v, were tested for their viscosity, refractive index, turbidity and sensory properties. Significant differences (P<0.05  in MEE %, moisture content, hygroscopicity and solubility values of the encapsulated SGs products were observed depending on the level of SGs in total solids. In particular, the MEE %, the hygroscopicity and the solubility values ranged from 62.36, 82.46 to 94.67 %, 21.51, 26.67 and 24.25 % and 99.93, 97.50 to 96.03 % for encapsulated SGs products produced with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 % SGs in total solids, respectively. The encapsulated product produced with 2.5 % steviol glycosides in total solids presented the most appealing sensory and quality characteristics.

  10. Preparation and evaluation of coal extracts as precursors for carbon and graphite products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zondlo, J.W.; Stiller, A.W.; Stansberry, P.G. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    A coal extraction process coupled with coal hydrotreatment has been shown capable of producing suitable precursors for a variety of commercially important carbon and graphite products. The N-methylpyrolidone (NMP) extracts of hydrotreated coals have been analytically and chemically characterized and shown to have properties acceptable for use as binder and impregnation pitch. Mesophase formation studies have demonstrated their capability for producing both needle and anode grade coke as well as precursors for mesophase pitch fibers. A graphite artifact has been produced using a coal extract as a binder and coke derived from the extract as a filler. Further evaluation of the extract materials is being carried out by industrial members of the Carbon Products Consortium.

  11. Preparing for ICD-10-CM/PCS implementation: impact on productivity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfill, Mary H; Hsieh, Kang Lin; Beal, Kathleen; Fenton, Susan H

    2014-01-01

    Coding productivity is expected to drop significantly during the lead-up to and in the initial stages of ICD-10-CM/PCS implementation, now expected to be delayed until October 1, 2015. This study examined the differences in coding productivity between ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM/PCS for hospital inpatient cases matched for complexity and severity. Additionally, interrater reliability was calculated to determine the quality of the coding. On average, coding of an inpatient record took 17.71 minutes (69 percent) longer with ICD-10-CM/PCS than with ICD-9-CM. A two-tailed T-test for statistical validity for independent samples was significant (p = .001). No coder characteristics such as years of experience or educational level were found to be a significant factor in coder productivity. Coders who had received more extensive training were faster than coders who had received only basic training. Though this difference was not statistically significant, it provides a strong indication of significant return on investment for staff training time. Coder interrater reliability was substantial for ICD-9-CM but only moderate for ICD-10-CM/PCS, though some ICD-10-CM/PCS cases had complete interrater (coder) agreement. Time spent coding a case was negatively correlated with interrater reliability (-0.425 for ICD-10-CM and -0.349 for ICD-10-PCS). This finding signals that increased time per case does not necessarily translate to higher quality. Adequate training for coders, as well as guidance regarding time invested per record, is important. Additionally, these findings indicate that previous estimates of initial coder productivity loss with ICD-10-CM/PCS may have been understated.

  12. Fermentative hydrogen production from hydrolyzed cellulosic feedstock prepared with a thermophilic anaerobic bacterial isolate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Yung Chung [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan 701 (China); Huang, Chi-Yu.; Fu, Tzu-Ning [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Tunghai University, Taichung 407 (China); Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan 701 (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)

    2009-08-15

    Hydrogen gas was produced via dark fermentation from natural cellulosic materials and {alpha}-cellulose via a two-step process, in which the cellulosic substrates were first hydrolyzed by an isolated cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium strain TCW1, and the resulting hydrolysates were then used as substrate for fermentative H{sub 2} production. The TCW1 strain was able to hydrolyze all the cellulosic materials examined to produce reducing sugars (RS), attaining the best reducing sugar production yield of 0.65 g reducing sugar/g substrate from hydrolysis of {alpha}-cellulose. The hydrolysates of those cellulosic materials were successfully converted to H{sub 2} via dark fermentation using seven H{sub 2}-producing bacterial isolates. The bioH{sub 2} production performance was highly dependent on the type of cellulosic feedstock used, the initial reducing sugar concentration (C{sub RS,o}) (ranging from 0.7 to 4.5 mg/l), as well as the composition of sugar and soluble metabolites present in the cellulosic hydrolysates. It was found that Clostridium butyricum CGS5 displayed the highest H{sub 2}-producing efficiency with a cumulative H{sub 2} production of 270 ml/l from {alpha}-cellulose hydrolysate (C{sub RS,o} = 4.52 mg/l) and a H{sub 2} yield of 7.40 mmol/g RS (or 6.66 mmol/g substrate) from napier grass hydrolysate (C{sub RS,o} = 1.22 g/l). (author)

  13. Radiochemical aspects of production and processing of radiometals for preparation of metalloradiopharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Zhernosekov, Konstantin P.

    2006-01-01

    Radiometals play an important role in nuclear medicine as involved in diagnostic or therapeutic agents. In the present work the radiochemical aspects of production and processing of very promising radiometals of the third group of the periodic table, namely radiogallium and radiolanthanides are investigated. The 68Ge/68Ga generator (68Ge, T½ = 270.8 d) provides a cyclotron-independent source of positron-emitting 68Ga (T½ = 68 min), which can be used for coordinative labelling. However, f...

  14. Event-related brain potential investigation of preparation for speech production in late bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jing eWu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been debated how bilinguals select the intended language and prevent interference from the unintended language when speaking. Here, we studied the nature of the mental representations accessed by late fluent bilinguals during a rhyming judgment task relying on covert speech production. We recorded event-related brain potentials in Chinese-English bilinguals and monolingual speakers of English while they indicated whether the names of pictures presented on a screen rhymed. Whether bilingual participants focussed on rhyming selectively in English or Chinese, we found a significant priming effect of language-specific sound repetition. Surprisingly, however, sound repetitions in Chinese elicited significant priming effects even when the rhyming task was performed in English. This cross-language priming effect was delayed by ~200 ms as compared to the within-language effect and was asymmetric, since there was no priming effect of sound repetitions in English when participants were asked to make rhyming judgements in Chinese. These results demonstrate that second language production hinders, but does not seal off, activation of the first language, whereas native language production appears immune to competition from the second language.

  15. New developments in the diagnostics for the fusion products on JET in preparation for ITER (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murari, A.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Consorzio RFX, Assoc. EURATOM ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti, 4, I-35127, Padova (Italy); Bonheure, G. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65, I-00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Cecil, E. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Association ' ' Euratom-Belgian State' ' , Royal Military Academy, Avenue de la Renaissance, 30, Kunstherlevinglaan, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Craciunescu, T.; Zoita, V. L. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, Colorado (United States); Darrow, D. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); EURATOM-MEdC Association, National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Edlington, T.; Kiptily, V.; Popovichev, S.; Syme, B. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey (United States); Ericsson, G.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Hellesen, C. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Oxon. OX14 3DB, Abingdon, OXON (United Kingdom); Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, EURATOM-VR Association, Uppsala (Sweden); Mlynar, J. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, IFP Milano (Italy); Perez von Thun, C. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Association Euratom-IPP.CR, Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Za Slovankou 3, CZ-182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Collaboration: EFDA-JET Contributors

    2010-10-15

    Notwithstanding the advances of the past decades, significant developments are still needed to satisfactorily diagnose ''burning plasmas.'' D-T plasmas indeed require a series of additional measurements for the optimization and control of the configuration: the 14 MeV neutrons, the isotopic composition of the main plasma, the helium ash, and the redistribution and losses of the alpha particles. Moreover a burning plasma environment is in general much more hostile for diagnostics than purely deuterium plasmas. Therefore, in addition to the development and refinement of new measuring techniques, technological advances are also indispensable for the proper characterization of the next generation of devices. On JET an integrated program of diagnostic developments, for JET future and in preparation for ITER, has been pursued and many new results are now available. In the field of neutron detection, the neutron spectra are now routinely measured in the energy range of 1-18 MeV by a time of flight spectrometer and they have allowed studying the effects of rf heating on the fast ions.A new analysis method for the interpretation of the neutron cameras measurements has been refined and applied to the data of the last trace tritium campaign (TTE). With regard to technological upgrades, chemical vapor deposition diamond detectors have been qualified both as neutron counters and as neutron spectrometers, with a potential energy resolution of about one percent. The in situ calibration of the neutron diagnostics, in preparation for the operation with the ITER-like wall, is also promoting important technological developments. With regard to the fast particles, for the first time the temperature of the fast particle tails has been obtained with a new high purity Germanium detector measuring the gamma emission spectrum from the plasma. The effects of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes modes and various MHD instabilities on the confinement of the fast particles have been

  16. New developments in the diagnostics for the fusion products on JET in preparation for ITER (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, A; Angelone, M; Bonheure, G; Cecil, E; Craciunescu, T; Darrow, D; Edlington, T; Ericsson, G; Gatu-Johnson, M; Gorini, G; Hellesen, C; Kiptily, V; Mlynar, J; Perez von Thun, C; Pillon, M; Popovichev, S; Syme, B; Tardocchi, M; Zoita, V L

    2010-10-01

    Notwithstanding the advances of the past decades, significant developments are still needed to satisfactorily diagnose “burning plasmas.” D–T plasmas indeed require a series of additional measurements for the optimization and control of the configuration: the 14 MeV neutrons, the isotopic composition of the main plasma, the helium ash, and the redistribution and losses of the alpha particles. Moreover a burning plasma environment is in general much more hostile for diagnostics than purely deuterium plasmas. Therefore, in addition to the development and refinement of new measuring techniques, technological advances are also indispensable for the proper characterization of the next generation of devices. On JET an integrated program of diagnostic developments, for JET future and in preparation for ITER, has been pursued and many new results are now available. In the field of neutron detection, the neutron spectra are now routinely measured in the energy range of 1–18 MeV by a time of flight spectrometer and they have allowed studying the effects of rf heating on the fast ions. A new analysis method for the interpretation of the neutron cameras measurements has been refined and applied to the data of the last trace tritium campaign (TTE). With regard to technological upgrades, chemical vapor deposition diamond detectors have been qualified both as neutron counters and as neutron spectrometers, with a potential energy resolution of about one percent. The in situ calibration of the neutron diagnostics, in preparation for the operation with the ITER-like wall, is also promoting important technological developments. With regard to the fast particles, for the first time the temperature of the fast particle tails has been obtained with a new high purity Germanium detector measuring the gamma emission spectrum from the plasma. The effects of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes modes and various MHD instabilities on the confinement of the fast particles have been determined

  17. Reasonable Ball Size of Ball Mill for Preparing Coal Water Fuel and Forecasting Productive Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣曾; 刘炯天; 徐志强; 郑明

    2002-01-01

    By using the matrix theory, a 5-parameter grinding mathema tical model is established. Based on the properties of feed coal and requirement s for size distribution of final product, the model gives the required grinding probability for various particles and corresponding ball size distribution. By u sing this model, 3 different sizes of ball mill are designed and put into commer cial use for coal water fuel. The forecasted ball mill capacity, the particle si zes and particle size distribution as well as the coal water fuel quality parame ters are all in line with industrial operation results, which have proved the su itability of the model.

  18. Vegetable, Sauce, and Bakery Item Production Guides Prepared for Walter Reed Army Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    cabbage and simmer 10 minutes. Stir frequently. Sugar, granulated 0.19 85 Flour, wheat, 0.13 5T hard Vinegar , cider 1.25 567 Salt 0.19 85 U...8925-00-127-3073 Fed JJJ-S-791, Type I, Class A 3. Vinegar , Cider : NSN 8950-00-221-0297 Fed Z-V-^01, Type I or II Cereal and Bakery Products Flour...gelatin solution to 120°F U9°C) Vinegar , dry 0.05 23 10. Add vinegar to gelatin solution and stir until dissolved. 1*2 POTATO SALAD

  19. Advanced Production Surface Preparation Technology Development for Ultra-High Pressure Diesel Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, Marion B.

    2012-04-30

    In 2007, An Ultra High Injection Pressure (UHIP) fueling method has been demonstrated by Caterpillar Fuel Systems - Product Development, demonstrating ability to deliver U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 4 Final diesel engine emission performance with greatly reduced emissions handling components on the engine, such as without NOx reduction after-treatment and with only a through-flow 50% effective diesel particulate trap (DPT). They have shown this capability using multiple multi-cylinder engine tests of an Ultra High Pressure Common Rail (UHPCR) fuel system with higher than traditional levels of CEGR and an advanced injector nozzle design. The system delivered better atomization of the fuel, for more complete burn, to greatly reduce diesel particulates, while CEGR or high efficiency NOx reduction after-treatment handles the NOx. With the reduced back pressure of a traditional DPT, and with the more complete fuel burn, the system reduced levels of fuel consumption by 2.4% for similar delivery of torque and horsepower over the best Tier 4 Interim levels of fuel consumption in the diesel power industry. The challenge is to manufacture the components in high-volume production that can withstand the required higher pressure injection. Production processes must be developed to increase the toughness of the injector steel to withstand the UHIP pulsations and generate near perfect form and finish in the sub-millimeter size geometries within the injector. This project resulted in two developments in 2011. The first development was a process and a machine specification by which a high target of compressive residual stress (CRS) can be consistently imparted to key surfaces of the fuel system to increase the toughness of the steel, and a demonstration of the feasibility of further refinement of the process for use in volume production. The second development was the demonstration of the feasibility of a process for imparting near perfect, durable geometry to

  20. Advanced Production Surface Preparation Technology Development for Ultra-High Pressure Diesel Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, Marion B.

    2012-04-30

    In 2007, An Ultra High Injection Pressure (UHIP) fueling method has been demonstrated by Caterpillar Fuel Systems - Product Development, demonstrating ability to deliver U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 4 Final diesel engine emission performance with greatly reduced emissions handling components on the engine, such as without NOx reduction after-treatment and with only a through-flow 50% effective diesel particulate trap (DPT). They have shown this capability using multiple multi-cylinder engine tests of an Ultra High Pressure Common Rail (UHPCR) fuel system with higher than traditional levels of CEGR and an advanced injector nozzle design. The system delivered better atomization of the fuel, for more complete burn, to greatly reduce diesel particulates, while CEGR or high efficiency NOx reduction after-treatment handles the NOx. With the reduced back pressure of a traditional DPT, and with the more complete fuel burn, the system reduced levels of fuel consumption by 2.4% for similar delivery of torque and horsepower over the best Tier 4 Interim levels of fuel consumption in the diesel power industry. The challenge is to manufacture the components in high-volume production that can withstand the required higher pressure injection. Production processes must be developed to increase the toughness of the injector steel to withstand the UHIP pulsations and generate near perfect form and finish in the sub-millimeter size geometries within the injector. This project resulted in two developments in 2011. The first development was a process and a machine specification by which a high target of compressive residual stress (CRS) can be consistently imparted to key surfaces of the fuel system to increase the toughness of the steel, and a demonstration of the feasibility of further refinement of the process for use in volume production. The second development was the demonstration of the feasibility of a process for imparting near perfect, durable geometry to

  1. Preparative isolation of polymerase chain reaction products using mixed-mode chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, T; Silva, G; Queiroz, J A; Bülow, L

    2015-11-15

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become one of the most useful techniques in molecular biology laboratories around the world. The purification of the target DNA product is often challenging, however, and most users are restricted to employing available commercial kits. The recent developments in mixed-mode chromatography have shown higher selectivity for a variety of nucleic acid-containing samples. Capto Adhere is a mixed-mode chromatography resin that offers a high-selectivity ligand and is here applied for the purification of amplified DNAs from PCR mixtures in a 10-min single step, with yields above 95%, high linearity, and high precision for different concentrations.

  2. Preparation and characterizaton of CaO nanoparticle for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Jharna, E-mail: onlinejharna@gmail.com; Agarwal, Madhu, E-mail: madhunaresh@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, MNIT, Jaipur, 302017 (India)

    2016-04-13

    Nanoparticle of CaO from calcium Nitrate (CaO/CaN) and Snail shell (CaO/SS) are successfully synthesized by method as described in the literature and used as an active and stable catalyst for the biodiesel production. These catalysts are characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The average crystalline size in nanometer was also calculated by Debye–Scherrer equation. The performance of the CaO/CaN and CaO/SS were tested for their catalytic activity via transesterification process and it was found that biodiesel yield has been increased from 93 to 96%. The optimum conditions for the highest yield were 8wt% catalyst loading, 65°C temperature, 12:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, and 6 h for reaction time. The nano catalyst from snail shell exhibits excellent catalytic activity and stability for the transesterification reaction, which suggested that this catalyst would be potentially used as a solid base nano catalyst for biodiesel production. In order to examine the reusability of catalyst developed from snail shell, five transesterification reaction cycles were also performed.

  3. Preparation and characterizaton of CaO nanoparticle for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jharna; Agarwal, Madhu

    2016-04-01

    Nanoparticle of CaO from calcium Nitrate (CaO/CaN) and Snail shell (CaO/SS) are successfully synthesized by method as described in the literature and used as an active and stable catalyst for the biodiesel production. These catalysts are characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The average crystalline size in nanometer was also calculated by Debye-Scherrer equation. The performance of the CaO/CaN and CaO/SS were tested for their catalytic activity via transesterification process and it was found that biodiesel yield has been increased from 93 to 96%. The optimum conditions for the highest yield were 8wt% catalyst loading, 65°C temperature, 12:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, and 6 h for reaction time. The nano catalyst from snail shell exhibits excellent catalytic activity and stability for the transesterification reaction, which suggested that this catalyst would be potentially used as a solid base nano catalyst for biodiesel production. In order to examine the reusability of catalyst developed from snail shell, five transesterification reaction cycles were also performed.

  4. Improving agricultural straw preparation logistics stream in bio-methane production: experimental studies and application analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Luo; Junting, Pan; Xi, Meng; Hailong, Huang; Yan, Long; Xia, Xiong; Ruyi, Huang; Zili, Mei

    2017-10-01

    Long-term production in commercial straw biogas plants has been rare in China due to inefficiencies in the logistics stream. Biomass densification could be a potential solution to this issue. Therefore, we conducted a study to evaluate whether biomass densification is a more efficient and sustainable option. We performed methane production experiments to investigate fermentation characteristics of briquettes (with a new pretreatment, model II) and rubs (with a common pretreatment, model I). A 3000-m(3) biogas plant was used to conduct a comparative analysis with solar eMergy joules. Results showed that the methane yield of briquettes of corn stover was 66.74% higher than that of rubs, and the briquettes had better digestion performance in terms of CH4 content, VFA, and alcohol. The two models required almost the same eMergy investment input, while model II obtained a greater quantity of net eMergy (16.5% higher) in comparison with model I. The net eMergy yield ratio (EYR) (biogas only) of model I and model II was 0.99 and 1.67, respectively, showing less market competitiveness for commercial operations with model I. Meanwhile, the logistic costs of model II could be reduced to approximately US $34,514 annually.

  5. Ceria-thoria pellet manufacturing in preparation for plutonia-thoria LWR fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drera, Saleem S.; Björk, Klara Insulander; Sobieska, Matylda

    2016-10-01

    Thorium dioxide (thoria) has potential to assist in niche roles as fuel for light water reactors (LWRs). One such application for thoria is its use as the fertile component to burn plutonium in a mixed oxide fuel (MOX). Thor Energy and an international consortium are currently irradiating plutonia-thoria (Th-MOX) fuel in an effort to produce data for its licensing basis. During fuel-manufacturing research and development (R&D), surrogate materials were utilized to highlight procedures and build experience. Cerium dioxide (ceria) provides a good surrogate platform to replicate the chemical nature of plutonium dioxide. The project's fuel manufacturing R&D focused on powder metallurgical techniques to ensure manufacturability with the current commercial MOX fuel production infrastructure. The following paper highlights basics of the ceria-thoria fuel production including powder milling, pellet pressing and pellet sintering. Green pellets and sintered pellets were manufactured with average densities of 67.0% and 95.5% that of theoretical density respectively.

  6. MODEL SYSTEM EVALUATIONS OF MEAT EMULSIONS PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT EDIBLE BEEF BY PRODUCTS AND FATS AND OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KARAKAYA

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion parameters of different meat by-products (beef head-meat, beef heart and liver and animal fats and oil (beef fat, mutton fat, sheep tail-fat and corn oil were studied in a model system. The results of the study showed that the highest emulsion capacity (EC was with the heart meat and beef fat emulsion while the lowest EC was measured in the beef head-meat and sheep tail-fat combination. Corn oil gave the best emulsification with beef head-meat and liver, and beef fat resulted the second best results. Beef head-meat gave the most stable emulsion with all fats, but the emulsions prepared with heart and liver were generally unstable.

  7. Efficacy Study of Metho-Chelated Organic Minerals preparation Feeding on Milk Production and Fat Percentage in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somkuwar A.P.1

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the effect of feeding different mineral based formulation on dairy cow production performance, namely milk yield and fat percentage. The trial was conducted with dairy cows across various stages of lactation (Early, Mid and Late stage with 30 cows per stage. The experimental treatments included: Bestmin Gold (Metho-chelated organic minerals, given 30 gms per day, Inorganic mineral preparation (Inorg. Mineral, @ 50 gms/day/ cow and control. The study lasted from 0 to 40 days. Milk yield and fat percentage of cows were measured individually on Days 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 40. The Bestmin Gold treated group (Metho-chelated organic minerals improved the milk yield, net gain in milk and the milk fat percentage of animals across the various stages of lactation as compared to in control and inorganic mineral treated group of animals. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 19-21

  8. Some biochemical and physical changes during the preparation of the enzyme-ripening sufu, a fermented product of soybean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yen-Yi; Yu, Roch-Chui; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2010-04-28

    In this study, sufu, a fermented product of soybean curd, was prepared by ripening the salted tofu in the mash of Aspergillus oryzae -fermented rice-soybean koji possessing various hydrolytic enzymes for 16 days. It was found that protease, alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, and lipase activities observed in the koji granules reduced most pronouncedly during the initial 4 or 8 days of ripening. Meanwhile, an increase in the activity of the various enzymes was noted in the ripening infusion and tofu cubes. During the ripening period, the content of total nitrogen, pH, and hardness of sufu decreased, while the titratable acidity, protein dissolution ratio, content of free fatty acid, and free amino acid increased with glutamic acid, showing the largest magnitude of increase at the end of the 16 day ripening period. Additionally, the color of tofu cubes changed from pale yellow to yellowish brown at the end of the ripening period.

  9. Fermentation and microflora of plaa-som, a thai fermented fish product prepared with different salt concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Madsen, Mette; Sophanodora, Pairat; Gram, Lone; Møller, Peter Lange

    2002-02-25

    Plaa-som is a Thai fermented fish product prepared from snakehead fish, salt, palm syrup and sometimes roasted rice. We studied the effects of different salt concentrations on decrease in pH and on microflora composition during fermentation. Two low-salt batches were prepared, containing 6% and 7% salt (w/w) as well as two high-salt batches, containing 9% and 11% salt. pH decreased rapidly from 6 to 4.5 in low-salt batches, whereas in high-salt batches, a slow or no decrease in pH was found. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts were isolated as the dominant microorganisms during fermentation. LAB counts increased to 10(8)-10(9) cfu g(-1) and yeast counts to 10(7)-5 x 10(7) cfu g(-1) in all batches, except in the 11% salt batch, where counts were 1-2 log lower. Phenotypic tests, ITS-PCR, carbohydrate fermentations and 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified LAB isolates as Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus alimentarius/farciminis, Weisella confusa, L. plantarum and Lactococcus garviae. The latter species was only isolated from high-salt batches. Phenotypic characteristics, ITS-PCR and carbohydrate assimilation identified 95% of the yeasts as Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. It is concluded that the fermentation of plaa-som is delayed by a salt-level of 9% due to an inhibition of LAB growth. The growth of Z. rouxii has no influence on the fermentation rate, but may contribute positively to the flavour development of the product.

  10. Production, characterization and acceptability of pineapple liqueurs prepared with different alcoholic bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Resende Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of physico-chemical parameters and the acceptability of liquors pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merri, produced with different alcoholic bases: rum, flavored with pineapple peel and rum doubly distilled grain alcohol, were performed in this study. We conducted analyzes of alcoholic strength, density, pH, soluble solids, total fixed and volatile acidity, dry, and sensory analysis through the affective test of acceptability with 100 judges using 9-point hedonic scale to evaluate the attributes color, flavor , odor and overall impression, and purchase intent test. The average alcohol content found for all treatments was 25% v / v, a value that lies within the limits of the Brazilian law. The values of dry matter, fixed acidity, density and L * is not distinguished between treatments. The color parameters L *, a *, b *, chroma and H °, and the results of the analysis of the total acidity, soluble solid showed up only statistically different for liquor-based grain alcohol. The average pH differed for rum-based liqueur. All liquors showed good acceptability, averaging above 6 and 49% of the panelists claimed that the product would probably buy pineapple liqueur made with different alcoholic bases. The liquor made of only rum was the most accepted as the global average of items analyzed.

  11. Studies on the preparation of value-added products for limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Young Bae; Jeong, Soo Bok; Ko, Won Sik; Park, Je Shin; Oh, Jung Whan [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Most of limestone in our country was consumed by the cement and iron/steel making industries and the amount of that was up to 72 million ton in 1996. Recently, importation of high grade limestone that have properties of high whiteness and grade are increased with diversification of chemical products and powder as various qualified filler, because high grade limestone are limited and of few deposit in our country. Therefore, the purpose of this study has investigated to raise to high grade by economical processes with low grade of domestic limestone. In this year, first of all, we investigated the status of application utilize and related industries with the domestic limestone, and then being consideration with condition selected the adequate sample from Andong, Jungsun and Kumsan area. Magnetic materials were involved in impurities of sample, so magnetic separation method was applied in elimination of the ferro-magnetic materials and para-magnetic materials, such as chlorite, muscovite, quartz, dolomite, magnetite, feldspar and so on. The limestone sample has many kinds of impurity. Investigation of flotation was undertaken to eliminate impurities from limestone crude ore and the tests were performed to get a optimum condition adding oleic acid as a promoter, sodium silicate and sodium carbonate as a conditioning agents and MIBC as a frother, while to float the sulfide minerals added amyl xanthate as a promoter, and sulfuric acid as a pH regulator. And most of the impurities involving in flotation sink contained such as quartz, chlorite, muscovite, feldspar, dolomite and so on. Selective crushing and classification methods were performed to eliminate impurities depends on the mineral properties and should be the selective crushing methods are very useful at the manufacturing factory of heavy calcium carbonate with the dry milling system. (author). 36 refs., 46 tabs., 33 figs.

  12. Preparative scale production of functional mouse aquaporin 4 using different cell-free expression modes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Kai

    Full Text Available The continuous progress in the structural and functional characterization of aquaporins increasingly attracts attention to study their roles in certain mammalian diseases. Although several structures of aquaporins have already been solved by crystallization, the challenge of producing sufficient amounts of functional proteins still remains. CF (cell free expression has emerged in recent times as a promising alternative option in order to synthesize large quantities of membrane proteins, and the focus of this report was to evaluate the potential of this technique for the production of eukaryotic aquaporins. We have selected the mouse aquaporin 4 as a representative of mammalian aquaporins. The protein was synthesized in an E. coli extract based cell-free system with two different expression modes, and the efficiencies of two modes were compared. In both, the P-CF (cell-free membrane protein expression as precipitate mode generating initial aquaporin precipitates as well as in the D-CF (cell-free membrane protein expression in presence of detergent mode, generating directly detergent solubilized samples, we were able to obtain mg amounts of protein per ml of cell-free reaction. Purified aquaporin samples solubilized in different detergents were reconstituted into liposomes, and analyzed for the water channel activity. The calculated P(f value of proteoliposome samples isolated from the D-CF mode was 133 µm/s at 10°C, which was 5 times higher as that of the control. A reversible inhibitory effect of mercury chloride was observed, which is consistent with previous observations of in vitro reconstituted aquaporin 4. In this study, a fast and convenient protocol was established for functional expression of aquaporins, which could serve as basis for further applications such as water filtration.

  13. Effects of preparation methods on the performance of Cu-Mo-Fe-Ox in the hydrogen production from water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si Chen; Wei Chu; Xu Liu; Dongge Tong

    2011-01-01

    Two Cu-Mo-Fe-Ox samples,which can store and supply pure hydrogen through repeated redox reaction (Fe3O4+4H2(→)3Fe+4H2O),were prepared by co-precipitation (FCM-C) and impregnation (FCM-I) methods,respectively,and the performance of hydrogen production from water were investigated.Compared with the impregnated sample,the co-precipitation sample presented better catalytic activity.The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) techniques.XRD,FE-SEM and XPS results suggest that the FCM-C sample has smaller particle size and higher dispersion of iron oxide than that of FCM-I sample.In addition,FT-IR and H2-TPR analyses indicate that the weak interaction among metal oxides in FCM-C sample may induce facile reduction of active metal and superior property of hydrogen production by decomposing water in succession.

  14. Evaluation of aeration pretreatment to prepare an inoculum for the two-stage hydrogen and methane production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Andrea; Sarli, Valentina; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Spagni, Alessandro

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of aeration pretreatment to prepare an inoculum for H₂ and CH₄ production in a two-stage process. Moreover, the biochemical hydrogen potential and biochemical methane potential of waste from the food industry in a two-stage process was assessed. The results confirmed the possibility of using an aerobic stress for selecting a hydrogen-producing inoculum. The inoculum was fairly stable since no hydrogenotrophic-methanogenic activity was observed in 25 days. The yields measured using glucose as substrate were of approximately 160 and 280 N mL(H₂) g(COD⁻¹) of glucose for hydrogen and methane, respectively, which are in agreement with other studies using heat-shock for the pretreatment of the inoculum. When waste of the food industry (wheat milling) was used as substrate, a lower H₂ yield was achieved by the aerobically-pretreated inoculum if compared to heat-shock; however, when combined with methane production in a two-stage process, much higher CH₄ yield was achieved.

  15. Pyrolysis polygeneration of pine nut shell: Quality of pyrolysis products and study on the preparation of activated carbon from biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Chen, Xiaojuan; Sun, Jun; Zheng, Zhongcheng; Fu, Kexin

    2016-09-01

    A lab-scale pyrolysis reactor was utilized to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature (300-700°C) on the yield, quality, and energy distribution of products issued from the pyrolysis polygeneration of pine nut shells. Afterward, activated carbon was prepared from biochar using the steam activation method. Pyrolysis temperatures ranging from 500 to 600°C were found to be optimal in inducing products with improved properties, such as higher heating values of non-condensable gas, lower water content and elevated heating values of bio-oil, and substantial fixed carbon content and greater specific surface area of biochar. In addition, it was noticed that the activation conditions had a significant effect on the yield and adsorption performance of the activated carbon. As a result, activated carbon with elevated specific surface area reaching 1057.8m(2)/g was obtained at the optimal conditions of 850°C activation temperature, 80min activation time, and 1.5 steam/biochar ratio.

  16. Cobalt based catalysts prepared by Pechini method for CO{sub 2}-free hydrogen production by methane decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Prabhas; de la Pena O' Shea, Victor A.; Coronado, Juan M. [Thermochemical Process Unit, Instituto IMDEA Energia, C/Tulipan s/n 28933, Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Serrano, David P. [Thermochemical Process Unit, Instituto IMDEA Energia, C/Tulipan s/n 28933, Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Department of Chemical and Environmental Technology, ESCET, Rey Juan Carlos University, c/ Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    A variety of unsupported cobalt catalysts was synthesized using the Pechini method and tested for CO{sub 2}-free H{sub 2} production via methane decomposition. In order to study the influence of the synthesis conditions on the properties of cobalt materials, the Cobalt:Citric acid (Co:CA) ratio was varied systematically (from 1:2 to 1:20). In addition, a study of the effect of the activation process on the catalyst activity was performed by activating the catalyst with H{sub 2} or CH{sub 4}. In both the activation processes, metallic cobalt with fcc structure was obtained, but the particle morphology varied with the activation treatment. The catalytic behavior was highly influenced when the reduction procedure was performed under methane atmosphere. For the Co:CA ratios, the best results were obtained with the catalyst prepared with a Co:CA 1:20 ratio reduced in presence of methane, which shows a production of 6.47 mol of H{sub 2} per mol of cobalt even without deactivation behavior for 30 min of the reaction period. (author)

  17. Deuteron irradiation of W and WO3 for production of high specific activity (186)Re: Challenges associated with thick target preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Ethan R; Gagnon, Katherine; Strong, Kevin T; Smith, Bennett E; Dorman, Eric F; Emery, Robert C; Pauzauskie, Peter J; Fassbender, Michael E; Cutler, Cathy S; Ketring, Alan R; Jurisson, Silvia S; Wilbur, D Scott

    2016-09-01

    This investigation evaluated target fabrication and beam parameters for scale-up production of high specific activity (186)Re using deuteron irradiation of enriched (186)W via the (186)W(d,2n)(186)Re reaction. Thick W and WO3 targets were prepared, characterized and evaluated in deuteron irradiations. Full-thickness targets, as determined using SRIM, were prepared by uniaxially pressing powdered natural abundance W and WO3, or 96.86% enriched (186)W, into Al target supports. Alternatively, thick targets were prepared by pressing (186)W between two layers of graphite powder or by placing pre-sintered (1105°C, 12h) natural abundance WO3 pellets into an Al target support. Assessments of structural integrity were made on each target prepared. Prior to irradiation, material composition analyses were conducted using SEM, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy. Within a minimum of 24h post irradiation, gamma-ray spectroscopy was performed on all targets to assess production yields and radionuclidic byproducts. Problems were encountered with the structural integrity of some pressed W and WO3 pellets before and during irradiation, and target material characterization results could be correlated with the structural integrity of the pressed target pellets. Under the conditions studied, the findings suggest that all WO3 targets prepared and studied were unacceptable. By contrast, (186)W metal was found to be a viable target material for (186)Re production. Thick targets prepared with powdered (186)W pressed between layers of graphite provided a particularly robust target configuration.

  18. Production Conditions Affect the In Vitro Anti-Tumoral Effects of a High Concentration Multi-Strain Probiotic Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinque, Benedetta; La Torre, Cristina; Lombardi, Francesca; Palumbo, Paola; Van der Rest, Michel

    2016-01-01

    A careful selection of the probiotic agent, standardization of the dose and detailed characterization of the beneficial effects are essential when considering use of a probiotic for the dietary management of serious diseases. However, changes in the manufacturing processes, equipment or facilities can result in differences in the product itself due to the live nature of probiotics. The need to reconfirm safety and/or efficacy for any probiotic product made at a different factory is therefore mandatory. Recently, under the brand VSL#3®, a formulation produced by a manufacturer different from the previous one, has been commercialized in some European countries (the UK and Holland). VSL#3 is a high concentration multi-strain preparation which has been recognized by the main Gastroenterology Associations for the dietary management of pouchitis as well as ulcerative colitis. We have compared the “original” VSL#3 produced in USA with the “newfound” VSL#3 produced in Italy. According to our results, the “newfound” VSL#3 has 130–150% more “dead bacteria” compared to the “original” product, raising concerns for the well-known association between dead microbes with adverse effects. The abilities of bacterial lysates from the two formulations to influence in vitro viability and proliferation of different tumor cell lines also resulted different. The repair of previously scratched monolayers of various adherent tumor cell lines (i.e. HT1080, and Caco-2 cells) was inhibited more significantly by the “original” VSL#3 when compared to the “newfound” VSL#3. Tumor cell cycle profile, in particular cell cycle arrest and apoptotic death of the cancer cells, further confirms that the “original” VSL#3 has a better functional profile than the “newfound” VSL#3, at least in in vitro. Our data stress the importance of the production conditions for the “newfound” VSL#3 considering that this product is intended to be used for the dietary management

  19. Improving the productivity of a multidimensional chromatographic preparative system by collecting pure chemicals after each of three chromatographic dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarrone, Danilo; Pantò, Sebastiano; Donato, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-12-02

    The enhanced sample collection capability of a heart-cutting three-dimensional GC-prep system is reported. In its original configuration, a highly pure component can be usually collected after the last (3D) column outlet by means of a dedicated preparative station. The latter is located after the last chromatographic column, and this poses the requirement for multiple heart cuts even for those components showing satisfactory degree of purity after the first (or second) separation dimension. The feasibility to collect pure components after each chromatographic dimension is here described, employing a three-dimension MDGC system equipped with high-temperature valves, located inside the first and second GC ovens, with the aim to improve the productivity of the collection procedure. In addition to a commercial preparative collector located at the 3D outlet, two laboratory-made collection systems were applied in the first and second dimension, reached by the effluent to be collected trough a high-temperature valve switching the heart-cut fraction between either the detector (FID), or the collector. Highly pure sesquiterpene components were collected, namely: patchouli alcohol after the first column [poly(5% diphenyl/95% dimethylsiloxane)], α-bulnesene after a second column coated with high molecular weight polyethylene glycol, and α-guaiene after an ionic-liquid based column (SLB-IL60), used as the third dimension. Purity levels ranging from 85 to 95% were achieved with an average collection recovery of 90% (n=5). The following average amounts were collected per run: 160μg for α-guaiene, 295μg for α-bulnesene, and 496μg for patchouli alcohol.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Anadara Granosa Shells and CaCO3 as Heterogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyanto Hadiyanto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of homogenous catalyst has been gradually reduced for its operational reason. The homogenous catalyst leads in difficulty of separation after the process completed and the life cycle is shorter. Therefore, most of researches are introducing heterogenous catalyst for its substitution. This research was aimed to evaluate the use of shell of Anadara granosa and CaCO3 as source of CaO based catalyst through impregnation method. The preparation of the catalyst was started by decomposition of shells and CaCO3 at temperature of 800 oC for 3 hours, followed by impregnation at 70 oC for 4 hours and then calcined at 800 oC for 2 hours. The CaCO3 based catalyst gained high yield of biodiesel (94% as compared to Anadara granoasa based catalyst (92%. The reusability study showed that these catalysts could be used until three times recycle with 40-60% yield of biodiesel. The CaO contents of catalyst decreased up to 90% after three times recycles. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 10th November 2015; Revised: 6th January 2016; Accepted: 6th January 2016 How to Cite: Hadiyanto, H., Lestari, S.P., Widayat, W. (2016. Preparation and Characterization of Anadara Granosa Shells and CaCO3 as Heterogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Production. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (1: 21-26. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.1.402.21-26 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.1.402.21-26

  1. Optimization of Microwave-Osmotic Pretreatment of Apples with Subsequent Air-Drying for Preparing High-Quality Dried Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Azarpazhooh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prepared apple (Red Gala cylinders were subjected to microwave-osmotic dehydration treatment under continuous flow medium spray (MWODS conditions and then air-dried to a final 20% moisture content. The dried samples were evaluated for color and textural properties, and rehydration capacity. The MWODS pretreatments were based on a central composite rotatable design and a response surface methodology using five levels of sucrose concentration, temperature, and contact time at a constant flow rate of 2800 mL/min. The air-drying was carried out at 60°C, 15±1% relative humidity, and 0.64±0.02 m/s air velocity. The results were compared to untreated air-dried (AD (worst-case scenario and freeze-dried (FD (best-case scenario apples without the MWODS treatment. Color properties were affected regardless of the type of treatment. Conventional AD apples were darker in color, whereas MWODS-treated samples were lighter with higher L∗ and b∗ values, higher Hue and Chroma values but lower a∗ value and ΔE. Further the color parameters of MWODS-treated samples were closer or equal to the FD apples. The texture properties were also affected by the osmotic variables with MWODS treatment resulting in softer and chewier products. The AD samples were hard, and FD apples were brittle.

  2. In situ growth of carbon nanotubes on Ni/MgO: a facile preparation of efficient catalysts for the production of synthetic natural gas from syngas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, M T; Lin, J D; Zhang, H B; Liao, D W

    2015-11-07

    Ni/MgO-CNTs catalysts are prepared by in situ chemical vapor deposition growth of CNTs on Ni/MgO. These catalysts exhibit an improved performance for the production of synthetic natural gas from syngas, which is attributed to the formation of highly catalytic active interfaces among Ni, CNTs and MgO.

  3. Profitability of the organic production of lettuce as a function of the environment, preparation of the soil and planting season

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sebastião Elviro Araújo Neto; Nápoli Correia de Paula da Silva; Regina Lúcia Félix Ferreira; Arthur Bernardes Cecílio Filho

    2012-01-01

    .... The objective of this study therefore was to identify combinations of environment, soil preparation and planting season which would improve economic performance and yield in the organic farming...

  4. Statistical optimization of biodiesel production from sunflower waste cooking oil using basic heterogeneous biocatalyst prepared from eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Sh. El-Gendy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A statistical design of experiments DOE was applied to investigate biodiesel fuel BDF production process from sunflower waste cooking oil SWCO using heterogeneous bio-catalyst produced from eggshells ES. It was based on 3 level D-optimal design involving as factors methanol:oil M:O molar ratio, catalyst concentration (wt%, reaction time (min and mixing rate (rpm. Twenty runs were carried out. A predictive linear interaction model has been correlated finding out how significant the effects of these variables are in practice. LINGO software was used to find out the optimum values of the aforementioned variables for enhancing the process. According to the results obtained, the most dominant positive factor influencing the response variable (% BDF yield was M:O molar ratio followed by catalyst concentration (wt% and mixing rate in a decreasing order while the reaction time showed to have a negative effect on the yield. The maximum BDF yield (98.8% and 97.5%, predicted and experimental, respectively was obtained at M:O 6:1 M ratio, catalyst concentration 3 wt%, reaction time 30 min, mixing rate 350 rpm and 60 °C. Also response surface methodology RSM has been applied to study the interactive effects of independent variables on BDF yield. It was found that, the interaction between M:O and catalyst concentration (wt% has more significant effect than interaction between other variables. The activity of the produced bio-catalyst was comparable to that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. All the physicochemical characteristics of the produced BDF using the prepared bio-catalyst and its blends with petro-diesel fuel PDF are completely acceptable and meet most of the required standard specifications.

  5. Insulating product of mineral fibre wool, intended in particular for heat insulation of pipes and method for preparing this product; Isoleringsprodukt av mineralfiberull, avsedd i synnerhet foer vaermeisolering av roer, och foerfarande foer framstaellning av denna produkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talling, B.

    1991-10-04

    The invention relates to a heat insulation product of mineral fiber wool. The curable binding agent of the product is an aqueous suspension containing water glass and slag. The slag reacts hydraulically with the alkalis or the water glass yielding water resistant bonds. During the preparation of the product, the suspension of water glass and slag is agitated before being applied onto the product. The curing of tile binding agent can be carried out immediately or at a later time. Curing may be effected at room temperature or at an elevated temperature. (orig.)

  6. Solvent-free lipase-catalyzed preparation of diglycerides from co-products of vegetable oil refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangkam, Kamol

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-products of vegetable oil refining such as a mixed deodorizer distillate resulting from the refining of various vegetable oils, a crude distillate resulting from the physical refining of coconut oil and commercial mixtures of distilled sunflower and coconut fatty acids were used as starting materials for the enzymatic preparation of diglycerides. Reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, molar ratio for the formation of diglycerides by lipase-catalyzed esterification/transesterification were studied using the mixed deodorizer distillate and glycerol as starting materials. The best results were obtained with the immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435 in vacuo at 60 °C leading to moderate proportions (~52% of diglycerides. The proportion of diglycerides increased when residual acylglycerides of the co-products of vegetable oil refining were hydrolyzed prior to esterification. Thus, the esterification of hydrolyzed co-products of vegetable oil refining with glycerol led to high formation (62-72% of diglycerides. Short-path vacuum distillation of the esterification products yielded distillation residues containing from 70% to 94% diglycerides. The proportions of fatty acids and monoglycerides in the distilled residues were quite low (Subproductos del refinado de los aceites vegetales tales como el destilado obtenido en el desodorizador al refinar distintos aceites vegetales, el destilado crudo resultante de la refinación física del aceite de coco, y mezclas comerciales de los ácidos grasos obtenidos en la destilación de aceites de girasol y coco fueron utilizados como materiales de partida para la preparación enzimática de diglicéridos. Se estudiaron las condiciones de reacción (temperatura, presión, relación molar para la formación de diglicéridos mediante esterificación/ transesterificación catalizada por lipasas usando la mezcla obtenida del desodorizador y glicerol como materiales de partida. Los mejores

  7. Engineering construction and preparation before production for spunbond nonwovens production line%纺黏法非织造布生产线的基础建设及投产准备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王焕萍

    2014-01-01

    基于当前常见的宽狭缝式纺黏法非织造布生产线,叙述了设备购买方在基础建设和投产前需进行的准备工作。从设备选型、人员队伍建设、厂房施工设计及投产准备等几个方面提出了各阶段需要注意的问题。%Based on wide slot type spunbond nonwovens production line which is widely applied at present , engineering construction and preparation before production for spunbond nonwovens production line were described .Issues for different steps , such as equipment choice , team structure , engineering design and preparation before production were mentioned .

  8. Spray drying as a fast and simple technique for the preparation of extended release dipyridamole (DYP) microparticles in a fixed dose combination (FDC) product with aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamishehkar, H; Valizadeh, H; Alasty, P; Monajjemzadeh, F

    2014-02-01

    Recent advances have proven that the combinational therapy of extended release dipyridamole (DYP) and fast release aspirin (ASP) can improve clinical indices of heart failure in several vascular disorders. Although pharmaceutical industries always supported fast, simple and cost saving techniques in their productions, there is no simple reported method available for this purpose. The aim of this study was to check the possibility of preparing a FDC product, containing individual dosage units of extended release DYP microparticles and fast release ASP, using the spray-drying technique as a practice compatible with pharmaceutical industries. Solid dispersions of DYP in different polymeric substances (ethyl cellulose, carnauba wax, and Eudragit PO 100), were prepared using the spray-drying method. The physicochemical properties and structure of the prepared microparticles were analyzed using different techniques, such as the particle size analyzer (PSA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X ray diffraction (XRD), and USP dissolution tester. ASP tablets were prepared individually and tested according to pharmacopeia. Results showed that prepared microparticles measured about 2.3 µm in size. Statistical analysis of the release data revealed that there is no significant difference in the mean release amount of the selected formulation compared to the innovative brand (Aggrenox®). Findings proposed a new formulation (F7) as an alternative to innovative brand and proved spray drying as a practice compatible with pharmaceutical industries and as a successful method for sustaining the DYP release rate from prepared microparticles in a FDC dosage form. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. A novel and robust recombinant Pichia pastoris yeast whole cell biocatalyst with intracellular overexpression of a Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase: preparation, characterization and application in biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinyong; Zheng, Xianliang; Li, Shengying

    2014-01-01

    A novel and robust recombinant Pichia pastoris yeast whole cell catalyst (WCC) with functional intracellular expression of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (Tll) was constructed and characterized for biodiesel production from waste cooking oils. This permeabilized WCC was able to convert waste cooking oils to biodiesel with 82% yield within 84 h at 6% dosage whole cells. The WCC showed two fold catalytic activity of 0.73 U/mg DCW compared to its commercial counterpart Lipozyme TLIM (immobilized Tll). Short chain alcohol tolerance of this WCC was significantly improved compared to Lipozyme TLIM. This beneficial property enabled it to catalyze biodiesel production efficiently with one step addition of methanol. The reusability of this biocatalyst retained 78% activity after three batch cycles. This easily prepared and cost-effective WCC showed better catalytic performance than Lipozyme TLIM with respect to biodiesel yield and productivity, thus suggesting a promising cost-effective biocatalyst for biodiesel production.

  10. Preparation and characterization of two new forced degradation products of letrozole and development of a stability-indicating RP-LC method for its determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkady, Ehab Farouk; Fouad, Marwa Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Two new hydrolytic products of letrozole were identified and proved to be true degradation products obtained by alkaline and acidic degradation of the drug. The acid and amide forms of the nitrile groups of letrozole were prepared and identified by IR and mass spectroscopic techniques. Subsequently, a simple, precise and selective stability-indicating RPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of letrozole in the presence of its degradation products. Letrozole was subjected to alkali and acid hydrolysis, oxidation, thermal degradation and photo-degradation. The degradation products were well isolated from letrozole. The chromatographic method was achieved using gradient elution of the drug and its degradation products on a reversed phase Zorbax Eclipse C18 column (100mm x 4.6mm, 3.5 μm) using a mobile phase consisting of 0.01M KH₂PO₄and methanol at a flow rate of 1 mL min⁻¹. Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 230 nm. Linearity, accuracy and precision were found to be acceptable over the concentration range of 0.01-80 μgmL⁻¹. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of letrozole in bulk, plasma and in its pharmaceutical preparation.

  11. Technique and economy to prepare biofuelled district heating plants for power production; Teknik och ekonomi foer att foerbereda nya biobraensleeldade vaermeverk foer elproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinwall, Pontus; Nystroem, Johan; Nystroem, Olle; Svensson, Sven-Aake [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1999-10-01

    This report deals with the technique and the economic possibilities to prepare biofuelled district heating plants for power production. In the study three types of plants are examined: (1) 10 MW Heat Boiler with uncooled grate; (2) 50 MW Heat BFB-boiler; (3) 100 MW Heat CFB-boiler. (1) 10 MW boiler with uncooled grate: For this plant we don't recommend any specific preparation to be made with regard to the boiler equipment. Instead the layout of the plant should take into account that a future conversion may involve a complete change of the hot water boiler to a steam boiler and installation of a turbine. This means that the hot water boiler should be placed near a wall and that space should be reserved for a new steam boiler with economiser. A specific preparation that can be recommended is however to invest in a flue gas fan with capacity to overcome the increased pressure loss of the economiser being an integrated part of the new boiler. (2) 50 MW BFB-boiler: If it is believed or the plan is that the plant will be converted to power production within five years, the BFB-boiler should be based on a steam boiler equipped with a superheater from start of the project. If it is likely that conversion will be done later, the plant should still be based on a steam boiler but in this case without the superheater being installed. During the time to conversion the boiler is equipped and operated such that the heat is dissipated as hot water. The reason not to produce steam from start is that a district heating plant working with steam consumes more electricity than one working with hot water. The boiler should be prepared in terms of design and space for installation of the superheater. The extra cost for the preparation is approximately six per cent of the total cost for the whole plant. (3) 100 MW CFB-boiler: The biggest plant with a heat output of 100 MW is here recommend to be prepared for power production if there are plans to do so, without bearing to the time

  12. Production of hydrogen from methanol over binary Cu/ZnO catalysts Part I. Catalyst preparation and characterisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melián-Cabrera, Ignacio; Boutonnet, Magali; Agrell, Johan; Fierro, José L.G.

    2003-01-01

    Mixed copper–zinc oxide catalysts (Cu/ZnO) were prepared by two different techniques, i.e. from hydroxycarbonate precursors formed in aqueous solution and from oxalate precursors formed in water-in-oil microemulsion. Their physicochemical properties were characterised by nitrogen adsorption–desorpti

  13. Production of hydrogen from methanol over binary Cu/ZnO catalysts Part I. Catalyst preparation and characterisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melián-Cabrera, Ignacio; Boutonnet, Magali; Agrell, Johan; Fierro, José L.G.

    2003-01-01

    Mixed copper–zinc oxide catalysts (Cu/ZnO) were prepared by two different techniques, i.e. from hydroxycarbonate precursors formed in aqueous solution and from oxalate precursors formed in water-in-oil microemulsion. Their physicochemical properties were characterised by nitrogen

  14. Selectivity in the sample preparation for the analysis of drug residues in products of animal origin using LC-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Stolker, A.A.M.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    Sample preparation is critical in relation to analysis time, sample throughput and therefore analysis costs. Due to recent advances in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) instrumentation, the detection of many compounds within one run became possible, and methods for the simultaneous ana

  15. An efficient procedure for the preparation of natural products bearing the 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dwight A.; Smith, Cameron; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Several 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones have been shown to possess neuroprotective activity. However, limited synthetic methods have been disclosed to construct the 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone skeleton. Herein we report a straightforward 3-step preparation of five naturally occurring 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones utilizing the Claisen condensation as the key step. PMID:23935224

  16. Stability studies of cosmetic emulsions prepared from natural products such as wine, grape seed oil and mastic resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glampedaki, P.; Dutschk, V.

    2014-01-01

    An attempt was made in this study to use diluted wine as the aqueous phase and grapeseed oil as the oil phase for the preparation of oil-in-water cosmetic emulsions. Two monovarietal wines of Hellenic origin were used in this study; a red one from Sangiovese grapes and a white one from Muscat of Sam

  17. Preparation of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) nanoparticles by desolvation using a membrane contactor: a new tool for large scale production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedomon, B; Fessi, H; Charcosset, C

    2013-11-01

    Albumin nanoparticles are attractive drug delivery systems as they can be prepared under soft conditions and incorporate several kinds of molecules. The aim of this study was to upscale the desolvation process for preparing Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) nanoparticles using a membrane contactor. At a first step, the BSA nanoparticles were prepared at small scale using a syringe pump. BSA nanoparticles of 139 nm in size, with a polydispersity index of 0.046, were obtained at the optimal conditions: pH 8.2, 100 mg mL(-1) BSA albumin solution (2 mL), and 1 mL min(-1) flow rate of ethanol addition (8 mL). The upscaling with a membrane contactor was achieved by permeating ethanol through the pores of a Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG Technology Co., Japan) membrane and circulating the aqueous phase tangentially to the membrane surface. By increasing the pressure of the ethanol from 1 to 2.7 bars, a progressive decrease in nanoparticle size was obtained with a high nanoparticles yield (around 94-96%). In addition, the flow rate of the circulating phase did not affect the BSA nanoparticle characteristics. At the optimal conditions (pH 8.2, 100 mg mL(-1) BSA albumin solution, pressure of ethanol 2.7 bars, flow rate of the circulating phase 30.7 mL s(-1)), the BSA nanoparticles showed similar characteristics to those obtained with the syringe pump. Large batches of BSA nanoparticles were prepared up to 10 g BSA. The BSA nanoparticles were stable at least during 2 months at 4 °C, and their characteristics were reproducible. It was then concluded that the membrane contactor technique could be a suitable method for the preparation of albumin nanoparticles at large scale with properties similar to that obtained at small scale.

  18. The preparation and characterization of chitin and chitosan under large-scale submerged fermentation level using shrimp by-products as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongcai; Yun, Sanyue; Song, Lingling; Zhang, Yiwen; Zhao, Yanyun

    2017-03-01

    The crustacean shells of crabs and shrimps produces quantities of by-products, leading to seriously environmental pollution and human health problems during industrial processing, yet they turned into high-value useful products, such as chitin and chitosan. To prepare them under large-scale submerged fermentation level, shrimp shell powders (SSPs) was fermented by successive three-step fermentation of Serratia marcescens B742, Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 and Rhizopus japonicus M193 to extract chitin and chitosan based on previously optimal conditions. Moreover, the key parameters was investigated to monitor the changes of resulted products during fermentation process. The results showed that the yield of prepared chitin and chitosan reached 21.35 and 13.11% with the recovery rate of 74.67 and 63.42%, respectively. The degree of deacetylation (DDA) and molecular mass (MM) of produced chitosan were 81.23% and 512.06kDa, respectively. The obtained chitin and chitosan was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The established microbial fermentation method can be applied for the industrial large-scale production of chitin and chitosan, while the use of chemical reagents was significantly reduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of preparation method on the performance of Ni/Al(2)O(3) catalysts for hydrogen production by bio-oil steam reforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinbao; Wang, Shurong; Cai, Qinjie; Zhu, Lingjun; Yin, Qianqian; Luo, Zhongyang

    2012-09-01

    Steam reforming of bio-oil derived from the fast pyrolysis of biomass is an economic and renewable process for hydrogen production. The main objective of the present work has been to investigate the effects of the preparation method of Ni/Al(2)O(3) catalysts on their performance in hydrogen production by bio-oil steam reforming. The Ni/Al(2)O(3) catalysts were prepared by impregnation, co-precipitation, and sol-gel methods. XRD, XPS, H(2)-TPR, SEM, TEM, TG, and N(2) physisorption measurements were performed to characterize the texture and structure of the catalysts obtained after calcination and after their subsequent use. Ethanol and bio-oil model compound were selected for steam reforming to evaluate the catalyst performance. The catalyst prepared by the co-precipitation method was found to display better performance than the other two. Under the optimized reaction conditions, an ethanol conversion of 99% and a H(2) yield of 88% were obtained.

  20. [The use of enzymatic preparation for the production of low molecular-weight chitosan from the king crab hepatopancrease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'ina, A V; Zagorskaia, D S; Levov, A N; Albulov, A I; Kovacheva, N P; Varlamov, V P

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the optimal conditions for the enzymatic hydrolysis of chitosan and its chemically-modified derivatives using the preparation extracted from the king crab hepatopancrease possessing pronounced hydrolythic activity. The following preparations were used: chitosan with a molecular weight of 100 kDa and an acetylation level of 0.15, carboxymethyl chitosan 200 kDa witih an extent of replacement of 0.23, and N-succinyl chitosan 390 kDa with an extent of replacement of 0.8. Low molecular-weight samples of chitosan and of its modified derivatives were obtained with the yields of 85, 55, and 80%, respectively. The conditions of the hydrolysis were as follows: an enzyme: substrate ratio of 1:200, 37 degrees C, and 20 h duration of hydrolysis.

  1. Preparation of CLA ascorbyl ester with improved volumetric productivity by an ionic liquid-based reaction system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, B.L.; Guo, Zheng; Let, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to the enzymatic production Of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) ascorbyl ester with a remarkably high volumetric productivity (120-200 g L-1) has been developed, in which strong solvation by tOMA-TFA (methyltrioctylammonium trifluoroacetate) enables a high concentration of ascorbic...

  2. Specific tolerance induction across a xenogeneic barrier: production of mixed rat/mouse lymphohematopoietic chimeras using a nonlethal preparative regimen

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The development of safe methods for inducing donor-specific tolerance across xenogeneic barriers could potentially relieve the critical shortage of allograft donors that currently limits the applicability of organ transplantation. We report here that such tolerance can be induced in a xenogeneic combination (rat----mouse) using a nonmyeloablative and nonlethal preparative regimen. Successful induction of chimerism and donor-specific transplantation tolerance required pretreatment of recipient...

  3. Preparation and production of a home builders' guide. Building and selling energy-efficient homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keast, D. N.; Mahoney, J. M.; McMahon, N. M.; Troy, M. H.; Wood, E. W.

    1977-06-01

    Procedures used in the preparation of a manual on the construction of energy-saving one- and two-family houses are described. Prior to writing the manual, builders were interviewed and a bibliographic search was conducted to obtain information on the design, construction and marketing of energy conserving homes. The packaging and distribution of the manual was planned. When written FEA will publish the manual. (ERA citation 04:044977)

  4. Ethanol production at 45 C using preparations of Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB3 immobilized in calcium alginate and kissiris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, G. [Biotechnology Research Group, School of Applied Biological and Chemical Sciences, University of Ulster (United Kingdom); Nigam, P. [Biotechnology Research Group, School of Applied Biological and Chemical Sciences, University of Ulster (United Kingdom); Barron, N. [Biotechnology Research Group, School of Applied Biological and Chemical Sciences, University of Ulster (United Kingdom); Singh, D. [Microbiology Dept., Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (India); Marchant, R. [Biotechnology Research Group, School of Applied Biological and Chemical Sciences, University of Ulster (United Kingdom); McHale, A.P. [Biotechnology Research Group, School of Applied Biological and Chemical Sciences, University of Ulster (United Kingdom)

    1996-10-01

    The thermotolerant yeast, K. marxianus IMB3, was grown in free and immobilized states in batch-fed culture at 45 C and ethanol production was examined over a 61-day period. The organism was grown in the free state, in the free state with mineral kissiris, immobilized in calcium alginate and immobilized in calcium alginate together with kissiris. Initially, reactors were fed every two days with 10% (w/v) glucose-containing media and no significant difference in ethanol production was observed. In subsequent refeeding experiments, reactors were re-fed every two days with 15% (w/v) sucrose-containing media. Although overall ethanol concentrations decreased, production in the immobilized systems was higher. In the final stages fermentations were re-fed every 3 days and although overall ethanol production decreased further, production remained highest in the systems containing calcium alginate and kissiris. (orig.). With 1 tab.

  5. Characterization of Active Dry Wine Yeast During Starter Culture (Pied de Cuve) Preparation for Sparkling Wine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benucci, Ilaria; Liburdi, Katia; Cerreti, Martina; Esti, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The preparation of yeast starter culture (Pied de Cuve) for producing sparkling wine with the traditional method is a key factor for manufacturing a good Prise de mousse. In this paper, the evolution of total yeast population, its viability during Pied de Cuve preparation, and the pressure profile during the 2nd fermentation in 2 different base wines made from Bombino bianco and Chardonnay grapes were investigated using 4 different commercial active dried yeasts. The study proves that despite the initial differences observed throughout the acclimatization phase, all the tested strains showed similar results on either the total population (from 8.2 × 10(7) cells/mL to 1.3 × 10(8) cells/mL) or cellular viability (from 70% to 84%). Independently from the base wine tested, the kinetic of sugar consumption was faster during the gradual acclimatization to the alcoholic medium (phase II) and slower during the preparation of starter culture in active growth phase (phase III). During both of these phases Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus Vitilevure DV10(®) (Station œnotechnique de Champagne) proved to have a higher sugar consumption rate than the other strains. During the Prise de mousse, S. cerevisiae bayanus Lalvin EC-1118(®) (Lallemand) reached the maximum pressure increase within time in both base wines.

  6. Aging dependent phase transformation of mesostructured titanium dioxide nanomaterials prepared by evaporation-induced self-assembly process: Implications for solar hydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luther Mahoney

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mesostructured titanium dioxide materials were prepared by Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly (EISA method using titanium isopropoxide and a cationic surfactant. The titania phase could be tuned by simply varying the aging time. As the aging time increased, hierarchically structured mesoporous materials with mixed phases of titania were obtained. The rutile content was found to generally increase with length in aging time. The mesostructured materials were evaluated for hydrogen production, and a mixed phase consisting of 95% anatase and 5% rutile showed the highest activity. This study indicates that the aging time is an important parameter for the preparation of mesostructured materials with hierarchical porosities and mixed phase(s of titania.

  7. Basis for calculating technological parameters of preparation of minced salted fish products of intermediate moisture with specified physical and chemical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanenko E. I.

    2016-09-01

    during storage and to calculate the necessary parameters of salted semi-finished product preparing.

  8. Statistical optimization of biodiesel production from sunflower waste cooking oil using basic heterogeneous biocatalyst prepared from eggshells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh; Deriase, Samiha F; Hamdy, A; Abdallah, Renee I

    2015-01-01

    A statistical design of experiments DOE was applied to investigate biodiesel fuel BDF production process from sunflower waste cooking oil SWCO using heterogeneous bio-catalyst produced from eggshells ES...

  9. Methodology of comprehensive evaluation of the effectiveness and reliability of production lines of preparation of sea water for the cultivation of aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Ugryumova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors affecting the efficiency and reliability of technical systems. Set stages of development and modernization of production lines that correspond to specific stages of evaluating the effectiveness and reliability. Considered several methods of definition of indicators of indicators of efficiency and reliability of the equipment in technological lines of fisheries sector: forecasting methods, structural methods, physical methods, logical-probability method (method by I.A. Ryabinin and topological method. Advantages and disadvantages, allowing you to work out the most suitable method, process lines preparation of sea water for the cultivation of aquatic organisms, connected in series. Modernized technological line of preparation of sea water for the cultivation of aquatic organisms differing from the typical line of seawater in hatcheries (Far East, as the presence of a large number of instrumentation: sensors, salinity and temperature; motomeru that continuously monitor turbidity in the range of 50÷100 EMF (30÷60 mg/1 by kaolin; signaling the flow sensors volume level of the filtrate and the backfill layer; analyzers of chemical composition of sea water; analyzers of suspended mechanical impurities; signaling sensors of acidity and oxygen content and replacement filters coarse, fine cleaning and auxiliary equipment. A program of comprehensive evaluation of the effectiveness and reliability of production lines, revealed that conducted the modernization of production line preparation of sea water for the cultivation of aquatic organisms has improved its efficiency by an average of 1.71% to reduce the amount of manual labor by 15.1%; control the process; provide the most rapid, efficient purification of sea water; reduce the cost of replacement filter media.

  10. Safety and quality assurance of chemotherapeutic preparations in a hospital production unit: acceptance sampling plan and economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paci, A; Borget, I; Mercier, L; Azar, Y; Desmaris, R P; Bourget, P

    2012-06-01

    The opportunity to apply a sampling plan was evaluated. Costs were computed by a microcosting study. In 2003, a sampling plan was defined to reduce the number of chemotherapy quality controls while preserving the same level of quality. Recent qualitative and quantitative changes led us to define a second sampling plan supplemented by an economic evaluation to determine the cost and cost-savings of quality control. The study considers preparation produced during four semesters classified into three groups. The first one includes drugs produced below 200 batches a semester. Group 2, those for which the lot of preparation lots would have been rejected twice among these four semesters. Group 3, those would have been accepted (≥3 'acceptable lot'). A single sampling plan by attributes was applied to this group with an acceptance quality level of 1.65% and a lot tolerance percent defective below 5%. A micro-costing study was conducted on quality control, from the sampling to the validation of the results. Among 39 cytotoxic drugs, 11 were sampled which enabled to avoid a mean of 17,512 control assays per year. Each batch of the 28 non-sampled drugs was however analyzed. Costs were estimated at 2.98€ and 5.25€ for control assays depending of the analytical method. The savings from the application of the sampling plans was 153,207€ in 6 years. The sampling plan allowed maintaining constancy in number of controls and the level of quality with significant costsavings, despite a substantial increase in drugs to assay and in the number of preparations produced.

  11. 芋头淀粉脂肪模拟品的制备及特性研究%Preparation and properties of fat analog products of taro starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边伟; 陈龙; 袁军; 周才琼

    2013-01-01

    To explore the effect on the preparation and characteristics of the fat analog products made by taro starch,taro starch as raw materials,the DE value as index,the effect of mount of enzyme,enzymatic hydrolysis time and hydrolysis temperature on taro starch fat analog products were discussed. The properties were also studied. The results showed that optimum conditions for the preparation of taro starch was that the amount of enzyme was 8.20U/g,about 30min hydrolysis and hydrolysis temperature was 87.5℃,the DE of final preparation of fat analog products made by taro starch .was 6.03.The preparation of fat analog products made by taro starch contained 0.59% ash,0.09% protein and 0.12% crude fat which were lower than the original starch.The specific surface area was 0.985 which were higher than the native starch.The volume average particle size was 6.092|jm and the gel strength was 201g/cm2 which were lower than the native starch. Forming gel by taro starch of the concentration of 25% was smooth, delicate and transparent.%以芋头淀粉为原料,以DE值为指标探讨酶添加量、酶解时间和酶解温度对芋头淀粉脂肪模拟品制备的影响及制备脂肪模拟品的特性.结果显示,制备芋头淀粉最佳工艺条件为酶添加量8.20U/g,水解时间30min,水解温度87.5℃,所制备芋头淀粉脂肪模拟品DE值6.03.制备芋头脂肪模拟品含灰分0.59%、蛋白质0.09%和粗脂肪0.12%,低于原淀粉;比表面积0.985,高于原淀粉;体积平均粒度6.092 μm,凝胶强度201 g/cm2,低于原淀粉,25%制备芋头淀粉形成的凝胶软滑细腻、透明.

  12. Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymer with double templates for rapid simultaneous determination of melamine and dicyandiamide in dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Song, Han; Liu, Jie; Liu, Yuan; Li, Le; Tang, Hui; Li, Yingchun

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a rapid and accurate determination strategy was established for simultaneous measurement of melamine (MLM) and dicyandiamide (DCD) directly in powdered milk by coupling molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A novel double-template technique was adopted for preparing SPE packing agent and the obtained double-templated (MLM and DCD) molecularly imprinted polymers (MD-MIPs) was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The molecular recognition ability and the binding capability of the as-prepared polymers towards MLM and DCD were evaluated via static and dynamic binding tests, and it was found that the MD-MIPs showed better affinity and selectivity for both templates compared with single-templated MIPs and non-imprinted polymers (NIPs). An approach based on MISPE and HPLC was then developed and optimized to detect MLM and DCD in powdered milk. The detection limit of the method (S/N=3) were 0.13 μg/g for MLM and 0.07 μg/g for DCD, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of intra-day and inter-day determination for MLM was 3.3% and 4.7%, and 3.5% and 5.9% for DCD. The recoveries in MLM and DCD analysis at three spiked levels were 93.1-100.1% and 75.7-82.5%, respectively, with all RSD less than 5.2%.

  13. Preparation of Al-Mg Alloy Electrodes by Using Powder Metallurgy and Their Application for Hydrogen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Nong Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of an electrode is the most critical parameter for water electrolysis. In this study, powder metallurgy is used to prepare aluminum-magnesium (Al-Mg alloy electrodes. In addition to pure Mg and Al electrodes, five Al-Mg alloy electrodes composed of Al-Mg (10 wt%, Al-Mg (25 wt%, Al-Mg (50 wt%, and Al-Mg (75 wt% were prepared. In water electrolysis experiments, the pure Al electrode exhibited optimal electrolytic efficiency. However, the Al-Mg (25 wt% alloy was the most efficient when the anticorrosion effect and materials costs were considered. In this study, an ultrasonic field was applied to the electrolysis cell to improve its efficiency. The results revealed that the current increased by approximately 23.1% when placed in a 30 wt% KOH solution under the ultrasonic field. Electrochemical polarization impedance spectroscopy (EIS was employed to evaluate the effect of the ultrasonic field on the reduction of polarization resistance. The results showed that the concentration impedance in the 30 wt% KOH electrolyte decreased markedly by 44%–51% Ω.

  14. Effect of corn preparation methods on dry-grind ethanol production by granular starch hydrolysis and partitioning of spent beer solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, B P; Wang, H; Johnson, L A

    2011-06-01

    Two corn preparation methods, rollermill flaking and hammermill grinding, were compared for efficient processing of corn into ethanol by granular starch hydrolysis and simultaneous fermentation by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Corn was either ground in a hammermill with different size screens or crushed in a smooth-surfaced rollermill at different roller gap settings. The partitioning of beer solids and size distribution of solids in the thin stillage were compared. The mean particle diameter d(50) for preparations varied with set-ups and ranged between 210 and 340 μm for ground corn, and 1180-1267 μm for flaked corn. The ethanol concentrations in beer were similar (18-19% v/v) for ground and flaked preparations, however, ethanol productivity increased with reduced particle size. Roller versus hammermilling of corn reduced solids in thin stillage by 28%, and doubled the volume percent of fines (d(50) ∼ 7 μm)in thin stillage and decreased coarse (d(50) ∼ 122 μm) by half compared to hammermilling.

  15. Preparation for Pt-Loaded Zeolite Catalysts Using w/o Microemulsion and Their Hydrocracking Behaviors on Fischer-Tropsch Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Hanaoka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pt-loaded β-type zeolite catalysts with constant Pt content (0.11 wt.% and similar pore structure were prepared using a water-in-oil (w/o microemulsion. The effect of Pt particle synthesis conditions using microemulsion (a type of Pt complex-forming agents and the molar ratio of complex-forming agent to Pt4+ on loaded Pt particle size was investigated. The Pt particle size of the Pt catalyst using tetraethylammonium chloride (TEAC as a complex-forming agent with the molar TEAC/Pt ratio 10 was the minimum value (3.8 nm, and was much smaller than that (6.7 nm prepared by the impregnation method. The utilization of the complex-forming agent of which hydrophobic groups occupied a small volume and the appropriate complex-forming agent/Pt ratio were favorable for synthesis of small Pt particles. The effect of loaded Pt particle size on the hydrocracking of the Fischer-Tropsch (FT product was investigated using the Pt-loaded zeolite catalysts at 250 °C with an initial H2 pressure of 0.5 MPa, and reaction time of 1 h. The Pt catalyst with a Pt particle size of 4.2 nm prepared using the microemulsion exhibited the maximum corresponding jet fuel yield (30.0%, which was higher than that of the impregnated catalyst.

  16. SURFACE PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS MADE FROM Д16T ALLOYS PRIOR TO APPLICATION OF VACUUM-PLASMA COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ivaschenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of  investigations on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of impurities on the surface of products made from aluminium alloy Д16Т .It has been shown that the main impurities of the products made from alloy Д16Т  are carbo-hydrates of paraffin and methanoic series.  In order to obtain high quality coating a technological process pertaining to surface cleaning prior to application vacuum-plasma coatings must include out- and intra-chamber treatments. 

  17. 肉类预制菜肴加工中的品质形成与保持%Quality Formation and Maintenance during Production of Prepared Meat Cuisines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泓; 黄峰

    2013-01-01

    With the accelerated pace of urban and rural residents,prepared meat cuisines has gradually become a new bright spot in the meat consumption market.At present,Chinese prepared meat cuisines are mostly cooked by manual or workshop processing and the stability of product quality cannot be guaranteed.The lack of critical processing technology has become a serious constraint to the development of Chinese prepared meat cuisines.The key factors for quality formation and maintenance during the production of prepared meat cuisines are analyzed in this paper.This paper focus on comprehensive bacteria reduction,flavor formulation mechanism,flavor blending,modification and innovation for improved industrial adaptability of traditional technologies,vacuum and gas replacement packaging,bimodal variable temperature sterilization as well as their important roles in quality formation and maintenance of prepared meat cuisines.%随着城乡居民生活节奏的加快,肉类预制菜肴逐渐成为肉类消费市场的新亮点.目前,我国肉类预制菜肴多为手工或作坊式加工,产品质量稳定性无法得到保证,关键加工技术的缺乏已成为制约我国肉类预制菜肴发展的“瓶颈”.本文分析了肉类预制菜肴加工中的品质形成与保持的关键因素,重点讨论了肉类预制菜肴加工中的综合减菌化、调香机制、传统工艺的工业化适应性改造与创新、真空和气体置换包装、双峰变温法热水喷淋杀菌等共性关键技术,阐述了其在肉类预制菜肴加工中品质形成与保持中的重要作用.

  18. The Preparation of MnS Photocatalyst and Its Performance of Hydrogen Production%MnS光催化剂的制备及其产氢性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓东; 孙晓君; 魏金枝; 刘婧婧; 霍伟光

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the possibility of MnS to produce hydrogen by splitting water in the light irradiation,MnS samples were prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis method.Furthermore,the prepared photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD),UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques.Besides,they were applied in the process of hydrogen production by splitting water in the light irradiation.The results of XRD and SEM showed that the time of hydrothermal reaction was an important factor in determining the crystal structure of the prepared MnS.With the time increase of hydrothermal reaction,MnS would transform from γ-MnS into α-MnS.In addition,the results of UV-Vis showed that the prepared MnS presented response to ultra violet light and visible light.The performance for splitting water into hydrogen in the light irradiation from the prepared MnS photocatalysts was also studied in the paper.The result indicated that the time of hydrothermal reaction directly influenced the rate of hydrogen production.When 0.05 g MnS prepared in 2 hours of hydrothermal reaction was added to 300 mL distilled water with 0.2 mol Na2S · 9H2O and 0.05 mol Na2SO3 as sacrificial agents,the hydrogen production rate from the prepared MnS photocatalyst was as high as 105.4 μmol · h-1%为了探讨MnS在光照下分解水制取氢气的可能性,采用水热合成法制得了MnS光催化剂,通过XRD、UV-Vis及SEM测试手段对所制得的MnS催化剂进行了表征,并将其用于分解水制取氢气.XRD及SEM测试结果表明:水热反应时间是影响MnS的晶型结构的主要因素,随着水热反应时间的延长,所制得的MnS由γ-MnS向α-MnS转变;UV-Vis测试结果表明所制备的MnS光催化剂在紫外及可见光区均有响应.MnS光催化分解水制氢实验结果表明:水热反应时间直接影响MnS样品产氢速率,当蒸馏水用量为300 mL,MnS用量为0.05g,Na2S9H2O

  19. Production in Escherichia coli of a rat chimeric proinsulin polypeptide carrying human A and B chains and its preparative chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, J; Cruz, N; Sánchez, M; López, M; Balbás, P; Gosset, G; Valle, F; Bolivar, F

    1994-11-30

    A pseudohuman proinsulin coding DNA sequence (MMRPI) carrying human A and B chains, was constructed via directed mutagenesis of a previously modified rat proinsulin cDNA (MRPI) and expressed as a tryptophan (Trp)LE-proinsulin fusion protein in Escherichia coli W3110. Expression of the hybrid gene was achieved by depletion of tryptophan from the medium. The heterologous fusion protein, accumulated as insoluble inclusion bodies within the cell, was obtained by differential centrifugation and then solubilized using formic acid. At the junction of the two peptides, a methionine residue allowed proinsulin to be released from the carrier protein by cyanogen bromide treatment. The sulfonated form of this proinsulin polypeptide was easily purified, at a preparative level, using ion exchange chromatography.

  20. The influence of product preparation, familiarity and individual traits on the consumer acceptance of insects as food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan Hui Shan, Grace; Berg, van den Eva; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Insects are highly valued as food in many cultures but have only recently gained interest in the West as a sustainable alternative to reduce the environmental impact of meat production. Despite the growing consumer interest in insect consumption, there is still a great disparity between curious

  1. Effects of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) preparations on the Maillard reaction products in milk and meat-protein model systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rackauskienea, I.; Pukalskas, A.; Rimantas Venskutonis, P.; Fiore, A.M.; Troise, A.D.; Fogliano, V.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of beetroots (Beta vulgaris) on the formation of Maillard reaction (MR) products possessing health, nutritional and sensory implications were studied. The effect of dried beetroot juice on the formation of Ne-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and Ne-(2-furoylmethyl)-L-lysine (furosine) was det

  2. Preparation of ZnO Nanoparticles and Photocatalytic H2 Production Activity from Different Sacrificial Reagent Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-you Peng; Hong-jin Lv; Peng Zeng; Xiao-hu Zhang

    2011-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized via a direct precipitation method followed by a heterogeneous azeotropic distillation and calcination processes,and then characterized by X-ray power diffraction,scanning electron microscopy,transmission electron microscopy,and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement.The effects of Pt-loading amount,calcination temperature,and sacrificial reagents on the photocatalytic H2 evolution efficiency from the present ZnO suspension were investigated.The experimental results indicate that ZnO nanoparticles calcined at 400 ℃ exhibit the best photoactivity for the H2 production in comparison with the samples calcined at 300 and 500 ℃,and the photocatalytic H2 production efficiency from a methanol solution is much higher than that from a triethanolamine solution.It can be ascribed to the oxidization of methanol also contributes to the H2 production during the photochemical reaction process.Moreover,the photocatalytic mechanism for the H2 production from the present ZnO suspension system containing methanol solution is also discussed in detail.

  3. The influence of product preparation, familiarity and individual traits on the consumer acceptance of insects as food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan Hui Shan, Grace; Berg, van den Eva; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Insects are highly valued as food in many cultures but have only recently gained interest in the West as a sustainable alternative to reduce the environmental impact of meat production. Despite the growing consumer interest in insect consumption, there is still a great disparity between curious t

  4. Comparison of a pectinolytic extract of Kluyveromyces marxianus and a commercial enzyme preparation in the production of Ives (Vitis labrusca) grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piemolini-Barreto, Luciani Tatsch; Antônio, Regina Vasconcellos; Echeverrigaray, Sergio

    2015-05-01

    This study analyses the effect of the crude enzymatic extract produced by Kluyveromyces marxianus (EEB) in the maceration and clarification of juice produced from Ives (Vitis labrusca) grapes compared to the commercial enzyme preparation Pectinex(®)Ultra Color (PEC). Treatments were conducted with a total pectinolytic activity of 1 U/mL of fruit juice, at 40 °C, for 60 min. After the enzymatic treatment, the juices were evaluated with respect to yield, viscosity, and degree of clarification, as well as the effect of the enzymes on polyphenol concentration, anthocyanins, and juice color. The results showed that both EEB and PEC increase yield, reduce viscosity and contribute to the clarification of grape juice. After enzyme treatment with the EEB preparation, the extraction yield increased 28.02 % and decreased 50.70 % in viscosity during the maceration of the pulp. During the juice production process clarification increased 11.91 %. With PEC, higher values for these parameters: 42.36, 63.20, and 26.81 % respectively, were achieved. The addition of EEB resulted in grape juice with better color intensity and extraction of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Considering all comparison criteria, the enzymatic extract of K. marxianus NRRL-Y-7571 can potentially be used in the production of juice.

  5. Photoelectrolytic hydrogen production using Bi{sub 2}MNbO{sub 7} (M = Al, Ga) semiconductor film electrodes prepared by dip-coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas-Barrera, K.L. [Grupo de Investigaciones en Minerales, Biohidrometalurgia y Ambiente - GIMBA, Universidad Industrial de Santander - UIS, Sede Guatiguara, Km. 2 via El Refugio, C.P. 681011, Piedecusta, Santander (Colombia); Pedraza-Avella, J.A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Catalisis - CICAT, Universidad Industrial de Santander - UIS, Sede Guatiguara, Km. 2 via El Refugio, C.P. 681011, Piedecuesta, Santander (Colombia); Ballen-Gaitan, B.P.; Cortes-Pena, J.; Pedraza-Rosas, J.E. [Grupo de Investigaciones en Minerales, Biohidrometalurgia y Ambiente - GIMBA, Universidad Industrial de Santander - UIS, Sede Guatiguara, Km. 2 via El Refugio, C.P. 681011, Piedecusta (Santander) (Colombia); Laverde-Catano, D.A., E-mail: dlaverde@uis.edu.co [Grupo de Investigaciones en Minerales, Biohidrometalurgia y Ambiente - GIMBA, Universidad Industrial de Santander - UIS, Sede Guatiguara, Km. 2 via El Refugio, C.P. 681011, Piedecusta, Santander (Colombia)

    2011-10-25

    The performance of Bi{sub 2}MNbO{sub 7} (M = Al, Ga) films on AISI/SAE 304 stainless steel was evaluated in the photoelectrochemical hydrogen production as a function of the annealing temperature of the films (400, 500 and 600 deg. C) and the composition of the electrolyte solution (containing KOH, KCN and KCl). The films were prepared by sol-gel dip-coating on AISI/SAE 304 stainless steel followed by a thermal annealing. The photoelectrochemical evaluation (UV-Vis, 2.5 V) was carried out in a conventional two-compartment electrochemical cell by using the prepared films as photoanode and a silver plate as cathode. During the process, circulating current was recorded and hydrogen production and cyanide degradation were measured. In both cases, it was found that the higher activity was obtained with the films annealed at 500 deg. C and using an electrolyte solution 0.3 M of KOH and 120 ppm of CN{sup -}. Further works on the subject should involve a cathode evaluation to avoid the electrode polarization in presence of KCl and an experimental design to optimize the evaluated variables.

  6. Preparation for colonoscopy: types of scales and cleaning products Preparación para colonoscopia: tipos de productos y escalas de limpieza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Lorenzo-Zúñiga

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate bowel preparation is essential before a colonoscopy, allowing us to make a proper examination of the entire mucosa. The ideal method of colon cleansing should be fast, safe, and get a proper cleaning with minimal discomfort for the patient. Today we have a wide variety of colon cleansing products, information sometimes becomes confused. A good colon preparation depends partly on correct choice of the same, but also upon dietary restriction. Knowledge of all these products, with their advantages and limitations, we can make a better selection for each patient, and although the efficacy is comparable, is the experience of the browser, patient preferences, and the degree of compliance with the instructions preparation, which greatly influence the results.Una adecuada preparación del colon es fundamental antes de realizar una colonoscopia, ya que nos permite realizar una correcta exploración de toda la mucosa. El método ideal de limpieza del colon debe ser rápido, seguro y conseguir una limpieza apropiada con las mínimas molestias para el paciente. En la actualidad disponemos de una amplia variedad de productos de limpieza de colon, información que en ocasiones llega a ser confusa. Una buena preparación del colon depende por una parte de una correcta elección del mismo, pero también de una restricción dietética previa. El conocimiento de todos estos productos, con sus ventajas y limitaciones, nos permite hacer una mejor selección para cada paciente; y aunque la eficacia sea comparable, es la experiencia del explorador, las preferencias del paciente y el grado de cumplimiento de las instrucciones de preparación, las que influyen notablemente en los resultados.

  7. [Analysis of the products of drug decomposition. XLII. Determining the levels of vitamin K in pharmaceutical preparations in the presence of decomposition products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniec, B; Stachowicz, M

    1989-01-01

    Chromatographic-spectrophotometric methods for the determination of vitamins K1, K3 and K4 in pharmaceuticals (tablets, dragees, injection solutions) in the presence of decomposition products have been elaborated. The TLC method on Kieselgel HF 254 (Merck) was applied to separation of the active substances from decomposition products, using the following solvent systems: benzene--ethyl acetate (9:1) for vitamin K1, cyclohexane--chloroform--metanol--acetic acid (2:15:3:1) for vitamin K3, and benzene--acetone (9:1) for vitamin K4. After elution from the plates, vitamin K1 was determined in ethanol at lambda = 251 nm, vitamin K3 in water at lambda = 234 nm and vitamin K4 in methanol at lambda = 225 nm. Maximum sensitivity of the elaborated methods came up to 7 X 10(-5) g, and standard deviations of single determinations ranged from 1.99% to 3.70%.

  8. New developments in the diagnostics for the fusion products on JET in preparation for ITER (invited)a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, A.; Angelone, M.; Bonheure, G.; Cecil, E.; Craciunescu, T.; Darrow, D.; Edlington, T.; Ericsson, G.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Gorini, G.; Hellesen, C.; Kiptily, V.; Mlynar, J.; Perez von Thun, C.; Pillon, M.; Popovichev, S.; Syme, B.; Tardocchi, M.; Zoita, V. L.; Efda-Jet Contributors

    2010-10-01

    Notwithstanding the advances of the past decades, significant developments are still needed to satisfactorily diagnose "burning plasmas." D-T plasmas indeed require a series of additional measurements for the optimization and control of the configuration: the 14 MeV neutrons, the isotopic composition of the main plasma, the helium ash, and the redistribution and losses of the alpha particles. Moreover a burning plasma environment is in general much more hostile for diagnostics than purely deuterium plasmas. Therefore, in addition to the development and refinement of new measuring techniques, technological advances are also indispensable for the proper characterization of the next generation of devices. On JET an integrated program of diagnostic developments, for JET future and in preparation for ITER, has been pursued and many new results are now available. In the field of neutron detection, the neutron spectra are now routinely measured in the energy range of 1-18 MeV by a time of flight spectrometer and they have allowed studying the effects of rf heating on the fast ions. A new analysis method for the interpretation of the neutron cameras measurements has been refined and applied to the data of the last trace tritium campaign (TTE). With regard to technological upgrades, chemical vapor deposition diamond detectors have been qualified both as neutron counters and as neutron spectrometers, with a potential energy resolution of about one percent. The in situ calibration of the neutron diagnostics, in preparation for the operation with the ITER-like wall, is also promoting important technological developments. With regard to the fast particles, for the first time the temperature of the fast particle tails has been obtained with a new high purity Germanium detector measuring the gamma emission spectrum from the plasma. The effects of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes modes and various MHD instabilities on the confinement of the fast particles have been determined with a

  9. Preparation and in-vitro characterization of Risperidone-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes as a potential injectable product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Shukla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n Background and the purpose of the study: This investigation deals with risperidone cyclodextrin (CD complexation for parenteral administration to improve its aqueous solubility which would be beneficial over immediate and sustained release formulations available in market especially for agitated and non-cooperative psychotic patients. "nMethods: The phase solubility study of the drug with β-CD, hydroxypropyl (HP-β-CD and γ-CD was conducted and CDs with higher stability constants were selected for complexation. The complexes of Risperidone with β-CD and HP-β-CD were prepared by precipitation and vacuum drying methods, respectively. Fourier transform-infrared, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry techniques were used for characterization of complexes. Drug precipitation study of complex's solution in water for injection and 100 ml of 0.1 M pH 7.4 phosphate buffer saline and stability study in accelerated condition were also carried out. "nResults: The stability constants of the CD were in the following order: β-CD (341.953±11.87 M-1 > HP-β-CD (170.817± 5.93 M-1 > γ-CD (93.716 ± 3.25 M-1. CDs with high stability constants were selected to prepare the drug CD complex. The complexation efficiencies of β-CD and HP-β-CD were 95.23 ± 2.27% and 97.59 ±1.97%, respectively. Both types of CDs exhibited complexation at 1:2 molar stoichiometric ratio. The drug precipitation study indicated complete solubility (100% drug dissolution without a trace of precipitate within 5 mins. The complexes were found to be stable for a period of 3 months under accelerated stability conditions. Major conclusion:Stable complexes of risperidone were successfully formulated using both β-CD and HP-β-CD by simple and highly efficient methods of complexation for parenteral administration.

  10. Preparation and quality control of the [sm]-samarium maltolate complex as a lanthanide mobilization product in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Zohreh; Hakimi, Amir; Jalilian, Amir R; Nemati Kharat, Ali; Bahrami-Samani, Ali; Ghannadi-Maragheh, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Development of lanthanide detoxification agents and protocols is of great importance in management of overdoses. Due to safety of maltol as a detoxifying agent in metal overloads, it can be used as a lanthanide detoxifying agent. In order to demonstrate the biodistribution of final complex, [(153)Sm]-samarium maltolate was prepared using Sm-153 chloride (radiochemical purity >99.9%; ITLC and specific activity). The stability of the labeled compound was determined in the final solution up to 24h as well as the partition coefficient. Biodistribution studies of Sm-153 chloride, [(153)Sm]-samarium maltolate were carried out in wild-type rats comparing the critical organ uptakes. Comparative study for Sm(3+) cation and the labeled compound was conducted up to 48 h, demonstrating a more rapid wash out for the labeled compound. The effective and biological half lives of 2.3 h and 2.46h were calculated for the complex. The data suggest the detoxification property of maltol formulation for lanthanide overdoses.

  11. Selective preparation of zeolite X and A from flyash and its use as catalyst for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volli, Vikranth; Purkait, M.K., E-mail: mihir@iitg.ernet.in

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Flyash was utilized for zeolites preparation for transesterification. • Single phase and highly crystalline zeolite was obtained at flyash/NaOH ratio of 1:1.2. • Si/Al ratio of 2 resulted in the formation of zeolite X. • At 5 wt% of catalyst loading conversion was 84.6%. • The biodiesel obtained has a calorific value of 37.5 MJ/Kg. - Abstract: This work discusses the utilization of flyash for synthesis of heterogeneous catalyst for transesterification. Different types of zeolites were synthesized from alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatment of coal flyash as source material. The synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain highly crystalline zeolite based on degree of crystallinity and cation exchange capacity (CEC). The effect of CEC, acid treatment, Si/Al ratio and calcination temperature (800, 900 and 1000 °C) on zeolite formation was also studied. Pure, single phase and highly crystalline zeolite was obtained at flyash/NaOH ratio (1:1.2), fusion temperature (550 °C), fusion time (1 h), hydrothermal temperature (110 °C) and hydrothermal time (12 h). The synthesized zeolite was ion-exchanged with potassium and was used as catalyst for transesterification of mustard oil to obtain a maximum conversion of 84.6% with 5 wt% catalyst concentration, 12:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction time of 7 h at 65 °C. The catalyst was reused for 3 times with marginal reduction in activity.

  12. [Production of recombinant fragments of the Clostridium tetani neurotoxin for the development of new immune-prophylaxis preparations against tetanus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varfolomeeva, N A; Makhotina, O A; Sergeeva, T I; Belyĭ, Iu F

    2003-01-01

    Tetanus belongs to dangerous infection diseases, whose effective prevention can be ensured by vaccines. The acting substance of tetanus vaccines, presently in use, is a partially purified and deprived-of-lethal-action Clostridium tetani neurotoxin. The construction of a subunit preparation on the basis of toxin fragments obtained through gene engineering could be a method aimed at promoting the quality of the used tetanus vaccines. With this goal in mind, we built, within the present case study, the expressing genetic constructions and obtained, in the pure form, an extensive tetanus-vaccine chain with its C-terminal (Hc) fragment, hydride peptides, containing the Hc-fragment and C-terminal fragment of toxin B C. difficile, as well as Hc-fragment and S3 collagen-binding domain of collagenase C. histolyticum. The thus obtained proteins can be used in testing their immunogenic and protective properties, while the conducted study could be a basis for further research of a new-generation vaccine against tetanus and other human infection diseases.

  13. Development of Models To Relate Microbiological and Headspace Volatile Parameters in Stored Atlantic Salmon to Acceptance and Willingness To Prepare the Product by Senior Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Ma, Li M; Doyle, Michael P

    2015-12-01

    Microbial spoilage of salmon occurs during extended refrigerated storage and is often accompanied by unpleasant aromas. When spoilage is detected, it is assumed that consumers will reject the product for consumption. Because sensory panels of trained individuals or consumers are expensive and labor intensive, identification of microbiological or chemical indicators to characterize the extent to which fish has spoiled is needed when experimental process and storage treatments are being evaluated. A consumer panel of 53 senior citizens (60 to 85 years of age) evaluated in duplicate raw salmon subjected to 10 storage conditions, and the fish quality was targeted to range from fresh to very spoiled. This population group was chosen because they would be expected to have a greater prevalence of olfactory impairments and higher odor thresholds than the general population; in turn, a shorter safety margin or time period between product rejection due to spoilage and the generation of Clostridium botulinum toxins would be likely. Low hedonic scores for aroma and overall acceptance (2 or 3 of 9), corresponding to "dislike very much" to "dislike moderately," did not equate with unwillingness to prepare the sample for consumption by up to seven panelists (13%) when the product was presumed to have already been purchased. Despite these outliers, significant models (P = 0.0000) were developed for the willingness of consumers to prepare the sample for consumption and the sample's aerobic and anaerobic microbiological populations and two volatile peaks with Kovats indices of 640 and 753. However, these models revealed that the levels of microbiological and chemical markers must be very high before some consumers would reject the sample; hence, spoilage detection by smell would likely not be an adequate safeguard against consuming salmon in which C. botulinum toxin had been generated.

  14. A beginners guide for video production. [Prepared by the Energy Task Force of the Urban Consortium for Technology Initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    The Seattle-King County Hazardous Waste Management Plan provides the framework for an intensive effort to keep Household Hazardous Waste (HHW) and Small Quantity Generator (SQG) wastes from entering the municipal solid and liquid waste streams. Many innovative programs for managing small sources of hazardous waste have been developed in response to the Plan. With the assistance of Urban Consortium grants, the City of Seattle has researched and developed a series of reports describing the planning, operation and evaluation of the plan's HHW collection programs. Three of the Plan's programs of particular interest to other jurisdictions are the fixed site and mobile HHW Collection Facilities, and the Business Waste Consultations provided to SQG's. In 1991, Seattle received an Urban Consortium grant to produce two videos showing how the HHW Collection Facilities and Business Consultations programs work. This report provides an overviews of the video development and production process and a discussion of the lessons learned by the staff directing the production.

  15. Preparation of cross-linked lipase-coated micro-crystals for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinyong; Yan, Yunjun; Liu, Sanxiong; Hu, Jiang; Wang, Guilong

    2011-04-01

    A dual modification procedure composed of cross-linking and protein coating with K(2)SO(4) was employed to modify Geotrichum sp. lipase for catalyzing biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Compared to single modification of protein coating with K(2)SO(4), the dual modification of cross-linking and lipase coating improved catalytic properties in terms of thermostable stability, organic solvent tolerance, pH stability and operational stability in biodiesel production process, although biodiesel yield and initial reaction rate for CLPCMCs were not improved. After five successive batch reactions, CLPCMCs could still maintain 80% of relative biodiesel yield. CLPCMCs retained 64% of relative biodiesel yield after incubation in a pH range of 4-6 for 4 h, and 85% of relative biodiesel yield after incubation in a range of 45-50 °C for 4 h. CLPCMCs still maintained 83% of relative biodiesel yield after both treated in polar organic solvent and non-polar organic solvent for 4 h.

  16. Recycling the product of thermal transformation of cement-asbestos for the preparation of calcium sulfoaluminate clinker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viani, Alberto; Gualtieri, Alessandro F

    2013-09-15

    According to recent resolutions of the European Parliament (2012/2065(INI)), the need for environmentally friendly alternative solutions to landfill disposal of hazardous wastes, such as asbestos-containing materials, prompts their recycling as secondary raw materials (end of waste concept). In this respect, for the first time, we report the recycling of the high temperature product of cement-asbestos, in the formulation of calcium sulfoaluminate cement clinkers (novel cementitious binders designed to reduce CO₂ emissions), as a continuation of a previous work on their systematic characterization. Up to 29 wt% of the secondary raw material was successfully introduced into the raw mix. Different clinker samples were obtained at 1250 °C and 1300 °C, reproducing the phase composition of industrial analogues. As an alternative source of Ca and Si, this secondary raw material allows for a reduction of the CO₂ emissions in cement production, mitigating the ecological impact of cement manufacturing, and reducing the need for natural resources.

  17. From natural products to polymeric derivatives of "eugenol": a new approach for preparation of dental composites and orthopedic bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Luis; Vazquez, Blanca; Parra, Juan; López Bravo, Antonio; Deb, Sanjukta; San Roman, Julio

    2006-10-01

    Polymers with eugenol moieties covalently bonded to the macromolecular chains were synthesized for potential application in orthopedic and dental cements. First, eugenol was functionalized with polymerizable groups. The synthetic methods employed afforded two different methacrylic derivatives, where the acrylic and eugenol moieties were either directly bonded, eugenyl methacrylate (EgMA), or separated through an oxyethylene group, ethoxyeugenyl methacrylate (EEgMA). A typical Fisher esterification reaction was used for the synthesis of EgMA and EEgMA, affording the desired monomers in 80% yields. Polymerization of each of the novel monomers, at low conversion, provided soluble polymers consisting of hydrocarbon macromolecules with pendant eugenol moieties. At high conversions only cross-linked polymers were obtained, attributed to participation of the allylic double bonds in the polymerization reaction. In addition, copolymers of each eugenol derivative with ethyl methacrylate (EMA) were prepared at low conversion, with the copolymerization reaction studied by assuming the terminal model and the reactivity ratios determined according to linear and nonlinear methods. The values obtained were r(EgMA) = 1.48, r(EMA) = 0.55 and r(EEgMA) = 1.22, r(EMA) = 0.42. High molecular weight polymers and copolymers were obtained at low conversion. Analysis of thermal properties revealed a T(g) of 95 degrees C for PEgMA and of 20 degrees C for PEEgMA and an increase in the thermal stability for the eugenol derivatives polymers and copolymers with respect to that of PEMA. Water sorption of the copolymers was found to decrease with the eugenol derivative content. Both monomers EgMA and EEgMA showed antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, producing inhibition halos of 7 and 21 mm, respectively. Finally, cell culture studies revealed that the copolymers did not leach any toxic eluants and showed good cellular proliferation with respect to PEMA. This study thus indicates

  18. Preparation of Lime by Roasting the Limestone Deposits of Strezovci (Republic of Kosovo and Its Use for the Aluminothermic Production of Calcium Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda, S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of producing and processing limestone ore (mostly CaCO3 is to obtain high-quality refractory materials based on lime (CaO. Lime is the raw material for obtaining calcium metal as a strategic and fundamental component in lead metallurgy (production of refined lead, Pb-Ca alloys in the battery and cable industry, ferroalloys production with the addition of silicon and calcium, production of alloy steel and high-quality steel. This paper explores the preparation of lime by roasting the limestone deposits of Strezovci (Republic of Kosovo and its use for obtaining calcium through the aluminothermic process. Through research and analysis of the chemical composition of certain types of lime, its suitabi- lity for obtaining calcium metal was determined, and by analyzing the samples of the slag, determined was the possibility of its use in the production of fire-resistant cement for which the evaluation is needed. Based on previous research, the following was chosen: optimal composition of the cast, volume of added reducing agents, and conditions of the reduction process performance: temperature-time and initial vacuum. According to the authors’ knowledge, not one Southeast European country has applied this method, and it includes the use of by-products (slag, which can cause environmental pollution. The goal of this research was to prepare lime by roasting limestone of domestic origin in order to obtain calcium metal through the aluminothermic process. The procedure of calcium metal production includes the following operations: decarbonatization of limestone ore (CaCO3 , grinding of the obtained lime (CaO, homogenization of CaO and alumina, agglomeration, and aluminothermic reduction in vacuum furnaces. For the efficiency of the process, the most important technological operations are decarbonatization and reduction, provided the other operations are performed correctly. The estimated total world capacity for production of calcium metal is 25

  19. 中药制剂生产工艺设计空间的建立%Establishment of design space for production process of traditional Chinese medicine preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冰; 史新元; 乔延江; 吴志生; 林兆洲

    2013-01-01

    The philosophy of quality by design (QbD) is now leading the changes in the drug manufacturing mode from the conventional test-based approach to the science and risk based approach focusing on the detailed research and understanding of the production process.Along with the constant deepening of the understanding of the manufacturing process,the design space will be determined,and the emphasis of quality control will be shifted from the quality standards to the design space.Therefore,the establishment of the design space is core step in the implementation of QbD,and it is of great importance to study the methods for building the design space.This essay proposes the concept of design space for the production process of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations,gives a systematic introduction of the concept of the design space,analyzes the feasibility and significance to build the design space in the production process of traditional Chinese medicine preparations,and proposes study approaches on the basis of examples that comply with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine preparations,as well as future study orientations.%质量源于设计(quality by design,QbD)的理念正推动着药品生产模式的转变,即从传统的以检验为主的制药过程到以科学和风险为基础并经过详细研究和理解的生产过程.随着对工艺的认识和理解不断深入,“设计空间”将被确定,质量控制从质量标准转移到设计空间.因此,设计空间的建立是实施QbD的核心步骤,研究设计空间的构建方法具有重要的意义.该文提出在中药制剂生产工艺中建立设计空间的设想,系统介绍了设计空间的概念,分析了在中药制剂生产工艺中构建设计空间的可行性和意义,结合实例提出符合中药制剂特点的设计空间研究方法,以及未来的研究方向.

  20. Preparation and immobilization of diNOsarcobalt(III complex in zeolite y for the catalyzed production of hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Carriazo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex cation, diNOsarcobalt(III, [Co(diNOsar]3+, (diNOsar = 1,8-dinitro-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaazabicyclo-[6.6.6]eicosane, was synthesized and immobilized in the cavities of a Y zeolite by the reaction of precursor species in the pores of the zeolite. The encapsulated material was compared to the compound diNOsarcobalt(III chloride, [Co(diNOsar]Cl3. Both diNOsarcobalt(III chloride and the zeolite-encapsulated complex, [Co(diNOsar]3+/zeolite, were obtained in high yield and characterized by ultraviolet-visible and infrared spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction demonstrated the incorporation of the complex cation into the pores of the zeolite. The catalytic production of hydrogen peroxide from oxygenated water confirmed the successful synthesis of the complex diNOsarcobalt(III immobilized in the zeolite.

  1. Effect of inter-pulse delay time on production and size properties of colloidal nanoparticles prepared by collinear double-pulse laser ablation in liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Behzad; Mahdieh, Mohammah Hossein

    2016-08-01

    The influence of inter-pulse delay times (0-20 ns) between two collinear sequential nanosecond pulses on the production and size properties (mean size and size distribution) of colloidal nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser ablation of a silver target in a distilled water medium has been studied. Various laser fluences at different inter-pulse delay times between two collinear pulses were used. Furthermore, for a better understanding of the effect of the double-pulse and single-pulse mode, experiments were performed. The characterization of the synthesized colloidal nanoparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Our results showed that 5 ns time-delayed double-pulse laser ablation results in the production of nanoparticles with the highest concentration among the other time-delayed ablation experiments and even more than single-pulse-mode experiments. It also found that using a double-pulse approach with inter-pulse delay times in the range of 0-20 ns leads to the production of nanoparticles with smaller mean sizes and narrower size distributions in comparison to single-pulse-mode laser ablation. The effect of time overlapping between two pulses in the case of double-pulse ablation was analyzed.

  2. Preparative scale production and functional reconstitution of a human aquaglyceroporin (AQP3) using a cell free expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Lucks, Annika; Gena, Patrizia; Frascaria, Daniele; Altamura, Nicola; Svelto, Maria; Beitz, Eric; Calamita, Giuseppe

    2013-06-25

    Understanding the selectivity of aquaporin (AQP) membrane channels and exploiting their biotechnological potential will require structural and functional studies of wild type and modified proteins; however, expression systems have not previously yielded AQPs in the necessary milligrams quantities. Cell free (CF) systems have emerged in recent years as fast, efficient and versatile technologies for the production of high quality membrane proteins. Here, we establish a convenient method to synthesize large amounts of functional human aquaglyceroporin 3 protein (AQP3), an AQP of physiological relevance conducting glycerol and some small neutral solutes besides water. Milligram amounts of AQP3 were produced as a histidine-tagged protein (hAQP3-6His) in an Escherichia coli extract-based CF system in the presence of the non-ionic detergent Brij-98. The recombinant AQP3 was purified by affinity chromatography, incorporated into liposomes and evaluated functionally by stopped-flow light scattering. Correct protein folding was indicated by the high glycerol and water permeability exhibited by the hAQP3-6His proteoliposomes as compared to empty control liposomes. Functionality of hAQP3-6His was further confirmed by the strong inhibition of the glycerol and water permeability by phloretin and HgCl2, respectively, two blockers of AQP3. Fast and convenient CF production of functional AQP3 may serve as basis for further structural/functional assessment of aquaglyceroporins and help boosting the AQP-based biomimetic technologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of residual acetone and acetone related impurities in drug product intermediates prepared as Spray Dried Dispersions (SDD) using gas chromatography with headspace autosampling (GCHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Emma; Doggett, Adrian; Bretnall, Alison

    2014-08-05

    Spray Dried Dispersions (SDD) are uniform mixtures of a specific ratio of amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and polymer prepared via a spray drying process. Volatile solvents are employed during spray drying to facilitate the formation of the SDD material. Following manufacture, analytical methodology is required to determine residual levels of the spray drying solvent and its associated impurities. Due to the high level of polymer in the SDD samples, direct liquid injection with Gas Chromatography (GC) is not a viable option for analysis. This work describes the development and validation of an analytical approach to determine residual levels of acetone and acetone related impurities, mesityl oxide (MO) and diacetone alcohol (DAA), in drug product intermediates prepared as SDDs using GC with headspace (HS) autosampling. The method development for these analytes presented a number of analytical challenges which had to be overcome before the levels of the volatiles of interest could be accurately quantified. GCHS could be used after two critical factors were implemented; (1) calculation and application of conversion factors to 'correct' for the reactions occurring between acetone, MO and DAA during generation of the headspace volume for analysis, and the addition of an equivalent amount of polymer into all reference solutions used for quantitation to ensure comparability between the headspace volumes generated for both samples and external standards. This work describes the method development and optimisation of the standard preparation, the headspace autosampler operating parameters and the chromatographic conditions, together with a summary of the validation of the methodology. The approach has been demonstrated to be robust and suitable to accurately determine levels of acetone, MO and DAA in SDD materials over the linear concentration range 0.008-0.4μL/mL, with minimum quantitation limits of 20ppm for acetone and MO, and 80ppm for DAA.

  4. Preparation of chitosan from brine shrimp (Artemia urmiana) cyst shells and effects of different chemical processing sequences on the physicochemical and functional properties of the product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Hossein; Moradi, Mehran; Rohani, Seyed Mehdi Razavi; Erfani, Amir Mehdi; Jalali, Farnood Shokouhi Sabet

    2008-06-06

    Chitosan (CS) was prepared from Artemia urmiana cyst shells using the same chemical process as described for the other crustacean species, with minor adjustments in the treatment conditions. The influence of modifications of the CS production process on the physiochemical and functional properties of the CS obtained was examined. The study results indicate that Artemia urmiana cyst shells are a rich source of chitin as 29.3-34.5% of the shell's dry weight consisted of this material. Compared to crab CS (selected as an example of CS from a different crustacean source) Artemia CS exhibited a medium molecular weight (4.5-5.7 x10(5) Da), lower degree of deacetylation (67-74%) and lower viscosity (29-91 centiposes). The physicochemical characteristics (e.g., ash, nitrogen and molecular weight) and functional properties (e.g., water binding capacity and antibacterial activity) of the prepared Artemia CSs were enhanced, compared to control and commercial samples, by varying the processing step sequence.

  5. Preparation of Chitosan from Brine Shrimp (Artemia urmiana Cyst Shells and Effects of Different Chemical Processing Sequences on the Physicochemical and Functional Properties of the Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnood Shokouhi Sabet Jalali

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan (CS was prepared from Artemia urmiana cyst shells using the same chemical process as described for the other crustacean species, with minor adjustments in the treatment conditions. The influence of modifications of the CS production process on the physiochemical and functional properties of the CS obtained was examined. The study results indicate that Artemia urmiana cyst shells are a rich source of chitin as 29.3-34.5% of the shell’s dry weight consisted of this material. Compared to crab CS (selected as an example of CS from a different crustacean source Artemia CS exhibited a medium molecular weight (4.5-5.7 ×105 Da, lower degree of deacetylation (67-74% and lower viscosity (29-91 centiposes. The physicochemical characteristics (e.g., ash, nitrogen and molecular weight and functional properties (e.g., water binding capacity and antibacterial activity of the prepared Artemia CSs were enhanced, compared to control and commercial samples, by varying the processing step sequence.

  6. Beta-carotene-rich carotenoid-protein preparation and exopolysaccharide production by Rhodotorula rubra GED8 grown with a yogurt starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frengova, Ginka I; Simova, Emilina D; Beshkova, Dora M

    2006-01-01

    The underlying method for obtaining a beta-carotene-rich carotenoid-protein preparation and exopolysaccharides is the associated cultivation of the carotenoid-synthesizing lactose-negative yeast strain Rhodotorula rubra GED8 with the yogurt starter culture (Lactobacillus bulgaricus 2-11 + Streptococcus thermophilus 15HA) in whey ultrafiltrate (45 g lactose/l) with a maximum carotenoid yield of 13.37 mg/l culture fluid on the 4.5th day. The chemical composition of the carotenoid-protein preparation has been identified. The respective carotenoid and protein content is 497.4 microg/g dry cells and 50.3% per dry weight, respectively. An important characteristic of the carotenoid composition is the high percentage (51.1%) of beta-carotene (a carotenoid pigment with the highest provitamin A activity) as compared to 12.9% and 33.7%, respectively, for the other two individual pigments--torulene and torularhodin. Exopolysaccharides (12.8 g/l) synthesized by the yeast and lactic acid cultures, identified as acid biopolymers containing 7.2% glucuronic acid, were isolated in the cell-free supernatant. Mannose, produced exclusively by the yeast, predominated in the neutral carbohydrate biopolymer component (76%). The mixed cultivation of R. rubra GED8 with the yogurt starter (L. bulgaricus 2-11 + S. thermophilus 15HA) in ultrafiltrate under conditions of intracellular production of maximum amount of carotenoids and exopolysaccharides synthesis enables combined utilization of the culture fluid from the fermentation process.

  7. Development of functional foods for radiation workers - In vivo test on the effect of functional food for stem cell protection and preparing the provisional product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Oh, Heon; Kim, Se Ra; Lee, Song Eun [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    We performed this study to determine (1) the effect of several oriental prescriptions as energy tonic (Chinese medical concept : Bu-Qi) or blood building (Chinese medical concept : Bu-Xie) decoction and its major ingredients, (2) the biological stability of irradiated Chinese medical prescriptions, and (3) the effect of several proposed prescriptions and its fractions on jejunal crypt survival (12 Gy), endogenous spleen colony formation(6.5 Gy), and apoptosis(2 Gy) in jejunal crypt cells of mice irradiated with high and low dose of gamma-irradiation. For the study of evaluation on the radioprotective effects of effective prescriptions, we tried the test on change of survival and hematological changes and finally we prepared the provisional product. 57 refs., 5 figs., 38 tabs. (Author)

  8. Releasing intracellular product to prepare whole cell biocatalyst for biosynthesis of Monascus pigments in water-edible oil two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Minglue; Zhang, Xuehong; Wang, Zhilong

    2016-11-01

    Selective releasing intracellular product in Triton X-100 micelle aqueous solution to prepare whole cell biocatalyst is a novel strategy for biosynthesis of Monascus pigments, in which cell suspension culture exhibits some advantages comparing with the corresponding growing cell submerged culture. In the present work, the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 was successfully replaced by edible plant oils for releasing intracellular Monascus pigments. High concentration of Monascus pigments (with absorbance nearly 710 AU at 470 nm in the oil phase, normalized to the aqueous phase volume approximately 142 AU) was achieved by cell suspension culture in peanut oil-water two-phase system. Furthermore, the utilization of edible oil as extractant also fulfills the demand for application of Monascus pigments as natural food colorant.

  9. Photocatalytic hydrogen production by water/methanol decomposition using Au/TiO{sub 2} prepared by deposition–precipitation with urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oros-Ruiz, Socorro, E-mail: coco.oros@yahoo.com [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Zanella, Rodolfo, E-mail: rodolfo.zanella@ccadet.unam.mx [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); López, Rosendo; Hernández-Gordillo, Agileo; Gómez, Ricardo [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Química, ECOCATAL, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, C.P. 09340 México, D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Photocatalytic hydrogen production using Au/TiO{sub 2} prepared by deposition–precipitation with urea (DPU). • The gold NPs on the titania surface showed to have contributed to the high improvement in the activity of bare TiO{sub 2}. • DPU is an easy and feasible way to improve the photocatalytic properties of titania for photocatalytic water splitting. -- Abstract: Gold nanoparticles deposited on TiO{sub 2} Degussa P25, prepared by deposition–precipitation with urea, were studied in the photocatalytic hydrogen production. The effect of parameters such as mass of catalyst, gold loading, thermal treatment, and atmosphere of treatment was evaluated and optimized. The presence of metallic gold on the titania surface showed to have contributed to the high improvement in the activity of bare TiO{sub 2} for hydrogen generation under UV light (λ = 254 nm) using a lamp of low energy (2 W) consumption. The optimal gold loading for the photocatalysts was 0.5 wt.%, the mass of catalyst in the reactor was 0.5 g/L in a water/methanol 1:1 vol. solution, and the thermal treatment that produced the most active gold nanoparticles was found at 300 °C. The photocatalysts thermally treated under hydrogen at 300 °C produced 1492 μmol g{sup −1} h{sup −1} of hydrogen; the same catalyst activated in air produced 1866 μmol g{sup −1} h{sup −1} of hydrogen.

  10. Pictures, preparations, and living processes: the production of immediate visual perception (anschauung) in the late-19th-century physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidgen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the visual culture of the late-19th-century experimental physiology. Taking this case of Johann Nopomuk Czermak (1828-1873) as a key example, it argues that images played a crucial role in acquiring experimental physiological skills. Czermak, Emil Du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896) and other late-19th-century physiologists sought to present the achievements and perspective of their discipline by way of "immediate visual perception (unmittelbare Anschauung)." However, the images they produced and presented for this purpose were strongly mediated. By means of specifically designed instruments, such as the "cardioscope," the "contraction telegraph," and the "frog pistol," and specifically constructed rooms, so-called "spectatoriums," physiologists trained and controlled experiments on their own. Studying the material culture of physiological image production reveals that technological resources such as telegraphy, photography, and even railways contributed to making physiological facts anschaulich. At the same time, it shows that the more traditional image techniques of anatomy played an important role in physiological lecture halls, especially when it came to displaying the details of vivisection experiments to the public. Thus, the images of late 19th century physiology stood half-way between machines and organisms, between books and instruments.

  11. Analysis of Product Structure Optimization in Xiegou Coal Mine Coal Preparation Plant%斜沟煤矿选煤厂产品结构优化探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健华

    2016-01-01

    In the face of grim situation of coal economy , in order to improve the economic efficiency of enterpri-ses, the existing problems in current production technology and product structure of Xiegou coal mine preparation plant are analyzed .Starting from the quanlity of mixed coal washing , obtains the reasons of restricting coal preparation plant economical benefit that coarse slime without discharge gangue by separation leads to a large number of gas clean coal.And then puts forward the reform scheme of coarse slime TCS separation system technology .Under the premise of ensuring coal production , coarse slime in 1.5 ~0.2 mm level are discharged gangue by separation , mixed coal washing calorific value increases from 20.9 MJ/kg to 22.2 MJ/kg.It takes the initiative to adapt to the changes of coal market development , enhances the market competitiveness of the product .%面对煤炭经济严峻形势,为了提高企业经济效益,斜沟煤矿选煤厂对现行生产工艺及产品结构存在的问题进行了分析,从洗混煤这一主导产品的质量情况入手,得出了粗煤泥未进行分选排矸,导致了气精煤大量回掺,制约了选煤厂经济效益的提升。提出了对粗煤泥TCS分选系统技术改造的方案,在确保精煤产量的前提下,通过对1.5~0.2 mm级粗煤泥进行分选排矸,可将洗混煤发热量从20.9 MJ/kg提高至22.2 MJ/kg,主动适应煤炭市场发展变化的要求,提升产品市场竞争力。

  12. Studies on the preparation of active oxygen-deficient copper ferrite and its application for hydrogen production through thermal chemical water splitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen generation through thermal chemical water splitting technology has recently received in- creasingly international interest in the nuclear hydrogen production field. Besides the main known sulfur-iodine (S-I) cycle developed by the General Atomics Company and the UT3 cycle (iron, calcium, and bromine) developed at the University of Tokyo, the thermal cycle based on metal oxide two-step water splitting methods is also receiving research and development attention worldwide. In this work, copper ferrite was prepared by the co-precipitation method and oxygen-deficient copper ferrite was synthesized through first and second calcination steps for the application of hydrogen production by a two-step water splitting process. The crystal structure, properties, chemical composition and δ were investigated in detail by utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS), ultraviolet spectrophotometry (UV), gas chro- matography (GC), and so on. The experimental two-step thermal chemical cycle reactor for hydrogen generation was designed and developed in this lab. The hydrogen generation process of water splitting through CuFe2O4-δ and the cycle performance of copper ferrite regeneration were firstly studied and discussed.

  13. Studies on the preparation of active oxygen-deficient copper ferrite and its application for hydrogen production through thermal chemical water splitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Bo; ZHANG Ping; ZHANG Lei; CHEN Jing; XU JingMing

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen generation through thermal chemical water splitting technology has recently received in-creasingly international interest in the nuclear hydrogen production field. Besides the main known sulfur-iodine (S-I) cycle developed by the General Atomics Company and the UT3 cycle (iron, calcium, and bromine) developed at the University of Tokyo, the thermal cycle based on metal oxide two-step water splitting methods is also receiving research and development attention worldwide. In this work, copper ferrite was prepared by the co-precipitation method and oxygen-deficient copper ferrite was synthesized through first and second calcination steps for the application of hydrogen production by a two-step water splitting process. The crystal structure, properties, chemical composition and δwere investigated in detail by utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS), ultraviolet spectrophotometry (UV), gas chro-matography (GC), and so on. The experimental two-step thermal chemical cycle reactor for hydrogen generation was designed and developed in this lab. The hydrogen generation process of water splitting through CuFe2O4-δ and the cycle performance of copper ferrite regeneration were firstly studied and discussed.

  14. Effects of feeding a Moringa oleifera rachis and twig preparation to dairy cows on their milk production and fatty acid composition, and plasma antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Si, Bingwen; Deng, Kaidong; Tu, Yan; Zhou, Chaolong; Diao, Qiyu

    2017-06-30

    We determined how supplementing the diet of lactating, multiparous Holstein dairy cows with a preparation of Moringa oleifera rachises and twigs affected their milk production and quality and the levels of plasma antioxidants. We found that milk yield increased in cows receiving the 6% (w/w) moringa supplement compared with that of the control. Addition of the moringa supplement increased the concentration of milk fat and decreased the somatic cell count in the milk. However, protein, glucose and total solid and urea nitrogen concentrations in the milk were the same for all treatments. The concentration of glutathione peroxidase increased for cows fed the moringa supplement compared with the control. The percentages of total unsaturated fatty acids, mono-unsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid increased in the milk of cows fed the moringa supplement compared with those of the controls. Addition of the moringa supplement into the diet of lactating multiparous cows improved milk production and health status and modified milk fatty acid profile positively. The results suggested that moringa supplement could be used as a diet supplement for producing high quality and healthier milk. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Sucrose-supplemented distillery spent wash as a medium for production of ethanol at 45 C by free and alginate-immobilized preparations of Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, P.; Mulholland, H.; Barron, N.; Brady, D.; McHale, A.P. [Biotechnology Research Group, School of Applied Biological and Chemical Sciences, University of Ulster (United Kingdom)

    1998-04-01

    Ethanol production by the thermotolerant, ethanol-producing yeast strain Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB3, was compared during growth on sucrose-supplemented laboratory-based media and distillery spent wash from the Old Bushmill`s Distillery Co., Ltd., Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland. Fermentations were carried out using preparations of the free and alginate-immobilized microorganism as inocula in media supplemented with 2 and 10% (w/v) sucrose. Maximum ethanol concentrations accounted for 75-99% of the maximum theoretical yield and in all cases maximum concentrations obtained using the spent wash were similar if not slightly higher than those obtained on the sucrose-supplemented yeast growth media. In addition, the highest concentrations of ethanol were produced by the alginate-immobilized biocatalyst on both types of media. Analysis of exhausted media in the spent wash-based systems demonstrated significant decreases in the total organic carbon content following fermentation. These results confirm our earlier suggestion that ethanol production based on this microorganism in a recycle system may provide a more cost-effective means of disposing of whiskey distillery spent wash. (orig.) With 1 tab., 8 refs.

  16. [The influence of the products prepared from young not ossified antlers marals of siberian red deer on the characteristics of the blood oxygen-supplying system in the athletes during the contest season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtsev, A A; Barabash, L V; Smirnova, I N; Abdulkina, N G; Kremeno, S V; Naumov, A O; Vereshchagina, S V; Shteĭnerdt, S V

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the influence of the products prepared from young not ossified antlers marals of Siberian red deer on the characteristics of the blood oxygen-supplying system in the athletes undergoing heavy physical loads during the contest season. It was shown that the use of such preparations promotes correction of humoral characteristics reflecting the development of iron-deficient conditions.

  17. Preparación de Membranas para Producción de Agua Potable Preparation of Membranes for the Production of Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un estudio sobre la síntesis de membranas poliméricas asimétricas para la producción de agua potable. La filtración usando membranas es un proceso alternativo para el tratamiento de aguas, donde la membrana actúa como una barrera selectiva que bloquea el pasaje de algunos componentes. En este trabajo algunas muestras de agua fueron infectadas con 10(7 a 10(8 unidades formadoras de colonias (UFC por ml con la bacteria Escherichia coli. El proceso utilizado fue la inversión de fases y las membranas fueron preparadas a partir de soluciones poliméricas, con polisulfona y con fluoruro de polivinilideno. En ambos casos, se agregó poli metacrilato de metilo a las soluciones poliméricas, usando N,N-dimetilformamida como solvente. Algunas membranas removieron entre 99 y 100% de las colonias bacterianas, con un flujo de 300 L/h m²This paper describes the synthesis of asymmetric polymer membranes used for the production of drinking water. Filtration of water through the membranes is an alternative method for water treatment, where the membrane acts as a selective barrier which blocks the passage of some components. Water samples for this study were inoculated with 10(7 to 10(8 colony forming units (CFU of Escherichia coli per ml. The process used was phase inversion, and the membranes were prepared beginning with polymer solutions, including polysulfone and polyvinylidene fluoride. In both cases polymethyl methacrylate was added to the polymeric solutions, using N,N-dimethylformamide as solvent. Some of the membranes prepared achieved bacterial removal of 99 to 100%, at a flow of 300 L/h m²

  18. / production

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    François Arleo; Pol-Bernard Gossiaux; Thierry Gousset; Jörg Aichelin

    2003-04-01

    For more than 25 years /Ψ production has helped to sharpen our understanding of QCD. In proton induced reaction some observations are rather well understood while others are still unclear. The current status of the theory of /Ψ production will be sketched, paying special attention to the issues of formation time and /Ψ re-interaction in a nuclear medium.

  19. Simultaneous Recovery of Iron and Phosphorus from a High-Phosphorus Oolitic Iron Ore to Prepare Fe-P Alloy for High-Phosphorus Steel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Congcong; Zhu, Deqing; Pan, Jian; Lu, Liming

    2017-09-01

    Unlike previous dephosphorization studies, the present work complies with a concept to recover phosphorus within the utilization of high-phosphorus oolitic iron ores to prepare Fe -P alloy for high-phosphorus steel production. Simultaneous enrichment of iron and phosphorus can be achieved by directly alloying the high-phosphorus oolitic iron ore at high reduction temperatures (≥1623 K). Neither fluxes nor other special additives need to be used. Consequently, the phosphorus element migrates from original apatite to the slag phase with the elevating temperature from 1323 K to 1473 K, and it further moves into metallic iron and forms Fe3P at 1623 K. A metalized iron -phosphorus alloy with assaying of 96.51% iron and 2.03% phosphorus content was obtained at 1623 K for 10 min at corresponding iron and phosphorus recovery rates of 97.50% and 64.51%, respectively. This process exhibits high economic efficiency and is practicable as a stepping-stone for the efficient and direct utilization of high-phosphorus iron ore resources.

  20. Kinetics of lipase recovery from the aqueous phase of biodiesel production by macroporous resin adsorption and reuse of the adsorbed lipase for biodiesel preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Fan, Ming; Zeng, Jing; Du, Wei; Liu, Canming; Liu, Dehua

    2013-04-10

    A commercial macroporous resin (D3520) was screened for lipase recovery by adsorption from the aqueous phase of biodiesel production. The influences of several factors on the adsorption kinetics were investigated. It was found that the kinetic behavior of lipase adsorption by macroporous resin could be well described by pseudo-first-order model. Temperature had no significant effects on lipase adsorption, while resin-to-protein ratio (R) significantly affected both rate constant (k1) and equilibrium adsorption capacity (Qe). No lipase was adsorbed when mixing (shaking) was not performed; however, protein recovery reached 98% after the adsorption was conducted at 200rpm for 5h in a shaker. The presence of methanol and glycerol showed significant negative influence on lipase adsorption kinetics. Particularly, increasing glycerol concentration could dramatically decrease k1 but not impact Qe. Biodiesel was found to dramatically decrease Qe even present at a concentration as low as 0.02%, while k1 was found to increase with biodiesel concentration. The adsorbed lipase showed a relatively stable catalytic activity in tert-butanol system, but poor stability in solvent-free system when used for biodiesel preparation. Oil and biodiesel were also found to adsorb onto resin during transesterification in solvent-free system. Therefore, the resin had to be washed by anhydrous methanol before re-used for lipase recovery.

  1. Bioequivalencia de una formulación nacional de Ambroxol BIOAVAILABILITY COMPARISON BETWEEN A CHILEAN GENERIC PREPARATION OF AMBROXOL AND THE ORIGINAL PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVÁN SAAVEDRA S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the relative bioavailability of two oral formulations of ambroxol commercialized in Chile, a generic syrup and the original product, MucosolvanR from Boehringer Ingelheim. Methods: A randomized, cross-over and double blind study was performed in twelve healthy volunteers who received a single oral dose of either Mucosolvan (90 mg or the generic formulation with at least a 14 day washout period between each single dose. Multiple blood samples were collected after each dose, the plasma ambroxol concentrations were determined by a validated High Performance Liquid Chromatography assay. Results: The 95% confidence intervals for all parameters were within the accepted range of 80-125% for bioequivalence, suggested by the US FDA. Non statistically significant differences were found in the mean parameters of bioequivalence: mean peak concentration (Cmax, area under the curve calculated from time zero to a determined time (AUC0-t, and area under the curve calculated from time zero to infinity (AUC0-oo, or in other parameters like: time to reach Cmax (t max, rate of absorption (Ka, rate of elimination (Ke, elimination half life (t1/2, and clearance (Cl. Conclusion: Pharmacokinetic results concluded that both formulations of ambroxol are bioequivalent and consequently the preparations can be considered interchangeable between them.

  2. Immunization with PIII, a fraction of Schistosoma mansoni soluble adult worm antigenic preparation, affects nitric oxide production by murine spleen cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Magalhães de Oliveira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an important effector molecule involved in immune regulation and defense. NO produced by cytokine-activated macrophages was reported to be cytotoxic against the helminth Schistosoma mansoni. Identification and characterization of S. mansoni antigens that can provide protective immunity is crucial for understanding the complex immunoregulatory events that modulate the immune response in schistosomiasis. It is, then, essential to have available defined, purified parasite antigens. Previous work by our laboratory identified a fraction of S. mansoni soluble adult worm antigenic preparation (SWAP, named PIII, able to elicit significant in vitro cell proliferation and at the same time lower in vitro and in vivo granuloma formation when compared either to SEA (soluble egg antigen or to SWAP. In the present work we report the effect of different in vivo trials with mice on their spleen cells ability to produce NO. We demonstrate that PIII-immunization is able to significantly increase NO production by spleen cells after in vitro stimulation with LPS. These data suggest a possible role for NO on the protective immunity induced by PIII.

  3. Multicapillary SDS-gel electrophoresis for the analysis of fluorescently labeled mAb preparations: a high throughput quality control process for the production of QuantiPlasma and PlasmaScan mAb libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Andrea; Szekrényes, Akos; Kerékgyártó, Márta; Balogh, Attila; Kádas, János; Lázár, József; Guttman, András; Kurucz, István; Takács, László

    2014-08-01

    Molecular heterogeneity of mAb preparations is the result of various co- and post-translational modifications and to contaminants related to the production process. Changes in molecular composition results in alterations of functional performance, therefore quality control and validation of therapeutic or diagnostic protein products is essential. A special case is the consistent production of mAb libraries (QuantiPlasma™ and PlasmaScan™) for proteome profiling, quality control of which represents a challenge because of high number of mAbs (>1000). Here, we devise a generally applicable multicapillary SDS-gel electrophoresis process for the analysis of fluorescently labeled mAb preparations for the high throughput quality control of mAbs of the QuantiPlasma™ and PlasmaScan™ libraries. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Preparing for Extreme Heat in India: Using High-Resolution Climate Models to Explore the Impact of Rising Temperatures on Human Health and Labor Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, C.

    2016-12-01

    Globally, higher daily peak temperatures and longer, more intense heat waves are becoming increasingly frequent due to climate change. India, with relatively low GDP per capita, high population density, and tropical climate, is particularly vulnerable to these trends. In May 2015, one of the worst heat waves in world history hit the country, culminating in at least 2,300 officially-reported deaths as temperatures in some regions reached 48°C. As a result of climate change, heat waves in this region will last longer, be more extreme, and occur with greater frequency in the coming years. Impacts will be felt most acutely by vulnerable populations, which include not only those with frail health, but also populations otherwise considered healthy whose livelihood involves working under exposure to high temperatures. The problem is exacerbated by low levels of economic development, particularly in the under-provision of medical services, a higher proportion of weather-reliant income sources, and the inability to recover quickly from shocks. Responding to these challenges requires collaboration among the disciplines of climate science, public health, economics, and public policy. This project, presented as an online web application using Esri's ArcGIS Story Map, covers 1) the impact of extreme heat on human mortality, 2) the impact of combined heat and humidity (as measured by wet bulb globe temperature) on labor productivity, and 3) emerging best practices in adaptation planning by local municipalities and NGOs. The work is presented in a format that is designed to allow policymakers to take a deeper dive into the literature linking extreme temperature to human health and labor productivity, combined with interactive mapping tools that allow planners to drill down to data at the district level across the country of India. Further, the work presents a case study of heat adaptation planning efforts that have already been implemented in the city of Ahmedabad, allowing

  5. Development and validation of a combined methodology for assessing the total quality control of herbal medicinal products--application to oleuropein preparations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Lemonakis

    Full Text Available Oleuropein (OE is a secoiridoid glycoside, which occurs mostly in the Oleaceae family presenting several pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, cardio-protective, anti-atherogenic effects etc. Based on these findings OE is commercially available, as Herbal Medicinal Product (HMP, claimed for its antioxidant effects. As there are general provisions of the medicine regulating bodies e.g. European Medicines Agency, the quality of the HMP's must always be demonstrated. Therefore, a novel LC-MS methodology was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of OE and its main degradation product, hydroxytyrosol (HT, for the relevant OE claimed HMP's. The internal standard (IS methodology was employed and separation of OE, HT and IS was achieved on a C18 Fused Core column with 3.1 min overall run time employing the SIM method for the analytical signal acquisition. The method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonisation requirements and the results show adequate linearity (r(2 > 0.99 over a wide concentration range [0.1-15 μg/mL (n=12] and a LLOQ value of 0.1 μg/mL, for both OE and HT. Furthermore, as it would be beneficial to control the quality taking into account all the substances of the OE claimed HMP's; a metabolomics-like approach has been developed and applied for the total quality control of the different preparations employing UHPLC-HRMS-multivariate analysis (MVA. Four OE-claimed commercial HMP's have been randomly selected and MVA similarity-based measurements were performed. The results showed that the examined samples could also be differentiated as evidenced according to their scores plot. Batch to batch reproducibility between the samples of the same brand has also been determined and found to be acceptable. Overall, the developed combined methodology has been found to be an efficient tool for the monitoring of the HMP's total quality. Only one OE HMP has been found to be consistent

  6. 甲醇裂解制氢在山梨醇生产中的应用%Application of the technique of preparing hydrogen gas by methyl alcohol splitting decomposition in the production of sorbitol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玫

    2001-01-01

    概要阐述了甲醇裂解制氢的原理及其在山梨醇生产中的应用,并与水电解制氢进行了技术经济比较。%The principle of preparing hydrogen gas by methyl alcohol splitting decomposition and its application in the production of sorbitol were expounded. The technique and economic comparison between it and the technique of preparing hydrogen gas by water electrolyzation was carried out.

  7. 蚁群算法在选煤厂产品结构优化中的应用%Application of Ant Colony Algorithm in Product Structure Optimization of Coal Preparation Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟; 王宜雷; 王慧; 曾盈

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical model of product structure optimization was established according to characteristics of process of coal preparation plant, and steps of optimizing the product structure by ant colony algorithm were given. Nantun Coal Preparation Plant was used for example to simulate, and the best yields of products under various constraints were obtained. The simulation results showed the feasibility of ant colony algorithm for product structure optimization of coal preparation plant.%根据选煤厂生产流程特点建立了产品结构优化数学模型,给出了应用蚁群算法优化产品结构的步骤;并以南屯选煤厂为例进行仿真,得到了满足各种约束条件下的各产品的最佳产量.仿真结果说明了蚁群算法在选煤厂产品结构优化中应用的可行性.

  8. End-preparation assessments and tests for compounded sterile preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhiney, Linda F

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing has become a necessity to obtain sterile products that are currently on backorder. Because of the expense of outsourcing sterile compounding, pharmacy leadership in health systems are now considering the option of insourcing and batch preparing compounded sterile preparations, which can be a viable option for a health system. It can significantly decrease drug-spending costs, and the pharmacy has a complete record of the compounding process. The key to preparing high-quality, safe, sterile preparations and meeting United States Pharmacopeia standards is end-preparation assessments and tests.

  9. [Cultivation of a novel cellulase/xylanase producer, Trichoderma longibrachiatum mutant TW 1-59-27: production of the enzyme preparation and the study of its properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkarevicha, A O; Nemashkalov, V A; Koshelev, A V; Goryazchev, D A; Bubnova, T V; Matys, V Yu; Osipov, D O; Kondrat'eva, E G; Okunev, O N; Sinitsyn, A P

    2015-01-01

    As a result of gamma-mutagenesis of Trichoderma longibrachiatum TW1 and the subsequent selection of improved producers, a novel mutant strain, TW1-59-27, capable of efficiently secreting cellulase and xylanase was obtained. In a fed-batch cultivation, the new TW1-59-27 mutant was significantly more active compared with the original TW1 strain. For instance, the activities of cellulase (towards carboxymethylcellulose) and xylanase in the culture broth (CB) increased by 1.8 and two times, respectively, and the protein content increased by 1.47 times. The activity of these enzymes in the dry enzyme preparation derived from the CB of the TW1-59-27 mutant was 1.3-1.8 times higher than that in the preparation derived from the original TW1 strain. It was established that the cellulase from the enzyme preparation of the mutant strain demonstrated the maximum activity at 55-65 degrees C; it occurred in xylanase at 60 degrees C. The pH optima of these enzymes were pH 4.5-5.0 and pH 5.0-6.0, respectively. It was shown that the content of endoglucanases in the enzyme preparation increased from 7% to 13.5%; the effect is largely driven by the secretion of endoglucanase-1. An enzyme preparation with increased endoglucanase-1 content is promising for use as a feed additive in agriculture.

  10. H2 Production Under Visible Light Irradiation from Aqueous Methanol Solution on CaTiO3:Cu Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung Nam; Song, Shin Ae; Jeong, Yong-Cheol; Kang, Hyun Woo; Park, Seung Bin; Kim, Ki Young

    2017-10-01

    Perovskite-type photocatalysts of CaCu x Ti1- x O3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.02) powder were prepared by spray pyrolysis of aqueous solution or aqueous solution with polymeric additive. The effects of the amount of copper ions doped in the photocatalyst and the precursor type on the photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation were investigated. The crystal structure, oxidation state, and light adsorption properties of the prepared photocatalysts were analyzed using x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. The doping of copper ions in CaTiO3 allowed visible-light absorption owing to a narrowing of the band gap energy of the host material through the formation of a new donor level for copper ions. Among the doped samples prepared from the aqueous precursor, CaTiO3 doped with 1 mol.% copper ions had the highest hydrogen evolution rate (140.7 μmol g-1 h-1). Notably, the hydrogen evolution rate of the photocatalyst doped with 1 mol.% copper ions prepared from the aqueous precursor with polymeric additive (295.0 μmol g-1 h-1) was two times greater than that prepared from the aqueous precursor, due to the morphology effect.

  11. Bio-preparates support the productivity of potato plants grown under desert farming conditions of north Sinai: Five years of field trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed T. Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture as well as good agricultural practices (GAPs intrigues the concern of both consumers and producers of agricultural commodities. Bio-preparates of various rhizospheric microorganisms (RMOs are potential sources of biological inputs supporting plant nutrition and health. The response of open-field potatoes to the application of RMO bio-preparates, the biofertilizer “Biofertile” and the bioagent “Biocontrol”, were experimented over 5 successive years under N-hunger of north Sinai desert soils. Both vegetative and tuber yields of a number of tested cultivars were significantly improved due to rhizobacterial treatments. In the majority of cases, the biofertilizer “Biofertile” did successfully supply ca. 50% of plant N requirements, as the yield of full N-fertilized plants was comparable to those received 50% N simultaneously with bio-preparates treatment. The magnitude of inoculation was cultivar-dependent; cvs. Valor and Oceania were among the most responsive ones. Bio-preparate introduction to the plant–soil system was successful via soaking of tubers and/or spraying the plant canopy. The “Biocontrol” formulation was supportive in controlling plant pathogens and significantly increased the fruit yields. The cumulative effect of both bio-preparates resulted in tuber yield increases of ca. 25% over control.

  12. Bio-preparates support the productivity of potato plants grown under desert farming conditions of north Sinai: Five years of field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mohammed T; Hamza, Mervat A; Youssef, Hanan H; Youssef, Gehan H; Fayez, Mohamed; Monib, Mohamed; Hegazi, Nabil A

    2014-01-01

    Organic agriculture as well as good agricultural practices (GAPs) intrigues the concern of both consumers and producers of agricultural commodities. Bio-preparates of various rhizospheric microorganisms (RMOs) are potential sources of biological inputs supporting plant nutrition and health. The response of open-field potatoes to the application of RMO bio-preparates, the biofertilizer "Biofertile" and the bioagent "Biocontrol", were experimented over 5 successive years under N-hunger of north Sinai desert soils. Both vegetative and tuber yields of a number of tested cultivars were significantly improved due to rhizobacterial treatments. In the majority of cases, the biofertilizer "Biofertile" did successfully supply ca. 50% of plant N requirements, as the yield of full N-fertilized plants was comparable to those received 50% N simultaneously with bio-preparates treatment. The magnitude of inoculation was cultivar-dependent; cvs. Valor and Oceania were among the most responsive ones. Bio-preparate introduction to the plant-soil system was successful via soaking of tubers and/or spraying the plant canopy. The "Biocontrol" formulation was supportive in controlling plant pathogens and significantly increased the fruit yields. The cumulative effect of both bio-preparates resulted in tuber yield increases of ca. 25% over control.

  13. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen cry

  14. 21 CFR 864.4400 - Enzyme preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enzyme preparations. 864.4400 Section 864.4400...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4400 Enzyme preparations. (a) Identification. Enzyme preparations are products that are used in the...

  15. Solution preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results.

  16. Photocatalytic degradation of dye by Ag/ZnO prepared by reduction of Tollen’s reagent and the ecotoxicity of degraded products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thongrom, B; Amornpitoksuk, P; Suwanboon, S; Baltrusaitis, J.

    2014-01-01

    A heterostructure of Ag/ZnO powder was prepared by a reduction of Ag(NH3) 2 + ions in a basic solution or Tollen’s reagent. From this method, the existence of a metallic Ag coating on the ZnO surface was confirmed by transmission electron microscope and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photoca

  17. 羧甲基纤维素制备方法及其生产工艺研究进展%Progresses in Preparation and Production Technology for Carboxymethylcellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李外; 赵雄虎; 季一辉; 贾佳; 赵武

    2013-01-01

    The major technical parameters of carboxymethylcellulose(CMC)for different purposes were introduced.Based on the mechanism of the carboxymethylation reaction,the conventional preparation methods for CMC were generalized,and recent research progresses in the technologies for preparing CMC were reviewed.The effects of the different types and compositions of the reaction media on the product quality,the solution process,the innovation of raw materials,the improvement of the solvent process,and the combination of the carboxymethylation with other preparation technologies were summarized.The development trends of the production technology for CMC were also proposed.%介绍了羧甲基纤维素(CMC)的关键技术指标,并从羧甲基化反应机理出发,在回顾传统制备方法的基础上,综述了近年来国内外关于纤维素羧甲基化反应和工艺的研究进展,重点评述了对体系反应介质的种类和组成、溶液法、新原料、溶媒法工艺的改进、羧甲基化工艺与其他产品生产工艺的耦合等问题,并对其发展前景进行了展望.

  18. High activity of Ag-doped Cd0.1Zn0.9S photocatalyst prepared by the hydrothermal method for hydrogen production under visible-light irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny Yuliati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hydrothermal method was used as a new approach to prepare a series of Ag-doped Cd0.1Zn0.9S photocatalysts. The effect of Ag doping on the properties and photocatalytic activity of Cd0.1Zn0.9S was studied for the hydrogen production from water reduction under visible light irradiation.Results: Compared to the series prepared by the co-precipitation method, samples prepared by the hydrothermal method performed with a better photocatalytic activity. The sample with the optimum amount of Ag doping showed the highest hydrogen production rate of 3.91 mmol/h, which was 1.7 times higher than that of undoped Cd0.1Zn0.9S. With the Ag doping, a red shift in the optical response was observed, leading to a larger portion of the visible light absorption than that of without doping. In addition to the larger absorption in the visible-light region, the increase in photocatalytic activity of samples with Ag doping may also come from the Ag species facilitating electron–hole separation.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that Ag doping is a promising way to enhance the activity of Cd0.1Zn0.9S photocatalyst.

  19. Biocompatible and Biodegradable Ultrafine Nanoparticles of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate-co-Methacrylic Acid Prepared via Semicontinuous Heterophase Polymerization: Kinetics and Product Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henned Saade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine nanoparticles, less than 10 nm in mean diameter, of the FDA approved copolymer methyl methacrylate- (MMA- co-methacrylic acid (MAA, 2/1 (mol/mol, were prepared. The method used for the preparation of these particles stabilized in a latex containing around 11% solids includes the dosing of the monomers mixture on a micellar solution preserving monomer starved conditions. It is thought that the operation at these conditions combined with the hydrophilicity of MMA and MAA units favors the formation of ultrafine particles; the propagation reaction carried out within so small compartments renders copolymer chains rich in syndiotactic units very likely as consequence of the restricted movements of the end propagation of the chains. Because of their biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as their extremely small size these nanoparticles could be used as vehicles for improved drug delivery in the treatment of chronic-degenerative diseases.

  20. Difluoromethane preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, A.; Sandt, E.J.A.; Van Bekkum, H.; Makkee, M.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract of NL 9401574 (A) The invention relates to a method for preparing difluoromethane, wherein dichlorodifluoromethane or monochlorodifluoromethane is brought into contact with hydrogen in the presence of palladium on activated carbon, wherein the loading of the palladium on the activated c

  1. Preparation of Carbon-Rich g-C3 N4 Nanosheets with Enhanced Visible Light Utilization for Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunfeng; Yang, Man; Xing, Yan; Liu, Xianchun; Yang, Yang; Wang, Xiao; Song, Shuyan

    2017-09-01

    Exfoliation of layered bulk g-C3 N4 (CNB) to thin g-C3 N4 sheets in nanodomains has attracted much attention in photocatalysis because of the intriguing properties of nanoscaled g-C3 N4 . This study shows that carbon-rich g-C3 N4 nanosheets (CNSC) can be easily prepared by self-modification of polymeric melon units through successively thermally treating bulk g-C3 N4 in an air and N2 atmosphere. The prepared CNSC not only retain the outstanding properties of nanosheets, such as large surface area, high aspect ratios, and short charges diffusion distance, but also overcome the drawback of enlarged bandgap caused by the quantum size effect, resulting in an enhanced utilization of visible light and photoinduced electron delocalization ability. Therefore, the as-prepared CNSC show a high hydrogen evolution rate of 39.6 µmol h(-1) with a turnover number of 24.98 in 1 h at λ > 400 nm. Under irradiation by longer wavelength of light (λ > 420 nm), CNSC still exhibit a superior hydrogen evolution rate, which is 72.9 and 5.4 times higher than that of bulk g-C3 N4 and g-C3 N4 nanosheets, respectively. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Rocket Immunoelectrophoresis of the Entomocidal Parasporal Crystal of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R. E.; Iandolo, J. J.; Campbell, B. S.; Davidson, L. I.; Bulla, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    Rocket immunoelectrophoresis was used to quantitate the soluble parasporal crystal of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. The method described is rapid, reliable, specific, and extremely accurate, and it can be used to measure crystal toxin in commercial microbial insecticides that contain a mixture of spores, vegetative cells, and carrier materials. Images PMID:16345656

  3. Assessment of the Antimicrobial Activity and the Entomocidal Potential of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenane, Zahia; Nateche, Farida; Amziane, Meriam; Gomis-Cebolla, Joaquín; El-Aichar, Fairouz; Khorf, Hassiba; Ferré, Juan

    2017-04-13

    This work represents the first initiative to analyze the distribution of B. thuringiensis in Algeria and to evaluate the biological potential of the isolates. A total of 157 isolates were recovered, with at least one isolate in 94.4% of the samples. The highest Bt index was found in samples from rhizospheric soil (0.48) and from the Mediterranean area (0.44). Most isolates showed antifungal activity (98.5%), in contrast to the few that had antibacterial activity (29.9%). A high genetic diversity was made evident by the finding of many different crystal shapes and various combinations of shapes within a single isolate (in 58.4% of the isolates). Also, over 50% of the isolates harbored cry1, cry2, or cry9 genes, and 69.3% contained a vip3 gene. A good correlation between the presence of chitinase genes and antifungal activity was observed. More than half of the isolates with a broad spectrum of antifungal activity harbored both endochitinase and exochitinase genes. Interestingly, 15 isolates contained the two chitinase genes and all of the above cry family genes, with some of them harboring a vip3 gene as well. The combination of this large number of genes coding for entomopathogenic proteins suggests a putative wide range of entomotoxic activity.

  4. Research progress in plant extracts as the preservative in prepared meat products%植物提取物作为调理肉制品保鲜剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林; 高峰; 周光宏

    2013-01-01

    Recently, more and more consumers are desired to buy "naturally" meat products without the direct addition of chemical preservatives. Many plant extracts with strong free radical scavenging capacity and antibacterial activity are used as the preservative in prepared meat products. The bioactive substances, physiological activities and research progress of some plant extracts,such as grape polyphenols.tea polyphenols, oregano oil and allicin, as the preservatives in prepared meat products were reviewed in this paper. The development tendency and research directions in future of these nature preservatives were also prospected.%目前,越来越多的消费者追求具有“自然”特点和无化学保鲜剂的肉制品 许多植物提取物因具有强的自由基清除能力和良好的杀菌抑菌效果而被用作调理肉制品的保鲜剂 本文对葡多酚、茶多酚、牛至油和大蒜素4种天然植物提取物的生物活性成分、生理功能及其作为调理肉制品保鲜剂的研究概况进行了综述,并对其今后的发展趋势和研究方向进行了展望.

  5. Application of Flexible Packaging Technology in the Preservation of Prepared Meat Products%软包装技术在我国预制肉类菜肴制品贮藏中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪; 张春江; 黄峰; 胡宏海; 刘倩楠; 陈文波; 张泓

    2015-01-01

    肉类菜肴制品是我国居民餐桌上重要的预制食品,深受消费者喜欢。目前我国预制肉类菜肴制品包装种类繁多,不同产品适用的包装不同。本文从我国肉类菜肴制品中常见的包装材料和包装形式,不同包装对肉类菜肴制品品质的影响,肉类菜肴制品包装的发展趋势,以及提升我国肉类菜肴制品包装业的建议几个方面进行了阐述,以期为肉类菜肴制品生产者提供参考。%Prepared meat products, important meat dishes served on dining tables, are loved by Chinese consumers. At present, a wide variety of packaging suitable for various products are available in China. This paper summarizes the common packaging materials and forms for prepared meat products and summarizes their influence on the quality of meat dishes. Future development trends are also discussed and suggestions are proposed on how to improve the industry aiming to provide valuable references for meat producers.

  6. Microbiological Evaluation of Production Procedures for Frozen Foil Pack Meals at the Central Preparation Facility of the Francis E. Warren Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    routines whereby time and temperature during processing is c efully controlled and product quality optimized prevented a HACCP analysis by NDC personne KA...consistent processing routines whereby time and temperature during processing is carefully controlled and product quality optimized prevented a HACCP analysis... meat loaf 17 3 The effect of processing on the microflora of salisbury steak 18 4 The effect of processing on the microflora of BBQ chicken 19 5 The

  7. Production of hydrogen from methanol over Cu/ZnO and Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by homogeneous precipitation : Steam reforming and oxidative steam reforming

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Two series of Cu/ZnO and Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts with varying Cu/Zn ratio have been prepared by the homogeneous precipitation (hp) method using urea hydrolysis. Steam reforming and oxidative steam reforming of methanol were performed using the hp-Cu/Zn-based catalysts for catalytic production of hydrogen. The hp-Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst showed a higher activity than the hp-Cu/ZnO catalysts. In both cases, the catalytic activity was well correlated with the surface area of Cu metal, and the maximu...

  8. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific and technical guidance for the preparation and presentation of applications pursuant to Article 6 Paragraph 11 of Directive 2000/13/EC, as amended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on Scientific and technical guidance for the preparation and presentation of applications pursuant to Article 6 Paragraph 11 of Directive 2000....... It presents a common format for the organisation of the information to be provided and outlines the information and scientific data which must be included in the application, the hierarchy of different types of data and study designs, reflecting the relative strength of evidence which may be obtained from...

  9. Analysis of the Production and Application of Hospital Preparation in Our Hospital during 2009-2011%我院2009-2011年医院制剂的生产与使用情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正明; 吴素体; 袁海龙; 易毛; 张瑞新

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the production and application of hospital preparation in our hospital (infectious disease specialist hospital), and to provide guarantee for sustainable development of hospital preparation. METHODS: Depending on the information management system of hospital preparation, we have carried our statistical analysis of the amount and cost of hospital preparation, end-of-life preparation and reasons for cessation of production in our hospital during 2009 -2011. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: Top 1 drug in the list of amount were Gandening pills (preparation for reducing liver enzyme, 249 636 bottles) in 2009, Entecavir dispersible tablets (antiviral preparation, 265 554 and 508 589 bottles) in 2010 and 2011. The last drug in term of cost were Xinganling granules (agents for lowering enzymes, 2 165.30 yuan) in 2009, Matrine phosphoric acid injection (agents for jaundice, 609.30 yuan and 0 yuan) in 2010 and 2011. End-of-life preparations were 33% magnesium sulfate solution, calamine lotion and other 4 drugs, and they were resulted from low amount and high cost. We should consider about the types which have been not supplied in the market, enhance R&D of new dosage form and new types, play the characteristics of specialist hospital mainly based on TCM treatment and research and develop TCM preparations.%目的:分析我院(传染病专科医院)医院制剂的生产与应用情况,为医院制剂的可持续发展提供保障.方法:通过医院制剂信息管理系统,对我院2009-2011年医院制剂的使用量排序、使用金额排序、停止生产医院制剂及停产原因进行统计.结果与结论:我院2009-2011年间医院制剂使用量排列首位的2009年为肝得宁丸(降酶类制剂,249 636瓶),2010、2011年均为恩替卡韦分散片(抗病毒类制剂,分别为265 554、508 589瓶);使用金额排名最后一位的2009年为新肝灵颗粒剂(降酶类制剂,2 165.30元),2010、2011年均为磷酸苦参碱注射

  10. [Microflora of spiruline preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, J

    1975-01-01

    A study, by direct microscopic examination and cultures, shows that the microflore which accompanies the spirulines preparations, varies as the origin and the technologie treatment quality. The main species are bacillacees; then, come faecal streptococcus which are the best contaminations indicators; enterobacteries, yeasts, moulds spores, are exceptional. Dry products as getting old, entail a great decrease of all the species, the anaerobies being more resistant.

  11. How Prepared is Prepared Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter-Levy; Macleod; Rickert

    1996-10-01

    A 17-year-old female was in the final stage in treatment of right unilateral cleft lip and palate. She had undergone a number of previous surgeries. Hearing and speech were good on evaluation, and her social and family situation were deemed excellent. After preparatory orthodontics she underwent a Lefort I maxillary advancement. Surgery was successful and she was admitted into postoperative recovery. However, the lack of adequate preoperative preparation caused traumatic reaction from the patient and her parents: anxiety over appearance, crying, refusal of oral fluids and oral care, refusal of analgesia, and refusal to mobilize. The patience and persistence of hospital staff slowly overcame all adversities and the patient moved on to full and successful recovery, but this case prompted changes in preoperative procedures and involvement of patients and their families in postoperative meal selection, planing, and preparation.

  12. Preparation, structural characterization and catalytic properties of Co/CeO2 catalysts for the steam reforming of ethanol and hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovón, Adriana S. P.; Lovón-Quintana, Juan J.; Almerindo, Gizelle I.; Valença, Gustavo P.; Bernardi, Maria I. B.; Araújo, Vinícius D.; Rodrigues, Thenner S.; Robles-Dutenhefner, Patrícia A.; Fajardo, Humberto V.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, Co/CeO2 catalysts, with different cobalt contents were prepared by the polymeric precursor method and were evaluated for the steam reforming of ethanol. The catalysts were characterized by N2 physisorption (BET method), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible diffuse reflectance, temperature programmed reduction analysis (TPR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM). It was observed that the catalytic behavior could be influenced by the experimental conditions and the nature of the catalyst employed. Physical-chemical characterizations revealed that the cobalt content of the catalyst influences the metal-support interaction which results in distinct catalyst performances. The catalyst with the highest cobalt content showed the best performance among the catalysts tested, exhibiting complete ethanol conversion, hydrogen selectivity close to 66% and good stability at a reaction temperature of 600 °C.

  13. Experience in the use of production-oriented training technology in the specialist preparation in the field of "Standardization and Metrology"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loganina Valentina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides information about the experience of the use of production-oriented technology when training specialists and the benefits of its use in the educational process. The procedure of educational technology implementation, its advantages and features of the application is described in detail.

  14. Milk and dairy products in the 21st century. Prepared for the 50th anniversary of the journal of agricultural and food chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Lawrence K; Pearce, Lindsay E; Hill, Jeremy P; Boland, Mike J

    2002-12-04

    Dairying into the 21st century will largely continue with the trends seen in the past few decades, although there is always the possibility of an unlikely but disruptive event. The politics of globalization will potentially be important in freeing up global trade in dairy products. Production on the farm will become increasingly efficient, resulting in continuing price benefits to the consumer. At the same time, increasing attention will be paid by the consumer, producer, and manufacturer to safety and quality issues. Environmental concerns will increase in importance, and the issue of methane production may be important for the industry over the next two decades. It is unlikely that genetically modified milk will be introduced soon, even if public acceptance ceases to be an issue; however, the use of genetic markers for accelerated genetic improvement of cows will have rapidly increasing importance. Despite increasing pressure from nonmilk alternatives, milk and dairy will still be the best sources of nutrition for the young and for traditional dairy products. Consumer concerns will be of overriding importance for the industry, and the safety of dairy foods must become absolute. Recent advances in the chemical, physical, and information sciences and technologies will be utilized to gain greater understanding of the increasingly complex food systems and to support the consumer objectives.

  15. Starch Products. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.9. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with some basic information about starches and with three starch products found throughout the world: cereals and rice, potatoes, and pasta. Illustrated…

  16. Two-step gasification of cattle manure for hydrogen-rich gas production: Effect of biochar preparation temperature and gasification temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ya; Cao, Hongliang; Yuan, Qiaoxia; Wang, Dianlong

    2017-10-01

    Two-step gasification process was proposed to dispose cattle manure for hydrogen rich gas production. The effect of temperature on product distribution and biochar properties were first studied in the pyrolysis-carbonization process. The steam gasification of biochar derived from different pyrolysis-carbonization temperatures was then performed at 750°C and 850°C. The biochar from the pyrolysis-carbonization temperatures of 500°C had high carbon content and low volatiles content. According to the results of gasification stage, the pyrolysis-carbonization temperature of 500°C and the gasification temperature of 850°C were identified as the suitable conditions for hydrogen production. We obtained 1.61m(3)/kg of syngas production, 0.93m(3)/kg of hydrogen yield and 57.58% of hydrogen concentration. This study shows that two-step gasification is an efficient waste-to-hydrogen energy process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on the Preparation of Instant Flavored Product of Auriculariaaruicula-judae%袋装即食调味黑木耳的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丕奇; 马银鹏; 赵阳; 韩冰; 孔祥辉; 王玉文

    2015-01-01

    The single factor and orthogonal experiments are used to study the preparation of instant flavored black fungus by the sensory evaluation score.The best soaked temperature and time,the pre-cooked time,the formula of seasoning,and the pasteurized time are studied.It is found that the optimal preparation technology is that the black fungus should be soaked for 60 min at 40 ℃,and then pre-cooked for 25 s at 100 ℃,dipped in seasoning for 45 min,the packaged vacuum degree is-0.1 MPa,finally pasteurized for 30 min at 75 ℃.%以干黑木耳为原料,以感官评分为评价指标,通过单因素试验和正交试验,研究袋装即食调味黑木耳制备,包括最佳泡发温度和时间、预煮时间、调味料配方和浸渍时间、灭菌时间等指标。结果表明袋装即食调味黑木耳制备的最佳工艺为:40℃温水泡发干黑木耳60 min,100℃沸水中预煮25 s,调味料浸渍45 min,包装真空度为-0.1 MPa,最后75℃巴氏灭菌30 min。

  18. Production Pathways and Separation Procedures for High-Diagnostic-Value Activation Species, Fission Products, and Actinides Required for Preparation of Realistic Synthetic Post-Detonation Nuclear Debris: Status Report and FY16 Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faye, S. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shaughnessy, D. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-19

    The objective of this project is to provide a comprehensive study on the production routes and chemical separation requirements for activation products, fission products, and actinides required for the creation of realistic post-detonation surrogate debris. Isotopes that have been prioritized by debris diagnosticians will be examined for their ability to be produced at existing irradiation sources, production rates, and availability of target materials, and chemical separation procedures required to rapidly remove the products from the bulk target matrix for subsequent addition into synthetic debris samples. The characteristics and implications of the irradiation facilities on the isotopes of interest will be addressed in addition to a summary of the isotopes that are already regularly produced. This is a planning document only.

  19. Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Over Nickel-Phosphorus-Alumina Xerogel Catalyst Prepared by a Carbon-Templating Epoxide-Driven Sol-Gel Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Yongju; Park, Seungwon; Han, Seung Ju; Yoo, Jaekyeong; Choi, Jung Ho; Kang, Tae Hun; Lee, Jinwon; Song, In Kyu

    2016-05-01

    A nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was prepared by a carbon-templating epoxide-driven sol-gel method (denoted as CNPA catalyst), and it was applied to the hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). For comparison, a nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was also prepared by a similar method in the absence of carbon template (denoted as NPA catalyst). The effect of carbon template addition on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of the catalysts in the steam reforming of LNG was investigated. Both CNPA and NPA catalysts showed excellent textural properties with well-developed mesoporous structure. However, CNPA catalyst retained a more reducible nickel aluminate phase than NPA catalyst. XRD analysis of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts revealed that nickel sintering on the CNPA catalyst was suppressed compared to that on the NPA catalyst. From H2-TPD and CH4-TPD measurements of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts, it was also revealed that CNPA catalyst with large amount of hydrogen uptake and strong hydrogen-binding sites showed larger amount of methane adsorption than NPA catalyst. In the hydrogen production by steam reforming of LNG, CNPA catalyst with large methane adsorption capacity showed a better catalytic activity than NPA catalyst.

  20. Low-temperature solid-state preparation of ternary CdS/g-C3N4/CuS nanocomposites for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic H2-production activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feiyue; Yin, Hui; Xiang, Quanjun

    2017-01-01

    Low-temperature solid-state method were gradually demonstrated as a high efficiency, energy saving and environmental protection strategy to fabricate composite semiconductor materials. CdS-based multiple composite photocatalytic materials have attracted increasing concern owning to the heterostructure constituents with tunable band gaps. In this study, the ternary CdS/g-C3N4/CuS composite photocatalysts were prepared by a facile and novel low-temperature solid-state strategy. The optimal ternary CdS/g-C3N4/CuS composite exhibits a high visible-light photocatalytic H2-production rate of 57.56 μmol h-1 with the corresponding apparent quantum efficiency reaches 16.5% at 420 nm with Na2S/Na2SO3 mixed aqueous solution as sacrificial agent. The ternary CdS/g-C3N4/CuS composites show the enhanced visible-light photocatalytic H2-evolution activity comparing with the binary CdS-based composites or simplex CdS. The enhanced photocatalytic activity is ascribed to the heterojunctions and the synergistic effect of CuS and g-C3N4 in promotion of the charge separation and charge mobility. This work shows that the low-temperature solid-state method is efficient and environmentally benign for the preparation of CdS-based multiple composite photocatalytic materials with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic H2-production activity.

  1. P & T Committee response to evolving technologies: preparing for the launch of high-tech, high-cost products. Roundtable discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, J L; Wordell, C J; Nash, D; Johnson, N E; Gottlieb, J E

    1992-04-01

    P & T Committees are entering an exciting era in which the introduction of biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals is providing life-saving opportunities for conditions for which there was little or no hope for a cure. The P & T Committee at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital has anticipated the challenge that these novel therapeutics present, and has already positioned itself for the pending approval of the first therapeutic human monoclonal antibody. Nebacumab (HA-1A, formerly known as Centoxin; by Centocor) will be used for the treatment of gram-negative sepsis. Although this antiendotoxin has a good side effect profile, its use also carries a high price tag. This will raise several difficult ethical issues once the product is introduced. In this exclusive Hospital Formulary roundtable, members of Thomas Jefferson's P & T Committee and Technology Assessment Subcommittee provide their insights for responsibly managing a high-tech, high-cost product such as nebacumab.

  2. Understanding the risks associated with the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS): high variability of active ingredients concentration, mislabelled preparations, multiple psychoactive substances in single products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Bettin, Chiara; Sciarrone, Rocco

    2014-08-17

    New psychoactive substances (NPS), are now a large group of substances of abuse not yet completely controlled by international drug conventions, which may pose a public health threat. Anxiety, paranoia, hallucinations, seizures, hyperthermia and cardiotoxicity are some of the common adverse effects associated with these compounds. In this paper, three case reports taken from the archive of processed cases of the authors' laboratory are presented and discussed to stress the risks of possible adverse consequences for NPS users: in particular, (i) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual consumed dose, due to variability of active ingredients concentration in consumed products, (ii) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual active ingredients present in consumed products, as opposed to those claimed by the manufacturer, and (iii) the risk deriving from the difficulty of predicting the actual pharmacological and toxicological effects related to the simultaneous consumption of different psychoactive ingredients contained in single products, whose interactions are mostly unknown. Each of them individually provide a source of concern for possible serious health related consequences. However, they should be considered in conjunction with each others, with the worldwide availability of NPS through the web and also with the incessantly growing business derived from the manipulation and synthesis of new substances. The resulting scenario is that of a cultural challenge which demands a global approach from different fields of knowledge.

  3. Effect of organic fertilizers prepared from organic waste materials on the production of antibacterial volatile organic compounds by two biocontrol Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Waseem; Wei, Zhong; Ling, Ning; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-06-10

    Three organic fertilizers made of different animal and plant waste materials (BOFs) were evaluated for their effects on the production of antibacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by two Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains SQR-9 and T-5 against the tomato wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (RS). Both strains could produce VOCs that inhibited the growth and virulence traits of RS; however, in the presence of BOFs, the production of antibacterial VOCs was significantly increased. The maximum inhibition of growth and virulence traits of RS by VOCs of T-5 and SQR-9 was determined at 1.5% BOF2 and 2% BOF3, respectively. In case of strain T-5, 2-nonanone, nonanal, xylene, benzothiazole, and butylated hydroxy toluene and in case of strain SQR-9, 2-nonanone, nonanal, xylene and 2-undecanone were the main antibacterial VOCs whose production was increased in the presence of BOFs. The results of this study reveal another significance of using organic fertilizers to improve the antagonistic activity of biocontrol agents against phytopathogens.

  4. Lipase-coated K2SO4 micro-crystals: preparation, characterization, and application in biodiesel production using various oil feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jingjing; Xu, Li; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yan, Yunjun

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the preparation and characteristics of protein-coated microcrystals (PCMCs) from Pseudomonas cepacia lipase (PS) and K(2)SO(4), and their application in biodiesel synthesis, via single factorial experiments and response surface methodology (RSM), the optimized PCMC-PS exhibited high activity and stability; the optimal temperature was 60°C (which gave 99.83% conversion), although fairly high activity was exhibited after incubation at different temperatures (25-70°C). The organic solvents stability of the PCMC-PS was improved, and it significantly reduced ethanol toxicity. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis revealed the correlation between the conformation and the enzyme activity. The morphology of the PCMC-PS was also confirmed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When catalyzed by PCMC-PS, above 83% biodiesel yield was obtained for most of the seven oils tested. The PCMC-PS (washed with hexane) activity remained relatively stable after eight batch reactions, with only a 15.73% reduction in the conversion (from 99.02% to 83.29%).

  5. Innovative Progress of the Separation & Purification Technologies in the Production of Chinese Materia Medica Preparation%中药制剂分离与纯化技术创新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秦娥; 梁金龙

    2012-01-01

    论述了深入研究中药制剂分离技术创新进展的意义,概述了固液分离技术在中药制剂中的重要作用,首次全面总结了14种制药分离与纯化主要设备的重大发展历程及创新特征,首次系统剖析了14种中药制剂提取分离与纯化高新技术原理特性和应用效果,首次研究阐明了现代中药制剂分离与纯化技术主要呈现的新老技术复合化、高技术超常化和新技术多样化三大发展趋势。%This paper discussed the significance of deep investigation on the innovative progress of separation & purification technologies in the production of Chinese materla medica preparation and summarized the important function of solid-liquid separation technology during the production process. Meanwhile, this study reviewed the momentous development course and innovative characteristics of the fourteen major separation & purification equipments, analyzed the principles and applies of separation & purification technologies systematically. It was clarified in the paper that compounding of old and new technologies, the practical application of high tech and the diversity of new tech were the three development trends on separation & purification technologies in the production of Chinese materia medica preparation nowadays.

  6. INVESTIGATION ON PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT STATUS OF SKIN AND MUCOUS MEMBRANE ANTIBACTERIAL PREPARATIONS IN SHANGHAI%上海市皮肤黏膜抗(抑)菌产品生产与管理现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉卿; 毛洁; 周晓鹂

    2011-01-01

    Objective To know the production and management status of skin and mucous membrane antibacterial preparations in Shanghai, and to explore inspection and management methods to solve relevant problems. Methods Field sampling investigation was used to know the quality and manufactories management status of all the skin and mucous membrane antibacterial preparations in Shanghai. Results There are 17 types of skin and mucous membrane antibacterial preparations in Shanghai. The germicidal ingredient are mainly triclosan, biguanide and its compound preparations. The antibacterial ingredient contents of are qualified to national guidelines, and all the products have antibacterial effects on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus according to test results of certificated laboratory. Hygienic safety evaluation were made on 16 of the products, and 7 of the evaluation reports are qualified according to Hygienic Safety Evaluation Regulations on Disinfection Products of Ministry of Health. Conclusion All the skin and mucous membrane antibacterial preparations in Shanghai were manufactured under permission, and their antibacterial ingredient contents and antibacterial effects were qualified. However, there were defects concerning hygienic safety evaluation, and inspection should be strengthened accordingly.%目的 了解上海市皮肤黏膜抗(抑)菌产品的生产与管理现状,发现存在问题,探讨监管方法.方法 用现场抽样调查的方法,对本市所辖皮肤黏膜抗抑菌产品质量和生产企业管理情况进行了调查.结果 本市企业生产的皮肤黏膜抗(抑)菌产品共17种,这些产品的主要杀菌成分以三氯羟基二笨醚和双胍类化合物及其复方制剂为主,产品抗菌成分的含量值符合国家限量值规定.经过上海市认证实验室检测,17种产品对大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌均具有抗(抑)菌效果.17种产品中,有16种产品完成卫生安全评价,其中有7件产品的评价报告内容

  7. Preparation of a Microbial Time-temperature Indicator by Using the Vegetative Form of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for Monitoring the Quality of Chilled Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Shahrokh Esfahani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Time-temperature indicators are used in smart packaging, and described as intelligent tools attached to the label of food products to monitor their timetemperature history. Since the previous studies on microbial time-temperature indicators were only based on pH-dependent changes, and they were long-time response indicators, in the present work, a new microbial time-temperature indicator was designed by using the alpha amylase activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens vegetative cells.Material and Methods: The designed time-temperature indicator system consists of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, specific substrate medium and iodine reagent. The relation of the timetemperatureindicator’ response to the growth and metabolic activity (starch consumption and production of reduced sugars of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was studied. In addition, the temperature dependence of the time-temperature indicator was considered at 8 and 28˚C. Finally, in order to adjust time-temperature indicator endpoint, the effect of the inoculum level was investigated at 8ºC.Results and Conclusion: In the designed system, a color change of an iodine reagent to yellow progressively occurs due to the starch hydrolysis. The effect of the inoculum level showed the negative linear relationship between the levels of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens inoculated in the medium and the endpoints of the time-temperature indicators. The endpoints were adjusted to 156, 72 and 36 hours at the inoculum levels of 102, 104 and 106 CFU ml-1, respectively. The main advantages of the time-temperature indicator is low cost and application for monitoring the quality of chilled food products.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  8. A simple sample preparation for simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol and its succinate esters in food products using high-performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelin, Vasiliy; Korotkov, Anton

    2017-02-01

    A simple method is described for the determination of chloramphenicol and its succinate esters in food products. Examination of food products using high-performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry showed the presence not only of chloramphenicol but also of its succinate forms. A scheme is proposed for determining chloramphenicol and its succinate esters (calculated as chloramphenicol) in meat (beef, pork, poultry), milk, liver, kidney, eggs, fish and honey. Analytes are extracted from a 1.0 g sample with 5 ml acetonitrile. It was found that using the method of standard addition and diluting the extract with water leads to the elimination of matrix effects and also eliminates errors associated with peak splitting due to the separate elution of the differing forms of the analyte. Validation results were satisfactory, with recoveries from 85% to 111% (meat, milk, liver, kidney, eggs, fish and honey) and a relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 13% for spiked levels of 0.3, 1.0 and 5 µg kg(-)(1). The limits of detection and quantification (calculated as chloramphenicol for all forms) were 0.1 and 0.3 µg kg(-)(1), respectively. The RSD of the results of the analysis was < 10%. The duration of the analysis was less than 1 h.

  9. Design and Stereoselective Preparation of a New Class of Chiral Olefin Metathesis Catalysts and Application to Enantioselective Synthesis of Quebrachamine: Catalyst Development Inspired by Natural Product Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattely, Elizabeth S.; Meek, Simon J.; Malcolmson, Steven J.; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2010-01-01

    A total synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloid quebrachamine in racemic form is first described. A key catalytic ring-closing metathesis of an achiral triene is used to establish the all-carbon quaternary stereogenic center and the tetracyclic structure of the natural product; the catalytic transformation proceeds with reasonable efficiency through the use of existing achiral Ru or Mo catalysts. Ru- or Mo-based chiral olefin metathesis catalysts have proven to be inefficient and entirely nonselective in cases where the desired product is observed. In the present study, the synthesis route thus serves as a platform for the discovery of new olefin metathesis catalysts that allow for efficient completion of an enantioselective synthesis of quebrachamine. Accordingly, on the basis of mechanistic principles, stereogenic-at-Mo complexes bearing only monodentate ligands have been designed. The new catalysts provide significantly higher levels of activity than observed with the previously reported Ru- or Mo-based complexes. Enantiomerically enriched chiral alkylidenes are generated through diastereoselective reactions involving achiral Mo-based bispyrrolides and enantiomerically pure silyl-protected binaphthols. Such chiral catalysts initiate the key enantioselective ring-closing metathesis step in the total synthesis of quebrachamine efficiently (1 mol % loading, 22 °C, 1 h, >98% conversion, 84% yield) and with high selectivity (98:2 er, 96% ee). PMID:19113867

  10. Probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in a fermented milk product with added fruit preparation reduce antibiotic associated diarrhea and Helicobacter pylori activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrese, Michael; Kristen, Holger; Rautenberg, Peter; Laue, Christiane; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2011-11-01

    To investigate matrix-specifity of probiotic effects and particularly of the reduction of antibiotics-associated diarrhea, a controlled, randomized, double-blind study was performed, in which 88 Helicobacter pylori-infected but otherwise healthy subjects were given for eight weeks either a) a probiotic fruit yoghurt "mild" containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 plus Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12, n = 30), b) the same product but pasteurized after fermentation (n = 29) or c) milk acidified with lactic acid (control, n = 29). During week five, a Helicobacter eradication therapy was performed. Helicobacter activity was measured via 13C-2-urea breath tests and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and other gastrointestinal complaints were recorded by validated questionnaires. In intervention group a, b and c the mean number of days with diarrhoea was 4, 10 and 10 (Pantibiotics treatment was -1·4 ± 1·1, -1·2 ± 1·1, 2·6 ± 1·1 points/four weeks (Pprobiotic bacteria but (rather) to components of acidified milk (most probably lactic acid). Fruit-yogurt-like fermented milk products with living probiotic bacteria significantly shorten the duration of antibiotics-associated diarrhoea and improve gastrointestinal complaints. Fruit yogurt-like fermented milk is a matrix suitable for probiotic bacteria.

  11. Scale-up from shake flasks to pilot-scale production of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense for preparing a liquid inoculant formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A; Gonzalez-Monterrubio, César F; Acevedo-Sánchez, Eduardo V; Martínez-Salinas, Carlos; García-Cabrera, Ramsés I; Gamboa-Suasnavart, Ramsés A; Marín-Palacio, Luz D; Villegas, Jesús; Blancas-Cabrera, Abel

    2013-11-01

    Azospirillum brasilense has industrial significance as a growth promoter in plants of commercial interest. However, there is no report in the literature disclosing a liquid product produced in pilot-scale bioreactors and is able to be stored at room temperature for more than 2 years. The aim of this work was to scale up a process from a shake flask to a 10-L lab-scale and 1,000-L pilot-scale bioreactor for the production of plant growth-promoting bacterium A. brasilense for a liquid inoculant formulation. Furthermore, this work aimed to determine the shelf life of the liquid formulation stored at room temperature and to increase maize crops yield in greenhouses. Under a constant oxygen mass transfer coefficient (K L a), a fermentation process was successfully scaled up from shake flasks to 10- and 1,000-L bioreactors. A concentration ranging from 3.5 to 7.5 × 10(8) CFU/mL was obtained in shake flasks and bioreactors, and after 2 years stored at room temperature, the liquid formulation showed one order of magnitude decrease. Applications of the cultured bacteria in maize yields resulted in increases of up to 95 % in corncobs and 70 % in aboveground biomass.

  12. In-situ preparation of N-TiO2/graphene nanocomposite and its enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production by H2S splitting under solar light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhirud, Ashwini P.; Sathaye, Shivaram D.; Waichal, Rupali P.; Ambekar, Jalindar D.; Park, Chan-J.; Kale, Bharat B.

    2015-03-01

    Highly monodispersed nitrogen doped TiO2 nanoparticles were successfully deposited on graphene (N-TiO2/Gr) by a facile in-situ wet chemical method for the first time. N-TiO2/Gr has been further used for photocatalytic hydrogen production using a naturally occurring abundant source of energy i.e. solar light. The N-TiO2/Gr nanocomposite composition was optimized by varying the concentrations of dopant nitrogen and graphene (using various concentrations of graphene) for utmost hydrogen production. The structural, optical and morphological aspects of nanocomposites were studied using XRD, UV-DRS, Raman, XPS, FESEM, and TEM. The structural study of the nanocomposite shows existence of anatase N-TiO2. Further, the details of the components present in the composition were confirmed with Raman and XPS. The morphological study shows that very tiny, 7-10 nm sized, N-TiO2 nanoparticles are deposited on the graphene sheet. The optical study reveals a drastic change in absorption edge and consequent total absorption due to nitrogen doping and presence of graphene. Considering the extended absorption edge to the visible region, these nanocomposites were further used as a photocatalyst to transform hazardous H2S waste into eco-friendly hydrogen using solar light. The N-TiO2/Gr nanocomposite with 2% graphene exhibits enhanced photocatalytic stable hydrogen production i.e. ~5941 μmol h-1 under solar light irradiation using just 0.2 gm nanocomposite, which is much higher as compared to P25, undoped TiO2 and TiO2/Gr nanocomposite. The enhancement in the photocatalytic activity is attributed to `N' doping as well as high specific surface area and charge carrier ability of graphene. The recycling of the photocatalyst shows a good stability of the nanocomposites. This work may provide new insights to design other semiconductor deposited graphene novel nanocomposites as a visible light active photocatalyst.Highly monodispersed nitrogen doped TiO2 nanoparticles were successfully

  13. Determination of trans vitamin K1 in infant and medical nutritional products using AOAC Method 999.15 with modified preparation and extraction procedures and C30 bonded phase chromatography: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpf, Karen J; Thompson, Linda B; Schmitz, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    Modifications were made to AOAC Official Method 999.15 to extend its applicability to specialty infant formulas containing hydrolyzed proteins and free amino acids, and to medical and adult nutritional products. Minor changes to the sample preparation procedure and chromatographic separation improved vitamin K1 recoveries and reduced chromatographic interferences in these types of matrixes. Currently AOAC Method 999.15 is applicable only to the determination of total vitamin K1 (phylloquione) in infant formula and milk (fluid, ready-to-feed, and powdered) containing > 1 microg vitamin K1/100 g solids. AOAC Method 999.15 recoveries of vitamin K1 were improved by altering sample sizes, extraction solvents and amounts, and the reagent addition order and amount of water or aqueous solutions added. The chromatographic separation of vitamin K1 in medical nutritional products containing canola and marine oils was improved, and trans vitamin K1 was separated from the biologically inactive cis isomer in all products with a C30 3 microm column and a 100% methanol mobile phase. With these modifications to the extraction procedure and chromatographic separation, AOAC Method 999.15 demonstrated acceptable precision and accuracy for the quantitation of trans vitamin K1 in specialty infant formulas containing hydrolyzed proteins and free amino acids, and medical and adult nutritional products. A single-laboratory validation of these minor modifications was completed. Fourteen different product matrixes were analyzed during validation. The intermediate precision averaged 4.15% RSD (range 2.52-5.81% RSD), and recovery data averaged 100.1% (range 92.2-109%).

  14. Preparation for the industrial production of the Velocity Dolphin Power e-bike; Vorbereitungen zur Industrialisierung des Velocity Dolphin Power E-Bikes - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutter, M.

    2002-06-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the iterative process used in the development of this electrically-powered bicycle. The report covers the design-principles involved as far as appearance, operation and servicing are concerned. The report also describes the development and production of the various components such as the bike's frame, its special gearing system and the charger unit for the bike's accumulators as well as the motor and its control system. The programming of the controller and the interface to the bike's user are discussed. Finally, prototypes presented at an exhibition are looked at.

  15. 制造业半成品备料区布局与物流优化研究%Manufacturing Semi-finished Product Preparation Area Layout and Logistics Optimization Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董鹏; 张易涛

    2013-01-01

      要:以卡莱公司为例,针对该企业半成品备料区的布局状况,指出生产物流存在的问题,提出具体优化布局策略。利用工业工程改善工具对备料区域的布局与物流路线进行优化,通过对比改善前后的物料搬运距离、费用、耗用工时等相关指标发现,此次改善有效地解决了半成品备料布置问题,提高了生产效率,优化了生产流程,节约了成本。%In order to Carlisle company as an example, for the semi-finished material staging area situation, point out production logistics problems, put forward specific optimization layout strategy. Use of industrial engineering to improve the tools on the preparation area distribution and logistics route optimization, by comparing the improved material handling distance, cost, consumption of time related indexes were found, the improvement can effectively solve the semi-finished stock layout problem, improves the production efficiency, optimize the production process, saving the cost.

  16. The inhibitory effect of a fermented papaya preparation on growth, hydrophobicity, and acid production of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus: its implications in oral health improvement of diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somanah, Jhoti; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Bahorun, Theeshan; Aruoma, Okezie I

    2013-11-01

    Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) is a "natural health product." The high incidence of dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis, and oral microbial infection cases among patients with diabetes mellitus continues to prevail. The potential role of FPP against common oral microbiota (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus) isolated from the human oral cavity was investigated using in vitro simulation models of dental plaque and caries. FPP showed an inhibitory effect against the growth (at 0.05 mg/mL: S. mutans: -6.9%; S. mitis: -4.47%, P dental caries, plaque, and gingivitis. The functional application of FPP as a constituent of a balanced diet and active lifestyle can make a positive contribution to the oral health status and well-being of patients with diabetes.

  17. Effects of Bacillus Preparation on Product Performance and Egg Quality in Layers%芽孢杆菌制剂对蛋鸡生产性能及蛋品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛娜; 刁其玉; 张乃锋; 周盟

    2011-01-01

    为研究芽孢杆菌制剂对蛋鸡生产性能及蛋品质的影响,选择健康、产蛋均匀的259日龄"京粉一号"蛋鸡3600只,随机分为2组,每组6个重复,每个重复300只鸡.对照组饲喂基础日粮,试验组在基础日粮中添加3%的芽孢杆菌制剂,进行为期40天的试验.试验表明,在蛋鸡日粮中添加芽孢杆菌制剂对蛋鸡生产性能及蛋品质无显著影响,但是试验组有改善饲料转化率,提高产蛋率、平均蛋重的趋势,与此同时,试验组具有提高蛋壳硬度和蛋黄颜色的趋势,对蛋品质具有一定的改善作用.%This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of bacillus preparation on product performance and egg quality in layers. Three thousand and six hundred 259-day-old "jing fen yi hao" layers were randomly divided into 2 groups, with 6 replications per group and 300 layers each replication. Layers in control group were fed basal diet. The trail groups were fed diet supplemented with 3% bacillus preparation. The experiment lasted for 40 days. The results showed that there were no significant effects of trail group on product performance and egg quality of layers in this experiment. Egg quality was improved by trail group.

  18. Ge Implantation to Improve Crystallinity and Productivity for Solid Phase Epitaxy Prepared by Atomic Mass Unit Cross Contamination-Free Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kong-Soo; Yoo, Dae-Han; Han, Jae-Jong; Son, Gil-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Hun; Noh, Ju-Hee; Kim, Seok-Jae; Kim, Yong-Kwon; You, Young-Sub; Hyung, Yong-Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Deok

    2006-11-01

    Germanium (Ge) ion implantation was investigated for crystallinity enhancement during solid phase epitaxial (SPE) regrowth. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) measurement showed numerical increase of 19% of (100) signal, which might be due to the effect of pre-amorphization implantation (PAI) on silicon layer. On the other hand, electrical property such as off-leakage current of n-channel metal oxide semiconductor (NMOS) transistor degraded in specific regions of wafers. It was confirmed that arsenic (As) atoms were incorporated into channel area during Ge ion implantation. Since the equipment for Ge PAI was using several source gases such as BF3 and AsH3, atomic mass unit (AMU) contamination during PAI of Ge with AMU 74 caused the incorporation of As with AMU 75 which resided in arc-chamber and other parts of the equipment. It was effective to use Ge isotope of AMU 72 to suppress AMU contamination. It was effective to use enriched Ge source gas with AMU 72 in order to improve productivity.

  19. Research on preparation of battery-grade ferrous oxalate from by-product ferrous sulfate%副产硫酸亚铁制备电池级草酸亚铁的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭爱国; 贺周初; 余长艳; 肖伟; 庄新娟; 刘艳

    2012-01-01

    Battery-grade ferrous oxalate was prepared with the by-product ferrous sulfate from titanium white production as raw material.Influences of reaction temperature, reaction time, concentration of ferrous sulfate, and pH etc. in the processes of impurity removal, precipitation, and conversion reaction on the product quality were discussed, and the optimum process conditions were obtained.Resuits showed that battery-grade ferrous oxaiate with particle size less than 3.0 u,m, purity more than 99.5% ,and with low impurity content could be prepared under the conditions as follows:pure ferrous sulfate solution was obtained by using iron powder to purify it at the reaction temperature of 95 ℃ for 6 h;then use ammonia to precipitate ferrous sulfate at the reaction temperature of 40 ℃ and Fe2*mass concentration of 90 g/L;at last,use oxalate to converse the ferrous hydroxide into ferrous oxalate at the reaction pH=2.0 and time of 60 min.Thus.an effective way was provided to utilize the by-product of titanium white.%以钛白副产硫酸亚铁为原料制备出电池级草酸亚铁.研究了除杂、沉淀、转化反应过程中反应温度、反应时间、硫酸亚铁浓度以及反应pH等因素对产品质量的影响,并得到了优惠工艺条件.结果表明:在反应温度为95℃、反应时间为6 h的条件下用铁粉对硫酸亚铁溶液除杂,得到纯净硫酸亚铁溶液;在反应温度为40℃、铁(Ⅱ)质量浓度为90 g/L的条件下用氨水沉淀,再用草酸于反应时间为60 min、pH=2.0条件下将氢氧化亚铁转化成草酸亚铁,制备出了纯度大于99.5%、粒径小于3.0 μm、杂质含量低的电池级草酸亚铁.为解决钛白副产硫酸亚铁的综合利用提供了一条有效的途径.

  20. Evaluation of Quechers Sample Preparation and GC Mass Spec-trom¬etry Method for the Determination of 15 Pesticide Resi¬dues in Tomatoes Used in Salad Production Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham JAHANMARD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was the first attempt for determination and measurement of pesticide residues in tomatoes used in salad production plants in Isfahan, central Iran.Methods: A multiresidue method based on modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe sample preparation, followed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS was developed and validated for the determination of 15 pesticides (permethrin, primicarb, dichlorvos, diazinone, fenpropathrin, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, malathion, chlortalonil, brompropilate, propargit, tetradifone, phosalone, iprodion and endosulfane from different classes. The recovery yields ranged from 83.84 to 119.73%and the relative standard deviation (RSD was below 20.54%. The limits of detection (LODs were between 1.63to 10.5 mg/kg and the limits of quantifications (LOQs were between 5.43to35 mg/kg. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of 22 tomato samples obtained from salad production plants in Isfahan in Sep to Dec 2014.Results: An amount of 31.81% of samples showed contamination above maximum residue levels (MRLs with pesticides. In addition, 13.6% of samples had contamination with diazinone and 18.18% of samples with chlorpyrifos.Conclusion: A full consideration is essential for tomatoes used in salad and food productions. It suggests a need for revision of the current trend of supervision for tomatoes and other vegetables presented in wholesale markets. In all, the study confirms that pesticide residue determination in food products, especially in raw fruits and vegetables, is a very demanding task in public health safety and trade. Keywords: Pesticide residue, Tomato, QuEChERS, Gas chromatography, Mass spectrometry

  1. Preparation and characterization of Neisseria meningitidis mutants deficient in production of the human lactoferrin-binding proteins LbpA and LbpB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnah, R A; Schryvers, A B

    1998-06-01

    Pathogenic members of the family Neisseriaceae produce specific receptors facilitating iron acquisition from transferrin (Tf) and lactoferrin (Lf) of their mammalian host. Tf receptors are composed of two outer membrane proteins, Tf-binding proteins A and B (TbpA and TbpB; formerly designated Tbp1 and Tbp2, respectively). Although only a single Lf-binding protein, LbpA (formerly designated Lbp1), had previously been recognized, we recently identified additional bacterial Lf-binding proteins in the human pathogens Neisseria meningitidis and Moraxella catarrhalis and the bovine pathogen Moraxella bovis by a modified affinity isolation technique (R. A. Bonnah, R.-H. Yu, and A. B. Schryvers, Microb. Pathog. 19:285-297, 1995). In this report, we characterize an open reading frame (ORF) located immediately upstream of the N. meningitidis B16B6 lbpA gene. Amino acid sequence comparisons of various TbpBs with the product of the translated DNA sequence from the upstream ORF suggests that the region encodes the Lf-binding protein B homolog (LbpB). The LbpB from strain B16B6 has two large stretches of negatively charged amino acids that are not present in the various transferrin receptor homologs (TbpBs). Expression of the recombinant LbpB protein as a fusion with maltose binding protein demonstrated functional Lf-binding activity. Studies with N. meningitidis isogenic mutants in which the lbpA gene and the ORF immediately upstream of lbpA (putative lbpB gene) were insertionally inactivated demonstrated that LbpA, but not LbpB, is essential for iron acquisition from Lf in vitro.

  2. 我国超细铜粉研究及生产现状%Status-in-art of Preparation and Production of Ultra-fine Copper Powder in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凌云; 朱国才; 霍慧彬; 池汝安

    2008-01-01

      The status-in-art of preparation and production of ultra-fine copper powder including ball mill, plasma,γ-ray irradiation-hydrothermal crystallization, chemical reduction, electrolysis, ultrasound electrolysis, hydrothermal, micro emulsions and collosol method are summarized. The advance of pre-reduction-complex reduction used by Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University was introduced, too. Furthermore, the present state of copper powder consumption and production in China were also analyzed. Finally, the development of ultra-fine copper powder is prospected.%  概述了目前超细铜粉制备方法,包括球磨法、等离子体法、γ射线辐照射法、雾化法、超声电解法、电解法、微乳液法、溶胶-凝胶法、化学还原法等的研究现状,介绍了清华大学核能与新能源技术研究院采用的预还原-复合还原法。同时,对我国的铜粉消费与生产现状作了分析,并对我国今后超细铜粉研究作了展望。

  3. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations... enzyme preparations. (a) Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations are used in the production of... additional requirements for enzyme preparations in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 107, which...

  4. 催化剂制备方法对甘油液相重整制氢反应的影响%Influence of preparation methods of the catalyst on hydrogen production from aqueous-phase reforming of glycerol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江涛; 韩林芯; 于恺; 董朝辉; 王轲; 李涛; 曹发海

    2012-01-01

    Great attention to the shortage of energy resources and environmental problems has been paid. Seeking and utilizing renewable and sustainable green energy resources are focused on by human society. It is a technical process of ecological resource utilization to employ glycerol derived from biomass as the raw materials to generate hydrogen by aqueous-phase reforming. For this purpose, NiCoAl complex oxide catalysts were prepared by using co-precipitation and impregnation methods, and the influence of calcination temperature was also investigated. The structural properties of catalysts were characterized by XRD, TG-DTG and BET. The results showed that compared with impregnation method, NiCoAl complex oxide catalyst prepared by co-precipitation method exhibited higher activities for hydrogen production, and the optimum calcination temperature of the catalyst was 550℃.%能源紧缺和环境问题已成为全世界关注的话题,开发利用可再生的清洁能源备受关注,甘油水溶液催化重整制氢是一条资源利用生态化的工艺路线.分别采用共沉淀法和浸渍法制备了NiCoAl复合氧化物催化剂,并采用XRD、比表面积及热分析等对催化剂进行结构表征,结合甘油液相重整制氢中催化剂活性测试结果表明,共沉淀法制得的NiCoAl复合氧化物催化剂的活性较好,较适宜的焙烧温度为550℃.

  5. How to select BCAA preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Akinobu; Suzuki, Kazuyuki

    2004-12-01

    In Japan, oral branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) preparations are used in nutritional therapy for correcting disorders of protein and amino acid metabolism in patients with liver cirrhosis. There are two forms of oral BCAA preparations: enteral nutrition products for liver failure (or elemental nutrition products for liver cirrhosis) and oral BCAA granular products. Granular products are indicated for patients with uncompensated liver cirrhosis who have no dietary restriction and hypoproteinemia. Enteral nutrition products are indicated for patients who have a history of hepatic encephalopathy and exhibit protein intolerance. In clinical practice, the existence of protein intolerance in patients with uncompensated liver cirrhosis should be determined based on a history of hepatic encephalopathy and blood ammonia concentration. When patients exhibit protein intolerance, they are given a low protein diet (approximately 0.5-1.0g/kg/day) with enteral nutrition products for liver failure. However, when patients consume adequate amounts of a well-balanced diet and ammonia concentration does not increase, it is possible to control their condition with granular products. However, when patients cannot achieve an adequate dietary intake, it is recommended that enteral nutrition products should be used in order to improve nutritional status, even if these patients do not have a history of encephalopathy.

  6. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  7. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  8. Experiment on Productive of Ethanol for Extruded Corn Grist Degermed with Enzyme Preparation at Low Temperature%低温挤压加酶脱胚玉米粉生产酒精试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申德超; 张春野

    2009-01-01

    The technology relating to extruded corn grist degermed with enzyme preparation at low temperature which was liquefied, saccharified, fermented, distilled directly for production of ethanol, was studied. The influence of main parameters of extrusion-saccharification-fermentation system for above extrudate on main evaluation indexes of ethanol mash was researched. These parameters include the added dosage of high temperature resistant a-amylase into corn grist degermed before extruding, the added dosage of glucoamylase in saccharifying of extrudate, saccharification time, the added dosage of high temperature resistant a-amylase in liquefaction, and the dosage of yeast in ferment. The main indexes include the ethanol degree, utilization ratio of starch and residual total sugar of ethanol mash. The results indicate that under the condition of optimum value for system parameters, the ethanol degree and utilization ratio of starch of ethanol mash after fermenting for 48 h are respectively 13.45 % and 59.21%. These values are more than 13.08% and 57.85% of ethanol mash for contrast extruded corn without enzyme preparation. These values are also more than 12.89% and 56.6% of ethanol mash for corn grist degermed with traditional ethanol productive technology.%研究低温挤压加酶脱胚玉米粉,直接液化、糖化、发酵、蒸馏生产酒精技术,并考察了脱胚玉米粉挤压前耐高温α-淀粉酶添加量、挤出物糖化时糖化酶添加量、糖化时间、液化时耐高温α-淀粉酶添加量、发酵时酵母添加量对醪液的主要考察指标(醪液的酒精度、淀粉出酒率、残总糖)的影响规律.结果表明,本研究的挤压-糖化-发酵系统主要参数优化值对应的醪液发酵48 h的酒精度、淀粉出酒率分别为13.45%和59.21%,高于对照挤压不加酶脱胚玉米醪液的对应值13.08%和57.85%,也高于脱胚玉米传统酒精生产工艺醪液的对应值12.89%和56.6%.

  9. Pre-operative antiseptic skin preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murkin, Claire Elizabeth

    Theatre nurses use antiseptic skin preparation products every day, but little thought seems to be given as to why a surgeon has a particular preference for one antiseptic skin preparation over another - whether it is for its efficacy, safety or application properties. Woodhead et al (2004) states that nurses still work in a ritualistic environment. Rituals are 'any action performed according to custom, without understanding the reasons why it is being practised'. Nursing practice should be evidence-based; nurses should understand the rationale behind the choice of a particular antiseptic, and be knowledgable about the clinical effectiveness of antiseptic's use pre-operatively, to achieve optimum results. This article focuses on the main types of antiseptic skin preparation while highlighting each product's activity and the relevant considerations for choosing the appropriate product for each patient. Theatre staff need to emphasize the importance of skin preparation and the correct application techniques, while educating the scrub team and surgeons with respect to skin preparation.

  10. Temperatura e tipo de preparo na conservação de produto minimamente processado de abacaxi-'Pérola' Temperature and method of preparation in preservation of the minimally processed product of Pérola pineapples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIANCA SARZI

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do tipo de preparo ("rodelas" e "metades" e da temperatura de armazenamento (3ºC, 6ºC e 9ºC na conservação de produto minimamente processado de abacaxi-'Pérola'. Os frutos, depois de selecionados, lavados e desinfectados com cloro, foram armazenados por 12 horas a 10ºC, antes de serem processados sob condições higiênicas, embalados em contentores de polietileno tereftalatado ("rodelas" ou bandeja de isopor recoberta com filme de cloreto de polivinila esticável ("metades" e armazenados por até 12 dias. Os produtos foram avaliados quanto à evolução da atmosfera interna na embalagem, respiração, quantidade de suco drenado e evolução da massa fresca e da aparência. Foram testadas, durante o período de armazenamento, a aceitabilidade pelos consumidores, no início do experimento e enquanto a aparência e a análise microbiológica permitiram. A presença de bactérias mesofílicas e coliformes totais e fecais foi avaliada a cada três dias. Durante o armazenamento, a porcentagem de O2 nas embalagens apresentou decréscimo, enquanto a de CO2 aumentou até 20% para as "metades" e até 1,86% para as "rodelas". A intensidade dos cortes no preparo teve influência direta na respiração, assim como nas perdas de suco e de massa fresca. A temperatura influenciou na respiração e foi fator limitante à vida de prateleira do produto, pois os produtos armazenados a 9ºC, conservaram-se por 6 dias, enquanto os mantidos a 3ºC e 6ºC, por até 9 dias.The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of two types of preparation ("roundels" and "halves" and of different storages temperatures (3ºC, 6ºC and 9ºC on the preservation of the minimally processed product of 'Pérola' pineapples. The fruits, after being selected, washed and disinfected with chlorine, were stored for 12 h at 10ºC, before being processed under hygienic conditions, packaged in polyethylene terephthalate

  11. Análise do processo de preparação da produção no desenvolvimento de novos produtos por meio de um estudo de caso em uma empresa do setor siderúrgico Production preparation process analysis in new products development - a case study in the steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Varandas Junior

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A demanda por novos produtos tem aumentado em algumas empresas do setor siderúrgico, indicando uma crescente preocupação com o desempenho do processo de desenvolvimento de produtos (PDP, que depende de vários elementos conceituais importantes apontados na literatura. Em uma empresa siderúrgica, um fator relevante é o projeto do processo de produção, devido à característica de ser um processo de fabricação contínuo e por, geralmente, envolver investimentos significativos na fase de preparação da produção. Nesse contexto, o presente trabalho busca realizar uma análise desta fase em uma empresa siderúrgica. Pretende-se, por meio da abordagem metodológica de estudo de caso, identificar práticas organizacionais, focando nos aspectos operacionais e suas interfaces, envolvendo as áreas funcionais de marketing, engenharia do produto e manufatura. Também é tratada no trabalho a integração dos times multidisciplinares, a tomada de decisão e os critérios para avaliação dos resultados do PDP. O trabalho conclui que a empresa analisada utiliza-se de práticas que estruturam a preparação da produção e que a integração interfuncional das áreas é o que se destaca para o sucesso do PDP.The demand for new products has increased in some companies from the steel industry, indicating a growing concern with the performance of products development process (PDP, which depends on several important conceptual elements found in the literature. The production process project is a relevant factor in a steel company, because it is a continuous manufacturing process and it generally involves significant investments in the production preparation phase. In this context, the present paper analyzes this stage of the process in a steel producer. The research aims to identify, through a case study methodological approach, the company's organizational practices with focus on the operational aspects and their interfaces involving the functional

  12. Preparation, Characterization and Photocatalytic Production Activity of Copper Doped TiO2%铜掺杂TiO2的制备、表征及光催化产氢性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑先君; 赵建波; 黄娟; 魏明宝; 谢冰; 王建林

    2012-01-01

    研究制备了高活性的铜掺杂二氧化钛光催化剂,并采用X射线衍射(XRD)和紫外-可见漫反射光谱(UV-Vis DRS)对其进行了表征.以葡萄糖为电子供体,系统地研究了铜掺杂量、煅烧温度、葡萄糖初始浓度对二氧化钛光催化产氢性能的影响.结果表明:少量铜离子掺杂对二氧化钛的晶相无影响,但能显著地改善其光吸收性能.最佳的铜掺杂量为3%,该催化剂4h的产氢量达25 mL,是纯二氧化钛产氢量的近2倍.%Degradation of organic substance and simultaneous recovery of hydrogen gas as renewable energy can proceed via photocatalytic technology with the use of TiO2. The copper doped TiO2 photocatalyst with high activity is prepared and characterized by XRD and UV - Vis DRS in this study. Using glucose as electron donor, effects of copper loading, calcination temperature and glucose initial concentration on photocatalytic - H2 production activity are systematically studied. Experimental results show that the phase structure of TiO2 makes no change after doping with small amount of copper. At the same time, the light-absorption ability of copper doped TiO2 can be greatly improved. The optimum dosage of copper is 3%. Hydrogen production over copper doped TiO2 (optimum dosage = 3% ) under 4 h irradiation is 25 mL, about two times longer than that of pure TiO2.

  13. 固定化厌氧颗粒污泥的制备及其产甲烷活性研究%Study on Preparation of Immobilized Anaerobic Granular Sludge and Its Methane Production Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋新龙; 邵铭东; 蒋益花

    2015-01-01

    Treated anaerobic granular sludge with beer wastewater as the bacterial species, sodium alginate as embedding agent and calcium chloride as curing agent, immobilized anaerobic granular sludge was prepared. Taking the activity of methane production as constant index, by changing the immobilization time, chloride calcium concentration and concentration of sodium alginate, anaerobic granular sludge immobilization condition was optimizated. The optimum immobilization conditions were as follows:1% sodium alginate, 1. 5% CaCl2 , 10 min immobilization time. The activity and stability of methane production in the granular sludge after immobilization treatment were higher than those in not fixed treatment sludge.%以啤酒废水处理厌氧颗粒污泥为菌种,海藻酸钠为包埋剂,氯化钙为固化剂,制备固定化厌氧颗粒污泥。以产甲烷活性为恒量指标,通过改变海藻酸钠浓度、氯化钙浓度以及固定化时间,进行厌氧颗粒污泥固定化条件优化。最适固定化条件为:1%海藻酸钠,1.5% CaCl2浓度,10 min固定化时间。经固定化处理后的颗粒污泥,其产甲烷活性及稳定性均高于未经过固定化处理的颗粒污泥。

  14. Crystal size distribution of struvite in preparation process by mother liquor from magnesium-hydroxide production%脱镁母液制备磷酸铵镁过程中的粒度分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚; 王学魁; 段瑛锋; 沙作良; 袁建军

    2011-01-01

    Struvite was prepared by semi-batch method with phosphoric acid and the mother liquor from magnesium-hydroxide production as raw materials. Influences of operating conditions, such as stirring speed, feed location, feed rate, reactant concentration,and adding amount of seed,on crystal size distribution ( CSD) of struvite were investigated. Results showed properly increasing stirring speed,decreasing feed rate, or decreasing reactant concentration all could make the average crystal size increase and the coefficient of variation ( C. V. ) decrease; feeding in the propeller area could create larger crystal size and better CSD than feeding in the surface;and seeding appropriately could cause average size of products increase significantly and the CSD more uniform.%以脱镁母液和磷酸为原料,采用半间歇操作方式制备磷酸铵镁,研究了操作条件(包括搅拌转速、加料位置、加料速度、反应物浓度、晶种加入量)对磷酸铵镁晶体粒度分布的影响.结果表明:适当提高搅拌转速、降低加料速度和降低反应物浓度均可增大产品的平均粒径并减小其变异系数;在桨区加料所得产品平均粒径较大且粒度分布较好;加入适量晶种可以显著增大产品的平均粒径并使其粒度分布更加均匀.

  15. Technology of Mg(OH)2 Preparation Using Magnesium Resource from the Byproduct of Potassium Fertilizer Production%钾肥副产镁资源制备氢氧化镁的生产技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴礼定; 曾波

    2012-01-01

    氢氧化镁是一种重要的无机化工原料,其用途广泛,市场广阔.青海盐湖蕴藏着十分丰富的镁资源,盐湖集团钾肥生产中每吨产品氯化钾排放母液(俗称老卤)30t,可副产10t氯化镁.文章介绍了目前中国利用盐湖镁资源制备氢氧化镁的方法,包括物理粉碎法、氢氧化钙法、氨法、氢氧化钠法、组合法等,简要分析了这些方法的优缺点.提出了开发利用钾盐伴生的镁资源,扩大镁的来源,提升中国氢氧化镁的市场竞争能力.%Magnesium hydroxide is a kind of important inorganic chemical with versatile application and wide market. There are plenty of magnesium resources in Qinghai Salt Lake. When 1 ton potassium chloride is produced in production, 30 tons mother liquor (old halogm) discharge, which can produce 10 tons magnesium chloride. Preparation methods of magnesium hydroxide in China including physical mill, calcium chloride, ammonia, sodium hydroxide, combination method ect. Are introduced in magnesium resources utilization. And the advantage and the disadvantage of the methods are also analyzed. The magnesium resource from the byproduct of potassium production can be developed and utilized to increase the source of magnesium. The market competitive force of magnesium hydroxide will be improved.

  16. PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATION OF LINEAR DEXTRINS .1. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AMYLODEXTRIN, METASTABLE AMYLODEXTRINS, AND METASTABLE AMYLOSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERIK, GHPT; EISSENS, AC; BESEMER, AC; LERK, CF

    The linear dextrin amylodextrin was prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis from waxy maize. Four metastable amylodextrins were prepared by complexation with different volatile organic compounds. All products showed partial dissolution into water at room temperature, because of dissolution of molecules

  17. Microbial diversity in a bagasse-based compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasiliensis Diversidade microbiana em composto a base de bagaço de cana preparado para produção de Agaricus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ferreira Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Edible mushrooms are renowned for their nutritional and medicinal properties and are thus of considerable commercial importance. Mushroom production depends on the chemical composition of the basic substrates and additional supplements employed in the compost as well as on the method of composting. In order to minimise the cost of mushroom production, considerable interest has been shown in the use of agro-industrial residues in the preparation of alternative compost mixtures. However, the interaction of the natural microbiota present in agricultural residues during the composting process greatly influences the subsequent colonisation by the mushroom. The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify the microbiota present in a sugar cane bagasse and coast-cross straw compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasilienses. Composting lasted for 14 days, during which time the substrates and additives were mixed every 2 days, and this was followed by a two-step steam pasteurisation (55 - 65ºC; 15 h each step. Bacteria, (mainly Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. and members of the Enterobacteriaceae were the predominant micro-organisms present throughout the composting process with an average population density of 3 x 10(8 CFU/g. Actinomycetes, and especially members of the genus Streptomyces, were well represented with a population density of 2 - 3 x 10(8 CFU/g. The filamentous fungi, however, exhibited much lower population densities and were less diverse than the other micro-organisms, although Aspergillus fumigatus was present during the whole composting process and after pasteurisation.Os cogumelos comestíveis são apreciados pelas suas propriedades nutricionais e medicinais e, por essa razão, possuem alto valor econômico. A produção de cogumelos depende da composição química dos substratos básicos, dos suplementos utilizados e da preparação do composto no qual o fungo será cultivado. Considerando-se que os custos de

  18. Preparation of semisynthetic (+)-tubocurarine chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghaway, J; Soine, T O

    1979-05-01

    Semisynthetic (+)-tubocurarine chloride (II) was prepared by monoquaternization of (+)-tubocurine. The method involved treating (+)-tubocurine with a 0.5 M equivalent of hydrochloric acid prior to quaternization with methyl iodide, followed by neutralization and iodide-chloride ion-exchange. Column chromatography and crystallization procedures were utilized for pure semisynthetic II preparation. The neuromuscular junction blocking activities of the semisynthetic and commercial II were determined by the in vivo cat hypoglossal nerve-tongue muscle preparation. No delectable differences among physical constants, spectral data, and neuromuscular junction blocking activities were noted between the commercial product and the semisynthetic II. This result substantiates the chemical and biological data for the well-accepted new formula for II. The unexplained M + n14 mass spectral peaks shown by the curare-type bases are characteristic of the molecular species rather than a result of contaminants.

  19. Preparation of Lanthanum Nickel Oxide-Coated Ni Sheet Anodes and Their Application to Electrolytic Production of (CF3)3N in (CH3)4NF·4.0HF Melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new process for electrolytic production of a perfluorinated compound, (CF3)3N, using lanthanum nickel oxide-coated Ni sheet anode in the (CH3)4NF·4.0HF melt at room temperature, was developed. Thin films of the lanthanum nickel oxides were prepared on Ni sheets by sol-gel coating method using polyvinlylpyrrolidone(PVP). The main components of the thin films were La2O3, LaNiO3, and La2NiO4 at 500, 750 and 1000 ℃, respectively. The anode performance in the (CH3)4NF·4.0HF melt depends greatly on the main component of the thin film, and the LaNiO3-coated Ni sheet anode gives the best anode performance. The potential of LaNiO3-coated Ni sheet anode remains constant at 5.9 V during electrolysis at 20 mA·cm-2 in the (CH3)4NF·4.0HF melt for 100 h. This is because LaNiO3 and NiF3 and/or Ni2F5, the latter of which was formed during electrolysis, in the film give a high electronic conductivity to the surface film during electrolysis. The maximum mole fraction of (CF3)3N (21.4%) was obtained at 20 mA·cm-2 in (CH3)4NF·4.0HF melt using the LaNiO3-coated Ni sheet.

  20. Application of life cycle assessment to production processes of environmentally sustainable concrete, prepared with artificial aggregates; Applicazione della metodologia life cycle assessment alla produzione di conclomerati cementizi di qualita' contenenti aggregati artificiali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaccaro, R. [Italrecuperi, Pozzuoli (Italy); Colangelo, F. [Basilicata Univ., Poteza (Italy). Dip. di Ungegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente; Palumbo, M. [Federico II Univ., Napoli (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Fisica dell' Ambiente; Cioffi, R. [Parthenope Univ., Napoli (Italy). Dipartimento per le Tecnologie

    2005-08-01

    This paper is about the application of Life Cycle Assessment (L.C.A.) on environmentally sustainable concrete production processes. The goal of this experimentations is to assess environmental impact and energy demand related to concrete production, by using, in different admixtures, natural and artificial aggregates, belonging from treatments of different kind of industrial wastes characterized by very small particle sizes. Particular attention was concentrated on the utilization of fine fraction since it is difficult to recover in usual fields of recycling (i.e. aggers, crowl spaces, etc.). This study follows the approach from cradle to cradle. This experimentation was conducted in relation to four concrete admixtures produced, one of them containing only natural aggregate, and the other ones obtained by substituting the 10% of aggregate respectively with inert wastes as construction and demolition waste (CeD waste). cement kiln dust (CKD) and marble sludge. For all admixtures six different end-life scenarios have been proposed, one of them considers all materials transported in landfill while the other ones consider a partial transportation on landfill (15%) and a recycle of the 85% of wastes obtained after demolition of structures. [Italian] Il presente lavoro ha come oggetto l'applicazione della metodologia Life Cycle Assessment (L.C.A.) ai processi produttivi di calcestruzzi eco-compatibili. L'obiettivo dello studio e' quello di valutare il carico ambientale ed il consumo energetico associato alla produzione di calcestruzzo impiegando, in differenti miscele, aggregati artificiali provenienti dal trattamento di differenti tipologie di scarti industriali di pezzatura molto piccola. E' stata posta particolare attenzione all'utilizzo della frazione fine in quanto quest'ultima risulta piu' difficilmente recuperabile nei consueti campi d'impiego (es. rienpimento per sottofondi stradali, vespai, etc.). L

  1. Preparing for Multiple Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video Games, and the Internet Preparing for Multiple Births KidsHealth > For Parents > Preparing for Multiple Births Print ... a combination of both. The Risks of Multiple Births The most common risk involved with multiple births ...

  2. Preparation of CuCrO2-WO3 and its photocatalytic performance for hydrogen production%CuCrO2-WO3的制备及光催化产氢性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂赟; 刘先平; 赵茜; 王延吉; 林瑞榕

    2014-01-01

    The principle of p-n type semiconductor composite photocatalysts is discussed as a strategy to develop efficient photocatalysts for water splitting. Composite of p-type and n-type semiconductor has an advantage in taking full use of each semiconductor’s function of oxidation and reduction, which could facilitate the photo-induced electron/hole pairs’ separation by the inner electric field, enhancing the photocatalytic efficiency of the system. CuCrO2 was synthesized by a novel combustion reaction method with glycerin as fuel, and WO3 was prepared by the tungsten acid decomposition method. The configurations CuCrO2-WO3 and Ru/(CuCrO2-WO3) were successfully prepared by mechanical grinding and heat-treatment. The prepared samples were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance (UV-vis DR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic activities of CuCrO2, WO3, CuCrO2-WO3 and Ru/(CuCrO2-WO3) were evaluated under xenon lamp irradiation. The factors including pH of grinding media and Ru loading were also investigated. When glycerin was used as the sacrificial reagent under xenon lamp irradiation, CuCrO2 or WO3 powders alone was not able to catalyze H2 generation from water splitting, while coupled photocatalysts of CuCrO2-WO3 displayed remarkable photocatalytic activity. The improvement of photocatalytic activity was attributed to the formation of p-n junctures at the interface of CuCrO2-WO3. When grinding media was at pH 8, dispersion of WO3 was particularly better, which contributed to more efficient compounding of the two powders and better activity of the composite as a consequence. Ru loading as cocatalyst also remarkably enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production. The 0.5% (mass) Ru/(CuCrO2-WO3) exhibited better photocatalytic activity for splitting pure water into hydrogen under 300W xenon lamp irradiation, on which H2 production was about 10μmol for 3 h.%作

  3. Thesis Preparation Manual

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    "This Thesis Preparation Manual has been written to provide you with format and procedure guidance for preparing and processing your thesis at the Naval Postgraduate School. It covers both unclassified and classified theses. All theses and thesis technical reports must be prepared in accordance with these guidelines. Please note that this manual is not written in the thesis format." form the Foreword

  4. 9 CFR 108.5 - Preparation of legends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of legends. 108.5 Section... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.5 Preparation of legends. A brief description of the activities performed in each room or area shall be prepared as provided in this section and shall be referred to as a...

  5. [Bioequivalence studies of pharmaceutical preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetchý, D; Frýbortová, K; Rabisková, M; Danecková, H

    2007-01-01

    Bioequivalence studies are very important for the development of a pharmaceutical preparation in the pharmaceutical industry. Their rationale is the monitoring of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters after the administration of tested drugs. The target of such study is to evaluate the therapeutic compatibility of tested drugs (pharmaceutical equivalents or pharmaceutical alternatives). The importance of bioequivalence studies is increasing also due to the large growth of the production and consumption of generic products. Generic products represent approximately 50 % of the whole consumption in many European countries and USA. The search output of bioequivalence study is together with the pharmaceutical quality data of medical product one of the main part of the registration file submitted to a national regulatory authorities. The registration of generic products does not demand complicated and expensive clinical study contrary to original product. The comparison of the original and the generic product via bioequivalence study is suggested as sufficient. The aim of this article is to provide to a medical public a summary about the types of bioequivalence studies, their range, rules of their practise and let them gain their own attitude to this question.

  6. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  7. 产胞外多糖的嗜热链球菌ST冷冻干燥制剂的研究%Exopolysaccharide production and lyophilization preparation from Streptococcus thermophilus ST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴荣荣; 王立平; 高莉莉; 刘伯衢; 张柏林

    2008-01-01

    ST strain, isolated from yogurt purchased from a local market and identified as Streptococcus thermophilus based on physiological-biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence, produced 55.62mg·L-1 of exopolysaccharides (EPS). The EPS level produced by strain ST depended upon incubation time (24h), temperature (40℃), initial pH (7.0) of the medium and supplemented glucose (20g·L-1). The major monosaccharide of EPS formed by this strain was confirmed to be glucose. Moreover, data from the lyophilization preparation of strain ST showed that the optimal medium containing NFMS (100.0g·L-1), yeast extract (3.0g·L-1), CaCO3(9.0g·L-1) and whey powder (20.0g·L-1) promoted its viable cells to a level of 1.05×109CFU·mL-1. The combination of NFMS (160.0g·L-1), glycerol (30.0g·L-1), sodium glutamate (30.0g·L-1) and Tween 80 (5.0g·L-1) was proved to be a good cytoprotectant for the protection of strain ST against the stresses of freeze-drying. Temperature, pH and rotation speed were important factors for gaining high viable counts in pilot-plant production of strain ST lyophilizator. The optimal combination including fermentation temperature (37℃), rotation speed (90r·min-1) and pH (5.9), resulted in a direct-vat-inoculation preparation of strain ST that contained viable cells of 1.7×1011CFU·g-1 after lyophilization. Use of lyophilized strain ST preparation to directly ferment 80.0g·L-1 reconstituted skim milk to yogurt produced lower whey separation than that of yogurt made with non-EPS strains used as controls.%从当地市售的传统酸奶中分离出一株产胞外多糖的链球菌,经生理生化和16S rDNA序列分析,将该菌株确定为嗜热链球菌ST.在补充了20g·L-1的葡萄糖,初始pH7.0的培养基上,40℃,培养24h后,其胞外多糖产量为55.62mg·L-1.进一步的结构分析显示,此多糖的主要单糖组成为葡萄糖.在生产嗜热链球菌ST冷冻干燥制剂时,其最佳的增殖培养基组成为脱脂奶粉100.0g

  8. 地木耳护肤品的配制及性能检验和功效测试%Preparation,Performance Examination and Efficacy Test of Skin Care Products of Nostoc commune

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑芳; 康苗苗; 冯佳; 吕俊平; 刘琪; 谢树莲

    2016-01-01

    为探索天然植物资源在护肤美容方面的功效,以地木耳(Nostoc commune Vauch.)提取物为原料,配制了护肤霜、润肤露、化妆水和面膜等护肤品,对其性能和功效进行了研究。结果表明,配制的护肤品外观均匀、细腻,色泽自然,分散均一,易涂展,肤感清爽,且具有良好的稳定性;外界温度变化和振摇均不影响其状态和功效;对金黄色葡萄球菌、枯草芽胞杆菌和大肠杆菌均有明显的抑制作用,具有广谱抗菌性;同时,涂敷后清爽滋润,无不适,安全无毒无副作用。地木耳护肤品对自由基具有较强的清除作用,保湿性好,紫外吸收能力强,对酪氨酸酶的抑制率较大,具有抗皱抗衰、保湿、防晒、美白的多重功效。%In order to explore the effects of natural plant resources in skin care,the performance and ef-ficacy of skin care products,such as skin cream,skin lotion,toning lotion and facial mask,prepared with Nostoc commune extracts,were studied.The results showed that the skin care products had uniform and deli-cate appearance,genuine luster,uniform dispersion,easy applying exhibition,skin feeling fresh and good stability.Their status and efficacy were not affected by external temperature change and vibration.They also possessed obvious inhibitory effects on Staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli,so they had broad -spectrum antimicrobial resistance.It was refreshing and moisturizing without uncomfortable feeling after coated,so they were safe without toxic and side effects.They had strong scavenging effects on free radi-cals,good moisture retention,strong ultraviolet absorption ability and great inhibition rate of tyrosinase,thus they owned multiple functions such as anti -wrinkling,anti -aging,moisture keeping,sun protection and whitening.

  9. [Aesthetic surgery, psychic preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiss, R

    2003-10-01

    The aesthetic surgery impacts the psychological picture of the body. The candidate must be prepared to this change in appearance. If not, the surgeon must suggest the psychological preparation, evaluating the risk of dissatisfaction, in order to allow the surgical and narcissistic success of his operation. The author, a psychiatric, beneficiary in a strong experience of a surgical assistance, develops the interest of such a preparation upon a period of about 15 years (1988-2002).

  10. Materials Preparation Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MPC is recognized throughout the worldwide research community for its unique capabilities in purification, preparation, and characterization of: rare earth metals,...

  11. Materials Preparation Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MPC is recognized throughout the worldwide research community for its unique capabilities in purification, preparation, and characterization of: rare earth metals,...

  12. International Conference on Harmonisation; guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 4C on Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Acceptance Criteria for Pharmaceutical Preparations and Substances for Pharmaceutical Use General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-08

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 4C: Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Acceptance Criteria for Pharmaceutical Preparations and Substances for Pharmaceutical Use General Chapter." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Microbiological Examination of Nonsterile Products: Acceptance Criteria for Pharmaceutical Preparations and Substances for Pharmaceutical Use General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of lycopene, vitamin E, lutein and selenium and “ helps to prepare and activate tannin g ” pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Cyprus, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim...... related to a combination of lycopene, vitamin E, lutein and selenium and “helps to prepare and activate tanning”. The Panel considers that the combination of lycopene, vitamin E, lutein and selenium is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “helps to prepare...... and activate tanning”. Tanning (i.e. increasing the pigmentation of the skin) may contribute to the protection of the skin against UV-induced damage. The Panel considers that protection of the skin from UV-induced (including photo-oxidative) damage is a beneficial physiological effect. A claim on a combination...

  14. Progress involving new techniques for liposome preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjun Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review of new techniques being used for the preparation of liposomes. A total of 28 publications were examined. In addition to the theories, characteristics and problems associated with traditional methods, the advantages and drawbacks of the latest techniques were reviewed. In the light of developments in many relevant areas, a variety of new techniques are being used for liposome preparation and each of these new technique has particular advantages over conventional preparation methods. However, there are still some problems associated with these new techniques that could hinder their applications and further improvements are needed. Generally speaking, due to the introduction of these latest techniques, liposome preparation is now an improved procedure. These applications promote not only advances in liposome research but also the methods for their production on an industrial scale.

  15. Thyroid preparation overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid preparations are medicines used to treat thyroid gland disorders. Overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. This can be by accident or ...

  16. Guidelines for Transitional Education Plan Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzio, Raphaëlle Martinez; Bethke, Lynne; Haas, Anna; Perrier, Janne Kjaersgaard; De Grauwe, Anton; Sigsgaard, Morten; Bird, Lyndsay; Coury, Diane; Gay, Dorian; MacEwan, Leonora; Seeger, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The "Guidelines for the Transitional Education Plan Preparation" are the result of an extensive consultation process and the product of fruitful guidance and contributions from key partners active in the field of education in emergencies and protracted crises. The new global education agenda 2030 places strong emphasis on countries…

  17. Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Moises L.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…

  18. Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Moises L.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…

  19. 9 CFR 104.5 - Products for distribution and sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 104.5 Products for distribution and sale. An application for a U.S. Veterinary... preparation, and all records relative to such preparation. (3) The manufacturer shall furnish...

  20. Emulsified Water Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Tuğçe AKSUN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Seafood is very important depending on having high protein rate and easily digestibility by human, for supply to an important part of animal protein needed. Determining the quality of emulsion-type products, emulsion stability, viscosity and gel strength properties are very important. In the production of products specified in this property emulsion; the main protein ratio and properties of raw material used while you; emulsion pH, temperature, ionic violence, mixing speed, type of fat and additives that are used as well. Previous studies show that particularly of products resulting from water emulsified chicken and goat meat emulsified product obtained from a high capacity of emulsified and compared to cattle and sheep meat is close to specifications, preparation of emulsified type products may be appropriate for the use of fish meat. Another quality parameter in the emulsified meat products, viscosity depends on the amount of meat used in direct proportion with the texture. Fish meat animals in connective tissue connective tissue in meat other butchers to rate ratio is quite low. In this respect, the fish meat produced using emulsified products viscosity according to products prepared using other meat products is quite low. Fish meat produced using emulsified fish sausage products based on surimi, sausage and fish pate fish varieties classed emulsion type products. In this review the different types of seafood using emulsified meat product.

  1. Coal combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  2. Access cavity preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, N; Tomson, P L

    2014-03-01

    Each stage of root canal treatment should be carried out to the highest possible standard. The access cavity is arguably the most important technical stage, as subsequent preparation of the root canal(s) can be severely comprised if this is not well executed. Inadequate access can lead to canals being left untreated, poorly disinfected, difficult to shape and obturate, and may ultimately lead to the failure of the treatment. This paper highlights common features in root canal anatomy and outlines basic principles for locating root canals and producing a good access cavity. It also explores each phase of the preparation in detail and offers suggestions of instruments that have been specifically designed to overcome potential difficulties in the process. Good access design and preparation will result in an operative environment which will facilitate cleaning, shaping and obturation of the root canal system in order to maximise success.

  3. Homeopathic and high dilution preparations for pest management to tomato crop under organic production system Manejo fitossanitário do tomateiro com uso de preparados homeopáticos e altas diluições sob sistema orgânico de produção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiani A Modolon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomato crops (Solanum lycopersicum under conventional production system are constantly treated against pest and diseases, with organic synthetic pesticides that are used may cause serious disturbance to environment and human health. This research was carried out in order to study the effect of homeopathic and high dilution preparations on pests and diseases management of tomato crop under organic production system. Two experiments were conducted under field conditions and one in greenhouse. All of them in randomized block design with the cultivar Santa Cruz Kada. The treatments consisted of homeopathic preparations Staphysagria, Arsenicum album, Sulphur, Arnica montana, high dilution preparations of Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum aculeatissimum, at the decimal (DH or centesimal (CH scale of hahnemanian high dilution. Bordeaux mixture, cupric preparation, and Bacillus thuringiensis were also included in weight doses. The preparation Arnica montana 12DH increased the tomato yield under field conditions. The damage incidence of small borer was efficiently reduced with applications of Sulphur 12CH that equalling to B. thuringiensis. The same treatment did not reduce the large borers. B. thuringiensis reduced also the septoria leaf spot incidence in the field. In greenhouse, the high dilution preparation of tomato at 12DH completely suppressed the septoria leaf spot and drastically reduced the same disease at 24DH. The homeopathic and high dilution preparations have the potential to be effective on replacing pesticides that are used on tomato, and could be suitable to fill legal requirement for organic production system.O tomateiro (Solanum lycopersicum sob sistema de produção convencional está constantemente sujeito a pragas e doenças, os pesticidas orgânicos sintéticos que são usados podem causar graves perturbações ao meio ambiente e à saúde humana. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de preparados homeopáticos e altas

  4. Evaluation of research methods to study domestic food preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongoni, R.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Steenbekkers, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Domestic preparation practices influence the sensory properties and nutritional composition of food products. Information on the variability in actual domestic preparation practices is needed to assess the influence of applied conditions on the sensory and nutritional quality of food. The

  5. 9 CFR 108.3 - Preparation of plot plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of plot plans. 108.3... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.3 Preparation of plot plans. Plot plans shall show all of the buildings on a... on the plot plan the use of immediate adjacent properties such as, residential area, pasture,...

  6. Evaluation of research methods to study domestic food preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongoni, R.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Steenbekkers, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Domestic preparation practices influence the sensory properties and nutritional composition of food products. Information on the variability in actual domestic preparation practices is needed to assess the influence of applied conditions on the sensory and nutritional quality of food. The

  7. PROJECT ENGINEERING DATA MANAGEMENT AT AUTOMATED PREPARATION OF DESIGN DOCUMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Guryanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed and realized instrumental means for automated support of end-to-end design process for design documentation on a product at the programming level. The proposed decision is based on processing of the engineering project data that are contained in interdependent design documents: tactical technical characteristics of products, data on the valuable metals contained in them, the list of components applied in a product and others. Processing of engineering data is based on their conversion to the form provided by requirements of industry standards for design documentation preparation. The general graph of the design documentation developed on a product is provided. The description of the developed software product is given. Automated preparation process of interdependent design documents is shown on the example of preparation of purchased products list. Results of work can be used in case of research and development activities on creation of perspective samples of ADP equipment.

  8. Development and application of a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method using photodiode array detection for simultaneous determination of granisetron, methylparaben, propylparaben, sodium benzoate, and their main degradation products in oral pharmaceutical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewala, Ismail; El-Fatatry, Hamed; Emam, Ehab; Mabrouk, Mokhtar

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive RP-HPLC method using photodiode array detection was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of granisetron hydrochloride, 1-methyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid (the main degradation product of granisetron), sodium benzoate, methylparaben, propylparaben, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (the main degradation product of parabens) in granisetron oral drops and solutions. The separation of the compounds was achieved within 8 min on a SymmetryShield RP18 column (100 x 4.6 mm id, 3.5 microm particle size) using the mobile phase acetonitrile--0.05 M KH2PO4 buffered to pH 3 using H3PO4 (3+7, v/v). The photodiode array detector was used to test the purity of the peaks, and the chromatograms were extracted at 240 nm. The method was validated, and validation acceptance criteria were met in all cases. The robust method was successfully applied to the determination of granisetron and preservatives, as well as their degradation products in different batches of granisetron oral drops and solutions. The method proved to be sensitive for determination down to 0.04% (w/w) of granisetron degradation product relative to granisetron and 0.03% (w/w) 4-hydroxybenzoic acid relative to total parabens.

  9. Preparation of hydrophobic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Eric D.; Shah, Pratik B.; Singh, Seema; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2009-02-03

    A method for preparing a hydrophobic coating by preparing a precursor sol comprising a metal alkoxide, a solvent, a basic catalyst, a fluoroalkyl compound and water, depositing the precursor sol as a film onto a surface, such as a substrate or a pipe, heating, the film and exposing the film to a hydrophobic silane compound to form a hydrophobic coating with a contact angle greater than approximately 150.degree.. The contact angle of the film can be controlled by exposure to ultraviolet radiation to reduce the contact angle and subsequent exposure to a hydrophobic silane compound to increase the contact angle.

  10. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Bang, H. S. [and others

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of {omega}-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes.

  11. Preparation of activated carbon from a renewable agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-10

    May 10, 2010 ... Preparation of activated carbon from a renewable agricultural ... fuel-wood because household energy requirements are met with multiple ..... for activated carbon production - A review. Renewable & Sustainable. Energy ...

  12. 乳清蛋白-麦芽糖糊精的Maillard反应复合物制备β-胡萝卜素纳米乳液%Preparation of β-carotene nanoemulsions stablilized by Maillard Reaction Products of whey protein isolate and maltodextrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 刘成梅; 刘伟; 钟俊桢

    2013-01-01

    系统考察乳液制备参数对乳液粒径分布及稳定性的影响,同时以干热法制备乳清分离蛋白(Whey Protein Isolate,WPI)-麦芽糖糊精(Maltodextrin,MD)的Maillard反应复合物(Maillard Reaction Products,MRPs).以此为基础,制备WPI-MD MRPs稳定的β-胡萝卜、素纳米乳液,并进一步考察乳液的物理稳定性及β-胡萝卜、素的化学稳定性.结果表明,WPI-MD的MRPs能够显著降低纳米乳液的粒径,并提高纳米乳液的物理稳定性.同时,WPI-MD的MRPs可加速油相中β-胡萝卜素的降解,其机理有待进一步研究.%Conditons for preparing nanoemulsions were investigated systematically. The Maillard Reaction Products(MRPs) were prepared by dry heating which were further used to prepare β-carotene nanoemulsions. The physical stability of the obtained nanoemulsions and the β-carotene degregation kinetics were simultaneously studied. The result showed that nanoemulsions stabilized by MRPs with smaller fat globe size were much physically stable compared with the nanoemulsions stablized by native WPI. However,the β-carotene in MRPs stablized nanoemulsions degradated more rapidly which mechanism should be futher studied in future.

  13. Preparation of Bauxite Ceramic Microsphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xiaosu; LIU Pingan; LI Xiuyan; SHUI Anze; ZENG Lingke

    2007-01-01

    Ceramic microspheres were prepared by using Chinese bauxite as raw materials through the centrifugal spray drying method. The control technology of microsphere size, degree of sphericity was researched. The ceramic microspheres were sintered by a double sintering process. The microstructure and composition of ceramic microsphere were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy spectroscopy. The results show that the degree of sphericity of the ceramic microsphere was good and the particle size was 10-100 μm. The XRD analysis reveals that the main crystalline phase of the ceramic microsphere was α- Al2O3 and mullite (3Al2O3·2SiO2). The product can be used as reinforced material for composite material, especially for antiskid and hard wearing aluminum alloy coating.

  14. Comparison of preparative HPLC/MS and preparative SFC techniques for the high-throughput purification of compound libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Philip A; Glass, Keithney A; Hochlowski, Jill E

    2004-01-01

    A diverse set of 16 high-throughput organic synthesis libraries, consisting of 48 samples per library, has been purified by both preparative supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This paper details the relative effectiveness of these two purification techniques in terms of success, yield, and purity of final product.

  15. Study of the structure and morphology of alumina prepared by combustion reaction using different containers production capacity; Estudo da estrutura e morfologia da alumina preparada por reacao de combustao usando recipientes de diferentes capacidades de producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.C. da; Cunha, R.B.L.; Costa, A.C.F.M. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Kiminami, R.H.G.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Freitas, N.L. de, E-mail: normanda@ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Tecnologia do Desenvolvimento

    2012-07-01

    Research involving the synthesis of alumina by combustion reaction has intensified in recent years, aiming at the development of nanomaterials. Thus, this work aims at synthesis by combustion reaction using alumina containers with different production capacity of the final product, denominated R02 and R19, and its characterization. During the reaction was performed to measure the time and temperature of the combustion flame and the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that depending on the volumetric capacity of the container occurs changes in temperature and time of the combustion flame. However the structure and morphology were not changed. The highest temperature of reaction was found for the container R19 (6020C) and longer (219 s) to the container R02. (author)

  16. Technological Optimization of the Preparation of Imidacloprid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻建平; 王长林

    2003-01-01

    In order to reduce the production cost of imidacloprid, the preparation technology for the direct combination of 2-chloro-5-chloromethylpyridine and 2-nitryliminoglyoxaline has been optimized in a 10L stirred tank reactor with a new solvent, butanone, and a new catalyst, benzyl triethyl-ammonium chloride (BTEAC), which was proved to be more profitable for the production of imidacloprid. Three main affecting factors (the reaction temperature, the molar ratio of BTEAC to 2-nitryliminoglyoxaline and the concentration of 2-nitryliminoglyoxaline) for the production of imidacloprid were investigated and the optimum operating conditions were found. Based on the above technological optimization, an industrial process for imidacloprid with a production capacity of 50 tons per year was put in operation using a 2500 L stirred tank reactor under the same operating conditions. Good yield and purity of imidacloprid was also obtained ia the industrial production.

  17. Pelletizing Experiment and Production with Preparation of Na-bentonite from Ca-bentonite%球团用钙基膨润土钠化改型试验与生产实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新江; 王志强; 谢爱虎

    2009-01-01

    以湖北鄂州某地钙基膨润土为原料,采用双螺旋挤压钠化改型工艺,以Na2CO3为改型剂制备钠基膨润土,确定了该地区膨润土钠化改型最优生产工艺条件.实践表明,钠化改型后的膨润土性能有较大的提高,可满足冶金球团用膨润土的要求.%Using Ca-bentonite produced from Ezhou Hubei province as raw materials and adopting the double-helix extrusion modification mechanism, the Na-based bentonite modified with Na2CO3 has been prepared, the optimum conditions of this Na-activated bentonite prodution technology are comfirmed, which can greatly improve the Na-activated bentonite properties for spheric agglomeration application.

  18. Hydrolytic Amino Acids Employed as a Novel Organic Nitrogen Source for the Preparation of PGPF-Containing Bio-Organic Fertilizer for Plant Growth Promotion and Characterization of Substance Transformation during BOF Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengge; Meng, Xiaohui; Feng, Chenglong; Ran, Wei; Yu, Guanghui; Zhang, Yingjun; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Opportunity costs seriously limit the large-scale production of bio-organic fertilizers (BOFs) both in China and internationally. This study addresses the utilization of amino acids resulting from the acidic hydrolysis of pig corpses as organic nitrogen sources to increase the density of TrichodermaharzianumT-E5 (a typical plant growth-promoting fungi, PGPF). This results in a novel, economical, highly efficient and environmentally friendly BOF product. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy combined with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) was employed to monitor compost maturity levels, while pot experiments were utilized to test the effects of this novel BOF on plant growth. An optimization experiment, based on response surface methodologies (RSMs), showed that a maximum T-E5 population (3.72 × 108 ITS copies g-1) was obtained from a mixture of 65.17% cattle manure compost (W/W), 19.33% maggot manure (W/W), 15.50% (V/W)hydrolytic amino acid solution and 4.69% (V/W) inoculum at 28.7°C after a 14 day secondary solid fermentation. Spectroscopy analysis revealed that the compost transformation process involved the degradation of protein-like substances and the formation of fulvic-like and humic-like substances. FRI parameters (PI, n, PII, n, PIII, n and PV, n) were used to characterize the degree of compost maturity. The BOF resulted in significantly higher increased chlorophyll content, shoot length, and shoot and root dry weights of three vegetables (cucumber, tomato and pepper) by 9.9%~22.4%, 22.9%~58.5%, 31.0%~84.9%, and 24.2%~34.1%, respectively. In summary, this study presents an operational means of increasing PGPF T-E5 populations in BOF to promote plant growth with a concomitant reduction in production cost. In addition, a BOF compost maturity assessment using fluorescence EEM spectroscopy and FRI ensured its safe field application.

  19. Hydrolytic Amino Acids Employed as a Novel Organic Nitrogen Source for the Preparation of PGPF-Containing Bio-Organic Fertilizer for Plant Growth Promotion and Characterization of Substance Transformation during BOF Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengge Zhang

    Full Text Available Opportunity costs seriously limit the large-scale production of bio-organic fertilizers (BOFs both in China and internationally. This study addresses the utilization of amino acids resulting from the acidic hydrolysis of pig corpses as organic nitrogen sources to increase the density of TrichodermaharzianumT-E5 (a typical plant growth-promoting fungi, PGPF. This results in a novel, economical, highly efficient and environmentally friendly BOF product. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM spectroscopy combined with fluorescence regional integration (FRI was employed to monitor compost maturity levels, while pot experiments were utilized to test the effects of this novel BOF on plant growth. An optimization experiment, based on response surface methodologies (RSMs, showed that a maximum T-E5 population (3.72 × 108 ITS copies g-1 was obtained from a mixture of 65.17% cattle manure compost (W/W, 19.33% maggot manure (W/W, 15.50% (V/Whydrolytic amino acid solution and 4.69% (V/W inoculum at 28.7°C after a 14 day secondary solid fermentation. Spectroscopy analysis revealed that the compost transformation process involved the degradation of protein-like substances and the formation of fulvic-like and humic-like substances. FRI parameters (PI, n, PII, n, PIII, n and PV, n were used to characterize the degree of compost maturity. The BOF resulted in significantly higher increased chlorophyll content, shoot length, and shoot and root dry weights of three vegetables (cucumber, tomato and pepper by 9.9%~22.4%, 22.9%~58.5%, 31.0%~84.9%, and 24.2%~34.1%, respectively. In summary, this study presents an operational means of increasing PGPF T-E5 populations in BOF to promote plant growth with a concomitant reduction in production cost. In addition, a BOF compost maturity assessment using fluorescence EEM spectroscopy and FRI ensured its safe field application.

  20. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the main auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via ...

  1. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place in the afternoons of 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via Ind...

  2. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance ...

  3. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register ...

  4. Preparations, models, and simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an outline for a typology of the different forms that scientific objects can take in the life sciences. The first section discusses preparations (or specimens)--a form of scientific object that accompanied the development of modern biology in different guises from the seventeenth century to the present: as anatomical-morphological specimens, as microscopic cuts, and as biochemical preparations. In the second section, the characteristics of models in biology are discussed. They became prominent from the end of the nineteenth century onwards. Some remarks on the role of simulations--characterising the life sciences of the turn from the twentieth to the twenty-first century--conclude the paper.

  5. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register ...

  6. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance ...

  7. Preparation of mullite fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.; Wang, B.; Liu, S.; Yan, Y. [Xiamen Univ. (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-06-01

    Transparent mullite fibers have been prepared using aluminum carboxylates (ACs) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as starting materials. The ACs are derived from the catalyzed dissolution of elemental aluminum in a mixture of formic acid and acetic acid. The solubility of aluminum in the acids is influenced by the concentrations of the acids, water, and additives and the preparation temperature. A 1:4:3:24 molar ratio of aluminum, formic acid, acetic acid, and water dissolves the aluminum completely to give a colorless, clear solution suitable for fiber synthesis. The mixture of the ACs and TEOS, in the presence of ethyl alcohol as a mutual solvent at 50--60 C, is concentrated to give a spinnable dope, from which mullite precursor fibers can be drawn. Heat treatment of the precursor at 1,250 C yields crystallized and transparent mullite fibers.

  8. Preparation for Physics Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelson, Edward

    2006-12-01

    The textbook for our preparation for physics course has been rewritten ab initio. Like its predecessor, it adapts a spiral approach to dealing with preconceptions, but this version encourages work at higher levels in Bloom's taxonomy and makes students sensitive to how p-prims affect their understanding. As its title: "All in Proportion: Preparation for Physics" indicates, it emphasizes how far proportional reasoning will take the student. Classwork is mainly group work, and various techniques are used to encourage students to complete the learning cycle on material that has not been mastered. Both the FCI and the Lawson "Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning" have been given to gauge student progress. Preliminary results will be reported and sample materials will be shown.

  9. PESTICIDES EFFICIENCY IN WHEAT PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    It is suggested that the Karate Zeon insecticide is highly effective in wheat protection against pests. The profitability of soft spring wheat production with the above preparation used is about 176%. The economic effect of Karate Zeon is the same as that of Krezatsin, Mival and TMTD Plus preparations that are used for wheat seeds treatment against plant diseases

  10. The Preparation of Graphene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanyan

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has unique structure and possesses excellent physical and chemical properties, and it has received a great deal of attention in related research fields. The quality, quantity and application of graphene are related to its preparation methods. At present the bottleneck of graphene research is that both high-quality and large quantity of graphene could not be obtained simultaneously and the reason is that the basic mechanism of graphene formation has mot been wel understood.

  11. Preparation of chitosan gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerge S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerogel conditioning of the chitosan makes it possible to prepare porous solids of significant specific surface. The increase in the chitosan concentration or the degree of acetylation decreases the specific surface of the synthesized chitosan gel. Whereas drying with supercritical CO2 more effectively makes it possible to preserve the volume of the spheres of gel and to have a more significant specific surface in comparison with evaporative drying.

  12. Preparation of amidated derivatives of carboxymethylcellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubner, Tomáš; Synytsya, Andriy; Čopíková, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was selected as substrate for amidation based on previous results described for monocarboxy cellulose (MCC) with the aim to prepare highly substituted products. In comparison with MCC containing uronic carboxyl groups at C-6 position, O-carboxymethyl groups in CMC should be more accessible for reagents because they are more distant from the polysaccharide chain. Two-step way of amidation was based on the esterification of CMC carboxyls by reaction with methanol and further amino-de-alkoxylation (aminolysis) of the obtained methyl ester with amidation reagents (n-alkylamines, hydrazine and hydroxylamine). Purity and substitution degree of the products were monitored by the vibration spectroscopic methods (FTIR and Raman) and organic elemental analysis. Analytical methods confirmed the preparation of highly or moderately substituted N-alkylamides, hydrazide and hydroxamic acid of CMC.

  13. Does explicit expectation really affect preparation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbach, Valentin J; Schwager, Sabine; Frensch, Peter A; Gaschler, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Expectation enables preparation for an upcoming event and supports performance if the anticipated situation occurs, as manifested in behavioral effects (e.g., decreased RT). However, demonstrating coincidence between expectation and preparation is not sufficient for attributing a causal role to the former. The content of explicit expectation may simply reflect the present preparation state. We targeted this issue by experimentally teasing apart demands for preparation and explicit expectations. Expectations often originate from our experience: we expect that events occurring with a high frequency in the past are more likely to occur again. In addition to expectation, other task demands can feed into action preparation. In four experiments, frequency-based expectation was pitted against a selective response deadline. In a three-choice reaction time task, participants responded to stimuli that appeared with varying frequency (60, 30, 10%). Trial-by-trial stimulus expectations were either captured via verbal predictions or induced by visual cues. Predictions as well as response times quickly conformed to the variation in stimulus frequency. After two (of five) experimental blocks we forced participants by selective time pressure to respond faster to a less frequent stimulus. Therefore, participants had to prepare for one stimulus (medium frequency) while often explicitly expecting a different one (high frequency). Response times for the less frequent stimulus decreased immediately, while explicit expectations continued to indicate the (unchanged) presentation frequencies. Explicit expectations were thus not just reflecting preparation. In fact, participants responded faster when the stimulus matched the trial-wise expectations, even when task demands discouraged their use. In conclusion, we argue that explicit expectation feeds into preparatory processes instead of being a mere by-product.

  14. 淀粉水解糖与谷氨酸反应物的制备与分析%Preparation and Analysis of Product From Reaction Between the Hydrolysate of the Sugar and Glutamic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文东; 周靖; 邵艳秋; 刘倩

    2001-01-01

    This paper reported that 5 h reaction between hydrolysate of the sugar (200 g) and glutamic acid (8 0 g,pH=7) at 95~105 ℃ produced a sticky brown product. The ether-soluable compounds of the reaction products from the hy drolysate of the sugar and glutamic acid has been analyzed with GC-MS. The chart s of the mass spec trum was verified by NIST62LIB and NIST12LIB spectrum library index c ombinding with EPA/NIH standard mass spectrum. Unification of the whole iron fl ow has been accepted as quantitative method. The analysis result shows that this condensation product has 21 contants. Five of them are Furans and Pyrans, which are respectively. The above five contants share 60.13%, and their most common charateristic fragr ance is caramel dece at which can be used to color cigarate and fruit and make them fragrant.%报道了用淀粉水解糖与谷氨酸在pH=7,温度95~105 ℃下反应5 h, 得到粘稠状棕色反应物 。用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)对其醚溶性产物进行分析。质谱图的确认采用NIST62LIB及N IST12LIB谱库检索及EPA/NIH质谱标准图相结合。定量采用总离子流各峰面积归一化。分析 结果表明:此种缩合产物为21个组分,其中吡喃、呋喃类化合物占5种,其含量占总量的60.13%。香气特征为焦糖香,可用于烟草及食品的着色致香。

  15. Preparation and characterization of aluminum stearate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Eva S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of aluminum stearate by the precipitation method was examined under various conditions of stearic acid saponification with sodium hydroxide. It was proved that the most favorable ratio of acid/alkali was 1:1.5 and that the obtained soap was very similar to the commercial product. Endothermic effects determined by differential scanning calorimetry and also the other parameters showed that the soaps consisted mono-, di-, tristearates and non-reacted substances, where distearate was the dominant form.

  16. Preparing Apigenin from Leaves of Adinandra nitida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengxiang Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Adinandra nitida were used as raw material, and a new industrially significant method of preparing apigenin was established by hydrolyzing a water extract and recrystallizing it with ethanol in order to obtain a new source for the production of this flavone. A yield of about 2.5 % (dry mass was obtained with the purity of 93.05 %, determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Moreover, the main flavonoids in leaves of Adinandra nitida and the product after acid hydrolysis were identified as camellianin A and apigenin, respectively, by ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV/VIS and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS.

  17. Preparing of Manganese Sulfate From Manganiferous Wastewater Yielded in Cobalt Salt Production%钴盐生产过程中含锰废水制备硫酸锰的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺剑明; 李婵君; 肖利; 庄建华; 定强

    2014-01-01

    In the process of preparing of cobalt salt using heterogenite ,the wastewater which contains heavy metal ions such as M n2+ ,Cu2+ ,Co2+ ,Zn2+ was produced .By four-stages purification and solvent extracting ,manganese sulfate which could be applied in battery materials was obtained .In the first stage ,Cu2+ ,Co2+ ,Zn2+ are precipitated by sodium sulphide ,the optimum amounts of sodium sulphide is 60 g/L .In the second stage ,ammonium bicarbonate is used to adjust pH for hydrolytic precipitation aluminum .In the third stage ,sodium sulphate is used to remove Ca2+ ,the ideal amounts of sodium sulphate is 110 g/L .In the fourth stage ,Al3+ ,Ca2+ can be further purified by adding sodium fluoride , the best amount of sodium fluoride is 0 .45 g/L .After the above four steps ,manganese sulfate was obtained by P204-extraction and H2 SO4 anti-extraction ,evaporation and crystallization ,manganese sulfate used as battery materials can be obtained .%针对水钴矿制备钴盐生产过程中含锰、铜、钴、锌等重金属离子废水,通过4步除杂、P204萃取富集锰,制备电池材料用硫酸锰。第1步用硫化钠去除铜、钴、锌离子,硫化钠最佳加入量为60 g/L ;第2步用碳酸氢铵调pH去除铝,最佳pH为4.5;第3步用硫酸钠去除Ca2+,硫酸钠最佳用量为110 g/L ;第4步用氟化钠进一步去除Al3+和Ca2+,氟化钠最佳用量为0.45 g/L。4步除杂后的废水用P204萃取、硫酸反萃取,得到硫酸锰溶液,硫酸锰溶液经蒸发结晶得到电池材料用硫酸锰。

  18. Studies on Production of Biodiesel by Esterification of Fatty Acids by a Lipase Preparation from Candida sp. 99-125%假丝酵母99-125脂肪酶促酯化合成生物柴油的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓利; 聂开立; 王芳; 谭天伟

    2005-01-01

    A self-made lipase preparation from Candida sp. 99-125 was used for the production of biodiesel through enzymatic esterification of fatty acids. The crude lipase powder and fermentation broth were immobilized on a cheap fiber cloth carrier. The conditions of lipase-catalyzed esterification between long-chain fatty acids and methanol in a solvent system were investigated in detail, including the temperature, pH value, substrate concentration, solvent,absorbent agent, enzyme dosage and purity, immobilization method, the mode of addition of substrate. The results show that reaction temperature, pH of lipase micro-environment, substrate concentration, enzyme dosage and purity affect the esterification strongly. Several new methods and enzymatic procedures for improving the enzymatic reaction involving the process cost are also discussed, such as fossil diesel fuel as reaction solvent, immobilization method, multi-step gradient addition of methanol. The esterification degree of 92.8% was obtained with oleic acid and methanol under the optimal reaction condition after 12.5h reaction time. The half-life of the immobilized lipase preparation from crude free lipase powder for esterification was 15 days.

  19. Test Preparation: Your Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  20. Analysis and Combustion of Biodiesel Prepared by Transesterification of Palm Oil Without By-Product Glycerol%无甘油副产生物柴油的组分分析及其燃烧性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙树桢; 张丽平; 孟鑫; 辛忠

    2012-01-01

    以氢氧化钾为催化剂催化棕榈油和新型甲酯化试剂MC进行酯交换反应制备生物柴油,采用气相色谱和气质联用的方法对反应产物进行了定性、定量分析.分析结果表明,由该工艺制得的生物柴油由主产物脂肪酸甲酯和副产物甘油碳酸酯组成.测定了生物柴油的主要物理性能指标,同时在柴油机未作任何调整的情况下进行了台架试验,考察了生物柴油与0 #柴油混合燃料对柴油机燃烧过程、经济性和排放性的影响.实验结果表明,制得的生物柴油的密度、酸值和运动黏度均符合国家标准,将其与0#柴油混合(生物柴油体积分数20%)后可直接应用于柴油机,MC和甘油碳酸酯对缸内燃烧过程和经济性影响很小;燃用添加MC和甘油碳酸酯的混合燃料能有效降低柴油机碳烟、碳氢化合物和CO的排放量,NOx排放量稍有增加.%Transesterification of palm oil with MC(a methyl esterification reagent) on a solid base (KOH) catalyst for biodiesel production was investigated. The products were analyzed by means of GC and GC-MS. The results showed that fatty acid methyl esters were the main components with glycerol carbonate as the by-product. The main physicochemical properties of the biodiesel were measured. The effects of the blended oil of the biodiesel and 0# diesel oil on the combustion process, economics and emissions of the diesel engine were studied through bench experiments without any engine adjustment. It was showed that the density, acid value and kinematic viscosity of the blended oil(the biodiesel content 20%(φ)) conformed to the Chinese standard and the blended fuel could be applied to diesel engine. The effect of the blended fuel with MC and glycerol carbonate on economics of the engine was a little. Smoke, hydrocarbon and CO emissions of the engine with the blended fuel could be reduced effectively, but the NO., emission increased slightly.

  1. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård;

    2004-01-01

    as increased phosphate and urea concentrations, whereas calcium and potassium concentrations decreased significantly after bowel preparation. No differences in plasma or extracellular volumes were seen. Orthostatic tolerance and balance function did not change after bowel preparation. CONCLUSIONS: Bowel...

  2. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  3. Emerging Risk Identification Support : Preparing for present and future hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort, M.M.J. van

    2013-01-01

    Food and feed companies need to be well-prepared for hazards resulting from their products and production processes. TNO has developed a unique Emerging Risk Identification Support service (ERIS ) that identifies new and unexpected hazards and helps stakeholders make well-considered decisions at an

  4. Emerging Risk Identification Support : Preparing for present and future hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort, M.M.J. van

    2013-01-01

    Food and feed companies need to be well-prepared for hazards resulting from their products and production processes. TNO has developed a unique Emerging Risk Identification Support service (ERIS ) that identifies new and unexpected hazards and helps stakeholders make well-considered decisions at an

  5. Preparation of Solid Derivatives by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, E. W.; Pennington, Maxine

    1980-01-01

    Describes the preparation of selected aldehydes and ketones, alcohols, amines, phenols, haloalkanes, and tertiaryamines by differential scanning calorimetry. Technique is advantageous because formation of the reaction product occurs and the melting point of the product is obtained on the same sample in a short time with no additional purification…

  6. Preparation of Solid Derivatives by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, E. W.; Pennington, Maxine

    1980-01-01

    Describes the preparation of selected aldehydes and ketones, alcohols, amines, phenols, haloalkanes, and tertiaryamines by differential scanning calorimetry. Technique is advantageous because formation of the reaction product occurs and the melting point of the product is obtained on the same sample in a short time with no additional purification…

  7. Challenges in preparing human resources for the production sector involving fields with marginal accumulations; Desafios na capacitacao de recursos humanos para o setor de producao em campos com acumulacoes marginais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Paulo Cezar Paim de

    2009-07-01

    Among the main obstacles that operating companies in the exploration and production (E and P) sector of oil and natural gas worldwide currently face to develop their activities is the scarcity of qualified staff. The fast growth of investments in E and P during the recent years (higher than 10% per year), as a function of the increase in oil prices, has created a gap between the demand and the supply of skilled human resources. In Brazil, the demand-supply relation of the aforementioned human resources is even more critical because, beyond the increasing investments, the recent opening of the sector for the participation of private initiative, after more than 50 years of state monopoly, still encounters a natural concentration os specialized knowledge within PETROBRAS. For small operators, especially those in oil fields with marginal accumulations, such scarcity also causes an increase in costs. Given this scenery, educational institutions together with companies of the sector face the great challenge of developing the needed human resources with the pace and quality demanded. The appropriate equation and the adequate solution to this challenge will contribute to the success of the growing sector of small size independent E and P operators in the country. (author)

  8. Preparation of tungsten oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulian, Christopher J.; Dye, Robert C.; Son, Steven F.; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Perry, W. Lee

    2009-09-22

    Tungsten trioxide hydrate (WO.sub.3.H.sub.2O) was prepared from a precursor solution of ammonium paratungstate in concentrated aqueous hydrochloric acid. The precursor solution was rapidly added to water, resulting in the crash precipitation of a yellow white powder identified as WO.sub.3.H.sub.2O nanosized platelets by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Annealing of the powder at 200.degree. C. provided cubic phase WO.sub.3 nanopowder, and at 400.degree. C. provided WO.sub.3 nanopowder as a mixture of monoclinic and orthorhombic phases.

  9. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  10. Why Specialized Preparation is Critical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwin, C. Kenneth; Dickinson, Thomas S.; Smith, Tracy W.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that mandating specific teacher preparation programs may be necessary to ensure that teachers are adequately prepared for the unique challenges and rewards of teaching young adolescents, discussing: the desirability of teacher young adolescents, important elements of teacher preparation, the need for tighter licensure requirements, and the…

  11. Photocatalytic Production of Hydrogen over S doped TiO2 Photocatalysts Prepared by Micro-arc Oxidation Technique%微弧氧化法制备硫离子掺杂TiO2薄膜及光催化制氢性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张魁; 白雪峰

    2014-01-01

    The S doped TiO2 film catalysts (S-TiO2) were prepared using Na2SO3 as S source by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) technique. The above-prepared S-TiO2 was characterized by XRD, UV-Vis, XPS and SEM. The XRD results revealed that the anatase structure peaks were only found in the pattern of S-TiO2, which was good for photocatalytic reaction. The crystalline structure and surface appearance of TiO2 film had no obvi-ous changes with the change of Na2SO3 concentration in electrolyte. The absorption edge of S-TiO2 had a red shift which was observed in the UV-Vis absorption spectra, and it indicated that the film had certain response to visible light. The results of photocatalytic production of H2 showed that the production rate of H2 was 0.279μmol/cm2·h over S-TiO2 which was prepared with Na2SO3 with a concentration of 0.03mol/L.%以Na2SO3作为硫源,采用微弧氧化法法制备了硫离子掺杂TiO2薄膜(S-TiO2),利用XRD、UV-Vis、SEM和XPS等测试手段对上述催化剂进行了表征。分析结果表明,TiO2膜层只生成单一相的锐钛矿,并没有发现金红石相TiO2的特征峰;TiO2膜层的晶相组成及表面形貌没有受到硫源加入的影响;S离子掺杂后TiO2薄膜的吸收边发生红移,表明薄膜对可见光有一定的响应。 Na2SO3添加浓度为0.03mol/L时,制备的S-TiO2光催化产氢速率达到0.279μmol/cm2·h。

  12. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Human Resources is organising a preparation for retirement seminar which will take place on the four successive afternoons of 2 to 5 October 2007. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of one’s working life and the start of a new period of life. This period of transition and change is experienced differently from one individual to another. In any case, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above as well as those who have retired during the year have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of th...

  13. Preparation for retirement seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

      The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via Indico. &a...

  14. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a Preparation for Retirement Seminar, which will take place on 18 and 21 October 2011 in the afternoon in the Main Auditorium and on 19 October and 15 and 16 November 2011 in the afternoon in the Council Chamber. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned, you are ...

  15. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a Preparation for Retirement Seminar, which will take place on 18 and 21 October 2011 in the afternoon in the Main Auditorium and on 19 October and 15 and 16 November 2011 in the afternoon in the Council Chamber. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned, you are r...

  16. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    27 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 28 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 29 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 30 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 4.45 p.m. Auditorium (Main Building) After the success of the preparation seminars held in recent years, it has been decided that the programme should continue. The forthcoming seminar has been prepared in close collaboration with the CERN Pensioners' Association. The programme will be organised over several half-day sessions. Once again this year, a special session will be devoted to the 10th revision of the Swiss state pension scheme, the 'AVS' (Assurance-Vieillesse et Survivants), and the consequences for international civil servants. A talk will be given by Mrs Danièle Siebold, Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation, aimed mainly at those residing in or intending to move to Switzerland, or who worked in Switzerland before joining CERN. To enable Mrs Siebold to respond to your concerns as effectively as possible, please ...

  17. Data Breach Preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belangia, David Warren [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-13

    The Home Depot Data Breach is the second largest data breach on record. It has or will affect up to 56 million debit or credit cards. A trusted vendor account, coupled with the use of a previously unknown variant of malware that allowed the establishment of a foothold, was the entry point into the Home Depot network. Once inside the perimeter, privilege escalation provided an avenue to obtain the desired information. Home Depot did, however, learn some lessons from Target. Home Depot certainly communicated better than Target, procured insurance, and instituted as secure an environment as possible. There are specific measures an institution should undertake to prepare for a data breach, and everyone can learn from this breach. Publicly available information about the Home Depot Data Breach provides insight into the attack, an old malware variant with a new twist.While the malware was modified as to be unrecognizable with tools, it probably should have been detected. There are also concerns with Home Depot’s insurance and the insurance provider’s apparent lack of fully reimbursing Home Depot for their losses. The effect on shareholders and Home Depot’s stock price was short lived. This story is still evolving but provides interesting lessons learned concerning how an organization should prepare for it inevitable breach.

  18. Pharmacy preparations : Back in the limelight? Pharmacists make up your mind!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommelin, Daan J A; Bouwman-Boer, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution to the theme issue recognizing prof. Florence's achievements as editor -in-chief of the Int. J. Pharmaceutics, we analyze the future of pharmacy preparations (also known as extemporaneous preparations or compounded products). Pharmacy preparations, long considered as an

  19. Comparison of different preparation and determination methods of aluminum in jellyfish products%海蜇中铝测定前处理方法及检测方法比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白艳艳; 谷伟丽; 马元庆; 孙珊; 魏潇; 张秀珍

    2014-01-01

    目的:采用4种不同的前处理方法结合2种不同检测方法对海蜇产品中铝含量进行测定,探索简易、精密度高、准确度高、适用性强的检测方法。方法取鲜海蜇、盐渍海蜇、即食海蜇样品,采用水煮消解、酸煮消解、微波消解、电热板消解4种不同前处理方法结合滴定和 ICP-MS2种方法测定海蜇产品中铝,同时做精密度及回收率试验。结果酸煮消解、微波消解及电热板消解3种前处理方法检测结果经统计学检验无显著性差异(P>0.01),三种前处理方法的 RSD%0.01). The recoveries were in the range of 101.2%∼105.4% with RSD<2%. Significant difference was found between boiled digestion and the other methods (P<0.01), and the recovery ratio was only 78.7% for acid digestion-ICP-MS method. Conclusion Boiled digestion was not suitable for pretreatment of aluminum in jellyfish products with low extraction rate. Acid titration method could be used for the determination of jellyfish aluminum by enterprises and inspection agencies, with low costs, high precision and accuracy. Electric-heating-plate digestion plus titration method could be applied with satisfactory precision and accuracy to replace acid titration detection by the enterprises in case of a large quantity of samples. Microwave digestion plus ICP-MS method was suitable for research institutes of high standard facilities, because of its convenient operation, high sensitivity, and high recovery ratio.

  20. Preparation of Carboxymethyl Potato Starch with Ethanol Method and Product Characterization%乙醇溶剂法制备羧甲基马铃薯淀粉及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鲁峰; 魏鹏娟; 缪文华; 徐晓云; 傅虹飞; 潘思轶

    2009-01-01

    Carboxymethyl potato starch was synthesized using ethanol as solvent by single and multi - step processes, and the products were analyzed with infra -red spectra, X-ray diffractogram, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electronic microscopy, 13C -NMR and UV scanner. Results; DS of 0.75 and RE of 75% is the record of the single - step process, while DS of 1.06 and RE of 35.3% is that of the multi - step process. The microstruc-ture of the starch produced dramatically varies after the carboxymethylation; the crystallization degree decreases greatly and thermal stability increases. The substituent occurs mainly at C - 2 and C - 6 while the substituent of C - 3 is neglectable. The transmission of visible light of the carboxymethyl starch solution is much better than the original potato starch.%以乙醇为溶剂通过单步反应和多步反应制备了羧甲基马铃薯淀粉,并采用红外光谱、X-衍射、热重分析、扫描电镜、~(13)C核磁共振、紫外扫描对产品进行了分析.单步反应时取代度可以达到0.75,反应效率75%,多步反应时取代度可以达到1.06,反应效率35.3%.分析显示:淀粉微观结构发生了显著变化,结晶度大幅下降,热稳定性上升,取代位点主要分布在C-2、C-6位点上,C-3位点取代度很小,产品溶液在可见光区的透光性相对于原淀粉有极大提高.

  1. 复合微生态制剂在断奶仔猪生产中的应用研究%Study on the Application Effects of Compound Micro-ecological Preparation in the Production of Weaned Piglet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海燕; 武香玉; 辛国芹; 曹银生; 谢全喜; 谷巍

    2012-01-01

    试验旨在研究复合微生态制剂产品肽菌素对断奶仔猪生长性能、腹泻率及微生物菌群等的影响。试验选取45头定远黑断奶仔猪,随机分为3个组,对照组饲喂基础日粮,试验组在基础日粮中分别添加0.1%、0.2%的肽菌素,每个组3个重复,每个重复为5头猪。饲养试验期为21d。试验结果表明:①试验组1和试验组2的日增重分别比对照组提高了22.5%和12.9%(差异显著,P〈0.05);料肉比分别降低了7.87%(差异显著,P〈0.05)和4.49%(差异不显著,P〉0.05)。②在14d时,试验组1和试验组2的大肠杆菌数比对照组低5.87%和7.02%,均差异显著(P〈0.05);在21d时,试验组1与试验组2的乳酸杆菌数分别高出对照组4.18%和4.79%(P〈0.05),大肠杆菌数分别比对照组低6.68%和7.84%(P〈0.05)。③试验组1和试验组2的IgG水平分别比对照组提高了18.5%和22.4%,均差异显著(P〈0.05);试验组1和试验组2的总蛋白含量比对照组提高了9.46%和7.21%,血清尿素氮分别比对照组降低了22.9%和25.1%(P〈0.05)。④在14d时,试验组1和试验组2的SIgA水平分别比对照组提高了27.8%和30.6%(P〈0.05);在21d时,分别比对照组提高了33.0%和30.1%(P〈0.05)。⑤在14d时,试验组1和试验组2的蛋白酶分别比对照组提高了84.0%和99.3%(P〈0.01),淀粉酶分别提高了3.98%和7.65%(P〉0.05);在21d时,试验组1和试验组2的蛋白酶分别比对照组提高了77.4%和91.2%(P〈0.01),淀粉酶分别提高了13.1%和14.3%(P〉0.05)。由此可以得出,肽菌素能够减少断奶仔猪的腹泻率,提高其生长性能,还能够改善其微生物菌群,增强其免疫功能。%The study was conducted to discuss the effects of compound micro-ecological preparation peptin on the growth performance,diarrhea rate and microbial population of weaned piglets.45 Dingyuan black piglets were divided into three groups.The basal diet was added in

  2. Preparing Students for Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesel, Anna

    2010-01-01

    : USA, China, Korea, Mexico, Chile and others. We describe our experiences of working on industrial projects with international teams and analyse the development and trends in student mobility. The growing popularity of these programmes and the increasing number of the students joining our international......A. Friesel. Preparing Students for Globalization Working with International Teams with Projects // Electronics and Electrical Engineering. - Kaunas: Technologija, 2019. - No. 6(102). - P. 111-114. This paper summarizes the activities, contents and overall outcomes of our experiences...... with international students studying at the Copenhagen University College of Engineering (in short - IHK); in particular students coming for one semester exchange program under Erasmus-programme. IHK's participation in EU-supported programmes like EIE-Surveyor and ELLEIEC, both ERASMUS thematic networks, have...

  3. Preparing for faster filling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the programmed technical stop last week, operators focussed on preparing the machine for faster filling, which includes multibunch injection and a faster pre-cycle phase.   The LHC1 screen shot during the first multibunch injection operation. The LHC operational schedule incorporates a technical stop for preventive maintenance roughly every six weeks of stable operation, during which several interventions on the various machines are carried out. Last week these included the replacement of a faulty magnet in the SPS pre-accelerator, which required the subsequent re-setting of the system of particle extraction and transfer to the LHC. At the end of last week, all the machines were handed back for operation and work could start on accommodating all the changes made into the complex systems in order for normal operation to be resumed. These ‘recovery’ operations continued through the weekend and into this week. At the beginning of this week, operators succeeded in pro...

  4. Method to prepare Semtex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, A; Dougan, A

    2006-11-26

    This procedure requires the binder and uncoated RDX be prepared in separate steps, see Figure 1: (1) The binder and dye are mixed by agitation with a water-insoluble organic solvent (e.g., toluene), I; (2) The RDX/PETN is agitated thoroughly with water, II; (3) The binder solution I is added to the RDX/water mixture at II with thorough mixing to form a slurry III; (4) In the next step the solvent is distilled off at IV leaving resulting granules; (5) The next step is followed by filtration at V, which may be done by vacuum; (6) The composition is then dried at VI to a dough-like consistency.

  5. Enhancement of binding characteristics for production of an agglomerated product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taulbee, Darrell; Hodgen, Robert

    2016-08-30

    A method is provided for preparing a product from a precursor material. The method includes the steps of (a) mixing a particulate material and a binder to form a precursor material and (b) irradiating that precursor material with microwave radiation so as to activate the binder and form the product.

  6. Preparation and evaluation of sulphonamide nonionic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M. H. M.

    2010-07-01

    Alkyl (octyl, decyl and dodecyl; C{sub 8}, C{sub 1}0 and C{sub 1}2) benzene sulphonyl chloride was used in the preparation of a novel series of nonionic surfactants (IV-VI)a-c, (VII-IX) a-c and (X-XII)a-c. The preparations were completed by reacting each alkyl (C{sub 8}, C{sub 1}0 and C{sub 1}2) benzene sulphonyl chloride with ethanolamine to give (I-III) respectively. The resulting products were reacted separately with ethylene oxide in the presence of different (base KOH, Lewis acid SnCl4 and k10 clay) catalysts to produce different moles of nonionic surfactants (5, 7 and 9) in sequence corresponding to (IV-VI)a-c, (VII-IX) a-c and (X-XII)a-c respectively. The chemical structures of prepared nonionic surfactants were elucidated by IR and 1HNMR spectra. The surface activity, biodegradability and biological activities of the prepared compounds were investigated. The obtained data show that these compounds have good surface and biological activities as well as reasonable biodegradability properties. (Author) 30 refs.

  7. Predicting safe sandwich production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Duan, Zhi; Møller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    and serving. However, Danish sandwich producing companies find it challenging to comply with this and have expressed a need for more flexibility. The Danish guidelines do allow for a prolongation of the acceptable time outside the cold chain, if the safety of the specific production can be documented....... There is, therefore, room for developing targeted tools for evaluating the time-temperature scenarios in sandwich production. This study describes a decision support tool developed to offer the producers more flexibility. Based on time/temperature measurements obtained during preparation combined......Time and temperature control is crucial to avoid growth of pathogens during production and serving of cold ready-to-eat meals. The Danish guidelines state that chilled foods, such as sandwiches, should not be outside the cold chain for more than 3 hours including the time for preparation...

  8. 27 CFR 19.384 - Preparation of bottling or packaging record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... packaging record. 19.384 Section 19.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Than Denaturation and Manufacture of Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.384 Preparation of bottling or packaging record. The proprietor shall prepare a record for each batch of...

  9. Preparation and biological efficacy of haddock bone calcium tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍健聪; 邓尚贵; 谢超; 童国忠

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the possible use of waste products obtained after processing haddock, the present study prepared haddock bone calcium powder by NaOH and ethanol soaking (alkalinealcohol method) and prepared haddock bone calcium tablets using the powder in combination with appropriate excipients. The biological efficacy of the haddock bone calcium tablets was investigated using Wistar rats as an experiment model. Results show that the optimal parameters for the alkalinealcohol method are: NaOH concentration 1...

  10. Macroporous Monolithic Polymers: Preparation and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Inés Alvarez Igarzabal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, macroporous monolithic materials have been introduced as a new and useful generation of polymers used in different fields. These polymers may be prepared in a simple way from a homogenous mixture into a mold and contain large interconnected pores or channels allowing for high flow rates at moderate pressures. Due to their porous characteristics, they could be used in different processes, such as stationary phases for different types of chromatography, high-throughput bioreactors and in microfluidic chip applications. This review reports the contributions of several groups working in the preparation of different macroporous monoliths and their modification by immobilization of specific ligands on the products for specific purposes.

  11. Preparation of edge states by shaking boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Z.C. [Department of Physics, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Center for Quantum Sciences and School of Physics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Hou, S.C. [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Wang, L.C. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Yi, X.X., E-mail: yixx@nenu.edu.cn [Center for Quantum Sciences and School of Physics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Preparing topological states of quantum matter, such as edge states, is one of the most important directions in condensed matter physics. In this work, we present a proposal to prepare edge states in Aubry–André–Harper (AAH) model with open boundaries, which takes advantage of Lyapunov control to design operations. We show that edge states can be obtained with almost arbitrary initial states. A numerical optimalization for the control is performed and the dependence of control process on the system size is discussed. The merit of this proposal is that the shaking exerts only on the boundaries of the model. As a by-product, a topological entangled state is achieved by elaborately designing the shaking scheme.

  12. Preparation of edge states by shaking boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z. C.; Hou, S. C.; Wang, L. C.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-10-01

    Preparing topological states of quantum matter, such as edge states, is one of the most important directions in condensed matter physics. In this work, we present a proposal to prepare edge states in Aubry-André-Harper (AAH) model with open boundaries, which takes advantage of Lyapunov control to design operations. We show that edge states can be obtained with almost arbitrary initial states. A numerical optimalization for the control is performed and the dependence of control process on the system size is discussed. The merit of this proposal is that the shaking exerts only on the boundaries of the model. As a by-product, a topological entangled state is achieved by elaborately designing the shaking scheme.

  13. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  14. Premedication, preparation, and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, G D

    2002-01-01

    peppermint oil, as well as the value of variable-stiffness colonoscopes, in reducing the need for intravenous sedation is discussed. Case reports of hyponatraemic encephalopathy and hypocalcaemic tetany as complications of oral bowel preparation are presented, as is the challenge associated with adequate bowel preparation in diabetic patients.

  15. Preparation of Porous Mullite Composite by Microwave Sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Bingbing; ZHANG Rui; SUN Bing; LI Xuqin; LI Chunguang

    2012-01-01

    Microwave sintering method was carried out to prepare porous mullite composite.An insulation structure based on hybrid heating mode was well designed with the wall of mullite and the aided heaters of SiC.The obtained samples were characterized by XRD analysis,apparent porosity detection,and bending strength measurement.SEM was used to observe the microstructure of the sample.It is found that the porous mullite composite could be prepared through the microwave sintering within 2 h at relatively low temperatures around 1000 ℃.The lasted samples show comparatively superior properties to the products prepared by conventional processing.

  16. Production of bromine-75, a new radionuclide for marking radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paans, A.M.J.; Wiegman, T.; Hoeve, W.; Vaalburg, W. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis)

    1982-01-01

    Bromine-75 is the most useful of all bromine isotopes for nuclear medicine. Its properties like half-life, nuclear reactions, production and chemical preparation, as well as the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals containing bromine-75 are presented.

  17. Psychological preparation in sport shooting

    OpenAIRE

    Ledecká, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    Title: Psychological preparation in sport shooting Objectives: The objective of this thesis is usage of psychological preparation by sport shooting representation team in Czech Republic. How they are informed about psychological preparation. What it means to them. Which types of regulation they use and how they behave before and after a competition. Methods: A Questionnaire was used as a method for data obtaining. The questionnaire was compiled for the purposes of this Thesis. The researched ...

  18. Preoperative preparation of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Reshma Aranha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is a stressful and anxiety provoking experience for children. Millions of children undergo surgery every year. The majority of children experience significant preoperative anxiety which intern can affect their recovery. Preoperative anxiety may bring about physical and physiological changes in children, which can be particularly evident in terms of increased heart rate and blood pressure. To identify various strategies used to minimize the preoperative anxiety of children and update their clinical effectiveness among children undergoing surgery, the authors searched PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Cochrane Library for identifying the relevant studies and retrieved available literature. It is concluded that utilization of the strategies available to reduce the preoperative anxiety of children will be a promising intervention to reduce anxiety, to promote relaxation, satisfaction, and speedy recovery. Many of these techniques are simple, cost-effective and can be easily carried out by nurses. It is essential to use the age appropriate and individualized methods in preparing children for surgery. Further research is required to strengthen the evidence.

  19. Preparation for retirement seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    (Health insurance and wealth and succession planning) During the preparation for retirement seminar in November 2009, the sessions on health insurance in Switzerland and in France unfortunately had to be postponed. Participants in the seminar also expressed interest in an information session on “How to manage your wealth and organize your succession”. The sessions on health insurance will be held on 16 March 2010 and those on managing wealth and succession on 18 March 2010. Programme for Tuesday 16 March 2010 (TH Theory Conference Room, Building 4/3-006): 09:00 Health insurance in Switzerland by Mr. Sandro Breitenstein, Service de l'Assurance Maladie du Canton de Genève 10:00 Coffee break 10:20 Health insurance in France by Mr. Dominique Curtiaud, Caisse Primaire d'Assurance Maladie de l'Ain Programme for Thursday 18 March 2010 (TH Theory Conference Room, Building 4/3-006): 09:00 How to manage your wealth and organize your succession in Switzerland by Mr. Jean-Marc W...

  20. Preparing for the future

    CERN Multimedia

    Panos Charitos

    2016-01-01

    The second annual meeting of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study took place from 11 to 15 April in Rome.   The participants in the second annual meeting of the FCC design study. (Photo: Vinicio Tullio/INFN) More than 450 scientists, researchers and leaders of high-tech industry gathered in Rome to review the progress of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study. The study was kicked off in 2014 as a response to a statement in the European Strategy for Particle Physics, and today embraces 74 institutes from 26 countries. With the LHC programme well under way, particle physicists are at an exciting juncture. New results from the 13 TeV run could show that we are on the threshold of an eye-opening era that presents new challenges and calls for developments. “To prepare for its future, CERN should continue to develop a vibrant R&D programme that should take advantage of its strengths and uniqueness, pursue design studies for...

  1. Prepared for internship?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abuhusain, H

    2009-03-01

    Preparedness of medical school graduates for the intern year is one of the emphasised objectives of undergraduate medical training. We have evaluated the perceived preparedness of graduates undertaking the intern year in the Republic of Ireland. A 9-page questionnaire was mailed to all 497 interns in Ireland following commencement of the intern year in July 2005. Data obtained included demographics, perceived preparedness and assessment of perceived clinical skills (four sub-domains: core competencies, communication, emergencies, and educational environment). Information on intern induction was also collected. 99 questionnaires were returned (19.9%). Most of the cohort were Irish and worked in large medical school teaching hospitals. The majority of interns felt \\'unprepared\\' for the intern year. Interns perceived themselves \\'poor\\' in all areas of clinical skills assessed. Intern induction was attended by the majority and most stated it was too short. Medical schools are actively seeking innovative methods, through early patient contact and sub-internships, to better prepare undergraduates for the intern year. The deficiencies identified in this study are significant and emphasise the need for continued reform in the undergraduate curriculum.

  2. Deterministic joint remote state preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Nguyen Ba, E-mail: nban@iop.vast.ac.vn [Center for Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, 10 Dao Tan, Ba Dinh, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Bich, Cao Thi [Center for Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, 10 Dao Tan, Ba Dinh, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Physics Department, University of Education No. 1, 136 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Don, Nung Van [Center for Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, 10 Dao Tan, Ba Dinh, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Physics Department, Hanoi National University, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2011-09-26

    We put forward a new nontrivial three-step strategy to execute joint remote state preparation via Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs deterministically. At variance with all existing protocols, in ours the receiver contributes actively in both preparation and reconstruction steps, although he knows nothing about the quantum state to be prepared. -- Highlights: → Deterministic joint remote state preparation via EPR pairs is proposed. → Both general single- and two-qubit states are studied. → Differently from all existing protocols, in ours the receiver participates actively. → This is for the first time such a strategy is adopted.

  3. Cavity preparation machine for the standardization of in vitro preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Soares

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Several in vitro studies employ the confection of cavity preparations that are difficult to standardize by means of manual high speed handpieces. This study presents the development of a cavity preparation machine designed to standardize in vitro cavity preparations. A metal base of 25 mm x 25 mm x 4 mm (length x width x height was coupled to a small mobile table which was designed to be able to move by means of two precision micrometers (0.01-mm accuracy in the horizontal directions (right-left, and back-front. A high speed handpiece was coupled to a metallic connecting rod which had an accurate dial indicator enabling control of the vertical movement. The high speed handpiece is also able to move 180° around its longitudinal axis and 360° around its transversal axis. The suggested cavity preparation machine precisely helps in the standardization of cavity preparations for in vitro studies.

  4. Cavity preparation machine for the standardization of in vitro preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos José; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Gomide, Henner Alberto; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2008-01-01

    Several in vitro studies employ the confection of cavity preparations that are difficult to standardize by means of manual high speed handpieces. This study presents the development of a cavity preparation machine designed to standardize in vitro cavity preparations. A metal base of 25 mm x 25 mm x 4 mm (length x width x height) was coupled to a small mobile table which was designed to be able to move by means of two precision micrometers (0.01-mm accuracy) in the horizontal directions (right-left, and back-front). A high speed handpiece was coupled to a metallic connecting rod which had an accurate dial indicator enabling control of the vertical movement. The high speed handpiece is also able to move 180 degrees around its longitudinal axis and 360 degrees around its transversal axis. The suggested cavity preparation machine precisely helps in the standardization of cavity preparations for in vitro studies.

  5. Uses for waste diary products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgiss, K.J.

    1980-06-01

    Processing methods of waste dairy products are described. The major waste dairy product is whey, which is said to account for 20% of the total volume of milk processed. Individual methods of whey processing include the manufacture of lactose, whey demineralization in the preparation of babyfood, whey protein recovery by ultrafiltration and alcohol production. Two new techniques, lactose hydrolysis to increase the sweetness of lactose and reverse osmosis for concentration are also mentioned.

  6. Facilities for preparing actinide or fission product-based targets

    CERN Document Server

    Sors, M

    1999-01-01

    Research and development work is currently in progress in France on the feasibility of transmutation of very long-lived radionuclides such as americium, blended with an inert medium such as magnesium oxide and pelletized for irradiation in a fast neutron reactor. The process is primarily designed to produce ceramics for nuclear reactors, but could also be used to produce targets for accelerators. The Actinide Development Laboratory is part of the ATALANTE complex at Marcoule, where the CEA investigates reprocessing, liquid and solid waste treatment and vitrification processes. The laboratory produces radioactive sources; after use, their constituents are recycled, notably through R and D programs requiring such materials. Recovered americium is purified, characterized and transformed for an experiment known as ECRIX, designed to demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating americium-based ceramics and to determine the reactor transmutation coefficients.

  7. 508 Compliance: Preparing Presentations, Excel Files, Websites, and Multimedia Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory, 2014

    2014-01-01

    PowerPoint presentations, Excel documents, Web pages, and videos posted on federal websites must meet the requirements of the 1998 amendment to Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act. Doing so ensures that these materials are accessible to a wide range of people with disabilities, including visual, auditory, sensory, and motor impairments. These…

  8. Gas solid techniques for preparation of pure lanthanum hexaboride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mukherjee; A.; Gulnar; A.K.; Sahoo; D.K.; Krishnamurthy; N.

    2012-01-01

    The processes reported for the preparation of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) from lanthanum oxide involve the use of carbon either elemental or in the form of boron carbide or elemental boron itself as reducing agents, fused salts at high temperatures or reactions which require the product boride to be leached out. Each of these techniques either increases the process costs and/or increases chances of contamination in fi-nal product. Pure LaB6 can best be prepared by a reaction which produces a gaseous byprodu...

  9. Exploration of Competition Preparation Strategy of Higher Vocational Electronic Product Design and Production Skills Competition%高职组电子产品设计与制作项目技能大赛的备赛策略探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周平

    2016-01-01

    近年来,随着职业教育的不断发展,越来越多的高职院校开始加大对学生实践能力的提升,学校根据自身的特色制定出一系列的专业技能比赛机制并不断地将这种方式进行延伸,将参加省市级,甚至国家级技能大赛作为展示学校和学生优势的一个重要的形式,电子产品设计与制作项目技能大赛更是新阶段较为常见的技能大赛。文章主要针对电子产品设计与制作项目技能大赛的备赛策略进行一定的探究。%In recent years, with the continuous development of vocational education,more and more high vocational colleges began to increase the promotion of students' practical abilities,the school developed a series of professional skills competition mechanism and constantly to extend,will take part in provincial and even national skills contest as an important form to show the advantages of schools and students,electronic product design and production skills contest is a new phase is common skills con-test.This article mainly explores strategies of electronic product design and production skills contest.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Acylated Chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming-chun; LIU Chao; XIN Mei-hua; ZHAO Huang; WANG Min; FENG Zhen; SUN Xiao-li

    2005-01-01

    Fully acylated chitosan and N, N-diacyl chitosan were prepared. The products were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR and 1H NMR. The experimental results indicate that the average degree of acylation depends on the volume ratio of pyridine to chloroform in the reaction medium, the chain length of the acylation agent used, and the molecular weight of chitosan raw materials. The XRD measurements were carried out for pure chitosan, fully acylated chitosan and N, N-diacyl chitosan to verify the crystallinity change caused by the acylation.

  11. Preparation and Conductivity of Triheteropoly Tungstozincoaluminic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The ternary undecatungstozincoaluminic heteropoly acid H7[Al(H2O)ZnW11O39]·12H2O was prepared by the ion exchanging-cooling method. The optimal proportion of solutions of the component elements and the pH of the synthesis reaction were given. The product was characterized by chemical analysis, potentiometric titration, IR, UV, XRD and TG-DTA. AC impedance measurement results show that its proton conductivity is S/cm at 18℃.

  12. Biosurfactants for microbubble preparation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingyi; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Liu, Zengshe; Shiina, Takeo

    2011-01-17

    Biosurfactants can be classified by their chemical composition and their origin. This review briefly describes various classes of biosurfactants based on their origin and introduces a few of the most widely used biosurfactants. The current status and future trends in biosurfactant production are discussed, with an emphasis on those derived from plants. Following a brief introduction of the properties of microbubbles, recent progress in the application of microbubble technology to molecular imaging, wastewater treatment, and aerobic fermentation are presented. Several studies on the preparation, characterization and applications of biosurfactant-based microbubbles are reviewed.

  13. Coal preparation. Energy program report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, M.Y.

    1975-06-01

    This is one of several special reports prepared in conjunction with a broad state-of-the-art study on underground coal mining. This report is essentially a review of the current technology of coal preparation and future research needs in this field. (GRA)

  14. Preparing Students for Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbourd, Richard; Peterson, Amelia; Weinstein, Emily

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important aspects in our lives is learning how to have mutual, caring romantic relationships. Yet while schools and many other industries in this country devote tremendous attention and resources to preparing the young for work, they do remarkably little to prepare them for generous, self-respecting sex and love. Educators and…

  15. Recent advances in preparative electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Richard A.; Thormann, Wolfgang; Egen, Ned B.; Couasnon, Pascal; Sammons, David W.

    1987-01-01

    Various approaches for preparative electrophoresis, and three new instruments for preparative electrophoresis are discussed. Consideration is given to isoelectric focusing, isotachophoresis, and zone electrophoresis, three gel-based electrophoresis methods. The design, functions, and performance of the Elphor VaP 21 device of Hannig (1982), the shear-stabilized BIOSTREAM separator of Thompson (1983), and the recycling isoelectric focusing device are described.

  16. Teacher Preparation and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Donald J.; Grossman, Pamela L.; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2009-01-01

    There are fierce debates over the best way to prepare teachers. Some argue that easing entry into teaching is necessary to attract strong candidates, whereas others argue that investing in high quality teacher preparation is the most promising approach. Most agree, however, that we lack a strong research basis for understanding how to prepare…

  17. A Simple Preparation of Hexadeuteriocholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil; Crossland, Ingolf

    1996-01-01

    26,26,26,27,27,27 Hxadeuterio cholesterol has been prepared in 9 stages from pregnenolone and hexadeuterio acetone with an overall yield of 7 %.......26,26,26,27,27,27 Hxadeuterio cholesterol has been prepared in 9 stages from pregnenolone and hexadeuterio acetone with an overall yield of 7 %....

  18. Hydrogel: Preparation, characterization, and applications: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas M. Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogel products constitute a group of polymeric materials, the hydrophilic structure of which renders them capable of holding large amounts of water in their three-dimensional networks. Extensive employment of these products in a number of industrial and environmental areas of application is considered to be of prime importance. As expected, natural hydrogels were gradually replaced by synthetic types due to their higher water absorption capacity, long service life, and wide varieties of raw chemical resources. Literature on this subject was found to be expanding, especially in the scientific areas of research. However, a number of publications and technical reports dealing with hydrogel products from the engineering points of view were examined to overview technological aspects covering this growing multidisciplinary field of research. The primary objective of this article is to review the literature concerning classification of hydrogels on different bases, physical and chemical characteristics of these products, and technical feasibility of their utilization. It also involved technologies adopted for hydrogel production together with process design implications, block diagrams, and optimized conditions of the preparation process. An innovated category of recent generations of hydrogel materials was also presented in some details.

  19. 77 FR 50462 - Foreign-Trade Zone 59-Lincoln, NE, Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Novartis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ..., nicotine gum, and cold symptom products; preparations for skincare; pharmaceutical reference standards; and medicines for veterinary use. Production under FTZ procedures could exempt Novartis from customs duty...

  20. Proactive Modeling of Market, Product and Production Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Hvam, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an operational model that allows description of market, products and production architectures. The main feature of this model is the ability to describe both structural and functional aspect of architectures. The structural aspect is an answer to the question: What constitutes...... the architecture, e.g. standard designs, design units and interfaces? The functional aspect is an answer to the question: What is the behaviour or the architecture, what is it able to do, i.e. which products at which performance levels can be derived from the architecture? Among the most important benefits...... of this model is the explicit ability to describe what the architecture is prepared for, and what it is not prepared for - concerning development of future derivative products. The model has been applied in a large scale global product development project. Among the most important benefits is contribution to...

  1. PREPARATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF HINGULIYA MANIKYARASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inamdar Mahesh Prabhakar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rasashastra deals with the preparation of medicines mainly with the help of Mercury, minerals, metals and other herbs. It is our prime duty to develop basic standards at every step of drug preparation. The aim of the present research work was to study pharmaceutical and analytical aspect of Hinguliya Manikyarasa. For Pharmaceutical study the method used was the observations regarding time, temperature, cardinal stages, finished product and consumption of fuel. Temperature range for Hinguliya Manikyarasa was also studied. For Physicochemical study Crystallographic study, NPS test along with Chemical analysis of the same drug was done. The Result obtained as Hinguliya Manikyarasa requires 94 hours for preparation and the average temperature recorded for Mrudu Agni was 132.230C, for Madhyamagni was 303.660C and that for Tivra Agni was 499.830C. All the parameters like Time, Temperature and the amount of fuel used as parameters for standardization of Hinguliya Manikyarasa. The Nambury Phased Spot Test was used to identify and establish spot standards for the samples of Hinguliya Manikyarasa. The crystallographic study suggests that the compound Hinguliya Manikyarasa is a mixture of Sulphur, Arsenic Sulphide and Mercuric Sulphide. Another observation was As2S3 was found converted to AsS irreversibly.

  2. An edible gintonin preparation from ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun-Hye; Shin, Tae-Joon; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Hwang, Sung Hee; Kang, Jiyeon; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Park, Chan-Woo; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2011-11-01

    Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng, is one of the oldest herbal medicines. It has a variety of physiological and pharmacological effects. Recently, we isolated a subset of glycolipoproteins that we designated gintonin, and demonstrated that it induced transient change in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in cells via G-protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway(s). The previous method for gintonin isolation included multiple steps using methanol, butanol, and other organic solvents. In the present study, we developed a much simple method for the preparation of gintonin from ginseng root using 80% ethanol extraction. The extracted fraction was designated edible gintonin. This method produced a high yield of gintonin (0.20%). The chemical characteristics of gintonin such as molecular weight and the composition of the extract product were almost identical as the gintonin prepared using the previous extraction regimen involving various organic solvents. We also examined the physiological effects of edible gintonin on endogenous Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel activity of Xenopus oocytes. The 50% effective dose was 1.03±0.3 μg/mL. Finally, since gintonin preparation through ethanol extraction is easily reproducible, gintonin could be commercially applied for ginseng-derived functional health food and/or drug following the confirmations of in vitro and in vivo physiological and pharmacological effects of gintonin.

  3. [The bioequivalence of two oral propafenone preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koytchev, R; Alken, R G; Mayer, O; Böhm, R; Ellrich, A; Waldner-Kölblin, R G

    1995-05-01

    The bioequivalence of two oral racemic propafenone (CAS 54063-53-5) preparations was tested in an open, randomised, crossover trial with administration of single doses of 300 mg on two different occasions with a washout period of 7 days. 24 healthy, male volunteers, all proved to be rapid hydroxylators of debrisoquine, were enrolled in the trial. The concentrations of R(+)-, S(-)-propafenone and 5-hydroxypropafenone (5-OH-propafenone) were measured up to 12 h after administration by means of a sensitive and specific HPLC method that allowed the simultaneous quantification of all three substances in plasma. The results of 23 volunteers were evaluated pharmacokinetically. Main target parameters were AUC0-infinity and Cmax of both enantiomers of propafenone. Secondary target parameters were AUC0-infinity and Cmax of 5-OH-propafenone as well as tmax for R(+)- and S(-)-propafenone. The 90% confidence intervals for AUC0-infinity for R(+)-, S(-)-, and 5-OH-propafenone were 0.85-1.07, 0.83-1.10 and 0.84-1.05, respectively. The confidence intervals for Cmax were 0.81-1.12, 0.82-1.17 and 0.87-1.09 for R-, S-, and 5-OH-propafenone, respectively. The concentration maxima of both enantiomers were registered on average 15 min earlier after administration of the test preparation. This difference is of no clinical relevance. Both preparations are bioequivalent according to the criteria of the Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP).

  4. Kit preparation of radioiodinated o-iodohippuran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, G.H.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Kirschner, A.S.; Ice, R.D.

    1981-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a kit preparation for radioiodinated o-iodohippuran (I). All ingredients, excluding the radionuclide, were packaged in a ready-to-use kit for easy, quick formulation. Electrophoresis was utilized to evaluate the radiochemical purity of the labeled product and indicated that the radiolabeling technique provided a product with greater than 95% radiochemical purity. Biodistribution studies in rats and rabbits provided an indication of the tissue distribution and localization of the radiopharmaceutical. Computer-generated renogram curves plotted from gamma-camera images of rabbits showed the equivalency of the 131I-labeled I and 123I-labeled I to the commercially available radiopharmaceutical.

  5. Preparation of Metallic Isotope 26Mg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuXiaolei; ZhangFuming; GanZaiguo; GuoJunsheng; QinZhi

    2003-01-01

    Some special isotope material is usually used in nuclear experiments. It can be served as ion beam or target. When new superheavy nuclide 265Bh (Z=107) is synthesized, a reaction of 243Am target with 26Mg ion beamis selected to produce new isotope 265Bh. The preparation and production of this rare and extremely expensive isotope 26 Mg used for ion beam substance will be a key problem in synthesizing experiment of 265Bh. Theavailable chemical form of isotope 26Mg in commercial product usually is oxide or other compound, which are not required in our experiment. They need to be transformed to metal form as a proper working substance in ion source.

  6. Preparation and properties of dental zirconia ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Y2O3-stabilized tetragonal zireonia polyerystalline (Y-TZP) ceramics with high-performance were prepared for dental application by use of the micro-emulsion and two-step sintering method.The crystal phase,morphology,and microstructure of the reaction products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).XRD results show that the ceramics mainly consist of tetragonal zirconia.Physical and mechanical properties test results show that the bending strength,fracture toughness,and the density of full sintered Y-TZP ceramics are llS0 MPa,5.53 crown machined with this material by CAD/CAM system exhibits a verisimilitude configuration and the material's expansion coefficient well matches that of the glaze.These results further indicate that the product can be used as a promising new ceramic material

  7. 输血相容性检测室内质控品制备技术优化与性能评价%Performance evaluation and optimization of preparation technology of internal quality control products for blood transfusion compatibility testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洋; 张婷; 骆群; 汪德清; 马春娅; 冯倩; 陈鑫; 关晓珍; 张晓娟; 陈麟凤; 林子林; 潘纪春

    2011-01-01

    Objective To optimize the technology for preparing internal quality control (IQG) preducts for blood transfusion compatibility testing, and detect changes in performance indicators of IQC products during storage, and determine a reasonable processing and shelf life, and evaluate the application value of prepared IQC products. Methods B/RhD- healthy blood donor samples within 10 days of collection were mixed and centrifuged and prepared as mixed packed red blood cells and mixed plasma. Mixed packed red blood cells were divided into two groups, and one group was washed twice by using the MAP BBC preservative solution (MAP group) and the other group was washed twice with normal saline (Saline group)Washed red blood cells from the two groups, MAP red blood cell preservation solution, and the mixed plasma were mixed at 1:2:3 by volume. Antibody titer of IgG anti-D reagent was deteeeted,and the highest dilution resulting in 2 + agglutination strength was determined. According to the dilution determined, IgG anti-D reagent was added to the above red cell, MAP and plasma mixture. The two groups of mixed suspension were aliquoted in capped rigid plastic tubes and stored at 4℃. All quality control samples were placed in room temperature for 1 h every day. B antigen on the red blood cells, IgM anti-A antibody, IgG anti-D antibody , Na+, K+, LDH,lactate and free hemoglobin (FHb) concentration in the supematant were detected on 0,35,42,49 days of storage. Results The reactivity of B antigen and IgG anti-D antibody in two groups did not change significantly ( P > 0. 05). There were fluctuations in activity of IgM anti-A antibody ,but the changes of agglutination intensity were in the acceptable 1 + range. K+ and lactate concentration in the IQC products of the two groups significantly increased with prolonged storage time ( P <0. 01 ) ,but there were no significant differences between two groups on 35,42 days of storage ( P > 0. 05 ). FHb concentration in the IQC

  8. Sperm preparation for ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schill Wolf-Bernhard

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The onset of clinical assisted reproduction, a quarter of a century ago, required the isolation of motile spermatozoa. As the indication of assisted reproduction shifted from mere gynaecological indications to andrological indications during the years, this urged andrological research to understand the physiology of male germ cell better and develop more sophisticated techniques to separate functional spermatozoa from those that are immotile, have poor morphology or are not capable to fertilize oocytes. Initially, starting from simple washing of spermatozoa, separation techniques, based on different principles like migration, filtration or density gradient centrifugation evolved. The most simple and cheapest is the conventional swim-up procedure. A more sophisticated and most gentle migration method is migration-sedimentation. However, its yield is relatively small and the technique is therefore normally only limited to ejaculates with a high number of motile spermatozoa. Recently, however, the method was also successfully used to isolate spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Sperm separation methods that yield a higher number of motile spermatozoa are glass wool filtration or density gradient centrifugation with different media. Since Percoll® as a density medium was removed from the market in 1996 for clinical use in the human because of its risk of contamination with endotoxins, other media like IxaPrep®, Nycodenz, SilSelect®, PureSperm® or Isolate® were developed in order to replace Percoll®. Today, an array of different methods is available and the selection depends on the quality of the ejaculates, which also includes production of reactive oxygen species (ROS by spermatozoa and leukocytes. Ejaculates with ROS production should not be separated by means of conventional swim-up, as this can severely damage the spermatozoa. In order to protect the male germ cells from the influence of ROS and to stimulate

  9. Magistral preparation in nuclear medicine departments: Requirements for their realization; Preparations magistrales en radiopharmacie: contraintes liees a la mise en place

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desruet, M.D. [Radiopharmacie, clinique universitaire de medecine nucleaire, CHU de Grenoble, 38 - Grenoble (France); Bolot, C. [Radiopharmacie, hospices civils de Lyon, groupement hospitalier Est, 69 - Bron (France); Bourrel, F. [Services de pharmacie et medecine nucleaire, centre hospitalier d' Avignon, 84 - Avignon (France); Francois-Joubert, A.; Biechlin-Chassel, M.L. [Medecine nucleaire et Radiopharmacie, centre hospitalier de Chambery, 73 - Chambery (France); Couret, I. [Service de medecine nucleaire, hopital Lapeyronie, 34 - Montpellier (France); Pelegrin, M. [Institut de recherche en cancerologie (IRCM), 34 - Montpellier (France); Service de medecine nucleaire, hopital Purpan, 31 - Toulouse (France); Lao, S. [Service de medecine nucleaire, CHU Hopital de l' Archet, 06 - Nice (France); Ouhayon, E.; Sauvan, R. [Service de medecine nucleaire, institut Paoli-Calmettes, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2010-11-15

    Use of radiopharmaceuticals in French nuclear medicine departments depends on marketing authorization and their development may be compromised by a limited return on investment. As an alternative, radiopharmaceuticals may also be prepared in the form of a magistral preparation, like in some European countries. In this case, these preparations are subjected to restrictions and requirements for radio-pharmacies relating to quality assurance, facilities and equipment, quality of starting materials and final radiopharmaceutical products defined in French good preparation practice. Labelled tracers used as magistral preparations have to be prepared under the full responsibility of a radio-pharmacist and used under the responsibility of the prescribing physician. Conditions of sufficient guarantees for the safety of the patient and adherence to pharmaceutical rules must be evaluated individually. However, this form of preparation intends to supply specific medical needs for an individual patient and is not an answer in the framework of development of radiopharmaceuticals. (authors)

  10. Preparing for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, M

    1989-01-01

    chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been released in great quantities through their use in aerosol sprays, refrigerator fluids, and insulating foams. We can get rid of CFCs and curb the pollutants generating ozone, but it will be difficult to put the brake on either methane or nitrous oxide. And the reduction in carbon dioxide emissions will demand major changes in energy policy as well as action to slow deforestation. It appears that we are already committed to rising temperatures and sea levels. The question is by how much, in which areas? A number of things can be done to prepare for these changes: Governments must recognize that there is a problem; Better models must be worked out, especially to define where the greatest impacts from climate change and sea level rise will hit; Reference scenarios must be developed to see what the impacts are likely to be in ecological, agricultural, social and economic terms; Every country should develop "avoidance strategies" to minimize risk (for example, by not building on land likely to be flooded); We must cut down on the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere from human activities, by eliminating CFCs and adopting energy conservation programs and other measures to minimize CO2 release; Global agreements to protect the atmosphere are needed.

  11. 赤霉素的固态分批补料培养技术及其分离提取工艺研究%Research on Gibberellin Production Prepared by Fed in Batches Solid-State Fermentation and Separated Distill Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江澜; 冯有胜

    2001-01-01

    This research decides Fusarium monilifome AS.3,2960 by screening. Six-level orthogonal tests were made with seven factors which influence on the capability of gibberellin; while the best ferment conditions were selected, which are in 32℃,the beginning pH 4.5 of culture medium ,20% of inoculating quantity, adding 13.2% corn starch in the third day, ventilating in the third day and the fermentation being 6 days. Under the same fermentation condition, the gibberellin production prepared by fed in batches solid-state and liquid-stat fermentation was compared. The results showed that the quantity of gibberellin production by fed in batches solid-state fermentation is about 3-4.3 times as much as that by liquid-state fermentation; with vary solvents and vary pH value the comparison tests of the effect of gibberellin separating-extraction showed that 10% alcohol was the best condition in pH 2.5 ; Throngh the multilevel backwash swimcarry test, the production rate of gibberellin reaches 0.70 g/kg DMB.%经菌种筛选确定为串珠镰孢AS.3,2960菌株;对影响赤霉素产率的固态分批补料发酵的7个因素进行了正交试验,从而筛选出最佳发酵条件为:在32 ℃下,按培养基初始pH值4.5,接种量20%的比例,在第3天添加13.2%的玉米淀粉,从第3天通气,共培养6 d;对固态分批补料发酵与传统的液态发酵产生赤霉素能力进行了比较,结果表明:其固态分批补料培养技术为液态发酵的3~4.7倍;对发酵产物进行了分离提取效果的比较实验,结果表明:以10%的乙醇,在pH2.5下提取效果最佳;进行了多级逆流浸提试验,赤霉素含量达到0.70 g/kg DMB(发酵物).

  12. Production management within the concept of digital enterprises of wood-processing and furniture production

    OpenAIRE

    Gordana Matičević; Tadija Lovrić

    2008-01-01

    Wood processing and furniture production represent a big chance for Croatia to enter the international market. Besides the natural advantages such as world-class quality of wood, Croatia also has the tradition, experience and current technological knowledge in production of semi-manufactured products and final products. Inorder to enter and survive at the competitive international market it is necessary to increase the level of logistics support for production preparation and production in or...

  13. Beer as colon lavage preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnunen, J.; Linden, H.; Pietilae, J.; Juutilainen, T.

    1987-09-01

    Six patients received beer preparation prior to double contrast barium enema. The beer group scored slightly better (though not statistically significantly) both in the cleanliness and in the mucosal coating of the bowel than the control group with standard preparation. The fluid balance was unaltered. The patients in the beer group felt surprisingly well, likely due to the good fluid and energy balance provided by the beer. The beer preparation could be used in cases, when the patients are ready to intake beer and want to maintain a good nutritional status.

  14. Preparation of iron oxides and oxihydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Štyriaková

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxides are common minerals that occur in the environment, either naturally or as a result of human activities.The most common Fe(III-hydroxides and -oxides include ferrihydrite (Fe5HO8 .4H2O that transforms to hematite (a-Fe2O3 and/or goethite (a-FeOOH.That depends on the solution composition, temperature and pH. Depending on the composition of the solid and solution, oxidation can transform the green rust (a product formed by a metal corrosion to lepidocrocite (γ -FeOOH or magnetite (Fe(IIFe(III 2O4 . Weathering can degrade magnetite to maghemite (γ –Fe2O3 and all of the Fe-oxides are subject to an attack and dissolution by organic acids and ligands that are formed during the breakdown of biological material. Iron oxides can be prepared by hydrolysis of acidic Fe3+ solutions or by controlled oxidation of Fe2+ solutions. Goethite, lepidocrocite and magnetite were prepared by oxidation of Fe2+ solutions under slightly different values of pH, Fe concentrations and rates of oxidation. Maghemite was prepared by a thermal transformation from synthetic lepidocrocite heated in a furnace at 250 °C for 2h. Hematite was prepared by forced hydrolysis of Fe3+ solution from a chlorine system (FeCl3 at the temperature close to 100 °C under strongly acidic conditions (pH 1-2. Main mineral phases were confirmed by the RTG diffraction and IR spectroscopy method. Iron oxides are excellent, renewable adsorbents, and often control free metals through adsorption reaction.

  15. Preparation and Self-assembly of Zirconia Nanoparticles via Hydrothermal Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-Hui; HONG Zhang-Lian; YANG Hui

    2008-01-01

    Zirconia nanoparticles were synthesized via hydrothermal method without any additives. This work focuses on the effect of preparation conditions such as the precursor preparation condition and crystallization time of nanocrystallite in autoclave on the properties of as-prepared products. The results indicated that the amount of tetragonal zirconia varied with the preparation conditions. It increased with the increase of the concentration of KOH solution in precursor producing process and reduced with the prolongation of crystallization time. At the same time, the particle size and morphology were also affected by the preparation conditions. In addition,the self-assembled spindle- like aggregates were observed in present works.

  16. 21 CFR 139.150 - Noodle products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 139.150 Noodle products. (a) Noodle products are the class of food each of which is prepared by drying... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Noodle products. 139.150 Section 139.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  17. Homogeneous sample preparation of raw shrimp using dry ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, E A; Altwein, D M; Johnson, L E; Farley, J R; Hammersmith, A A

    1995-01-01

    Sample homogeneity is critical to accurate and reproducible analysis of trace residues in foods. A method of uniform sample preparation using dry ice is described for shrimp. Other sample preparation techniques for raw shrimp produce nonhomogeneous samples. Sample homogeneity was determined through analysis of chloramphenicol added to intact tiger or white shrimp prior to sample preparation. Simulated chloramphenicol residue levels were 50, 15, 10, and 5 ppb. No significant differences were noted when analyses of shrimp inoculated with chlor-amphenicol prior to sample preparation with dry ice were compared with analyses of shrimp spiked after grinding with dry ice. Grinding shrimp with dry ice produced samples with homogeneous chloramphenicol residues. This technique should be applicable to other tissues and vegetable products.

  18. Preparation and evaluation of biocomposites as wound dressing material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnath, V; Sekar, S; Sankar, S; Sankaranarayanan, C; Sastry, T P

    2012-12-01

    Collagen was isolated from the chrome containing leather waste (CCLW) which is a major solid waste in leather industry. Composite films were made using sago starch (SG), soya protein (SY), and collagen (C) and were cross linked with glutaraldehyde (G).The films prepared were characterized for their physico chemical properties like tensile strength, infrared spectra, thermogravimetric analysis, surface morphology, and water absorption studies. Better mechanical properties and surface morphology were observed for SG-SY-G-C films compared to other films prepared using collagen. The composite films prepared were used as wound dressing material on the experimental wounds of rats and healing pattern was evaluated using planimetric, biochemical, and histopathological studies. These studies have revealed better wound healing capacity of SG-SY-G-C film and utilization of CCLW in the preparation of value added product like wound dressing material.

  19. "Pharmacodynamically evaluated bioequivalence of two preparations of Enalapril Maleate "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Tajerzadeh H

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The bioequivalence of two preparations of enalapril maleate (20 mg tablets manufactured in Iran has been exploited in reference to a standard preparation (Xanef 20 tablets, MSD, Germany in 14 healthy volunteers. Following oral dosing of a single tablet of each of test and standard products, as a randomized crossover design with 10-day washout intervals, the blood samples were collected in predetermined time points and using a synthetic substrate, Hippuryl-Histidy-Leucine (HHL, the release of hippuric acid from the substrate was determined as Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme (ACE activity of serum fractions. The percent of ACE inhibition in each sample was calculated and plotted against time, from which three pharmacodynamic parameters, i.e. Emax, tmax and AUC0-24 were derived. The results of statistical comparison of these parameters showed that both of the test preparations are bioequivalent with reference standard preparation.

  20. Consumers' convenience orientation towards meal preparation: conceptualization and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, M

    2001-02-01

    Consumer researchers consider convenience orientation towards meal preparation to be a relevant construct for understanding consumer behavior towards foods. This study set out to conceptualize this construct and to develop a scale that measures it. As examined in two different samples of meal preparers, the resulting scale is reliable, satisfies a unifactorial structure and has satisfactory convergent validity. The scale's nomological validity is supported in that it conforms to expectations regarding various psychographic constructs and various food-related behaviors. Convenience orientation was found to be negatively related to cooking enjoyment, involvement with food products and variety seeking, and to be positively related to role overload. The analyses also suggest that the lack of relation between the meal preparer's working status and convenience food consumption, as found in many studies, is due to convenience food not offering enough preparation convenience. Consuming take-away meals and eating in restaurants appear to satisfy the consumer's need for convenience more adequately.

  1. Adolescent test or procedure preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... imagery Trying other distractions, such as listening to music through headphones, if allowed When possible, let your ... MA, Chorney JM, Mayes L. Web-based tailored intervention for preparation of parents and children for outpatient ...

  2. Preparation of large monodisperse vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting F Zhu

    Full Text Available Preparation of monodisperse vesicles is important both for research purposes and for practical applications. While the extrusion of vesicles through small pores (approximately 100 nm in diameter results in relatively uniform populations of vesicles, extrusion to larger sizes results in very heterogeneous populations of vesicles. Here we report a simple method for preparing large monodisperse multilamellar vesicles through a combination of extrusion and large-pore dialysis. For example, extrusion of polydisperse vesicles through 5-microm-diameter pores eliminates vesicles larger than 5 microm in diameter. Dialysis of extruded vesicles against 3-microm-pore-size polycarbonate membranes eliminates vesicles smaller than 3 microm in diameter, leaving behind a population of monodisperse vesicles with a mean diameter of approximately 4 microm. The simplicity of this method makes it an effective tool for laboratory vesicle preparation with potential applications in preparing large monodisperse liposomes for drug delivery.

  3. Preparing for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) What Is ART Patient Resources Preparing for ...

  4. Preparing for Breast Reconstruction Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Breast Reconstruction Surgery Preparing for Breast Reconstruction Surgery Your surgeon can help you know what to ... The plan for follow-up Costs Understanding your surgery costs Health insurance policies often cover most or ...

  5. Preparation and Analysis of Biomass Lignins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.

    Lignin, comprised primarily of three randomly polymerized phenylpropenyl monomers, is, arguably, the second most common organic molecule on earth. In current biorefinery applications, lignin is burned, usually in concentrated pulping or hydrolysis liquor, as a source of process steam and both internal and exported electricity. The aromatic content of lignin makes it a potentially attractive feedstock for high-value aromatic chemicals, polymers, and carbon products (graphite, activated carbon, and carbon fiber). Revenue from production of lignin-based chemicals could play a major role in biorefinery profitability if cost-effective methods for lignin separation and purification can be developed. This chapter presents descriptions of methods for assessing and purifying biorefinery lignins so that they can be evaluated for use as feedstock for production of chemical products. Areas covered are: (1) initial evaluations of as-received lignin samples (visual, microscopic, separable organics); (2) analysis of common contaminants (bulk and filterable ash and particulate contaminants in liquid and dry lignin samples); (3) preparation of lignins for experimental use as chemical feedstock (prefiltration, filtration using bench-scale chemical apparatus and larger scale bag filters, one-step lignin precipitation, two-step carbohydrate and lignin precipitation, desalting of dry powdered or precipitated lignin, and lyophilization). These methods have been used successfully at the bench scale to produce the 1-50 kg amounts of wood and grass lignins typically required for bench-scale assessment as chemical feedstocks.

  6. Safety evaluation of an α-cyclodextrin glycosyltranferase preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bär, A.; Krul, C.A.M.; Jonker, D.; Vogel, N. de

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-cyclodextrin glucosyltransferase (α-CGTase, EC 2.4.1.19) is an amylolytic enzyme used for the production of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD), a novel, soluble dietary fiber, from food-grade starch. The safety of an α-CGTase preparation obtained by batch fermentation from a recombinant strain of Escherich

  7. Cost Effectiveness of Alternative Route Special Education Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, Paul T.; Dewey, James F.; Rosenberg, Michael S.; Corbett, Nancy L.; Denslow, David; Lotfinia, Babik

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors estimated costs of alternative route preparation to provide states a basis for allocating training funds to maximize production. Thirty-one special education alternative route program directors were interviewed and completed cost tables. Two hundred and twenty-four program graduates were also surveyed. The authors…

  8. Developing concepts for improved efficiency of robot work preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, M.S.; Vaneker, Thomas H.J.

    2013-01-01

    SInBot[1] is a large research project that focuses on maximizing the efficient use of mobile industrial robots during medium sized production runs. The system that will be described in this paper will focusses on the development and validation of concepts for efficient work preparation for cells of

  9. Developing concepts for improved efficiency of robot work preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, M.S.; Vaneker, T.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    SInBot[1] is a large research project that focuses on maximizing the efficient use of mobile industrial robots during medium sized production runs. The system that will be described in this paper will focusses on the development and validation of concepts for efficient work preparation for cells of

  10. Strengthening Clinical Preparation: The Holy Grail of Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to improve teacher education have recently focused in on the importance of well-supervised clinical practice as a critical element of effective preparation. This article outlines the challenges to creating productive clinical experiences for prospective teachers, and identifies strategies that have been found successful in confronting…

  11. Preparing for Success: A Practical Guide for Young Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan; Gaunt, Helena

    2012-01-01

    If you are interested in performance, music therapy, music production, arts administration, instrument making, music teaching or research, and whatever music tradition you come from, this book will prepare you for success. It tells you about today's music business and gives expert advice that will help you get to where you want to be. It shows you…

  12. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified...

  13. Preparation and Reactions of Octasilsesquioxanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ling-Kang

    2004-01-01

    Because of the length scales involved, nanocomposite materials incorporate extensive interracial interactions that can result in non-linear changes in the composite property. Chemists often start from polymerizable inorganic and organic constituents in the molecule to build organic/inorganic hybrids that combine advantageous properties of disparate components.Silsesquioxanes (RSiO1.5)n, derived from e.g. RSiCl3 or RSi(OEt)3 by hydrolysis/condensation in a sol-gel process, are a class of silicate framework where each Si-atom is linked covalently to an organic radical R that chemically modifies the silicates. In addition to incompletely condensed silsesquioxanes is the completely condensed octasilsesquioxane. These octameric silsesquioxanes are in transition between small molecules and macroscopic materials with skeletal frameworks found in crystalline forms of silica and zeolites. SisO12(CH=CH2)8 1 has a cubic silica like core and 8 olefin functionalities as known for a long time yet with very few reactivity reports. The acidic hydrolytic polycondensation of (vinyl)Si(OEt)3 in the literature, leading to only less than 20% of 1,also suggests a large room for improvement. We have found that the H NMR spectra of mixtures containing 1 and either the Schrock's catalyst or the Grubbs' catalyst never exhibit vinylic 1H peaks attributable to the formation of products from self-metathesis. With a Pt/C catalyst, the H-Si bond of HSiMe2Cl adds to the vinylic double bond of 1, forming 2 that reacts with sufficient CH2=CHCH2OH to give 3. Upon treatment of the Grubbs' catalyst, a ring-closing metathesis occurs on the surface of the cubic Si8O12 framework. The results exhibit a strong proximity effect with which 3 transforms itself to 4. Alternatively 5 has been prepared.The Gmbbs' catalyst allows 5 to isomerize from Z- to E-configuration to produce 4 independentiy, thus demonstrating the ring-closing metathesis reactions of densely populated terminal olefins on Si8O12 surface.

  14. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: To day, more and more products are customized. Trends are not only to sell a product to the customer, but to sell a product system. The system can either be a combination of physical products or physical products together with some kind of service. Customers get in this way not a product...... but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks. Here...... the decoupling point has a central role. The scope for this article is therefore to analyse the possibilities for using modularisation in designing and controlling a production system. How will the development of modularised product systems influence the production system? In the paper, a case will be used...

  15. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: To day, more and more products are customized. Trends are not only to sell a product to the customer, but to sell a product system. The system can either be a combination of physical products or physical products together with some kind of service. Customers get in this way not a product...... but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks. Here...... the decoupling point has a central role. The scope for this article is therefore to analyse the possibilities for using modularisation in designing and controlling a production system. How will the development of modularised product systems influence the production system? In the paper, a case will be used...

  16. Quantifying effects of convenience and product packaging on consumer preferences and market share of seafood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Peschel, Anne; Grebitus, Carola

    2013-01-01

    segments were identified. Market share simulations illustrate the impact of oyster product variations on consumer choice. Overall, price, preparation format and species were the most important choice drivers, followed by region of origin and accompaniments, while packaging format and claims only had......This study analysed the relative importance of product packaging format and preparation convenience for oysters on consumer choice and market share. Consumer preferences for opened versus unopened oyster preparation formats and the provision of easy-to prepare accompaniments with or without visual...

  17. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards. Beef Production Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended as a guide for workforce preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the beef production cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

  18. Teaching Recognition Skills to Improve Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, G. William; And Others

    1990-01-01

    First year dental students (n=86) in a conservative restorations course were taught a discrimination learning paradigm to improve production quality. Evaluation of Class 1 amalgam preparations indicates the improved recognition skills corresponded with improved cavity preparation, supporting the use of this teaching model. (Author/MSE)

  19. Detection of Illegally Added Chemicals in Antihypertensive Traditional Chinese Medicine Preparations and Health Products by UPLC-MS/MS%UPLC-MS/MS法检测降压类中药制剂及保健品中添加的化学药品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田兰; 张继春; 陈睿; 储忠英; 包综方

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish a specific method for the determination of seven chemicals in antihypertensive traditional Chinese medicine preparations and health products. Method: Nifedipine, atenolol, prazosin hydrochloride, reserpine, clonidine hydro-chloride, captopril and hydrochlorothiazide were determined and analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. An ACQUITY BEH C18 analysis column (2.1 mm×50 mm ,1.7 μm ) was used with the mobile phase of 0. 1 % formic acid and methanol with gradient elution. The flow rate was 0. 3 ml·min-1 . EIS ion source was used with positive and negative ion monitoring. Result: The standard curves of the seven chemicals showed good linearity over the concentration range of 62.5-2 000.0,65.6-2 100.0, 16.6-530.0,34.5-2 210.0,67.1-2 146.0,33.7-2 159.0, 1 637.3-104 790.0 ng·ml-1 , respectively. The average recoveries of the seven chemicals were within 85. 1% and 106.7% . Conclusion: The method is specific, sensitive,simple and quick,and can be used to detect the seven chemicals in antihypertensive traditional Chinese medicine preparations and health products.%目的:建立降压类中药制剂及保健品中非法添加7种化学药品的检测方法.方法:采用超高效液相色谱-串联四级杆质谱,多反应监测(MRM)模式进行定性和定量检测.采用ACQUITY BEH C18色谱柱(2.1 mm×50 mm,1.7 μm),流动相为0.1%甲酸-甲醇梯度洗脱,流速为0.3 ml·min-1;离子源为ESI源,正负离子检测,对中成药及保健品中添加硝苯地平、阿替洛尔、盐酸哌唑嗪、利血平、盐酸可乐定、卡托普利、氢氯噻嗪进行定性、定量检测.结果:7种化学药品测定的线性范围分别为62.5~2 000.0,65.6~2 100.0,16.6~530.0,34.5~2 210.0,67.1~2 146.0,33.7~2 159.0,1 637.3~104 790.0 ng·ml-1,7种化学药品平均回收率在85.1%~106.7%之间.结论:本方法选择性强、灵敏度高、处理方法简单,测定快速,可用于降压类中成药及保健品中添加7种化学药品的测定.

  20. Combinatorial synthesis of natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    2002-01-01

    for preparation of combinatorial libraries. In other examples, natural products or intermediates have served as building blocks or scaffolds in the synthesis of complex natural products, bioactive analogues or designed hybrid molecules. Finally, structural motifs from the biologically active parent molecule have......Combinatorial syntheses allow production of compound libraries in an expeditious and organized manner immediately applicable for high-throughput screening. Natural products possess a pedigree to justify quality and appreciation in drug discovery and development. Currently, we are seeing a rapid...