WorldWideScience

Sample records for preparing color filter

  1. Human attention filters for single colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Chubb, Charles; Wright, Charles E.; Sperling, George

    2016-01-01

    The visual images in the eyes contain much more information than the brain can process. An important selection mechanism is feature-based attention (FBA). FBA is best described by attention filters that specify precisely the extent to which items containing attended features are selectively processed and the extent to which items that do not contain the attended features are attenuated. The centroid-judgment paradigm enables quick, precise measurements of such human perceptual attention filters, analogous to transmission measurements of photographic color filters. Subjects use a mouse to locate the centroid—the center of gravity—of a briefly displayed cloud of dots and receive precise feedback. A subset of dots is distinguished by some characteristic, such as a different color, and subjects judge the centroid of only the distinguished subset (e.g., dots of a particular color). The analysis efficiently determines the precise weight in the judged centroid of dots of every color in the display (i.e., the attention filter for the particular attended color in that context). We report 32 attention filters for single colors. Attention filters that discriminate one saturated hue from among seven other equiluminant distractor hues are extraordinarily selective, achieving attended/unattended weight ratios >20:1. Attention filters for selecting a color that differs in saturation or lightness from distractors are much less selective than attention filters for hue (given equal discriminability of the colors), and their filter selectivities are proportional to the discriminability distance of neighboring colors, whereas in the same range hue attention-filter selectivity is virtually independent of discriminabilty. PMID:27791040

  2. Optimum color filters for CCD digital cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Kai; Kunz, Rino E.; Seitz, Peter; Brunner, Harald; Knop, Karl

    1993-12-01

    As part of the ESPRIT II project No. 2103 (MASCOT) a high performance prototype color CCD still video camera was developed. Intended for professional usage such as in the graphic arts, the camera provides a maximum resolution of 3k X 3k full color pixels. A high colorimetric performance was achieved through specially designed dielectric filters and optimized matrixing. The color transformation was obtained by computer simulation of the camera system and non-linear optimization which minimized the perceivable color errors as measured in the 1976 CIELUV uniform color space for a set of about 200 carefully selected test colors. The color filters were designed to allow perfect colorimetric reproduction in principle and at the same time with imperceptible color noise and with special attention to fabrication tolerances. The camera system includes a special real-time digital color processor which carries out the color transformation. The transformation can be selected from a set of sixteen matrices optimized for different illuminants and output devices. Because the actual filter design was based on slightly incorrect data the prototype camera showed a mean colorimetric error of 2.7 j.n.d. (CIELUV) in experiments. Using correct input data in the redesign of the filters, a mean colorimetric error of only 1 j.n.d. (CIELUV) seems to be feasible, implying that it is possible with such an optimized color camera to achieve such a high colorimetric performance that the reproduced colors in an image cannot be distinguished from the original colors in a scene, even in direct comparison.

  3. Filtering Color Mapped Textures and Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Heitz , Eric; Nowrouzezahrai , Derek; Poulin , Pierre; Neyret , Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Color map textures applied directly to surfaces, to geometric microsurface details, or to procedural functions (such as noise), are commonly used to enhance visual detail. Their simplicity and ability to mimic a wide range of realistic appearances have led to their adoption in many rendering problems. As with any textured or geometric detail, proper filtering is needed to reduce aliasing when viewed across a range of distances, but accurate and efficient color map filt...

  4. Preparation of Color Filter Photo Resists for Generating Color Pixels in Liquid Crystal Displays by Synthesis and Applications of Polymeric Binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Chun [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Hong [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    This study was carried out based on several purposes. First, introductions of new binders have been requested due to the recent trend of red pigments; that is, a dieketo-pyrrolo-pyrrole with a smaller particle size and less polarity for a high contrast ratio is desired. The pigments for a high contrast ratio usually have a particle size in the range of 40 - 60 nm, while conventional pigments of anthraquinone have a particle size of approximately 90 nm. For this reason, less polar styrene was introduced to increase affinity by replacing or reducing benzyl methacrylate. Traditionally, a binder prepared from benzyl methacrylate and methacrylic acid has been widely used. Second, introductions of less expensive materials, such as styrene and methyl methacrylate, have been requested to contribute to the extreme competitiveness of the LCD industry. For this study, styrene, methacrylic acid, methyl methacrylate and benzyl methacylate were employed to synthesize the random copolymer into polymeric binders.

  5. Colorization-Based RGB-White Color Interpolation using Color Filter Array with Randomly Sampled Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Paul; Lee, Sukho; Kang, Moon Gi

    2017-06-28

    Recently, several RGB-White (RGBW) color filter arrays (CFAs) have been proposed, which have extra white (W) pixels in the filter array that are highly sensitive. Due to the high sensitivity, the W pixels have better SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) characteristics than other color pixels in the filter array, especially, in low light conditions. However, most of the RGBW CFAs are designed so that the acquired RGBW pattern image can be converted into the conventional Bayer pattern image, which is then again converted into the final color image by using conventional demosaicing methods, i.e., color interpolation techniques. In this paper, we propose a new RGBW color filter array based on a totally different color interpolation technique, the colorization algorithm. The colorization algorithm was initially proposed for colorizing a gray image into a color image using a small number of color seeds. Here, we adopt this algorithm as a color interpolation technique, so that the RGBW color filter array can be designed with a very large number of W pixels to make the most of the highly sensitive characteristics of the W channel. The resulting RGBW color filter array has a pattern with a large proportion of W pixels, while the small-numbered RGB pixels are randomly distributed over the array. The colorization algorithm makes it possible to reconstruct the colors from such a small number of RGB values. Due to the large proportion of W pixels, the reconstructed color image has a high SNR value, especially higher than those of conventional CFAs in low light condition. Experimental results show that many important information which are not perceived in color images reconstructed with conventional CFAs are perceived in the images reconstructed with the proposed method.

  6. The Visual Effects of Intraocular Colored Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy R. Hammond

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern life is associated with a myriad of visual problems, most notably refractive conditions such as myopia. Human ingenuity has addressed such problems using strategies such as spectacle lenses or surgical correction. There are other visual problems, however, that have been present throughout our evolutionary history and are not as easily solved by simply correcting refractive error. These problems include issues like glare disability and discomfort arising from intraocular scatter, photostress with the associated transient loss in vision that arises from short intense light exposures, or the ability to see objects in the distance through a veil of atmospheric haze. One likely biological solution to these more long-standing problems has been the use of colored intraocular filters. Many species, especially diurnal, incorporate chromophores from numerous sources (e.g., often plant pigments called carotenoids into ocular tissues to improve visual performance outdoors. This review summarizes information on the utility of such filters focusing on chromatic filtering by humans.

  7. Transmissive/Reflective Structural Color Filters: Theory and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural color filters, which obtain color selection by varying structures, have attracted extensive research interest in recent years due to the advantages of compactness, stability, multifunctions, and so on. In general, the mechanisms of structural colors are based on the interaction between light and structures, including light diffraction, cavity resonance, and surface plasmon resonance. This paper reviews recent progress of various structural color techniques and the integration applications of structural color filters in CMOS image sensors, solar cells, and display.

  8. Viewing the proton through ''color'' filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Xiangdong

    2004-01-01

    While the form factors and parton distributions provide separately the shape of the proton in coordinate and momentum spaces, a more powerful imaging of the proton structure can be obtained through quantum phase-space distributions. Here we introduce the Wigner-type quark and gluon distributions which depict a full-3D proton at every fixed Feynman momentum, like what is seen through momentum(''color'')-filters. After appropriate reductions, the phase-space distributions are related to the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions measurable in high-energy experiments. (orig.)

  9. Full color organic light-emitting devices with microcavity structure and color filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Hongyu; Sun, Runguang

    2009-05-11

    This letter demonstrated the fabrication of the full color passive matrix organic light-emitting devices based on the combination of the microcavity structure, color filter and a common white polymeric OLED. In the microcavity structure, patterned ITO terraces with different thickness were used as the anode as well as cavity spacer. The primary color emitting peaks were originally generated by the microcavity and then the second resonance peak was absorbed by the color filter.

  10. Photonic Color Filters Integrated with Organic Solar Cells for Energy Harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Hui Joon; Xu, Ting; Lee, Jae Yong; Ledbetter, Abram; Guo, L. Jay

    2011-01-01

    Color filters are indispensable in most color display applications. In most cases, they are chemical pigment-based filters, which produce a particular color by absorbing its complementary color, and the absorbed energy is totally wasted

  11. Full-color large-scaled computer-generated holograms using RGB color filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, Yasuhiro; Matsushima, Kyoji

    2017-02-06

    A technique using RGB color filters is proposed for creating high-quality full-color computer-generated holograms (CGHs). The fringe of these CGHs is composed of more than a billion pixels. The CGHs reconstruct full-parallax three-dimensional color images with a deep sensation of depth caused by natural motion parallax. The simulation technique as well as the principle and challenges of high-quality full-color reconstruction are presented to address the design of filter properties suitable for large-scaled CGHs. Optical reconstructions of actual fabricated full-color CGHs are demonstrated in order to verify the proposed techniques.

  12. Vector Directional Distance Rational Hybrid Filters for Color Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Khriji

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A new class of nonlinear filters, called vector-directional distance rational hybrid filters (VDDRHF for multispectral image processing, is introduced and applied to color image-filtering problems. These filters are based on rational functions (RF. The VDDRHF filter is a two-stage filter, which exploits the features of the vector directional distance filter (VDDF, the center weighted vector directional distance filter (CWVDDF and those of the rational operator. The filter output is a result of vector rational function (VRF operating on the output of three sub-functions. Two vector directional distance (VDDF filters and one center weighted vector directional distance filter (CWVDDF are proposed to be used in the first stage due to their desirable properties, such as, noise attenuation, chromaticity retention, and edges and details preservation. Experimental results show that the new VDDRHF outperforms a number of widely known nonlinear filters for multi-spectral image processing such as the vector median filter (VMF, the generalized vector directional filters (GVDF and distance directional filters (DDF with respect to all criteria used.

  13. Impulsive noise removal from color video with morphological filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchay, Alexey; Kober, Vitaly

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with impulse noise removal from color video. The proposed noise removal algorithm employs a switching filtering for denoising of color video; that is, detection of corrupted pixels by means of a novel morphological filtering followed by removal of the detected pixels on the base of estimation of uncorrupted pixels in the previous scenes. With the help of computer simulation we show that the proposed algorithm is able to well remove impulse noise in color video. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared in terms of image restoration metrics with that of common successful algorithms.

  14. Color image guided depth image super resolution using fusion filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Liang, Bin; He, Ying; Yang, Jun

    2018-04-01

    Depth cameras are currently playing an important role in many areas. However, most of them can only obtain lowresolution (LR) depth images. Color cameras can easily provide high-resolution (HR) color images. Using color image as a guide image is an efficient way to get a HR depth image. In this paper, we propose a depth image super resolution (SR) algorithm, which uses a HR color image as a guide image and a LR depth image as input. We use the fusion filter of guided filter and edge based joint bilateral filter to get HR depth image. Our experimental results on Middlebury 2005 datasets show that our method can provide better quality in HR depth images both numerically and visually.

  15. Plasmonic coaxial Fabry-Pérot nanocavity color filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, G. Y.; Leong, E. S. P.; Danner, A. J.; Teng, J. H.

    2010-08-01

    Plamonic coaxial structures have drawn considerable attetion recently because of their unique properties. They exhibit different mechanisms of extraordinary optical transmission observed from subwavelength holes and they can support localized Fabry-Pérot plasmon modes. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate color filters based on coaxial structures fabricated in optically thick metallic films. Using nanogaps with different apertures from 160 nm down to only 40 nm, we show varying color outputs when the annular aperture arrays are illuminated with a broadband light source. Effective color-filter function is demonstrated in the optical regime. Different color outputs are observed and optical spectra are measured. In such structures, it is the propagating mode playing an important role rather than the evanescent. Resonances depend strongly on ring apertures, enabling devices with tunability of output colors using simple geometry control.

  16. Preparing Colorful Astronomical Images II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Z. G.; Frattare, L. M.

    2002-12-01

    We present additional techniques for using mainstream graphics software (Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator) to produce composite color images and illustrations from astronomical data. These techniques have been used on numerous images from the Hubble Space Telescope to produce photographic, print and web-based products for news, education and public presentation as well as illustrations for technical publication. We expand on a previous paper to present more detail and additional techniques, taking advantage of new or improved features available in the latest software versions. While Photoshop is not intended for quantitative analysis of full dynamic range data (as are IRAF or IDL, for example), we have had much success applying Photoshop's numerous, versatile tools to work with scaled images, masks, text and graphics in multiple semi-transparent layers and channels.

  17. Multi-band transmission color filters for multi-color white LEDs based visible light communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qixia; Zhu, Zhendong; Gu, Huarong; Chen, Mengzhu; Tan, Qiaofeng

    2017-11-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based visible light communication (VLC) can provide license-free bands, high data rates, and high security levels, which is a promising technique that will be extensively applied in future. Multi-band transmission color filters with enough peak transmittance and suitable bandwidth play a pivotal role for boosting signal-noise-ratio in VLC systems. In this paper, multi-band transmission color filters with bandwidth of dozens nanometers are designed by a simple analytical method. Experiment results of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) tri-band color filters demonstrate the effectiveness of the multi-band transmission color filters and the corresponding analytical method.

  18. A study of glasses-type color CGH using a color filter considering reduction of blurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Saki; Sakamoto, Yuji

    2009-02-01

    We have developed a glasses-type color computer generated hologram (CGH) by using a color filter. The proposed glasses consist of two "lenses" made of overlapping holograms and color filters. The holograms, which are calculated to reconstruct images in each primary color, are divided to small areas, which we called cells, and superimposed on one hologram. In the same way, colors of the filter correspond to the hologram cells. We can configure it very simply without a complex optical system, and the configuration yields a small and light weight system suitable for glasses. When the cell is small enough, the colors are mixed and reconstructed color images are observed. In addition, color expression of reconstruction images improves, too. However, using small cells blurrs reconstructed images because of the following reasons: (1) interference between cells because of the correlation with the cells, and (2) reduction of resolution caused by the size of the cell hologram. We are investigating in order to make a hologram that has high resolution reconstructed color images without ghost images. In this paper, we discuss (1) the details of the proposed glasses-type color CGH, (2) appropriate cell size for an eye system, (3) effects of cell shape on the reconstructed images, and (4) a new method to reduce the blurring of the images.

  19. Demosaicking algorithm for the Kodak-RGBW color filter array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafinazari, M.; Dubois, E.

    2015-01-01

    Digital cameras capture images through different Color Filter Arrays and then reconstruct the full color image. Each CFA pixel only captures one primary color component; the other primary components will be estimated using information from neighboring pixels. During the demosaicking algorithm, the two unknown color components will be estimated at each pixel location. Most of the demosaicking algorithms use the RGB Bayer CFA pattern with Red, Green and Blue filters. The least-Squares Luma-Chroma demultiplexing method is a state of the art demosaicking method for the Bayer CFA. In this paper we develop a new demosaicking algorithm using the Kodak-RGBW CFA. This particular CFA reduces noise and improves the quality of the reconstructed images by adding white pixels. We have applied non-adaptive and adaptive demosaicking method using the Kodak-RGBW CFA on the standard Kodak image dataset and the results have been compared with previous work.

  20. Sensitivity and Resolution Improvement in RGBW Color Filter Array Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghoon Jee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several red-green-blue-white (RGBW color filter arrays (CFAs, which include highly sensitive W pixels, have been proposed. However, RGBW CFA patterns suffer from spatial resolution degradation owing to the sensor composition having more color components than the Bayer CFA pattern. RGBW CFA demosaicing methods reconstruct resolution using the correlation between white (W pixels and pixels of other colors, which does not improve the red-green-blue (RGB channel sensitivity to the W channel level. In this paper, we thus propose a demosaiced image post-processing method to improve the RGBW CFA sensitivity and resolution. The proposed method decomposes texture components containing image noise and resolution information. The RGB channel sensitivity and resolution are improved through updating the W channel texture component with those of RGB channels. For this process, a cross multilateral filter (CMF is proposed. It decomposes the smoothness component from the texture component using color difference information and distinguishes color components through that information. Moreover, it decomposes texture components, luminance noise, color noise, and color aliasing artifacts from the demosaiced images. Finally, by updating the texture of the RGB channels with the W channel texture components, the proposed algorithm improves the sensitivity and resolution. Results show that the proposed method is effective, while maintaining W pixel resolution characteristics and improving sensitivity from the signal-to-noise ratio value by approximately 4.5 dB.

  1. Reflection color filters of the three primary colors with wide viewing angles using common-thickness silicon subwavelength gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Yoshiaki; Ozaki, Toshikazu; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2014-10-20

    We fabricated reflection color filters of the three primary colors with wide viewing angles using silicon two-dimensional subwavelength gratings on the same quartz substrate. The grating periods were 400, 340, and 300 nm for red, green, and blue filters, respectively. All of the color filters had the same grating thickness of 100 nm, which enabled simple fabrication of a color filter array. Reflected colors from the red, green, and blue filters under s-polarized white-light irradiation appeared in the respective colors at incident angles from 0 to 50°. By rigorous coupled-wave analysis, the dimensions of each color filter were designed, and the calculated reflectivity was compared with the measured reflectivity.

  2. Modeling and Simulation of the Visual Effects of Colored Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    chromaticity coordinates on the MCC under illuminant C. Measurements were taken with and without filters in front of the colorimeter . Note, for the actual...to measure the chromaticity and luminance values of the different components displayed on the calibrated monitor using a spot colorimeter (Minolta CS...of Illuminant C and the chromaticity values for each of the colored squares were measured using a spot colorimeter (Minolta CS-100). Three

  3. Photonic Color Filters Integrated with Organic Solar Cells for Energy Harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Hui Joon

    2011-09-27

    Color filters are indispensable in most color display applications. In most cases, they are chemical pigment-based filters, which produce a particular color by absorbing its complementary color, and the absorbed energy is totally wasted. If the absorbed and wasted energy can be utilized, e.g., to generate electricity, innovative energy-efficient electronic media could be envisioned. Here we show photonic nanostructures incorporated with photovoltaics capable of producing desirable colors in the visible band and utilize the absorbed light to simultaneously generate electrical powers. In contrast to the traditional colorant-based filters, these devices offer great advantages for electro-optic applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  4. Fuzzy Logic-Based Filter for Removing Additive and Impulsive Noise from Color Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuhong; Li, Hongyang; Jiang, Huageng

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents an efficient filter method based on fuzzy logics for adaptively removing additive and impulsive noise from color images. The proposed filter comprises two parts including noise detection and noise removal filtering. In the detection part, the fuzzy peer group concept is applied to determine what type of noise is added to each pixel of the corrupted image. In the filter part, the impulse noise is deducted by the vector median filter in the CIELAB color space and an optimal fuzzy filter is introduced to reduce the Gaussian noise, while they can work together to remove the mixed Gaussian-impulse noise from color images. Experimental results on several color images proves the efficacy of the proposed fuzzy filter.

  5. Photon harvesting, coloring and polarizing in photovoltaic cell integrated color filters: efficient energy routing strategies for power-saving displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Long; Chen, Qin; Song, Shichao; Yu, Yan; Jin, Lin; Hu, Xin

    2015-07-03

    We describe the integral electro-optical strategies that combine the functionalities of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation and color filtering as well as polarizing to realize more efficient energy routing in display technology. Unlike the conventional pigment-based filters and polarizers, which absorb substantial amounts of unwanted spectral components and dissipate them in the form of heat, we propose converting the energy of those photons into electricity by constructing PV cell-integrated color filters based on a selectively transmitting aluminum (Al) rear electrode perforated with nanoholes (NHs). Combining with a dielectric-metal-dielectric (DMD) front electrode, the devices were optimized to enable efficient cavity-enhanced photon recycling in the PV functional layers. We perform a comprehensive theoretical and numerical analysis to explore the extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through the Al NHs and identify basic design rules for achieving structural coloring or polarizing in our PV color filters. We show that the addition of thin photoactive polymer layers on the symmetrically configured Al NH electrode narrows the bandwidth of the EOT-assisted high-pass light filtering due to the strongly damped anti-symmetric coupling of the surface modes excited on the front and rear surface of the Al NHs, which facilitates the whole visible coloring with relatively high purity for the devices. By engineering the cut-off characteristics of the plasmonic waveguide mode supported by the circular or ellipsoidal Al NHs, beyond the photon recycling capacity, PV color filters and PV polarizing color filters that allow polarization-insensitive and strong polarization-anisotropic color filtering were demonstrated. The findings presented here may shed some light on expanding the utilization of PV electricity generation across new-generation energy-saving electrical display devices.

  6. An Improved Filtering Method for Quantum Color Image in Frequency Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Panchi; Xiao, Hong

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of quantum Fourier transform (QFT) in the field of image processing. We consider QFT-based color image filtering operations and their applications in image smoothing, sharpening, and selective filtering using quantum frequency domain filters. The underlying principle used for constructing the proposed quantum filters is to use the principle of the quantum Oracle to implement the filter function. Compared with the existing methods, our method is not only suitable for color images, but also can flexibly design the notch filters. We provide the quantum circuit that implements the filtering task and present the results of several simulation experiments on color images. The major advantages of the quantum frequency filtering lies in the exploitation of the efficient implementation of the quantum Fourier transform.

  7. Advanced microlens and color filter process technology for the high-efficiency CMOS and CCD image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang-Tung; Peng, Chiou-Shian; Chu, Cheng-Yu

    2000-12-01

    New markets are emerging for digital electronic image device, especially in visual communications, PC camera, mobile/cell phone, security system, toys, vehicle image system and computer peripherals for document capture. To enable one-chip image system that image sensor is with a full digital interface, can make image capture devices in our daily lives. Adding a color filter to such image sensor in a pattern of mosaics pixel or wide stripes can make image more real and colorful. We can say 'color filter makes the life more colorful color filter is? Color filter means can filter image light source except the color with specific wavelength and transmittance that is same as color filter itself. Color filter process is coating and patterning green, red and blue (or cyan, magenta and yellow) mosaic resists onto matched pixel in image sensing array pixels. According to the signal caught from each pixel, we can figure out the environment image picture. Widely use of digital electronic camera and multimedia applications today makes the feature of color filter becoming bright. Although it has challenge but it is very worthy to develop the process of color filter. We provide the best service on shorter cycle time, excellent color quality, high and stable yield. The key issues of advanced color process have to be solved and implemented are planarization and micro-lens technology. Lost of key points of color filter process technology have to consider will also be described in this paper.

  8. Preparing Colorful Astronomical Images and Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Z. G.; Frattare, L. M.

    2001-12-01

    We present techniques for using mainstream graphics software, specifically Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator, for producing composite color images and illustrations from astronomical data. These techniques have been used with numerous images from the Hubble Space Telescope to produce printed and web-based news, education and public presentation products as well as illustrations for technical publication. While Photoshop is not intended for quantitative analysis of full dynamic range data (as are IRAF or IDL, for example), we have had much success applying Photoshop's numerous, versatile tools to work with scaled images, masks, text and graphics in multiple semi-transparent layers and channels. These features, along with its user-oriented, visual interface, provide convenient tools to produce high-quality, full-color images and graphics for printed and on-line publication and presentation.

  9. Visible Wavelength Color Filters Using Dielectric Subwavelength Gratings for Backside-Illuminated CMOS Image Sensor Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Yu; Han, Seunghoon; Lee, Jeong-Yub; Kim, Jaekwan; Kim, Yongsung; Arbabi, Amir; Shin, Changgyun; Shi, Lilong; Arbabi, Ehsan; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Lee, Hong-Seok; Hwang, Sungwoo; Faraon, Andrei

    2017-05-10

    We report transmissive color filters based on subwavelength dielectric gratings that can replace conventional dye-based color filters used in backside-illuminated CMOS image sensor (BSI CIS) technologies. The filters are patterned in an 80 nm-thick poly silicon film on a 115 nm-thick SiO 2 spacer layer. They are optimized for operating at the primary RGB colors, exhibit peak transmittance of 60-80%, and have an almost insensitive response over a ± 20° angular range. This technology enables shrinking of the pixel sizes down to near a micrometer.

  10. A mobile and web application-based recommendation system using color quantization and collaborative filtering

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, FİDAN; YILDIZ, GÜREL; KAVAK, ADNAN

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a recommendation system based on a mobile and web application is proposed for indoor decoration. The main contribution of this work is to apply two-stage filtering using linear matching and collaborative filtering to make recommendations. In the mobile application part, the image of the medium captured by a mobile phone is analyzed using color quantization methods, and these color analysis results along with other user-defined parameters such as height, width, and type of the p...

  11. Blood Vessel Extraction in Color Retinal Fundus Images with Enhancement Filtering and Unsupervised Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Yavuz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal blood vessels have a significant role in the diagnosis and treatment of various retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, arteriosclerosis, and hypertension. For this reason, retinal vasculature extraction is important in order to help specialists for the diagnosis and treatment of systematic diseases. In this paper, a novel approach is developed to extract retinal blood vessel network. Our method comprises four stages: (1 preprocessing stage in order to prepare dataset for segmentation; (2 an enhancement procedure including Gabor, Frangi, and Gauss filters obtained separately before a top-hat transform; (3 a hard and soft clustering stage which includes K-means and Fuzzy C-means (FCM in order to get binary vessel map; and (4 a postprocessing step which removes falsely segmented isolated regions. The method is tested on color retinal images obtained from STARE and DRIVE databases which are available online. As a result, Gabor filter followed by K-means clustering method achieves 95.94% and 95.71% of accuracy for STARE and DRIVE databases, respectively, which are acceptable for diagnosis systems.

  12. Adaptive Matrices and Filters for Color Texture Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giotis, Ioannis; Bunte, Kerstin; Petkov, Nicolai; Biehl, Michael

    In this paper we introduce an integrative approach towards color texture classification and recognition using a supervised learning framework. Our approach is based on Generalized Learning Vector Quantization (GLVQ), extended by an adaptive distance measure, which is defined in the Fourier domain,

  13. Highly conductive and flexible color filter electrode using multilayer film structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun Hee; Kim, Dong-Young; Kim, Dohong; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a high performance flexible component that serves as a color filter and an electrode simultaneously is suggested. The suggested highly conductive and flexible color filter electrode (CFE) has a multilayer film structure composed of silver (Ag) and tungsten trioxide (WO3). The CFE maintained its color filtering capability even when the films were bent on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. Low sheet resistance of the CFE was obtained using WO3 as a bridge layer that connects two Ag layers electrically. The sheet resistance was less than 2 Ω/sq. and it was negligibly changed after bending the film, confirming the flexibility of the CFE. The CFE can be easily fabricated using a thermal evaporator and is easily patterned by photolithography or a shadow mask. The proposed CFE has enormous potential for applications involving optical devices including large area devices and flexible devices.

  14. Spatio-spectral color filter array design for optimal image recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Keigo; Wolfe, Patrick J

    2008-10-01

    In digital imaging applications, data are typically obtained via a spatial subsampling procedure implemented as a color filter array-a physical construction whereby only a single color value is measured at each pixel location. Owing to the growing ubiquity of color imaging and display devices, much recent work has focused on the implications of such arrays for subsequent digital processing, including in particular the canonical demosaicking task of reconstructing a full color image from spatially subsampled and incomplete color data acquired under a particular choice of array pattern. In contrast to the majority of the demosaicking literature, we consider here the problem of color filter array design and its implications for spatial reconstruction quality. We pose this problem formally as one of simultaneously maximizing the spectral radii of luminance and chrominance channels subject to perfect reconstruction, and-after proving sub-optimality of a wide class of existing array patterns-provide a constructive method for its solution that yields robust, new panchromatic designs implementable as subtractive colors. Empirical evaluations on multiple color image test sets support our theoretical results, and indicate the potential of these patterns to increase spatial resolution for fixed sensor size, and to contribute to improved reconstruction fidelity as well as significantly reduced hardware complexity.

  15. Dye and pigment-free structural colors and angle-insensitive spectrum filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Lingjie Jay; Hollowell, Andrew E.; Wu, Yi-Kuei

    2017-01-17

    Optical spectrum filtering devices displaying minimal angle dependence or angle insensitivity are provided. The filter comprises a localized plasmonic nanoresonator assembly having a metal material layer defining at least one nanogroove and a dielectric material disposed adjacent to the metal material layer. The dielectric material is disposed within the nanogroove(s). The localized plasmonic nanoresonator assembly is configured to funnel and absorb a portion of an electromagnetic spectrum in the at least one nanogroove via localized plasmonic resonance to generate a filtered output having a predetermined range of wavelengths that displays angle insensitivity. Thus, flexible, high efficiency angle independent color filters having very small diffraction limits are provided that are particularly suitable for use as pixels for various display devices or for use in anti-counterfeiting and cryptography applications. The structures can also be used for colored print applications and the elements can be rendered as pigment-like particles.

  16. Thin film polarizer and color filter based on photo-polymerizable nematic liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadimasoudi, Mohammad; Neyts, Kristiaan; Beeckman, Jeroen

    2015-03-01

    We present a method to fabricate a thin film color filter based on a mixture of photo-polymerizable liquid crystal and chiral dopant. A chiral nematic liquid crystal layer reflects light for a certain wavelength interval Δλ (= Δn.P) with the period and Δn the birefringence of the liquid crystal. The reflection band is determined by the chiral dopant concentration. The bandwidth is limited to 80nm and the reflectance is at most 50% for unpolarized incident light. The thin color filter is interesting for innovative applications like polarizer-free reflective displays, polarization-independent devices, stealth technologies, or smart switchable reflective windows to control solar light and heat. The reflected light has strong color saturation without absorption because of the sharp band edges. A thin film polarizer is developed by using a mixture of photo-polymerizable liquid crystal and color-neutral dye. The fabricated thin film absorbs light that is polarized parallel to the c axis of the LC. The obtained polarization ratio is 80% for a film of only 12 μm. The thin film polarizer and the color filter feature excellent film characteristics without domains and can be detached from the substrate which is useful for e.g. flexible substrates.

  17. Development of an adaptive bilateral filter for evaluating color image difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Hardeberg, Jon Yngve

    2012-04-01

    Spatial filtering, which aims to mimic the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) of the human visual system (HVS), has previously been combined with color difference formulae for measuring color image reproduction errors. These spatial filters attenuate imperceptible information in images, unfortunately including high frequency edges, which are believed to be crucial in the process of scene analysis by the HVS. The adaptive bilateral filter represents a novel approach, which avoids the undesirable loss of edge information introduced by CSF-based filtering. The bilateral filter employs two Gaussian smoothing filters in different domains, i.e., spatial domain and intensity domain. We propose a method to decide the parameters, which are designed to be adaptive to the corresponding viewing conditions, and the quantity and homogeneity of information contained in an image. Experiments and discussions are given to support the proposal. A series of perceptual experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of our approach. The experimental sample images were reproduced with variations in six image attributes: lightness, chroma, hue, compression, noise, and sharpness/blurriness. The Pearson's correlation values between the model-predicted image difference and the observed difference were employed to evaluate the performance, and compare it with that of spatial CIELAB and image appearance model.

  18. [Design Method Analysis and Performance Comparison of Wall Filter for Ultrasound Color Flow Imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lutao; Xiao, Jun; Chai, Hua

    2015-08-01

    The successful suppression of clutter arising from stationary or slowly moving tissue is one of the key issues in medical ultrasound color blood imaging. Remaining clutter may cause bias in the mean blood frequency estimation and results in a potentially misleading description of blood-flow. In this paper, based on the principle of general wall-filter, the design process of three classes of filters, infinitely impulse response with projection initialization (Prj-IIR), polynomials regression (Pol-Reg), and eigen-based filters are previewed and analyzed. The performance of the filters was assessed by calculating the bias and variance of a mean blood velocity using a standard autocorrelation estimator. Simulation results show that the performance of Pol-Reg filter is similar to Prj-IIR filters. Both of them can offer accurate estimation of mean blood flow speed under steady clutter conditions, and the clutter rejection ability can be enhanced by increasing the ensemble size of Doppler vector. Eigen-based filters can effectively remove the non-stationary clutter component, and further improve the estimation accuracy for low speed blood flow signals. There is also no significant increase in computation complexity for eigen-based filters when the ensemble size is less than 10.

  19. Preparation of Track Etch Membrane Filters Using Polystyrene Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaewsaenee, Jerawut; Ratanatongchai, Wichian; Supaphol, Pitt; Visal-athaphand, Pinpan

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Polystyrene nuclear track etch membrane filters was prepared by exposed 13 .m thin film polystyrene with fission fragment. Nuclear latent track was enlarged to through hole on the film by etching with 80 o C 40% H 2 SO 4 with K 2 Cr 2 O 7 solution for 6-10 hour. The hole size was depend on concentration of etching solution and etching time with 1.3-3.4 .m hole diameter. The flow rate test of water was 0.79-1.56 mm cm-2 min-1 at 109.8-113.7 kPa pressure

  20. Pseudo-random arranged color filter array for controlling moiré patterns in display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yangui; Fan, Hang; An, Sengzhong; Li, Juntao; Wang, Jiahui; Zhou, Jianying; Liu, Yikun

    2015-11-16

    Optical display quality can be degraded by the appearance of moiré pattern occurring in a display system consisting of a basic matrix superimposed with a functional structured optical layer. We propose in this paper a novel pseudo-random arranged color filter array with the table number arranged with an optimal design scenario. We show that the moiré pattern can be significantly reduced with the introduction of the special color filter array. The idea is tested with an experiment that gives rise to a substantially reduced moiré pattern in a display system. It is believed that the novel functional optical structures have significant impact to complex structured display system in general and to the autostereoscopic and integrated display systems in particular.

  1. Demosaicing and Superresolution for Color Filter Array via Residual Image Reconstruction and Sparse Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Guangling

    2012-01-01

    A framework of demosaicing and superresolution for color filter array (CFA) via residual image reconstruction and sparse representation is presented.Given the intermediate image produced by certain demosaicing and interpolation technique, a residual image between the final reconstruction image and the intermediate image is reconstructed using sparse representation.The final reconstruction image has richer edges and details than that of the intermediate image. Specifically, a generic dictionar...

  2. Robust cubature Kalman filter for GNSS/INS with missing observations and colored measurement noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Bingbo; Chen, Xiyuan; Tang, Xihua; Huang, Haoqian; Liu, Xiao

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of GNSS/INS working in GNSS-denied environment, a robust cubature Kalman filter (RCKF) is developed by considering colored measurement noise and missing observations. First, an improved cubature Kalman filter (CKF) is derived by considering colored measurement noise, where the time-differencing approach is applied to yield new observations. Then, after analyzing the disadvantages of existing methods, the measurement augment in processing colored noise is translated into processing the uncertainties of CKF, and new sigma point update framework is utilized to account for the bounded model uncertainties. By reusing the diffused sigma points and approximation residual in the prediction stage of CKF, the RCKF is developed and its error performance is analyzed theoretically. Results of numerical experiment and field test reveal that RCKF is more robust than CKF and extended Kalman filter (EKF), and compared with EKF, the heading error of land vehicle is reduced by about 72.4%. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Improved sensitivity high-definition interline CCD using the KODAK TRUESENSE color filter pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBella, James; Andreghetti, Marco; Enge, Amy; Chen, William; Stanka, Timothy; Kaser, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The KODAK TRUESENSE Color Filter Pattern has technology that for the first time is applied to a commercially available interline CCD. This 2/3" true-HD sensor will be described along with its performance attributes, including sensitivity improvement as compared to the Bayer CFA version of the same sensor. In addition, an overview of the system developed for demonstration and evaluation will be provided. Examples of the benefits of the new technology in specific applications including surveillance and intelligent traffic systems will be discussed.

  4. Psychophysical Measurements of Luminance Contrast Sensitivity and Color Discrimination with Transparent and Blue-Light Filter Intraocular Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Marcelo Fernandes; Júnior, Augusto Paranhos; Lottenberg, Claudio Luiz; Castro, Leonardo Cunha; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure luminance contrast sensitivity and color vision thresholdfs in normal subjects using a blue light filter lens and transparent intraocular lens material. Monocular luminance grating contrast sensitivity was measured with Psycho for Windows (version 2.36; Cambridge Research Systems) at 3.0, 6.0, 12.0, 20.0, and 30.0 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) in 15 normal subjects (eight female), with a mean age of 21.6 years (SD = 3.8 years). Chromatic discrimination was assessed with the Cambridge colour test (CCT) along the protan, deutan, and tritan color confusion axes. Both tests were performed in a darkened room under two situations: with a transparent lens and with blue light filter lens. Subjective impressions were taken by subjects regarding their visual experience under both conditions. No difference was found between the luminance contrast sensitivity measured with transparent and blue light filter. However, 13/15 (87%) of the subjects reported more comfortable vision with the blue filter. In the color vision test, tritan thresholds were significantly higher for the blue filter compared with the transparent filter (p = 0.003). For protan and deutan thresholds no differences were found. Blue-yellow color vision is impaired with the blue light filter, and no impairment occurs with the transparent filter. No significant differences in thresholds were found in the luminance contrast sensitivity comparing the blue light and transparent filters. The impact of short wavelength light filtering on intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells is also discussed.

  5. An inkjet printed stripe-type color filter of liquid crystal display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chin-Tai; Wu, Kuo-Hua; Shieh, Fanny; Lu, Chun-Fu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a comprehensive concept and new design of a drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjet printing process for fabricating color filter (CF) layers of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) onto the structured surfaces of flat substrates, composed of 'physical sidewalls' for aligning and controlling the liquid morphology. Several fundamental guidelines of the design have been addressed in current inkjet-printing techniques. Using a droplet generator (printhead) of the deposition system, the color-ink drops can be jetted and placed over the specific domains, where the sidewalls align the flow merged from a stream of droplets and fulfill the coverage of the defined areas, in which the geometrical relations correlating the droplets and sidewalls are explicitly expressed in the study. According to the results of the simulation and analysis, the proposed sidewalls, acting as the physical barriers, can control the liquid morphology through the simple geometric factors such as sidewall widths, heights and contact angles. The experimental results showed that the solid RGB color layers were self-assembled from the liquid droplets and formed with the uniform thickness, except for the neighborhood of the sidewalls. It indicated that the sidewalls serving as 'physical barriers' had a remarkable effect in confining and self-aligning the droplet flow within the desirable regions. This inkjet-printing method would alternatively offer one cost-effective and high-flexibility method for the production of the versatile LCD CF, thus being particularly beneficial for large-area printing and flexible substrates.

  6. Preparation of Porcelanite Ceramic Filter by Slip Casting Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Muhi Shukur

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is conducted to study producing solid block porcelanite filter from Iraqi porcelanite rocks and kaolin clay (as binder material by slip casting technique, and investigating its ability of removing contaminant (Pentachlorophenol from water via the adsorption mechanism. Four particle sizes (74, 88, 105 and 125 µm of porcelanite powder were used. Each batch of particle size was mixed with (30 wt. % kaolin as a binding material to improve the mechanical properties. After that, the mixtures were formed by slip casting to disk and cylindrical filter samples, and then fired at 500 and 700 °C to specify the effects of particle size of porcelanite, temperature and formation technique on porcelanite filter properties. Some physical, mechanical and chemical tests have been done on filter samples. Multi-experiments were carried out to evaluate the ability of porcelanite to form the filter. Porosity, permeability and maximum pore diameter were increased with increasing porcelanite particle size and decreased by increasing temperature, whereas the density shows the reverse behavior. In addition, bending, compressive and tensile strength of samples were increased by increasing temperature, and decreased with increasing porcelanite particle size. Efficiency of disk filter sample to remove pentachlorophenol was 95.41% at a temperature of 700°C using 74 µm particle size of porcelanite. While the efficiency of cylindrical filter sample was 97.57% at the same conditions.

  7. Color-filter-free spatial visible light communication using RGB-LED and mobile-phone camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Hao; Chow, Chi-Wai

    2014-12-15

    A novel color-filter-free visible-light communication (VLC) system using red-green-blue (RGB) light emitting diode (LED) and mobile-phone camera is proposed and demonstrated for the first time. A feature matching method, which is based on the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm for the received grayscale image is used instead of the chromatic information decoding method. The proposed method is simple and saves the computation complexity. The signal processing is based on the grayscale image computation; hence neither color-filter nor chromatic channel information is required. A proof-of-concept experiment is performed and high performance channel recognition is achieved.

  8. Preparation of Polyaniline/Filter-paper Composite for Removal of Coomassie Brilliant Blue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wanwan; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Mengjuan

    2015-01-01

    Polyaniline/filter-paper (PANI/FP) composite was prepared by in-situ polymerization of polyaniline onto filter-paper and subsequently evaluated for the removal of Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) from aqueous solution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier...

  9. A Method for Microalgae Proteomics Analysis Based on Modified Filter-Aided Sample Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Cao, Xupeng; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Zhen; Zhang, Haowei; Xue, Song; Tian, Jing

    2017-11-01

    With the fast development of microalgal biofuel researches, the proteomics studies of microalgae increased quickly. A filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) method is widely used proteomics sample preparation method since 2009. Here, a method of microalgae proteomics analysis based on modified filter-aided sample preparation (mFASP) was described to meet the characteristics of microalgae cells and eliminate the error caused by over-alkylation. Using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as the model, the prepared sample was tested by standard LC-MS/MS and compared with the previous reports. The results showed mFASP is suitable for most of occasions of microalgae proteomics studies.

  10. Lessons learned in preparing method 29 filters for compliance testing audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, R F; McCartney, J E; Bursey, J T; Riley, C E

    2000-01-01

    Companies conducting compliance testing are required to analyze audit samples at the time they collect and analyze the stack samples if audit samples are available. Eastern Research Group (ERG) provides technical support to the EPA's Emission Measurements Center's Stationary Source Audit Program (SSAP) for developing, preparing, and distributing performance evaluation samples and audit materials. These audit samples are requested via the regulatory Agency and include spiked audit materials for EPA Method 29-Metals Emissions from Stationary Sources, as well as other methods. To provide appropriate audit materials to federal, state, tribal, and local governments, as well as agencies performing environmental activities and conducting emission compliance tests, ERG has recently performed testing of blank filter materials and preparation of spiked filters for EPA Method 29. For sampling stationary sources using an EPA Method 29 sampling train, the use of filters without organic binders containing less than 1.3 microg/in.2 of each of the metals to be measured is required. Risk Assessment testing imposes even stricter requirements for clean filter background levels. Three vendor sources of quartz fiber filters were evaluated for background contamination to ensure that audit samples would be prepared using filters with the lowest metal background levels. A procedure was developed to test new filters, and a cleaning procedure was evaluated to see if a greater level of cleanliness could be achieved using an acid rinse with new filters. Background levels for filters supplied by different vendors and within lots of filters from the same vendor showed a wide variation, confirmed through contact with several analytical laboratories that frequently perform EPA Method 29 analyses. It has been necessary to repeat more than one compliance test because of suspect metals background contamination levels. An acid cleaning step produced improvement in contamination level, but the

  11. DAF: differential ACE filtering image quality assessment by automatic color equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouni, S.; Chambah, M.; Saint-Jean, C.; Rizzi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Ideally, a quality assessment system would perceive and measure image or video impairments just like a human being. But in reality, objective quality metrics do not necessarily correlate well with perceived quality [1]. Plus, some measures assume that there exists a reference in the form of an "original" to compare to, which prevents their usage in digital restoration field, where often there is no reference to compare to. That is why subjective evaluation is the most used and most efficient approach up to now. But subjective assessment is expensive, time consuming and does not respond, hence, to the economic requirements [2,3]. Thus, reliable automatic methods for visual quality assessment are needed in the field of digital film restoration. The ACE method, for Automatic Color Equalization [4,6], is an algorithm for digital images unsupervised enhancement. It is based on a new computational approach that tries to model the perceptual response of our vision system merging the Gray World and White Patch equalization mechanisms in a global and local way. Like our vision system ACE is able to adapt to widely varying lighting conditions, and to extract visual information from the environment efficaciously. Moreover ACE can be run in an unsupervised manner. Hence it is very useful as a digital film restoration tool since no a priori information is available. In this paper we deepen the investigation of using the ACE algorithm as a basis for a reference free image quality evaluation. This new metric called DAF for Differential ACE Filtering [7] is an objective quality measure that can be used in several image restoration and image quality assessment systems. In this paper, we compare on different image databases, the results obtained with DAF and with some subjective image quality assessments (Mean Opinion Score MOS as measure of perceived image quality). We study also the correlation between objective measure and MOS. In our experiments, we have used for the first image

  12. Design Support System for Coloring Illustrations by Using the Colors Preferred by a User as Determined from the Hue Patterns of Illustrations Prepared by that User

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukai, Hironobu; Mitsukura, Yasue

    We propose a new design support system that can color illustrations according to a person's color preferences that are determined on the basis of the color patterns of illustrations prepared by that person. Recently, many design tools for promoting free design have been developed. However, preferences for various colors differ depending on individual personality. Therefore, a system that can automatically color various designs on the basis of human preference is required. In this study, we propose an automatic modeling system that can be used to model illustrations. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, we simulate a coloring design experiment to determine the color patterns preferred by some subjects by using various design data. By using the design data, we determine each subjects preferred color pattern, and send feedback on these individual color patterns to the proposed system.

  13. Measuring Leaf Area in Soy Plants by HSI Color Model Filtering and Mathematical Morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benalcázar, M; Padín, J; Brun, M; Pastore, J; Ballarin, V; Peirone, L; Pereyra, G

    2011-01-01

    There has been lately a significant progress in automating tasks for the agricultural sector. One of the advances is the development of robots, based on computer vision, applied to care and management of soy crops. In this task, digital image processing plays an important role, but must solve some important problems, like the ones associated to the variations in lighting conditions during image acquisition. Such variations influence directly on the brightness level of the images to be processed. In this paper we propose an algorithm to segment and measure automatically the leaf area of soy plants. This information is used by the specialists to evaluate and compare the growth of different soy genotypes. This algorithm, based on color filtering using the HSI model, detects green objects from the image background. The segmentation of leaves (foliage) was made applying Mathematical Morphology. The foliage area was estimated counting the pixels that belong to the segmented leaves. From several experiments, consisting in applying the algorithm to measure the foliage of about fifty plants of various genotypes of soy, at different growth stages, we obtained successful results, despite the high brightness variations and shadows in the processed images.

  14. Measuring Leaf Area in Soy Plants by HSI Color Model Filtering and Mathematical Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benalcázar, M.; Padín, J.; Brun, M.; Pastore, J.; Ballarin, V.; Peirone, L.; Pereyra, G.

    2011-12-01

    There has been lately a significant progress in automating tasks for the agricultural sector. One of the advances is the development of robots, based on computer vision, applied to care and management of soy crops. In this task, digital image processing plays an important role, but must solve some important problems, like the ones associated to the variations in lighting conditions during image acquisition. Such variations influence directly on the brightness level of the images to be processed. In this paper we propose an algorithm to segment and measure automatically the leaf area of soy plants. This information is used by the specialists to evaluate and compare the growth of different soy genotypes. This algorithm, based on color filtering using the HSI model, detects green objects from the image background. The segmentation of leaves (foliage) was made applying Mathematical Morphology. The foliage area was estimated counting the pixels that belong to the segmented leaves. From several experiments, consisting in applying the algorithm to measure the foliage of about fifty plants of various genotypes of soy, at different growth stages, we obtained successful results, despite the high brightness variations and shadows in the processed images.

  15. Machine-smoking studies of cigarette filter color to estimate tar yield by visual assessment and through the use of a colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Michael J; Williams, David L; Hjorth, Heather B; Smith, Jennifer H

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores using the intensity of the stain on the end of the filter ("filter color") as a vehicle for estimating cigarette tar yield, both by instrument reading of the filter color and by visual comparison to a template. The correlation of machine-measured tar yield to filter color measured with a colorimeter was reasonably strong and was relatively unaffected by different puff volumes or different tobacco moistures. However, the correlation of filter color to machine-measured nicotine yield was affected by the moisture content of the cigarette. Filter color, as measured by a colorimeter, was generally comparable to filter extraction of either nicotine or solanesol in its correlation to machine-smoked tar yields. It was found that the color of the tar stain changes over time. Panelists could generally correctly order the filters from machine-smoked cigarettes by tar yield using the intensity of the tar stain. However, there was considerable variation in the panelist-to-panelist tar yield estimates. The wide person-to-person variation in tar yield estimates, and other factors discussed in the text could severely limit the usefulness and practicality of this approach for visually estimating the tar yield of machine-smoked cigarettes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A large-area, wide-incident-angle, and polarization-independent plasmonic color filter for glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Wenjun

    2018-01-01

    We develop an effective method for glucose sensing by using a plasmonic color filter (PCF) integrated with a microfluidic chip. The morphology of PCF is composed of hybrid nanopillars fabricated with SiO2 and Au thin-films on silicon substrate. It exhibits angle-independence, polarization-independence and wafer-level fabrication, which are the most important factors for color filters for industrial applications. The shift of resonant wavelength is 56 nm with a stable bandwidth (∼30 nm) by varying concentration of glucose solution. The sensitivity is 157.61 nm/RIU and the corresponding figure-of-merit is 5.25. Such strategy can be exploited to further increase the detection and potentially enter the ultra-strong coupling regime in chemical solution sensors.

  17. Preparation of affordable and multifunctional clay-based ceramic filter matrix for treatment of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaraju, H Puttaiah; Egumbo, Henok; Madhusudan, P; Anil Kumar, K M; Midhun, G

    2018-02-01

    Affordable clay-based ceramic filters with multifunctional properties were prepared using low-cost and active ingredients. The characterization results clearly revealed well crystallinity, structural elucidation, extensive porosity, higher surface area, higher stability, and durability which apparently enhance the treatment efficiency. The filtration rates of ceramic filter were evaluated under gravity and the results obtained were compared with a typical gravity slow sand filter (GSSF). All ceramic filters showed significant filtration rates of about 50-180 m/h, which is comparatively higher than the typical GSSF. Further, purification efficiency of clay-based ceramic filters was evaluated by considering important drinking water parameters and contaminants. A significant removal potential was achieved by the clay-based ceramic filter with 25% and 30% activated carbon along with active agents. Desired drinking water quality parameters were achieved by potential removal of nitrite (98.5%), nitrate (80.5%), total dissolved solids (62%), total hardness (55%), total organic pollutants (89%), and pathogenic microorganisms (100%) using ceramic filters within a short duration. The remarkable purification and disinfection efficiencies were attributed to the extensive porosity (0.202 cm 3  g -1 ), surface area (124.61 m 2  g -1 ), stability, and presence of active nanoparticles such as Cu, TiO 2 , and Ag within the porous matrix of the ceramic filter.

  18. Preparation of a zeolite-modified polymer monolith for identification of synthetic colorants in lipsticks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huiqi; Li, Zheng [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Niu, Qian [Jilin Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Changchun 130062 (China); Ma, Jiutong [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Jia, Qiong, E-mail: jiaqiong@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: Poly(methacrylic acid-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic column embedded with zeolites was prepared and employed for the polymer monolith microextraction of colorants combined with HPLC. - Highlights: • Zeolite, as a kind of mesoporous material, was firstly combined with PMME. • Zeolite@poly(MAA-EDMA) monolith columns were prepared for the enrichment of colorants. • Zeolite@poly(MAA-EDMA) monolith columns demonstrated relatively high extraction capacity. - Abstract: A novel zeolite-modified poly(methacrylic acid-ethylenedimethacrylate) (zeolite@poly(MAA-EDMA)) monolithic column was prepared with the in situ polymerization method and employed in polymer monolith microextraction for the separation and preconcentration of synthetic colorants combined with high performance liquid chromatography. The polymer was characterized by scanning electronmicroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, we obtained acceptable linearities, low limits of detection, and good intra-day/inter-day relative standard deviations. The method was applied to the determination of synthetic colorants in lipsticks with recoveries ranged from 70.7% to 109.7%. Compared with conventional methacrylic acid-based monoliths, the developed monolith exhibited high enrichment capacity because of the introduction of zeolites into the preparation process. The extraction efficiency followed the order: zeolite@poly(MAA-EDMA) > poly(MAA-EDMA) > direct HPLC analysis.

  19. Determination of atmospheric iodine species using a system of specifically prepared filters and IDMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaebler, H.E.; Heumann, K.G.

    1993-01-01

    A system was developed which allowed the determination of four different atmospheric iodine species by preparing glass microfibre filters, which were arranged in consecutive order, in a specific way. Particulate iodine was collected by a particle filter, HI and I 2 by a NaOH impregnated filter, HOI was adsorbed on a TBAH impregnated filter and organoiodine was adsorbed on a filter loaded with activated charcoal. These behaviours were checked by extensive model experiments. Two or more filters of the same type were used in series to show the degree of collection of one iodine species. Two European samples, one of continental and one of marine origin, and two Antarctic samples were analysed by this filter system using isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) for quantification. The distribution pattern for the different iodine species is similar for the two European samples. Organoiodine is found to be the most abundant species whereas in Antarctica the HI/I 2 fraction is up to nearly 50% of the total iodine. The particulate iodine fraction is higher in Europe than in Antarctica, which is due to the low particle concentration in the remote area of Antarctica. The higher HI/I 2 and HOI fractions found at the North Sea compared with the continental sample indicate that the ocean is a primary source of these species. Concentrations in the range of (0.3-3.1) ngI/m 3 were analysed for particulate iodine, (0.4-1.3) ng I/m 3 for HI/I 2 , (0.2-1.8) ng I/m 3 for HOI and (0.4-7.6) ng I/m 3 for organoiodine. The detection limits varied with the variances of the blank values of the different filters and lay between 0.02 ng I/m 3 and 0.24 ng I/m 3 using sample volumes of 70 m 3 air. (orig.)

  20. Comprehensive Utilization of Filter Residue from the Preparation Process of Zeolite-Based Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Qin Zheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel utilization method of filter residue from the preparation process of zeolite-based catalysts was investigated. Y zeolite and a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC catalyst were synthesized from filter residue. Compared to the Y zeolite synthesized by the conventional method, the Y zeolite synthesized from filter residue exhibited better thermal stability. The catalyst possessed wide-pore distribution. In addition, the pore volume, specific surface area, attrition resistance were superior to those of the reference catalyst. The yields of gasoline and light oil increased by 1.93 and 1.48 %, respectively. At the same time, the coke yield decreased by 0.41 %. The catalyst exhibited better gasoline and coke selectivity. The quality of the cracked gasoline had been improved.

  1. Fabricating high-resolution offset color-filter black matrix by integrating heterostructured substrate with inkjet printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Guo-Shin; You, Po-Chin; Lin, Kai-Lun; Hong, Chien-Chong; Liou, Tong-Miin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a self-aligning ink by integrating an inkjet printing technique and heterostructures to fabricate a black matrix with a micrometer-scale tunable thickness. The black matrix is a grid-like structure used in color filters. Traditionally, a black matrix has been fabricated using photolithography techniques, the disadvantages of which are high material consumption, less fabrication flexibility, complex processing procedures, and high chemical pollution. Inkjet printing technology has garnered attention because of its low material costs, high fabrication flexibility, and reduced processing procedures and pollution. In this study, a fabricating process combining an inkjet printing technique with heterostructures to form stripe-arranged and delta-arranged thickness-tunable black matrices has been demonstrated. The deformation and self-aligning process of ink droplet impingement onto gutters are driven by designed heterogeneous surface properties. The minimum track width attained is 10 µm, which is competitive for color filter resolutions for thin-film transistor liquid crystal displays. The developed technology surmounts the bottlenecks of inkjet printing resolution, and saves more than 75% black material than modern photolithography. (paper)

  2. Durable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic filter paper for oil–water separation prepared by a colloidal deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Chuan; Wang, Jiadao; Chen, Zhifu; Chen, Darong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A method for fabricating durable superhydrophobic filter paper was developed. • Oil–water separation efficiency exceeds 99% using the as-prepared filter paper. • The as-prepared filter paper has good recyclability and durability. • The method is easy, low cost and can be industrialized. - Abstract: A method for manufacturing durable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic filter paper for oil–water separation was developed via colloidal deposition. A porous film composed of PTFE nanoparticles was formed on filter paper, which was superhydrophobic with a water contact angle of 155.5° and superoleophilic with an oil contact angle of 0°. The obtained filter paper could separate a series of oil–water mixtures effectively with high separation efficiencies over 99%. Besides, the as-prepared filter paper kept stable superhydrophobicity and high separation efficiency even after 30 cycle times and could also work well under harsh environmental conditions like strong acidic or alkaline solutions, high temperature and ultraviolet irradiation. Compared with other approaches for fabricating oil–water materials, this approach is able to fabricate full-scale durable and practical oil–water materials easily and economically. The as-prepared filter paper is a promising candidate for oil–water separation

  3. Composite correlation filter for O-ring detection in stationary colored noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassebrook, Laurence G.

    2009-04-01

    O-rings are regularly replaced in aircraft and if they are not replaced or if they are installed improperly, they can result in catastrophic failure of the aircraft. It is critical that the o-rings be packaged correctly to avoid mistakes made by technicians during routine maintenance. For this reason, fines may be imposed on the o-ring manufacturer if the o-rings are packaged incorrectly. That is, a single o-ring must be packaged and labeled properly. No o-rings or more than one o-ring per package is not acceptable. We present an industrial inspection system based on real-time composite correlation filtering that has successfully solved this problem in spite of opaque paper o-ring packages. We present the system design including the composite filter design.

  4. A high-throughput sample preparation method for cellular proteomics using 96-well filter plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzar, Linda; van Angeren, Jordy; Pinkse, Martijn; Kool, Jeroen; Niessen, Wilfried M A

    2013-10-01

    A high-throughput sample preparation protocol based on the use of 96-well molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) filter plates was developed for shotgun proteomics of cell lysates. All sample preparation steps, including cell lysis, buffer exchange, protein denaturation, reduction, alkylation and proteolytic digestion are performed in a 96-well plate format, making the platform extremely well suited for processing large numbers of samples and directly compatible with functional assays for cellular proteomics. In addition, the usage of a single plate for all sample preparation steps following cell lysis reduces potential samples losses and allows for automation. The MWCO filter also enables sample concentration, thereby increasing the overall sensitivity, and implementation of washing steps involving organic solvents, for example, to remove cell membranes constituents. The optimized protocol allowed for higher throughput with improved sensitivity in terms of the number of identified cellular proteins when compared to an established protocol employing gel-filtration columns. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Transitional analysis of organic thin color filter layers in displays during baking process using multi-speckle diffusing wave spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Baek Sung; Hyung, Kyung Hee; Oh, Gwi Jeong; Jung, Hyun Wook

    2018-02-01

    The color filter (CF) is one of the key components for improving the performance of TV displays such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and white organic light emitting diodes (WOLED). The profile defects like undercut during the fine fabrication processes for CF layers are inevitably generated through the UV exposure and development processes, however, these can be controlled through the baking process. In order to resolve the profile defects of CF layers, in this study, the real-time dynamic changes of CF layers are monitored during the baking process by changing components such as polymeric binder and acrylate. The motion of pigment particles in CF layers during baking is quantitatively interpreted using multi-speckle diffusing wave spectroscopy (MSDWS), in terms of the autocorrelation function and the characteristic time of α-relaxation.

  6. Chemical separation of plutonium from air filters and preparation of filaments for resonance ionization mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, K.; Erdmann, N.; Funk, H.; Herrmann, G.; Naehler, A.; Passler, G.; Trautmann, N.; Urban, F.

    1995-01-01

    Resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS) is used for the determination of plutonium in environmental samples. A chemical procedure based on an ion-exchange technique for the separation of plutonium from a polycarbonate filter is described. The overall yield is about 60% as determined by α-particle spectroscopy. A technique for the subsequent preparation of samples for RIMS measurements is developed. Plutonium is electrode-posited as hydroxide and covered with a thin metallic layer. While heating such a sandwich filament the plutonium hydroxide is reduced to the metal and an atomic beam is evaporated from the surface, as required for RIMS. copyright American Institute of Physics 1995

  7. Preparation and characterization of morph-genetic aluminum nitride/carbon composites from filter paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Xue Tao; Jin Zhihao; Qiao Guanjun

    2008-01-01

    Morph-genetic aluminum nitride/carbon composites with cablelike structure were prepared from filter paper template through the surface sol-gel process and carbothermal nitridation reaction. The resulting materials have a hierarchical structure originating from the morphology of cellulose paper. The aluminum nitride/carbon composites have the core-shell microstructure, the core is graphitic carbon, and the shell is aluminum nitride nanocoating formed by carbothermal nitridation reduction of alumina with the interfacial carbon in nitrogen atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the structural morphology and phase compositions of the final products

  8. Experiments on exclusive proton and pion scattering for nuclear filtering and color transparency study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.

    1992-01-01

    The color transparency of pions in various nuclei has been measured and compared with the proton transparency. The measurement results are consistent with semi-classical predictions that the pion transparency is larger than the proton transparency at the same incident momentum and their ratio becomes larger as the nucleus becomes heavier. The energy dependence of the transparency has been studied based on the semi-classical theory and the result shows that the transparency can be written into two factors. The physics interpretations of the two factors have been discussed. A new experimental apparatus, the Exclusive Variable Apparatus (EVA) at Brookhaven National Laboratory, along with unique electronic techniques chosen for enabling the EVA trigger system to fulfill physics requirements of the experiment, have been described

  9. Effects of blue light-filtering intraocular lenses on the macula, contrast sensitivity, and color vision after a long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara-Junior, Newton; Espindola, Rodrigo F; Gomes, Beatriz A F; Ventura, Bruna; Smadja, David; Santhiago, Marcony R

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the possible side effects and potential protection 5 years after implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL) with a blue-light filter (yellow tinted). Ophthalmology Department, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Prospective randomized clinical study. Patients with bilateral visually significant cataract randomly received an ultraviolet (UV) and blue light-filtering IOL (Acrysof Natural SN60AT) in 1 eye and an acrylic UV light-filtering only IOL (Acrysof SA60AT) in the fellow eye. The primary outcome measures were contrast sensitivity, color vision, and macular findings 5 years after surgery. The study enrolled 60 eyes of 30 patients. There were no significant clinical or optical coherence tomography findings in terms of age-related macular degeneration in any eye. There were no statistically significant differences in central macular thickness between the 2 IOL groups (P=.712). There were also no significant between-group differences under photopic or scotopic conditions at any spatial frequency studied. No statistically significant differences in the color discrimination test were found between the 2 IOL groups (P=.674). After 5 years, there were no significant differences in color perception, scotopic contrast sensitivity, or photopic contrast sensitivity between the blue light-filtering (yellow-tinted) IOL and the IOL with a UV-light filter only (untinted). The potential advantage of the tinted IOL in providing protection to macular cells remains unclear. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Color Shift Failure Prediction for Phosphor-Converted White LEDs by Modeling Features of Spectral Power Distribution with a Nonlinear Filter Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajie Fan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With the expanding application of light-emitting diodes (LEDs, the color quality of white LEDs has attracted much attention in several color-sensitive application fields, such as museum lighting, healthcare lighting and displays. Reliability concerns for white LEDs are changing from the luminous efficiency to color quality. However, most of the current available research on the reliability of LEDs is still focused on luminous flux depreciation rather than color shift failure. The spectral power distribution (SPD, defined as the radiant power distribution emitted by a light source at a range of visible wavelength, contains the most fundamental luminescence mechanisms of a light source. SPD is used as the quantitative inference of an LED’s optical characteristics, including color coordinates that are widely used to represent the color shift process. Thus, to model the color shift failure of white LEDs during aging, this paper first extracts the features of an SPD, representing the characteristics of blue LED chips and phosphors, by multi-peak curve-fitting and modeling them with statistical functions. Then, because the shift processes of extracted features in aged LEDs are always nonlinear, a nonlinear state-space model is then developed to predict the color shift failure time within a self-adaptive particle filter framework. The results show that: (1 the failure mechanisms of LEDs can be identified by analyzing the extracted features of SPD with statistical curve-fitting and (2 the developed method can dynamically and accurately predict the color coordinates, correlated color temperatures (CCTs, and color rendering indexes (CRIs of phosphor-converted (pc-white LEDs, and also can estimate the residual color life.

  11. Color Shift Failure Prediction for Phosphor-Converted White LEDs by Modeling Features of Spectral Power Distribution with a Nonlinear Filter Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiajie; Mohamed, Moumouni Guero; Qian, Cheng; Fan, Xuejun; Zhang, Guoqi; Pecht, Michael

    2017-07-18

    With the expanding application of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the color quality of white LEDs has attracted much attention in several color-sensitive application fields, such as museum lighting, healthcare lighting and displays. Reliability concerns for white LEDs are changing from the luminous efficiency to color quality. However, most of the current available research on the reliability of LEDs is still focused on luminous flux depreciation rather than color shift failure. The spectral power distribution (SPD), defined as the radiant power distribution emitted by a light source at a range of visible wavelength, contains the most fundamental luminescence mechanisms of a light source. SPD is used as the quantitative inference of an LED's optical characteristics, including color coordinates that are widely used to represent the color shift process. Thus, to model the color shift failure of white LEDs during aging, this paper first extracts the features of an SPD, representing the characteristics of blue LED chips and phosphors, by multi-peak curve-fitting and modeling them with statistical functions. Then, because the shift processes of extracted features in aged LEDs are always nonlinear, a nonlinear state-space model is then developed to predict the color shift failure time within a self-adaptive particle filter framework. The results show that: (1) the failure mechanisms of LEDs can be identified by analyzing the extracted features of SPD with statistical curve-fitting and (2) the developed method can dynamically and accurately predict the color coordinates, correlated color temperatures (CCTs), and color rendering indexes (CRIs) of phosphor-converted (pc)-white LEDs, and also can estimate the residual color life.

  12. The preparation of biodegradable vena filter and the study of its properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiao; Xiao Yueyong; Yang Jie; Ma Xuyang; Liu Shirong; Ren Chao; Wang Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the preparation of biodegradable vena cava filter (BVCF) with poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA), and to evaluate its mechanical properties, delivery performance, the ability of capturing thrombus and the degradation property. Methods: Three-dimensional design software was used to design the shape of BVCF. The BVCF was prepared by using PLLA with molecular weight of 100 000 unit. Twelve minipigs were used to test the feasibility of this BVCF. They were randomly divided into four groups. At first the BVCFs were placed into the inferior vena cava of pigs in three experimental groups. The fourth group was used as a blank control group. The thrombi were injected into all pigs after 1 week, and CT examinations were performed at different time points to observe the filter locations and pulmonary artery. The animals were sacrificed according to a fixed time table for histopathological assessment. Results: The BVCF was successfully designed and produced, which could expand by stretching the center-thread. In vitro test results showed the radial force of BVCF was approximately 1.6 N and could capture the thrombus more than 5 mm in diameter, and it was easy to release. Through the animal experiment confirmed that the filter could capture the lethal thrombus and all 9 pigs of experimental groups were survived, two of those had the symptoms of respiratory frequency and heartbeat accelerated slightly in the operation. In control group, the symptoms such as accelerate of respiratory rate, shortness of breath were observed in varying degree. The pig which was injected with 8 strips of thrombus died in the same day after surgery. Postoperative CT and pathological examinations showed that 2 pigs in the experimental group developed peripheral pulmonary embolism, while the dead pig in the control group developed central pulmonary embolism. Histological findings showed that the intima covered the BVCF lateral branch partly after one week,and thoroughly after six weeks

  13. Optical filtering and luminescence property of some molybdates prepared by combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, P. J., E-mail: yadav.pooja75@yahoo.in [Department of Electronics, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur (India); Joshi, C. P. [Physics Department, RCOEM, Nagpur (India); Moharil, S. V., E-mail: svmoharil@yahoo.com [Physics Department, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur (India)

    2014-10-15

    As an important class of lanthanide inorganic compounds, rare earth ions doped molybdates have gained much attention due to their attractive luminescence and structural properties, supporting various promising applications as phosphor materials in the fields such as white light-emitting diodes, optical fibers, biolabel, lasers, and so on. The molybdate family has promising trivalent cation conducting properties and most of the optical properties result from electron transitions of the 4f shell, which are greatly affected by the composition and structures of rare-earth compounds. In this paper we report the molybdate CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} for red SSL and Bi{sub 1.4}Y{sub 0.6}MoO{sub 6}, Y{sub 6}MoO{sub 12} for optical filtering, prepared by one step combustion synthesis.

  14. Optical efficiency enhancement in white organic light-emitting diode display with high color gamut using patterned quantum dot film and long pass filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Jun; Shin, Min-Ho; Kim, Young-Joo

    2016-08-01

    A new structure for white organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays with a patterned quantum dot (QD) film and a long pass filter (LPF) was proposed and evaluated to realize both a high color gamut and high optical efficiency. Since optical efficiency is a critical parameter in white OLED displays with a high color gamut, a red or green QD film as a color-converting component and an LPF as a light-recycling component are introduced to be adjusted via the characteristics of a color filter (CF). Compared with a conventional white OLED without both a QD film and the LPF, it was confirmed experimentally that the optical powers of red and green light in a new white OLED display were increased by 54.1 and 24.7% using a 30 wt % red QD film and a 20 wt % green QD film with the LPF, respectively. In addition, the white OLED with both a QD film and the LPF resulted in an increase in the color gamut from 98 to 107% (NTSC x,y ratio) due to the narrow emission linewidth of the QDs.

  15. Study on the Preparation and Properties of Colored Iron Oxide Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xianhui; Li Changhong; Liu Qiuping; He Junjing; Wang Hai; Liang Song; Duan Yandong; Liu Su

    2013-01-01

    Colored iron oxide thin films were prepared using Sol-gel technique. The raw materials were tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), etoh ehanol (EtOH), iron nitrate, and de-ionized water. Various properties were measured and analysed, including the colour of thin films, surface topography, UV-Visible spectra, corrosion resistance and hydrophobicity. To understand how these properties influenced the structural and optical properties of Fe 2 O 3 thin films, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), UV Spectrophotometer and other facilities were employed. Many parameters influence the performance of thin films, such as film layers, added H 2 O content, and the amount of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). When the volume ratio of TEOS, EtOH and H 2 O was 15: 13: 1, the quality of Fe(NO 3 ) 3 ·9H 2 O was 6g, and pH value was 3, reddish and uniform Fe 2 O 3 thin films with excellent properties were produced. Obtained thin films possessed corrosion resistance in hydrochloric acid with pH=l and the absorption edge wavelength was ∼350.2nm. Different H 2 O contents could result in different morphologies of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles. When 1.5 ml PDMS was added into the Sol, thin films possessed hydrophobiliry without dropping. Coating with different layers, thin films appeared different morphologies. Meanwhile, with the increment of film layers, the absorbance increased gradually.

  16. Preparation and characterization of monel (70% Ni-30% Cu) metallic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo Lavos, I. de.

    1993-01-01

    This work investigates a process for the fabrication and characterization of monel (Ni-Cu) filters. The powder consolidation was made by vibration or by pressing at various pressures (200, 300 e 400 MPa). The sintering was carried out at 1100 0 C during 1 hour under H 2 atmosphere. The filter characterization was performed by measuring its density, porosity, filtering capacity and permeability. It was obtained a correlation between the processing variables (consolidation and sintering), including powder properties, and the filters characteristics. (author). 59 refs, 41 figs, 7 tabs

  17. Red coloration by heat treatment of the coprecipitate of cadmium sulfide and mercury(II) sulfide prepared from the nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Fujiya

    1979-01-01

    The effects of starting salts on the color, particle size and crystal structure of mercury-cadmium-sulfide pigments were investigated. The coprecipitate (N-S) of cadmium sulfide and mercury (II) sulfide was prepared by adding sodium sulfide solution to a mixed cadmium-mercury (II) nitrate solution. The coprecipitate (C-S) of cadmium sulfide and mercury (II) sulfide was also prepared from the mixed solution of their chlorides by the same method as described above. The coprecipitated products were heat-treated (calcination or hydrothermal treatment) at 350 0 C for 2 hours and subsequent changes in powder properties of both products were compared from each other. The powder properties of N-S, C-S and their heat-treated products were investigated by spectral reflectance, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and specific surface area measurements. Sample (N-C) obtained by the calcination of N-S was brown, indicating no red coloration, but the calcined product (C-C) of C-S developed a red color. Cl - and hot water were found to be effective for the red color development of the pigment. The effectiveness was confirmed by calcining N-S in the presence of NaCl or by treating it hydrothermally. It was found that halides other than NaCl, (e.g., NH 4 Cl, KCl, KBr and KI), were also effective for the color development of the pigment. The red samples are solid solutions with a basically hexagonal CdS structure, and it appears that CdS takes up HgS without any apparent structural changes. The particle size of the red samples are larger than those of the non red samples. (author)

  18. Facile Preparation of Nanostructured, Superhydrophobic Filter Paper for Efficient Water/Oil Separation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a facile and cost-effective method to obtain superhydrophobic filter paper and demonstrate its application for efficient water/oil separation. By coupling structurally distinct organosilane precursors (e.g., octadecyltrichlorosilane and methyltrichlorosilane to paper fibers under controlled reaction conditions, we have formulated a simple, inexpensive, and efficient protocol to achieve a desirable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface on conventional filter paper. The silanized superhydrophobic filter paper showed nanostructured morphology and demonstrated great separation efficiency (up to 99.4% for water/oil mixtures. The modified filter paper is stable in both aqueous solutions and organic solvents, and can be reused multiple times. The present study shows that our newly developed binary silanization is a promising method of modifying cellulose-based materials for practical applications, in particular the treatment of industrial waste water and ecosystem recovery.

  19. Attention Filtering in the Design of Electronic Map Displays: A Comparison of Color-Coding, Intensity Coding, and Decluttering Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yeh, Michelle; Wickens, Christopher D

    2000-01-01

    In a series of experiments, the use of color-coding, intensity coding, and decluttering were compared order to assess their potential benefits for accessing information from electronic map displays...

  20. Colored Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 7 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 30, 2002 during the Southern Fall season in Atlantis Chaos. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.5, Longitude 183.6 East (176.4 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D

  1. Color metallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasson, Raymond.

    1976-06-01

    After a short introduction explaining the reasons why color metallography was adopted, the various operations involved in this technique are described in turn and illustrated by colored photomicrographs. The sample preparation (cutting, covering) and surface preparation (trimming, polishing, finishing) are described briefly. The operations specific to color metallography are then detailed: revelation of the structure of polished surfaces, dye impregnation techniques, optical systems used in macrography, in micrography, different light sources used in microscopy, photographic methods [fr

  2. Investigation of the Dependences of the Attenuation Properties of Cryogenic Metal-Powder Filters on the Preparation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hoon; Lee, Soon-Gul

    2018-04-01

    We fabricated low-pass metal powder filters for use in low-noise measurements at cryogenic temperatures and investigated their attenuation characteristics for different wire-turn densities, metalpowder shapes, and preparation methods at frequencies up to 20 GHz. We used nominally 30-μmsized stainless-steel 304L powder and mixed it with low-temperature binders. The low-temperature binders used were Stycast 2850FT (Emerson and Cumming) with catalyst 23LV and GE-7031 varnish. A 0.1-mm insulated copper wire was wound on preformed powder-mixture bobbins in the shape of a circular rod and was encapsulated in metal tubes with the powder mixture. All the fabricated powder filters showed a large attenuation at high frequencies with a cut-off frequency near 1 GHz. For filters of the same wire length, a lower wiring density showed a larger attenuation, which implies that the amount of powder in close contact with the wire determines the attenuation. Filters made of a powder/varnish mixture showed significantly larger attenuations than those of a powder/stycast mixture, and the attenuation improved with increasing powder ratio in the mixture. The low-temperature thermal conductivities of a 2 : 1 powder/Stycast mixture and a 5 : 1 powder/varnish mixture showed similar values at temperatures up to 4.2 K.

  3. About a new preparation method for non-stoichiometric colored alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arghiropoulos, Basile; Elston, Jean; Juillet, Francois; Teichner, Stanislas

    1960-01-01

    Non-porous, 150 A diameter alumina spherules (δ variety), initially compressed at a pressure of 1 to 5 t/cm 2 , are colored in black after a vacuum treatment (10 -6 mm Hg) at 500 deg. C. Coloration is linked with oxygen loss. The non-stoichiometry of black alumina is demonstrated using a Mc Bain balance and electric conductivity measurements. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 249, p. 2549-2551, sitting of 9 December 1959 [fr

  4. The Racialized Experiences of Students of Color in Higher Education and Student Affairs Graduate Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jessica C.; Linder, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Using a critical race theory lens, we examined the racialized experiences of 29 Students of Color in HESA programs across the United States. Students' experiences illuminate 4 themes: educating white peers, invalidation of experiences and identity, racial stereotypes, and isolation. Participants' experiences illustrate a disconnect between HESA…

  5. RGB-Switchable Porous Electrospun Nanofiber Chemoprobe-Filter Prepared from Multifunctional Copolymers for Versatile Sensing of pH and Heavy Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fang-Cheng; Kuo, Chi-Ching; Chen, Bo-Yu; Cho, Chia-Jung; Hung, Chih-Chien; Chen, Wen-Chang; Borsali, Redouane

    2017-05-17

    Novel red-green-blue (RGB) switchable probes based on fluorescent porous electrospun (ES) nanofibers exhibiting high sensitivity to pH and mercury ions (Hg 2+ ) were prepared with one type of copolymer (poly(methyl methacrylatete-co-1,8-naphthalimide derivatives-co-rhodamine derivative); poly(MMA-co-BNPTU-co-RhBAM)) by using a single-capillary spinneret. The MMA, BNPTU, and RhBAM moieties were designed to (i) permit formation of porous fibers, (ii) fluoresce for Hg 2+ detection, and (iii) fluoresce for pH, respectively. The fluorescence emission of BNPTU (fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) donor) changed from green to blue as it detected Hg 2+ . The fluorescence emission of RhBAM (FRET acceptor) was highly selective for pH, changing from nonfluorescent (pH 7) to exhibiting strong red fluorescence (pH 2). The full-color emission of the ES nanofibers included green, red, blue, purple, and white depending on the particular pH and Hg 2+ -concentration combination of the solution. The porous ES nanofibers with 30 nm pores were fabricated using hydrophobic MMA, low-boiling-point solvent, and at a high relative humidity (80%). These porous ES nanofibers had a higher surface-to-volume ratio than did the corresponding thin films, which enhanced their performance. The present study demonstrated that the FRET-based full-color-fluorescence porous nanofibrous membranes, which exhibit on-off switching and can be used as naked eye probes, have potential for application in water purification sensing filters.

  6. Deferred slanted-edge analysis: a unified approach to spatial frequency response measurement on distorted images and color filter array subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, F

    2018-03-01

    The slanted-edge method of spatial frequency response (SFR) measurement is usually applied to grayscale images under the assumption that any distortion of the expected straight edge is negligible. By decoupling the edge orientation and position estimation step from the edge spread function construction step, it is shown in this paper that the slanted-edge method can be extended to allow it to be applied to images suffering from significant geometric distortion, such as produced by equiangular fisheye lenses. This same decoupling also allows the slanted-edge method to be applied directly to Bayer-mosaicked images so that the SFR of the color filter array subsets can be measured directly without the unwanted influence of demosaicking artifacts. Numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed deferred slanted-edge method in relation to existing methods.

  7. Preparation and investigation of diamond-like carbon stripper foils by filtered cathodic vacuum arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Qiwen; Du, Yinghui; Zhang, Rong; Xu, Guoji

    2013-01-01

    Thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) stripper foils ∼5μg/cm 2 in thickness were produced and evaluated as heavy-ion strippers for the Beijing HI-13 Tandem Accelerator. The DLC layers ∼4μg/cm 2 in thickness were produced by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology onto glass slides coated with betaine–saccharose as releasing agent, which were previously covered with evaporated carbon layers ∼1μg/cm 2 in thickness by the controlled ac arc-discharge method. Irradiation lifetimes of the DLC stripper foils were tested using the heavy-ion beams at the terminal of the Beijing HI-13 Tandem Accelerator, and compared with those of the standard carbon stripper foils made by the combined dc and ac arc-discharge method. The measurements indicate that the DLC stripper foils outlast the standard combined dc and ac arc-discharge carbon stripper foils by a factor of at least 13 and 4 for the 197 Au − (∼9MeV, ∼1μA) and 63 Cu − (∼9MeV, ∼1μA) ion beams, respectively. The structure and properties of the DLC foils deposited onto silicon substrates by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology were also evaluated and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The scanning electron microscopy images show that the DLC foils contain hardly droplets through the double 90° filters. The X-ray photoelectron spectrum indicates that sp 3 bonds of the DLC foils exceed 70%. The integral intensity ratio of the D peak to the G peak (I D /I G ) measured by the Raman spectroscopy is 0.78

  8. Influence of thermal heating on diamond-like carbon film properties prepared by filtered cathodic arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamnualthong, N.; Siangchaew, K.; Limsuwan, P.

    2013-01-01

    Tetrahedral amorphous diamond-like carbon (ta-DLC) films were deposited on magnetic recording heads using the filtered cathodic arc method. The deposited film thickness was on the order of several nanometers. The DLC films were then annealed to 100 °C–300 °C for 30 and 60 min, and the structure of the ta-DLC films was investigated using Raman spectroscopy, where the gross changes were observed in the Raman D and G peaks. Detailed interpretation concluded that there was sp 2 clustering as a function of temperature, and there was no sp 3 -to-sp 2 conversion after heating up to 300 °C. Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggested that oxidation of both the ta-DLC film and the adhesion layer occurs at 300 °C. Additionally, more film wear was observed with heating as measured by a nanoindenter. - Highlights: • Tetrahedral-amorphous diamond-like carbon (ta-DLC) by filtered cathodic arc • ta-DLC used in magnetic recording head as head overcoat • ta-DLC thickness range of less than 2 nm • ta-DLC property dependence on heating • Temperature effect range of up to 300 °C

  9. Digital color imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    This collective work identifies the latest developments in the field of the automatic processing and analysis of digital color images.For researchers and students, it represents a critical state of the art on the scientific issues raised by the various steps constituting the chain of color image processing.It covers a wide range of topics related to computational color imaging, including color filtering and segmentation, color texture characterization, color invariant for object recognition, color and motion analysis, as well as color image and video indexing and retrieval. <

  10. Supervised retinal vessel segmentation from color fundus images based on matched filtering and AdaBoost classifier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogol Memari

    Full Text Available The structure and appearance of the blood vessel network in retinal fundus images is an essential part of diagnosing various problems associated with the eyes, such as diabetes and hypertension. In this paper, an automatic retinal vessel segmentation method utilizing matched filter techniques coupled with an AdaBoost classifier is proposed. The fundus image is enhanced using morphological operations, the contrast is increased using contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE method and the inhomogeneity is corrected using Retinex approach. Then, the blood vessels are enhanced using a combination of B-COSFIRE and Frangi matched filters. From this preprocessed image, different statistical features are computed on a pixel-wise basis and used in an AdaBoost classifier to extract the blood vessel network inside the image. Finally, the segmented images are postprocessed to remove the misclassified pixels and regions. The proposed method was validated using publicly accessible Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction (DRIVE, Structured Analysis of the Retina (STARE and Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE_DB1 datasets commonly used for determining the accuracy of retinal vessel segmentation methods. The accuracy of the proposed segmentation method was comparable to other state of the art methods while being very close to the manual segmentation provided by the second human observer with an average accuracy of 0.972, 0.951 and 0.948 in DRIVE, STARE and CHASE_DB1 datasets, respectively.

  11. Plasmonic color-graded nanosystems with achromatic sub-wavelength architectures for light filtering and advanced SERS detection

    KAUST Repository

    Proietti Zaccaria, Remo

    2016-03-09

    Plasmonic colour-graded systems are devices featuring a spatially variable plasmonic response over their surface. They are widely used as nanoscale colour filters; their typical size is small enough to allow integration with miniaturized electronic circuits paving the way to realize novel nanophotonic devices. Currently, most plasmonic colour-graded systems are intrinsically discrete, as their chromatic response exploits the tailored plasmon resonance of micro-architectures characterized by different size and/or geometry for each target colour. Here we report the realization of multifunctional plasmon-graded devices where continuously-graded chromatic response is achieved by smoothly tuning the composition of the resonator material while simultaneously maintaining an achromatic nanoscale geometry. The result is a new class of versatile materials: we show their application as plasmonic filters with a potential pixel size smaller than half of the exciting wavelength, but also as multiplexed surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates. Many more implementations, like photovoltaic efficiency boosters or colour routers await, and will benefit from the low fabrication cost and intrinsic plasmonic flexibility of the presented systems.

  12. Plasmonic color-graded nanosystems with achromatic sub-wavelength architectures for light filtering and advanced SERS detection

    KAUST Repository

    Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; Bisio, Francesco; Das, Gobind; Maidecchi, Giulia; Caminale, Michael; Vu, Chinh Duc; De Angelis, Francesco; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Toma, Andrea; Canepa, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic colour-graded systems are devices featuring a spatially variable plasmonic response over their surface. They are widely used as nanoscale colour filters; their typical size is small enough to allow integration with miniaturized electronic circuits paving the way to realize novel nanophotonic devices. Currently, most plasmonic colour-graded systems are intrinsically discrete, as their chromatic response exploits the tailored plasmon resonance of micro-architectures characterized by different size and/or geometry for each target colour. Here we report the realization of multifunctional plasmon-graded devices where continuously-graded chromatic response is achieved by smoothly tuning the composition of the resonator material while simultaneously maintaining an achromatic nanoscale geometry. The result is a new class of versatile materials: we show their application as plasmonic filters with a potential pixel size smaller than half of the exciting wavelength, but also as multiplexed surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates. Many more implementations, like photovoltaic efficiency boosters or colour routers await, and will benefit from the low fabrication cost and intrinsic plasmonic flexibility of the presented systems.

  13. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pire, B.; Ralston, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the physics of color transparency and the unexpected energy dependence of recent measurements of high-energy fixed-angle elastic scattering in nuclear targets. The authors point out advantages of using transparency as a tool, introducing two concepts - spin and flavor flow filtering - that may be studied with nuclear targets. The special case of electroproduction is also considered

  14. Synthesis and characterization of Ti-Si-C-N nanocomposite coatings prepared by a filtered vacuum arc method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangavel, Elangovan, E-mail: t.elangophy@gmail.com [Advanced Thin Film Research Group, Materials Processing Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 641-831 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Nano-Wear, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seunghun; Nam, Kee-Seok; Kim, Jong-Kuk [Advanced Thin Film Research Group, Materials Processing Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 641-831 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do-Geun, E-mail: dogeunkim@kims.re.kr [Advanced Thin Film Research Group, Materials Processing Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 641-831 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation method was used as filtered vacuum arc (FVA) deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ternary coating obtained by using single carbon source with TMS gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed discussion of chemical nature for these coating by using XPS. - Abstract: Ti-Si-C-N nanocomposite coatings were synthesized by a filtered vacuum arc (FVA) technique. A metal organic precursor, tetramethylsilane (TMS), was used as a source for silicon and carbon to deposit the Ti-Si-C-N nanocomposite coating with a Ti cathode source. The chemical and microstructural properties of the as-deposited coatings were systematically investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nanoindentation and scratch tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical and adhesion properties of the coatings. From the XPS analysis, it was found that the Si content in the coating increased from 2 to 16 at.% as the TMS flow rate was increased from 5 to 20 sccm. The TEM analysis clearly demonstrated that the coatings were composed of crystalline TiCN along with amorphous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} as a secondary phase. From the XRD results, it was found that the crystallite size of TiCN increased with increasing Si content. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the TiSiCN coatings prepared by this method exhibited strong dependencies on the silicon content. A maximum hardness of 49 GPa and a coefficient of friction of 0.17 were obtained for the film with a silicon content of 3 at.%.

  15. Raman Spectroscopy of DLC/a-Si Bilayer Film Prepared by Pulsed Filtered Cathodic Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Srisang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available DLC/a-Si bilayer film was deposited on germanium substrate. The a-Si layer, a seed layer, was firstly deposited on the substrate using DC magnetron sputtering and DLC layer was then deposited on the a-Si layer using pulsed filtered cathodic arc method. The bilayer films were deposited with different DLC/a-Si thickness ratios, including 2/2, 2/6, 4/4, 6/2, and 9/6. The effect of DLC/a-Si thickness ratios on the sp3 content of DLC was analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. The results show that a-Si layer has no effect on the structure of DLC film. Furthermore, the upper shift in G wavenumber and the decrease in ID/IG inform that sp3 content of the film is directly proportional to DLC thickness. The plot modified from the three-stage model informed that the structural characteristics of DLC/a-Si bilayer films are located close to the tetrahedral amorphous carbon. This information may be important for analyzing and developing bilayer protective films for future hard disk drive.

  16. Preparation and encapsulation of white/yellow dual colored suspensions for electrophoretic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingjing; Li, Xiaoxu; Feng, Yaqing; Zhang, Bao

    2014-11-01

    C.I. Pigment Yellow 181 (PY181) composite particles encapsulated by polyethylene (PE) were prepared by dispersion polymerization method, and C.I. Pigment Yellow 110 (PY110) composite particles encapsulated by polystyrene (PS) with mini-emulsion polymerization method were achieved, respectively. The modified pigments were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Compared with the PE-coated PY 181 pigments, the PS-coated PY-110 particles had a narrow particle size distribution, regular spherical and average particle size of 450 nm. Suspension 1 and suspension 3 were prepared by the two composite particles dispersed in isopar M. A chromatic electrophoretic display cell consisting of yellow particles was successfully fabricated using dispersions of yellow ink particles in a mixed dielectric solvent with white particles as contrast. The response behavior and the contrast ratio to the electric voltage were also examined. The contrast ratio of pigments modified by polystyrene was 1.48, as well as the response time was 2 s, which were better than those of pigments modified by polyethylene.

  17. Preparation and properties of hexagonal boron nitride fibers used as high temperature membrane filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xinmei, E-mail: houxinmei@ustb.edu.cn; Yu, Ziyou; Li, Yang; Chou, Kuo-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • h-BN fibers were successfully fabricated using H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and C{sub 3}H{sub 6}N{sub 6} as raw materials. • The obtained BN fibers were polycrystalline and uniform in morphology. • It exhibited good oxidation resistance and low thermal expansion coefficient. - Abstract: Hexagonal boron nitride fibers were synthesized via polymeric precursor method using boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) and melamine (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}N{sub 6}) as raw materials. The precursor fibers were synthesized by water bath and BN fibers were prepared from the precursor at 1873 K for 3 h in flowing nitrogen atmosphere. The crystalline phase and microstructures of BN fibers were examined by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and high resolution electron microscopy. The results showed that h-BN fibers with uniform morphology were successfully fabricated. The well-synthesized BN fibers were polycrystalline with 0.4–1.5 μm in diameter and 200–500 μm in length. The as-prepared samples exhibited good oxidation resistance and low thermal expansion coefficient at high temperature.

  18. Solvothermal preparation and fluorescent properties of color-tunable InP/ZnS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Chul; Jang, Eun-Pyo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Dong Seon; Choi, Yoonyoung; Choi, Moongoo [Materials and Devices Laboratory, LGE Advanced Research Institute, LG Electronics, Seoul 137-724 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Heesun, E-mail: hyang@hongik.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    This work reports on the solvothermal preparation and optical properties of InP core and InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs). InP QDs are synthesized using a phosphorus (P) source of tris(dimethylamino)phosphine (P(N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 3}) under the solvothermal conditions in the range of reaction temperature of 120-180 Degree-Sign C and reaction time of 12 h-1 week to tune their size. ZnS shelling is also solvothermally performed by varying the shell growth temperature from 180 to 220 Degree-Sign C for 6 h, and then respective InP and InP/ZnS QDs are subjected to the size-sorting procedure. Effects of the shelling temperature on the fluorescent attributes (emission peak wavelength, bandwidth, and quantum yield) of the resulting size-sorted InP/ZnS QD fractions are investigated. The qualitative information on the shell thickness as a function of shelling temperature is furthermore provided by x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer InP/ZnS core/shell QDs are prepared using a P source of P(N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 3} by a stepwise solvothermal approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Widely emission-tuable InP/ZnS QDs are realized by varying the solvothermal condition for core QD growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of ZnS shelling temperature on fluorescent properties of InP/ZnS QDs are investigated.

  19. Solvothermal preparation and fluorescent properties of color-tunable InP/ZnS quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Chul; Jang, Eun-Pyo; Jang, Dong Seon; Choi, Yoonyoung; Choi, Moongoo; Yang, Heesun

    2013-01-01

    This work reports on the solvothermal preparation and optical properties of InP core and InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs). InP QDs are synthesized using a phosphorus (P) source of tris(dimethylamino)phosphine (P(N(CH 3 ) 2 ) 3 ) under the solvothermal conditions in the range of reaction temperature of 120–180 °C and reaction time of 12 h−1 week to tune their size. ZnS shelling is also solvothermally performed by varying the shell growth temperature from 180 to 220 °C for 6 h, and then respective InP and InP/ZnS QDs are subjected to the size-sorting procedure. Effects of the shelling temperature on the fluorescent attributes (emission peak wavelength, bandwidth, and quantum yield) of the resulting size-sorted InP/ZnS QD fractions are investigated. The qualitative information on the shell thickness as a function of shelling temperature is furthermore provided by x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. - Highlights: ► InP/ZnS core/shell QDs are prepared using a P source of P(N(CH 3 ) 2 ) 3 by a stepwise solvothermal approach. ► Widely emission-tuable InP/ZnS QDs are realized by varying the solvothermal condition for core QD growth. ► Effects of ZnS shelling temperature on fluorescent properties of InP/ZnS QDs are investigated.

  20. High color rendering index of remote-type white LEDs with multi-layered quantum dot-phosphor films and short-wavelength pass dichroic filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hee Chang; Oh, Ji Hye; Do, Young Rag

    2014-09-01

    This paper introduces high color rendering index (CRI) white light-emitting diodes (W-LEDs) coated with red emitting (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphors and yellowish-green emitting AgIn5S8/ZnS (AIS/ZS) quantum dots (QDs) on glass or a short-wavelength pass dichroic filter (SPDF), which transmit blue wavelength regions and reflect yellow wavelength regions. The red emitting (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphor film is coated on glass and a SPDF using a screen printing method, and then the yellowish-green emitting AIS/ZS QDs are coated on the red phosphor (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu film-coated glass and SPDF using the electrospray (e-spray) method.To fabricate the red phosphor film, the optimum amount of phosphor is dispersed in a silicon binder to form a red phosphor paste. The AIS/ZS QDs are mixed with dimethylformamide (DMF), toluene, and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for the e-spray coating. The substrates are spin-coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to fabricate a conductive surface. The CRI of the white LEDs is improved through inserting the red phosphor film between the QD layer and the glass substrate. Furthermore, the light intensities of the multi-layered phosphor films are enhanced through changing the glass substrate to the SPDF. The correlated color temperatures (CCTs) vary as a function of the phosphor concentration in the phosphor paste. The optical properties of the yellowish-green AIS/ZS QDs and red (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphors are characterized using photoluminescence (PL), and the multi-layered QD-phosphor films are measured using electroluminescence (EL) with an InGaN blue LED (λmax = 450 nm) at 60 mA.

  1. Astronomy with the Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald A.; Melrose, Justyn

    2014-01-01

    The standard method to create dramatic color images in astrophotography is to record multiple black and white images, each with a different color filter in the optical path, and then tint each frame with a color appropriate to the corresponding filter. When combined, the resulting image conveys information about the sources of emission in the…

  2. Design of an elliptic spot illumination system in LED-based color filter-liquid-crystal-on-silicon pico projectors for mobile embedded projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Enguo; Yu, Feihong

    2012-06-01

    We present an elliptic spot illumination system for a color filter-liquid-crystal-on-silicon (CF-LCoS) pico projector employing a specifically designed free-form lens and a cylindrical lens to improve on previous designs in terms of optical efficiency while yielding an ultracompact and low-cost optical architecture. The detailed design description of the optical system is thoroughly investigated. Simulation results coincide well with the theoretical calculation. The single 1  mm×1  mm LED chip-powered optical engine, which employs a CF-LCoS panel with a diagonal of 0.28 in and an aspect ratio of 4:3, has an estimated output efficiency over 9.8% (11.8 lm@1 W) and an ANSI 9-point uniformity over 88.5%, with the ultrasmall volume 24  mm×19  mm×7  mm. Compared to the circular spot-illuminated projection system, a total increment of about 23% of system efficiency is available with this improved optical engine. It is believed that there would be a huge market potential to commercialize our design.

  3. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model state....... The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. Stresses and Temperature Stability of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Filters Prepared by Reactive Ion-Assisted E-Gun Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chao-Tsang; Shieh, Han-Ping D.

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, we report the in situ measurement of the temperature stability of narrow-band-pass filters on different types of substrate, for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) filters in optical-fiber transmission systems. The DWDM filters were designed as all-dielectric Fabry-Perot filters and fabricated by reactive ion-assisted deposition. Ta2O5 and SiO2 were used as high- and low-refractive-index layers, respectively, for constructing the DWDM filters. The accuracy and stability of the coating process were evaluated for fabricating the DWDM filters for the temperature stability of the center wavelength. The center wavelength shift was determined to be greatly dependent on the coefficient of thermal expansion of the substrate on which the filter is deposited.

  5. Uniform Luminous Perovskite Nanofibers with Color-Tunability and Improved Stability Prepared by One-Step Core/Shell Electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ping-Chun; Chen, Jung-Yao; Ercan, Ender; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Tung, Shih-Huang; Chen, Wen-Chang

    2018-04-30

    A one-step core/shell electrospinning technique is exploited to fabricate uniform luminous perovskite-based nanofibers, wherein the perovskite and the polymer are respectively employed in the core and the outer shell. Such a coaxial electrospinning technique enables the in situ formation of perovskite nanocrystals, exempting the needs of presynthesis of perovskite quantum dots or post-treatments. It is demonstrated that not only the luminous electrospun nanofibers can possess color-tunability by simply tuning the perovskite composition, but also the grain size of the formed perovskite nanocrystals is largely affected by the perovskite precursor stoichiometry and the polymer solution concentration. Consequently, the optimized perovskite electrospun nanofiber yields a high photoluminescence quantum yield of 30.9%, significantly surpassing the value of its thin-film counterpart. Moreover, owing to the hydrophobic characteristic of shell polymer, the prepared perovskite nanofiber is endowed with a high resistance to air and water. Its photoluminescence intensity remains constant while stored under ambient environment with a relative humidity of 85% over a month and retains intensity higher than 50% of its initial intensity while immersed in water for 48 h. More intriguingly, a white light-emitting perovskite-based nanofiber is successfully fabricated by pairing the orange light-emitting compositional perovskite with a blue light-emitting conjugated polymer. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Embedding Color Watermarks in Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tung-Lin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust watermarking with oblivious detection is essential to practical copyright protection of digital images. Effective exploitation of the characteristics of human visual perception to color stimuli helps to develop the watermarking scheme that fills the requirement. In this paper, an oblivious watermarking scheme that embeds color watermarks in color images is proposed. Through color gamut analysis and quantizer design, color watermarks are embedded by modifying quantization indices of color pixels without resulting in perceivable distortion. Only a small amount of information including the specification of color gamut, quantizer stepsize, and color tables is required to extract the watermark. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking scheme is computationally simple and quite robust in face of various attacks such as cropping, low-pass filtering, white-noise addition, scaling, and JPEG compression with high compression ratios.

  7. imFASP: An integrated approach combining in-situ filter-aided sample pretreatment with microwave-assisted protein digestion for fast and efficient proteome sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qun; Fang, Fei; Wu, Ci; Wu, Qi; Liang, Yu; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-03-17

    An integrated sample preparation method, termed "imFASP", which combined in-situ filter-aided sample pretreatment and microwave-assisted trypsin digestion, was developed for preparation of microgram and even nanogram amounts of complex protein samples with high efficiency in 1 h. For imFASP method, proteins dissolved in 8 M urea were loaded onto a filter device with molecular weight cut off (MWCO) as 10 kDa, followed by in-situ protein preconcentration, denaturation, reduction, alkylation, and microwave-assisted tryptic digestion. Compared with traditional in-solution sample preparation method, imFASP method generated more protein and peptide identifications (IDs) from preparation of 45 μg Escherichia coli protein sample due to the higher efficiency, and the sample preparation throughput was significantly improved by 14 times (1 h vs. 15 h). More importantly, when the starting amounts of E. coli cell lysate decreased to nanogram level (50-500 ng), the protein and peptide identified by imFASP method were improved at least 30% and 44%, compared with traditional in-solution preparation method, suggesting dramatically higher peptide recovery of imFASP method for trace amounts of complex proteome samples. All these results demonstrate that the imFASP method developed here is of high potential for high efficient and high throughput preparation of trace amounts of complex proteome samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical characteristics of the paper filter and low cafestol content filter coffee brews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón, Mery Yovana; Dos Santos Scholz, Maria Brígida; Bragagnolo, Neura

    2018-06-01

    The results found in the literature concerning the effect of consuming filter coffee brews on increasing the blood cholesterol levels due to the presence of diterpenes, are divergent. Thus the present research evaluated the diterpene (cafestol and kahweol) concentrations in filter coffee brews prepared with paper filters of different sizes, colors and origins (Brazil, Japan, The United States of America, Germany, France and the Netherlands), with and without micro perforations. This is the first study that reports the physical characteristics of paper filter and its importance to obtain filter coffee brew with low cafestol content. Thus, a sample of Catuai cultivar coffee with high cafestol content was roasted to a medium-light degree and used to prepare the brews in a 1:10 ratio (coffee powder to water). The diterpenes were extracted by direct saponification and quantified and identified by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. The paper filters were physically characterized by measuring their grammage, and the fat permeation rate calculated in order to better understand the differences between the filters which allow one to obtain higher or lower diterpene contents. The cafestol and kahweol concentrations in the brews varied from 1.62 to 2.98 mg/L and from 0.73 to 1.96 mg/L, respectively. The highest cafestol and kahweol concentrations were obtained using paper filters with micro perforations, considering similar sized paper filters. The paper filters showed high fat permeability and grammages between 50.46 and 67.48 g/m 2 . The diterpene retention capacities of the filters produced in the different countries were similar. The results showed that the porosity of the paper filter and the particle size of the ground roasted coffee were determinant factors in obtaining filter coffee brews with lower cafestol contents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 52-COLOR ASTEROID SURVEY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 52-color IR data of asteroids, taken using a double circularly variable filter. The short wavelength portion of the CVF covered the octave...

  10. Use of metameric filters for future interference security image structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloukas, Bill; Larouche, Stéphane; Martinu, Ludvik

    2006-02-01

    In the present work, we describe innovative approaches and properties that can be added to the already popular thin film optically variable devices (OVD) used on banknotes. We show two practical examples of OVDs, namely (i) a pair of metameric filters offering a hidden image effect as a function of the angle of observation as well as a specific spectral property permitting automatic note readability, and (ii) multi-material filters offering a side-dependent color shift. We first describe the design approach of these new devices followed by their sensitivity to deposition errors especially in the case of the metameric filters where slight thickness variations have a significant effect on the obtained colors. The performance of prototype filters prepared by dual ion beam sputtering (DIBS) is shown.

  11. Optimization of filter loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, J.H.; Gardiner, D.E.; Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Herald, CA)

    1985-01-01

    The introduction of 10 CFR Part 61 has created potential difficulties in the disposal of spent cartridge filters. When this report was prepared, Rancho Seco had no method of packaging and disposing of class B or C filters. This work examined methods to minimize the total operating cost of cartridge filters while maintaining them below the class A limit. It was found that by encapsulating filters in cement the filter operating costs could be minimized

  12. Contact Lenses for Color Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Abdel-Rahman; Hassan, Muhammad Umair; Elsherif, Mohamed; Ahmed, Zubair; Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider

    2018-06-01

    Color vision deficiency (color blindness) is an inherited genetic ocular disorder. While no cure for this disorder currently exists, several methods can be used to increase the color perception of those affected. One such method is the use of color filtering glasses which are based on Bragg filters. While these glasses are effective, they are high cost, bulky, and incompatible with other vision correction eyeglasses. In this work, a rhodamine derivative is incorporated in commercial contact lenses to filter out the specific wavelength bands (≈545-575 nm) to correct color vision blindness. The biocompatibility assessment of the dyed contact lenses in human corneal fibroblasts and human corneal epithelial cells shows no toxicity and cell viability remains at 99% after 72 h. This study demonstrates the potential of the dyed contact lenses in wavelength filtering and color vision deficiency management. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Prepare core–multishell CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals with pure color and controlled emission by tri-n-octylphosphine-assisted method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Cuiling, E-mail: rencl@lzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Hao, Junjie, E-mail: haojj@sustc.edu.cn [Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Chen, Hongli [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Kai, E-mail: wangk@sustc.edu.cn [Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Wu, Dan [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: The core–multishell CdSe/ZnS QDs synthesized by the TOP-assisted SILAR method represent pure color, high luminescence and controlled emission wavelength, which can be continuously tuned by simply varying the emission of the core nanocrystals. - Highlights: • The prepared core–multishell QDs have pure color emission (FWHM, <25 nm) even after coating with 3-monolayer ZnS. • The emission wavelength can be continuously adjusted by simply varying the ODA:Cd ratio for preparing the core nanocrystals. • The CdSe/ZnS QDs still have good optical properties synthesized at 30 multi scales. • The knowledge gained in this study enabled us to better understand the mechanism of TOP-assisted method. - Abstract: Core–multishell semiconductor nanocrystals have great potential in light emitting devices (LEDs) display, fluorescent biomarkers and luminescent solar concentrators. However, their applications are strongly limited due to the wide full-width at half-maximum (FWHM), inaccurate controllable emission wavelength, and decreased quantum yield as the shell coverage growth. So there still remains a great challenge for improving the photoluminescence properties of core–multishell quantum dots. In this work, tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP) assisted method was used to prepare CdSe/ZnS QDs with narrow FWHM and controlled emission wavelength, the influence of experimental conditions on the photoluminescent properties of the core–multishell QDs were investigated. The experimental results indicated this is an effective method to prepare core–multishell QDs with pure color emission (FWHM value is smaller than 25 nm after coating with 3 monolayers of ZnS), accurately controlled emission and high QY (>95%). This is the smallest FWHM for core–multishell QDs. The emission wavelength of the as-prepared core–multishell QDs can be continuously tuned by simply varying the emission of the core nanocrystals. Furthermore, the knowledge gained in this study

  14. 有色噪声下的平方根UKF在天文自主导航中的应用%Square-Root Unscented Kalman Filter for Satellite Autonomous Celestial Navi-gation System with Colored Measurement Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙会敏; 庄纯清; 许胜中

    2015-01-01

    To address the satellite autonomous celestial navigation system based-on star sensor/optical camera, traditional square-root unscented Kalman filter can not well solve the nonlinear filtering problem with colored noise, which leads to the navigation system accuracy decreased. So a square-root unscented Kalman filter (CSRUKF) applied to measurement system with colored noise is proposed in this paper. In addition, in order to avoid destructing the positive and symmetry of covariance matrix caused by the errors of numerical calculation during the filtering procedure, the square-root of covariance matrix is adopted throughout recursive calculation, which improves the stability of filter. The square-root of covariance matrix update is calculated by cholesky decomposition and qr decomposition. The method was applied to satellite autonomous navigation systems. The simulation results show that, compared to traditional SRUKF, this proposed SRUKF can well solve the problem of poor estimation accuracy in measurement system with colored noise.%针对由星敏感器和光学导航相机组成的卫星天文自主导航系统, 传统的平方根 UKF 不能很好地解决测量噪声为有色噪声情况下的非线性滤波问题, 导致导航系统的精度下降. 为此, 提出了一种有色噪声情况下的平方根 UKF 方法. 同时, 为了避免在数值计算的过程中, 由于舍入误差而破坏误差协方差矩阵的正定性和对称性,在整个递推计算过程中, 借鉴平方根 Kalman 滤波理论, 采用协方差矩阵平方根进行递推计算, 改善滤波算法的稳定性, 协方差矩阵的平方根更新用cholesky分解和qr分解来计算. 将该方法应用于卫星天文自主导航系统中,实验仿真结果表明, 相对于传统的平方根UKF算法, 所设计的平方根UKF算法能够很好地解决测量噪声为有色噪声情况下估计精度低问题.

  15. A fixed angle double mirror filter for preparing a pink undulator beam at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, E.; Sanchez, T.; Nurushev, T.; Clarke, R.; Dierker, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    Recent advances in X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS) use the full bandwidth of an undulator harmonic in order to maximize the coherent flux for small angle X-ray scattering experiments. X-ray mirrors and filters are typically used to select a given harmonic of the spectrum. At the University of Michigan/Howard University/Lucent Technologies, Bell Labs, Collaborative Access Team (MHATT-CAT) undulator beamline of the Advanced Photon Source, we have designed a fixed-angle Double Mirror Filter which will provide a 'pink beam' (i.e., 2-3% bandwidth) for XPCS experiments. This device uses two small mirrors which vertically reflect a 0.1 mmx0.1 mm white beam in a symmetric geometry. The doubly reflected beam propagates parallel to the incident white beam, but is offset vertically by 35 mm. Using the standard offset of the APS allows one to stop the white beam with a standard APS beam stop. In this report, we will describe our design considerations for this instrument. We also report the results of preliminary tests of the performance. The mirrors preserve the transverse coherence of the source, and filter the undulator spectrum as expected

  16. Label-Free Quantitative Analysis of Mitochondrial Proteomes Using the Multienzyme Digestion-Filter Aided Sample Preparation (MED-FASP) and "Total Protein Approach".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, Jacek R

    2017-01-01

    Determination of proteome composition and measuring of changes in protein titers provide important information with a substantial value for studying mitochondria.This chapter describes a workflow for the quantitative analysis of mitochondrial proteome with a focus on sample preparation and quantitative analysis of the data. The workflow involves the multienzyme digestion-filter aided sample preparation (MED-FASP) protocol enabling efficient extraction of proteins and high rate of protein-to-peptide conversion. Consecutive protein digestion with Lys C and trypsin enables generation of peptide fractions with minimal overlap, largely increases the number of identified proteins, and extends their sequence coverage. Abundances of proteins identified by multiple peptides can be assessed by the "Total Protein Approach."

  17. Variable multilayer reflection together with long-pass filtering pigment determines the wing coloration of papilionid butterflies of the nireus group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trzeciak, Tomasz M.; Wilts, Bodo D.; Stavenga, Doekele G.; Vukusic, Peter; Sterke, C. Martijn de

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal wing surfaces of papilionid butterflies of the nireus group are marked by bands of brilliant blue-green-colored cover scales. The thin, cuticular lower lamina of the scales acts as a blue reflector. The thick upper lamina forms a dense two-dimensional cuticular lattice of air cavities

  18. Preparation of carbon quantum dots from cigarette filters and its application for fluorescence detection of Sudan I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anmei, Su; Qingmei, Zhong; Yuye, Chen; Yilin, Wang

    2018-09-06

    Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) with quantum yield of 14% were successfully synthesized via a simple, low-cost, and green hydrothermal treatment using cigarette filters as carbon source for the first time. The obtained CQDs showed a strong emission at the wavelength of 465 nm, with an optimum excitation of 365 nm.Sudan I with maximum absorption wavelength at 477 nm could selectively quench the fluorescence of CQDs. Based on this principle, a fluorescence probe was developed for Sudan I determination. Furthermore, the quenching mechanism of the CQDs was elucidated. A linear relationship was found in the range of 2.40-104.0 μmol/L Sudan I with the detection limit (3σ/k) of 0.95 μmol/L. Satisfactory results were achieved when the method was submitted to the determination of Sudan I in food samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Colorism/Neo-Colorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel

    2017-01-01

    There are numerous aspects to being non-Caucasian that may not be known by Whites. Persons of color suggest folks who are African, South Americans, Native Americans, Biracial, Asians and others. The question is what do these individuals feel relative to their color and facial characteristics. Eugene Robinson suggest that the future favorable color…

  20. Hearing Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieryla, Allyson; Diaz Merced, Wanda; Davis, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    In astronomy, the relationship between color and temperature is an important concept. This concept can be demonstrated in a laboratory or seen at telescope when observing stars. A blind/visually-impaired (B/VI) person would not be able to engage in the same observational demonstrations that are typically done to explain this concept. We’ve developed a tool for B/VI students to participate in these types of observational activities. Using an arduino compatible micro controller with and RGB light sensor, we are able to convert filtered light into sound. The device will produce different timbres for different wavelengths of light, which can then be used to distinguish the temperature of an object. The device is handheld, easy to program and inexpensive to reproduce (< $50). It is also fitted to mount on a telescope for observing. The design schematic and code will be open source and available for download.

  1. Espectrofotometria de lentes oftálmicas filtrantes coloridas sob radiação ultravioleta a e luz visível Spectrophotometry of ophthalmic filtering color lenses under ultraviolet radiation and visible light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Felipe Fornaciari Ramos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a transmitância das lentes oftálmicas filtrantes coloridas submetidas à radiação UV A e luz visível e comparar seus resultados na faixa de comprimento de onda compreendida entre 320 e 800 nanômetros (nm. MÉTODOS: Análise espectrofotométrica das lentes filtrantes amarela 1, laranja, verde e fumê da marca "Danny" e amarela 2 da marca "Rio de Janeiro", disponíveis em nosso meio, utilizando-se espectrofotômetro Modelo 6.400, marca JEM Way. RESULTADOS: Todas as lentes estudadas apresentaram padrões de transmitância bastante individualizados, com curvas variáveis para os diversos comprimentos de onda. Na faixa es- pectrofotométrica de 320 a 400 nm, todas as lentes apresentaram transmitância inferior a 4% sendo que a lente amarela 1 apresentou a maior média (3,7 % ao passo que a fumê apresentou a menor média 0,45%. Contudo não foi observado uma diferença estatisticamente significativa entre estas lentes; a lente amarela 2 mostrou melhor proteção em comparação à lente amarela 1 e a laranja. Na análise espectrofotométrica realizada em diferentes posições da mesma lente constatou-se diversidade na curva de variância, apesar de não demonstrar diferença estatisticamente significativa. CONCLUSÕES: Para se indicar um filtro com segurança, as propriedades espectrais do filtro devem ser determinadas pela análise espectrofotométrica. É mais importante a capacidade de filtrar radiações luminosas do que somente ser colorido ou não.PURPOSE: Determination of transmittance curves through spetrophotometric measurementes of color filtering lenses submitted to UVA and light visible radiation, and comparison of the results in the band between 320 and 800 nanometres (nm. METHODS: The filtering color of Danny yellow 1, orange, green and grey and Rio de Janeiro yellow 2 lenses have been analyzed using JEM Way model 6.400 spectrophotometer. RESULTS: All lenses showed distinct and variable transmittance in the

  2. Generalized Selection Weighted Vector Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Lukac

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a class of nonlinear multichannel filters capable of removing impulsive noise in color images. The here-proposed generalized selection weighted vector filter class constitutes a powerful filtering framework for multichannel signal processing. Previously defined multichannel filters such as vector median filter, basic vector directional filter, directional-distance filter, weighted vector median filters, and weighted vector directional filters are treated from a global viewpoint using the proposed framework. Robust order-statistic concepts and increased degree of freedom in filter design make the proposed method attractive for a variety of applications. Introduced multichannel sigmoidal adaptation of the filter parameters and its modifications allow to accommodate the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics. Simulation studies reported in this paper indicate that the proposed filter class is computationally attractive, yields excellent performance, and is able to preserve fine details and color information while efficiently suppressing impulsive noise. This paper is an extended version of the paper by Lukac et al. presented at the 2003 IEEE-EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing (NSIP '03 in Grado, Italy.

  3. Nanomechanical properties of TiCN and TiCN/Ti coatings on Ti prepared by Filtered Arc Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yong; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Hailiang; Kiet Tieu, A.; Su, Lihong; Zhao, Yue; Zhu, Hongtao; Kong, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Monolayer TiCN and multilayer TiCN/Ti coatings were deposited on the surface of Ti using the Filtered Arc Deposition System (FADS). Nanoindentation tests were performed on both coatings. The multilayer TiCN/Ti coating exhibited better ductility than the monolayer TiCN coating. The lattice constants of the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was used to investigate the fracture behavior of the coatings. Inter-columnar, inclined and lateral cracks were found to be the dominant crack modes in the monolayer TiCN coatings while small bending crack and radial crack were the dominant crack modes in the multilayer TiCN/Ti coatings. The Finite Element Method (FEM) was used to simulate the indentation process. It was found that the Ti interlayer in the multilayer TiCN/Ti coating could efficiently suppress the fracture, which is responsible for the improved ductility of the multilayer TiCN/Ti coating

  4. Implementation of a reduced order Kalman filter to assimilate ocean color data into a coupled physical-biochemical model of the North Aegean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaroni, Sofia; Tsiaras, Kostas; Economou-Amilli, Athena; Petihakis, George; Politikos, Dimitrios; Triantafyllou, George

    2013-04-01

    Within the framework of the European project OPEC (Operational Ecology), a data assimilation system was implemented to describe chlorophyll-a concentrations of the North Aegean, as well the impact on the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) biomass distribution provided by a bioenergetics model, related to the density of three low trophic level functional groups of zooplankton (heterotrophic flagellates, microzooplankton and mesozooplankton). The three-dimensional hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model comprises two on-line coupled sub-models: the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) and the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM). The assimilation scheme is based on the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter and its variant that uses a fixed correction base (SFEK). For the initialization, SEEK filter uses a reduced order error covariance matrix provided by the dominant Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) of model. The assimilation experiments were performed for year 2003 using SeaWiFS chlorophyll-a data during which the physical model uses the atmospheric forcing obtained from the regional climate model HIRHAM5. The assimilation system is validated by assessing the relevance of the system in fitting the data, the impact of the assimilation on non-observed biochemical parameters and the overall quality of the forecasts.

  5. On the properties of nanocomposite amorphous carbon films prepared by off-plane double bend filtered cathodic vacuum arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, B.K.; Zhang, P.

    2002-01-01

    It is known to deposit hard thin films, such as tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C), using a filtered cathode vacuum arc (FCVA). These ta-C films have interesting and useful properties because of the high sp 3 fraction of carbon atoms (up to 87%) in the film. However, the high internal stress in the films can limit their applications as the film may flake away from the substrate. In order to reduce the internal stress of the ta-C films and in an attempt to improve adhesion of thick films of this type, growth modifications such as incorporating metal into the ta-C films have been carried out. Nanocomposite amorphous carbon films were deposited by FCVA technique using metal-carbon composite target. Atomic force microscopy, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the morphology and structure of the films. Nanoindenter and surface profilometer were used to determine the hardness, Young's modulus, and internal stress. The same metal composition targets for different elements results in different metal composition in the corresponding nanocomposite amorphous carbon films. We attribute this observation to the dynamic balance deposition effect of the FCVA deposition process. The influence of the type of metallic elements and its composition in the films on the structural, mechanical properties, surface energy and field emission (FE) performance was studied. The incorporation of metal into the films results in the decrease of sp 3 fraction, internal stress in the films, but the hardness and Young's modulus remains at high level. The surface energy of the films increases with incorporating Ni atoms, but decreases after incorporating Fe and Al atoms into the films. After heat-treatment, the incorporation of metal into ta-C films can greatly improve the FE performance

  6. Color-sensitive photoconductivity of nanostructured ZnO/dye hybrid films prepared by one-step electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oekermann, T. [Gifu University, Graduate School of Engineering, Yanagido 1-1, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan) and University of Hannover, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Callinstrasse 3-3A, 30167 Hannover (Germany)]. E-mail: torsten.oekermann@pci.uni-hannover.de; Yoshida, T. [Gifu University, Graduate School of Engineering, Yanagido 1-1, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan)]. E-mail: yoshida@apchem.gifu-u.ac.jp; Tada, H. [Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki National Research Institutes, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Minoura, H. [Gifu University, Graduate School of Engineering, Yanagido 1-1, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan)

    2006-07-26

    Nanostructured ZnO/dye hybrid films prepared by one-step electrodeposition have been investigated in conductivity and photoconductivity measurements in view of applications in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) and in optoelectronics. Highly porous ZnO/eosin Y films, which were obtained at potentials < - 0.9 V vs. SCE, were found to have a very high conductivity already in the dark, probably because of a higher n-doping, which is due to a higher concentration of Zn atoms in the film. On the other hand, less porous or non-porous films, which were obtained at more positive potentials and in which the dye molecules are located within the ZnO crystals, were found to show a much higher sensitivity to illumination with visible light in photoconductivity measurements due to a higher absolute photoconductivity and a lower conductivity in the dark.

  7. Color-sensitive photoconductivity of nanostructured ZnO/dye hybrid films prepared by one-step electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oekermann, T.; Yoshida, T.; Tada, H.; Minoura, H.

    2006-01-01

    Nanostructured ZnO/dye hybrid films prepared by one-step electrodeposition have been investigated in conductivity and photoconductivity measurements in view of applications in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) and in optoelectronics. Highly porous ZnO/eosin Y films, which were obtained at potentials < - 0.9 V vs. SCE, were found to have a very high conductivity already in the dark, probably because of a higher n-doping, which is due to a higher concentration of Zn atoms in the film. On the other hand, less porous or non-porous films, which were obtained at more positive potentials and in which the dye molecules are located within the ZnO crystals, were found to show a much higher sensitivity to illumination with visible light in photoconductivity measurements due to a higher absolute photoconductivity and a lower conductivity in the dark

  8. The Successful Diagnosis and Typing of Systemic Amyloidosis Using A Microwave-Assisted Filter-Aided Fast Sample Preparation Method and LC/MS/MS Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyi Sun

    Full Text Available Laser microdissection followed by mass spectrometry has been successfully used for amyloid typing. However, sample contamination can interfere with proteomic analysis, and overnight digestion limits the analytical throughput. Moreover, current quantitative analysis methods are based on the spectrum count, which ignores differences in protein length and may lead to misdiagnoses. Here, we developed a microwave-assisted filter-aided sample preparation (maFASP method that can efficiently remove contaminants with a 10-kDa cutoff ultrafiltration unit and can accelerate the digestion process with the assistance of a microwave. Additionally, two parameters (P- and D-scores based on the exponentially modified protein abundance index were developed to define the existence of amyloid deposits and those causative proteins with the greatest abundance. Using our protocol, twenty cases of systemic amyloidosis that were well-typed according to clinical diagnostic standards (training group and another twenty-four cases without subtype diagnoses (validation group were analyzed. Using this approach, sample preparation could be completed within four hours. We successfully subtyped 100% of the cases in the training group, and the diagnostic success rate in the validation group was 91.7%. This maFASP-aided proteomic protocol represents an efficient approach for amyloid diagnosis and subtyping, particularly for serum-contaminated samples.

  9. The Successful Diagnosis and Typing of Systemic Amyloidosis Using A Microwave-Assisted Filter-Aided Fast Sample Preparation Method and LC/MS/MS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiyi; Sun, Jian; Zou, Lili; Shen, Kaini; Zhong, Dingrong; Zhou, Daobin; Sun, Wei; Li, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Laser microdissection followed by mass spectrometry has been successfully used for amyloid typing. However, sample contamination can interfere with proteomic analysis, and overnight digestion limits the analytical throughput. Moreover, current quantitative analysis methods are based on the spectrum count, which ignores differences in protein length and may lead to misdiagnoses. Here, we developed a microwave-assisted filter-aided sample preparation (maFASP) method that can efficiently remove contaminants with a 10-kDa cutoff ultrafiltration unit and can accelerate the digestion process with the assistance of a microwave. Additionally, two parameters (P- and D-scores) based on the exponentially modified protein abundance index were developed to define the existence of amyloid deposits and those causative proteins with the greatest abundance. Using our protocol, twenty cases of systemic amyloidosis that were well-typed according to clinical diagnostic standards (training group) and another twenty-four cases without subtype diagnoses (validation group) were analyzed. Using this approach, sample preparation could be completed within four hours. We successfully subtyped 100% of the cases in the training group, and the diagnostic success rate in the validation group was 91.7%. This maFASP-aided proteomic protocol represents an efficient approach for amyloid diagnosis and subtyping, particularly for serum-contaminated samples.

  10. Shift Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications & News Shift Colors Pages default Sign In NPC Logo Banner : Shift Colors Search Navy Personnel Command > Reference Library > Publications & News > Shift Colors Top Link Bar Navy Personnel Library Expand Reference Library Quick Launch Shift Colors Shift Colors Archives Mailing Address How to

  11. Preparation and properties of chrome-free colored Ti/Zr based conversion coating on aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Aihua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li Wenfang, E-mail: mewfl@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Du Jun; Mu Songlin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2012-06-01

    A golden conversion coating on the surface of aluminum alloy was prepared by adding tannic acid and coating-forming accelerator in the treatment solution containing titanium and zirconium ions. The growth process, main component and corrosion resistance of the conversion coating were characterized by EDS, SEM, XRD, XPS, FIIR and electrochemical workstation. The results showed that the main components of the conversion coating were Na{sub 3}AlF{sub 6} and the conversion coating owns a double-layer structure. The outer layer consists of metal-organic complex and the inner layer is mainly made up of Na{sub 3}AlF{sub 6}. The mechanism of the formation of the golden conversion coating can be deemed as nucleation, growth of Na{sub 3}AlF{sub 6} crystal and formation of metal-organic complex. In potentiodynamic polarization test, the corrosion current density decreases to 0.283 {mu}A cm{sup -2} from 5.894 {mu}A cm{sup -2}, which indicates an obvious improvement of corrosion resistance.

  12. Preparation of re-usable photocatalytic filter for degradation of Malachite Green dye under UV and vis-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayilkan, F.; Asiltuerk, M.; Tatar, P.; Kiraz, N.; Arpac, E.; Sayilkan, H.

    2007-01-01

    Sn 4+ doped and undoped nano-TiO 2 particles easily dispersed in water were synthesized without using organic solvent by hydrothermal process. Nanostructure-TiO 2 based thin films were prepared on flyswatter substrate, made with stainless steel, by dip-coating technique. The structure, surface and optical properties of the particles and thin films were characterized by element analysis and XRD, BET, SEM and UV/vis/NIR techniques. The photocatalytic performance of the films were tested for degradation of Malachite Green dye in solution under UV and vis-lights. The results showed that the coated flyswatter has a very high photocatalytic performance for the photodegradation of Malachite Green irradiated with UV and vis-lights. The results also proved that the hydrothermally synthesized nano-TiO 2 particles are fully anatase crystalline form and are easily dispersed in water, the coated surfaces are hydrophilic, and the doping of transition metal ion efficiently improved the degradation performance of TiO 2 -coated flyswatter. The photocatalytic performances determined at both irradiation conditions were very good and were almost similar to each other for Sn 4+ doped TiO 2 -coated flyswatter and it can be repeatedly used with increasing photocatalytic activity compared to undoped TiO 2 -coated flyswatter

  13. Color Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Pate, Monica; Raclariu, Ana-Maria; Strominger, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    A transient color flux across null infinity in classical Yang-Mills theory is considered. It is shown that a pair of test `quarks' initially in a color singlet generically acquire net color as a result of the flux. A nonlinear formula is derived for the relative color rotation of the quarks. For weak color flux the formula linearizes to the Fourier transform of the soft gluon theorem. This color memory effect is the Yang-Mills analog of the gravitational memory effect.

  14. Preparation and characterization of monel (70% Ni-30% Cu) metallic filters; Preparacao e caracterizacao de filtro metalico monel (70% Ni-30% Cu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo Lavos, I de

    1994-12-31

    This work investigates a process for the fabrication and characterization of monel (Ni-Cu) filters. The powder consolidation was made by vibration or by pressing at various pressures (200, 300 e 400 MPa). The sintering was carried out at 1100{sup 0} C during 1 hour under H{sub 2} atmosphere. The filter characterization was performed by measuring its density, porosity, filtering capacity and permeability. It was obtained a correlation between the processing variables (consolidation and sintering), including powder properties, and the filters characteristics. (author). 59 refs, 41 figs, 7 tabs.

  15. Filter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  16. Project 'Colored solar collectors' - Annual report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, A.; Chambrier, E. De; Roecker, Ch.; Scartezzini, J. -L.

    2005-12-15

    The architectural integration of thermal solar collectors into buildings is often limited by their black color, and the visibility of tubes and corrugations of the absorber sheets. A certain freedom in color choice would be desirable, but the colored appearance should not cause excessive performance degradation. Multilayered thin film interference filters on the collector glazing can produce a colored reflection, hiding the corrugated metal sheet, while transmitting the non-reflected radiation entirely to the absorber. These interference filters are designed and optimized by numerical simulation and shall be manufactured by the sol-gel dip-coating process. The proposed colored glazed solar collectors will be ideally suited for architectural integration into buildings, e.g. as solar active glass facades. The availability of thin film materials with a refractive index lower than that of silicon favors a higher solar transmission at a given value of visible reflectance. The feasibility of the sol-gel deposition of such low refractive index materials has been demonstrated. For the development of nanostructured materials, analytical methods such as electron microscopy are extremely helpful. Important techniques of substrate pretreatment, sample cleaving, polishing, mounting, and microscope handling have been acquired. First measurements yield images of nanostructures produced by the sol-gel dip-coating process. Nanocomposite Ti{sub x}Si{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} thin films provide a large range of refractive indices. Aiming a high efficiency of the colored reflection, Ti{sub x}Si{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} based multilayered coatings have been designed and subsequently prepared by sol-gel dip-coating. The energy efficiency M = R{sub VIS}/(100%-T{sub sol}) of the obtained colored reflection amounts up to 2.4. For a convincing demonstration sufficiently large samples of high quality are imperatively needed. An infrastructure for the handling of A4 sized samples has been established

  17. An improved protocol for the preparation of total genomic DNA from isolates of yeast and mould using Whatman FTA filter papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Andrew M; Fraser, Mark; Linton, Christopher J; Palmer, Michael D; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2010-06-01

    Here, we present a significantly improved version of our previously published method for the extraction of fungal genomic DNA from pure cultures using Whatman FTA filter paper matrix technology. This modified protocol is extremely rapid, significantly more cost effective than our original method, and importantly, substantially reduces the problem of potential cross-contamination between sequential filters when employing FTA technology.

  18. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  19. Color Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. The difficulty addressed here is the fact that, because of metamerism, we cannot know with certainty the spectrum that produced a particular color solely on the basis of sensory data. Knowledge of the spectrum is not required to compute additive mixture of colors, but is critical for subtractive (multiplicative) mixture. Therefore, we cannot predict with certainty the multiplicative interactions between colors based solely on sensory data. There are two potential applications of a color algebra: first, to aid modeling phenomena of human visual perception, such as color constancy and transparency; and, second, to provide better models of the interactions of lights and surfaces for computer graphics rendering.

  20. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  1. Switching non-local vector median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a novel image filtering method that removes random-valued impulse noise superimposed on a natural color image. In impulse noise removal, it is essential to employ a switching-type filtering method, as used in the well-known switching median filter, to preserve the detail of an original image with good quality. In color image filtering, it is generally preferable to deal with the red (R), green (G), and blue (B) components of each pixel of a color image as elements of a vectorized signal, as in the well-known vector median filter, rather than as component-wise signals to prevent a color shift after filtering. By taking these fundamentals into consideration, we propose a switching-type vector median filter with non-local processing that mainly consists of a noise detector and a noise removal filter. Concretely, we propose a noise detector that proactively detects noise-corrupted pixels by focusing attention on the isolation tendencies of pixels of interest not in an input image but in difference images between RGB components. Furthermore, as the noise removal filter, we propose an extended version of the non-local median filter, we proposed previously for grayscale image processing, named the non-local vector median filter, which is designed for color image processing. The proposed method realizes a superior balance between the preservation of detail and impulse noise removal by proactive noise detection and non-local switching vector median filtering, respectively. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural color images.

  2. Color naming

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Ebru

    1998-01-01

    Ankara : Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Fine Arts, 1998. Thesis (Ph.D) -- Bilkent University, 1998 Includes bibliographical refences. In this study, visual aspects of color and neurophysiological processes involved in the phenomenon, language of color and color models were explained in addition to the discussion of different ideas, orientations and previous works behind the subject of matter. Available color ...

  3. False color viewing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs

  4. Rectifier Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Bladyko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains definition of a smoothing factor which is suitable for any rectifier filter. The formulae of complex smoothing factors have been developed for simple and complex passive filters. The paper shows conditions for application of calculation formulae and filters

  5. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  6. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  7. Color Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  8. Color categories and color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  9. Kalman Filtering with Real-Time Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, Charles K

    2009-01-01

    Kalman Filtering with Real-Time Applications presents a thorough discussion of the mathematical theory and computational schemes of Kalman filtering. The filtering algorithms are derived via different approaches, including a direct method consisting of a series of elementary steps, and an indirect method based on innovation projection. Other topics include Kalman filtering for systems with correlated noise or colored noise, limiting Kalman filtering for time-invariant systems, extended Kalman filtering for nonlinear systems, interval Kalman filtering for uncertain systems, and wavelet Kalman filtering for multiresolution analysis of random signals. Most filtering algorithms are illustrated by using simplified radar tracking examples. The style of the book is informal, and the mathematics is elementary but rigorous. The text is self-contained, suitable for self-study, and accessible to all readers with a minimum knowledge of linear algebra, probability theory, and system engineering.

  10. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  11. Colored operads

    CERN Document Server

    Yau, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this book is the theory of operads and colored operads, sometimes called symmetric multicategories. A (colored) operad is an abstract object which encodes operations with multiple inputs and one output and relations between such operations. The theory originated in the early 1970s in homotopy theory and quickly became very important in algebraic topology, algebra, algebraic geometry, and even theoretical physics (string theory). Topics covered include basic graph theory, basic category theory, colored operads, and algebras over colored operads. Free colored operads are discussed in complete detail and in full generality. The intended audience of this book includes students and researchers in mathematics and other sciences where operads and colored operads are used. The prerequisite for this book is minimal. Every major concept is thoroughly motivated. There are many graphical illustrations and about 150 exercises. This book can be used in a graduate course and for independent study.

  12. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean

    2015-09-29

    A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.

  13. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    OpenAIRE

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The experiments conducted prove the difference between color categorization by the cognitive processes color discrimination and color memory. In addition, they yield a Color Look-Up Table, which can improve c...

  14. COLOR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Lafon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present specific capabilities and limitations of the use of color digital images in a characterization process. The whole process is investigated, from the acquisition of digital color images to the analysis of the information relevant to various applications in the field of material characterization. A digital color image can be considered as a matrix of pixels with values expressed in a vector-space (commonly 3 dimensional space whose specificity, compared to grey-scale images, is to ensure a coding and a representation of the output image (visualisation printing that fits the human visual reality. In a characterization process, it is interesting to regard color image attnbutes as a set of visual aspect measurements on a material surface. Color measurement systems (spectrocolorimeters, colorimeters and radiometers and cameras use the same type of light detectors: most of them use Charge Coupled Devices sensors. The difference between the two types of color data acquisition systems is that color measurement systems provide a global information of the observed surface (average aspect of the surface: the color texture is not taken into account. Thus, it seems interesting to use imaging systems as measuring instruments for the quantitative characterization of the color texture.

  15. Colored leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harari, H.

    1985-01-01

    If leptons are composite and if they contain colored preons, one expects the existence of heavy color-octet fermions with quantum numbers similar to those of ordinary leptons. Such a ''colored lepton'' should decay into a gluon and a lepton, yielding a unique experimental signature. Charged ''colored leptons'' probably have masses of the order of the compositeness scale Λ > or approx. 1 TeV. They may be copiously produced at future multi-TeV e + e - , ep and hadron colliders. ''Colored neutrinos'' may have both Dirac and Majorana masses. They could be much lighter than Λ, possibly as light as 100 GeV or less. In such a case they should be readily produced at the CERN anti pp collider, yielding spectacular monojet and dijet events. They may also be produced at LEP and HERA. (orig.)

  16. What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Color Blindness? Who Is at Risk for Color Blindness? Color Blindness Causes Color Blindness Diagnosis and Treatment How Color Blindness Is Tested What Is Color Blindness? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el daltonismo? Written ...

  17. Filter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to liquid filters, precoated by replaceable powders, which are used in the production of ultra pure water required for steam generation of electricity. The filter elements are capable of being installed and removed by remote control so that they can be used in nuclear power reactors. (UK)

  18. Kalman filtering with real-time applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, Charles K

    2017-01-01

    This new edition presents a thorough discussion of the mathematical theory and computational schemes of Kalman filtering. The filtering algorithms are derived via different approaches, including a direct method consisting of a series of elementary steps, and an indirect method based on innovation projection. Other topics include Kalman filtering for systems with correlated noise or colored noise, limiting Kalman filtering for time-invariant systems, extended Kalman filtering for nonlinear systems, interval Kalman filtering for uncertain systems, and wavelet Kalman filtering for multiresolution analysis of random signals. Most filtering algorithms are illustrated by using simplified radar tracking examples. The style of the book is informal, and the mathematics is elementary but rigorous. The text is self-contained, suitable for self-study, and accessible to all readers with a minimum knowledge of linear algebra, probability theory, and system engineering. Over 100 exercises and problems with solutions help de...

  19. Coloring your information: How designers use Theory of Color in creative ways to present infographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucius, C. R.; Fuad, A.

    2017-12-01

    Various methods of data presentation is now visualized through engaging infographics and perform the presentation techniques a new kind of storytelling. Geometric elements for infographics perform interesting data, which is developed with color harmony. There are categories of colors based on color circle from the theory of color design: primary color, secondary color and tertiary color. This color circle allows a designer to visualize the balance and harmony of colors when they are side by side. These composition of colors can be formed as a harmonious dyad, triad, or tetrads. A harmonious dyad is formed from two diametrically opposed colors on the color circle, which known as contrast complementary and works best in color harmonious if one of the colors is dominant. A harmonious triad is represented by three colors from the color circle which positions with an equilateral triangle. An triangle of yellow-red-blue shows the most powerful of harmonious triad and call as the fundamental triad. A harmonious tetrad is developed from two pairs of complementary colors, which can be formed by rectangle or square on the color circle. It help to figure out how objects are connected on presenting data. To create an efficiency infographic, presenting data has to prepare with some strategic. The color circle has the power to perform the infographic when it is made for a fascinating design.

  20. Preparation and characterization of a new set of IAEA reference air filters using instrumental neutron activation analysis, proton-induced X-ray emission and Rutherford backscattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Havránek, Vladimír; Krausová, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 281, č. 1 (2009), s. 123-129 ISSN 0236-5731. [9th International Conference on Nuclear Analytical Methods in the Life Sciences. Lisbon, 07.09.2008-12.09.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Reference air filters * instrumental neutron activation analysis * Proton induced X-ray emission Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.631, year: 2009

  1. Color Segmentation of Homogeneous Areas on Colposcopical Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosteley Yana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an analysis of image processing and color segmentation applied to the problem of selection of homogeneous regions in the parameters of the color model. Methods of image processing such as Gaussian filter, median filter, histogram equalization and mathematical morphology are considered. The segmentation algorithm with the parameters of color components is presented, followed by isolation of the resulting connected component of a binary segmentation mask. Analysis of methods performed on images colposcopic research.

  2. Plasmonic- and dielectric-based structural coloring: from fundamentals to practical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taejun; Jang, Jaehyuck; Jeong, Heonyeong; Rho, Junsuk

    2018-01-01

    Structural coloring is production of color by surfaces that have microstructure fine enough to interfere with visible light; this phenomenon provides a novel paradigm for color printing. Plasmonic color is an emergent property of the interaction between light and metallic surfaces. This phenomenon can surpass the diffraction limit and achieve near unlimited lifetime. We categorize plasmonic color filters according to their designs (hole, rod, metal-insulator-metal, grating), and also describe structures supported by Mie resonance. We discuss the principles, and the merits and demerits of each color filter. We also discuss a new concept of color filters with tunability and reconfigurability, which enable printing of structural color to yield dynamic coloring at will. Approaches for dynamic coloring are classified as liquid crystal, chemical transition and mechanical deformation. At the end of review, we highlight a scale-up of fabrication methods, including nanoimprinting, self-assembly and laser-induced process that may enable real-world application of structural coloring.

  3. Preparative separation and identification of novel subsidiary colors of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (Acid Red 33) using spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Adrian; Ridge, Clark D; Mazzola, Eugene P; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-02-06

    Three low-level subsidiary color impurities (A, B, and C) often present in batches of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (R33, Acid Red 33, Colour Index No. 17200) were separated from a portion of R33 by spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The separation involved use of a very polar solvent system, 1-BuOH/5mM aq. (NH4)2SO4. Addition of ammonium sulfate to the lower phase forced partition of the components into the upper phase, thereby eliminating the need to add a hydrophobic counterion as was previously required for separations of components from sulfonated dyes. The very polar solvent system used would not have been retained in a conventional multi-layer coil HSCCC instrument, but the spiral configuration enabled retention of the stationary phase, and thus, the separation was possible. A 1g portion of R33 enriched in A, B, and C was separated using the upper phase of the solvent system as the mobile phase. The retention of the stationary phase was 38.1%, and the separation resulted in 4.8 mg of A of >90% purity, 18.3mg of B of >85% purity, and 91 mg of C of 65-72% purity. A second separation of a portion of the C mixture resulted in 7 mg of C of >94% purity. The separated impurities were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopic techniques as follows: 5-amino-3-biphenyl-3-ylazo-4-hydroxy-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, A; 5-amino-4-hydroxy-6-phenyl-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, B; and 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3,6-bis-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, C. The isomers A and B are compounds reported for the first time. Application of the spiral HSCCC method resulted in the additional benefit of yielding 930 mg of the main component of R33, 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, of >97% purity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Minuutit (Colors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulu, Tupou L.; And Others

    This first grade workbook is designed for children in bilingual Inupiat-English programs in the Alaskan villages of Ambler, Kiana, Kobuk, Noorvik, Selawik, and Shungnak. Each page has a captioned black-and-white drawing to be colored. (CFM)

  5. Color tejido

    OpenAIRE

    Rius Tormo, Palmira

    2010-01-01

    Póster presentado en el IX Congreso Nacional del Color, Alicante, 29-30 junio, 1-2 julio 2010. La exposición que se propone tiene como núcleo principal el color y muestra las posibilidades expresivas que aporta a los diferentes materiales. Las 7 obras presentadas buscan la armonía estética y la fuerza simbólica.

  6. Filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanin, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    The multidetector systems for high resolution gamma spectroscopy are presented. The observable parameters for identifying nuclides produced simultaneously in the reaction are analysed discussing the efficiency of filter systems. (M.C.K.)

  7. Full-color OLED on silicon microdisplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amalkumar P.

    2002-02-01

    eMagin has developed numerous enhancements to organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology, including a unique, up- emitting structure for OLED-on-silicon microdisplay devices. Recently, eMagin has fabricated full color SVGA+ resolution OLED microdisplays on silicon, with over 1.5 million color elements. The display is based on white light emission from OLED followed by LCD-type red, green and blue color filters. The color filters are patterned directly on OLED devices following suitable thin film encapsulation and the drive circuits are built directly on single crystal silicon. The resultant color OLED technology, with hits high efficiency, high brightness, and low power consumption, is ideally suited for near to the eye applications such as wearable PCS, wireless Internet applications and mobile phone, portable DVD viewers, digital cameras and other emerging applications.

  8. Color vision test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Bowling B. Hereditary fundus dystrophies. In: ...

  9. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The

  10. Color management of porcelain veneers: influence of dentin and resin cement colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozic, Alma; Tsagkari, Maria; Khashayar, Ghazal; Aboushelib, Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    Porcelain veneers have become an interesting treatment option to correct the shape and color of anterior teeth. Because of their limited thickness and high translucency, achieving a good color match is influenced by several variables. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of natural dentin and resin cement colors on final color match of porcelain veneers. A preselected shade tab (A1) was chosen as the target color for a maxillary central incisor, and its color parameters (L*a*b*) were measured using a digital spectrophotometer (SpectroShade, MHT). Nine natural dentin colors (Natural Die Material, Ivoclar Vivadent) representing a wide range of tooth colors were used to prepare resin replicas of the maxillary central incisor with a standard preparation for porcelain veneers. The prepared porcelain veneers (IPS Empress Esthetic, A1, 0.6 mm thick, Ivoclar Vivadent) were cemented on the resin dies (nine groups of natural dentin colors) using seven shades of resin cement (Variolink Veneers, Ivoclar Vivadent). The L*a*b* values of the cemented veneers were measured, and DE values were calculated against the preselected target color (A1). DE greater than 3.3 was considered as a significant color mismatch detectable by the human eye. The seven shades of resin cement had no significant influence on the final color of the veneers, as the measured DE values were almost identical for every test group. On the other hand, the color of natural dentin was a significant factor that influenced final color match. None of the 63 tested combinations (nine natural dentin colors and seven resin cement colors) produced an acceptable color match. Thin porcelain veneers cannot mask underlying tooth color even when different shades of resin cement are used. Incorporation of opaque porcelain (high chroma) may improve final color match.

  11. Preparative separation of two subsidiary colors of FD&C Yellow No. 5 (Tartrazine) using spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Adrian; Ridge, Clark D; Roque, Jose A; Mazzola, Eugene P; Ito, Yoichiro

    2014-05-23

    Specifications in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations for the color additive FD&C Yellow No. 5 (Color Index No. 19140) limit the level of the tetrasodium salt of 4-[(4',5-disulfo[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-yl)hydrazono]-4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1-(4-sulfophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid and that of the trisodium salt of 4,4'-[4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-4-[(4-sulfophenyl)hydrazono]-1H-pyrazol-1,3-diyl]bis[benzenesulfonic acid], which are subsidiary colors abbreviated as Pk5 and Pk7, respectively. Small amounts of Pk5 and Pk7 are needed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for confirmatory analyses and for development of analytical methods. The present study describes the use of spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) to separate the closely related minor components Pk5 and Pk7 from a sample of FD&C Yellow No. 5 containing ∼3.5% Pk5 and ∼0.7% Pk7. The separations were performed with highly polar organic/high-ionic strength aqueous two-phase solvent systems that were chosen by applying the recently introduced method known as graphic optimization of partition coefficients (Zeng et al., 2013). Multiple ∼1.0g portions of FD&C Yellow No. 5 (totaling 6.4g dye) were separated, using the upper phase of the solvent system 1-butanol/abs. ethanol/saturated ammonium sulfate/water, 1.7:0.3:1:1, v/v/v/v, as the mobile phase. After removing the ammonium sulfate from the HSCCC-collected fractions, these separations resulted in an enriched dye mixture (∼160mg) of which Pk5 represented ∼46% and Pk7, ∼21%. Separation of the enriched mixture, this time using the lower phase of that solvent system as the mobile phase, resulted in ∼61mg of Pk5 collected in fractions whose purity ranged from 88.0% to 92.7%. Pk7 (20.7mg, ∼83% purity) was recovered from the upper phase of the column contents. Application of this procedure also resulted in purifying the major component of FD&C Yellow No. 5 to >99% purity. The separated compounds were characterized by high-resolution mass

  12. GPU Accelerated Vector Median Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    Noise reduction is an important step for most image processing tasks. For three channel color images, a widely used technique is vector median filter in which color values of pixels are treated as 3-component vectors. Vector median filters are computationally expensive; for a window size of n x n, each of the n(sup 2) vectors has to be compared with other n(sup 2) - 1 vectors in distances. General purpose computation on graphics processing units (GPUs) is the paradigm of utilizing high-performance many-core GPU architectures for computation tasks that are normally handled by CPUs. In this work. NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) paradigm is used to accelerate vector median filtering. which has to the best of our knowledge never been done before. The performance of GPU accelerated vector median filter is compared to that of the CPU and MPI-based versions for different image and window sizes, Initial findings of the study showed 100x improvement of performance of vector median filter implementation on GPUs over CPU implementations and further speed-up is expected after more extensive optimizations of the GPU algorithm .

  13. Color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-01-01

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken

  14. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  15. Characterization of SiC in DLC/a-Si films prepared by pulsed filtered cathodic arc using Raman spectroscopy and XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srisang, C.; Asanithi, P.; Siangchaew, K.; Pokaipisit, A.; Limsuwan, P.

    2012-01-01

    DLC/a-Si films were deposited on germanium substrates. a-Si film was initially deposited as a seed layer on the substrate using DC magnetron sputtering. DLC film was then deposited on the a-Si layer via a pulsed filtered cathodic arc (PFCA) system. In situ ellipsometry was used to monitor the thicknesses of the growth films, allowing a precise control over the a-Si and DLC thicknesses of 6 and 9 nm, respectively. It was found that carbon atoms implanting on a-Si layer act not only as a carbon source for DLC formation, but also as a source for SiC formation. The Raman peak positions at 796 cm -1 and 972 cm -1 corresponded to the LO and TO phonon modes of SiC, respectively, were observed. The results were also confirmed using TEM, XPS binding energy and XPS depth profile analysis.

  16. Photometric Separation of Stellar Properties Using SDSS Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Dawn D.; Newberg, Jo; Rosner, Robert; Richards, Gordon T.; Stoughton, Chris

    1998-12-01

    Using synthetic photometry of Kurucz model spectra, we explore the colors of stars as a function of temperature, metallicity, and surface gravity with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) filters, u'g'r'i'z'. The synthetic colors show qualitative agreement with the few published observations in these filters. We find that the locus of synthetic stars is basically two-dimensional for 4500 advantageous to use more than two colors when determining stellar properties by color. Strategic observations in SDSS filters are required to resolve the source of a ~5% discrepancy between synthetic colors of Gunn-Stryker stars, Kurucz models, and external determinations of the metallicities and surface gravities. The synthetic star colors can be used to investigate the properties of any normal star and to construct analytic expressions for the photometric prediction of stellar properties in special cases.

  17. Color Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  18. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The anomously large transmission of nucleons through a nucleus following a hard collision is explored. This effect, known as color transparency, is believed to be a prediction of QCD. The necessary conditions for its occurrence and the effects that must be included a realistic calculation are discussed

  19. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Imagine shooting a beam of protons of high momentum P through an atomic nucleus. Usually the nuclear interactions prevent the particles from emerging with momentum ∼P. Further, the angular distribution of elastically scattered protons is close to the optical diffraction pattern produced by a black disk. Thus the nucleus acts as a black disk and is not transparent. However, certain high momentum transfer reactions in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus may be completely different. Suppose that the high momentum transfer process leads to the formation of a small-size color singlet wavepacket that is ejected from the nucleus. The effects of gluons emitted by color singlet systems of closely separated quarks and gluons tend to cancel. Thus the wavepacket-nuclear interactions are suppressed, the nucleus becomes transparant and one says that color transparency CT occurs. The observation of CT also requires that the wavepacket not expand very much while it moves through the nucleus. Simple quantum mechanical formulations can assess this expansion. The creation of a small-sized wavepacket is expected in asymptotic perturbative effects. The author reviews the few experimental attempts to observe color transparency in nuclear (e,e'p) and (p,pp) reactions and interpret the data and their implications

  20. Preparative separation of two subsidiary colors of FD&C Yellow No. 5 (Tartrazine) using spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography◊

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Jose A.; Mazzola, Eugene P.; Ito, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Specifications in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations for the color additive FD&C Yellow No. 5 (Colour Index No. 19140) limit the level of the tetrasodium salt of 4-[(4',5-disulfo[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-yl)hydrazono]-4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1-(4-sulfophenyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid and that of the trisodium salt of 4,4'-[4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-4-[(4-sulfophenyl)hydrazono]-1H-pyrazol-1,3-diyl]bis[benzenesulfonic acid], which are subsidiary colors abbreviated as Pk5 and Pk7, respectively. Small amounts of Pk5 and Pk7 are needed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for confirmatory analyses and for development of analytical methods. The present study describes the use of spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with the recently introduced highly polar organic/high-ionic strength aqueous solvent systems to separate Pk5 and Pk7 from a sample of FD&C Yellow No. 5 containing ~3.5% Pk5 and ~0.7% Pk7. Multiple ~1.0 g portions of FD&C Yellow No. 5 (totaling 6.4 g dye) were separated, using the upper phase of the solvent system 1-BuOH/EtOHabs/saturated ammonium sulfate/water, 1.7:0.3:1:1, v/v/v/v, as the mobile phase. After applying a specially developed method for removing the ammonium sulfate from the HSCCC-collected fractions, these separations resulted in an enriched mixture (~160 mg) of Pk5 and Pk7 (~46% and ~21%, respectively). Separation of the enriched mixture, this time using the lower phase of that solvent system as the mobile phase, resulted in ~ 61 mg of Pk5 collected in fractions whose purity ranged from 88.0% to 92.7% (by HPLC at 254 nm). Pk7 (20.7 mg, ~83% purity) was recovered from the upper phase of the column content. Application of this procedure also resulted in purifying the major component of FD&C Yellow No. 5 to >99% purity. The separated compounds were characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry and several 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques (COSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC). PMID:24755184

  1. A deblocking algorithm based on color psychology for display quality enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hung; Tseng, Wen-Yu; Huang, Kai-Lin

    2012-12-01

    This article proposes a post-processing deblocking filter to reduce blocking effects. The proposed algorithm detects blocking effects by fusing the results of Sobel edge detector and wavelet-based edge detector. The filtering stage provides four filter modes to eliminate blocking effects at different color regions according to human color vision and color psychology analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better subjective and objective qualities for H.264/AVC reconstructed videos when compared to several existing methods.

  2. Preparation of RF-(VM-SiO2n-RF/AM-Cellu Nanocomposites, and Use Thereof for the Modification of Glass and Filter Paper Surfaces: Creation of a Glass Thermoresponsive Switching Behavior and an Efficient Separation Paper Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Sawada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroalkyl end-capped vinyltrimethoxysilane oligomeric silica/alkyl-modified cellulose (AM-Cellu nanocomposites [RF-(CH2-CHSiO2n-RF/AM-Cellu; n = 2, 3; RF = CF(CF3OC3F7] were prepared by the sol-gel reactions of the corresponding oligomer [RF-(CH2-CHSi(OMe3n-RF] in the presence of AM-Cellu. The nanocomposites thus obtained were applied to the surface modification of glass to exhibit a highly oleophobic/superhydrophilic characteristic on the modified surface at 20 °C. Interestingly, a temperature dependence of contact angle values of dodecane and water was observed on the modified surface at 20~70 °C, and the dodecane contact angle values were found to decrease with increasing the temperatures from 20 to 70 °C to provide from highly oleophobic to superoleophilic characteristics on the surface. On the other hand, the increase of the water contact angle values was observed with the increase in the temperatures under similar conditions to supply superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic characteristics on the modified surface. The corresponding nanocomposites were also applied to the surface modification of the filter paper under similar conditions to afford a superoleophilic/superhydrophobic characteristic on the surface. It was demonstrated that the modified filter paper is effective for the separation membrane for W/O emulsion to isolate the transparent colorless oil.

  3. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  4. Filter This

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Barbakoff

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Library with the Lead Pipe welcomes Audrey Barbakoff, a librarian at the Milwaukee Public Library, and Ahniwa Ferrari, Virtual Experience Manager at the Pierce County Library System in Washington, for a point-counterpoint piece on filtering in libraries. The opinions expressed here are those of the authors, and are not endorsed by their employers. [...

  5. Using color and grayscale images to teach histology to color-deficient medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Lindsay R; Lackey, Wendy L; Kennedy, Frances A; Stephenson, Robert B

    2009-01-01

    Examination of histologic and histopathologic microscopic sections relies upon differential colors provided by staining techniques, such as hematoxylin and eosin, to delineate normal tissue components and to identify pathologic alterations in these components. Given the prevalence of color deficiency (commonly called "color blindness") in the general population, it is likely that this reliance upon color differentiation poses a significant obstacle for several medical students beginning a course of study that includes examination of histologic slides. In the past, first-year medical students at Michigan State University who identified themselves as color deficient were encouraged to use color transparency overlays or tinted contact lenses to filter out problematic colors. Recently, however, we have offered such students a computer monitor adjusted to grayscale for in-lab work, as well as grayscale copies of color photomicrographs for examination purposes. Grayscale images emphasize the texture of tissues and the contrasts between tissues as the students learn histologic architecture. Using this approach, color-deficient students have quickly learned to compensate for their deficiency by focusing on cell and tissue structure rather than on color variation. Based upon our experience with color-deficient students, we believe that grayscale photomicrographs may also prove instructional for students with normal (trichromatic) color vision, by encouraging them to consider structural characteristics of cells and tissues that may otherwise be overshadowed by stain colors.

  6. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  7. COLORS OF ELLIPTICALS FROM GALEX TO SPITZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schombert, James M., E-mail: jschombe@uoregon.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Multi-color photometry is presented for a large sample of local ellipticals selected by morphology and isolation. The sample uses data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer ( GALEX ), Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), and Spitzer to cover the filters NUV , ugri , JHK and 3.6 μ m. Various two-color diagrams, using the half-light aperture defined in the 2MASS J filter, are very coherent from color to color, meaning that galaxies defined to be red in one color are always red in other colors. Comparison to globular cluster colors demonstrates that ellipticals are not composed of a single age, single metallicity (e.g., [Fe/H]) stellar population, but require a multi-metallicity model using a chemical enrichment scenario. Such a model is sufficient to explain two-color diagrams and the color–magnitude relations for all colors using only metallicity as a variable on a solely 12 Gyr stellar population with no evidence of stars younger than 10 Gyr. The [Fe/H] values that match galaxy colors range from −0.5 to +0.4, much higher (and older) than population characteristics deduced from Lick/IDS line-strength system studies, indicating an inconsistency between galaxy colors and line indices values for reasons unknown. The NUV colors have unusual behavior, signaling the rise and fall of the UV upturn with elliptical luminosity. Models with blue horizontal branch tracks can reproduce this behavior, indicating the UV upturn is strictly a metallicity effect.

  8. COLORS OF ELLIPTICALS FROM GALEX TO SPITZER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schombert, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-color photometry is presented for a large sample of local ellipticals selected by morphology and isolation. The sample uses data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer ( GALEX ), Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), and Spitzer to cover the filters NUV , ugri , JHK and 3.6 μ m. Various two-color diagrams, using the half-light aperture defined in the 2MASS J filter, are very coherent from color to color, meaning that galaxies defined to be red in one color are always red in other colors. Comparison to globular cluster colors demonstrates that ellipticals are not composed of a single age, single metallicity (e.g., [Fe/H]) stellar population, but require a multi-metallicity model using a chemical enrichment scenario. Such a model is sufficient to explain two-color diagrams and the color–magnitude relations for all colors using only metallicity as a variable on a solely 12 Gyr stellar population with no evidence of stars younger than 10 Gyr. The [Fe/H] values that match galaxy colors range from −0.5 to +0.4, much higher (and older) than population characteristics deduced from Lick/IDS line-strength system studies, indicating an inconsistency between galaxy colors and line indices values for reasons unknown. The NUV colors have unusual behavior, signaling the rise and fall of the UV upturn with elliptical luminosity. Models with blue horizontal branch tracks can reproduce this behavior, indicating the UV upturn is strictly a metallicity effect.

  9. Methods for computing color anaglyphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, David F.; Zhou, Ya; Sullivan, Sophia

    2010-02-01

    A new computation technique is presented for calculating pixel colors in anaglyph images. The method depends upon knowing the RGB spectral distributions of the display device and the transmission functions of the filters in the viewing glasses. It requires the solution of a nonlinear least-squares program for each pixel in a stereo pair and is based on minimizing color distances in the CIEL*a*b* uniform color space. The method is compared with several techniques for computing anaglyphs including approximation in CIE space using the Euclidean and Uniform metrics, the Photoshop method and its variants, and a method proposed by Peter Wimmer. We also discuss the methods of desaturation and gamma correction for reducing retinal rivalry.

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  11. Color balancing in CCD color cameras using analog signal processors made by Kodak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannegundla, Ram

    1995-03-01

    The green, red, and blue color filters used for CCD sensors generally have different responses. It is often necessary to balance these three colors for displaying a high-quality image on the monitor. The color filter arrays on sensors have different architectures. A CCD with standard G R G B pattern is considered for the present discussion. A simple method of separating the colors using CDS/H that is a part of KASPs (Analog Signal Processors made by Kodak) and using the gain control, which is also a part of KASPs for color balance, is presented. The colors are separated from the video output of sensor by using three KASPs, one each for green, red, and blue colors and by using alternate sample pulses for green and 1 in 4 pulses for red and blue. The separated colors gain is adjusted either automatically or manually and sent to the monitor for direct display in the analog mode or through an A/D converter digitally to the memory. This method of color balancing demands high-quality ASPs. Kodak has designed four different chips with varying levels of power consumption and speed for analog signal processing of video output of CCD sensors. The analog ASICs have been characterized for noise, clock feedthrough, acquisition time, linearity, variable gain, line rate clamp, black muxing, affect of temperature variations on chip performance, and droop. The ASP chips have met their design specifications.

  12. Comparison of the performance of masterbatch and liquid color concentrates for mass coloration of polypropylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Sonja; Yu, Donghong; Broch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The properties of polypropylene (PP) mixed with masterbatch (MB) and liquid color concentrates (LCC), respectively, were compared by preparing samples of PP with MB and PP with LCC and neat PP as a reference material using 1–4 extrusion cycles. Two colors were examined, i.e., a white color...... consisting of pigment white 6, and a green color consisting of pigment white 6, pigment blue 15:3, and pigment green 7. The color difference between PP prepared with MB and LCC was determined and the mechanical, rheological, and crystalline properties of PP prepared with MB and LCC were found to be generic....... The color of PP obtained from MB and LCC were comparable. Further, it was found that the tensile strength, the viscosity, and the crystal structure obtained were similar when using LCC instead of MB. The viscosity of the treated PP generally decreased with increasing extruder retention time due to thermal...

  13. On the characteristics of color film dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Tokuhiro; Hiraoka, Eiichi; Furuta, Junichiro

    1978-01-01

    Practical applicability of dosimetric color films available as Nitto Radocolor in commerce have been examined. The characteristics for dosimetry were studied using gamma-rays from Co-60 sources. The films can be stored without any deterioration unless they are exposed directly to sunlight or ultraviolet light. The dosage is easily estimated by comparing the irradiation-changed color of the film with a given standardized color chart. The dosage can be determined within an accuracy of 40% by the use of the printed color chart (Color Standard) supplied Nitto Co. and within an accuracy of 20% by the use of a color chart with color films which has been prepared by the present study. (auth.)

  14. Bag filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, M; Komeda, I; Takizaki, K

    1982-01-01

    Bag filters are widely used throughout the cement industry for recovering raw materials and products and for improving the environment. Their general mechanism, performance and advantages are shown in a classification table, and there are comparisons and explanations. The outer and inner sectional construction of the Shinto ultra-jet collector for pulverized coal is illustrated and there are detailed descriptions of dust cloud prevention, of measures used against possible sources of ignition, of oxygen supply and of other topics. Finally, explanations are given of matters that require careful and comprehensive study when selecting equipment.

  15. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  16. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  17. Automatic color preference correction for color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Masato; Funayama, Chisato; Tajima, Johji

    2000-12-01

    The reproduction of natural objects in color images has attracted a great deal of attention. Reproduction more pleasing colors of natural objects is one of the methods available to improve image quality. We developed an automatic color correction method to maintain preferred color reproduction for three significant categories: facial skin color, green grass and blue sky. In this method, a representative color in an object area to be corrected is automatically extracted from an input image, and a set of color correction parameters is selected depending on the representative color. The improvement in image quality for reproductions of natural image was more than 93 percent in subjective experiments. These results show the usefulness of our automatic color correction method for the reproduction of preferred colors.

  18. Determinants of wheat noodle color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noodles are a leading food in the world, and color is a key determinant of consumer acceptance. In this review the two prominent forms of wheat noodles are considered, white salted and alkaline. Many of the preparation and evaluation strategies are the same for both, with prominence placed on ‘brigh...

  19. Directional Joint Bilateral Filter for Depth Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Vu Le

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Depth maps taken by the low cost Kinect sensor are often noisy and incomplete. Thus, post-processing for obtaining reliable depth maps is necessary for advanced image and video applications such as object recognition and multi-view rendering. In this paper, we propose adaptive directional filters that fill the holes and suppress the noise in depth maps. Specifically, novel filters whose window shapes are adaptively adjusted based on the edge direction of the color image are presented. Experimental results show that our method yields higher quality filtered depth maps than other existing methods, especially at the edge boundaries.

  20. Nanoscale surface topographies for structural colors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik

    The thesis describes and demonstrates the possibilities for utilization of structural colors in mass fabricated plastic products as replacement for or in combination with pigments and inks. The motivation is the possible advantages related to re-cycling and re-use of plastic by limiting the number......-polymer interface is suppressed. This improves the ability to see through a clear plastic in the presence of specular reflection. The tapered nanostructures are also utilized to enhance the chroma of pigmented polymers. Larger tapered structures fabricated in a similar manor are shown to work as color filters....... Through an experimental study is the color of the transmitted light linked directly to the random topography of the surface by use of diffraction theory. The color effects from periodic structures and how these might be employed to create bright colors are investigated. This is done both for opaque...

  1. Cognitive aspects of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  2. The Disunity of Color

    OpenAIRE

    Matthen, Mohan

    1999-01-01

    What is color? What is color vision? Most philosophers answer by reference to humans: to human color qualia, or to the environmental properties or "quality spaces" perceived by humans. It is argued, with reference to empirical findings concerning comparative color vision and the evolution of color vision, that all such attempts are mistaken. An adequate definition of color vision must eschew reference to its outputs in the human cognition and refer only to inputs: color vision consists in...

  3. Color effects from scattering on random surface structures in dielectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jeppe; Christiansen, Alexander B; Garnæs, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    We show that cheap large area color filters, based on surface scattering, can be fabricated in dielectric materials by replication of random structures in silicon. The specular transmittance of three different types of structures, corresponding to three different colors, have been characterized...

  4. Using color management in color document processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehab, Smadar

    1995-04-01

    Color Management Systems have been used for several years in Desktop Publishing (DTP) environments. While this development hasn't matured yet, we are already experiencing the next generation of the color imaging revolution-Device Independent Color for the small office/home office (SOHO) environment. Though there are still open technical issues with device independent color matching, they are not the focal point of this paper. This paper discusses two new and crucial aspects in using color management in color document processing: the management of color objects and their associated color rendering methods; a proposal for a precedence order and handshaking protocol among the various software components involved in color document processing. As color peripherals become affordable to the SOHO market, color management also becomes a prerequisite for common document authoring applications such as word processors. The first color management solutions were oriented towards DTP environments whose requirements were largely different. For example, DTP documents are image-centric, as opposed to SOHO documents that are text and charts centric. To achieve optimal reproduction on low-cost SOHO peripherals, it is critical that different color rendering methods are used for the different document object types. The first challenge in using color management of color document processing is the association of rendering methods with object types. As a result of an evolutionary process, color matching solutions are now available as application software, as driver embedded software and as operating system extensions. Consequently, document processing faces a new challenge, the correct selection of the color matching solution while avoiding duplicate color corrections.

  5. Color Functionality Used in Visual Display for Occupational and Environmental Safety and Managing Color Vision Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Nobuhisa; Kondo, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    The effects of color perception are utilized in visual displays for the purpose of safety in the workplace and in daily life. These effects, generally known as color functionality, are divided into four classifications: visibility, legibility, conspicuity and discriminability. This article focuses on the relationship between the color functionality of color schemes used in visual displays for occupational and environmental safety and color vision deficiency (particularly congenital red-green color deficiency), a critical issue in ophthalmology, and examines the effects of color functionality on the perception of the color red in individuals with protan defects. Due to abrupt system reforms, current Japanese clinical ophthalmology finds itself in a situation where it is insufficiently prepared to handle congenital red-green color deficiencies. Indeed, occupational problems caused by color vision deficiencies have been almost completely neglected, and are an occupational safety and health concern that will need to be solved in the future. This report will present the guidelines for the color vision testing established by the British Health and Safety Executive (HSE), a pioneering example of a model meant to solve these problems. Issues relating to the creation of guidelines adapted to Japanese clinical ophthalmology will also be examined, and we will discuss ways to utilize color functionality used in visual displays for occupational and environmental safety to help manage color vision deficiency.

  6. CFA-aware features for steganalysis of color images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goljan, Miroslav; Fridrich, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    Color interpolation is a form of upsampling, which introduces constraints on the relationship between neighboring pixels in a color image. These constraints can be utilized to substantially boost the accuracy of steganography detectors. In this paper, we introduce a rich model formed by 3D co-occurrences of color noise residuals split according to the structure of the Bayer color filter array to further improve detection. Some color interpolation algorithms, AHD and PPG, impose pixel constraints so tight that extremely accurate detection becomes possible with merely eight features eliminating the need for model richification. We carry out experiments on non-adaptive LSB matching and the content-adaptive algorithm WOW on five different color interpolation algorithms. In contrast to grayscale images, in color images that exhibit traces of color interpolation the security of WOW is significantly lower and, depending on the interpolation algorithm, may even be lower than non-adaptive LSB matching.

  7. Spectrally resolved measurements of the terahertz beam profile generated from a two-color air plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Strikwerda, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Using a THz camera and THz bandpass filters, we measure the frequency - resolved beam profile emitted from a two - color air plasma. We observe a frequency - independent emission angle from the plasma .......Using a THz camera and THz bandpass filters, we measure the frequency - resolved beam profile emitted from a two - color air plasma. We observe a frequency - independent emission angle from the plasma ....

  8. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  9. Convergent Filter Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.

  10. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  11. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  12. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored ...

  14. Clay Ceramic Filter for Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zereffa Enyew Amare

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic water filters were prepared from different proportions of kaolin and soft wood and sintered at 900 °C, 950 °C, and 1000 °C. The flow rate, conductivity, pH of filtered water and removal efficiency (microbial, water hardness agent’s, nitrite and turbidity were analysed. The ceramic filter with 15 % saw dust, 80 % clay and 5 % grog that was fired at temperature of 950 °C or 1000 °C showed the best removal efficiency. Statistical ANOVA tests showed a significant difference between ceramic filters with various compositions in their removal efficiencies.

  15. Filter-extruded liposomes revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinna, Askell; Steiniger, Frank; Hupfeld, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    (pore-size, number of filter passages, and flow-rate), flow field-flow fractionation in conjunction with multi-angle laser light scattering (AF4-MALLS, Wyatt Technology Corp., Santa Barbara, CA) was employed. Liposome size-distributions determined by AF4-MALLS were compared with those of dynamic light...... is suggested to prepare large (300 nm) liposomes with rather narrow size distribution, based on the filter extrusion at defined flow-rates in combination with freeze-/ thaw-cycling and bench-top centrifugation....

  16. A method of alpha-radiating nuclide activity measuring in aerosol filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, V.P.; Galkina, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Scintillation method of determination of alpha-radiating nuclide activity in aerosol filters was suggested. The method involves dissolution of the filter in organic solvent, introduction of luminophore into solution prepared, drying of the preparation and measurement of radionuclide activity. Dependences of alpha-radiation detection efficiency on the content of luminophore, filter material, colourless and coloured substances in preparations analyzed were considered

  17. Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu, MY; Hunter, IC

    2016-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  18. Autonomous physics-based color learning under daylight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berube Lauziere, Yves; Gingras, Denis J.; Ferrie, Frank P.

    1999-09-01

    An autonomous approach for learning the colors of specific objects assumed to have known body spectral reflectances is developed for daylight illumination conditions. The main issue is to be able to find these objects autonomously in a set of training images captured under a wide variety of daylight illumination conditions, and to extract their colors to determine color space regions that are representative of the objects' colors and their variations. The work begins by modeling color formation under daylight using the color formation equations and the semi-empirical model of Judd, MacAdam and Wyszecki (CIE daylight model) for representing the typical spectral distributions of daylight. This results in color space regions that serve as prior information in the initial phase of learning which consists in detecting small reliable clusters of pixels having the appropriate colors. These clusters are then expanded by a region growing technique using broader color space regions than those predicted by the model. This is to detect objects in a way that is able to account for color variations which the model cannot due to its limitations. Validation on the detected objects is performed to filter out those that are not of interest and to eliminate unreliable pixel color values extracted from the remaining ones. Detection results using the color space regions determined from color values obtained by this procedure are discussed.

  19. Investigation of the structure of filter cakes from bore flushing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, A; Oezerler, M; Marx, C; Hartmann, A; Oezerler, M; Marx, C; Poege, S; Young, F

    1985-01-01

    After a description of the tasks and functions of the filter cake in bores, the requirements for filter cakes are explained. The aim of the investigation is finding a correlation between the filter cake structures and the prehistory of flushing. The technique of preparing the samples and previous results from investigations with electron microscopes are introduced and discussed.

  20. Representing Color Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetverikov, Andrey; Campana, Gianluca; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2017-10-01

    Colors are rarely uniform, yet little is known about how people represent color distributions. We introduce a new method for studying color ensembles based on intertrial learning in visual search. Participants looked for an oddly colored diamond among diamonds with colors taken from either uniform or Gaussian color distributions. On test trials, the targets had various distances in feature space from the mean of the preceding distractor color distribution. Targets on test trials therefore served as probes into probabilistic representations of distractor colors. Test-trial response times revealed a striking similarity between the physical distribution of colors and their internal representations. The results demonstrate that the visual system represents color ensembles in a more detailed way than previously thought, coding not only mean and variance but, most surprisingly, the actual shape (uniform or Gaussian) of the distribution of colors in the environment.

  1. Memory for color reactivates color processing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D

    2009-11-25

    Memory is thought to be constructive in nature, where features processed in different cortical regions are synthesized during retrieval. In an effort to support this constructive memory framework, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study assessed whether memory for color reactivated color processing regions. During encoding, participants were presented with colored and gray abstract shapes. During retrieval, old and new shapes were presented in gray and participants responded 'old-colored', 'old-gray', or 'new'. Within color perception regions, color memory related activity was observed in the left fusiform gyrus, adjacent to the collateral sulcus. A retinotopic mapping analysis indicated this activity occurred within color processing region V8. The present feature specific evidence provides compelling support for a constructive view of memory.

  2. Natural Colorants: Food Colorants from Natural Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Gregory T; Tang, Peipei; Giusti, M Mónica

    2017-02-28

    The color of food is often associated with the flavor, safety, and nutritional value of the product. Synthetic food colorants have been used because of their high stability and low cost. However, consumer perception and demand have driven the replacement of synthetic colorants with naturally derived alternatives. Natural pigment applications can be limited by lower stability, weaker tinctorial strength, interactions with food ingredients, and inability to match desired hues. Therefore, no single naturally derived colorant can serve as a universal alternative for a specified synthetic colorant in all applications. This review summarizes major environmental and biological sources for natural colorants as well as nature-identical counterparts. Chemical characteristics of prevalent pigments, including anthocyanins, carotenoids, betalains, and chlorophylls, are described. The possible applications and hues (warm, cool, and achromatic) of currently used natural pigments, such as anthocyanins as red and blue colorants, and possible future alternatives, such as purple violacein and red pyranoanthocyanins, are also discussed.

  3. Color of cyanobacteria: some methodological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, Beatriz; Sanmartin, Patricia; Aira, Noelia; Silva, Benita

    2010-01-01

    Although the color of cyanobacteria is a very informative characteristic, no standardized protocol has, so far, been established for defining the color in an objective way, and, therefore, direct comparison of experimental results obtained by different research groups is not possible. In the present study, we used colorimetric measurements and conventional statistical tools to determine the effects on the measurement of the color of cyanobacteria, of the concentration of the microorganisms and their moisture content, as well as of the size of the target area and the minimum number of measurements. It was concluded that the color measurement is affected by every factor studied, but that this can be controlled for by making at least 10 consecutive measurements/9.62 cm 2 at different randomly selected points on the surface of filters completely covered by films of cyanobacteria in which the moisture contents are higher than 50%.

  4. Pseudo color ghost coding imaging with pseudo thermal light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, De-yang; Xia, Yun-jie

    2018-04-01

    We present a new pseudo color imaging scheme named pseudo color ghost coding imaging based on ghost imaging but with multiwavelength source modulated by a spatial light modulator. Compared with conventional pseudo color imaging where there is no nondegenerate wavelength spatial correlations resulting in extra monochromatic images, the degenerate wavelength and nondegenerate wavelength spatial correlations between the idle beam and signal beam can be obtained simultaneously. This scheme can obtain more colorful image with higher quality than that in conventional pseudo color coding techniques. More importantly, a significant advantage of the scheme compared to the conventional pseudo color coding imaging techniques is the image with different colors can be obtained without changing the light source and spatial filter.

  5. Color display and encryption with a plasmonic polarizing metamirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Maowen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural colors emerge when a particular wavelength range is filtered out from a broadband light source. It is regarded as a valuable platform for color display and digital imaging due to the benefits of environmental friendliness, higher visibility, and durability. However, current devices capable of generating colors are all based on direct transmission or reflection. Material loss, thick configuration, and the lack of tunability hinder their transition to practical applications. In this paper, a novel mechanism that generates high-purity colors by photon spin restoration on ultrashallow plasmonic grating is proposed. We fabricated the sample by interference lithography and experimentally observed full color display, tunable color logo imaging, and chromatic sensing. The unique combination of high efficiency, high-purity colors, tunable chromatic display, ultrathin structure, and friendliness for fabrication makes this design an easy way to bridge the gap between theoretical investigations and daily-life applications.

  6. Mengkaji Penggunaan Software Apple Color untuk Color Grading saat Pasca Produksi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Faisal Choiril Anam Fathoni

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In post-production process, there is one process that is not as well known as the video editing process, the addition of animation, special effects enrichment, motion graphics or audio editing and audio mixing, an important process which is rarely realized called Color Correction or Color Grading. Various software have been made to handle this process, ranging from additional filters are already available for free in any editing software, to high-end devices worth billions of dollars dedicated for specifically conducting Color Correction. Apple Color is one of the software included in the purchase of Final Cut Studio package which also include Final Cut Pro for Video Editing, Soundtrack Pro for Sound Editing and Mixing, and Motion for compositing. Apple's Color is specially designed for color correction tasks after previously edited in Final Cut Pro. This paper is designed to introduce Apple's software as well as analyze the feasibility of Apple Color as a professional device in the world of production, especially post-production. Some professional color correction software will be compared briefly with Apple Color to get an objective conclusion. 

  7. Bilateral periorbital necrotizing fasciitis following exposure to Holi colors: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Deepender; Arora, Ritu; Das, Sima; Shroff, Daraius; Narula, Ritesh

    2007-01-01

    Holi festival is celebrated in India traditionally by applying colors on one another. Various ocular adverse effects of these colors have been reported including conjunctivitis and corneal abrasion. We report a case of bilateral periorbital necrotizing fasciitis, following exposure to Holi colors. General physicians might encounter more such cases after exposure to Holi colors. In India, these colors are prepared on a small scale and lack any quality checks. Use of such toxic colors should be...

  8. Selection vector filter framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Smolka, Bogdan; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.

    2003-10-01

    We provide a unified framework of nonlinear vector techniques outputting the lowest ranked vector. The proposed framework constitutes a generalized filter class for multichannel signal processing. A new class of nonlinear selection filters are based on the robust order-statistic theory and the minimization of the weighted distance function to other input samples. The proposed method can be designed to perform a variety of filtering operations including previously developed filtering techniques such as vector median, basic vector directional filter, directional distance filter, weighted vector median filters and weighted directional filters. A wide range of filtering operations is guaranteed by the filter structure with two independent weight vectors for angular and distance domains of the vector space. In order to adapt the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics, we provide also the generalized optimization algorithms taking the advantage of the weighted median filters and the relationship between standard median filter and vector median filter. Thus, we can deal with both statistical and deterministic aspects of the filter design process. It will be shown that the proposed method holds the required properties such as the capability of modelling the underlying system in the application at hand, the robustness with respect to errors in the model of underlying system, the availability of the training procedure and finally, the simplicity of filter representation, analysis, design and implementation. Simulation studies also indicate that the new filters are computationally attractive and have excellent performance in environments corrupted by bit errors and impulsive noise.

  9. Color and motion-based particle filter target tracking in a network of overlapping cameras with multi-threading and GPGPU Rastreo de objetivos por medio de filtros de partículas basados en color y movimiento en una red de cámaras con multi-hilo y GPGPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Francisco Madrigal Díaz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an efficient implementation of multiple-target multiple-view tracking in video-surveillance sequences. It takes advantage of the capabilities of multiple core Central Processing Units (CPUs and of graphical processing units under the Compute Unifie Device Arquitecture (CUDA framework. The principle of our algorithm is 1 in each video sequence, to perform tracking on all persons to track by independent particle filters and 2 to fuse the tracking results of all sequences. Particle filters belong to the category of recursive Bayesian filters. They update a Monte-Carlo representation of the posterior distribution over the target position and velocity. For this purpose, they combine a probabilistic motion model, i.e. prior knowledge about how targets move (e.g. constant velocity and a likelihood model associated to the observations on targets. At this first level of single video sequences, the multi-threading library Threading Buildings Blocks (TBB has been used to parallelize the processing of the per-target independent particle filters. Afterwards at the higher level, we rely on General Purpose Programming on Graphical Processing Units (generally termed as GPGPU through CUDA in order to fuse target-tracking data collected on multiple video sequences, by solving the data association problem. Tracking results are presented on various challenging tracking datasets.Este artículo describe una implementación eficiente de un algoritmo de seguimiento de múlti­ples objetivos en múltiples vistas en secuencias de video vigilancia. Aprovecha las capacidades de las Unidades Centrales de Procesamiento (CPUs, por sus siglas en inglés de múltiples núcleos y de las unidades de procesamiento gráfico, bajo el entorno de desarrollo de Arquitec­tura Unificada de Dispositivos de Cómputo (CUDA, por sus siglas en inglés. El principio de nuestro algoritmo es: 1 aplicar el seguimiento visual en cada secuencia de video sobre todas las

  10. Sensory Drive, Color, and Color Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Trevor D

    2017-08-01

    Colors often appear to differ in arbitrary ways among related species. However, a fraction of color diversity may be explained because some signals are more easily perceived in one environment rather than another. Models show that not only signals but also the perception of signals should regularly evolve in response to different environments, whether these primarily involve detection of conspecifics or detection of predators and prey. Thus, a deeper understanding of how perception of color correlates with environmental attributes should help generate more predictive models of color divergence. Here, I briefly review our understanding of color vision in vertebrates. Then I focus on opsin spectral tuning and opsin expression, two traits involved in color perception that have become amenable to study. I ask how opsin tuning is correlated with ecological differences, notably the light environment, and how this potentially affects perception of conspecific colors. Although opsin tuning appears to evolve slowly, opsin expression levels are more evolutionarily labile but have been difficult to connect to color perception. The challenge going forward will be to identify how physiological differences involved in color vision, such as opsin expression levels, translate into perceptual differences, the selection pressures that have driven those differences, and ultimately how this may drive evolution of conspecific colors.

  11. Cross-media color reproduction using the frequency-based spatial gamut mapping algorithm based on human color vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guangyuan; Niu, Shijun; Li, Xiaozhou; Hu, Guichun

    2018-04-01

    Due to the increasing globalization of printing industry, remoting proofing will become the inevitable development trend. Cross-media color reproduction will occur in different color gamuts using remote proofing technologies, which usually leads to the problem of incompatible color gamut. In this paper, to achieve equivalent color reproduction between a monitor and a printer, a frequency-based spatial gamut mapping algorithm is proposed for decreasing the loss of visual color information. The design of algorithm is based on the contrast sensitivity functions (CSF), which exploited CSF spatial filter to preserve luminance of the high spatial frequencies and chrominance of the low frequencies. First we show a general framework for how to apply CSF spatial filter in retention of relevant visual information. Then we compare the proposed framework with HPMINDE, CUSP, Bala's algorithm. The psychophysical experimental results indicated the good performance of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Industrial Color Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Georg A

    2010-01-01

    This unique book starts with a short historical overview of the development of the theories of color vision and applications of industrial color physics. The three dominant factors producing color - light source, color sample, and observer - are described in detail. The standardized color spaces are shown and related color values are applied to characteristic color qualities of absorption as well as of effect colorants. The fundamentals of spectrometric and colorimetric measuring techniques together with specific applications are described. Theoretical models for radiative transfer in transparent, translucent, and opaque layers are detailed; the two, three, and multi-flux approximations are presented for the first time in a coherent formalism. These methods constitute the fundamentals not only for the important classical methods, but also modern methods of recipe prediction applicable to all known colorants. The text is supplied with 52 tables, more than 200 partially colored illustrations, an appendix, and a...

  13. Color: Physics and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Pupa

    Unless we are colorblind, as soon as we look at something, we know what color it is. Simple, isn't it? No, not really. The color we see is rarely just determined by the physical color, that is, the wavelength of visible light associated with that color. Other factors, such as the illuminating light, or the brightness surrounding a certain color, affect our perception of that color. Most striking, and useful, is understanding how the retina and the brain work together to interpret the color we see, and how they can be fooled by additive color mixing, which makes it possible to have color screens and displays. I will show the physical origin of all these phenomena and give live demos as I explain how they work. Bring your own eyes! For more information: (1) watch TED talk: ``Color: Physics and Perception'' and (2) read book: PUPA Gilbert and W Haeberli ``Physics in the Arts'', ISBN 9780123918789.

  14. 'Clovis' in Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This approximate true-color image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rock outcrop dubbed 'Clovis.' The rock was discovered to be softer than other rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater after the rover easily ground a hole into it with its rock abrasion tool. This image was taken by the 750-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters of the rover's panoramic camera on sol 217 (August 13, 2004). Elemental Trio Found in 'Clovis' Figure 1 above shows that the interior of the rock dubbed 'Clovis' contains higher concentrations of sulfur, bromine and chlorine than basaltic, or volcanic, rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater. The data were taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer after the rover dug into Clovis with its rock abrasion tool. The findings might indicate that this rock was chemically altered, and that fluids once flowed through the rock depositing these elements.

  15. DOE standard: Quality assurance inspection and testing of HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    This standard establishes essential elements for the quality assurance inspection and testing of HEPA filters by US Department of Energy (DOE)-accepted Filter Test Facilities (FTF). The standard specifies HEPA filter quality assurance inspection and testing practices established in DOE-STD-3022-98, DOE HEPA Filter Test Program, and provides a basis for the preparation of written operating procedures for primary FTF functions

  16. Color models of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.; Nelson, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    The evidence for a three-valued 'color' degree of freedom in hadron physics is reviewed. The structure of color models is discussed. Consequences of color models for elementary particle physics are discussed, including saturation properties of hadronic states, π 0 →2γ and related decays, leptoproduction, and lepton pair annihilation. Signatures are given which distinguish theories with isolated colored particles from those in which color is permanently bound. (Auth.)

  17. The weight of color

    OpenAIRE

    Brunberg, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the weight of color, with the focus lying on the symbolic significance ofcolor. Exploring whether color in itself conveys symbolic significance and is the symbolicsignificance of color permanent, or is it an after construction? It will be looking at differentareas such as what makes us humans able to perceive colors in the first place, beginning withan insight at some of the foundations in the area of color theory. Mentioning experiments ondecomposed white light, that cont...

  18. Recirculating electric air filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  19. Passive Power Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, R.

    2015-06-15

    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  20. Filter replacement lifetime prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Klein, Levente I.; Manzer, Dennis G.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2017-10-25

    Methods and systems for predicting a filter lifetime include building a filter effectiveness history based on contaminant sensor information associated with a filter; determining a rate of filter consumption with a processor based on the filter effectiveness history; and determining a remaining filter lifetime based on the determined rate of filter consumption. Methods and systems for increasing filter economy include measuring contaminants in an internal and an external environment; determining a cost of a corrosion rate increase if unfiltered external air intake is increased for cooling; determining a cost of increased air pressure to filter external air; and if the cost of filtering external air exceeds the cost of the corrosion rate increase, increasing an intake of unfiltered external air.

  1. Project 'Colored solar collectors' - Annual report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, A.; Chambrier, E. De; Roecker, Ch.; Scartezzini, J.-L.

    2005-12-15

    The architectural integration of thermal solar collectors into buildings is often limited by their black color, and the visibility of tubes and corrugations of the absorber sheets. A certain freedom in color choice would be desirable, but the colored appearance should not cause excessive performance degradation. Multilayered thin film interference filters on the collector glazing can produce a colored reflection, hiding the corrugated metal sheet, while transmitting the non-reflected radiation entirely to the absorber. These interference filters are designed and optimized by numerical simulation and shall be manufactured by the sol-gel dip-coating process. The proposed colored glazed solar collectors will be ideally suited for architectural integration into buildings, e.g. as solar active glass facades. The availability of thin film materials with a refractive index lower than that of silicon favors a higher solar transmission at a given value of visible reflectance. The feasibility of the sol-gel deposition of such low refractive index materials has been demonstrated. For the development of nanostructured materials, analytical methods such as electron microscopy are extremely helpful. Important techniques of substrate pretreatment, sample cleaving, polishing, mounting, and microscope handling have been acquired. First measurements yield images of nanostructures produced by the sol-gel dip-coating process. Nanocomposite Ti{sub x}Si{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} thin films provide a large range of refractive indices. Aiming a high efficiency of the colored reflection, Ti{sub x}Si{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} based multilayered coatings have been designed and subsequently prepared by sol-gel dip-coating. The energy efficiency M = R{sub VIS}/(100%-T{sub sol}) of the obtained colored reflection amounts up to 2.4. For a convincing demonstration sufficiently large samples of high quality are imperatively needed. An infrastructure for the handling of A4 sized samples has been established

  2. MEDOF - MINIMUM EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE OPTIMAL FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Minimum Euclidean Distance Optimal Filter program, MEDOF, generates filters for use in optical correlators. The algorithm implemented in MEDOF follows theory put forth by Richard D. Juday of NASA/JSC. This program analytically optimizes filters on arbitrary spatial light modulators such as coupled, binary, full complex, and fractional 2pi phase. MEDOF optimizes these modulators on a number of metrics including: correlation peak intensity at the origin for the centered appearance of the reference image in the input plane, signal to noise ratio including the correlation detector noise as well as the colored additive input noise, peak to correlation energy defined as the fraction of the signal energy passed by the filter that shows up in the correlation spot, and the peak to total energy which is a generalization of PCE that adds the passed colored input noise to the input image's passed energy. The user of MEDOF supplies the functions that describe the following quantities: 1) the reference signal, 2) the realizable complex encodings of both the input and filter SLM, 3) the noise model, possibly colored, as it adds at the reference image and at the correlation detection plane, and 4) the metric to analyze, here taken to be one of the analytical ones like SNR (signal to noise ratio) or PCE (peak to correlation energy) rather than peak to secondary ratio. MEDOF calculates filters for arbitrary modulators and a wide range of metrics as described above. MEDOF examines the statistics of the encoded input image's noise (if SNR or PCE is selected) and the filter SLM's (Spatial Light Modulator) available values. These statistics are used as the basis of a range for searching for the magnitude and phase of k, a pragmatically based complex constant for computing the filter transmittance from the electric field. The filter is produced for the mesh points in those ranges and the value of the metric that results from these points is computed. When the search is concluded, the

  3. Spreadsheet macros for coloring sequence alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haygood, M G

    1993-12-01

    This article describes a set of Microsoft Excel macros designed to color amino acid and nucleotide sequence alignments for review and preparation of visual aids. The colored alignments can then be modified to emphasize features of interest. Procedures for importing and coloring sequences are described. The macro file adds a new menu to the menu bar containing sequence-related commands to enable users unfamiliar with Excel to use the macros more readily. The macros were designed for use with Macintosh computers but will also run with the DOS version of Excel.

  4. Coloring mixed hypergraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Voloshin, Vitaly I

    2002-01-01

    The theory of graph coloring has existed for more than 150 years. Historically, graph coloring involved finding the minimum number of colors to be assigned to the vertices so that adjacent vertices would have different colors. From this modest beginning, the theory has become central in discrete mathematics with many contemporary generalizations and applications. Generalization of graph coloring-type problems to mixed hypergraphs brings many new dimensions to the theory of colorings. A main feature of this book is that in the case of hypergraphs, there exist problems on both the minimum and th

  5. Preferred skin color enhancement for photographic color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2011-01-01

    Skin tones are the most important colors among the memory color category. Reproducing skin colors pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the color preference of skin color reproduction. Several methods to morph skin colors to a smaller preferred skin color region has been reported in the past. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to further improve the result of skin color enhancement. An ellipsoid skin color model is applied to compute skin color probabilities for skin color detection and to determine a weight for skin color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers determined through psychophysical experiments were applied for color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers for dark, medium, and light skin colors are applied to adjust skin colors differently. Skin colors are morphed toward their preferred color centers. A special processing is applied to avoid contrast loss in highlight. A 3-D interpolation method is applied to fix a potential contouring problem and to improve color processing efficiency. An psychophysical experiment validates that the method of preferred skin color enhancement effectively identifies skin colors, improves the skin color preference, and does not objectionably affect preferred skin colors in original images.

  6. Laboratory for filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, W.

    1987-07-01

    Filters used for mine draining in brown coal surface mines are tested by the Mine Draining Department of Poltegor. Laboratory tests of new types of filters developed by Poltegor are analyzed. Two types of tests are used: tests of scale filter models and tests of experimental units of new filters. Design and operation of the test stands used for testing mechanical properties and hydraulic properties of filters for coal mines are described: dimensions, pressure fluctuations, hydraulic equipment. Examples of testing large-diameter filters for brown coal mines are discussed.

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of the ASTM color of diesel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Willian Emanuel Alves Santana; Marcelle Prates Sepulveda; Paulo Jorge Sanches Barbeira

    2007-03-15

    One of the parameters analyzed to determine the quality of diesel oil is its ASTM color. Changes in color may be indicative of problems in the production process, contamination, degradation or the oxidation of diesel. The methodology recommended for determining the color of automotive diesel oil samples is the colorimetry according to standard ASTM D1500, in which a sample is introduced into a glass cell and the color of the sample is compared with an optical filter color scale. Although it is very simple, the manual method requires good visual acuity from the operator. This procedure becomes somewhat subjective in some cases since different operators can make distinct evaluations of the same sample. In this way, this work proposes the development of a spectrophotometric analysis methodology to eliminate the subjectiveness in the determination of ASTM color of diesel oil samples by using operator-independent parameters and making quality assay more accurate and precise. Short communication. 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high blood pressure or risk ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... away without suffering an eye injury. However, the natural protective mechanisms of the eye – such as the ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ... this month in the New England Journal of Medicine. Unfortunately, this kind of injury is all too ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... 2018 By Dan T. Gudgel Do you know what the difference is between ophthalmologists and optometrists? A ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir ... Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored contact lenses without ...

  14. Facts About Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... color? Normal Human Retina What color is a strawberry? Most of us would say red, but do ... light and shorter wavelength corresponds to blue light. Strawberries and other objects reflect some wavelengths of light ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  16. Fingers that change color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003249.htm Fingers that change color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fingers or toes may change color when they are exposed to cold temperatures or ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive ... Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ...

  18. Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    by an upstream pre-filter (changed monthly), an EU7 filter protected by an upstream activated carbon (AC) filter, and EU7 filters with an AC filter either downstream or both upstream and downstream. In addition, two types of stand-alone combination filters were evaluated: a bag-type fiberglass filter...... that contained AC and a synthetic fiber cartridge filter that contained AC. Air that had passed through used filters was most acceptable for those sets in which an AC filter was used downstream of the particle filter. Comparable air quality was achieved with the stand-alone bag filter that contained AC...

  19. HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection

  20. Color and experimental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief review of the color hypothesis and the motivations for its introduction, the experimental tests arare discussed. It is assumed that colored states have not been produced at present energies and only experimental tests which apply below the color threshold, when color is a ''hidden symmetry,'' are discussed. Some of these tests offer the possibility of distinguishing between quark models with fractional and integral quark charges. (auth)

  1. Color ordering in QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Schuster, Theodor

    2013-01-01

    We derive color decompositions of arbitrary tree and one-loop QCD amplitudes into color ordered objects called primitive amplitudes. Furthermore, we derive general fermion flip and reversion identities spanning the null space among the primitive amplitudes and use them to prove that all color ordered tree amplitudes of massless QCD can be written as linear combinations of color ordered tree amplitudes of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory.

  2. Rotation speed measurement for turbine governor: torsion filtering by using Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houry, M.P.; Bourles, H.

    1995-11-01

    The rotation speed of a turbogenerator is disturbed by its shaft torsion. Obtaining a filtered measure of this sped a problem of a great practical importance for turbine governor. A good filtering of this speed must meet two requirements: it must cut frequencies of the shaft torsion oscillation and it must not reduce or delay the signal in the pass-band. i.e. at lower frequencies. At Electricite de France, the speed measure is used to set in motion the fast valving system as quickly as possible, after a short circuit close to the unit (to contribute to the stability) or after an islanding (to quickly reach a balance with the house load). It is difficult to satisfy these two requirements by using conventional filtering methods. The standard solution consists in a first order filter: at Electricite de France, its time constant is equal to 80 ms; We have decided to improve this filtering by designing a new filter which cuts the frequencies of the shaft torsion oscillation without reducing the bandwidth of the speed measure. If one uses conventional methods to obtain a band-stop filter (for instance a Butterworth, a Chebyshev or an elliptic band-stop filter),it is easy to obtain the desired magnitude but not a phase near zero in the whole pass-band. Therefore, we have chosen to design the filter by using Kalman's theory. The measurement noise is modeled as a colored one, generated by a very lightly damped system driven by a white noise. The resulting Kalman filter is an effective band-stop filter, whose phase nicely remains near zero in the whole pass-band. (authors). 13 refs., 12 figs

  3. Color standardization and optimization in Whole Slide Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagi Yukako

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Standardization and validation of the color displayed by digital slides is an important aspect of digital pathology implementation. While the most common reason for color variation is the variance in the protocols and practices in the histology lab, the color displayed can also be affected by variation in capture parameters (for example, illumination and filters, image processing and display factors in the digital systems themselves. Method We have been developing techniques for color validation and optimization along two paths. The first was based on two standard slides that are scanned and displayed by the imaging system in question. In this approach, one slide is embedded with nine filters with colors selected especially for H&E stained slides (looking like tiny Macbeth color chart; the specific color of the nine filters were determined in our previous study and modified for whole slide imaging (WSI. The other slide is an H&E stained mouse embryo. Both of these slides were scanned and the displayed images were compared to a standard. The second approach was based on our previous multispectral imaging research. Discussion As a first step, the two slide method (above was used to identify inaccurate display of color and its cause, and to understand the importance of accurate color in digital pathology. We have also improved the multispectral-based algorithm for more consistent results in stain standardization. In near future, the results of the two slide and multispectral techniques can be combined and will be widely available. We have been conducting a series of researches and developing projects to improve image quality to establish Image Quality Standardization. This paper discusses one of most important aspects of image quality – color.

  4. A new method of liquid crystal thermometry excluding human color sensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunugi, Tomoaki; Akino, Norio; Ueda, Masaharu.

    1987-01-01

    Some choresteric liquid crystals can be used as a thermometer because of their color changes with varying temperatures. However, it is impossible to employ human color sensation for precise quantitative evaluation of temperature from their color. Therefore, a new method of liquid crystal thermometry is developed using narrow band optical filters and an image processor to exclude the employment of human color sensation. Relations between filter wavelength and temperature were determined by calibration tests. Two dimensional temperature distributions on a heated plate were successfully measured by the present method. (author)

  5. The Cool Colors Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, second from left, a sample from the Cool Colors Project, a roof product ) (Jeff Chiu - AP) more Cool Colors make the front page of The Sacramento Bee (3rd highest circulation newspaper in California) on 14 August 2006! Read the article online or as a PDF. The Cool Colors Project

  6. Developmental Color Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Rosslyn; Little, Angela C.

    1975-01-01

    A sample of 107 subjects including kindergarteners, fifth graders, high school sophomores, parents of kindergarteners, and master artists were presented with a 108-item color perception test to investigate surface color perception at these age levels. A set of surface color perception rules was generated. (GO)

  7. Computing color categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to develop a coherent framework for understanding, modeling, and computing color categories. The main assumption is that the structure of color category systems originates from the statistical structure of the perceived color environment. This environment can be modeled as

  8. Computational Cognitive Color Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciftcioglu, O.; Bittermann, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Comprehension of aesthetical color characteristics based on a computational model of visual perception and color cognition are presented. The computational comprehension is manifested by the machine’s capability of instantly assigning appropriate colors to the objects perceived. They form a scene

  9. ColorTracker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzheu, Stefanie; Lee, S.; Herneoja, Aulikki; Österlund, Toni; Markkanen, Piia

    2016-01-01

    With the work-in-progress research project ColorTracker we explore color as a formal design tool. This project-based paper describes a novel software application that processes color composition of a place and transcribes the data into three-dimensional geometries for architectural design. The

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far ... Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored ...

  11. Real-time Face Detection using Skin Color Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yao-xin; LIU Zhi-Qiang; ZHU Xiang-hua

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new face detection approach to real-time applications, which is based on the skin color model and the morphological filtering. First the non-skin color pixels of the input image are removed based on the skin color model in the YCrCb chrominance space, from which we extract candidate human face regions. Then a mathematical morphological filter is used to remove noisy regions and fill the holes in the candidate skin color regions. We adopt the similarity between the human face features and the candidate face regions to locate the face regions in the original image. We have implemented the algorithm in our smart media system. The experiment results show that this system is effective in real-time applications.

  12. Simon-nitinol filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.; Kim, D.; Porter, D.H.; Kleshinski, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses a filter that exploits the thermal shape-memory properties of the nitinol alloy to achieve an optimized filter shape and a fine-bore introducer. Experimental methods and materials are given and results are analyzed

  13. Colors of extreme exo-Earth environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Siddharth; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The search for extrasolar planets has already detected rocky planets and several planetary candidates with minimum masses that are consistent with rocky planets in the habitable zone of their host stars. A low-resolution spectrum in the form of a color-color diagram of an exoplanet is likely to be one of the first post-detection quantities to be measured for the case of direct detection. In this paper, we explore potentially detectable surface features on rocky exoplanets and their connection to, and importance as, a habitat for extremophiles, as known on Earth. Extremophiles provide us with the minimum known envelope of environmental limits for life on our planet. The color of a planet reveals information on its properties, especially for surface features of rocky planets with clear atmospheres. We use filter photometry in the visible as a first step in the characterization of rocky exoplanets to prioritize targets for follow-up spectroscopy. Many surface environments on Earth have characteristic albedos and occupy a different color space in the visible waveband (0.4-0.9 μm) that can be distinguished remotely. These detectable surface features can be linked to the extreme niches that support extremophiles on Earth and provide a link between geomicrobiology and observational astronomy. This paper explores how filter photometry can serve as a first step in characterizing Earth-like exoplanets for an aerobic as well as an anaerobic atmosphere, thereby prioritizing targets to search for atmospheric biosignatures.

  14. MST Filterability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  15. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    OpenAIRE

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12–14% of the ge...

  16. Face identification with frequency domain matched filtering in mobile environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Su; Woo, Yong-Hyun; Yeom, Seokwon; Kim, Shin-Hwan

    2012-06-01

    Face identification at a distance is very challenging since captured images are often degraded by blur and noise. Furthermore, the computational resources and memory are often limited in the mobile environments. Thus, it is very challenging to develop a real-time face identification system on the mobile device. This paper discusses face identification based on frequency domain matched filtering in the mobile environments. Face identification is performed by the linear or phase-only matched filter and sequential verification stages. The candidate window regions are decided by the major peaks of the linear or phase-only matched filtering outputs. The sequential stages comprise a skin-color test and an edge mask filtering test, which verify color and shape information of the candidate regions in order to remove false alarms. All algorithms are built on the mobile device using Android platform. The preliminary results show that face identification of East Asian people can be performed successfully in the mobile environments.

  17. Scanning Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1988-01-01

    A confocal color laser microscope which utilizes a three color laser light source (Red: He-Ne, Green: Ar, Blue: Ar) has been developed and is finding useful applications in the semiconductor field. The color laser microscope, when compared to a conventional microscope, offers superior color separation, higher resolution, and sharper contrast. Recently some new functions including a Focus Scan Memory, a Surface Profile Measurement System, a Critical Dimension Measurement system (CD) and an Optical Beam Induced Current Function (OBIC) have been developed for the color laser microscope. This paper will discuss these new features.

  18. Project 'Colored solar collectors' - Annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, A.; Chambrier, E. De; Roecker, Ch.; Scartezzini, J.-L.

    2004-12-15

    The architectural integration of thermal solar collectors into buildings is often limited by their black color, and the visibility of tubes and corrugations of the absorber sheets. A certain freedom in color choice would be desirable, but the colored appearance should not cause excessive performance degradation. Multilayered thin film interference filters on the collector glazing can produce a colored reflection, hiding the corrugated metal sheet, while transmitting the non-reflected radiation entirely to the absorber. These interference filters are designed and optimized by numerical simulation and shall be manufactured by the sol-gel dip-coating process. The proposed colored glazed solar collectors will be ideally suited for architectural integration into buildings, e.g. as solar active glass facades. The sol-gel fabrication of interference stacks of up to five layers of silicon and titanium oxide films could be demonstrated in the laboratory, in the first step on microscope slides. Optical measurements are used to determine film thicknesses and optical constants of the individual layers, and to measure color coordinates and solar transmission for the multilayer stacks. The solar transmission of such samples can be improved by titanium silicon mixed oxides, which could have been synthesized by the sol-gel method. Hereby the compatibility problems of the originally used solution have been solved, and the refractive index of the resulting mixed oxide can be perfectly controlled by tuning the atomic concentration ratio of silicon and titanium. One of the main technical risks is related to the fact that for a convincing demonstration of the idea high quality coatings are absolutely necessary. Therefore, visible defects induced during the dip-coating process by dust particles in the atmosphere or in the used solutions must be imperatively avoided, as well as thickness variations due to vibrations. After optimizing various aspects of sample preparation, processing and

  19. Relating color working memory and color perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Sarah R; Flombaum, Jonathan I

    2014-11-01

    Color is the most frequently studied feature in visual working memory (VWM). Oddly, much of this work de-emphasizes perception, instead making simplifying assumptions about the inputs served to memory. We question these assumptions in light of perception research, and we identify important points of contact between perception and working memory in the case of color. Better characterization of its perceptual inputs will be crucial for elucidating the structure and function of VWM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Superpixel segmentation and pigment identification of colored relics based on visible spectral image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junfeng; Wan, Xiaoxia

    2018-01-01

    To enrich the contents of digital archive and to guide the copy and restoration of colored relics, non-invasive methods for extraction of painting boundary and identification of pigment composition are proposed in this study based on the visible spectral images of colored relics. Superpixel concept is applied for the first time to the field of oversegmentation of visible spectral images and implemented on the visible spectral images of colored relics to extract their painting boundary. Since different pigments are characterized by their own spectrum and the same kind of pigment has the similar geometric profile in spectrum, an automatic identification method is established by comparing the proximity between the geometric profiles of the unknown spectrum from each superpixel and the pre-known spectrum from a deliberately prepared database. The methods are validated using the visible spectral images of the ancient wall paintings in Mogao Grottoes. By the way, the visible spectral images are captured by a multispectral imaging system consisting of two broadband filters and a RGB camera with high spatial resolution.

  1. Formulation of nano-ceramic filters used in separation of heavy metals . Part II: Zirconia ceramic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, T.; Labib, Sh.; Abou EI-Nour, F.H.; Abdel-Kbalik, M.

    2007-01-01

    Zirconia ceramic filters are prepared using polymeric sol-gel process. An optimization of synthesis parameters was studied to give cracked free coated nano porous film with high performance quality. Zirconia ceramic filters are characterized to select tbe optimized conditions that give tbe suitable zirconia filter used in heavy metal separation. The ceramic filters were characterized using BET method for surface measurements, mercury porosimeter for pore size distribution analysis and coating thickness measurements, SEM for microstructural studies and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) for metal analysis. The results indicated that zirconia ceramic filters. show high separation performance for cadmium, cupper, iron, manganese and lead

  2. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo eUccula

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e. who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g. color, shape or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature.

  3. Rotationally invariant correlation filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schils, G.F.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for analyzing and designing optical correlation filters that have tailored rotational invariance properties. The concept of a correlation of an image with a rotation of itself is introduced. A unified theory of rotation-invariant filtering is then formulated. The unified approach describes matched filters (with no rotation invariance) and circular-harmonic filters (with full rotation invariance) as special cases. The continuum of intermediate cases is described in terms of a cyclic convolution operation over angle. The angular filtering approach allows an exact choice for the continuous trade-off between loss of the correlation energy (or specificity regarding the image) and the amount of rotational invariance desired

  4. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  5. Retina-Inspired Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutsi, Effrosyni; Fillatre, Lionel; Antonini, Marc; Gaulmin, Julien

    2018-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel filter, which is inspired by the human retina. The human retina consists of three different layers: the Outer Plexiform Layer (OPL), the inner plexiform layer, and the ganglionic layer. Our inspiration is the linear transform which takes place in the OPL and has been mathematically described by the neuroscientific model "virtual retina." This model is the cornerstone to derive the non-separable spatio-temporal OPL retina-inspired filter, briefly renamed retina-inspired filter, studied in this paper. This filter is connected to the dynamic behavior of the retina, which enables the retina to increase the sharpness of the visual stimulus during filtering before its transmission to the brain. We establish that this retina-inspired transform forms a group of spatio-temporal Weighted Difference of Gaussian (WDoG) filters when it is applied to a still image visible for a given time. We analyze the spatial frequency bandwidth of the retina-inspired filter with respect to time. It is shown that the WDoG spectrum varies from a lowpass filter to a bandpass filter. Therefore, while time increases, the retina-inspired filter enables to extract different kinds of information from the input image. Finally, we discuss the benefits of using the retina-inspired filter in image processing applications such as edge detection and compression.

  6. Specialized Color Targets for Spectral Reflectance Reconstruction of Magnified Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruschwitz, Jennifer D. T.

    Digital images are used almost exclusively instead of film to capture visual information across many scientific fields. The colorimetric color representation within these digital images can be relayed from the digital counts produced by the camera with the use of a known color target. In image capture of magnified images, there is currently no reliable color target that can be used at multiple magnifications and give the user a solid understanding of the color ground truth within those images. The first part of this dissertation included the design, fabrication, and testing of a color target produced with optical interference coated microlenses for use in an off-axis illumination, compound microscope. An ideal target was designed to increase the color gamut for colorimetric imaging and provide the necessary "Block Dye" spectral reflectance profiles across the visible spectrum to reduce the number of color patches necessary for multiple filter imaging systems that rely on statistical models for spectral reflectance reconstruction. There are other scientific disciplines that can benefit from a specialized color target to determine the color ground truth in their magnified images and perform spectral estimation. Not every discipline has the luxury of having a multi-filter imaging system. The second part of this dissertation developed two unique ways of using an interference coated color mirror target: one that relies on multiple light-source angles, and one that leverages a dynamic color change with time. The source multi-angle technique would be used for the microelectronic discipline where the reconstructed spectral reflectance would be used to determine a dielectric film thickness on a silicon substrate, and the time varying technique would be used for a biomedical example to determine the thickness of human tear film.

  7. Study of different filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochinal, R.; Rouby, R.

    1959-01-01

    This note first contains a terminology related to filters and to their operation, and then proposes an overview of general characteristics of filters such as load loss with respect to gas rate, efficiency, and clogging with respect to filter pollution. It also indicates standard aerosols which are generally used, how they are dosed, and how efficiency is determined with a standard aerosol. Then, after a presentation of the filtration principle, this note reports the study of several filters: glass wool, filter papers provided by different companies, Teflon foam, English filters, Teflon wool, sintered Teflonite, quartz wool, polyvinyl chloride foam, synthetic filter, sintered bronze. The third part reports the study of some aerosol and dust separators

  8. Changing ventilation filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackney, S.

    1980-01-01

    A filter changing unit has a door which interlocks with the door of a filter chamber so as to prevent contamination of the outer surfaces of the doors by radioactive material collected on the filter element and a movable support which enables a filter chamber thereonto to be stored within the unit in such a way that the doors of the unit and the filter chamber can be replaced. The door pivots and interlocks with another door by means of a bolt, a seal around the periphery lip of the first door engages the periphery of the second door to seal the gap. A support pivots into a lower filter element storage position. Inspection windows and glove ports are provided. The unit is releasably connected to the filter chamber by bolts engaging in a flange provided around an opening. (author)

  9. Balanced microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jiasheng; Medina, Francisco; Martiacuten, Ferran

    2018-01-01

    This book presents and discusses strategies for the design and implementation of common-mode suppressed balanced microwave filters, including, narrowband, wideband, and ultra-wideband filters This book examines differential-mode, or balanced, microwave filters by discussing several implementations of practical realizations of these passive components. Topics covered include selective mode suppression, designs based on distributed and semi-lumped approaches, multilayer technologies, defect ground structures, coupled resonators, metamaterials, interference techniques, and substrate integrated waveguides, among others. Divided into five parts, Balanced Microwave Filters begins with an introduction that presents the fundamentals of balanced lines, circuits, and networks. Part 2 covers balanced transmission lines with common-mode noise suppression, including several types of common-mode filters and the application of such filters to enhance common-mode suppression in balanced bandpass filters. Next, Part 3 exa...

  10. COLOR PLANNING FOR HOSPITALS AND SCHOOLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobil Finishes Co., Inc., Chicago, IL.

    THE AIM OF THIS MANUAL PREPARED FOR ARCHITECTS AND BUILDERS IS TO PROVIDE FOR COLOR PLANNING IN HOSPITALS AND SCHOOLS AND ALTHOUGH APPROPRIATE FOR THE SELECTION OF ALL INTERIOR SURFACE MATERIALS IN NEW CONSTRUCTION. IN SCHOOL, AND INDIVIDUAL'S EXPOSURE TO DECORATION IS REPEATED DAILY FOR BOTH STUDENTS AND STAFF ATTEND AT LEAST FOR THE SCHOOL…

  11. Efficacy of Polishing Kits on the Surface Roughness and Color ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... The total color difference (∆E*) between the two color measurements ... apparatus: (a) Frontal view of the assembly, (b) Top view of the special mold b a resins (P ..... prepared by single-use and multi-use diamonds. Am J Dent.

  12. Albedo and color maps of the Saturnian satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buratti, B.J.; Mosher, J.A.; Johnson, T.V.

    1990-01-01

    The paper discusses the production of maps of the albedos and colors of Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, and Rhea over the full range of their imaged surfaces. Voyager images were used to prepare maps of the normal reflectances and color ratios (0.58/0.41 micron) of these satelites. 67 refs

  13. Filter material charging apparatus for filter assembly for radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, J.M.; O'Nan, A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A filter charging apparatus for a filter assembly is described. The filter assembly includes a housing with at least one filter bed therein and the filter charging apparatus for adding filter material to the filter assembly includes a tank with an opening therein, the tank opening being disposed in flow communication with opposed first and second conduit means, the first conduit means being in flow communication with the filter assembly housing and the second conduit means being in flow communication with a blower means. Upon activation of the blower means, the blower means pneumatically conveys the filter material from the tank to the filter housing

  14. Laser color recording unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E.

    1984-05-01

    A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.

  15. Color in Image and Video Processing: Most Recent Trends and Future Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tominaga Shoji

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The motivation of this paper is to provide an overview of the most recent trends and of the future research directions in color image and video processing. Rather than covering all aspects of the domain this survey covers issues related to the most active research areas in the last two years. It presents the most recent trends as well as the state-of-the-art, with a broad survey of the relevant literature, in the main active research areas in color imaging. It also focuses on the most promising research areas in color imaging science. This survey gives an overview about the issues, controversies, and problems of color image science. It focuses on human color vision, perception, and interpretation. It focuses also on acquisition systems, consumer imaging applications, and medical imaging applications. Next it gives a brief overview about the solutions, recommendations, most recent trends, and future trends of color image science. It focuses on color space, appearance models, color difference metrics, and color saliency. It focuses also on color features, color-based object tracking, scene illuminant estimation and color constancy, quality assessment and fidelity assessment, color characterization and calibration of a display device. It focuses on quantization, filtering and enhancement, segmentation, coding and compression, watermarking, and lastly on multispectral color image processing. Lastly, it addresses the research areas which still need addressing and which are the next and future perspectives of color in image and video processing.

  16. Color in Image and Video Processing: Most Recent Trends and Future Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos N. Plataniotis

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of this paper is to provide an overview of the most recent trends and of the future research directions in color image and video processing. Rather than covering all aspects of the domain this survey covers issues related to the most active research areas in the last two years. It presents the most recent trends as well as the state-of-the-art, with a broad survey of the relevant literature, in the main active research areas in color imaging. It also focuses on the most promising research areas in color imaging science. This survey gives an overview about the issues, controversies, and problems of color image science. It focuses on human color vision, perception, and interpretation. It focuses also on acquisition systems, consumer imaging applications, and medical imaging applications. Next it gives a brief overview about the solutions, recommendations, most recent trends, and future trends of color image science. It focuses on color space, appearance models, color difference metrics, and color saliency. It focuses also on color features, color-based object tracking, scene illuminant estimation and color constancy, quality assessment and fidelity assessment, color characterization and calibration of a display device. It focuses on quantization, filtering and enhancement, segmentation, coding and compression, watermarking, and lastly on multispectral color image processing. Lastly, it addresses the research areas which still need addressing and which are the next and future perspectives of color in image and video processing.

  17. Rotation Invariant Color Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Swapna Borde; Udhav Bhosle

    2013-01-01

    The new technique for image retrieval using the color features extracted from images based on LogHistogram is proposed. The proposed technique is compared with Global color histogram and histogram ofcorners .It has been observed that number of histogram bins used for retrieval comparison of proposedtechnique (Log Histogram)is less as compared to Global Color Histogram and Histogram of corners. Theexperimental results on a database of 792 images with 11 classes indicate that proposed method (L...

  18. Colored fused filament fabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Haichuan; Lefebvre, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Filament fused fabrication is the method of choice for printing 3D models at low cost, and is the de-facto standard for hobbyists, makers and schools. Unfortunately, filament printers cannot truly reproduce colored objects. The best current techniques rely on a form of dithering exploiting occlusion, that was only demonstrated for shades of two base colors and that behaves differently depending on surface slope. We explore a novel approach for 3D printing colored objects, capable of creating ...

  19. Perceptual approach for unsupervised digital color restoration of cinematographic archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambah, Majed; Rizzi, Alessandro; Gatta, Carlo; Besserer, Bernard; Marini, Daniele

    2003-01-01

    The cinematographic archives represent an important part of our collective memory. We present in this paper some advances in automating the color fading restoration process, especially with regard to the automatic color correction technique. The proposed color correction method is based on the ACE model, an unsupervised color equalization algorithm based on a perceptual approach and inspired by some adaptation mechanisms of the human visual system, in particular lightness constancy and color constancy. There are some advantages in a perceptual approach: mainly its robustness and its local filtering properties, that lead to more effective results. The resulting technique, is not just an application of ACE on movie images, but an enhancement of ACE principles to meet the requirements in the digital film restoration field. The presented preliminary results are satisfying and promising.

  20. RGB Colors of the Jovian Trojan Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haoyuan; Zhang, Xiaofei; University of Western Australia, Youth Astronomy Teachers' Link

    2017-10-01

    We use SPIRIT I&II telescopes which has 43cm diameter, to observe around 50 Jovian Trojan asteroids. Due to the limiting magnitude of our equipment, We only choose some bright asteriods as our targets.To testify the feasibility of using RGB Bayer filter system for research project, we use the RGB Bayer filter system instead of the Johnson-Cousins BVR filters system. Once proved, the photometry data will be significantly enlarged. More collected data can be used on scientific researches and more scholars can do relevant researches by using the RGB Bayer filter system. What we did is using a software called Astrometrica to measure the magnitude of the asteroids under RGB filter. Then we transform the RGB data to BVR data. Later on we calculate the color index by using those BVR data from our calculations. The final step to do the statistic work and make graphs, and compare it with the former research data. We are aim to find same result as the research before, or why there are differnt result.We are still in the process of handling the data, so the final result will be released at the conference. This project is based on data acquired using the SPIRIT robotic telescopes at The University of Western Australia. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Paul Luckas, SPIRIT Program Manager.The project is supported by The University of Western Australia, Youth Astronomy Teachers' Link.

  1. Realtime Color Stereovision Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Formwalt, Bryon

    2000-01-01

    .... This research takes a step forward in real time machine vision processing. It investigates techniques for implementing a real time stereovision processing system using two miniature color cameras...

  2. Colored solar collectors - Annual report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, A.; Chambrier, E. De; Roecker, Ch.; Scartezzini, J.-L.

    2007-12-15

    The architectural integration of thermal solar collectors into buildings is often limited by their black color, and the visibility of tubes and corrugations of the absorber sheets. A certain freedom in color choice would be desirable, but the colored appearance should not cause an excessive degradation of the collector efficiency. Multilayered thin film interference filters on the collector glazing can produce a colored reflection, hiding the corrugated metal sheet, while transmitting the non-reflected radiation entirely to the absorber. These interference filters are designed and optimized by numerical simulation, and are manufactured by sol-gel dip-coating or magnetron sputtering. The novel colored glazed solar collectors will be ideally suited for architectural integration into buildings, e.g. as solar active glass facades. Due to the tunability of the refractive index, nanostructured materials such as SiO{sub 2}:TiO{sub 2} composites and porous SiO{sub 2} are very useful for application in multilayer interference stacks. Novel quaternary Mg-F-Si-O films exhibit a surprisingly low refractive index and are therefore promising candidates for highly transparent coatings on solar collector glazing. The nanostructure of these thin films is studied by transmission electron microscopy, while the optical constants are measured precisely by ellipsometry. For a convincing demonstration, sufficiently large samples of high quality are imperatively needed. The fabrication of nanocomposite SiO{sub 2}:TiO{sub 2} films has been demonstrated by sol-gel dip-coating of A4-sized glass panes. The produced coatings exhibit a colored reflection in combination with a high solar transmittance, a homogenous appearance, and are free of visible defects. Film hardening by UV exposure will result in speeding up the sol-gel process and saving energy, thereby reducing costs significantly. The infrastructure for UV-curing has been established. A UV C radiation source can now be attached to the

  3. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  4. Color camera computed tomography imaging spectrometer for improved spatial-spectral image accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Daniel W. (Inventor); Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Johnson, William R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography imaging spectrometers ("CTIS"s) having color focal plane array detectors are provided. The color FPA detector may comprise a digital color camera including a digital image sensor, such as a Foveon X3.RTM. digital image sensor or a Bayer color filter mosaic. In another embodiment, the CTIS includes a pattern imposed either directly on the object scene being imaged or at the field stop aperture. The use of a color FPA detector and the pattern improves the accuracy of the captured spatial and spectral information.

  5. Full-Color Biomimetic Photonic Materials with Iridescent and Non-Iridescent Structural Colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Ayaka; Kohri, Michinari; Morimoto, Gen; Nannichi, Yuri; Taniguchi, Tatsuo; Kishikawa, Keiki

    2016-09-23

    The beautiful structural colors in bird feathers are some of the brightest colors in nature, and some of these colors are created by arrays of melanin granules that act as both structural colors and scattering absorbers. Inspired by the color of bird feathers, high-visibility structural colors have been created by altering four variables: size, blackness, refractive index, and arrangement of the nano-elements. To control these four variables, we developed a facile method for the preparation of biomimetic core-shell particles with melanin-like polydopamine (PDA) shell layers. The size of the core-shell particles was controlled by adjusting the core polystyrene (PSt) particles' diameter and the PDA shell thicknesses. The blackness and refractive index of the colloidal particles could be adjusted by controlling the thickness of the PDA shell. The arrangement of the particles was controlled by adjusting the surface roughness of the core-shell particles. This method enabled the production of both iridescent and non-iridescent structural colors from only one component. This simple and novel process of using core-shell particles containing PDA shell layers can be used in basic research on structural colors in nature and their practical applications.

  6. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and "real" colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstis, Stuart; Vergeer, Mark; Van Lier, Rob

    2012-09-06

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The color of the afterimage depends on two adapting colors, those both inside and outside the test. Here, we further explore this phenomenon and show that the color-contour interactions shown for afterimage colors also occur for "real" colors. We argue that similar mechanisms apply for both types of stimulation.

  7. Encyclopedia of color science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of color to all fields of science and technology, including artistic and historical aspects of color. Many topics are discussed in this timely reference, including an introduction to the science of color, and entries on the physics, chemistry and perception of color. Color is described as it relates to optical phenomena of color and continues on through colorants and materials used to modulate color and also to human vision of color. The measurement of color is provided as is colorimetry, color spaces, color difference metrics, color appearance models, color order systems and cognitive color. Other topics discussed include industrial color, color imaging, capturing color, displaying color and printing color. Descriptions of color encodings, color management, processing color and applications relating to color synthesis for computer graphics are included in this work. The Encyclo...

  8. Backflushable filter insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, R.C.; Vandenberg, T.; Randolph, M.C.; Lewis, T.B.; Gillis, P.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Filter elements are mounted on a tube plate beneath an accumulator chamber whose wall is extended by skirt and flange to form a closure for the top of pressure vessel. The accumulator chamber is annular around a central pipe which serves as the outlet for filtered water passing from the filter elements. The chamber contains filtered compressed air from supply. Periodically the filtration of water is stopped and vessel is drained. Then a valve is opened, allowing the accumulated air to flow from chamber up a pipe and down pipe, pushing the filtered water from pipe back through the filter elements to clean them. The accumulator chamber is so proportioned, relative to the volume of the system communicating therewith during backflushing, that the equilibrium pressure during backflushing cannot exceed the pressure rating of the vessel. However a line monitors the pressure at the top of the vessel, and if it rises too far a bleed valve is automatically opened to depressurise the system. The chamber is intended to replace the lid of an existing vessel to convert a filter using filter aid to one using permanent filter elements. (author)

  9. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, George; Beaton, Dorcas E; Tugwell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The "Discrimination" part of the OMERACT Filter asks whether a measure discriminates between situations that are of interest. "Feasibility" in the OMERACT Filter encompasses the practical considerations of using an instrument, including its ease of use, time to complete, monetary costs......, and interpretability of the question(s) included in the instrument. Both the Discrimination and Reliability parts of the filter have been helpful but were agreed on primarily by consensus of OMERACT participants rather than through explicit evidence-based guidelines. In Filter 2.0 we wanted to improve this definition...

  10. Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

  11. Filters in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, K.H.; Wilhelm, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The topics of the nine papers given include the behavior of HEPA filters during exposure to air flows of high humidity as well as of high differential pressure, the development of steel-fiber filters suitable for extreme operating conditions, and the occurrence of various radioactive iodine species in the exhaust air from boiling water reactors. In an introductory presentation the German view of the performance requirements to be met by filters in nuclear facilities as well as the present status of filter quality assurance are discussed. (orig.) [de

  12. Washing method of filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumidani, Masakiyo; Tanno, Kazuo.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To enable automatic filter operation and facilitate back-washing operation by back-washing filters used in a bwr nuclear power plant utilizing an exhaust gas from a ventilator or air conditioner. Method: Exhaust gas from an exhaust pipe of an ventilator or air conditioner is pressurized in a compressor and then introduced in a back-washing gas tank. Then, the exhaust gas pressurized to a predetermined pressure is blown from the inside to the outside of a filter to thereby separate impurities collected on the filter elements and introduce them to a waste tank. (Furukawa, Y.)

  13. Effect of relative nanohole position on colour purity of ultrathin plasmonic subtractive colour filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L B; Hu, X L; Zhang, D X; Zeng, Beibei; Wang, L S; Yang, S M; Tai, R Z; Fecht, H J; Jiang, J Z

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic subtractive color filters through patterning periodic nanostructures on ultrathin Ag films deposited on a glass substrate, exhibiting good durability, simple fabrication, and flexible color tunability, have attracted considerable attention due to their tremendous potential applications. While previous studies have mainly focused on their extraordinary physical mechanisms, color purity, which is another key parameter for high quality imaging applications, has been much less investigated. In this work, we demonstrate that the relative position of nanoholes patterned on ultrathin Ag films can largely affect the color purity of plasmonic subtractive color filters. The calculated results agree reasonably well with the experimental data, revealing that the purity of subtractive colors can be improved by changing the nanohole arrays from square lattice to triangular lattice without reducing transmission at visible frequencies. In addition, underlying mechanisms are clarified by systematically analyzing the dominant valley in transmission spectra. (paper)

  14. Evaluation of a color fused dual-band NVG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Toet, A.

    2009-01-01

    We designed and evaluated a dual-band Night Vision Goggles sensor system. The sensor system consists of two optically aligned NVGs fitted with filters splitting the sensitive range into a visual and a near-infrared band. The Color-the-night technique (Hogervorst & Toet, FUSION2008) was used to fuse

  15. Evaluation of a color fused dual-band NVG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Toet, A.

    2009-01-01

    We have tested a prototype dual-band NVG system consisting of two NVGs fitted with filters that split the NVG sensitive range into a short (visual) and a long wavelength (NIR) band. The Color-the-night technique (see Hogervorst & Toet, SPIE D&S ‘08) was used to fuse the images of the two sensors. We

  16. Rotation speed measurement for turbine governor: torsion filtering by using Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houry, M.P.; Bourles, H.

    1996-01-01

    The rotation speed of a turbogenerator is disturbed by its shaft torsion. Obtaining a filtered measure of this speed is a problem of a great practical importance for turbine governor. A good filtering of this speed must meet two requirements: it must cut frequencies of the shaft torsion oscillation and it must not reduce or delay the signal in the pass-band, i.e. at lower frequencies. At Electricite de France, the speed measure is used to set in motion the fast valving system as quickly as possible, after a short circuit close to the unit or rather an islanding. It is difficult to satisfy these two requirements by using conventional filtering methods. The standard solution consists in a first order filter: at Electricite de France, its time constant is equal to 80 ms. We have decided to improve this filtering by designing a new filter which cuts the frequencies of the shaft torsion oscillation without reducing the bandwidth to the speed measure. If one uses conventional methods to obtain a band stop filter, it is easy to obtain the desired magnitude but not a phase near zero in the whole pass-band. Therefore, we have chosen to design the filter by using Kalman'a theory. The measurement noise is modeled as a colored one, generated by a very lightly damped system driven by a while noise. The resulting Kalman filter is an effective band stop filter, whose phase nicely remains near zero in the whole pass-band. The digital simulations we made and the tests we carried out with the Electricite de France Micro Network laboratory show the advantages of the rotation speed filter we designed using Kalman's theory. With the proposed filter, the speed measure filtering is better in terms of reduction and phase shift. the result is that there are less untimely solicitations of the fast valving system. Consequently, this device improves the power systems stability by minimizing the risks of deep perturbations due to a temporary lack of generation and the risks of under-speed loss

  17. Multispectral colour analysis for quantitative evaluation of pseudoisochromatic color deficiency tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Fomins, Sergejs

    2010-11-01

    Multispectral color analysis was used for spectral scanning of Ishihara and Rabkin color deficiency test book images. It was done using tunable liquid-crystal LC filters built in the Nuance II analyzer. Multispectral analysis keeps both, information on spatial content of tests and on spectral content. Images were taken in the range of 420-720nm with a 10nm step. We calculated retina neural activity charts taking into account cone sensitivity functions, and processed charts in order to find the visibility of latent symbols in color deficiency plates using cross-correlation technique. In such way the quantitative measure is found for each of diagnostics plate for three different color deficiency carrier types - protanopes, deutanopes and tritanopes. Multispectral color analysis allows to determine the CIE xyz color coordinates of pseudoisochromatic plate design elements and to perform statistical analysis of these data to compare the color quality of available color deficiency test books.

  18. Biomimetic plasmonic color generated by the single-layer coaxial honeycomb nanostructure arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiancun; Gao, Bo; Li, Haoyong; Yu, Xiaochang; Yang, Xiaoming; Yu, Yiting

    2017-07-01

    We proposed a periodic coaxial honeycomb nanostructure array patterned in a silver film to realize the plasmonic structural color, which was inspired from natural honeybee hives. The spectral characteristics of the structure with variant geometrical parameters are investigated by employing a finite-difference time-domain method, and the corresponding colors are thus derived by calculating XYZ tristimulus values corresponding with the transmission spectra. The study demonstrates that the suggested structure with only a single layer has high transmission, narrow full-width at half-maximum, and wide color tunability by changing geometrical parameters. Therefore, the plasmonic colors realized possess a high color brightness, saturation, as well as a wide color gamut. In addition, the strong polarization independence makes it more attractive for practical applications. These results indicate that the recommended color-generating plasmonic structure has various potential applications in highly integrated optoelectronic devices, such as color filters and high-definition displays.

  19. Millennial Teachers of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, Mary E., Ed.

    2018-01-01

    "Millennial Teachers of Color" explores the opportunities and challenges for creating and sustaining a healthy teaching force in the United States. Millennials are the largest generational cohort in American history, with approximately ninety million members and, of these, roughly 43 percent are people of color. This book, edited by…

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  1. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow...

  2. On color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1989-10-01

    A quantum mechanical treatment of high momentum transfer nuclear processes is presented. Color transparency, the suppression of initial and final state interaction effects, is shown to arise from using the closure approximation. New conditions for the appearance of color transparency are derived

  3. Color and magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.R.

    1976-01-01

    Schwinger's conjecture that the color degree of freedom of a quark is equivalent to its degree of freedom of taking different magnetic charges provides a plausible motivation for extending color to leptons. Leptons are just quarks with zero magnetic charges. It is shown that baryon number and lepton number can be replaced by fermion number and magnetic charge

  4. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  5. The Color of Lobsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Arjan van

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of 13C-enriched carotenoids. Carotenoids are natural colorants, ranging in color from pale yellow to deep purple, with important biological functions. Carotenoids in the human diet have a beneficial health effect, playing a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. To

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the FDA? Check the FDA's database of approved contact lenses . Related Stories Prevent Infection ...

  7. Perceptually optimal color reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Blommaert, F.J.J.; Ridder, de H.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    1998-01-01

    What requirements do people place on optimal color reproduction of real-life scenes? We suggest that when people look at images containing familiar categories of objects, two primary factors shape their subjective impression of how optimal colors are reproduced: perceived naturalness and perceived

  8. Enhancing the color gamut of white displays using novel deep-blue organic fluorescent dyes to form color-changed thin films with improved efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Ting; Huang, Wen-Yao

    2012-10-01

    This study used the novel fluorescence based deep-blue-emitting molecule BPVPDA in an organic fluorescent color thin film to exhibit deep blue color with CIE coordinates of (0.13, 0.16). The developed original organic RGB color thin film technology enables the optimization of the distinctive features of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) and thin-film-transistor (TFT) LCD display. The color filter structure maintains the same high resolution to obtain a higher level of brightness in comparison with conventional organic RGB color thin film. The image-processing engine is designed to achieve a sharp text image for a TFT LCD with organic color thin films. The organic color thin films structure uses an organic dye dopant in a limpid photoresist. With this technology, the following characteristics can be obtained: 1. high color reproduction of gamut ratio, and 2. improved luminous efficiency with organic color fluorescent thin film. This performance is among the best results ever reported for a color-filter used on TFT-LCD or OLED.

  9. Methods of scaling threshold color difference using printed samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Cui, Guihua; Liu, Haoxue; Luo, M. Ronnier

    2012-01-01

    A series of printed samples on substrate of semi-gloss paper and with the magnitude of threshold color difference were prepared for scaling the visual color difference and to evaluate the performance of different method. The probabilities of perceptibly was used to normalized to Z-score and different color differences were scaled to the Z-score. The visual color difference was got, and checked with the STRESS factor. The results indicated that only the scales have been changed but the relative scales between pairs in the data are preserved.

  10. Image defog algorithm based on open close filter and gradient domain recursive bilateral filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daqian; Liu, Wanjun; Zhao, Qingguo; Fei, Bowen

    2017-11-01

    To solve the problems of fuzzy details, color distortion, low brightness of the image obtained by the dark channel prior defog algorithm, an image defog algorithm based on open close filter and gradient domain recursive bilateral filter, referred to as OCRBF, was put forward. The algorithm named OCRBF firstly makes use of weighted quad tree to obtain more accurate the global atmospheric value, then exploits multiple-structure element morphological open and close filter towards the minimum channel map to obtain a rough scattering map by dark channel prior, makes use of variogram to correct the transmittance map,and uses gradient domain recursive bilateral filter for the smooth operation, finally gets recovery images by image degradation model, and makes contrast adjustment to get bright, clear and no fog image. A large number of experimental results show that the proposed defog method in this paper can be good to remove the fog , recover color and definition of the fog image containing close range image, image perspective, the image including the bright areas very well, compared with other image defog algorithms,obtain more clear and natural fog free images with details of higher visibility, what's more, the relationship between the time complexity of SIDA algorithm and the number of image pixels is a linear correlation.

  11. Determining the color of solid paraffines in a KNS-2 colorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozova, L P; Gladyshev, V P; Ivanov, V S; Men' kov, P A

    1980-01-01

    A new method is presented for determining the color of solid paraffines in a recently developed KNS-2 colorimeter. The essence of this particular method lies in a comparison of the intensity of the color of a melted paraffin sample with a set of standard light filters. The color of the paraffin is expressed in conditional brands. The method is simple, reliable and has good result convergence.

  12. Image color reduction method for color-defective observers using a color palette composed of 20 particular colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a color enhancement method that uses a color palette especially designed for protan and deutan defects, commonly known as red-green color blindness. The proposed color reduction method is based on a simple color mapping. Complicated computation and image processing are not required by using the proposed method, and the method can replace protan and deutan confusion (p/d-confusion) colors with protan and deutan safe (p/d-safe) colors. Color palettes for protan and deutan defects proposed by previous studies are composed of few p/d-safe colors. Thus, the colors contained in these palettes are insufficient for replacing colors in photographs. Recently, Ito et al. proposed a p/dsafe color palette composed of 20 particular colors. The author demonstrated that their p/d-safe color palette could be applied to image color reduction in photographs as a means to replace p/d-confusion colors. This study describes the results of the proposed color reduction in photographs that include typical p/d-confusion colors, which can be replaced. After the reduction process is completed, color-defective observers can distinguish these confusion colors.

  13. Color Constancy by Deep Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, Z.; Gevers, T.; Hu, N.; Lucassen, M.P.; Xie, X.; Jones, M.W.; Tam, G.K.L.

    2015-01-01

    Computational color constancy aims to estimate the color of the light source. The performance of many vision tasks, such as object detection and scene understanding, may benefit from color constancy by estimating the correct object colors. Since traditional color constancy methods are based on

  14. Influence of Surrounding Colors in the Illuminant-Color Mode on Color Constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuho Fukuda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available On color constancy, we showed that brighter surrounding colors had greater influence than dim colors (Uchikawa, Kitazawa, MacLeod, Fukuda, 2010 APCV. Increasing luminance of a stimulus causes the change in appearance from the surface-color to the illuminant-color mode. However it is unknown whether the visual system considers such color appearance mode of surrounding colors to achieve color constancy. We investigated the influence of surrounding colors that appeared illuminant on color constancy. The stimulus was composed of a central test stimulus and surrounding six colors: bright and dim red, green and blue. The observers adjusted the chromaticity of the test stimulus to be appeared as an achromatic surface. The luminance balance of three bright surrounding colors was equalized with that of the optimal colors in three illuminant conditions, then, the luminance of one of the three bright colors was varied in the range beyond the critical luminance of color appearance mode transition. The results showed that increasing luminance of a bright surrounding color shifted the observers' achromatic setting toward its chromaticity, but this effect diminished for the surrounding color in the illuminant-color mode. These results suggest that the visual system considers color appearance mode of surrounding colors to accomplish color constancy.

  15. Color quarks and octonions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guersey, F.

    1974-01-01

    A mathematical framework based on octonions is developed for the description of the color quark scheme in which quarks are unobservable, the color SU(3) is exact, and only color singlets correspond to observable hadrons. The fictitious Hilbert space in which quarks operate is taken to be a space of vectors with octonion components. This space admits as a gauge group an exact SU(3) identified with the color SU/sub C/(3). Because of the nonassociativity of the underlying algebra, nonsinglet representations of SU/sub C/(3) are unobservable, while the subspace of color singlets satisfies associativity along with conditions for observability. Octonion quark fields satisfy the commutation relations of parafermions of order 3, leading to the correct SU(6) multiplets for hadrons. (U.S.)

  16. Color evaluation of computer-generated color rainbow holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yile; Wang, Hui; Wu, Qiong

    2013-01-01

    A color evaluation approach for computer-generated color rainbow holography (CGCRH) is presented. Firstly, the relationship between color quantities of a computer display and a color computer-generated holography (CCGH) colorimetric system is discussed based on color matching theory. An isochromatic transfer relationship of color quantity and amplitude of object light field is proposed. Secondly, the color reproduction mechanism and factors leading to the color difference between the color object and the holographic image that is reconstructed by CGCRH are analyzed in detail. A quantitative color calculation method for the holographic image reconstructed by CGCRH is given. Finally, general color samples are selected as numerical calculation test targets and the color differences between holographic images and test targets are calculated based on our proposed method. (paper)

  17. Complications after the placement of domestic ZQL filter and imported inferior vena caval filter: a mid-and long-term comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Kun; Zhao Yi; Xu Ke; Feng Bo; Liang Songnian

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of domestic ZQL-type inferior vena caval filter through comparing its complications with that of imported inferior vena caval filter. Methods: Domestic ZQL-type inferior vena caval filter was placed in 62 patients (study group) and imported inferior vena caval filter in 58 patients (control group) for the treatment of deep venous thrombosis of the lower limb. Abdominal plain film, lower limb phlebography and/or pulmonary arteriography, color Doppler ultrasonography were performed after the procedure. 3D-CT scanning was carried out when pulmonary embolism was suspected. The complications were documented and analyzed. Results In all patients the inferior vena caval filter was successfully implanted in planned site. In study group, the complications included filter migration over 10 cm (n = 1), thrombus in the filter (n = 1), inferior vena cava obstruction (n = 2) and pulmonary embolism (n = 1). In control group, the complications included thrombus in the filter (n = 2), deep venous thrombus of the lower extremities (n = 2), inferior vena cava obstruction (n = 9), venous perforation by filter (n = 1) and pulmonary embolism (n = 1). The data were compared between two groups and statistic analysis showed no significant difference between two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: No significant difference in the occurrence of complications exists between domestic ZQL-type inferior vena caval filter and imported inferior vena caval filter, therefore, domestic ZQL-type inferior vena caval filter can safely substitute for the imported filter. (authors)

  18. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey; Hoel, Haakon; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  19. Neutron Beam Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of filters is to transmit neutrons with selected energy, while remove unwanted ones from the incident neutron beam. This reduces the background, and the number of spurious. The types of commonly used now-a-day neutron filters and their properties are discussed in the present work. There are three major types of neutron filters. The first type is filter of selective thermal neutron. It transmits the main reflected neutrons from a crystal monochromate, while reject the higher order contaminations accompanying the main one. Beams coming from the moderator always contain unwanted radiation like fast neutrons and gamma-rays which contribute to experimental background and to the biological hazard potential. Such filter type is called filter of whole thermal neutron spectrum. The third filter type is it transmits neutrons with energies in the resonance energy range (En . 1 KeV). The main idea of such neutron filter technique is the use of large quantities of a certain material which have the deep interference minima in its total neutron cross-section. By transmitting reactor neutrons through bulk layer of such material, one can obtain the quasimonochromatic neutron lines instead of white reactor spectrum.

  20. Side loading filter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    A side loading filter chamber for use with radioactive gases is described. The equipment incorporates an inexpensive, manually operated, mechanism for aligning filter units with a number of laterally spaced wall openings and for removing the units from the chamber. (U.K.)

  1. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey

    2016-01-06

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  2. One-Step Preparation of Blue-Emitting (La,Ca)Si3(O,N)5:Ce3+ Phosphors for High-Color Rendering White Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Atsuro; Suehiro, Takayuki; Sato, Tsugio; Hirosaki, Naoto

    2011-02-01

    Highly phase-pure (La,Ca)Si3(O,N)5:Ce3+ blue-emitting phosphors were successfully synthesized via the one-step solid-state reaction from the system La2O3-CaO-CeO2-Si3N4. The synthesized (La,Ca)Si3(O,N)5:Ce3+ exhibits tunable blue broadband emission with the dominant wavelength of 466-479 nm and the external quantum efficiency up to ˜45% under 380 nm near-UV (NUV) excitation. Spectral simulations of the trichromatic white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using (La,Ca)Si3(O,N)5:Ce3+ demonstrated markedly higher color rendering index Ra values of 93-95, compared to 76-90 attained by the systems using a conventional BAM:Eu2+ phosphor or InGaN blue LED. The present achievement indicates the promising applicability of (La,Ca)Si3(O,N)5:Ce3+ as a blue luminescent source for NUV-converting high-color rendering white LEDs.

  3. Filtering and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Fristedt, B; Krylov, N

    2007-01-01

    Filtering and prediction is about observing moving objects when the observations are corrupted by random errors. The main focus is then on filtering out the errors and extracting from the observations the most precise information about the object, which itself may or may not be moving in a somewhat random fashion. Next comes the prediction step where, using information about the past behavior of the object, one tries to predict its future path. The first three chapters of the book deal with discrete probability spaces, random variables, conditioning, Markov chains, and filtering of discrete Markov chains. The next three chapters deal with the more sophisticated notions of conditioning in nondiscrete situations, filtering of continuous-space Markov chains, and of Wiener process. Filtering and prediction of stationary sequences is discussed in the last two chapters. The authors believe that they have succeeded in presenting necessary ideas in an elementary manner without sacrificing the rigor too much. Such rig...

  4. Filter cake breaker systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo H.F. [Poland Quimica Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Drilling fluids filter cakes are based on a combination of properly graded dispersed particles and polysaccharide polymers. High efficiency filter cakes are formed by these combination , and their formation on wellbore walls during the drilling process has, among other roles, the task of protecting the formation from instantaneous or accumulative invasion of drilling fluid filtrate, granting stability to well and production zones. Filter cake minimizes contact between drilling fluid filtrate and water, hydrocarbons and clay existent in formations. The uniform removal of the filter cake from the entire interval is a critical factor of the completion process. The main methods used to breaking filter cake are classified into two groups, external or internal, according to their removal mechanism. The aim of this work is the presentation of these mechanisms as well their efficiency. (author)

  5. Sub-micron filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Frederick [Sanford, FL; Kaledin, Leonid [Port Orange, FL

    2009-10-13

    Aluminum hydroxide fibers approximately 2 nanometers in diameter and with surface areas ranging from 200 to 650 m.sup.2/g have been found to be highly electropositive. When dispersed in water they are able to attach to and retain electronegative particles. When combined into a composite filter with other fibers or particles they can filter bacteria and nano size particulates such as viruses and colloidal particles at high flux through the filter. Such filters can be used for purification and sterilization of water, biological, medical and pharmaceutical fluids, and as a collector/concentrator for detection and assay of microbes and viruses. The alumina fibers are also capable of filtering sub-micron inorganic and metallic particles to produce ultra pure water. The fibers are suitable as a substrate for growth of cells. Macromolecules such as proteins may be separated from each other based on their electronegative charges.

  6. Monolithic Integrated Ceramic Waveguide Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, IC; Sandhu, MY

    2014-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled TEM filters with the same unloaded Q-Factor. Designs for both chebyshev and asymmetric generalized chebyshev filter are presented, with experimental results for an 1800 MHz chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  7. Stool Color: When to Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool color: When to worry Yesterday, my stool color was bright green. Should I be concerned? Answers from Michael ... M.D. Stool comes in a range of colors. All shades of brown and even green are ...

  8. Realizable Triples in Dominator Colorings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fletcher, Douglas M

    2007-01-01

    Given a graph G and its vertex set V(G), the chromatic number, Chi(G), represents the minimum number of colors required to color the vertices of G so that no two adjacent vertices have the same color...

  9. Adaptive Residual Interpolation for Color and Multispectral Image Demosaicking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monno, Yusuke; Kiku, Daisuke; Tanaka, Masayuki; Okutomi, Masatoshi

    2017-12-01

    Color image demosaicking for the Bayer color filter array is an essential image processing operation for acquiring high-quality color images. Recently, residual interpolation (RI)-based algorithms have demonstrated superior demosaicking performance over conventional color difference interpolation-based algorithms. In this paper, we propose adaptive residual interpolation (ARI) that improves existing RI-based algorithms by adaptively combining two RI-based algorithms and selecting a suitable iteration number at each pixel. These are performed based on a unified criterion that evaluates the validity of an RI-based algorithm. Experimental comparisons using standard color image datasets demonstrate that ARI can improve existing RI-based algorithms by more than 0.6 dB in the color peak signal-to-noise ratio and can outperform state-of-the-art algorithms based on training images. We further extend ARI for a multispectral filter array, in which more than three spectral bands are arrayed, and demonstrate that ARI can achieve state-of-the-art performance also for the task of multispectral image demosaicking.

  10. Biological origins of color categorization

    OpenAIRE

    Skelton, Alice E.; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T.; Bosten, Jenny M.; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants’ categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mappe...

  11. Stork Color Proofing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, C. Frederick

    1989-04-01

    For the past few years, Stork Colorproofing B.V. has been marketing an analog color proofing system in Europe based on electrophoto-graphic technology it pioneered for the purpose of high resolution, high fidelity color imaging in the field of the Graphic Arts. Based in part on this technology, it will make available on a commercial basis a digital color proofing system in 1989. Proofs from both machines will provide an exact reference for the user and will look, feel, and behave in a reproduction sense like the printed press sheet.

  12. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.

  13. The color of money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Einarsdóttir, Kristin Vala

    2014-01-01

    of attention are affected by reward, and whether the effect involves general enhancement or is specific to discrete components of attention. Observers viewed brief displays of differentially colored letters and reported their identity. Each color signified a consistent monetary value and we measured......, by including conditions with color-contingent negative values. This gave an opportunity to compare high-gain with high-loss conditions. We found clear effects of value on selectivity when comparing high- and low-value conditions. When comparing equally valuable high-loss and high-gain conditions there were...

  14. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  15. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  16. EMI filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Ozenbaugh, Richard Lee

    2011-01-01

    With today's electrical and electronics systems requiring increased levels of performance and reliability, the design of robust EMI filters plays a critical role in EMC compliance. Using a mix of practical methods and theoretical analysis, EMI Filter Design, Third Edition presents both a hands-on and academic approach to the design of EMI filters and the selection of components values. The design approaches covered include matrix methods using table data and the use of Fourier analysis, Laplace transforms, and transfer function realization of LC structures. This edition has been fully revised

  17. Randomized Filtering Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katriel, Irit; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    of AllDifferent and is generalization, the Global Cardinality Constraint. The first delayed filtering scheme is a Monte Carlo algorithm: its running time is superior, in the worst case, to that of enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while its filtering effectiveness is analyzed...... in the expected sense. The second scheme is a Las Vegas algorithm using filtering triggers: Its effectiveness is the same as enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while in the expected case it is faster by a factor of m/n, where n and m are, respectively, the number of nodes and edges...

  18. Diameter-dependent coloration of silver nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Mindy S; Qiu Chao; Jiang Chaoyang; Kattumenu, Ramesh; Singamaneni, Srikanth

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanowires were synthesized with a green method and characterized with microscopic and diffractometric methods. The correlation between the colors of the nanowires deposited on a solid substrate and their diameters was explored. Silver nanowires that appear similar in color in the optical micrographs have very similar diameters as determined by atomic force microscopy. We have summarized the diameter-dependent coloration for these silver nanowires. An optical interference model was applied to explain such correlation. In addition, microreflectance spectra were obtained from individual nanowires and the observed spectra can be explained with the optical interference theory. This work provides a cheap, quick and simple screening method for studying the diameter distribution of silver nanowires, as well as the diameter variations of individual silver nanowires, without complicated sample preparation.

  19. Food Coloring and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1994-01-01

    The association between the ingestion of tartrazine synthetic food coloring and behavioral change in children referred for assessment of hyperactivity was investigated at the Royal Children’s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia.

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy ... to its original shape after wearing orthokeratology lenses? Sep 13, 2017 Histoplasmosis Diagnosis Sep 01, 2017 How ...

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... a laser pointer several times, according to a report published this month in the New England Journal ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health ... Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive ... after your vision… The Mystery of the Ghostly White Ring MAR 30, 2018 By Dan T. Gudgel ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a souvenir shop, but 10 hours after she first put in a pair of colored contact lenses, ... APR 24, 2018 By Kate Rauch In a first, scientists in China have created artificial photoreceptors to ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, ... not just at Halloween. But few know the risks associated with these lenses . "Most people believe that ...

  7. Color transparency study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.; Pordes, S.; Botts, J.; Bunce, G.; Farrar, G.

    1990-01-01

    The group studied the relatively new notion of color transparency, discussed present experimental evidence for the effect, and explored several ideas for future experiments. This write-up summarizes these discussions. 11 refs., 1 fig

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours after ... are being sold illegally," Dr. Steinemann said. Never buy colored contact lenses from a retailer that does ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... the lenses. Never share contact lenses with another person. Get follow up exams with your eye care ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but ... require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can be ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ... wear costume contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... valid prescription that includes the brand name, lens measurements, and expiration date. Purchase the colored contact lenses ... with human-made versions. U.S. News Highlights the Value of Ophthalmologists APR 20, 2018 By Dan T. ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by ... 23, 2018 Solar Eclipse Inflicts Damage in the Shape of ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From blood-drenched vampire eyes to glow-in-the-dark ... properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to the journals may be interrupted during this time. We are working to resolve the issue quickly ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  1. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.

  2. Physics of structural colors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, S; Yoshioka, S; Miyazaki, J

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, structural colors have attracted great attention in a wide variety of research fields. This is because they are originated from complex interaction between light and sophisticated nanostructures generated in the natural world. In addition, their inherent regular structures are one of the most conspicuous examples of non-equilibrium order formation. Structural colors are deeply connected with recent rapidly growing fields of photonics and have been extensively studied to clarify their peculiar optical phenomena. Their mechanisms are, in principle, of a purely physical origin, which differs considerably from the ordinary coloration mechanisms such as in pigments, dyes and metals, where the colors are produced by virtue of the energy consumption of light. It is generally recognized that structural colors are mainly based on several elementary optical processes including thin-layer interference, diffraction grating, light scattering, photonic crystals and so on. However, in nature, these processes are somehow mixed together to produce complex optical phenomena. In many cases, they are combined with the irregularity of the structure to produce the diffusive nature of the reflected light, while in some cases they are accompanied by large-scale structures to generate the macroscopic effect on the coloration. Further, it is well known that structural colors cooperate with pigmentary colors to enhance or to reduce the brilliancy and to produce special effects. Thus, structure-based optical phenomena in nature appear to be quite multi-functional, the variety of which is far beyond our understanding. In this article, we overview these phenomena appearing particularly in the diversity of the animal world, to shed light on this rapidly developing research field

  3. Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1987-04-01

    A color laser microscope utilizing a new color laser imaging system has been developed for the visual inspection of semiconductors. The light source, produced by three lasers (Red; He-Ne, Green; Ar, Blue; He-Cd), is deflected horizontally by an AOD (Acoustic Optical Deflector) and vertically by a vibration mirror. The laser beam is focused in a small spot which is scanned over the sample at high speed. The light reflected back from the sample is reformed to contain linear information by returning to the original vibration mirror. The linear light is guided to the CCD image sensor where it is converted into a video signal. Individual CCD image sensors are used for each of the three R, G, or B color image signals. The confocal optical system with its laser light source yields a color TV monitor image with no flaring and a much sharper resolution than that of the conventional optical microscope. The AOD makes possible a high speed laser scan and a NTSC or PAL TV video signal is produced in real time without any video memory. Since the light source is composed of R, G, and B laser beams, color separation superior to that of white light illumination is achieved. Because of the photometric linearity of the image detector, the R, G, and B outputs of the system are most suitably used for hue analysis. The CCD linear image sensors in the optical system produce no geometrical distortion, and good color registration is available principally. The output signal can be used for high accuracy line width measuring. The many features of the color laser microscope make it ideally suited for the visual inspection of semiconductor processing. A number of these systems have already been installed in such a capacity. The Color Laser Microscope can also be a very useful tool for the fields of material engineering and biotechnology.

  4. Color in interior spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Demirörs, Müge Bozbeyli

    1992-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1992. Thesis (Master's) -- -Bilkent University, 1992. Includes bibliographical references leaves 95-99. Color can be approached from different perspectives and disciplines such as, biology, theory, technology, and psychology. This thesis discusses color, from the stand point of interior spaces, which to some extent involves most of these discipli...

  5. PROTECTIVE COLORATION IN ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Leena Lakhani

    2017-01-01

    Animals have range of defensive markings which helps to the risk of predator detection (camouflage), warn predators of the prey’s unpalatability (aposematism) or fool a predator into mimicry, masquerade. Animals also use colors in advertising, signalling services such as cleaning to animals of other species, to signal sexual status to other members of the same species. Some animals use color to divert attacks by startle (dalmatic behaviour), surprising a predator e.g. with eyespots or other f...

  6. Time-Sequential Working Wavelength-Selective Filter for Flat Autostereoscopic Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René de la Barré

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A time-sequential working, spatially-multiplexed autostereoscopic 3D display design consisting of a fast switchable RGB-color filter array and a fast color display is presented. The newly-introduced 3D display design is usable as a multi-user display, as well as a single-user system. The wavelength-selective filter barrier emits the light from a larger aperture than common autostereoscopic barrier displays with similar barrier pitch and ascent. Measurements on a demonstrator with commercial display components, simulations and computational evaluations have been carried out to describe the proposed wavelength-selective display design in static states and to show the weak spots of display filters in commercial displays. An optical modelling of wavelength-selective barriers has been used for instance to calculate the light ray distribution properties of that arrangement. In the time-sequential implementation, it is important to avoid that quick eye or eyelid movement leads to visible color artifacts. Therefore, color filter cells, switching faster than conventional LC display cells, must distribute directed light from different primaries at the same time, to create a 3D presentation. For that, electric tunable liquid crystal Fabry–Pérot color filters are presented. They switch on-off the colors red, green and blue in the millisecond regime. Their active areas consist of a sub-micrometer-thick nematic layer sandwiched between dielectric mirrors and indium tin oxide (ITO-electrodes. These cells shall switch narrowband light of red, green or blue. A barrier filter array for a high resolution, glasses-free 3D display has to be equipped with several thousand switchable filter elements having different color apertures.

  7. Engineering considerations in the use of artificial filter beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    Artificial filter bed intakes utilize a prepared granular filter material to prevent entrance of debris and aquatic life into a water withdrawal facility. The relatively large quantities of water and the service reliability required for power plant cooling water systems present major engineering problems for the artificial filter concept, many of which have not been resolved. These problems include development of a suitable and stable filter medium; design of a reliable backwash system which is both effective and environmentally acceptable; meeting of all site-imposed restrictions relating to natural river turbidity, flooding characteristics, channel stability, and ice loads; and provision of the complex civil and mechanical engineering design inherent in such a system. Extensive model testing may be required for further engineering development of this system. The preliminary engineering for an artificial filter system is discussed in connection with a proposed 1.6-m 3 /s-capacity (25,000-gpm capacity) filter in the Columbia River

  8. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and 'real' colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anstis, S.; Vergeer, M.L.T.; Lier, R.J. van

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The

  9. Color-Blindness Study: Color Discrimination on the TICCIT System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asay, Calvin S.; Schneider, Edward W.

    The question studied whether the specific seven TICCIT system colors used within color coding schemes can be a source of confusion, or not seen at all, by the color-blind segment of target populations. Subjects were 11 color-blind and three normally sighted students at Brigham Young University. After a preliminary training exercise to acquaint the…

  10. Color planner for designers based on color emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ka-Man; Xin, John H.; Taylor, Gail

    2002-06-01

    During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of human beings. In this study, a color planner was derived according to these findings so that the correlation of color emotions and standard color specifications was clearly indicated. Since people of different nationalities usually have different color emotions as different cultural and traditional backgrounds, the subjects in this study were all native Hong Kong Chinese and the color emotion words were all written in Chinese language in the visual assessments. Through the color planner, the designers from different areas, no matter fashion, graphic, interior or web site etc., can select suitable colors for inducing target color emotions to the customers or product-users since different colors convey different meanings to them. In addition, the designers can enhance the functionality and increase the attractiveness of their designed products by selecting suitable colors.

  11. The Trojan Color Conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, David

    2018-02-01

    The Trojan asteroids of Jupiter and Neptune are likely to have been captured from original heliocentric orbits in the dynamically excited (“hot”) population of the Kuiper Belt. However, it has long been known that the optical color distributions of the Jovian Trojans and the hot population are not alike. This difference has been reconciled with the capture hypothesis by assuming that the Trojans were resurfaced (for example, by sublimation of near-surface volatiles) upon inward migration from the Kuiper Belt (where blackbody temperatures are ∼40 K) to Jupiter’s orbit (∼125 K). Here, we examine the optical color distribution of the Neptunian Trojans using a combination of new optical photometry and published data. We find a color distribution that is statistically indistinguishable from that of the Jovian Trojans but unlike any sub-population in the Kuiper Belt. This result is puzzling, because the Neptunian Trojans are very cold (blackbody temperature ∼50 K) and a thermal process acting to modify the surface colors at Neptune’s distance would also affect the Kuiper Belt objects beyond, where the temperatures are nearly identical. The distinctive color distributions of the Jovian and Neptunian Trojans thus present us with a conundrum: they are very similar to each other, suggesting either capture from a common source or surface modification by a common process. However, the color distributions differ from any plausible common source population, and there is no known modifying process that could operate equally at both Jupiter and Neptune.

  12. Across frequency processes involved in auditory detection of coloration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg; Kerketsos, P

    2008-01-01

    filterbank was designed to approximate auditory filter-shapes measured by Oxenham and Shera [JARO, 2003, 541-554], derived from forward masking data. The results of the present study demonstrate that a “purely” spectrum-based model approach can successfully describe auditory coloration detection even at high......When an early wall reflection is added to a direct sound, a spectral modulation is introduced to the signal's power spectrum. This spectral modulation typically produces an auditory sensation of coloration or pitch. Throughout this study, auditory spectral-integration effects involved in coloration...... detection are investigated. Coloration detection thresholds were therefore measured as a function of reflection delay and stimulus bandwidth. In order to investigate the involved auditory mechanisms, an auditory model was employed that was conceptually similar to the peripheral weighting model [Yost, JASA...

  13. 24-COLOR ASTEROID SURVEY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is comprised of asteroid flux data measured in 26 filters using the McCord dual beam photometer, and covering the range 0.32 - 1.08 microns for 285...

  14. Metalcasting: Filtering Molten Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauren Poole; Lee Recca

    1999-01-01

    A more efficient method has been created to filter cast molten metal for impurities. Read about the resulting energy and money savings that can accrue to many different industries from the use of this exciting new technology

  15. Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2015-01-01

    The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).

  16. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  17. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tugwell, Peter; Boers, Maarten; D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter requires that criteria be met to demonstrate that the outcome instrument meets...... the criteria for content, face, and construct validity. METHODS: Discussion groups critically reviewed a variety of ways in which case studies of current OMERACT Working Groups complied with the Truth component of the Filter and what issues remained to be resolved. RESULTS: The case studies showed...... that there is broad agreement on criteria for meeting the Truth criteria through demonstration of content, face, and construct validity; however, several issues were identified that the Filter Working Group will need to address. CONCLUSION: These issues will require resolution to reach consensus on how Truth...

  18. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirwan, John R; Boers, Maarten; Hewlett, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter presupposes an explicit framework for identifying the relevant core outcomes...... for defining core areas of measurement ("Filter 2.0 Core Areas of Measurement") was presented at OMERACT 11 to explore areas of consensus and to consider whether already endorsed core outcome sets fit into this newly proposed framework. METHODS: Discussion groups critically reviewed the extent to which case......, presentation, and clarity of the framework were questioned. The discussion groups and subsequent feedback highlighted 20 such issues. CONCLUSION: These issues will require resolution to reach consensus on accepting the proposed Filter 2.0 framework of Core Areas as the basis for the selection of Core Outcome...

  19. Paul Rodgersi filter Kohilas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    28. I Kohila keskkoolis kohaspetsiifiline skulptuur ja performance "Filter". Kooli 130. aastapäeva tähistava ettevõtmise eesotsas oli skulptor Paul Rodgers ja kaks viimase klassi noormeest ئ Marko Heinmäe, Hendrik Karm.

  20. Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2015-01-07

    The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).

  1. Spatial filter issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.E.; Estabrook, K.G.; Milam, D.; Sell, W.D.; Van Wonterghem, R.M.; Feil, M.D.; Rubenchick, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments and calculations indicate that the threshold pressure in spatial filters for distortion of a transmitted pulse scales approximately as I O.2 and (F number-sign) 2 over the intensity range from 10 14 to 2xlO 15 W/CM 2 . We also demonstrated an interferometric diagnostic that will be used to measure the scaling relationships governing pinhole closure in spatial filters

  2. Microwave Resonators and Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-22

    1 Microwave Resonators and Filters Daniel E. Oates MIT Lincoln Laboratory 244 Wood St. Lexington, MA 02478 USA Email: oates@ll.mit.edu...explained in other chapters, the surface resistance of superconductors at microwave frequencies can be as much as three orders of magnitude lower than the...resonators and filters in the first edition of this handbook (Z.-Y. Shen 2003) discussed the then state of the art of microwave frequency applications

  3. Staging with spatial filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, J.

    1974-01-01

    It is known that small scale beam instabilities limit the focusable energy that can be achieved from a terawatt laser chain. Spatial filters are currently being used on CYCLOPS to ameliorate this problem. Realizing the full advantage of such a filter, however, may require certain staging modifications. A staging methodology is discussed that should be applicable to the CYCLOPS, 381, and SHIVA systems. Experiments are in progress on CYCLOPS that will address directly the utility of the proposed approach

  4. Color sensitive silicon photomultiplers with micro-cell level encoding for DOI PET detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazoe, Kenji; Koyama, Akihiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Ganka, Thomas; Iskra, Peter; Marquez Seco, Alicia; Schneider, Florian; Wiest, Florian

    2017-11-01

    There have been many studies on Depth Of Interaction (DOI) identification for high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems, including those on phoswich detectors, double-sided readout, light sharing methods, and wavelength discrimination. The wavelength discrimination method utilizes the difference in wavelength of stacked scintillators and requires a color sensitive photodetector. Here, a new silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) coupled to a color filter (colorSiPM) was designed and fabricated for DOI detection. The fabricated colorSiPM has two anode readouts that are sensitive to blue and green color. The colorSiPM's response and DOI identification capability for stacked GAGG and LYSO crystals are characterized. The fabricated colorSiPM is sensitive enough to detect a peak of 662 keV from a 137 Cs source.

  5. Inorganic UV filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Berbel Manaia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.

  6. Filter Halaman Web Pornografi Menggunakan Kecocokan Kata dan Deteksi Warna Kulit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusron Rijal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an effort to detect pornographic webpages. It was stated that a positive relationship exists between percentage of human skin color in an image and the image itself (Jones et.al., 1998. Based on the statement, rather than using the traditional method of text-filtering, this paper propose a new approach to detect pornographic images by using skin color detection. The skin color detection performed by using RGB, HSI, and YCbCr color model. Using algorithm stated by Ap-apid (Ap-apid, 2005, the system will classify nude and not-nude images. If one or more nude images are found, the system will block the webpage. Keywords: Webpage Filtering, Image Processing, Pornography, Nudity, Skin Color, Nude Images

  7. A relativistic colored spinning particle in an external color field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.

    1984-01-01

    I derive fully covariant equations of motion for a classical colored spinning particle in an external SU(3) color field. Although the total color charge and total spin of the particle are found to be separately constants of motion (here I disagree with a recent paper by Arodz), the dynamics of the orientation of the color and spin vectors are coupled to each other through interaction with the color field, even if the latter is homogeneous. (orig.)

  8. Thermal conductivity of different colored compomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Cigdem; Keles, Ali; Guler, Mehmet S; Karagoz, Sendogan; Cora, Ömer N; Keskin, Gul

    2017-11-10

    Compomers are mostly used in primary dentition. The thermal conductivity properties of traditional or colored compomers have not been investigated in detail so far. The aim of this in vitro study was to assess and compare the thermal conductivities of traditional and colored compomers. Two sets of compomers - namely, Twinky Star (available in berry, lemon, green, silver, blue, pink, gold and orange shades) and Dyract Extra (available in B1, A3 and A2 shades) - were included in this study. All of the traditional and colored compomers were applied to standard molds and polymerized according to the manufacturers' instructions. Three samples were prepared from each compomer. Measurements were conducted using a heat conduction test setup, and the coefficient of heat conductivity was calculated for each material. The heat conductivity coefficients were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Duncan tests. Uncertainty analysis was also performed on the calculated coefficients of heat conductivity. Statistically significant differences were found (p<0.05) between the thermal conductivity properties of the traditional and colored compomers examined. Among all of the tested compomers, the silver shade compomer exhibited the highest coefficient of heat conductivity (p<0.05), while the berry shade exhibited the lowest coefficient (p<0.05). Uncertainty analyses revealed that 6 out of 11 samples showed significant differences. The silver shade compomer should be avoided in deep cavities. The material properties could be improved for colored compomers.

  9. Color Vision in Aniridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Hilde R; Hagen, Lene A; Landsend, Erlend C S; Gilson, Stuart J; Utheim, Øygunn A; Utheim, Tor P; Neitz, Maureen; Baraas, Rigmor C

    2018-04-01

    To assess color vision and its association with retinal structure in persons with congenital aniridia. We included 36 persons with congenital aniridia (10-66 years), and 52 healthy, normal trichromatic controls (10-74 years) in the study. Color vision was assessed with Hardy-Rand-Rittler (HRR) pseudo-isochromatic plates (4th ed., 2002); Cambridge Color Test and a low-vision version of the Color Assessment and Diagnosis test (CAD-LV). Cone-opsin genes were analyzed to confirm normal versus congenital color vision deficiencies. Visual acuity and ocular media opacities were assessed. The central 30° of both eyes were imaged with the Heidelberg Spectralis OCT2 to grade the severity of foveal hypoplasia (FH, normal to complete: 0-4). Five participants with aniridia had cone opsin genes conferring deutan color vision deficiency and were excluded from further analysis. Of the 31 with aniridia and normal opsin genes, 11 made two or more red-green (RG) errors on HRR, four of whom also made yellow-blue (YB) errors; one made YB errors only. A total of 19 participants had higher CAD-LV RG thresholds, of which eight also had higher CAD-LV YB thresholds, than normal controls. In aniridia, the thresholds were higher along the RG than the YB axis, and those with a complete FH had significantly higher RG thresholds than those with mild FH (P = 0.038). Additional increase in YB threshold was associated with secondary ocular pathology. Arrested foveal formation and associated alterations in retinal processing are likely to be the primary reason for impaired red-green color vision in aniridia.

  10. Quantification of trace metals in water using complexation and filter concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgin, Bella; Bulatov, Valery; Japarov, Julia; Elish, Eyal; Edri, Elad; Schechter, Israel

    2010-06-15

    Various metals undergo complexation with organic reagents, resulting in colored products. In practice, their molar absorptivities allow for quantification in the ppm range. However, a proper pre-concentration of the colored complex on paper filter lowers the quantification limit to the low ppb range. In this study, several pre-concentration techniques have been examined and compared: filtering the already complexed mixture, complexation on filter, and dipping of dye-covered filter in solution. The best quantification has been based on the ratio of filter reflectance at a certain wavelength to that at zero metal concentration. The studied complex formations (Ni ions with TAN and Cd ions with PAN) involve production of nanoparticle suspensions, which are associated with complicated kinetics. The kinetics of the complexation of Ni ions with TAN has been investigated and optimum timing could be found. Kinetic optimization in regard to some interferences has also been suggested.

  11. Spitzer - Hot & Colorful Student Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, D.; Rebull, L. M.; DeWolf, C.; Guastella, P.; Johnson, C. H.; Schaefers, J.; Spuck, T.; McDonald, J. G., III; DeWolf, T.; Brock, S.; Boerma, J.; Bemis, G.; Paulsen, K.; Yueh, N.; Peter, A.; Wassmer, W.; Haber, R.; Scaramucci, A.; Butchart, J.; Holcomb, A.; Karns, B.; Kennedy, S.; Siegel, R.; Weiser, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this poster, we present the results of several activities developed for the general science student to explore infrared light. The first activity involved measuring infrared radiation using an updated version of Newton's experiment of splitting white light and finding IR radiation. The second used Leslie's cube to allow students to observe different radiators, while the third used a modern infrared thermometer to measure and identify IR sources in an enclosed box. The last activity involved students making false-color images from narrow-band filter images from data sets from Spitzer Space Telescope, STScI Digitized Sky Survey and other sources. Using computer programs like Adobe Photoshop and free software such as ds9, Spot and Leopard, poster-like images were created by the students. This research is funded by the Spitzer Science Center (SSC) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). Please see our companion poster, Johnson et al., on the science aspect of this program, and another poster on the educational aspects, Guastella et al.

  12. Color enhancement of landsat agricultural imagery: JPL LACIE image processing support task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, D. P.; Soha, J. M.; Green, W. B.; Wherry, D. B.; Lewis, S. D.

    1978-01-01

    Color enhancement techniques were applied to LACIE LANDSAT segments to determine if such enhancement can assist analysis in crop identification. The procedure involved increasing the color range by removing correlation between components. First, a principal component transformation was performed, followed by contrast enhancement to equalize component variances, followed by an inverse transformation to restore familiar color relationships. Filtering was applied to lower order components to reduce color speckle in the enhanced products. Use of single acquisition and multiple acquisition statistics to control the enhancement were compared, and the effects of normalization investigated. Evaluation is left to LACIE personnel.

  13. Affective color palettes in visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Patra, Abhisekh

    2017-01-01

    The communication of affect, a feeling or emotion, has a central role in creating engaging visual experiences. Prior work on the psychology of color has focused on its effect on emotions, color preferences and reactions to color. Studies have attempted to solve problems related to improving aesthetics and emotions of images by improving color themes and templates. However, we have little understanding of how designers manipulate color properties for effective visual communication in informati...

  14. Clustering document fragments using background color and texture information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Sukalpa; Franke, Katrin; Pal, Umapada

    2012-01-01

    Forensic analysis of questioned documents sometimes can be extensively data intensive. A forensic expert might need to analyze a heap of document fragments and in such cases to ensure reliability he/she should focus only on relevant evidences hidden in those document fragments. Relevant document retrieval needs finding of similar document fragments. One notion of obtaining such similar documents could be by using document fragment's physical characteristics like color, texture, etc. In this article we propose an automatic scheme to retrieve similar document fragments based on visual appearance of document paper and texture. Multispectral color characteristics using biologically inspired color differentiation techniques are implemented here. This is done by projecting document color characteristics to Lab color space. Gabor filter-based texture analysis is used to identify document texture. It is desired that document fragments from same source will have similar color and texture. For clustering similar document fragments of our test dataset we use a Self Organizing Map (SOM) of dimension 5×5, where the document color and texture information are used as features. We obtained an encouraging accuracy of 97.17% from 1063 test images.

  15. Example-Based Image Colorization Using Locality Consistent Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo Li; Fuchen Zhao; Zhuo Su; Xiangguo Liang; Yu-Kun Lai; Rosin, Paul L

    2017-11-01

    Image colorization aims to produce a natural looking color image from a given gray-scale image, which remains a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a novel example-based image colorization method exploiting a new locality consistent sparse representation. Given a single reference color image, our method automatically colorizes the target gray-scale image by sparse pursuit. For efficiency and robustness, our method operates at the superpixel level. We extract low-level intensity features, mid-level texture features, and high-level semantic features for each superpixel, which are then concatenated to form its descriptor. The collection of feature vectors for all the superpixels from the reference image composes the dictionary. We formulate colorization of target superpixels as a dictionary-based sparse reconstruction problem. Inspired by the observation that superpixels with similar spatial location and/or feature representation are likely to match spatially close regions from the reference image, we further introduce a locality promoting regularization term into the energy formulation, which substantially improves the matching consistency and subsequent colorization results. Target superpixels are colorized based on the chrominance information from the dominant reference superpixels. Finally, to further improve coherence while preserving sharpness, we develop a new edge-preserving filter for chrominance channels with the guidance from the target gray-scale image. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work on sparse pursuit image colorization from single reference images. Experimental results demonstrate that our colorization method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, both visually and quantitatively using a user study.

  16. Wideband filter radiometers for blackbody temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, L. P.; Bamber, C.; Gaertner, A. A.; Gerson, R. K.; Woods, D. J.; Woolliams, E. R.

    2010-10-01

    The use of high-temperature blackbody (HTBB) radiators to realize primary spectral irradiance scales requires that the operating temperature of the HTBB be accurately determined. We have developed five filter radiometers (FRs) to measure the temperature of the National Research Council of Canada's HTBB. The FRs are designed to minimize sensitivity to ambient temperature fluctuations. They incorporate air-spaced colored glass filters and a Si photodiode detector that are housed in a cell whose temperature is controlled to ±0.1°C by means of annular thermoelectric elements at the front and rear of the cell. These wideband filter radiometers operate in four different wavelength bands. The spectral responsivity measurements were performed in an underfill geometry for a power-mode calibration that is traceable to NRC's cryogenic radiometer. The spectral temperature sensitivity of each of these FRs has been measured. The apertures for these FRs were cold-formed by swaging machine-cut apertures onto precision dowel pins. A description of the filter radiometer design, fabrication and testing, together with a detailed uncertainty analysis, is presented. We derive the equations that relate the spectral irradiance measured by the FRs to the spectral radiance and temperature of the HTBB, and deal specifically with the change of index of refraction over the path of the radiation from the interior of the HTBB to the FRs. We believe these equations are more accurate than recently published derivations. Our measurements of the operating temperature of our HTBB working at temperatures near 2500 K, 2700 K and 2900 K, together with measurements using a pyrometer, show agreement between the five filter radiometers and with the pyrometer to within the estimated uncertainties.

  17. Avaliação da permeabilidade de filtros de aerossóis para altas temperaturas, preparados a partir da técnica de adição de espuma aquosa em suspensão cerâmica Permeability characterization of hot aerosol filters prepared with foaming of ceramic suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. M. Innocentini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é parte de um projeto de desenvolvimento de filtros cerâmicos para a remoção de material particulado disperso em correntes gasosas em temperaturas elevadas. Os filtros cerâmicos utilizados para esta finalidade devem apresentar elevada porosidade aliada a uma distribuição homogênea de poros interconectados, resultando em estrutura permeável e com boa resistência mecânica e eficiência de coleta. Uma rota de processamento recentemente desenvolvida é utilizada para o processamento das peças, já que permite a obtenção de todas as características requeridas para uma filtração eficiente. Nesta técnica, os materiais porosos são processados a partir da incorporação de espumas aquosas em uma suspensão cerâmica de alumina e consolidados a partir da adição de cimento aluminoso. Comparado com outras rotas de processamento, este processo é mais atrativo, pois permite a fabricação de peças com geometrias complexas, economicamente viáveis e sem utilização de aditivos tóxicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi otimizar a composição cerâmica de modo a atender aos requisitos de permeabilidade do filtro, tendo como base sua operação econômica em temperaturas elevadas em processos como incineração de resíduos, produção de cimento ou queima de biomassa em caldeiras em plantas químicas.This work is part of a project to develop ceramic filters to treat flue gases from cement plants, biomass boilers and waste incinerators. Ceramic filters used for these purposes must present high porosity, homogeneous porous distribution (interconnected to result in bodies with high mechanical strength, permeability and collection efficiency for fine particles. A method recently developed has been used for the filters processing. In this new processing route, the porous samples were prepared through the incorporation of aqueous foams into alumina-based suspensions. Compared to other techniques, this process seems to be an

  18. Otimização da permeabilidade de filtros de aerossóis para altas temperaturas preparados a partir da técnica de adição de espuma aquosa em suspensão cerâmica Permeability optimization of hot aerosol filters prepared from foaming of ceramic suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. M. Innocentini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é parte de um projeto de desenvolvimento de filtros cerâmicos para a remoção de material particulado disperso em correntes gasosas em temperaturas elevadas. Os filtros cerâmicos utilizados para esta finalidade devem apresentar elevada porosidade aliada a uma distribuição homogênea de poros interconectados, resultando em estrutura permeável e com boa resistência mecânica e eficiência de coleta. Uma rota de processamento recentemente desenvolvida é utilizada para o processamento das peças, já que permite a obtenção de todas as características requeridas para uma filtração eficiente. Nesta técnica, os materiais porosos são processados a partir da incorporação de espumas aquosas em uma suspensão cerâmica de alumina e consolidados a partir da adição de cimento aluminoso. Comparado com outras rotas de processamento, este processo é mais atrativo, pois permite a fabricação de peças com geometrias complexas, economicamente viáveis e sem utilização de aditivos tóxicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi otimizar a composição cerâmica de modo a atender aos requisitos de permeabilidade do filtro, tendo como base sua operação econômica em temperaturas elevadas em processos como incineração de resíduos, produção de cimento ou queima de biomassa em caldeiras em plantas químicas.This work is part of a Brazilian project to develop ceramic filters to treat flue gases from cement plants, biomass boilers and waste incinerators. Ceramic filters used for these purposes must present high porosity, homogeneous porous distribution (interconnected to result in bodies with high mechanical strength, permeability and collection efficiency for fine particles. A method recently developed has been used for the filters processing. In this new processing route, the porous samples were prepared through the incorporation of aqueous foams into alumina-based suspensions. Compared to other techniques, this process seems to be

  19. Precision of Synesthetic Color Matching Resembles That for Recollected Colors Rather than Physical Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Derek H.; Wegener, Signy V.; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2012-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but "hearing" the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to…

  20. Color Memory of University Students: Influence of Color Experience and Color Characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Carlisle; Epps, Helen H.; Kaya, Naz

    2006-01-01

    The ability to select a previously viewed color specimen from an array of specimens that differ in hue, value, or chroma varies among individuals, and may be related to one's basic color discrimination ability or to prior experience with color. This study investigated short-term color memory of 40 college students, 20 of whom were interior design…

  1. A REVIEW OF COLOR MEASURMENTS IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAD Raluca

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Color is an important factor in the evaluation of aesthetic appearance and functionality of many products, but especially of textile industry ones. In textiles production process, color can be assessed in different stages: the selection of raw materials, the incoming item tests, the preparation of dyeing ingredients, the crocking resistance testing, the color fastness and in all stages, the quality control. Color evaluation can be done visually or using specialized test instruments such as colorimeters or spectrometers, therefore a high accuracy of measurements must be achieved. Standards describe different procedures and testing techniques depending on the product type and the quality level required by the customer. The paper presents the most common systems of color representation and communication, measurement methods and techniques, and standards that define them. The CIE color representation systems have been reviewed, together with the measurement methods offering the repeatability of the process. Most of the standards have been issued in US, but several European and International are stating the color assessment process. We have also conducted a review of latest published papers in the topic of color measurement, comparison and match. Several image processing applications algorithms offers new opportunities for computer assisted evaluation and control of textile color properties.

  2. Colloidal Photonic Crystals Containing Silver Nanoparticles with Tunable Structural Colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Feng Lai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Polystyrene (PS colloidal photonic crystals (CPhCs containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs present tunable structural colors. PS CPhC color films containing a high concentration of AgNPs were prepared using self-assembly process through gravitational sedimentation method. High-concentration AgNPs were deposited on the bottom of the substrate and acted as black materials to absorb background and scattering light. Brilliant structural colors were enhanced because of the absorption of incoherent scattering light, and color saturation was increased by the distribution AgNPs on the PS CPhC surfaces. The vivid iridescent structural colors of AgNPs/PS hybrid CPhC films were based on Bragg diffraction and backward scattering absorption using AgNPs. The photonic stop band of PS CPhCs and AgNPs/PS hybrid CPhCs were measured by UV–visible reflection spectrometry and calculated based on the Bragg–Snell law. In addition, the tunable structural colors of AgNPs/PS hybrid CPhC films were evaluated using color measurements according to the Commission International d’Eclairage standard colorimetric system. This paper presents a simple and inexpensive method to produce tunable structural colors for numerous applications, such as textile fabrics, bionic colors, catalysis, and paints.

  3. Choosing and using astronomical filters

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2014-01-01

    As a casual read through any of the major amateur astronomical magazines will demonstrate, there are filters available for all aspects of optical astronomy. This book provides a ready resource on the use of the following filters, among others, for observational astronomy or for imaging: Light pollution filters Planetary filters Solar filters Neutral density filters for Moon observation Deep-sky filters, for such objects as galaxies, nebulae and more Deep-sky objects can be imaged in much greater detail than was possible many years ago. Amateur astronomers can take

  4. Anti-clogging filter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Erik P.

    2015-05-19

    An anti-clogging filter system for filtering a fluid containing large particles and small particles includes an enclosure with at least one individual elongated tubular filter element in the enclosure. The individual elongated tubular filter element has an internal passage, a closed end, an open end, and a filtering material in or on the individual elongated tubular filter element. The fluid travels through the open end of the elongated tubular element and through the internal passage and through the filtering material. An anti-clogging element is positioned on or adjacent the individual elongated tubular filter element and provides a fluid curtain that preferentially directs the larger particulates to one area of the filter material allowing the remainder of the filter material to remain more efficient.

  5. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon

    2016-01-08

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  6. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon; Chernov, Alexey; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  7. Color guided amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broedel, Johannes [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Dixon, Lance J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Amplitudes in gauge thoeries obtain contributions from color and kinematics. While these two parts of the amplitude seem to exhibit different symmetry structures, it turns out that they can be reorganized in a way to behave equally, which leads to the so-called color-kinematic dual representations of amplitudes. Astonishingly, the existence of those representations allows squaring to related gravitational theories right away. Contrary to the Kawaii-Levellen-Tye relations, which have been used to relate gauge theories and gravity previously, this method is applicable not only to tree amplitudes but also at loop level. In this talk, the basic technique is introduced followed by a discussion of the existence of color-kinematic dual representations for amplitudes derived from gauge theory actions which are deformed by higher-operator insertions. In addition, it is commented on the implications for deformed gravitational theories.

  8. Crystalline color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark; Bowers, Jeffrey A.; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2001-01-01

    In any context in which color superconductivity arises in nature, it is likely to involve pairing between species of quarks with differing chemical potentials. For suitable values of the differences between chemical potentials, Cooper pairs with nonzero total momentum are favored, as was first realized by Larkin, Ovchinnikov, Fulde, and Ferrell (LOFF). Condensates of this sort spontaneously break translational and rotational invariance, leading to gaps which vary periodically in a crystalline pattern. Unlike the original LOFF state, these crystalline quark matter condensates include both spin-zero and spin-one Cooper pairs. We explore the range of parameters for which crystalline color superconductivity arises in the QCD phase diagram. If in some shell within the quark matter core of a neutron star (or within a strange quark star) the quark number densities are such that crystalline color superconductivity arises, rotational vortices may be pinned in this shell, making it a locus for glitch phenomena

  9. Filtering Non-Linear Transfer Functions on Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, Eric; Nowrouzezahrai, Derek; Poulin, Pierre; Neyret, Fabrice

    2014-07-01

    Applying non-linear transfer functions and look-up tables to procedural functions (such as noise), surface attributes, or even surface geometry are common strategies used to enhance visual detail. Their simplicity and ability to mimic a wide range of realistic appearances have led to their adoption in many rendering problems. As with any textured or geometric detail, proper filtering is needed to reduce aliasing when viewed across a range of distances, but accurate and efficient transfer function filtering remains an open problem for several reasons: transfer functions are complex and non-linear, especially when mapped through procedural noise and/or geometry-dependent functions, and the effects of perspective and masking further complicate the filtering over a pixel's footprint. We accurately solve this problem by computing and sampling from specialized filtering distributions on the fly, yielding very fast performance. We investigate the case where the transfer function to filter is a color map applied to (macroscale) surface textures (like noise), as well as color maps applied according to (microscale) geometric details. We introduce a novel representation of a (potentially modulated) color map's distribution over pixel footprints using Gaussian statistics and, in the more complex case of high-resolution color mapped microsurface details, our filtering is view- and light-dependent, and capable of correctly handling masking and occlusion effects. Our approach can be generalized to filter other physical-based rendering quantities. We propose an application to shading with irradiance environment maps over large terrains. Our framework is also compatible with the case of transfer functions used to warp surface geometry, as long as the transformations can be represented with Gaussian statistics, leading to proper view- and light-dependent filtering results. Our results match ground truth and our solution is well suited to real-time applications, requires only a few

  10. Color normalization of histology slides using graph regularized sparse NMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Lingdao; Schonfeld, Dan; Sethi, Amit

    2017-03-01

    Computer based automatic medical image processing and quantification are becoming popular in digital pathology. However, preparation of histology slides can vary widely due to differences in staining equipment, procedures and reagents, which can reduce the accuracy of algorithms that analyze their color and texture information. To re- duce the unwanted color variations, various supervised and unsupervised color normalization methods have been proposed. Compared with supervised color normalization methods, unsupervised color normalization methods have advantages of time and cost efficient and universal applicability. Most of the unsupervised color normaliza- tion methods for histology are based on stain separation. Based on the fact that stain concentration cannot be negative and different parts of the tissue absorb different stains, nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), and particular its sparse version (SNMF), are good candidates for stain separation. However, most of the existing unsupervised color normalization method like PCA, ICA, NMF and SNMF fail to consider important information about sparse manifolds that its pixels occupy, which could potentially result in loss of texture information during color normalization. Manifold learning methods like Graph Laplacian have proven to be very effective in interpreting high-dimensional data. In this paper, we propose a novel unsupervised stain separation method called graph regularized sparse nonnegative matrix factorization (GSNMF). By considering the sparse prior of stain concentration together with manifold information from high-dimensional image data, our method shows better performance in stain color deconvolution than existing unsupervised color deconvolution methods, especially in keeping connected texture information. To utilized the texture information, we construct a nearest neighbor graph between pixels within a spatial area of an image based on their distances using heat kernal in lαβ space. The

  11. Future of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladson, Jack A.; Turner, Laraine B.; Green-Armytage, Paul; Hunt, Robert W. G.

    2002-06-01

    We live in a world in which styles and technologies are nearly the same from place to place, but change daily. This changing global culture is unprecedented, and reinforced by emerging new technologies that affect us all. The Future of Color, examines new technologies, how they will affect the selection and promulgation of color in the near future, and their impact upon us. We examine this topic from many perspectives - technological, business and commercial. Most importantly, as we understand how our world is emerging, we can position ourselves strategically for tomorrow.

  12. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  13. QCD: color or glow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reya, E.

    1982-01-01

    The some of motivations for color and the numerous qualitative successes of QCD are presented. Non-leading higher order contributions to the (x, Q 2 )-dependence of scaling violations of non-singlet and singlet structure functions are discussed, especially non-perturbative correction to deep inelastic processes such as higher twist contributions. Finally the topic of how to account theoretically for the existence of free fractionally charged particles by concentrating mainly on spontaneously breaking SU(3) color is presented. (M.F.W.)

  14. Adaptive digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Kovačević, Branko; Milosavljević, Milan

    2013-01-01

    “Adaptive Digital Filters” presents an important discipline applied to the domain of speech processing. The book first makes the reader acquainted with the basic terms of filtering and adaptive filtering, before introducing the field of advanced modern algorithms, some of which are contributed by the authors themselves. Working in the field of adaptive signal processing requires the use of complex mathematical tools. The book offers a detailed presentation of the mathematical models that is clear and consistent, an approach that allows everyone with a college level of mathematics knowledge to successfully follow the mathematical derivations and descriptions of algorithms.   The algorithms are presented in flow charts, which facilitates their practical implementation. The book presents many experimental results and treats the aspects of practical application of adaptive filtering in real systems, making it a valuable resource for both undergraduate and graduate students, and for all others interested in m...

  15. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Boers, Maarten; Kirwan, John

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides a framework for the validation of outcome measures for use in rheumatology clinical research. However, imaging and biochemical measures may face additional validation challenges because of their technical nature. The Imaging...... using the original OMERACT Filter and the newly proposed structure. Breakout groups critically reviewed the extent to which the candidate biomarkers complied with the proposed stepwise approach, as a way of examining the utility of the proposed 3-dimensional structure. RESULTS: Although...... was obtained for a proposed tri-axis structure to assess validation of imaging and soluble biomarkers; nevertheless, additional work is required to better evaluate its place within the OMERACT Filter 2.0....

  16. Automated electronic filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Amal

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.

  17. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  18. Quantum reality filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudder, Stan

    2010-01-01

    An anhomomorphic logic A* is the set of all possible realities for a quantum system. Our main goal is to find the 'actual reality' Φ a element of A* for the system. Reality filters are employed to eliminate unwanted potential realities until only φ a remains. In this paper, we consider three reality filters that are constructed by means of quantum integrals. A quantum measure μ can generate or actualize a Φ element of A* if μ(A) is a quantum integral with respect to φ for a density function f over events A. In this sense, μ is an 'average' of the truth values of φ with weights given by f. We mainly discuss relations between these filters and their existence and uniqueness properties. For example, we show that a quadratic reality generated by a quantum measure is unique. In this case we obtain the unique actual quadratic reality.

  19. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  20. Color quench correction for low level Cherenkov counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsroya, S; Pelled, O; German, U; Marco, R; Katorza, E; Alfassi, Z B

    2009-05-01

    The Cherenkov counting efficiency varies strongly with color quenching, thus correction curves must be used to obtain correct results. The external (152)Eu source of a Quantulus 1220 liquid scintillation counting (LSC) system was used to obtain a quench indicative parameter based on spectra area ratio. A color quench correction curve for aqueous samples containing (90)Sr/(90)Y was prepared. The main advantage of this method over the common spectra indicators is its usefulness also for low level Cherenkov counting.

  1. Impact of Added Colored Wheat Bran on Bread Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka Machálková; Marie Janečková; Luděk Hřivna; Yvona Dostálová; Joany Hernandez; Eva Mrkvicová; Tomáš Vyhnánek; Václav Trojan

    2017-01-01

    The impact of colored wheat bran addition on bread quality was tested on wheat varieties with purple pericarp (Konini, Rosso and Karkulka) and on a variety containing blue aleurone (Skorpion). The effect of 10 %, 15 % and 20 % bran addition on sensory evaluation, bread color and texture was compared to the characteristics of bread prepared from wheat variety Mulan. The addition of 10 % bran significantly increased the sensory evaluation scores of bread. Crumb characteristics were improved mai...

  2. Filters in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdin, Blaise

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a modified (``filtered'') version of the minimum compliance topology optimization problem is studied. The direct dependence of the material properties on its pointwise density is replaced by a regularization of the density field using a convolution operator. In this setting...... it is possible to establish the existence of solutions. Moreover, convergence of an approximation by means of finite elements can be obtained. This is illustrated through some numerical experiments. The ``filtering'' technique is also shown to cope with two important numerical problems in topology optimization...

  3. Alarm filtering and presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses alarm filtering and presentation in the control room of nuclear and other process control plants. Alarm generation and presentation is widely recognized as a general process control problem. Alarm systems often fail to provide meaningful alarms to operators. Alarm generation and presentation is an area in which computer aiding is feasible and provides clear benefits. Therefore, researchers have developed several computerized alarm filtering and presentation approaches. This paper discusses problems associated with alarm generation and presentation. Approaches to improving the alarm situation and installation issues of alarm system improvements are discussed. The impact of artificial intelligence (AI) technology on alarm system improvements is assessed. (orig.)

  4. Transparency and imaginary colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, W.; Koenderink, J.J.; Van Doorn, A.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the Metelli monochrome transparencies, when overlays and their backgrounds have chromatic content, the inferred surface colors may not always be physically realizable, and are in some sense “imaginary.” In these cases, the inferred chromatic transmittance or reflectance of the overlay lies

  5. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  6. Why Leaves Change Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    For years, scientists have worked to understand the changes that happen to trees and shrubs in the autumn. Although we don't know all the details, we do know enough to explain the basics and help you to enjoy more fully Nature's multicolored autumn farewell. Three factors influence autumn leaf color-leaf pigments, length of night, and weather, but not quite...

  7. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  8. Color Wheel Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours ...

  10. Sorghum bi-color

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-11-12

    Nov 12, 2014 ... Biomass materials require reduction and densification for the purpose of handling and space requirements. Guinea corn (Sorghum bi-color) is a major source of biomass material in the tropic regions. The densification process involves some ... a closed-end die, the temperature and the use of binder.

  11. Hupa Nature Coloring Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    Animals familiar to the northwest region of California where Hupa Indians reside are depicted in this coloring book which belongs to a series of materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. Each page contains a bold pen and ink drawing of an animal and the animal's name in the Unifon alphabet used for writing the Hupa language.…

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an ... the cause: a rare inflammatory condition called Cogan’s syndrome. Google AI May Reveal Health Risks Through Your ...

  13. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white. In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  14. Color waves : a simple heuristic for choosing false colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overveld, van C.W.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    A simple heuristic is presented for choosing false colors for visualizing scalar functions on two-dimensional domains. The color scheme allows inspection of the function on several length scales simultanously.

  15. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andy T; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white). In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word) would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  16. A new method for skin color enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2012-01-01

    Skin tone is the most important color category in memory colors. Reproducing it pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the skin color preference on photographic color reproduction. Two key factors to successfully enhance skin colors are: a method to detect original skin colors effectively even if they are shifted far away from the regular skin color region, and a method to morph skin colors toward a preferred skin color region properly without introducing artifacts. A method for skin color enhancement presented by the authors in the same conference last year applies a static skin color model for skin color detection, which may miss to detect skin colors that are far away from regular skin tones. In this paper, a new method using the combination of face detection and statistical skin color modeling is proposed to effectively detect skin pixels and to enhance skin colors more effectively.

  17. Statistically-Efficient Filtering in Impulsive Environments: Weighted Myriad Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan G. Gonzalez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear filtering theory has been largely motivated by the characteristics of Gaussian signals. In the same manner, the proposed Myriad Filtering methods are motivated by the need for a flexible filter class with high statistical efficiency in non-Gaussian impulsive environments that can appear in practice. Myriad filters have a solid theoretical basis, are inherently more powerful than median filters, and are very general, subsuming traditional linear FIR filters. The foundation of the proposed filtering algorithms lies in the definition of the myriad as a tunable estimator of location derived from the theory of robust statistics. We prove several fundamental properties of this estimator and show its optimality in practical impulsive models such as the α-stable and generalized-t. We then extend the myriad estimation framework to allow the use of weights. In the same way as linear FIR filters become a powerful generalization of the mean filter, filters based on running myriads reach all of their potential when a weighting scheme is utilized. We derive the “normal” equations for the optimal myriad filter, and introduce a suboptimal methodology for filter tuning and design. The strong potential of myriad filtering and estimation in impulsive environments is illustrated with several examples.

  18. Human preference for individual colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  19. The ATLAS event filter

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, H P; Boissat, C; Davis, R; Duval, P Y; Etienne, F; Fede, E; Francis, D; Green, P; Hemmer, F; Jones, R; MacKinnon, J; Mapelli, Livio P; Meessen, C; Mommsen, R K; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Nacasch, R; Negri, A; Pinfold, James L; Polesello, G; Qian, Z; Rafflin, C; Scannicchio, D A; Stanescu, C; Touchard, F; Vercesi, V

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the studies for the ATLAS Event Filter is given. The architecture and the high level design of the DAQ-1 prototype is presented. The current status if the prototypes is briefly given. Finally, future plans and milestones are given. (11 refs).

  20. Spectral Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandel, Jan; Kasanický, Ivan; Vejmelka, Martin; Fuglík, Viktor; Turčičová, Marie; Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Juruš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2014), EMS2014-446 [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ & European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC) /10./. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF DMS-1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * spectral filter Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  1. Fabrication of Ultra-thin Color Films with Highly Absorbing Media Using Oblique Angle Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young Jin; Lee, Gil Ju; Jang, Kyung-In; Song, Young Min

    2017-08-29

    Ultra-thin film structures have been studied extensively for use as optical coatings, but performance and fabrication challenges remain.  We present an advanced method for fabricating ultra-thin color films with improved characteristics. The proposed process addresses several fabrication issues, including large area processing. Specifically, the protocol describes a process for fabricating ultra-thin color films using an electron beam evaporator for oblique angle deposition of germanium (Ge) and gold (Au) on silicon (Si) substrates.  Film porosity produced by the oblique angle deposition induces color changes in the ultra-thin film. The degree of color change depends on factors such as deposition angle and film thickness. Fabricated samples of the ultra-thin color films showed improved color tunability and color purity. In addition, the measured reflectance of the fabricated samples was converted into chromatic values and analyzed in terms of color. Our ultra-thin film fabricating method is expected to be used for various ultra-thin film applications such as flexible color electrodes, thin film solar cells, and optical filters. Also, the process developed here for analyzing the color of the fabricated samples is broadly useful for studying various color structures.

  2. Characteristics of Color Produced by Awa Natural Indigo and Synthetic Indigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyoko Kawahito

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Color of cloth dyed with Awa natural indigo is quantitatively compared with color of the cloth dyed with synthetic indigo. Results showed that: 1 color produced by Awa natural indigo is bluer and brighter than color produced by synthetic indigo; 2 a single Gaussian function fits the profile of the running of color produced by Awa natural indigo and the running of color produced by synthetic indigo prepared with sodium hydrosulfite approximates a linear sum of two Gaussian functions; 3 before and after washing, color is quantitatively more uneven when produced by Awa natural indigo than when produced by synthetic indigo; 4 the diffusion coefficient of Awa natural indigo is lower than that of synthetic indigo; 5 color superiority of Awa natural indigorelates to smaller diffusion coefficient, slower reduction, poorer penetration, and higher dye aggregation.

  3. At-line cotton color measurements by portable color spectrophotometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a result of reports of cotton bales that had significant color changes from their initial Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI™) color measurements, a program was implemented to measure cotton fiber color (Rd, +b) at-line in remote locations (warehouse, mill, etc.). The measurement of cotton fiber...

  4. COLORS AND COLOR GRADIENTS IN BULGES OF GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BALCELLS, M; PELETIER, RF

    We have obtained surface photometry in U, B, R, and I for a complete optically selected sample of 45 early-type spiral galaxies, to investigate the colors and color gradients of spiral bulges. Color profiles in U-R, B-R, U-B, and R-I have been determined in wedges opening on the semiminor axes.

  5. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

  6. Filter assembly for metallic and intermetallic tube filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin, Mary Anne; Lippert, Thomas E.; Bruck, Gerald J.; Smeltzer, Eugene E.

    2001-01-01

    A filter assembly (60) for holding a filter element (28) within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel is provided, containing: a filter housing (62), said filter housing having a certain axial length and having a peripheral sidewall, said sidewall defining an interior chamber (66); a one piece, all metal, fail-safe/regenerator device (68) within the interior chamber (66) of the filter housing (62) and/or extending beyond the axial length of the filter housing, said device containing an outward extending radial flange (71) within the filter housing for seating an essential seal (70), the device also having heat transfer media (72) disposed inside and screens (80) for particulate removal; one compliant gasket (70) positioned next to and above the outward extending radial flange of the fail-safe/regenerator device; and a porous metallic corrosion resistant superalloy type filter element body welded at the bottom of the metal fail-safe/regenerator device.

  7. Effectual switching filter for removing impulse noise using a SCM detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jin-xia; Zhang, Hong-juan; Ma, Yi-de

    2012-03-01

    An effectual method is proposed to remove impulse noise from corrupted color images. The spiking cortical model (SCM) is adopted as a noise detector to identify noisy pixels in each channel of color images, and detected noise pixels are saved in three marking matrices. According to the three marking matrices, the detected noisy pixels are divided into two types (type I and type II). They are filtered differently: an adaptive median filter is used for type I and an adaptive vector median for type II. Noise-free pixels are left unchanged. Extensive experiments show that the proposed method outperforms most of the other well-known filters in the aspects of both visual and objective quality measures, and this method can also reduce the possibility of generating color artifacts while preserving image details.

  8. Digital Simulation of a Hybrid Active Filter - An Active Filter in Series with a Shunt Passive Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Sitaram, Mahesh I; Padiyar, KR; Ramanarayanan, V

    1998-01-01

    Active filters have long been in use for the filtering of power system load harmonics. In this paper, the digital simulation results of a hybrid active power filter system for a rectifier load are presented. The active filter is used for filtering higher order harmonics as the dominant harmonics are filtered by the passive filter. This reduces the rating of the active filter significantly. The DC capacitor voltage of the active filter is controlled using a PI controller.

  9. Color and appearance metrology facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIST Physical Measurement Laboratory has established the color and appearance metrology facility to support calibration services for 0°/45° colored samples, 20°,...

  10. Public response to bridge colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    To determine people's reactions to bridges painted in colors as white, yellow, green, blue, red, brown, black, and aluminum, two test bridges were selected in Charlottesville, Virginia. One was painted a different color each month and the other was k...

  11. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-06-24

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  12. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Colizoli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter 'a' always appears as light blue. In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14 = 5.85, p = .030. Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13 = 0.51, p = .05. The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14 = 2.79, p = .014 and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term 'synesthetic' training program.

  13. Pseudo-Synesthesia through Reading Books with Colored Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Rouw, Romke

    2012-01-01

    Background Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter ‘a’ always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. Methodology/Principal Findings Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words) was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14) = 5.85, p = .030). Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13) = 0.51, p = .05). The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14) = 2.79, p = .014) and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. Conclusion/Significance To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term ‘synesthetic’ training program. PMID

  14. Experimental study of filter cake formation on different filter media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.

    2009-01-01

    Removal of particulate matter from gases generated in the process industry is important for product recovery as well as emission control. Dynamics of filtration plant depend on operating conditions. The models, that predict filter plant behaviour, involve empirical resistance parameters which are usually derived from limited experimental data and are characteristics of the filter media and filter cake (dust deposited on filter medium). Filter cake characteristics are affected by the nature of filter media, process parameters and mode of filter regeneration. Removal of dust particles from air is studied in a pilot scale jet pulsed bag filter facility resembling closely to the industrial filters. Limestone dust and ambient air are used in this study with two widely different filter media. All important parameters like pressure drop, gas flow rate, dust settling, are recorded continuously at 1s interval. The data is processed for estimation of the resistance parameters. The pressure drop rise on test filter media is compared. Results reveal that the surface of filter media has an influence on pressure drop rise (concave pressure drop rise). Similar effect is produced by partially jet pulsed filter surface. Filter behaviour is also simulated using estimated parameters and a simplified model and compared with the experimental results. Distribution of cake area load is therefore an important aspect of jet pulse cleaned bag filter modeling. Mean specific cake resistance remains nearly constant on thoroughly jet pulse cleaned membrane coated filter bags. However, the trend can not be confirmed without independent cake height and density measurements. Thus the results reveal the importance of independent measurements of cake resistance. (author)

  15. Numerical study of canister filters with alternatives filter cap configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, A. N.; Daud, A. R.; Abdullah, K.; Seri, S. M.; Razali, M. A.; Hushim, M. F.; Khalid, A.

    2017-09-01

    Air filtration system and filter play an important role in getting a good quality air into turbo machinery such as gas turbine. The filtration system and filter has improved the quality of air and protect the gas turbine part from contaminants which could bring damage. During separation of contaminants from the air, pressure drop cannot be avoided but it can be minimized thus helps to reduce the intake losses of the engine [1]. This study is focused on the configuration of the filter in order to obtain the minimal pressure drop along the filter. The configuration used is the basic filter geometry provided by Salutary Avenue Manufacturing Sdn Bhd. and two modified canister filter cap which is designed based on the basic filter model. The geometries of the filter are generated by using SOLIDWORKS software and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software is used to analyse and simulates the flow through the filter. In this study, the parameters of the inlet velocity are 0.032 m/s, 0.063 m/s, 0.094 m/s and 0.126 m/s. The total pressure drop produce by basic, modified filter 1 and 2 is 292.3 Pa, 251.11 Pa and 274.7 Pa. The pressure drop reduction for the modified filter 1 is 41.19 Pa and 14.1% lower compared to basic filter and the pressure drop reduction for modified filter 2 is 17.6 Pa and 6.02% lower compared to the basic filter. The pressure drops for the basic filter are slightly different with the Salutary Avenue filter due to limited data and experiment details. CFD software are very reliable in running a simulation rather than produces the prototypes and conduct the experiment thus reducing overall time and cost in this study.

  16. COLOR PERCEPTION IN INTERIOR DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZSAVAŞ, Nilay

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it is mentioned about color that is a keyfactor of interior architecture profession. Firstly, space perception, colorand space interaction, effects of space, color and user relationship is explainedexcept color theories and definitions. Within this scope these are scrutinizingboth perception of color in the space and material and lighting issues thathave a big role in perception. Recent searches, practice methods and evaluationwith examples play a part in this article. It is ai...

  17. Color preferences are not universal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Chloe; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Claims of universality pervade color preference research. It has been argued that there are universal preferences for some colors over others (e.g., Eysenck, 1941), universal sex differences (e.g., Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), and universal mechanisms or dimensions that govern these preferences (e.g., Palmer & Schloss, 2010). However, there have been surprisingly few cross-cultural investigations of color preference and none from nonindustrialized societies that are relatively free from the common influence of global consumer culture. Here, we compare the color preferences of British adults to those of Himba adults who belong to a nonindustrialized culture in rural Namibia. British and Himba color preferences are found to share few characteristics, and Himba color preferences display none of the so-called "universal" patterns or sex differences. Several significant predictors of color preference are identified, such as cone-contrast between stimulus and background (Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), the valence of color-associated objects (Palmer & Schloss, 2010), and the colorfulness of the color. However, the relationship of these predictors to color preference was strikingly different for the two cultures. No one model of color preference is able to account for both British and Himba color preferences. We suggest that not only do patterns of color preference vary across individuals and groups but the underlying mechanisms and dimensions of color preference vary as well. The findings have implications for broader debate on the extent to which our perception and experience of color is culturally relative or universally constrained. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. A Differential Geometric Approach to Nonlinear Filtering: The Projection Filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brigo, D.; Hanzon, B.; LeGland, F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a new and systematic method of approximating exact nonlinear filters with finite dimensional filters, using the differential geometric approach to statistics. The projection filter is defined rigorously in the case of exponential families. A convenient exponential family is

  19. Method of producing a pseudo-color photograph with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Mataichi.

    1965-01-01

    Conventional black and white X-ray photography cannot simultaneously produce an image on photographic film of a subject having regions of high and low X-ray absorption due to the limitation of photographic density range, gradation and exposure tolerance. This invention records both regions as images of different colors on the same color photographic film. According to a method of this invention for making an X-ray pseudo-color photograph, the subject is directly irradiated by an X-ray beam emergent from an X-ray beam generator, and an X-ray permeation image of the subject is converted into and displayed as a visible light image by means of a fluorescent screen. In one aspect of this invention, there is used a color photographic film which has at least two kinds of sensitive and coloring layers exhibiting the same sensitivity. During the period in which the visible image is displayed, the film is exposed to the visible light in such a way that at least two color filters differing in color and density are successively interposed between the film and the fluorescent screen. In another aspect, a color photographic film is employed having at least two kinds of sensitive and coloring layers exhibiting different sensitivities. During the period in which the visible image is displayed, the film is exposed to visible light by sequentially interposing at least two color filters of different color but of equal density. In this manner, regions comparatively low in X-ray absorption, such as the lungs, and regions comparatively high in absorption, such as the heart, appear as, for example, a blue image and a red image on the color photographic film, respectively. (Takasuka, S.)

  20. Method of producing a pseudo-color photograph with X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, M

    1965-05-08

    Conventional black and white X-ray photography cannot simultaneously produce an image on photographic film of a subject having regions of high and low X-ray absorption due to the limitation of photographic density range, gradation and exposure tolerance. This invention records both regions as images of different colors on the same color photographic film. According to a method of this invention for making an X-ray pseudo-color photograph, the subject is directly irradiated by an X-ray beam emergent from an X-ray beam generator, and an X-ray permeation image of the subject is converted into and displayed as a visible light image by means of a fluorescent screen. In one aspect of this invention, there is used a color photographic film which has at least two kinds of sensitive and coloring layers exhibiting the same sensitivity. During the period in which the visible image is displayed, the film is exposed to the visible light in such a way that at least two color filters differing in color and density are successively interposed between the film and the fluorescent screen. In another aspect, a color photographic film is employed having at least two kinds of sensitive and coloring layers exhibiting different sensitivities. During the period in which the visible image is displayed, the film is exposed to visible light by sequentially interposing at least two color filters of different color but of equal density. In this manner, regions comparatively low in X-ray absorption, such as the lungs, and regions comparatively high in absorption, such as the heart, appear as, for example, a blue image and a red image on the color photographic film, respectively.

  1. Typography, Color, and Information Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on how typography and color complement and differ from each other in signaling an underlying content structure; the synergism between typography, color, and page layout (use of white space) that aids audience understanding and use; and the characteristics of typography and of color that are most important in these contexts. (SR)

  2. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  3. Progress in color night vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of our recent progress and the current state-of-the-art techniques of color image fusion for night vision applications. Inspired by previously developed color opponent fusing schemes, we initially developed a simple pixel-based false color-mapping scheme that yielded fused

  4. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas; Bernhard, Matthias; Rautek, Peter; Viola, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    . In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user's ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies

  5. Biological origins of color categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Alice E; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T; Bosten, Jenny M; Franklin, Anna

    2017-05-23

    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants' categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mapped infants' categorical recognition memory for hue onto a stimulus array used previously to document the color lexicons of 110 nonindustrialized languages. Following familiarization to a given hue, infants' response to a novel hue indicated that their recognition memory parses the hue continuum into red, yellow, green, blue, and purple categories. Infants' categorical distinctions aligned with common distinctions in color lexicons and are organized around hues that are commonly central to lexical categories across languages. The boundaries between infants' categorical distinctions also aligned, relative to the adaptation point, with the cardinal axes that describe the early stages of color representation in retinogeniculate pathways, indicating that infant color categorization may be partly organized by biological mechanisms of color vision. The findings suggest that color categorization in language and thought is partially biologically constrained and have implications for broader debate on how biology, culture, and communication interact in human cognition.

  6. Color homogeneity in LED spotlights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    Color variation in the light output of white LEDs is a common problem in LED lighting. We aim to design LED spotlights with a uniform color output while keeping the cost of the system low and the energy efficiency high. Therefore we design a special optic to eliminate the color variation of the LED.

  7. Color gradients in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franx, M.; Illingworth, G.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship of the color gradients within ellipticals and the color differences between them are studied. It is found that the local color appears to be strongly related to the escape velocity. This suggests that the local escape velocity is the primary factor that determines the metallicity of the stellar population. Models with and without dark halos give comparable results. 27 refs

  8. Biological activation of carbon filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredyńska-Sobecka, Bozena; Tomaszewska, Maria; Janus, Magdalena; Morawski, Antoni W

    2006-01-01

    To prepare biological activated carbon (BAC), raw surface water was circulated through granular activated carbon (GAC) beds. Biological activity of carbon filters was initiated after about 6 months of filter operation and was confirmed by two methods: measurement of the amount of biomass attached to the carbon and by the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) test. The effect of carbon pre-washing on WG-12 carbon properties was also studied. For this purpose, the nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77K and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectra analyses were performed. Moreover, iodine number, decolorizing power and adsorption properties of carbon in relation to phenol were studied. Analysis of the results revealed that after WG-12 carbon pre-washing its BET surface increased a little, the pH value of the carbon water extract decreased from 11.0 to 9.4, decolorizing power remained at the same level, and the iodine number and phenol adsorption rate increased. In preliminary studies of the ozonation-biofiltration process, a model phenol solution with concentration of approximately 10mg/l was applied. During the ozonation process a dose of 1.64 mg O(3)/mg TOC (total organic carbon) was employed and the contact time was 5 min. Four empty bed contact times (EBCTs) in the range of 2.4-24.0 min were used in the biofiltration experiment. The effectiveness of purification was measured by the following parameters: chemical oxygen demand (COD(Mn)), TOC, phenol concentration and UV(254)-absorbance. The parameters were found to decrease with EBCT.

  9. EXAFS analysis of full color glasses and glass ceramics: local order and color

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa Cruz, Petrus A.; Sa, Gilberto F. de; Malta, Oscar L.; Silva, Jose expedito Cavalcante

    1996-01-01

    The generation and control of the relative intensities of the primary additive colors in solid state light emitters is very important to the development of higher resolution media, used in color monitors, solid state sensors, large area and flat displays and other optoelectronic devices. We have developed a multi-doped glassy material named FCG (full color glass, to generate and to control the primary light colors, allowing the simulation of any color of light by additive synthesis. Tm(III), Tb(III) and Eu(III) ions were used (0.01 to 5.0 mol%) as blue, green and red narrow emitters. A wide color gamut was obtained under ultraviolet excitation by varying the material composition. The chromaticity diagram is covered, including the white simulation. We proposed a mechanism to control the chromaticity of a fixed composition of the material, using the Er (III) as a selective quencher that may be deactivated by infrared excitation. Although this new material presents at this time a high efficiency, it may be improved because the energy transfer between the rare earth triad may be still reduced. Optical spectroscopy measurements confirms that it is still possible to improve the efficiency of the FCC material. EXAFS analysis will be used to probe the local environment around the triad of rare earth that generates the primary colors. For this purpose we have prepared single doped glasses with each component of the triad with the same concentration than FCG. The devitrification of these glasses will be analyzed in order to produce glassceramics with ion segregation. (author)

  10. Visible Color and Photometry of Bright Materials on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, S. E.; Li, J. Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Blewett, D. T.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Keller, H. U.

    2012-01-01

    The Dawn Framing Camera (FC) collected images of the surface of Vesta at a pixel scale of 70 m in the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) phase through its clear and seven color filters spanning from 430 nm to 980 nm. The surface of Vesta displays a large diversity in its brightness and colors, evidently related to the diverse geology [1] and mineralogy [2]. Here we report a detailed investigation of the visible colors and photometric properties of the apparently bright materials on Vesta in order to study their origin. The global distribution and the spectroscopy of bright materials are discussed in companion papers [3, 4], and the synthesis results about the origin of Vestan bright materials are reported in [5].

  11. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  12. NextStation Color

    CERN Multimedia

    Steve Jobs created a NeXT generation operating system. The NeXTstation provides functionality that other computers are just providing today.The NS Color I/O cable attaches to the back of the computer on one end and on the other end the cable is split to connect to the display and the Sound Box. The Sound Box also has a keyboard signal port. Like a MAC or SUN of the same vintage, the mouse connects to the keyboard. These boxes run NEXTSTEP, which a full object-oriented OS. It has UNIX as a base and provides a gorgeous graphical interface. NEXTSTEP was also available for other platforms. They tend to run a little slow. But they have great digital sound and full color displays.

  13. Color digital halftoning taking colorimetric color reproduction into account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneishi, Hideaki; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Shimoyama, Nobukatsu; Miyake, Yoichi

    1996-01-01

    Taking colorimetric color reproduction into account, the conventional error diffusion method is modified for color digital half-toning. Assuming that the input to a bilevel color printer is given in CIE-XYZ tristimulus values or CIE-LAB values instead of the more conventional RGB or YMC values, two modified versions based on vector operation in (1) the XYZ color space and (2) the LAB color space were tested. Experimental results show that the modified methods, especially the method using the LAB color space, resulted in better color reproduction performance than the conventional methods. Spatial artifacts that appear in the modified methods are presented and analyzed. It is also shown that the modified method (2) with a thresholding technique achieves a good spatial image quality.

  14. Railroad signal color and orientation : effects of color blindness and criteria for color vision field tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report concerns two issues: 1) whether color vision is necessary for locomotive crews who work on railroads where the signal system is either completely redundant with regard to signal color and signal orientation or the signal system only uses ...

  15. Shifted-modified Chebyshev filters

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENGÜL, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of filter approximation method that utilizes shifted-modified Chebyshev filters. Construction of the new filters involves the use of shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials that are formed using the roots of conventional Chebyshev polynomials. The study also includes 2 tables containing the shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials and the normalized element values for the low-pass prototype filters up to degree 6. The transducer power gain, group dela...

  16. The magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.

  17. The magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.

  18. Color on emergency mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An

    2007-06-01

    There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

  19. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  20. Coloring of synthetic fluorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birsoy, R.

    1980-01-01

    A synthetic fluorite of the Harshaw Chemical Company is analyzed for rare earth elements, yttrium, and sodium. Samples of this fluorite are irradiated with X-rays, γ-rays, neutrons, electrons, protons, and α-particles at different energies, and their absorption spectra are analyzed. Analyzing the thermal bleaching of these radiation-coloured fluorites shows that both, impurities and radiation play a part in the coloration of synthetic fluorite. However, the main contribution comes from the radiation induced lattice defects. In the visible region spectra, the colour centre of the 5800 to 5900 A absorption band is probably mainly related with large aggregates of F-centres. The 5450 and the 5300 A absorption bands are mainly related to monovalent and divalent ion impurities and their association with lattice defects. The 3800 A absorption band seems to be related with F-centre aggregates. However, the contribution from the rare earth elements related complex color centres also plays some part for the production of this absorption band. These results indicate that the color centres of different origin can absorb light at the same wavelength. (author)