WorldWideScience

Sample records for prepared zno nanostructures

  1. Preparation and Dielectric Properties of Nanostructured ZnO Whiskers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiao-Ling; YUAN Jie; ZHOU Wei; RONG Ji-Li; CAO Mao-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    By a novel controlled combustion synthesis method, a large number of nanostructured ZnO whiskers with different morphologies, such as tetra-needles, long-leg tetra-needles and multi-needles, are prepared without any additive in open air at high temperature. The morphologies and crystalline structures of the as-prepared ZnO nanostructured whiskers are investigated by SEM and XRD. The possible growth mechanism on the nanostructured ZnO whiskers is proposed. The experimental results indicate that the dielectric constants and losses of the nanostructured ZnO whiskers are very low, demonstrating that the nanostructured ZnO whiskers are low-loss materials for microwave absorption in X-band. However, obvious microwave absorption in nanostructured ZnO whiskers is observed. The quasi-microantenna model may be attributed to the microwave absorption of the ZnO whiskers.

  2. Preparation of one-dimensional nanostructured ZnO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuping Jiang; Youzhi Liu; Yanyang Cao; Xuejun Zhang; Lihong Shi

    2010-01-01

    Rod-like ZnO particles were synthesized via a sol-gel method by adding ethylene diamine(EDA)to the were characterized by XRD(X-ray powder diffractometer)and TEM(transmission electron microscope).Rod-like ZnO belongs to the hexagonal Wurtzite system,with diameters and lengths of about 20-200nm and 0.2-1.5μm,respectively.Experimental results showed that the morphology of nano-ZnO can be controlled by modulating the quantities of EDA added into the reaction system and that EDA plays an important role in the formation of rod-like ZnO particles.The growth mechanism of the rod-like nano-ZnO was briefly discussed.The proposed facile,reproducible,effective and low-cost synthesis promises future large-scale preparation of nanostructured ZnO for application in nanotechnology.

  3. Preparation and Photoluminescence of ZnO Nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jin-Liang; ZHAO Yin-nu; SUN Xue-qing; GUO Chun

    2006-01-01

    Porous anodic alumina (PAA) hosts with ZnO nanoparticles loaded in were prepared by immersing PAA films in an aqueous solution of zinc acetate and then annealing at high temperatures. Highly ordered ZnO nanodot arrays were produced using the method in combination of PAA template with RF magnetron sputtering deposition. The photoluminescence of the ZnO/PAA composite and the highly ordered ZnO nanodot arrays were investigated by means of a fluorescent spectrometer. The ZnO/PAA composite exhibits intense and broad photoluminescence spectra with the peak position at around 485 nm. The ZnO nanodot arrays have a strong UV light emissive peak at about 380 nm and a wide light emissive peak at 460 nm-610 nm at the room temperature.

  4. Preparation and photoluminescence of ZnO with nanostructure by hollow-cathode discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-chao BIAN; Chun-qing HUO; Yue-fei ZHANG; Qiang CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Without the use of a metal catalyst in the pro-cess, ZnO with nanostructures was successfully prepared on Si (100) substrate by simple chemical vapor-deposition method. In our work, Ar was used as the plasma forming gas, O2 was the reactive gas and metal zinc powder (99.99% purity) vaporized by cylinder hollow-cathode dis-charge (HCD) acted as the zinc source. The crystal struc-tures of the as-synthesized ZnO nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD); the ZnO sam-ple growing on the wall of the crucible showed a 'comb-like' nanostructure, while the other one at the bottom of the crucible showed a 'rod-like' structure, which can be attributed to the difference of the oxygen content. The measurement on the photoluminescence (PL) perform-ance of the ZnO nanostructures was carried out at room temperature. The results indicated that the 'comb-shape' ZnO nanomaterial possessed a remarkably strong ultra-violet emission peak centered at 388 nm, while ZnO nanorods, except better ultraviolet emission, also had relatively strong blue-green emission ranging from 470 to 600 nm due to the existence of oxygen vacancies. The growth mechanism of ZnO with nanostructures is also discussed in this paper.

  5. Morphology and wettability of ZnO nanostructures prepared by hydrothermal method on various buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bao-jia; Huang, Li-jing; Zhou, Ming; Ren, Nai-fei

    2013-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were prepared by hydrothermal method on glass substrates with various buffer layers: Ag, Al, aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) and tin-doped indium oxide (ITO). The structure, morphology and wettability of the ZnO nanostructured surfaces were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and water contact angle (WCA) analysis methods, respectively. All the nanostructures grown on glass with various buffer layers exhibited strong growth orientation along the (1 0 1) plane. The nature of the buffer layer was found to have remarkable effect on the morphology and wettability of the ZnO nanostructures. Whether the buffer layers were hydrophilic or low hydrophobic, all the ZnO nanostructures grown on the various buffer layers showed high hydrophobic property, and that grown on the AZO buffer layer even exhibited superhydrophobicity with a WCA of 151.1°. This work may provide a scientific basis for self-cleaning ZnO-based optoelectronic device applications.

  6. Highly luminescent ZnO and CdS nanostructures prepared by ionic liquid precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The ionic liquids containing Cd and Zn,which served as the metal-chalcogenides precursors,were synthesized and reacted with Na2S to synthesize the ionic-liquid-capped semiconductors. The products were detected by XRD and TEM. The results demonstrated that the CdS was composed of 5―6 nm monodispersed nanocrystals. At the same time,the ZnO composed of 1 μm hexagonal-disk nanostructure was prepared under the same experimental condition. The difference of the morphology and structures between Zn and Cd systems was discussed by thermodynamics and crystallography. The fluorescence of as-prepared ZnO and CdS showed the excellent photoluminescence.

  7. Preparation and characterization of nanostructured ZnO thin films for photoelectrochemical splitting of water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monika Gupta; Vidhika Sharma; Jaya Shrivastava; Anjana Solanki; A P Singh; V R Satsangi; S Dass; Rohit Shrivastav

    2009-02-01

    Nanostructured zinc oxide thin films (ZnO) were prepared on conducting glass support (SnO2: F overlayer) via sol–gel starting from colloidal solution of zinc acetate 2-hydrate in ethanol and 2-methoxy ethanol. Films were obtained by spin coating at 1500 rpm under room conditions (temperature, 28–35°C) and were subsequently sintered in air at three different temperatures (400, 500 and 600°C). The evolution of oxide coatings under thermal treatment was studied by glancing incidence X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Average particle size, resistivity and bandgap energy were also determined. Photoelectrochemical properties of thin films and their suitability for splitting of water were investigated. Study suggests that thin films of ZnO, sintered at 600°C are better for photoconversion than the films sintered at 400 or 500°C. Plausible explanations have been provided.

  8. Simple and large scale refluxing method for preparation of Ce-doped ZnO nanostructures as highly efficient photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, P.O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Habibi-Yangjeh, A., E-mail: ahabibi@uma.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, P.O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: A simple method was applied for the preparation of Ce-doped ZnO nanostructures (mole fractions of Ce{sup 4+} ions are 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.10) in water by refluxing for 3 h about at 90 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple refluxing method was applied for preparation of Ce-doped ZnO nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The XRD patterns demonstrate that loading of Ce{sup 4+} ions does not change the structure of ZnO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results indicate that the nanostructures with 0.05 mole fraction of Ce{sup 4+} ions exhibit highest photocatalytic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanostructures have highest photocatalytic activity at solutions with pH between 5.4 and 9. - Abstract: A simple method was applied for preparation of Ce-doped ZnO nanostructures (mole fractions of Ce{sup 4+} ions are 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.10) in water by refluxing for 3 h about at 90 Degree-Sign C. This method is large scale, mild and involve no templates, surfactants or additives. The prepared nanostructures were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) techniques. The XRD patterns demonstrate that the nanostructures have the same crystal structure, and loading of Ce{sup 4+} ions does not change the structure of ZnO. The SEM images show that with increasing mole fraction of Ce{sup 4+} ions, morphology of the nanostructures changes from nanoplates to nanospheres. Photocatalytic activity of the nanostructures toward photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) was evaluated under UV irradiation. The results indicate that the nanostructures with 0.05 mole fraction of Ce{sup 4+} ions exhibit highest photocatalytic activity among the prepared samples. The influence of various operational parameters such as refluxing time, catalyst weight, calcinations temperature and pH of solution on the photodegradation reaction

  9. Effect of zinc precursor on the morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures prepared by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, F.; Ng, A. M. C.; Chen, X. Y.; Djurišić, A. B.; Chan, W. K.

    2011-12-01

    We studied the dependence of the morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures prepared by electrodeposition under the same deposition conditions for three different zinc precursors: zinc nitrate, zinc chloride, and zinc acetate. A simple two electrode setup was deployed, with indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass as the working electrode and platinum foil as the counter electrode. The morphology and optical properties of the ZnO nanorods were studied using scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence measurements. The dependence of the properties on the precursor used is discussed.

  10. ZnO nanostructures and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Xiaowei, Sun

    2011-01-01

    This book focuses on the various functional properties and potential applications of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures, from basic principles to our most recent discoveries. It comprises experimental analysis of various properties of ZnO nanostructures, preparation techniques, research methods, and some promising applications. The areas of focus include ZnO-based gas/biochemical sensing devices, field emitters, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, e-papers, and single-nanowire-based transistors.

  11. Structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of flower-like ZnO nanostructures prepared by a facile wet chemical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sini Kuriakose

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Flower-like ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by a facile wet chemical method. Structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of these nanostructures have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, photoluminescence (PL and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. SEM and TEM studies revealed flower-like structures consisting of nanosheets, formed due to oriented attachment of ZnO nanoparticles. Flower-like ZnO structures showed enhanced photocatalytic activity towards sun-light driven photodegradation of methylene blue dye (MB as compared to ZnO nanoparticles. XRD, UV–vis absorption, PL, FTIR and TEM studies revealed the formation of Zn(OH2 surface layer on ZnO nanostructures upon ageing. We demonstrate that the formation of a passivating Zn(OH2 surface layer on the ZnO nanostructures upon ageing deteriorates their efficiency to photocatalytically degrade of MB.

  12. Structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of flower-like ZnO nanostructures prepared by a facile wet chemical method

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Flower-like ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by a facile wet chemical method. Structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of these nanostructures have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. SEM and TEM studies revealed flower-like structures consisting of nanosheets, formed due to oriented attachment of ZnO nanoparticles. Flower-like ZnO structures ...

  13. Doping dependent properties of Cr-doped ZnO nanostructures prepared by microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Faheem; Arshi, Nishat; Anwar, M S; Koo, Bon Heun

    2014-11-01

    In this work, undoped and Cr-doped single-crystalline ZnO nanorods were prepared by a facile microwave assisted solution method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed that Cr-doped ZnO was comprised of single phase nature with hexagonal wurtzite structure up to 5% Cr doping, however, secondary phase ZnCr2O4 appeared upon further increasing the Cr dopant concentration. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and TEM micrographs suggested that the undoped nanorods with an average length of -~2 μm and a diameter in the range of 150-200 nm, respectively were observed. Interestingly, the size of nanorods decreased with the increase of Cr concentration in ZnO. Optical studies depicted that the energy bandgap was decreased with the increase of Cr concentration. Raman scattering spectra of Cr-doped ZnO revealed the lower frequency shift of E2(high) phonon mode with the increase in concentration of Cr dopant, suggested the successful doping of Cr into Zn site in ZnO. Magnetic studies showed that Cr-doped ZnO exhibited room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) and the value of magnetization was continuously decreased with the increase in Cr doping.

  14. Polyelectrolyte-assisted preparation and characterization of nanostructured ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Shijun

    2005-05-15

    The present work focuses on the synthesis and characterization of nanostructured ZnO thin films onto silicon wafers modified by self-assembled-monolayers via chemical bath deposition. Two precursor solutions were designed and used for the film deposition, in which two different polymers were introduced respectively to control the growth of the ZnO colloidal particles in solution. ZnO films were deposited from an aqueous solution containing zinc salt and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) in the presence of a graft-copolymer (P (MAA{sub 0.50}-co(MAA-EO{sub 20}){sub 0.50}){sub 70}). A film-formation-diagram was established based on the results obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), which describes the influence of the concentration of HMTA and copolymer on the ZnO film formation. According to the film morphology, film formation can be classified into three categories: (a) island-like films, (b) uniform films and (c) canyon-like films. The ZnO films annealed at temperatures of 450 C, 500 C, 600 C and 700 C were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). After annealing, the films are polycrystalline ZnO with wurtzite structure. XRD measurements indicate that with increasing annealing temperature, the average grain size increases accordingly and the crystallinity of the films is improved. Upon heating to 600 C, the ZnO films exhibit preferred orientation with c-axis normal to substrate, whereas the films annealed at 700 C even show a more explicit texture. By annealing at temperatures above 600 C the ZnO film reacts with the substrate to form an interfacial layer of Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, which grows thicker at elevated annealing temperatures. The ZnO films annealed at 600 C and 700 C show strong UV emission. Another non-aqueous solution system for ZnO thin film deposition was established, in which 2- propanol was used as a solvent and Zn(CH3COO){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O as well as NaOH as reactants

  15. Nanostructured ZnO thin films prepared by sol–gel spin-coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heredia, E., E-mail: heredia.edu@gmail.com [UNIDEF (CONICET-MINDEF), J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bojorge, C.; Casanova, J.; Cánepa, H. [UNIDEF (CONICET-MINDEF), J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Craievich, A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Cidade Universitária, 66318 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kellermann, G. [Universidade Federal do Paraná, 19044 Paraná (Brazil)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • ZnO films synthesized by sol–gel were deposited by spin-coating on flat substrates. • Structural features of ZnO films with several thicknesses were characterized by means of different techniques. • The thicknesses of different ZnO thin films were determined by means of FESEM and AFM. • The nanoporous structures of ZnO thin films were characterized by GISAXS using IsGISAXS software. • The average densities of ZnO thin films were derived from (i) the critical angle in 1D XR patterns, (ii) the angle of Yoneda peak in 2D GISAXS images, (iii) minimization of chi2 using IsGISAXS best fitting procedure. - Abstract: ZnO thin films deposited on silica flat plates were prepared by spin-coating and studied by applying several techniques for structural characterization. The films were prepared by depositing different numbers of layers, each deposition being followed by a thermal treatment at 200 °C to dry and consolidate the successive layers. After depositing all layers, a final thermal treatment at 450 °C during 3 h was also applied in order to eliminate organic components and to promote the crystallization of the thin films. The total thickness of the multilayered films – ranging from 40 nm up to 150 nm – was determined by AFM and FESEM. The analysis by GIXD showed that the thin films are composed of ZnO crystallites with an average diameter of 25 nm circa. XR results demonstrated that the thin films also exhibit a large volume fraction of nanoporosity, typically 30–40 vol.% in thin films having thicknesses larger than ∼70 nm. GISAXS measurements showed that the experimental scattering intensity is well described by a structural model composed of nanopores with shape of oblate spheroids, height/diameter aspect ratio within the 0.8–0.9 range and average diameter along the sample surface plane in the 5–7 nm range.

  16. Enhanced Photoluminescence and Raman Properties of Al-Doped ZnO Nanostructures Prepared Using Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition of Methanol Assisted with Heated Brass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandavan, Tamil Many K.; Gani, Siti Meriam Abdul; San Wong, Chiow; Md. Nor, Roslan

    2015-01-01

    Vapor phase transport (VPT) assisted by mixture of methanol and acetone via thermal evaporation of brass (CuZn) was used to prepare un-doped and Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (NSs). The structure and morphology were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Photoluminescence (PL) properties of un-doped and Al-doped ZnO showed significant changes in the optical properties providing evidence for several types of defects such as zinc interstitials (Zni), oxygen interstitials (Oi), zinc vacancy (Vzn), singly charged zinc vacancy (VZn-), oxygen vacancy (Vo), singly charged oxygen vacancy (Vo+) and oxygen anti-site defects (OZn) in the grown NSs. The Al-doped ZnO NSs have exhibited shifted PL peaks at near band edge (NBE) and red luminescence compared to the un-doped ZnO. The Raman scattering results provided evidence of Al doping into the ZnO NSs due to peak shift from 145 cm-1 to an anomalous peak at 138 cm-1. Presence of enhanced Raman signal at around 274 and 743 cm-1 further confirmed Al in ZnO NSs. The enhanced D and G band in all Al-doped ZnO NSs shows possible functionalization and doping process in ZnO NSs. PMID:25756598

  17. Enhanced photoluminescence and Raman properties of Al-Doped ZnO nanostructures prepared using thermal chemical vapor deposition of methanol assisted with heated brass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamil Many K Thandavan

    Full Text Available Vapor phase transport (VPT assisted by mixture of methanol and acetone via thermal evaporation of brass (CuZn was used to prepare un-doped and Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO nanostructures (NSs. The structure and morphology were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and x-ray diffraction (XRD. Photoluminescence (PL properties of un-doped and Al-doped ZnO showed significant changes in the optical properties providing evidence for several types of defects such as zinc interstitials (Zni, oxygen interstitials (Oi, zinc vacancy (Vzn, singly charged zinc vacancy (VZn-, oxygen vacancy (Vo, singly charged oxygen vacancy (Vo+ and oxygen anti-site defects (OZn in the grown NSs. The Al-doped ZnO NSs have exhibited shifted PL peaks at near band edge (NBE and red luminescence compared to the un-doped ZnO. The Raman scattering results provided evidence of Al doping into the ZnO NSs due to peak shift from 145 cm-1 to an anomalous peak at 138 cm-1. Presence of enhanced Raman signal at around 274 and 743 cm-1 further confirmed Al in ZnO NSs. The enhanced D and G band in all Al-doped ZnO NSs shows possible functionalization and doping process in ZnO NSs.

  18. Enhanced photoluminescence and Raman properties of Al-Doped ZnO nanostructures prepared using thermal chemical vapor deposition of methanol assisted with heated brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandavan, Tamil Many K; Gani, Siti Meriam Abdul; San Wong, Chiow; Md Nor, Roslan

    2015-01-01

    Vapor phase transport (VPT) assisted by mixture of methanol and acetone via thermal evaporation of brass (CuZn) was used to prepare un-doped and Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (NSs). The structure and morphology were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Photoluminescence (PL) properties of un-doped and Al-doped ZnO showed significant changes in the optical properties providing evidence for several types of defects such as zinc interstitials (Zni), oxygen interstitials (Oi), zinc vacancy (Vzn), singly charged zinc vacancy (VZn-), oxygen vacancy (Vo), singly charged oxygen vacancy (Vo+) and oxygen anti-site defects (OZn) in the grown NSs. The Al-doped ZnO NSs have exhibited shifted PL peaks at near band edge (NBE) and red luminescence compared to the un-doped ZnO. The Raman scattering results provided evidence of Al doping into the ZnO NSs due to peak shift from 145 cm-1 to an anomalous peak at 138 cm-1. Presence of enhanced Raman signal at around 274 and 743 cm-1 further confirmed Al in ZnO NSs. The enhanced D and G band in all Al-doped ZnO NSs shows possible functionalization and doping process in ZnO NSs.

  19. Nanostructured TiO2 and ZnO prepared by using pressurized hot water and their eco-toxicological evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troppová, Ivana; Matějová, Lenka; Sezimová, Hana; Matěj, Zdeněk; Peikertová, Pavlína; Lang, Jaroslav

    2017-06-01

    The eco-toxicological effects of unconventionally prepared nanostructured TiO2 and ZnO were evaluated in this study, since both oxides are keenly investigated semiconductor photocatalysts in the last three decades. Unconventional processing by pressurized hot water was applied in order to crystallize oxide materials as an alternative to standard calcination. Acute biological toxicity of the synthesized oxides was evaluated using germination of Sinapis alba seed (ISO 11269-1) and growth of Lemna minor fronds (ISO 20079) and was compared to commercially available TiO2 Degussa P25. Toxicity results revealed that synthesized ZnO as well as TiO2 is toxic contrary to commercial TiO2 Degussa P25 which showled stimulation effect to L. minor and no toxicity to S. alba. ZnO was significantly more toxic than TiO2. The effect of crystallite size was considered, and it was revealed that small crystallite size and large surface area are not the toxicity-determining factors. Factors such as the rate of nanosized crystallites aggregation and concentration, shape and surface properties of TiO2 nanoparticles affect TiO2 toxicity to both plant species. Seriously, the dissolution of Ti4+ ions from TiO2 was also observed which may contribute to its toxicity. In case of ZnO, the dissolution of Zn2+ ions stays the main cause of its toxicity.

  20. Three-dimensional ZnO nanostructure photodetector prepared with through silicon via technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hao; Chang, Shoou-Jinn; Hsueh, Ting-Jen

    2015-06-15

    A ZnO-nanowire photodetector was prepared using three-dimensional through silicon via (TSV) technology. The diameter and depth of the Si via were about 80 μm and 170 μm, respectively. Cu uniformly filled in each TSV, whose average resistance was about 0.9  mΩ. For the three-dimensional ZnO-nanowire photodetector, the photocurrent increased rapidly with a time constant of about 1 s when ultraviolet excitation was applied. The on-off current ratio was about 104.

  1. Synthesis and properties of novel liquid-medicine-filter shaped ZnO nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Huizhao; Xu, Peng; Li, Junlin

    2013-06-01

    Liquid-medicine-filter shaped ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized on Al2O3-coated Si (111) substrates by chemical vapor deposition method (CVD) at 1050 °C. Every liquid-medicine-filter shaped ZnO nanostructure is made up of one nanorod and two nanowires at the ends. The liquid-medicine-filter shaped ZnO nanostructures are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) photoluminescence (PL). The results indicate that the liquid-medicine-filter shaped ZnO nanostructures are wurtzite hexagonal structure and the growth direction is [0001]. The liquid-medicine-filter shaped ZnO nanostructures became the new member of ZnO nanostructures for the novel configuration. PL reveals ultraviolet (UV) emission at 384 nm and a broad emission peak at 540 nm. These novel liquid-medicine-filter shaped ZnO nanostructures will provide an improvement for electronic and optical devices. The pre-prepared Al2O3 film on the Si (111) substrate solves the troublesome lattice mismatch problem between the Si substrate and ZnO, and makes the growth of liquid-medicine-filter shaped ZnO nanostructures more effective. In addition, the effect of screw dislocation and polar surfaces in understanding crystal growth mechanisms in nanometer scale were also provided.

  2. Propeller-Shaped ZnO Nanostructures Obtained by Chemical Vapor Deposition: Photoluminescence and Photocatalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Propeller-shaped and flower-shaped ZnO nanostructures on Si substrates were prepared by a one-step chemical vapor deposition technique. The propeller-shaped ZnO nanostructure consists of a set of axial nanorod (50 nm in tip, 80 nm in root and 1 μm in length, surrounded by radial-oriented nanoribbons (20–30 nm in thickness and 1.5 μm in length. The morphology of flower-shaped ZnO nanostructure is similar to that of propeller-shaped ZnO, except the shape of leaves. These nanorods leaves (30 nm in diameter and 1–1.5 μm in length are aligned in a radial way and pointed toward a common center. The flower-shaped ZnO nanostructures show sharper and stronger UV emission at 378 nm than the propeller-shaped ZnO, indicating a better crystal quality and fewer structural defects in flower-shaped ZnO. In comparison with flower-shaped ZnO nanostructures, the propeller-shaped ZnO nanostructures exhibited a higher photocatalytic property for the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B under UV-light illumination.

  3. Growth of novel ZnO nanostructures by soft chemical routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravana Kumar, R. [PG and Research, Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College (Autonomous), Coimbatore 641 029, Tamil Nadu (India); Sathyamoorthy, R., E-mail: rsathya59@gmail.co [PG and Research, Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College (Autonomous), Coimbatore 641 029, Tamil Nadu (India); Matheswaran, P. [PG and Research, Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College (Autonomous), Coimbatore 641 029, Tamil Nadu (India); Sudhagar, P.; Kang, Yong Soo [Energy Materials Laboratory, WCU Program Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-10

    Research highlights: Fabrication of diverse ZnO nanostructures through soft chemical routes is both fundamentally interesting and technologically important. Accordingly, in the present work novel ZnO nanostructures namely nanorods/nanospines were grown on glass substrate by integrating SILAR and CBD techniques. This simple approach not only would lead to the development of an effective and commercial growth process for diverse ZnO nanostructures, but also lead to the large-scale preparation of other nanomaterials for many important applications in nanotechnology. - Abstract: We explore a facile route to prepare one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanostructures including nanorods/nanospines on glass substrates by integrating inexpensive successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) methods. The effect of seed layer on the growth and morphology of the ZnO nanostructures was investigated. Accordingly, the surface modification of the seed layer prepared by SILAR was carried out by employing two different drying processes namely (a) allowing the hot substrate to cool for certain period of time before immersing in the ion-exchange bath, and (b) immediate immersion of the hot substrate into the ion-exchange bath. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the ZnO films revealed hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferential orientation along c-axis, while the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the dart-like and spherical shaped ZnO seed particles. ZnO nanostructures grown by CBD over the dart-like and spherical shaped ZnO seed particles resulted in the hierarchical and aligned ZnO nanospines/nanorods respectively. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) study exhibited highly intense UV emission with weak visible emissions in the visible region. The growth mechanism and the role of seed layer morphology on the formation of ZnO nanostructures were discussed.

  4. Hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanostructures - revew article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunandan Baruah and Joydeep Dutta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional nanostructures exhibit interesting electronic and optical properties due to their low dimensionality leading to quantum confinement effects. ZnO has received lot of attention as a nanostructured material because of unique properties rendering it suitable for various applications. Amongst the different methods of synthesis of ZnO nanostructures, the hydrothermal method is attractive for its simplicity and environment friendly conditions. This review summarizes the conditions leading to the growth of different ZnO nanostructures using hydrothermal technique. Doping of ZnO nanostructures through hydrothermal method are also highlighted.

  5. Studies on visible light photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of nanostructured cobalt doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel spin coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poongodi, G.; Anandan, P.; Kumar, R. Mohan; Jayavel, R.

    2015-09-01

    Nanostructured cobalt doped ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spin coating technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The XRD results showed that the thin films were well crystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The results of EDAX and XPS revealed that Co was doped into ZnO structure. FESEM images revealed that the films possess granular morphology without any crack and confirm that Co doping decreases the grain size. UV-Vis transmission spectra show that the substitution of Co in ZnO leads to band gap narrowing. The Co doped ZnO films were found to exhibit improved photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light in comparison with the undoped ZnO film. The decrease in grain size and extending light absorption towards the visible region by Co doping in ZnO film contribute equally to the improved photocatalytic activity. The bactericidal efficiency of Co doped ZnO films were investigated against a Gram negative (Escherichia coli) and a Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. The optical density (OD) measurement showed better bactericidal activity at higher level of Co doping in ZnO.

  6. Studies on visible light photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of nanostructured cobalt doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel spin coating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poongodi, G; Anandan, P; Kumar, R Mohan; Jayavel, R

    2015-09-05

    Nanostructured cobalt doped ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spin coating technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The XRD results showed that the thin films were well crystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The results of EDAX and XPS revealed that Co was doped into ZnO structure. FESEM images revealed that the films possess granular morphology without any crack and confirm that Co doping decreases the grain size. UV-Vis transmission spectra show that the substitution of Co in ZnO leads to band gap narrowing. The Co doped ZnO films were found to exhibit improved photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light in comparison with the undoped ZnO film. The decrease in grain size and extending light absorption towards the visible region by Co doping in ZnO film contribute equally to the improved photocatalytic activity. The bactericidal efficiency of Co doped ZnO films were investigated against a Gram negative (Escherichia coli) and a Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. The optical density (OD) measurement showed better bactericidal activity at higher level of Co doping in ZnO.

  7. Development of gas sensors using ZnO nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Gupta; Aditee Joshi; Manmeet Kaur

    2010-01-01

    Different ZnO nanostructures such as nanowires, nanobelts and tetrapods have been grown and used for preparation of thick film (with random grain boundaries) as well as isolated nanowire/nanobelt gas sensors. Sensitivity of different type of sensors has been studied to H2S and NO gases. The results show that the response of ZnO sensors to H2S arises from grain boundary only whereas both grain boundaries and intragrain resistances contribute towards response to NO. In addition, oxygen vacancies in the lattice were also seen to help in improvement of sensor response. Room temperature operating H2S and NO sensors based on ZnO nanowires have been demonstrated. Further, sensors based on isolated nanobelts were found to be highly selective in their response to NO.

  8. Highly selective NH3 gas sensor based on Au loaded ZnO nanostructures prepared using microwave-assisted method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingange, K; Tshabalala, Z P; Ntwaeaborwa, O M; Motaung, D E; Mhlongo, G H

    2016-10-01

    ZnO nanorods synthesized using microwave-assisted approach were functionalized with gold (Au) nanoparticles. The Au coverage on the surface of the functionalized ZnO was controlled by adjusting the concentration of the Au precursor. According to X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results, it was confirmed that Au form nanoparticles loaded on the surface of ZnO. The small Au loading level of 0.5wt% showed the highest response of 1600-100ppm of NH3 gas at room temperature (RT) whereas further increase of Au loading level resulted in poor detection of NH3. All Au loaded ZnO (Au/ZnO) based sensors exhibited very short recovery and response times compared to unloaded ZnO sensing materials. The responses of ZnO and Au/ZnO based sensors (0.5-2.5wt%) to other flammable gases, including H2, CO and CH4, were considerably less, demonstrating that Au/ZnO based sensors were highly selective to NH3 gas at room temperature. Spill over mechanism which is the main reason for the observed enhanced NH3 response with 0.5 Au loading level is explained in detail.

  9. Enhanced super-hydrophobic and switching behavior of ZnO nanostructured surfaces prepared by simple solution--immersion successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, P; Sundaramurthy, J; Mangalaraj, D; Nataraj, D; Rajarathnam, D; Srinivasan, M P

    2011-11-01

    A simple and cost-effective successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method was adopted to fabricate hydrophobic ZnO nanostructured surfaces on transparent indium-tin oxide (ITO), glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. ZnO films deposited on different substrates show hierarchical structures like spindle, flower and spherical shape with diameters ranging from 30 to 300 nm. The photo-induced switching behaviors of ZnO film surfaces between hydrophobic and hydrophilic states were examined by water contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. ZnO nanostructured films had contact angles of ~140° and 160°±2 on glass and PET substrates, respectively, exhibiting hydrophobic behavior without any surface modification or treatment. Upon exposure to ultraviolet (UV) illumination, the films showed hydrophilic behavior (contact angle: 15°±2), which upon low thermal stimuli revert back to its original hydrophobic nature. Such reversible and repeatable switching behaviors were observed upon cyclical exposure to ultraviolet radiation. These biomimetic ZnO surfaces exhibit good anti-reflective properties with lower reflectance of 9% for PET substrates. Thus, the present work is significant in terms of its potential application in switching devices, solar coatings and self-cleaning smart windows.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanostructures on noble-metal coated substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikovska, A.Og. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chaussee, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Atanasova, G.B. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Avdeev, G.V. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Nedyalkov, N.N. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chaussee, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • ZnO nanostructures were fabricated on Au–Ag alloy coated silicon substrates by applying pulsed laser deposition. • Morphology of the ZnO nanostructures was related to the Au–Ag alloy content in the catalyst layer. • Increasing the Ag content in Au–Ag catalyst layer changes the morphology of the ZnO nanostructures from nanorods to nanobelts. - Abstract: In this work, ZnO nanostructures were fabricated on noble-metal (Au, Ag and Au–Ag alloys) coated silicon substrates by applying pulsed laser deposition. The samples were prepared at a substrate temperature of 550 °C, an oxygen pressure of 5 Pa, and a laser fluence of 2 J cm{sup −2} – process parameters usually used for deposition of smooth and dense thin films. The metal layer's role is substantial for the preparation of nanostructures. Heating of the substrate changed the morphology of the metal layer and, subsequently, nanoparticles were formed. The use of different metal particles resulted in different morphologies and properties of the ZnO nanostructures synthesized. The morphology of the ZnO nanostructures was related to the Au–Ag alloy's content of the catalyst layer. It was found that the morphology of the ZnO nanostructures evolved from nanorods to nanobelts as the ratio of Au/Ag in the alloy catalyst was varied. The use of a small quantity of Ag in the Au–Ag catalyst (Au{sub 3}Ag) layer resulted predominantly in the deposition of ZnO nanorods. A higher Ag content in the catalyst alloy (AuAg{sub 2}) layer resulted in the growth of a dense structure of ZnO nanobelts.

  11. Hydrophobic ZnO nanostructured thin films on glass substrate by simple successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P. Suresh; Raj, A. Dhayal [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641046 (India); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.co [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641046 (India); Nataraj, D. [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641046 (India)

    2010-10-01

    In the present work, ZnO nanostructured thin films were grown on glass substrates by a simple successive ionic layer absorption and reaction method (SILAR) process at relatively low temperature for its self cleaning application. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to characterize the prepared ZnO nanostructured film. XRD pattern clearly reviles that the grown ZnO nanostructure film reflect (002) orientation with c-direction. SEM image clearly shows the surface morphology with cluster of spindle and flower-like nanostructured with diameter various around 350 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnO nanostructures film exhibit a UV emission around 385nm and visible emission in the range around 420-500 nm. Good water repellent behavior were observed for ZnO nanostructured film without any surface modification.

  12. Band Gap Narrowing and Widening of ZnO Nanostructures and Doped Materials

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Band gap change in doped ZnO is an observed phenomenon that is very interesting from the fundamental point of view. This work is focused on the preparation of pure and single phase nanostructured ZnO and Cu as well as Mn-doped ZnO for the purpose of understanding the mechanisms of band gap narrowing in the materials. ZnO, Zn0.99Cu0.01O and Zn0.99Mn0.01O materials were prepared using a wet chemistry method, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that all samples were pure and single phase....

  13. Liquid crystal alignment on ZnO nanostructure films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yueh-Feng; Chen, Mu-Zhe; Yang, Sheng-Hsiung; Jeng, Shie-Chang

    2016-03-01

    The study of liquid crystal (LC) alignment is important for fundamental researches and industrial applications. The tunable pretilt angles of liquid crystal (LC) molecules aligned on the inorganic zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure films with controllable surface wettability are demonstrated in this work. The ZnO nanostructure films are deposited on the ITO- glass substrates by the two-steps hydrothermal process, and their wettability can be modified by annealing. Our experimental results show that the pretilt angles of LCs on ZnO nanostructure films can be successfully adjusted over a wide range from ~90° to ~0° as the surface energy on the ZnO nanostructure films changes from ~30 to ~70 mJ/m. Finally we have applied this technique to fabricate a no-bias optically-compensated bend (OCB) LCD with ZnO nanostructure films annealed at 235 °C.

  14. Synthesis and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    One-dimensional ZnO nanostructures have great potential applications in the fields of optoelectronic and sensor devices. Therefore, it is really important to realize the controllable growth of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures and investigate their properties. The main points for this thesis are not only to successfully realize the controllable growth of ZnO nonawires, nanorods and quantum dots (QDs), and also investigate the structure and optical properties in detail by the methods of scan ...

  15. Photoelectrochemical properties of hierarchical ZnO micro-nanostructure sensitized with Sb2S3 nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin GUO

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available By using electrochemical deposition method, and assisted with additions of PEG-400 and EDA, well-aligned ZnO nanorods and hierarchical ZnO micro-nanostructure are fabricated directly on indium doped tin oxide coated conducting glass (ITO substrate. The shell-core Sb2S3/ZnO nanorod structure and the shell-core hierarchical Sb2S3/ZnO micro-nanostructure are prepared by chemical bath deposition method. SEM, XRD, UV-Vis and photocurrent test are used to characterize the morphology, nanostructures and their photoelectrochemical properties. The studies show that the photocurrent on the array membranes with shell-core hierarchical Sb2S3/ZnO micro-nanostructure is apparently higher than that with shell-core Sb2S3/ZnO nanorods array.

  16. Growth and characterization of ZnO nanostructured thin films by a two step chemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P. Suresh; Raj, A. Dhayal; Mangalaraj, D.; Nataraj, D.

    2008-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured seed layer was grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method on glass substrate. The as-prepared nanostructured seed layer was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for its structure and surface morphology. XRD results showed (0 0 2) oriented ZnO seed layer growth. Surface morphology study revealed the cluster of ZnO nanocrystals with hexagonal shape. ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been grown over the as-prepared ZnO nanostructured seed layer using a simple chemical bath deposition (CBD) method by immersing seed layer substrate in a chemical bath. It has been found that the morphology of the nanostructured seed layer is a key influencing factor for the growth of vertical ZnO NRs. In our growth method, we were successful in growing vertical NRs with diameter of about 70-150 nm with perfect hexagonal shape. Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman studies were carried out to analyse the crystal quality of our as-grown ZnO nanorods.

  17. Growth and characterization of ZnO nanostructured thin films by a two step chemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P. Suresh; Raj, A. Dhayal [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Mangalaraj, D. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India)], E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.com; Nataraj, D. [Thin Film and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India)

    2008-12-30

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured seed layer was grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method on glass substrate. The as-prepared nanostructured seed layer was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for its structure and surface morphology. XRD results showed (0 0 2) oriented ZnO seed layer growth. Surface morphology study revealed the cluster of ZnO nanocrystals with hexagonal shape. ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been grown over the as-prepared ZnO nanostructured seed layer using a simple chemical bath deposition (CBD) method by immersing seed layer substrate in a chemical bath. It has been found that the morphology of the nanostructured seed layer is a key influencing factor for the growth of vertical ZnO NRs. In our growth method, we were successful in growing vertical NRs with diameter of about 70-150 nm with perfect hexagonal shape. Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman studies were carried out to analyse the crystal quality of our as-grown ZnO nanorods.

  18. Synthesis and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, U.; Serrano, J. Garcia; Santiago, P.; Xiong, Gang; Ucer, K. B.; Williams, R. T.

    2006-10-01

    ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies were grown by a low-temperature hydrothermal technique. The morphology, crystallinity and defect content in the nanostructures could be controlled by adjusting the synthesis conditions. Nanostructures prepared with optimum growth conditions were of good structural and optical qualities. Effects of growth conditions and thermal annealing on the optical properties of the nanostructures were studied by Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy techniques. It is found that the nanostructures grown with particular initial and final pH values of the reaction mixture and air-annealed at about 250 °C are of best crystalline and optical quality.

  19. Study of an antireflection surface constructed of controlled ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ren-Jei, E-mail: rjchung@ntut.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology (Taipei Tech), Taipei 10608, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Zih-Cian [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology (Taipei Tech), Taipei 10608, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Chin-An; Lai, Kun-Yu [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-11-03

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were fabricated on Si wafers using a hydrothermal method. By adjusting the spin-coating speed and annealing time for the zinc acetate thin films used as a seed layer, the density of ZnO nanorods (NRs) was controlled. In addition, it was found that the morphology of the NRs evolved from a wire-like geometry to a tower-like geometry with an increasing concentration of ascorbic acid. The surface reflectance of the ZnO NR layers with various textures was investigated. The results indicated that NRs effectively enhanced light trapping and further reduced Fresnel reflection due to the significant grading in the refractive index, avoiding the abrupt transition at the air/Si interface. The total reflectance on the coated surface can be as low as 11%, which is 3 times lower than that of polished Si. The optimized design of nanostructured ZnO surfaces for antireflection coatings will greatly improve the performance of optoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • Nanotructured ZnO was prepared to serve as an anti-reflection coating. • The geometries of sol–gel prepared ZnO were controlled. • ZnO nanorod, nanoneedle and nanotower arrays were fabricated. • The light reflectance of the nanostructures was much lower than that of bare Si.

  20. Increased photocatalytic activity of tube-brush-like ZnO nanostructures fabricated by using PVP nanofibers as templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xinying; Zhai, Yingjiao [School of Science, International Joint Research Center for Nanophotonics and Biophotonics, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 7089 Wei-Xing Road, Changchun 130022 (China); Li, Jinhua, E-mail: jhli_cust@163.com [School of Science, International Joint Research Center for Nanophotonics and Biophotonics, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 7089 Wei-Xing Road, Changchun 130022 (China); Fang, Xuan [School of Science, International Joint Research Center for Nanophotonics and Biophotonics, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 7089 Wei-Xing Road, Changchun 130022 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Power Semiconductor Laser, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 7089 Wei-Xing Road, Changchun 130022 (China); Fang, Fang; Chu, Xueying [School of Science, International Joint Research Center for Nanophotonics and Biophotonics, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 7089 Wei-Xing Road, Changchun 130022 (China); Wei, Zhipeng; Wang, Xiaohua [State Key Laboratory of High Power Semiconductor Laser, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 7089 Wei-Xing Road, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We obtained the tube-brush-like ZnO nanostructures. • We used polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers used as templates by ALD and hydrothermal method to prepare tube-brush-like ZnO nanostructure. • The tube-brush-like ZnO nanostructures showed higher photocatalytic activity, the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) was up to 98% after 2 h of irradiation. - Abstract: The tube-brush-like ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method using electrospinning polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers as templates. The photocatalytic activity of as-grown samples was investigated by photo-degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB). The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV/visible absorption spectroscopy (UV–vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. It was found that the morphologies of the prepared ZnO were tube-brush-like nanostructures. With the grown time increasing, the crystal and the optical properties were improved. In the photocatalytic experiment, the tube-brush-like ZnO nanostructures photocatalytic activity was enhanced the degradation of RhB was up to 98% after 2 h of irradiation. The tube-brush-like ZnO nanostructures showed higher photocatalytic activity because of the special surface morphology.

  1. Low temperature doping of ZnO nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.A.THOMAS; H.KANDEL; Y.C.SOO

    2009-01-01

    Doping of ZnO nanostructures was investigated by using a low temperature electrochemical process. Various dopant materials have been studied, including transition metals, group I, and group VII elements. The structure, composition, and optical properties of the doped ZnO nanostructures were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and x-ray diffraction. It was demonstrated that dopant elements were incorporated into the ZnO structures. The effects of dopant incorporation on the structure and properties of ZnO were also investigated. This low temperature approach is compatible with current micro-fabrication techniques and promising for large-scale production of doped ZnO nanostructures for optical and electronic applications.

  2. Nanostructured ZnO films on stainless steel are highly safe and effective for antimicrobial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Kyudae; Abdellatif, Mohamed; Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dongkyun

    2017-04-01

    The safety and effectiveness of antimicrobial ZnO films must be established for general applications. In this study, the antimicrobial activity, skin irritation, elution behavior, and mechanical properties of nanostructured ZnO films on stainless steel were evaluated. ZnO nanoparticle (NP) and ZnO nanowall (NW) structures were prepared with different surface roughnesses, wettability, and concentrations using an RF magnetron sputtering system. The thicknesses of ZnO NP and ZnO NW were approximately 300 and 620 nm, respectively, and ZnO NW had two diffraction directions of [0002] and [01-10] based on high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The ZnO NW structure demonstrated 99.9% antimicrobial inhibition against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Penicillium funiculosum, and no skin irritation was detected using experimental rabbits. Approximately 27.2 ± 3.0 μg L(-1) Zn ions were eluted from the ZnO NW film at 100 °C for 24 h, which satisfies the WHO guidelines for drinking water quality. Furthermore, the Vickers hardness and fracture toughness of ZnO NW films on stainless steel were enhanced by 11 and 14% compared to those of the parent stainless steel. Based on these results, ZnO NW films on STS316L sheets are useful for household supplies, such as water pipes, faucets, and stainless steel containers.

  3. Weak Localization and Mobility in ZnO Nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We conduct a comprehensive investigation into the electronic and magnetotransport properties of ZnO nanoplates grown concurrently with ZnO nanowires by the vapor-liquid-solid method. We present magnetoresistance data showing weak localization in our nanoplates and probe its dependence on temperature and carrier concentration. We measure phase coherence lengths of 50–100 nm at 1.9 K and, because we do not observe spin-orbit scattering through antilocalization, suggest that ZnO nanostructures m...

  4. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Various Hierarchical ZnO Nanostructures and Their Methane Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingna Xu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical flower-like ZnO nanorods, net-like ZnO nanofibers and ZnO nanobulks have been successfully synthesized via a surfactant assisted hydrothemal method. The synthesized products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. A possible growth mechanism of the various hierarchical ZnO nanostructures is discussed in detail. Gas sensors based on the as-prepared ZnO nanostructures were fabricated by screen-printing on a flat ceramic substrate. Furthermore, their gas sensing characteristics towards methane were systematically investigated. Methane is an important characteristic hydrocarbon contaminant found dissolved in power transformer oil as a result of faults. We find that the hierarchical flower-like ZnO nanorods and net-like ZnO nanofibers samples show higher gas response and lower operating temperature with rapid response-recovery time compared to those of sensors based on ZnO nanobulks. These results present a feasible way of exploring high performance sensing materials for on-site detection of characteristic fault gases dissolved in transformer oil.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of various hierarchical ZnO nanostructures and their methane sensing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qu; Chen, Weigen; Xu, Lingna; Peng, Shudi

    2013-05-10

    Hierarchical flower-like ZnO nanorods, net-like ZnO nanofibers and ZnO nanobulks have been successfully synthesized via a surfactant assisted hydrothemal method. The synthesized products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. A possible growth mechanism of the various hierarchical ZnO nanostructures is discussed in detail. Gas sensors based on the as-prepared ZnO nanostructures were fabricated by screen-printing on a flat ceramic substrate. Furthermore, their gas sensing characteristics towards methane were systematically investigated. Methane is an important characteristic hydrocarbon contaminant found dissolved in power transformer oil as a result of faults. We find that the hierarchical flower-like ZnO nanorods and net-like ZnO nanofibers samples show higher gas response and lower operating temperature with rapid response-recovery time compared to those of sensors based on ZnO nanobulks. These results present a feasible way of exploring high performance sensing materials for on-site detection of characteristic fault gases dissolved in transformer oil.

  6. Synthesis and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duo-Fa; Liao, Lei; Li, Jin-Chai; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Ming-Zeng; Zhou, Jun-Ming

    2005-08-01

    ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies were fabricated by changing the partial oxygen pressure. The structures, morphologies and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures were investigated by x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectra at room temperature. All the samples show preferred orientation along the c-axis. The oxygen partial pressure and the annealing atmosphere have important effect on the PL property of ZnO nanostructures. The high oxygen partial pressure during growth of samples and high-temperature annealing of the ZnO samples in oxygen can increase oxygen vacancies and can especially increase antisite oxygen (Ozn) defects, which degraded the near band-edge emission. However, the annealing in H2 can significantly modify the NBE emission.

  7. Synthesis and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Duo-Fa; LIAO Lei; LI Jin-Chai; FU Qiang; PENG Ming-Zeng; ZHOU Jun-Ming

    2005-01-01

    @@ ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies were fabricated by changing the partial oxygen pressure. The structures, morphologies and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures were investigated by x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectra at room temperature. All thesamples show preferred orientation along the c-axis. The oxygen partial pressure and the annealing atmosphere have important effect on the PL property of ZnO nanostructures. The high oxygen partial pressure during growth of samples and high-temperature annealing of the ZnO samples in oxygen can increase oxygen vacancies and can especially increase antisite oxygen (Ozn) defects, which degraded the near band-edge emission. However, the annealing in H2 can significantly modify the NBE emission.

  8. Nanoporous ZnO nanostructures for photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yulong; Song, Tao; Huang, Hongwen; Peng, Xinsheng

    2013-02-01

    ZnO porous bamboo-leave-like nanorods and nanoporous networks were prepared by thermal conversion from Zn2CO3(OH)2ṡH2O bamboo-leave-like nanorods, Zn(OH)2 nanoparticle networks and Zn(OH)2 long nanostrand networks, respectively. Among them, the ZnO nanoporous networks prepared from Zn(OH)2 nanostrands had the highest surface area of 78.57 m2/g and presented the best photocatalytic decomposition of organics. The morphologies of the Zn(OH)2 nanostructures significantly depended on the solvent used for the precursors of aminoethanol and Zn(NO3)2 and then determined the corresponding structures and properties of the final ZnO nanostructures. The ethanol/water mixture solvent dramatically increased the stability of Zn(OH)2 nanostrands. This is very beneficial for the collection and application of Zn(OH)2 nanostrands.

  9. Growth of hierarchical based ZnO micro/nanostructured films and their tunable wettability behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, P.; Dhayal Raj, A.; Mangalaraj, D.; Nataraj, D.; Ponpandian, N.; Li, Lin; Chabrol, G.

    2011-05-01

    Hierarchical zinc oxide (ZnO) micro/nanostructured thin films were grown onto as-prepared and different annealed ZnO seed layer films by a simple two step chemical process. A cost effective successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method was employed to grow the seed layer films at optimal temperature (80 °C) and secondly, different hierarchical based ZnO structured thin films were deposited over the seed layered films by chemical bath deposition (CBD). The influence of seed layer on the structural, surface morphological, optical and wettability behavior of the ZnO thin films were systematically investigated. The XRD analysis confirms the high crystalline nature of both the seed layer and corresponding ZnO micro/nanostructured films with a perfect hexagonal structure oriented along (0 0 2) direction. The surface morphology revels a complex and orientated hierarchical based ZnO structured films with diverse shapes from plates to hexagonal rod-like crystal to tube-like structure and even much more complex needle-like shapes during secondary nucleation, by changing the seed layer conditions. The water contact angle (WCA) measurements on hierarchical ZnO structured films are completely examined to study its surface wettability behavior for its suitability in future self-cleaning application. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the ZnO structured film exhibit UV and visible emissions in the range of 420-500 nm. The present approach demonstrates its potential for low-temperature, large-scale, controlled synthesis of crystalline hierarchical ZnO nanostructures films.

  10. Nanostructured ZnO Films for Room Temperature Ammonia Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhivya Ponnusamy; Sridharan Madanagurusamy

    2014-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been deposited by a reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique onto a thoroughly cleaned glass substrate at room temperature. X-ray diffraction revealed that the deposited film was polycrystalline in nature. The field emission scanning electron micrograph (FE-SEM) showed the uniform formation of a rugby ball-shaped ZnO nanostructure. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) confirmed that the film was stoichiometric and the direct band gap of the film, determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy, was 3.29 eV. The ZnO nanostructured film exhibited better sensing towards ammonia (NH3) at room temperature (˜30°C). The fabricated ZnO film based sensor was capable of detecting NH3 at as low as 5 ppm, and its parameters, such as response, selectivity, stability, and response/recovery time, were also investigated.

  11. Piezoelectric ZnO nanostructure for energy harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Leprince-Wang, Yamin

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, ZnO as an important II-VI semiconductor has attracted much attention within the scientific community over the world owing to its numerous unique and prosperous properties. This material, considered as a "future material", especially in nanostructural format, has aroused many interesting research works due to its large range of applications in electronics, photonics, acoustics, energy and sensing. The bio-compatibility, piezoelectricity & low cost fabrication make ZnO nanostructure a very promising material for energy harvesting.

  12. Optical function of bionic nanostructure of ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, C X [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Zhu, G P [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Liu, Y J [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Sun, X W [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Li, X [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Liu, J P [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Cui, Y P [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2007-10-15

    A novel bionic network nanostructure of zinc oxide (ZnO), which is similar to the microstructure of a butterfly wing, was first fabricated by a vapor-phase transport method using zinc powder as a source. These bionic nanostructures are composed of three ordered multi-aperture gratings. Similar to the optical effect of butterfly wings, the diffraction patterns of the bionic network of ZnO were observed. The mechanism of the optical function was discussed based on the physical model of multi-aperture diffraction.

  13. 40% Efficiency enhancement in solar cells using ZnO nanorods as shell prepared via novel hydrothermal synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Mohammad; Zarghami, Zabihullah; Motevalli, Kourosh

    2017-03-01

    Herein, rod-like ZnO nanostructures were synthesized via a novel hydrothermal route using Zn(OAc)2, ethylenediamine and hydrazine as a new set of starting reagents. The as-synthesized products were characterized by techniques including XRD, EDS, SEM, XPS, Pl and FTIR. The prepared ZnO nanostructures were utilized as shell on TiO2 film in DSSCs. Effect of precursor type, morphology and thickness of ZnO shell (number of electrophoresis cycle) on solar cells efficiency were well studied. Our results showed that ethylenediamine has crucial effect on morphology of synthesized ZnO nanostructures and using ZnO nanostructures leads to an increase in DSSCs efficiency compared to bare TiO2 from 4.66 to 7.13% ( 40% improvement). Moreover, highest amount of solar cell efficiency (7.13%) was obtained by using ZnO nanorods with two cycle of electrophoresis for deposition.

  14. Controllable microwave and ultrasonic wave combined synthesis of ZnO micro-/nanostructures in HEPES solution and their shape-dependent photocatalytic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qin; Li, Hui; Wang, Runming; Li, Guangfang; Yang, Hao [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education and Hubei Novel Reactor and Green Chemical Technology Key Laboratory, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Xiongchu Street, Wuhan 430073 (China); Chen, Rong, E-mail: rchenhku@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education and Hubei Novel Reactor and Green Chemical Technology Key Laboratory, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Xiongchu Street, Wuhan 430073 (China); Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geomaterials of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Lumo Road, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-08-05

    Grahpical abstract: ZnO micro-/nanostructures with controllable size and morphology were successfully synthesized by microwave and ultrasonic wave combined method in HEPES solution, and exhibit shape-dependent photocatalytic activity for MB degradation under UV light irradiation. Highlights: •ZnO micro-/nanostructures were synthesized by combined microwave-ultrasonic wave method. •Morphologies of ZnO micro-/nanostructures could be modulated by varying reaction conditions. •HEPES plays a crucial role in the controllable synthesis of ZnO micro-/nanostructures. •ZnO micro-/nanostructures exhibit shape-dependent photocatalytic activity. •Spindle-like ZnO microstructures show superior photocatalytic activity. -- Abstract: Size- and morphology-controlled zinc oxide (ZnO) micro-/nanostructures have been successfully synthesized via a facile and rapid microwave and ultrasonic wave combined method in HEPES solution (HEPES = 2-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethanesulfonic acid). The as-prepared ZnO products are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and UV–vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS). Various morphologies of ZnO products, including grenade-like, column-like, spindle-like, rod-like, shuttle-like and flower-like micro-/nanostructures are obtained, which are strongly dependent on Zn/HEPES moral ratio, pH value and Zn precursor. It is found that HEPES plays a crucial role in the formation of ZnO micro-/nanostructures with controllable size and morphology. The photocatalytic activities of the prepared ZnO micro-/nanostructures are evaluated by degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light irradiation, among which spindle-like ZnO microstructures exhibit superior photocatalytic activity compared with other ZnO products.

  15. P-type nitrogen-doped ZnO nanostructures with controlled shape and doping level by facile microwave synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Natalie P; Panchakarla, Leela S; El-Shall, M Samy

    2014-03-04

    We report herein the development of a facile microwave irradiation (MWI) method for the synthesis of high-quality N-doped ZnO nanostructures with controlled morphology and doping level. We present two different approaches for the MWI-assisted synthesis of N-doped ZnO nanostructures. In the first approach, N-doping of Zn-poor ZnO prepared using zinc peroxide (ZnO2) as a precursor is carried out under MWI in the presence of urea as a nitrogen source and oleylamine (OAm) as a capping agent for the shape control of the resulting N-doped ZnO nanostructures. Our approach utilizes the MWI process for the decomposition of ZnO2, where the rapid transfer of energy directly to ZnO2 can cause an instantaneous internal temperature rise and, thus, the activation energy for the ZnO2 decomposition is essentially decreased as compared to the decomposition under conductive heating. In the second synthesis method, a one-step synthesis of N-doped ZnO nanostructures is achieved by the rapid decomposition of zinc acetate in a mixture of urea and OAm under MWI. We demonstrate, for the first time, that MWI decomposition of zinc acetate in a mixture of OAm and urea results in the formation of N-doped nanostructures with controlled shape and N-doping level. We report a direct correlation between the intensity of the Raman scattering bands in N-doped ZnO and the concentration of urea used in the synthesis. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate the successful synthesis of stable p-type N-doped ZnO nanostructures using the one-step MWI synthesis and, therefore, allow us to investigate, for the first time, the relationship between the doping level and morphology of the ZnO nanostructures. The results provide strong evidence for the control of the electrical behavior and the nanostructured shapes of ZnO nanoparticles using the facile MWI synthesis method developed in this work.

  16. Band Gap Narrowing and Widening of ZnO Nanostructures and Doped Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, Norlida; Kasim, Muhd Firdaus; Rusdi, Roshidah

    2015-12-01

    Band gap change in doped ZnO is an observed phenomenon that is very interesting from the fundamental point of view. This work is focused on the preparation of pure and single phase nanostructured ZnO and Cu as well as Mn-doped ZnO for the purpose of understanding the mechanisms of band gap narrowing in the materials. ZnO, Zn0.99Cu0.01O and Zn0.99Mn0.01O materials were prepared using a wet chemistry method, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that all samples were pure and single phase. UV-visible spectroscopy showed that materials in the nanostructured state exhibit band gap widening with respect to their micron state while for the doped compounds exhibited band gap narrowing both in the nano and micron states with respect to the pure ZnO materials. The degree of band gap change was dependent on the doped elements and crystallite size. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that there were shifts in the valence bands. From both UV-visible and XPS spectroscopy, it was found that the mechanism for band gap narrowing was due to the shifting of the valance band maximum and conduction band minimum of the materials. The mechanisms were different for different samples depending on the type of dopant and dimensional length scales of the crystallites.

  17. Morphology-controllable ZnO nanostructures: Ethanol-assisted synthesis, growth mechanism and solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y. F.; Fan, D. H.; Dong, Y. W.; Zhou, G. H.

    2014-10-01

    A very cheap solvent, ethanol, was successfully applied to control ZnO crystal growth for fabricating a series of ZnO composite nanostructures. During the experimental process, a two-step chemical route was adopted. In step-one, ZnO nanowire arrays were grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass substrate. In step-two, the step-one prepared samples were used as substrates for composite nanostructure deposition. The morphologies of the obtained products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that the morphologies of the final products can be effectively controlled by changing the water/ethanol ratios in the chemical solution. The obtained ZnO composite nanostructures with various morphologies were successfully employed in dye-sensitized solar cells. The light-to-electricity conversion results show that the composite nanostructures consisting of nanowires and pseudospherical nanostructures enable 80% improvement in solar energy conversion efficiency as compared with the nanowire arrays. These results indicate that the synthesized ZnO composite nanostructures are more suitable for application as photoelectrodes in solar cells.

  18. Use of additives in the electrodeposition of nanostructured Eu3+/ZnO films for photoluminescent devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gao-Ren; Dawa, Ci-Ren; Lu, Xi-Hong; Yu, Xiao-Lan; Tong, Ye-Xiang

    2009-02-17

    Rare-earth ion-doped ZnO has been the focus of numerous investigations because of its unique optical properties and promising applications in optoelectronic devices. Here we presented a facile electrochemical deposition route for the controllable preparation of Eu3+/ZnO nanostructures on a large scale. The prepared Eu3+/ZnO deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, selected area electron diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Herein, the growth mechanisms of Eu3+/ZnO nanosheets and nanorods were discussed. The formation process of Eu3+/ZnO foam-like nanostructures is illuminated in this paper. The room temperature photoluminescence properties of the Eu3+/ZnO foam-like nanostructures were investigated. The sharp 4f-4f transition emissions of Eu3+ can be directly observed at 593, 617, and 698 nm. An energy transfer between ZnO and Eu3+ is shown to occur under UV excitation.

  19. Self-assembly and template-free synthesis of ZnO hierarchical nanostructures and their photocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongshun; Zhang, Haijiao; Wang, Yong; Miao, Yu; Gu, Lanbing; Jiao, Zheng

    2015-06-15

    Despite significant progress in the field of semiconductor photocatalysis has been made, it is still a great challenge to prepare low-cost photocatalysts with high activities. In our work, three dimensional (3D) flower-like ZnO hierarchical nanostructures assembled with numerous nanosheets were fabricated by a simple, template-free and one-step hydrothermal route. The products were characterized by XRD, UV-Vis, PL, SEM, TEM, HRTEM techniques. In the process, NH4F played a crucial role for the formation of ZnO hierarchical nanostructures, which was acted both as the alkali source and morphology director. Furthermore, the growth of ZnO involved a phase transformation from intermediate compound ZnF(OH) to ZnO. To further improve the photocatalytic activity, Ag-doped ZnO photocatalyst was also prepared. The photocatalytic results indicated that the Ag/ZnO exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than the pure ZnO. The great enhancement was mainly ascribed to their unique hierarchical nanostructures as well as the modification of Ag nanoparticles. Additionally, both ZnO and Ag/ZnO microspheres showed good recycling stabilities over several separation cycles in photodegradation.

  20. Effect of annealing on the sub-bandgap, defects and trapping states of ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuono, Ruri Agung; Hermann-Westendorf, Felix; Dellith, Andrea; Schmidt, Christa; Dellith, Jan; Plentz, Jonathan; Schulz, Martin; Presselt, Martin; Seyring, Martin; Rettenmeyer, Markus; Dietzek, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Annealing treatment was applied to different mesoporous ZnO nanostructures prepared by wet chemical synthesis, i.e. nanoflowers (NFs), spherical aggregates (SPs), and nanorods (NRs). The sub-bandgap, defect properties as well as the trapping state characteristics after annealing were characterized spectroscopically, including ultrasensitive photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS), photoluminescence and photo-electrochemical methods. The comprehensive experimental analysis reveals that annealing alters both the bandgap and the sub-bandgap. The defect concentration and the density of surface traps in the ZnO nanostructures are suppressed upon annealing as deduced from photoluminescence and open-circuit voltage decay analysis. The photo-electrochemical investigations reveal that the surface traps dominate the near conduction band edge of ZnO and, hence, lead to high recombination rates when used in DSSCs. The density of bulk traps in ZnO SPs is higher than that in ZnO NFs and ZnO NRs and promote lower recombination loss between photoinjected electrons with the electrolyte-oxidized species on the surface. The highest power conversion efficiency of ZnO NFs-, ZnO SPs-, and ZnO NRs-based DSSC obtained in our system is 2.0, 4.5, and 1.8%, respectively.

  1. Impact of nanostructured thin ZnO film in ultraviolet protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasani Ghamsari, Morteza; Alamdari, Sanaz; Han, Wooje; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Nanoscale ZnO is one of the best choices for ultraviolet (UV) protection, not only because of its antimicrobial properties but also due to its potential application for UV preservation. However, the behavior of nanostructured thin ZnO films and long-term effects of UV-radiation exposure have not been studied yet. In this study, we investigated the UV-protection ability of sol gel-derived thin ZnO films after different exposure times. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and UV-visible optical spectroscopy were carried out to study the structure and optical properties of the ZnO films as a function of the UV-irradiation time. The results obtained showed that the prepared thin ZnO films were somewhat transparent under the visible wavelength region and protective against UV radiation. The UV-protection factor was 50+ for the prepared samples, indicating that they were excellent UV protectors. The deposited thin ZnO films demonstrated promising antibacterial potential and significant light absorbance in the UV range. The experimental results suggest that the synthesized samples have potential for applications in the health care field. PMID:28096668

  2. Impact of nanostructured thin ZnO film in ultraviolet protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasani Ghamsari, Morteza; Alamdari, Sanaz; Han, Wooje; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Nanoscale ZnO is one of the best choices for ultraviolet (UV) protection, not only because of its antimicrobial properties but also due to its potential application for UV preservation. However, the behavior of nanostructured thin ZnO films and long-term effects of UV-radiation exposure have not been studied yet. In this study, we investigated the UV-protection ability of sol gel-derived thin ZnO films after different exposure times. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and UV-visible optical spectroscopy were carried out to study the structure and optical properties of the ZnO films as a function of the UV-irradiation time. The results obtained showed that the prepared thin ZnO films were somewhat transparent under the visible wavelength region and protective against UV radiation. The UV-protection factor was 50+ for the prepared samples, indicating that they were excellent UV protectors. The deposited thin ZnO films demonstrated promising antibacterial potential and significant light absorbance in the UV range. The experimental results suggest that the synthesized samples have potential for applications in the health care field.

  3. Effect of the morphology on the optical properties of ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zao; Ye, Zhizhen; Xu, Zheng; zhao, Binghui

    2009-12-01

    ZnO nanostructures are fabricated by citric acid-assisted annealing process. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), FTIR spectrophotometer, ultraviolet-visible-near IR spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction pattern of these samples shows that ZnO nanostructures are single crystalline and pure. The effect of morphology of ZnO nanostructures on the optical properties of ZnO nanostructures is analyzed on the basis of these results. Our results clearly demonstrate that tunable optical properties of ZnO nanostructures can be attained by changing the morphology of ZnO nanostructures.

  4. Room temperature ethanol sensor based on ZnO prepared via laser ablation in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Takahiro; Sato, Yoshihiro; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Shankar, Prabakaran; Mintcheva, Neli N.; Honda, Mitsuhiro; Iwamori, Satoru; Kulinich, Sergei A.

    2017-08-01

    The present work reports on room-temperature ethanol sensing performance of ZnO nanospheres and nanorods prepared using pulsed laser ablation in water. Nanosecond and millisecond lasers were used to prepare ZnO nanomaterials with hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. The two contrasting nanostructures were tested as gas sensors towards volatile compounds such as ethanol, ammonia, and acetone. At room temperature, devices based on both ZnO nanomaterials demonstrated selectivity for ethanol vapor. The sensitivity of nanospheres was somewhat higher compared to that of nanorods, with response values of ∼19 and ∼14, respectively, towards 250 ppm. Concentrations as low as 50 ppm could be easily detected.

  5. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of TiO2-ZnO hybrid nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Chun Cheng; Abbas Amini; Chao Zhu; Zuli Xu; Haisheng Song; Ning Wang

    2014-01-01

    We studied the photocatalytic properties of rational designed TiO2-ZnO hybrid nanostructures, which were fabricated by the site-specific deposition of amorphous TiO2 on the tips of ZnO nanorods. Compared with the pure components of ZnO nanorods and amorphous TiO2 nanoparticles, these TiO2-ZnO hybrid nanostructures demonstrated a higher catalytic activity. The strong green emission quenching observed from photoluminescence of TiO2-ZnO hybrid nanostructures implied an enhanced charge transfer/s...

  6. Fabrication of ZnO nanostructures and their application in biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikovska, A. Og.; Tsankov, N. Ts.; Toshkova, R.; Gardeva, E.; Yossifova, L.; Nedyalkov, N. N.; Atanasov, P. A.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we synthesized different types of ZnO samples (thin and nanostructured films) and investigated their potential application in biomedicine. The properties of ZnO films are strongly dependent on the synthesis process and the experimental conditions. Thus, the samples were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), which allows excellent control over the stoichiometry and surface morphology. Cell suspensions of the same concentration and volume (i.e. same number of cells) were seeded on each sample. The subjects of interest were 3T3 fibroblast, MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cells. The influence of the ZnO surface morphology on the viability of these three different cell cultures was studied. The cell type defines the appropriate surface morphology for cell culturing. The nanoscale morphology of the samples supports the HeLa cell viability, while only a small quantity of MCF-7 cells are able to adhere, spread and survive on them.

  7. Simultaneous tuning of electric field intensity and structural properties of ZnO: Graphene nanostructures for FOSPR based nicotine sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Rana; Gupta, Banshi D

    2017-05-15

    We report theoretical and experimental realization of a SPR based fiber optic nicotine sensor having coatings of silver and graphene doped ZnO nanostructure onto the unclad core of the optical fiber. The volume fraction (f) of graphene in ZnO was optimized using simulation of electric field intensity. Four types of graphene doped ZnO nanostructures viz. nanocomposites, nanoflowers, nanotubes and nanofibers were prepared using optimized value of f. The morphology, photoluminescence (PL) spectra and UV-vis spectra of these nanostructures were studied. The peak PL intensity was found to be highest for ZnO: graphene nanofibers. The optimized value of f in ZnO: graphene nanofiber was reconfirmed using UV-vis spectroscopy. The experiments were performed on the fiber optic probe fabricated with Ag/ZnO: graphene layer and optimized parameters for in-situ detection of nicotine. The interaction of nicotine with ZnO: graphene nanostructures alters the dielectric function of ZnO: graphene nanostructure which is manifested in terms of shift in resonance wavelength. From the sensing signal, the performance parameters were measured including sensitivity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), stability, repeatability and selectivity. The real sample prepared using cigarette tobacco leaves and analyzed using the fabricated sensor makes it suitable for practical applications. The achieved values of LOD and LOQ are found to be unrivalled in comparison to the reported ones. The sensor possesses additional advantages such as, immunity to electromagnetic interference, low cost, capability of online monitoring, remote sensing.

  8. Nanostructured ZnO - its challenging properties and potential for device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova-Malinovska, D.

    2017-01-01

    Nanostructured ZnO possessing interesting structural and optical properties offers challenging opportunities for innovative applications. In this lecture the review of the optical and structural properties of ZnO nanostructured layers is presented. It is shown that they have a direct impact on the parameters of devices involving ZnO. An analysis of current trends in the photovoltaic (PV) field shows that improved light harvesting and efficiency of solar cells can be obtained by implementing nanostructured ZnO layers to process advanced solar cell structures. Because of amenability to doping, high chemical stability, sensitivity to different adsorbed gases, nontoxicity and low cost ZnO attracted much attention for application as gas sensors. The sensitivity of nano-grain ZnO gas elements is comparatively high because of the grain-size effect. Application of nanostructured ZnO for gas sensors and for increasing of light harvesting in solar cells is demonstrated.

  9. Facile synthesis of one dimensional ZnO nanostructures for DSSC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N., E-mail: anandhan-kn@rediffmail.com [Advanced Materials and Thin Film Physics Lab, School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi – 630 003, India. (India)

    2016-05-06

    Development of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure based third generation dye sensitized solar cell is interesting compared to conventional silicon solar cells. ZnO nanostructured thin films were electrochemically deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate. The effect of ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) on structural, morphological and optical properties is investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) meter, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and micro Raman spectroscopy. XRD patterns reveal that the prepared nanostructures are hexagonal wutrzite structures with (101) plane orientation, the nanostructure prepared using EDTA exhibits better crystallinity. FE-SEM images illustrate that the morphological changes are observed from nanorod structure to cauliflower like structure as EDTA is added. Micro Raman spectra predict that cauliflower like structure possesses a higher crystalline nature with less atomic defects compared to nanorod structures. Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is constructed for the optimized cauliflower structure, and open circuit voltage, short circuit density, fill factor and efficiency are estimated from the J-V curve.

  10. Facile synthesis of one dimensional ZnO nanostructures for DSSC applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N.

    2016-05-01

    Development of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure based third generation dye sensitized solar cell is interesting compared to conventional silicon solar cells. ZnO nanostructured thin films were electrochemically deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate. The effect of ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) on structural, morphological and optical properties is investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) meter, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and micro Raman spectroscopy. XRD patterns reveal that the prepared nanostructures are hexagonal wutrzite structures with (101) plane orientation, the nanostructure prepared using EDTA exhibits better crystallinity. FE-SEM images illustrate that the morphological changes are observed from nanorod structure to cauliflower like structure as EDTA is added. Micro Raman spectra predict that cauliflower like structure possesses a higher crystalline nature with less atomic defects compared to nanorod structures. Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is constructed for the optimized cauliflower structure, and open circuit voltage, short circuit density, fill factor and efficiency are estimated from the J-V curve.

  11. Growth mechanism, surface and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures deposited on various Au-seeded thickness obtained by mist-atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afaah, A. N.; Aadila, A.; Asib, N. A. M.; Mohamed, R.; Rusop, M.; Khusaimi, Z.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, growth mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures on non-seeded glass, 6 nm and 12 nm Au seed layer obtained by mist-atomization was proposed. ZnO films were successfully deposited on glass substrate with different thickness of Au seed layer i.e. 6 nm and 12 nm. The surface and optical properties of the prepared samples were investigated using Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and photoluminescence (PL). FESEM micrograph show that ZnO nanostructure deposited on 6 nm Au seed layer has uniform formation and well distributed. From PL spectroscopy, the UV emission shows that ZnO deposited on 6 nm Au seed layer has the more intense UV intensity which proved that high crystal quality of nanostructured ZnO deposited on 6 nm Au seed layer.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of ZnO Nanostructures Grown via a Novel Atmospheric Pressure Solution Evaporation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hamdam Momen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel method called “atmospheric pressure solution evaporation (APSE” wasdeveloped for growing of Zinc Oxide (ZnO nanostructures on Al2O3 surface. Zinc acetate dihydrate,Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone, and deionized water were used as precursor, capping, and solvent, respectively.The growth of ZnO nanostructures from evaporated solution was performed at three temperatures of300, 400, and 500°C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM demonstrated that ZnOnanostructures formed in nanorods or cauliflower-like rods based on the growth temperature. X-raydiffraction patterns of ZnO nanostructures prepared at different growth temperatures were indexed ashexagonal Wurtzite structure without any impurity. The optical band gap energy evaluated by diffusereflectance spectroscopy (DRS was 3.22∼3.29 eV. Optical properties of the ZnO nanostructures areinvestigated by UV–Vis spectroscopy. There is a blue shift in the band edge with changing of thegrowth temperature. The degradation of Methylene Blue (MB dye demonstrated that ZnO nanorodsgrown at the growth temperature of 300°C showed better photodegradation compared to othernanostructures. Antifungal properties of ZnO nanorods against Candida albicans were much higherthan that of the other nanostructures. This method, compared to other synthesis methods of ZnOnanostructures, offers several advantages, such as simplicity, cost-effectiveness, low-temperature,atmospheric pressure, and large area deposition. Such a low-temperature growth method may exposegreat opportunities for synthesis of ZnO nanorods onto various low-temperature-endurance substratesand extend the field of ZnO-based nanoscale devices.

  13. Microfluidic reactors for the morphology controlled synthesis and photocatalytic study of ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Arabinda; Jindal, Amandeep; Acharya, Chhayakanta; Prakash, Bhanu; Basu, Suddhasatwa; Ganguli, Ashok Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Facile surfactant-free microfluidic synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures with varying morphology (spindles, sheets and spheres) has been achieved using polydimethylsiloxane microreactors having different channel geometry. Synthesized ZnO nanostructures show excellent photocatalytic dye degradation efficiency (>80%) when investigated using fixed bed photocatalytic microreactors under UV radiation.

  14. From Bloch to random lasing in ZnO self-assembled nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Fernandez, Pedro David; Cefe, López

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present measurements on UV lasing in ZnO ordered and disordered nanostructures. Bloch lasing is achieved in the ordered structures by exploiting very low group-velocity Bloch modes in ZnO photonic crystals. In the second case, random lasing is observed in ZnO photonic glasses. W...

  15. Synthesis and optical properties of two novel ZnO flower like and spindlelike nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong; WANG Wei-sheng

    2011-01-01

    A new aqueous chemical growth method for generation of ZnO flowerlike and spindlelike nanostructures, transformed from layered basic zinc acetate (LBZA) nanobelts, is developed. The novel as-synthesized ZnO flowerlike and spindlelike nanostructures are mainly due to the pH. They are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The X-ray diffraction peaks indicate that these ZnO nanostructures prefer to grow along the C-axis.Photoluminescence (PL) measurements show that the ZnO flowerlike nanostructures have strong ultraviolet (UV) emission properties at 380 nm, while no defect-related visible emission can be detected. The good performance for photoluminescence emission makes the ZnO flowerlike nanostructures to be promising candidates for photonic and electronic device applications.

  16. Morphological driven photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Khaldoon N.; Bidin, Noriah

    2017-02-01

    Using a simple combination of pulse laser ablation in liquid and hydrothermal (PLAL-H) approaches, we control the morphology of ZnO nanostructures (ZNSs) to determine the feasibility of their photocatalytic efficacy. These ZNSs are deposited on Si (100) substrates and two different morphologies are achieved. In this synergistic approach, PLAL synthesized NSs are used as a nutrient solution with different pH for further hydrothermal treatment at 110 °C under varying growth time (5, 30 and 60 min). Surface morphology, structure, composition, and optical characteristics of the prepared ZNSs are determined using FESEM, XRD, FTIR and Photoluminescence (PL) and UV-vis absorption measurements. The morphology revealed remarkable transformation from nanorods (NRs)/nanoflowers (NFs) (at pH 7.6) to nanoparticles (NPs)-like (at pH 10.5) structure. XRD patterns showed better polycrystallinity for NPs with enlarged band gap than NR/NF-like structures. Both PL and UV-vis spectral analysis of ZNPs exhibited higher surface area and deep level defects density dependent morphology, where the nutrient pH and growth time variation are found to play a significant role towards structural evolution. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activities of, such ZNSs are evaluated via sunlight driven photo-degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye. The photocatalytic efficiency of ZNPs is demonstrated to be much superior (97.4%) than ZNRs/ZNFs-like morphology (86%). Such enhanced photocatalytic activities of as-synthesized ZNPs is attributed to the synergism of the improved surface area and defects density, which is useful for promoting the adsorption of the MB dye and suppressed surface recombination of photo-generated charge carriers.

  17. Hydrothermal growth and characterizations of dandelion-like ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, Rohidas B., E-mail: rb_kale@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, The Institute of Science, Madam Cama Road, Mumbai 400 032, (M.S.) (India); Lu, Shih-Yuan, E-mail: sylu@nthu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-12-05

    Highlights: •The simple, low cost, environmental benign hydrothermal method has been used to synthesize ZnO nanostructure. •The SEM images reveal the interesting 3D dandelion-like morphology of synthesized ZnO nanostructure. The SAED pattern and HRTEM study confirms that the ZnO nanorods are single crystalline. •Change in experimental conditions dramatically changes the morphologies of the synthesized ZnO. •The room temperature PL study reveals strong band edge emission along with much weaker defect related blue emission. •The reaction and growth mechanism of ZnO nanostructure is also discussed. -- Abstract: Three dimensional (3D) ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized by using a facile low-cost hydrothermal method under mild conditions. Aqueous alkaline ammonia solution of Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} is used to grow 3D ZnO nanostructures. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) study reveals the well crystallized hexagonal structure of ZnO. SEM observations depict that the ZnO product grows in the form of nanorods united together to form 3D dandelion-like nanostructures. The elemental analysis using EDAX technique confirms the stoichiometry of the ZnO nanorods. The product exhibits special optical properties with red-shifts in optical absorption peak (376 nm) as compared with those of conventional ZnO nanorods. PL spectra show emission peak (396 nm) at the near band-edge and peak (464 nm) originated from defects states that are produced during the hydrothermal growth. TEM and SAED results reveal single crystalline structure of the synthesized product. The reaction and growth mechanisms on the morphological evolution of the ZnO nanostructures are discussed. The morphology of ZnO product is investigated by varying the reaction time, temperature, and type of complexing reagent.

  18. Growth of a Novel Nanostructured ZnO Urchin: Control of Cytotoxicity and Dissolution of the ZnO Urchin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Roghayeh; Drašler, Barbara; Kononenko, Veno; Romih, Tea; Eleršič, Kristina; Jelenc, Janez; Junkar, Ita; Remškar, Maja; Drobne, Damjana; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Iglič, Aleš

    2015-12-01

    The applications of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) in implantable wireless devices, such as diagnostic nanobiosensors and nanobiogenerators, have recently attracted enormous attention due to their unique properties. However, for these implantable nanodevices, the biocompatibility and the ability to control the behaviour of cells in contact with ZnO NWs are demanded for the success of these implantable devices, but to date, only a few contrasting results from their biocompatibility can be found. There is a need for more research about the biocompatibility of ZnO nanostructures and the adhesion and viability of cells on the surface of ZnO nanostructures. Here, we introduce synthesis of a new nature-inspired nanostructured ZnO urchin, with the dimensions of the ZnO urchin's acicula being controllable. To examine the biocompatibility and behaviour of cells in contact with the ZnO urchin, the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell line was chosen as an in vitro experimental model. The results of the viability assay indicated that, compared to control, the number of viable cells attached to the surface of the ZnO urchin and its surrounding area were reduced. The measurements of the Zn contents of cell media confirmed ZnO dissolution, which suggests that the ZnO dissolution in cell culture medium could lead to cytotoxicity. A purposeful reduction of ZnO cytotoxicity was achieved by surface coating of the ZnO urchin with poly(vinylidene fluorid-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP), which changed the material matrix to slow the Zn ion release and consequently reduce the cytotoxicity of the ZnO urchin without reducing its functionality.

  19. Catalyst-nanostructure interaction in the growth of 1-D ZnO nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, C; Müller, S; Stichtenoth, D; Schwen, D; Ronning, C

    2006-02-02

    Vapor-liquid-solid is a well-established process in catalyst guided growth of 1-D nanostructures, i.e., nanobelts and nanowires. The catalyst particle is generally believed to be in the liquid state during growth, and is the site for impinging molecules. The crystalline structure of the catalyst may not have any influence on the structure of the grown nanostructures. In this work, using Au guided growth of ZnO, we show that the interfaces between the catalyst droplet and the nanostructure grow in well-defined mutual crystallographic relationships. The nanostructure defines the crystallographic orientation of the solidifying Au droplet. Possible alloy, intermetallic, or eutectic phase formation during catalysis are elucidated with the help of a proposed ternary Au-Zn-O phase diagram.

  20. Heat treatment effects on the surface morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zainizan Sahdan, M. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Hafiz Mamat, M.; Salina, M.; Noor, Uzer M.; Rusop, Mohamad [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Khusaimi, Zuraida [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-09-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures have received broad attention due to its wide applications especially for thin-film solar cells and transistors. In this paper, we report the effects of heat treatment on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures. Zinc oxide nanostructures were synthesized using thermal chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method on glass substrate. The surface morphologies which were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) show that ZnO nanostructures change its shape and size when the annealing temperature increases from 400 C to 600 C. Structural measurement using X-ray diffraction (XRD) has shown that ZnO nanostructures have the highest crystallinity and smallest crystallite size (20 nm) when annealed at 550 C. Furthermore, the samples were optically characterized using Photoluminescence (PL) spectrometer. The PL spectra indicate that ZnO nanostructures have the highest peak at UV wavelength when annealed at 550 C. The mechanism of the PL properties of ZnO nanostructures is also discussed. We conclude that ZnO nanostructures deposited using thermal CVD have the optimum structural and PL properties when annealed at 550 C. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Research progress in growth of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures and preparing methods of related devices%一维氧化锌纳米结构生长及器件制备研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦杰明; 田立飞; 赵东旭; 蒋大勇; 曹建明; 丁梦; 郭振

    2011-01-01

    Morphologies of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures(nanowires,nanobelts,etc.) and their characteristics are introduced.Methods of growing one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures and the relevant devices are demonstrated comprehensively,e.g.hydrothermal and chemical vapor deposition and so on.Progress in applications including light-emitting diodes and nanogenerators is provided.Finally,the future developing trend of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures is presented and some novel means,techniques,etc.are also proposed.%介绍了一维氧化锌(ZnO)纳米结构的形态(纳米线和纳米带等)及其特点,阐述了该结构生长及器件制备的方法,例如水热法和化学气相沉积法等.概述了该结构在发光二极管和纳米发电机等方面的应用进展.最后,对一维ZnO纳米结构的未来发展趋势进行了展望,并在新方法和新工艺等方面提出了一些建议.

  2. Controlled Synthesis of ZnO Nanostructures by Electrodeposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Jiangfeng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a systematic study on the synthesis of various ZnO nanostructures by electrodeposition method with ZnCl2 solution as starting reactant. Several reaction parameters were examined to develop an optimal procedure for controlling the size, shape, and surface morphology of the nanostructure. The results showed that the morphology of the products can be carefully controlled through adjusting the concentration of the electrolyte. The products present well-aligned nanorod arrays when the concentration is low. However, they act as anomalous hexangular nanoplates when the concentration of ZnCl2 is higher than 5 mM. Transmission electron microscopy and select area electron diffraction results show that the product presents good crystallinity. A possible formation process has been proposed.

  3. Recent advances in ZnO nanostructures and thin films for biosensor applications: Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arya, Sunil K., E-mail: sunilarya333@gmail.com [Bioelectronics Program, Institute of Microelectronics, A-Star 11 Science Park Road, Singapore Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Saha, Shibu [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Ramirez-Vick, Jaime E. [Engineering Science and Materials Department, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR 00681 (United States); Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Bhansali, Shekhar [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States); Singh, Surinder P., E-mail: singh.uprm@gmail.com [National Physical Laboratory, Dr K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2012-08-06

    Graphical abstract: ZnO nanostructures have shown binding of biomolecules in desired orientation with improved conformation and high biological activity, resulting in enhanced sensing characteristics. Furthermore, their compatibility with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology for constructing integrated circuits makes them suitable candidate for future small integrated biosensor devices. This review highlights various approaches to synthesize ZnO nanostructures and thin films, and their applications in biosensor technology. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This review highlights various approaches to synthesize ZnO nanostructures and thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Article highlights the importance of ZnO nanostructures as biosensor matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Article highlights the advances in various biosensors based on ZnO nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Article describes the potential of ZnO based biosensor for new generation healthcare devices. - Abstract: Biosensors have shown great potential for health care and environmental monitoring. The performance of biosensors depends on their components, among which the matrix material, i.e., the layer between the recognition layer of biomolecule and transducer, plays a crucial role in defining the stability, sensitivity and shelf-life of a biosensor. Recently, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures and thin films have attracted much interest as materials for biosensors due to their biocompatibility, chemical stability, high isoelectric point, electrochemical activity, high electron mobility, ease of synthesis by diverse methods and high surface-to-volume ratio. ZnO nanostructures have shown the binding of biomolecules in desired orientations with improved conformation and high biological activity, resulting in enhanced sensing characteristics. Furthermore, compatibility with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology for constructing integrated circuits makes ZnO

  4. Facile synthesis of three-dimensional ZnO nanostructure: realization of a multifunctional stable superhydrophobic surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: After comprehensive study of various superhydrophobic phenomena in nature, it is no longer a puzzle for researchers to realize such fetching surfaces. However, the different types of artificial surfaces may get wetted and lose its water repellence if there exist defects or the liquid is under pressure. With respect to the industry applications, in which the resistance of wetting transition is critical important, new nanostructure satisfied a certain geometric criterion should be designed to hold a stable gas film at the base area to avoid the wet transition. METHODOLOGY: A thermal deposition method was utilized to produce a thin ZnO seeds membrane on the aluminum foil. And then a chemical self-assemble technology was developed in present work to fabricate three-dimensional (3D hierarchical dune-like ZnO architecture based on the prepared seeds membrane. RESULTS: Hierarchical ZnO with micro scale dune-like structure and core-sharing nanosheets was generated. The characterization results showed that there exist plenty of gaps and interfaces among the micro-dune and nanosheets, and thus the surface area was enlarged by such a unique morphology. Benefited from this unique 3D ZnO hierarchical nanostructure, the obtained surface exhibited stable water repellency after modification with Teflon, and furthermore, based on solid theory analysis, such 3D ZnO nanostructure would exhibit excellent sensing performance.

  5. Preparation of ZnO nanosheets by a novel microemulsion-based hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Junying [College of Chemistry and Ecological Engineering, Guangxi University for Nationalities, Nanning 530006 (China); Wenshan Middle School, Weifang 261300 (China); Huang Zaiyin, E-mail: zaiyinhuang2010@163.com [College of Chemistry and Ecological Engineering, Guangxi University for Nationalities, Nanning 530006 (China); Tan Shengwei; Li Yanfen; Wang Guotao; Tan Xuecai [College of Chemistry and Ecological Engineering, Guangxi University for Nationalities, Nanning 530006 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized ZnO nanosheets via a novel hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ZnO nanosheets exhibited a clearly electrocatalytic response. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ZnO nanosheets exhibited an intense green-yellow luminescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We discussed the formation mechanism of the prepared ZnO nanosheets. - Abstract: ZnO nanosheets have been successfully synthesized via a novel microemulsion-mediated hydrothermal route at 80 Degree-Sign C for 12 h. The compositions and morphologies of the as-prepared nanosheets were characterized by X-ray power diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected-area electron diffraction analysis (SAED). Electrochemical (EA) and photoluminescence analysis (PL) were employed to study their electrochemical behaviors and optical properties. It was found that these ZnO nanosheets had a single crystal hexagonal wurtzite structure with lattice constants of a = 0.3249 nm and c = 0.5205 nm. And they exhibited a clearly electrocatalytic response, indicating that the ZnO nanosheets could accelerate electron transfer of the electrochemical probe. The PL spectrum of ZnO nanosheets exhibited an intense green-yellow luminescence at the wavelength of 569 nm, which can be ascribed to the defects related to oxygen vacancies. The formation mechanism of the nanostructures was also proposed and discussed.

  6. ZnO nanorods prepared via ablation of Zn with millisecond laser in liquid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Mitsuhiro; Goto, Taku; Owashi, Tatsuki; Rozhin, Alex G; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Ito, Tsuyohito; Kulinich, Sergei A

    2016-09-14

    ZnO nanomaterials with controlled size, shape and surface chemistry are required for applications in diverse areas, such as optoelectronics, photocatalysis, biomedicine and so on. Here, we report on ZnO nanostructures with rod-like and spherical shapes prepared via laser ablation in liquid using a laser with millisecond-long pulses. By changing laser parameters (such as pulse width and peak power), the size or aspect ratio of such nanostructures could be tuned. The surface chemistry and defects of the products were also strongly affected by applied laser conditions. The preparation of different structures is explained by the intense heating of liquid media caused by millisecond-long pulses and secondary irradiation of already-formed nanostructures.

  7. Low-temperature rapid syntheses of high-quality ZnO nanostructure arrays induced by ammonium salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Tang, Yang; Han, Zhihua

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a simple ammonium ion-assisted hydrothermal method for the fast preparation of high quality Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays. Ammonium salts were introduced into typically hydrothermal growth solutions formed from Zinc acetate (ZnAc2) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA). Scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), High resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements revealed that the growth rate of ZnO nanorods was promoted by adding ammonium salts and the as-grown ZnO nanostructure arrays showed remarkably low defect density. Upon addition of ammonium salt to the hydrothermal reaction solution, complex Zn(NH3)42+ was formed by Zn2+ capturing NH3 molecules dissociated from HMTA. The improvement of growth rate and optical property of the ZnO nanostructure arrays was attributed to positively charged Zn(NH3)42+ attracting oxygen rich OH- in the growth sites of ZnO for hydrolysis reaction and simultaneously inhibiting the defect. Our results demonstrated that ammonium salt can act as a new paradigm to control morphology and quality of the ZnO microstructures.

  8. Design of Highly Sensitive C2H5OH Sensors Using Self-Assembled ZnO Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Heun Lee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Various ZnO nanostructures such as porous nanorods and two hierarchical structures consisting of porous nanosheets or crystalline nanorods were prepared by the reaction of mixtures of oleic-acid-dissolved ethanol solutions and aqueous dissolved Zn-precursor solutions in the presence of NaOH. All three ZnO nanostructures showed sensitive and selective detection of C2H5OH. In particular, ultra-high responses (Ra/Rg = ~1,200, Ra: resistance in air, Rg: resistance in gas to 100 ppm C2H5OH was attained using porous nanorods and hierarchical structures assembled from porous nanosheets, which is one of the highest values reported in the literature. The gas response and linearity of gas sensors were discussed in relation to the size, surface area, and porosity of the nanostructures.

  9. Enhanced visible emission from vertically aligned ZnO nanostructures by aqueous chemical growth process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiruddin, R., E-mail: amirphy9@yahoo.com; Kumar, M.C. Santhosh, E-mail: santhoshmc@nitt.edu

    2014-11-15

    ZnO nanostructures consisting of nanowires and nanorods have been grown by aqueous chemical growth (ACG) process on the ZnO seed layers. ACG process has been carried out for 5 h and 15 h to obtain the one dimensional nanostructures. This ZnO nanostructure comprises mixture of vertically aligned nanorods and nanowires. Structural analysis reveals that the crystal orientation is along (002) plane exhibiting a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The crystallinity of ZnO nanostructures increases after aqueous chemical treatment with respect to the growth duration. Optical studies revealed that when the duration of aqueous chemical treatment is increased, the transmittance of the films decreases considerably. The as-deposited ZnO seed layers exhibit electron carrier concentration of 4.69×10{sup 14} cm{sup −3} and the value increases to 9.44×10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} after 5 h and 1.53×10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} after 15 h of aqueous chemical treatment. It has been observed that ZnO nanostructures exhibit enhanced luminescence properties in visible region which covers the entire visible region of the spectrum. - Highlights: • Mixture of nanorods and nanowires are grown upon same glass substrates. • The grown nanostructures are found to be vertically aligned. • Improved electron carrier concentration is observed. • Luminescence properties of these ZnO nanostructures are highly enhanced.

  10. Effects of annealing temperature on morphologies and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinghai; Gao, Ming; Zhang, Yongjun; Yang, Lili; Lang, Jihui; Wang, Dandan; Liu, Huilian; Liu, Yanqing; Wang, Yaxin; Fan, Hougang

    2008-08-01

    The effects of annealing temperature on the morphologies and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures synthesized by sol-gel method were investigated in detail. The SEM results showed that uniform ZnO nanorods formed at 900 ∘C. The PL results showed an ultraviolet emission peak and a relatively broad visible light emission peak for all ZnO nanostructures sintered at different temperature. The increase of the crystal size and decrease of tensile stress resulted in the UV emission peak shifted from 386 to 389 nm when annealing temperature rose from 850 to 1000 ∘C. The growth mechanism of the ZnO nanorods is discussed.

  11. Doping concentration driven morphological evolution of Fe doped ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, A.; Kumar, Y.; Agarwal, V.; Olive-Méndez, S. F.; Goswami, N.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, systematic study of structural, vibrational, and optical properties of undoped and 1-10 at.% Fe doped ZnO nanostructures, synthesized adopting chemical precipitation route, has been reported. Prepared nanostructures were characterized employing an assortment of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, namely Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Micro-Raman Spectroscopy (μRS), and UV-visible and Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. With Fe incorporation, a gradual morphological transformation of nanostructures is demonstrated vividly through SEM/TEM characterizations. Interestingly, the morphology of nanostructures evolves with 1-10 at. % Fe doping concentration in ZnO. Nanoparticles obtained with 1 at. % Fe evolve to nanorods for 3 at. % Fe; nanorods transform to nanocones (for 5 at. % and 7 at. % Fe) and finally nanocones transform to nanoflakes at 10 at. % Fe. However, at all these stages, concurrence of primary hexagonal phase of Zn1-xFexO along with the secondary phases of cubic ZnFe2O4 and rhombohedric Fe2O3, is revealed through XRD analysis. Based on collective XRD, SEM, TEM, and EDX interpretations, a model for morphological evolution of nanostructures was proposed and the pivotal role of Fe dopant was deciphered. Furthermore, vibrational properties analyzed through Raman and FTIR spectroscopies unravel the intricacies of formation and gradual enhancement of secondary phases with increased Fe concentration. UV-visible and PL spectroscopic analyses provided further insight of optical processes altering with Fe incorporation. The blue shift and gradual quenching of visible photoluminescence with Fe doping was found in accordance with structural and vibrational analyses and explicated accordingly.

  12. Doping concentration driven morphological evolution of Fe doped ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, A.; Goswami, N., E-mail: navendugoswami@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida-201307 (India); Kumar, Y.; Agarwal, V. [CIICAp-UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, Col Chamilpa, Cuernavaca 62209 (Mexico); Olive-Méndez, S. F. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S. C., CIMAV, Av. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31109 (Mexico)

    2014-10-28

    In this paper, systematic study of structural, vibrational, and optical properties of undoped and 1-10 at.% Fe doped ZnO nanostructures, synthesized adopting chemical precipitation route, has been reported. Prepared nanostructures were characterized employing an assortment of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, namely Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Micro-Raman Spectroscopy (μRS), and UV-visible and Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. With Fe incorporation, a gradual morphological transformation of nanostructures is demonstrated vividly through SEM/TEM characterizations. Interestingly, the morphology of nanostructures evolves with 1–10 at. % Fe doping concentration in ZnO. Nanoparticles obtained with 1 at. % Fe evolve to nanorods for 3 at. % Fe; nanorods transform to nanocones (for 5 at. % and 7 at. % Fe) and finally nanocones transform to nanoflakes at 10 at. % Fe. However, at all these stages, concurrence of primary hexagonal phase of Zn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O along with the secondary phases of cubic ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and rhombohedric Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, is revealed through XRD analysis. Based on collective XRD, SEM, TEM, and EDX interpretations, a model for morphological evolution of nanostructures was proposed and the pivotal role of Fe dopant was deciphered. Furthermore, vibrational properties analyzed through Raman and FTIR spectroscopies unravel the intricacies of formation and gradual enhancement of secondary phases with increased Fe concentration. UV-visible and PL spectroscopic analyses provided further insight of optical processes altering with Fe incorporation. The blue shift and gradual quenching of visible photoluminescence with Fe doping was found in accordance with structural and vibrational analyses and explicated accordingly.

  13. Morphology evolution of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanostructures on gallium doping and their defect structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Hernandez, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Escobedo-Morales, A., E-mail: alejandroescobedo@hotmail.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Pal, U. [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-48, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Chigo-Anota, E. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2012-08-15

    In the present article, the effect of gallium doping on the morphology, structural, and vibrational properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanostructures has been studied. It has been observed that incorporated gallium plays an important role on the growth kinetics and hence on the morphology evolution of the ZnO crystals. Ga doping in high concentration results in the contraction of ZnO unit cell, mainly along c-axis. Although Ga has high solubility in ZnO, heavy doping promotes the segregation of Ga atoms as a secondary phase. Incorporated Ga atoms strongly affect the vibrational characteristics of ZnO lattice and induce anomalous Raman modes. Possible mechanisms of morphology evolution and origin of anomalous Raman modes in Ga doped ZnO nanostructures are discussed. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ga doped ZnO nanostructures were successfully grown by hydrothermal chemical route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ga doping has strong effect on the resulting morphology of ZnO nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anomalous vibrational modes in wurtzite ZnO lattice are induced by Ga doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporated Ga atoms accommodate at preferential lattice sites.

  14. Shape controlled Sn doped ZnO nanostructures for tunable optical emission and transport properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rakshit

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pure and Sn doped ZnO nanostructures have been grown on SiO2/Si substrates by vapor-solid technique without using any catalysts. It has been found that the morphology of the nanostructures depend strongly on the growth temperature and doping concentration. By proper tuning of the growth temperature, morphology of pure ZnO can be changed from tetrapods to multipods. On the other hand, by varying the doping concentration of Sn in ZnO, the morphology can be tuned from tetrapods to flower-like multipods to nanowires. X-ray diffraction pattern reveals that the nanostructures have a preferred (0002 growth orientation, and they are tensile strained with the increase of Sn doping in ZnO. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence characteristics of these nanostructures have been investigated in the range from 10 to 300 K. Pure ZnO tetrapods exhibited less defect state emissions than that of pure ZnO multipods. The defect emission is reduced with low concentration of Sn doping, but again increases at higher concentration of doping because of increased defects. Transport properties of pure and Sn doped ZnO tetrapods have been studied using complex-plane impedance spectroscopy. The contribution from the arms and junctions of a tetrapod could be distinguished. Sn doped ZnO samples showed lower conductivity but higher relaxation time than that of pure ZnO tetrapods.

  15. Preparation and Growth Mechanism of Flower-like ZnO Nanostructures by Water-bath Heating Method%花状纳米Zno的低温水浴制备及生长机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永强; 杜高辉; 许并社

    2009-01-01

    以氯化锌和氢氧化钠为反应原料,利用水浴恒温加热,在溶液中直接制备出呈花状形貌的纳米ZnO;采用扫描电镜、X射线衍射、透射电子显微镜等分析方法对所得产物的形貌和结构进行了表征,结果表明,在低温(45℃)时可制备出大量呈花状形貌的纳米ZnO.%Flower-like zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-structures have been synthesized in the reaction of aqueous solution of zinc chloride and NaOH by water-bath heating method. The products are characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. The results show that a large quantity of flower-like ZnO nano-structures can be obtained at 45℃.

  16. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of TiO2-ZnO hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chun; Amini, Abbas; Zhu, Chao; Xu, Zuli; Song, Haisheng; Wang, Ning

    2014-02-01

    We studied the photocatalytic properties of rational designed TiO2-ZnO hybrid nanostructures, which were fabricated by the site-specific deposition of amorphous TiO2 on the tips of ZnO nanorods. Compared with the pure components of ZnO nanorods and amorphous TiO2 nanoparticles, these TiO2-ZnO hybrid nanostructures demonstrated a higher catalytic activity. The strong green emission quenching observed from photoluminescence of TiO2-ZnO hybrid nanostructures implied an enhanced charge transfer/separation process resulting from the novel type II heterostructures with fine interfaces. The catalytic performance of annealing products with different TiO2 phase varied with the annealing temperatures. This is attributed to the combinational changes in Eg of the TiO2 phase, the specific surface area and the quantity of surface hydroxyl groups.

  17. ZnO hierarchical nanostructures and application on high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Yingsong [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); MFAL-TJ, Motorola (China) Electronics Ltd, Tianjin 300457 (China); Sun Jing; Xie Yang [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Jim [MFAL-TJ, Motorola (China) Electronics Ltd, Tianjin 300457 (China); Wang Hongli [School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Du Xiwen, E-mail: xwdu@tju.edu.c [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2010-02-15

    Uniform hierarchical ZnO nanostructures are synthesized on a large scale based on a solution approach at low temperature. The primary ZnO hexagonal prisms are firstly produced by the reaction of Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} with hexamethylenetetramine, and then ZnO branches grow on the primary prisms by using ethylenediamine molecules as an evocator. The morphology of the hierarchical nanostructure can be controlled conveniently by adjusting the molar ratio of [EDA]/[Zn{sup 2+}]. The hierarchical structure provides an effective pathway for carrier transport as well as larger surface area for dye adsorption, when ZnO hierarchical nanostructures serve as photoanode materials, the solar cells show higher conversion efficiency than that of primary ZnO nanowires.

  18. Room temperature ferromagnetism and gas sensing in ZnO nanostructures: Influence of intrinsic defects and Mn, Co, Cu doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhlongo, Gugu H.; Shingange, Katekani; Tshabalala, Zamaswazi P.; Dhonge, Baban P.; Mahmoud, Fawzy A.; Mwakikunga, Bonex W.; Motaung, David E.

    2016-12-01

    Undoped and transition metal (Cu, Co and Mn) doped ZnO nanostructures were successfully prepared via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C. Numerous characterization facilities such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were employed to acquire the structural and morphological information of the prepared ZnO based products. Combination of defect structure analysis based on photoluminescence (PL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) indicated that co-existing oxygen vacancies (VO) and zinc interstitials (Zni) defects are responsible for the observed ferromagnetism in undoped and transition metal (TM) doped ZnO systems. PL analysis demonstrated that undoped ZnO has more donor defects (VO and Zni) which are beneficial for gas response enhancement. Undoped ZnO based sensor exhibited a higher sensor response to NH3 gas compared to its counterparts owing to high content of donor defects while transition metal doped sensors showed short response and recovery times compared to undoped ZnO.

  19. Shape-selective dependence of room temperature ferromagnetism induced by hierarchical ZnO nanostructures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motaung, DE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available . These materials were synthesized in a shape-selective manner using simple microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated the as-synthesized ZnO nanostructures to be stable and of high purity. Structural analyses showed...

  20. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured undoped and Sn-doped ZnO thin films via sol–gel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, H., E-mail: cihataydin_26@hotmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Tunceli University, Tunceli 62000 (Turkey); El-Nasser, H.M. [Department of Physics, Al al-Bayt University, Mafraq (Jordan); Aydin, C. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Firat University, Elazig 23119 (Turkey); Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Yakuphanoglu, F. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Firat University, Elazig 23119 (Turkey); Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Firat University, Elazig 23119 (Turkey)

    2015-09-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sn-doped ZnO films were prepared via facile sol–gel spin coating method. • The grain size of the films changes from 39.23 to 71.84 nm with Sn doping. • The refractive index dispersion of the films obeys the single oscillator model. - Abstract: Thin films of Sn-doped ZnO were prepared via facile sol–gel spin coating method. The structural and optical properties of the films were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer. The X-ray results confirmed that all the ZnO thin films are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferential orientation of (002) plane. The crystallite size and lattice parameter values of the films were obtained. Atomic force microscopy results indicate that the Sn-doped ZnO films have the nanostructure. The grain size values of the films were found to vary from 39.23 to 71.84 nm with Sn doping. The nanostructure of the Sn-doped ZnO films was also confirmed by scanning electron microcopy. The optical bandgaps of the films were calculated for the various Sn contents. The refractive index dispersion curves obey the single oscillator model. The optical constants and dispersion parameters of the ZnO films were changed with Sn doping. The obtained results suggest that the structural and optical properties of ZnO films can be controlled by Sn doping.

  1. Acoustoelectric Effect on the Responses of SAW Sensors Coated with Electrospun ZnO Nanostructured Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaltin, Cihat; Ebeoglu, Mehmet Ali; Ozturk, Zafer Ziya

    2012-01-01

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) was a very good candidate for improving the sensitivity of gas sensor technology. The preparation of an electrospun ZnO nanostructured thin film on a 433 MHz Rayleigh wave based Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensor and the investigation of the acoustoelectric effect on the responses of the SAW sensor are reported. We prepared an electrospun ZnO nanostructured thin film on the SAW devices by using an electrospray technique. To investigate the dependency of the sensor response on the structure and the number of the ZnO nanoparticles, SAW sensors were prepared with different coating loads. The coating frequency shifts were adjusted to fall between 100 kHz and 2.4 MHz. The sensor measurements were performed against VOCs such as acetone, trichloroethylene, chloroform, ethanol, n-propanol and methanol vapor. The sensor responses of n-propanol have opposite characteristics to the other VOCs, and we attributed these characteristics to the elastic effect/acoustoelectric effect.

  2. Acoustoelectric Effect on the Responses of SAW Sensors Coated with Electrospun ZnO Nanostructured Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Ziya Ozturk

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO was a very good candidate for improving the sensitivity of gas sensor technology. The preparation of an electrospun ZnO nanostructured thin film on a 433 MHz Rayleigh wave based Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW sensor and the investigation of the acoustoelectric effect on the responses of the SAW sensor are reported. We prepared an electrospun ZnO nanostructured thin film on the SAW devices by using an electrospray technique. To investigate the dependency of the sensor response on the structure and the number of the ZnO nanoparticles, SAW sensors were prepared with different coating loads. The coating frequency shifts were adjusted to fall between 100 kHz and 2.4 MHz. The sensor measurements were performed against VOCs such as acetone, trichloroethylene, chloroform, ethanol, n-propanol and methanol vapor. The sensor responses of n-propanol have opposite characteristics to the other VOCs, and we attributed these characteristics to the elastic effect/acoustoelectric effect.

  3. Enhanced Gas Sensitivity and Selectivity on Aperture-Controllable 3D Interconnected Macro-Mesoporous ZnO Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Huang, Huawen; Zhao, Heng; Yan, Xiaoting; Wu, Sijia; Li, Yu; Wu, Min; Chen, Lihua; Yang, Xiaoyu; Su, Bao-Lian

    2016-04-06

    Three-dimensional (3D) macro-mesoporous structures demonstrate effective performance for gas sensing. In this work, we have designed and successfully prepared aperture-controllable three-dimensional interconnected macro-mesoporous ZnO (3D-IMM-ZnO) nanostructures by template-based layer-by-layer filtration deposition. XRD, SEM, and TEM have been used to characterize the obtained hexagonal wurzite 3D-IMM-ZnO nanostructures. Owing to its special 3D interconnected hierarchically porous structure, the 3D-IMM-ZnO nanostructures exhibit excellent gas sensing performances toward acetone and methanol. The 3D-IMM-ZnO nanostructure with the largest macropore demonstrates the best gas sensitivity owing to its largest cavity providing enough space for gas diffusion. On the basis of the results and analyses, we propose that the synergistic effect of electron liberation and electron density of acetone and the special structure make the 3D-IMM-ZnO nanostructures demonstrate better gas sensing properties than many other porous ZnO nanostructures and preferred selectivity to acetone.

  4. Photoluminescence study of ZnO nanostructures grown on silicon by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biethan, J.-P., E-mail: biethan@hfe.tu-darmstadt.de [Department of High Frequency Electronics, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Merckstr. 25, Darmstadt 64283 (Germany); Sirkeli, V.P., E-mail: vsirkeli@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Moldova State University, A. Mateevici str. 60, MD-2009 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Comrat State University, Galatsan str. 17, MD-3800 Comrat, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Considine, L. [Department of High Frequency Electronics, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Merckstr. 25, Darmstadt 64283 (Germany); Nedeoglo, D.D. [Department of Physics, Moldova State University, A. Mateevici str. 60, MD-2009 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Pavlidis, D., E-mail: pavlidis@hfe.tu-darmstadt.de [Department of High Frequency Electronics, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Merckstr. 25, Darmstadt 64283 (Germany); Hartnagel, H.L., E-mail: hartnagel@mwe.tu-darmstadt.de [Department of High Frequency Electronics, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Merckstr. 25, Darmstadt 64283 (Germany); Department of Microwave Electronics, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Merckstr. 25, Darmstadt 64283 (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The size and shape of ZnO nanostructures depend on growth temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The size reduction of ZnO nanostructures causes a UV shift of the edge-band PL line. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A higher growth temperature can decrease the number of deep level defects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen appears to be an impurity donor in the ZnO nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PL line at 373.7 nm can be attributed to oxygen vacancies. - Abstract: ZnO nanostructures with a size ranging from 20 to 100 nm were successfully deposited on (1 0 0)-Si substrates at different temperatures (500-800 Degree-Sign C) using MOCVD. It could be confirmed that the size of ZnO nanostructures decreased with increasing growth temperature. From photoluminescence (PL) studies it was found, that intensive band-edge PL of ZnO nanostructures consists of emission lines with maxima at 368.6 nm, 370.1 nm, 373.7 nm, 383.9 nm, 391.7 nm, 400.7 nm and 412 nm. These lines can be dedicated to free excitons and impurity donor-bound excitons, where hydrogen acts as donor impurity with an activation energy of about 65 meV. A UV shift of the band-edge PL line with increasing growth temperature of ZnO nanostructures was observed as a result of the quantum confinement effect. The results suggest that an increase of growth temperature leads to increased band-edge PL intensity. Moreover, the ratio of band-edge PL intensity to green- (red-) band intensity also increases, indicating better crystalline quality of ZnO nanostructures with increasing growth temperature.

  5. Fabrication of nanostructured Al-doped ZnO thin film for methane sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafura, A. K.; Sin, N. D. Md.; Azhar, N. E. I.; Saurdi, I.; Uzer, M.; Mamat, M. H.; Shuhaimi, A.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    CH4 gas sensor was fabricated using spin-coating method of the nanostructured ZnO thin film. Effect of annealing temperature on the electrical and structural properties of the film was investigated. Dense nanostructured ZnO film are obtained at higher annealing temperature. The optimal condition of annealing temperature is 500°C which has conductivity and sensitivity value of 3.3 × 10-3 S/cm and 11.5%, respectively.

  6. Aluminum as catalyst for ZnO nanostructures growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandalazini, C., E-mail: zc@famaf.unc.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Física del Sólido, Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Villafuerte, M. [Laboratorio de Física del Sólido, Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Oliva, M. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía, y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (Argentina); Heluani, S.P. [Laboratorio de Física del Sólido, Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán (Argentina)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The efficiency of aluminum as catalyst to grow ZnO nanostructures is proved. • Aluminum as a new catalyst is proposed due to its reduced economic cost. • VSS growth mechanism is the main mechanism using Al as catalyst. • Abrupt diameter change of NWs is discussed due to Al-assisted growth. - Abstract: We report the growth of Al-catalyzed ZnO nanowires (NWs) using a thermal evaporation technique. Before the growth, the substrates were covered with a distribution of Al nano-island that act as seeds. We found that the density of NWs increases as the density of seeds is increased, confirming the catalyst properties of Al. The critical parameters of growth are the substrate temperature, oxygen partial pressure and the thickness of the initial Al layer from which the seeds are formed. The results showed that the oxygen pressure has a strong influence on the structural characteristics: the nanowires exhibit a preferential orientation in the (0 0 l)-planes when they are grown at low oxygen flow, and they become polycrystalline when a high concentration of oxygen in the flow is used. We consider that the growth occurs via a vapor-solid-solid (VSS) process as the predominant growth mechanism.

  7. Nanostructured hybrid ZnO thin films for energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantilleke Anura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on hybrid films based on ZnO/organic dye prepared by electrodeposition using tetrasulfonated copper phthalocyanines (TS-CuPc and Eosin-Y (EoY. Both the morphology and porosity of hybrid ZnO films are highly dependent on the type of dyes used in the synthesis. High photosensitivity was observed for ZnO/EoY films, while a very weak photoresponse was obtained for ZnO/TS-CuPc films. Despite a higher absorption coefficient of TS-CuPc than EoY, in ZnO/EoY hybrid films, the excited photoelectrons between the EoY levels can be extracted through ZnO, and the porosity of ZnO/EoY can also be controlled.

  8. Photoluminescent properties of SPAN-80 coated intrinsic and extrinsic ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavita; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Karamjit; Kumar, Sunil; Bhatti, H. S.

    2016-05-01

    Semiconductor nanostructures catch the attention due to morphology tunable properties. SPAN-80-Capped intrinsic and extrinsic ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized by the simple wet-chemical synthesis route. Structural behavior (morphology and crystallography) and photoluminescence performance of synthesized nanomaterials have been explored as a function of variable SPAN-80 concentration (0.05-0.125%). Crystallographic studies reveal that the prepared products possess wurtzite structure. Electron microscopy infers that the quantum dots are bunched together to form multifaceted morphology for 0.05% SPAN-80 concentration, whereas rectangular shape has been observed for extreme capping concentration. Photoluminescence properties have affected drastically with the introduction of SPAN-80 during the precipitation reaction. Photoluminescent properties of the synthesized nanostructures are strongly dependent on SPAN-80 concentration. Augmentation of capping concentration from 0.05% to 0.075% diminishes the luminescence quantum yield due to increased surface passivation whereas further addition of capping agent beyond the optimum capping concentration (0.075%) enhances the PL intensity due to increased energy transfer from capping shell to the nanostructure core.

  9. Highly efficient photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes by Cu doped ZnO nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, Sini; Satpati, Biswarup; Mohapatra, Satyabrata

    2015-10-14

    Copper doped ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized by a facile wet chemical method. Structural properties of as-synthesized nanomaterials have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, while UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been used to study their optical properties. Sunlight driven photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) dyes in water was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of Cu doped ZnO nanostructures using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that there is an optimum Cu doping level which leads to the highly enhanced photocatalytic activity of Cu doped ZnO nanostructures, as compared to pure ZnO nanostructures. A mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of Cu-ZnO nanostructures is tentatively proposed. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of Cu-ZnO nanostructures is attributed to the combined effects of improved separation of photogenerated charge carriers due to optimal Cu doping in ZnO nanostructures and the formation of ZnO-CuO nanoheterojunctions.

  10. Studies of surface morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown on different molarities of TiO2 seed layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asib, N. A. M.; Afaah, A. N.; Aadila, A.; Rusop, M.; Khusaimi, Z.

    2016-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) seed layer was prepared by using sol-gel spin-coating technique, followed by growth of 0.01 M of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures by solution-immersion. The molarities of TiO2 seed layer were varied from 1.1 M to 0.100 M on glass substrates. The nanostructures thin films were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electrons Microscope (FESEM), Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. FESEM images demonstrate that needle-like ZnO nanostructures are formed on all TiO2 seed layer. The smallest diameter of needle-like ZnO nanostructures (90.3 nm) were deposited on TiO2 seed layer of 0.100 M. PL spectra of the TiO2: ZnO nanostructures thin films show the blue shifted emissions in the UV regions compared to the ZnO thin film. Meanwhile, UV-vis spectra of films display high absorption in the UV region and high trasparency in the visible region. The highest absorbance at UV region was recorded for sample which has 0.100 M of TiO2 seed layer.

  11. From Zn-Al layered double hydroxide to ZnO nanostructure:Gradually etching by sodium hydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Qiang Wan; Dong Xiang Li; Chun Fang Li; Jie Xu; Wan Guo Hou

    2012-01-01

    Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was used as precursor to produce ZnO nanostructures through dissolution of aluminum hydroxide in caustic soda.The Zn-Al LDH could transform into different nanostructures of ZnO on LDH nanosheets and even pure ZnO nanorods under various NaOH concentration.The formed ZnO nanorods vertically aligned on both LDH sides.UV-vis diverse reflectance spectra show that the obtained ZnO nanorods have a band gap of approximately 3.05 eV.Such ZnO/LDH nanostructures might be used as photocatalyst in the organic pollutant decomposition.

  12. Comparison of photocatalytic and transport properties of TiO2 and ZnO nanostructures for solar-driven water splitting

    OpenAIRE

    Saracco, Guido; Cauda, Valentina Alice; Lamberti, Andrea; Chiodoni, Angelica; Sacco, Adriano; Hidalgo Diaz, Diana Carolina; Hernandez Ribullen, Simelys Pris; Tresso, Elena Maria

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures have been widely used as photo-catalysts due to their low-cost, high surface area, robustness, abundance and non-toxicity. In this work, four TiO2 and ZnO - based nanostructures, i.e. TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2 NTs), ZnO nanowires (ZnO NWs) and ZnO@TiO2 core-shell structures, specifically prepared with a fixed thickness of about 1.5 μm, are compared for the solar-driven water splitting reaction, under AM1.5G ...

  13. Microwave-assisted Synthesis of Hierarchical ZnO Nanostructures and Their Photocatalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou Ming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical ZnO nanostructures were fabricated via a rapid and facile microwave-assisted route with different zinc salts as reactants. The obtained hierarchical ZnO nanostructures have good crystallinity and high purity. Moreover, it was found that various zinc salts have an obvious effect on the morphologies and microstructures of the final products. Additionally, the photocatalytic activity of the obtained ZnO samples under visible-light irradiation was also evaluated by degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB.

  14. Preparation of ZnO nanocrystals via ultrasonic irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qian, D.; Jiang, Jianzhong; Hansen, P. L.

    2003-01-01

    A simple and rapid process has been developed for the preparation of nanometer-sized ZnO crystals via ultrasonic irradiation, by which pure ZnO nanocrystals with an average size of 6 nm and narrow size distribution can be synthesized in a short time and without using any solvents for the precipit......A simple and rapid process has been developed for the preparation of nanometer-sized ZnO crystals via ultrasonic irradiation, by which pure ZnO nanocrystals with an average size of 6 nm and narrow size distribution can be synthesized in a short time and without using any solvents...

  15. Internal stress induced natural self-chemisorption of ZnO nanostructured films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Po-Wei; Su, Chih-Wei; Wei, Da-Hua

    2017-01-01

    The energetic particles bombardment can produce large internal stress in the zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film, and it can be used to intentionally modify the surface characteristics of ZnO films. In this article, we observed that the internal stress increased from −1.62 GPa to −0.33 GPa, and the naturally wettability of the textured ZnO nanostructured films changed from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity. According to analysis of surface chemical states, the naturally controllable wetting behavior can be attributed to hydrocarbon adsorbates on the nanostructured film surface, which is caused by tunable internal stress. On the other hand, the interfacial water molecules near the surface of ZnO nanostructured films have been identified as hydrophobic hydrogen structure by Fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflection. Moreover, a remarkable near-band-edge emission peak shifting also can be observed in PL spectra due to the transition of internal stress state. Furthermore, our present ZnO nanostructured films also exhibited excellent transparency over 80% with a wise surface wetting switched from hydrophobic to hydrophilic states after exposing in ultraviolet (UV) surroundings. Our work demonstrated that the internal stress of the thin film not only induced natural wettability transition of ZnO nanostructured films, but also in turn affected the surface properties such as surface chemisorption. PMID:28233827

  16. Effect of precursor concentration on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaruddin, Sharul Ashikin [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Sahdan, Mohd Zainizan [Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Technology MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Chan, Kah-Yoong [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Rusop, Mohamad [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Technology MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Saim, Hashim [Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2010-07-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an emerging material in large area electronic applications such as thin-film solar cells and transistors. We report on the fabrication and characterization of ZnO nanostructures. ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized using sol-gel immerse technique on oxidized silicon substrates. Different precursor's concentrations ranging from 0.0001 to 0.01 M using zinc nitrate hexahydrate [Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O] and hexamethylenetetramine [C{sub 6}H{sub 12}N{sub 4}] has been employed in the synthesis of ZnO nanostructures. The surface morphologies were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In order to investigate the structural properties, the ZnO nanostructures were measured using X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The optical properties of the ZnO nanostructures were measured using photoluminescence (PL) spectrometer. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Internal stress induced natural self-chemisorption of ZnO nanostructured films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Po-Wei; Su, Chih-Wei; Wei, Da-Hua

    2017-02-01

    The energetic particles bombardment can produce large internal stress in the zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film, and it can be used to intentionally modify the surface characteristics of ZnO films. In this article, we observed that the internal stress increased from -1.62 GPa to -0.33 GPa, and the naturally wettability of the textured ZnO nanostructured films changed from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity. According to analysis of surface chemical states, the naturally controllable wetting behavior can be attributed to hydrocarbon adsorbates on the nanostructured film surface, which is caused by tunable internal stress. On the other hand, the interfacial water molecules near the surface of ZnO nanostructured films have been identified as hydrophobic hydrogen structure by Fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflection. Moreover, a remarkable near-band-edge emission peak shifting also can be observed in PL spectra due to the transition of internal stress state. Furthermore, our present ZnO nanostructured films also exhibited excellent transparency over 80% with a wise surface wetting switched from hydrophobic to hydrophilic states after exposing in ultraviolet (UV) surroundings. Our work demonstrated that the internal stress of the thin film not only induced natural wettability transition of ZnO nanostructured films, but also in turn affected the surface properties such as surface chemisorption.

  18. Formation of hierarchical ZnO nanostructure on tinfoil substrate and the application on wetting repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Xia, Jun; Jing, Chen; Lei, Wei; Wang, Bao-ping

    2011-10-01

    Hierarchical ZnO (zinc oxide) nanostructures composed with nano-sheet and micro-flower structures (made from the nano-sheet) have been generated on tinfoil substrate via a chemical bath deposition process. Benefiting from an inherent distinct lattice constant compared with commonly used glass or other kinds of substrate, the tinfoil substrate played an important role on the formation of the hierarchical ZnO nanostructures. The resulting hierarchical ZnO surface shows excellent superhydrophobicity and extremely low water rolling angle after being modified with spin coating Teflon. The flexible and superhydrophobic characteristics of such fabricated substrate will be beneficial for applications requiring bendable and lightweight superhydrophobic substrates. In addition, the multifunctional properties of ZnO nanostructures are expected to broaden the applications to electronic and optical applications.

  19. Formation of hierarchical ZnO nanostructure on tinfoil substrate and the application on wetting repellency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jun [Southeast University, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing (China); University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Xia, Jun; Jing, Chen; Lei, Wei; Wang, Bao-ping [Southeast University, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing (China)

    2011-10-15

    Hierarchical ZnO (zinc oxide) nanostructures composed with nano-sheet and micro-flower structures (made from the nano-sheet) have been generated on tinfoil substrate via a chemical bath deposition process. Benefiting from an inherent distinct lattice constant compared with commonly used glass or other kinds of substrate, the tinfoil substrate played an important role on the formation of the hierarchical ZnO nanostructures. The resulting hierarchical ZnO surface shows excellent superhydrophobicity and extremely low water rolling angle after being modified with spin coating Teflon. The flexible and superhydrophobic characteristics of such fabricated substrate will be beneficial for applications requiring bendable and lightweight superhydrophobic substrates. In addition, the multifunctional properties of ZnO nanostructures are expected to broaden the applications to electronic and optical applications. (orig.)

  20. Effects of structural patterns and degree of crystallinity on the performance of nanostructured ZnO as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Liang, E-mail: xiaoliang@whut.edu.cn; Mei, Daidi; Cao, Minglei; Qu, Deyu; Deng, Bohua

    2015-04-05

    Highlights: • Effects of structural patterns on nanostructured ZnO anode are studied. • Structural patterns with sufficient inner spacing show better capacity retention. • Capacity of nanostructured ZnO increase with the increasing of crystallinity. • Crystallized ZnO with inner spacing are expected to have good performance. - Abstract: The effects of structural patterns and degree of crystallinity on the electrochemical performance of ZnO were systematically studied using a controllable synthesis. The microspheres assembled with distorted nanosheets, hexagonal nanorods and radial assembly of nanorods of ZnO were successfully prepared by the hydrothermal reaction of zinc nitrate, hexamethylenetetramine and different amount of trisodium citrate. ZnO microspheres were calcinated at different temperatures (300, 600 and 900 °C) to increase their degree of crystallization. Constant current charge and discharge measurements show that the capacity retention of the microspheres and radial assembled nanorods are higher than that of hexagonal nanorods. This may be due to their inner spacing of specific structure patterns that can accommodate and restrain the volume changes during cycling. Additionally, the capacity of ZnO microspheres can be improved by short-time calcinations at 600 or 900 °C for their crystallization. The studies of differential capacity versus potential plots indicate that the enhanced degree of crystallization facilitates the alloying and dealloying of the reduction products of ZnO. Therefore, both large specific capacity and good capacity retention can be expected with highly crystallized specific nanostructures of ZnO with the sufficient inner spacing. The ZnO microspheres calcinated at 600 °C show the best performance with a specific capacity of 1328.2 mA h g{sup −1} for the first cycle and 662.8 mA h g{sup −1} for the 50th cycle at 0.1 C with an operating potential of 0.05–3.00 V.

  1. Characterization of Nanostructured n-ZnO/p-Si Heterojunction Prepared by a Simple Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Xu, Jing; Ning, Huanpo; Xiong, Hao; Xing, Huaizhong; Qin, Yuming

    2016-03-01

    The nanostructured ZnO film was prepared on a texturized Si wafer by a simple sol-gel method to fabricate n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction photoelectric device. The novel sol-gel method is cheap and convenient. The structural, optical and electrical properties of the nanostructured ZnO film were studied by XRD, SEM, XPS, PL, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and Hall effect measurement. The current-voltage (I-V) curve of nanostructured ZnO/p-Si heterojunction device shows good rectifying behavior. Good photoelectric behavior is obtained.

  2. Study on synthesis and optical properties of Al-doped ZnO hierarchical nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Highly densified Al-doped ZnO (denoted as Al-ZnO) hierarchical nanostructures were synthesized on transparent quartz substrate by chemical vapor deposition. It is found that the heating temperature plays a key role on controlling the morphologies of the Al-ZnO hierarchical nanostructures through a temperature dependent migration of Al atoms. Such uneven distribution of Al element in the hierarchical nanostructures is clearly evidenced by the x-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) measurements. Th...

  3. Ionic Liquids Assisted Synthesis of ZnO Nanostructures: Controlled Size,Morphology and Antibacterial Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Rajiv Gandhi; S.Gowri; J.Suresh; M.Sundrarajan

    2013-01-01

    Systematic analysis about the exploitation of imidazolium based ionic liquids (ILs),[BMIM] BF4 [IL1],[EMIM] BF4 [IL2] and [BMIM] PF6 [IL3] as the morphological template on the basic sol-gel method adopted synthesis of nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) is presented.X-ray diffraction (XRD),particle size analysis (PSA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been employed for the characterization of structure and morphology of the synthesized ZnO particles.Well-defined capsule like shaped morphology with lower nanosize is observed for the ZnO nanoparticles with IL1 than those with IL2 and IL3.This confirms that IL1 served as an effective templating material due to their unique properties.Especially the effective aggregation of ZnO particles with a self-organized frame of IL1 was the essential factor to produce the lower nanosized ZnO with capsule shaped structure.The synthesized ZnO samples with IL2 and IL3 fabricated the flake like shaped and rod like shaped morphologies in the range of nanoscale.The formed ZnO nanoparticles with IL2 exhibit higher nanosize than the ZnO nanoparticles produced by IL1,owing to shorter length of alkyl group in its cation which restricts steric effect and permits the nanoparticles to grow longer.Even though IL3 produced the discrete ZnO nanorods,the hydrophobic nature of IL3 created the higher nanosize than the ZnO nanoparticles formed by other two ionic liquids.Antibacterial properties of the synthesized ZnO nanostructures were investigated against Staphylococcus aureus (gram positive) and Escherichia coli (gram negative) bacteria by Agar diffusion test method.Microbial experiments indicate that the synthesized ZnO samples show a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities and performed better against S.aureus than E.coli with the same concentration of ZnO.

  4. Toxicity evaluation of ZnO nanostructures on L929 fibroblast cell line using MTS assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo [Nano-optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory (NOR.), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, USM, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Mohamed, Azman Seeni; Saifuddin, Siti Nazmin [Integrative Medicine Cluster, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bandar Putra Bertam, 13200 Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Masudi, Sam’an Malik; Mohamad, Dasmawati [Craniofacial Science Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    ZnO has wide applications in medical and dentistry apart from being used as optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Therefore, the toxicity evaluation is important to know the toxicity level on normal cell line. The toxicity of two grades ZnO nanostructures, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 have been carried out using cytotoxicity test of MTS assay on L929 rat fibroblast cell line. Prior to that, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 were characterized for its morphology, structure and optical properties using FESEM, X-ray diffraction, and Photoluminescence respectively. The two groups revealed difference in morphology and exhibit slightly shifted of near band edge emission of Photoluminescence other than having a similar calculated crystallite size of nanostructures. The viability of cells after 72h were obtained and the statistical significance value was calculated using SPSS v20. The p value is more than 0.05 between untreated and treated cell with ZnO. This insignificant value of p>0.05 can be summarized as a non-toxic level of ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 on the L929 cell line.

  5. Facile one-step synthesis of highly branched ZnO nanostructures on titanium foil for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juntao; He, Meng; Fu, Nianqing; Li, Jianye; Yin, Xiong

    2014-04-21

    Highly branched ZnO (HBZ) nanostructures were prepared on titanium (Ti) foil using a facile, one-step vapor confined chemical vapor deposition technique. The as-prepared ZnO layer showed a good connection with the Ti foil even after 50 bending cycles, and the resultant HBZ/Ti electrode possessed high bendability. The HBZ/Ti electrode was composed of four different layers, including a highly branched ZnO layer, a ZnO compact layer, a Ti-Zn alloy layer and Ti foil. The good adhesion of the as-prepared ZnO layer to Ti foil was ascribed to the formation of a Ti-Zn alloy layer and a ZnO compact layer during the growth process. A flexible dye-sensitized solar cell was assembled using the D149-sensitized HBZ/Ti as a photoanode, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.3% was achieved with an open-circuit photovoltage of 0.664 V, a short-circuit current density of 7.53 mA cm(-2), and a fill factor of 0.66 measured under rear-side illumination (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm(-2)). The power conversion efficiency of the device remained at 92% of the initial value even after 50 bending cycles. These results indicate that the vapor confined chemical vapor deposition method which does not necessarily use any catalyst or seed is a facile, one-step approach to obtain highly branched ZnO nanostructures with high bendability on Ti foil. The tight bonding between the highly branched ZnO layer and Ti substrate by a Ti-Zn alloy layer and a ZnO compact layer makes the vapor confined CVD method very attractive for the preparation of high-performance flexible photoanodes.

  6. Influence of ZnO nanostructures in liquid crystal interfaces for bistable switching applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Kaushik; Zhan, Bihong; Madhu Mohan, M. L. N.; Schirhagl, Romana; Wang, Guoping

    2015-12-01

    The controlled fabrication of nanometer-scale objects is without doubt one of the central issues in current science and technology. In this article, we exhibit a simple, one-step bench top synthesis of zinc oxide nano-tetrapods and nano-spheres which were tailored by the facial growth of nano-wires (diameter ≈ 24 nm; length ≈ 118 nm) and nano-cubes (≈395 nm edge) to nano-sphere (diameter ≈ 585 nm) appeaded. The possibilities of inexpensive, simple solvo-chemical synthesis of nanostructures were considered. In this article, a successful attempt has been made that ZnO nano-structures dispersed on well aligned hydrogen bonded liquid crystals (HBLC) comprising azelaic acid (AC) with p-n-alkyloxy benzoic acid (nBAO) by varying the respective alkyloxy carbon number (n = 5). The dispersion of nanomaterials with HBLC is an effective route to enhance the existing functionalities. A series of these composite materials were analyzed by polarizing optical microscope's electro-optical switching. An interesting feature of AC + nBAO is the inducement of tilted smectic G phase with increasing carbon chain length. Phase diagrams of the above hybrid ZnO nanomaterial influenced LC complex and pure LC were constructed and compared. The switching times, the contrast ratio and spontaneous polarization of the nanostructures-HBLC composite film were carried out by systematic investigation. The sample preparation parameters, such as the curing time and curing intensity were optimized. The critical applied voltage to achieve the switching bi-stability of our device is only 4.5 V, which is approximately twice its threshold voltage for Freedericksz transition. This performance puts the hybrid structure at the top level in the state of the art in application oriented research in optics of liquid crystalline composite materials.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles prepared by biological method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbuvannan, M; Ramesh, M; Viruthagiri, G; Shanmugam, N; Kannadasan, N

    2015-05-15

    Zinc oxide have been produced via a simple green method from zinc nitrate and leaf extract aqueous solutions. Prepared ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were investigated by employing through UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. The present investigation, confirmed the estimated band gap 3.51eV and the PL intensity at 402nm in visible region are dependent upon the geometrical shape and size of the ZnO NPs. The TEM micrograph and XRD pattern confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO NPs. The presence of functional groups and the chemical bonding are confirmed by FTIR spectra. EDS shows that the highly pure ZnO nanostructures. Moreover, the catalytic activity of synthesized ZnO in the reduction of methylene blue was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The effects of process conditions on the morphology and size of ZnO have been found from FE-SEM and TEM analyses, respectively.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles prepared by biological method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbuvannan, M.; Ramesh, M.; Viruthagiri, G.; Shanmugam, N.; Kannadasan, N.

    2015-05-01

    Zinc oxide have been produced via a simple green method from zinc nitrate and leaf extract aqueous solutions. Prepared ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were investigated by employing through UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. The present investigation, confirmed the estimated band gap 3.51 eV and the PL intensity at 402 nm in visible region are dependent upon the geometrical shape and size of the ZnO NPs. The TEM micrograph and XRD pattern confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO NPs. The presence of functional groups and the chemical bonding are confirmed by FTIR spectra. EDS shows that the highly pure ZnO nanostructures. Moreover, the catalytic activity of synthesized ZnO in the reduction of methylene blue was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The effects of process conditions on the morphology and size of ZnO have been found from FE-SEM and TEM analyses, respectively.

  9. Highly efficient uniform ZnO nanostructures for an electron transport layer of inverted organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sarah; Kim, Chul-Hyun; Lee, Sang Kyu; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Lee, Jihye; Jin, Sung-Ho; Shin, Won Suk; Song, Chang Eun; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Jeong, Jong-Ryul

    2013-07-11

    A highly uniform and predesigned ZnO nanostructure fabricated by single step direct nanoimprinting was used as the efficient electron transport layer (ETL) in inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. Improved photovoltaic cell efficiency with long-term stability can be observed due to the large interface between the active layer and nanostructured ZnO ETL.

  10. Microwave Assisted Growth of ZnO Nanorods and Nanopolypods Nanostructure Thin Films for Gas and Explosives Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of uniformly distributed and densely packed array of zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods (NRs and nanorods (NRs/nanopolypods (NPPs was successfully achieved through microwave-assisted chemical route at low temperature. The ZnO NRs and NRs/NPPs were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The ZnO NRs were of 100–150 nm diameter and 0.5–1 μm length, while the NPPs were of diameter about 150–200 nm and 1.5–2 μm pod length. The prepared films are polycrystalline in nature and highly oriented along (002 plane with a hexagonal wurtzite structure. These films were studied for the sensing properties of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, oxygen, and hazardous explosives, that is, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT and cyclotrimethylenetrinitramines (RDX, in the temperature ranges of 25–425 °C and 100–200 °C, respectively. The grown nanostructure films showed reliable stable response to several on-off cycles, and reduction in sensor recovery time was found with the increase in temperature. ZnO NRs and NRs/NPPs showed better sensitivity and recovery time for both LPG and oxygen, as compared to the literature-reported results for ZnO thin films.

  11. Characterization of mechanothermally processed nanostructured ZnO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saeed Karimi; Abolghasem Ataie

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the Taguchi method with an L9(34) orthogonal array was used as experimental design to determine the optimum conditions for preparing ZnO nanoparticles via a mechanothermal route. ZnSO4·H2O and Na2CO3 were used as starting materials. The effects of milling time, Na2CO3/ZnSO4·H2O molar ratio, and ball-to-powder mass ratio (BPR) on the bandgap (Eg) of ZnO nanoparticles were inves-tigated. The ranges of the investigated experimental conditions were 5-15 h for the milling time (t), 1.0-1.2 for the Na2CO3/ZnSO4·H2O mo-lar ratio (M), and 10-30 for BPR. The milling time and BPR exhibited significant effects; an increase in milling time reduced the bandgap. The optimum conditions from this study weret3 = 15 h,M1 = 1, and BPR2 = 20. Only two significant factors (t3, 15 h; BPR2, 20) were used to estimate the performance at the optimum conditions. The calculated bandgap was 3.12 eV, in reasonable agreement with the experimental results obtained under the optimized conditions.

  12. Characterization of mechanothermally processed nanostructured ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Saeed; Ataie, Abolghasem

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the Taguchi method with an L9(34) orthogonal array was used as experimental design to determine the optimum conditions for preparing ZnO nanoparticles via a mechanothermal route. ZnSO4·H2O and Na2CO3 were used as starting materials. The effects of milling time, Na2CO3/ZnSO4·H2O molar ratio, and ball-to-powder mass ratio (BPR) on the bandgap ( E g) of ZnO nanoparticles were investigated. The ranges of the investigated experimental conditions were 5-15 h for the milling time ( t), 1.0-1.2 for the Na2CO3/ZnSO4·H2O molar ratio ( M), and 10-30 for BPR. The milling time and BPR exhibited significant effects; an increase in milling time reduced the bandgap. The optimum conditions from this study were t 3 = 15 h, M 1 = 1, and BPR2 = 20. Only two significant factors ( t 3, 15 h; BPR2, 20) were used to estimate the performance at the optimum conditions. The calculated bandgap was 3.12 eV, in reasonable agreement with the experimental results obtained under the optimized conditions.

  13. Growth stimulation of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas putida using nanostructured ZnO thin film as transducer element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loukanov, Alexandre, E-mail: loukanov@mail.saitama-u.ac.jp [Saitama University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Japan); Filipov, Chavdar [University of Forestry, Department of Infectious pathology, hygiene, technology and control of food stuffs of animal origin, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Bulgaria); Valcheva, Violeta [Bulgarian Academy of Science, Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of microbiology (Bulgaria); Lecheva, Marta [University of Mining and Geology “St. Ivan Rilski”, Laboratory of Engineering NanoBiotechnology, Department of Engineering Geoecology (Bulgaria); Emin, Saim [University of Nova Gorica, Materials Research Laboratory (Slovenia)

    2015-04-15

    The semiconductor zinc oxide nanomaterial (ZnO or ZnO:H) is widely used in advanced biosensor technology for the design of highly-sensitive detector elements for various applications. In the attempt to evaluate its effect on common microorganisms, two types of nanostructured transducer films have been used (average diameter 600–1000 nm). They have been prepared by using both wet sol–gel method and magnetron sputtering. Their polycrystalline structure and specific surface features have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope. The assessment of growth stimulation of bacteria was determined using epifluorescent microscope by cell staining with Live/Dead BacLight kit. In our experiments, the growth stimulation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria on nanostructured ZnO film is demonstrated by Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas putida. These two bacterial species have been selected, because they are well known and studied in biosensor technologies, with structural difference of their cell walls. These pathogens are easy for with common source in the liquid food or some commercial products. Our data has revealed that the method of transducer film preparation influences strongly bacterial inhibition and division. These results present the transforming signal precisely, when ZnO is used in biosensor applications.

  14. Effects of growth pressure on morphology of ZnO nanostructures by chemical vapor transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Eadi Sunil; Kim, Sungjin; Song, Jung-Hoon; Hong, Soon-Ku

    2016-08-01

    The effect of growth pressure on the morphology of the ZnO nanostructures in chemical vapor transport by using Zn powder and oxygen as source materials has been investigated. Highly uniform aligned ZnO nanorods or multifaceted tripod structures were grown depending on the growth pressure. The mechanism governing the morphology change was explained by the relative concentration of Zn vapor and supersaturation based on experimental observations. It was concluded that heterogeneous nucleation on the substrate is enhanced at low growth pressure, while homogeneous nucleation from vapor phase is enhanced at high growth pressure. The difference resulted in different morphology of ZnO nanostructures. ZnO nanorods grown at optimized condition were used for the fabrication of gas sensor for the detection of H2 gas.

  15. A Review on the Fabrication of Hierarchical ZnO Nanostructures for Photocatalysis Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor photocatalysis provides potential solutions for many energy and environmental-related issues. Recently, various semiconductors with hierarchical nanostructures have been fabricated to achieve efficient photocatalysts owing to their multiple advantages, such as high surface area, porous structures, as well as enhanced light harvesting. ZnO has been widely investigated and considered as the most promising alternative photocatalyst to TiO2. Herein, we present a review on the fabrication methods, growth mechanisms and photocatalytic applications of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures. Various synthetic strategies and growth mechanisms, including multistep sequential growth routes, template-based synthesis, template-free self-organization and precursor or self-templating strategies, are highlighted. In addition, the fabrication of multicomponent ZnO-based nanocomposites with hierarchical structures is also included. Finally, the application of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures and nanocomposites in typical photocatalytic reactions, such as pollutant degradation and H2 evolution, is reviewed.

  16. Controlling Growth of ZnO Nanostructures Via A Solution Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Tiekun; WANG Weimin; DONG Yanling; LONG Fei; FU Zhengyi

    2009-01-01

    A solution method was developed for fabricating ZnO nanostructures using(NH_4)_2CO_3 as starting material. SEM analysis shows that ZnO nanostructures exhibit nanorod, branchand flower-like morphologies. The crystal phase of as-synthesized products was characterized byX-ray diffraction (XRD). The growth process, formation mechanism and optical property were also discussed by means of transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission mi-croscopy (HRTEM) and photoluminescence (PL). The growth direction of ZnO nanostructures was investigated based on the results of HRTEM. The PL spectrum shows two strong peaks (centered at around ~387 and ~470 nm) and a broad peak (centered at around ~580 nm).

  17. Influence of ZnO nanostructures in liquid crystal interfaces for bistable switching applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Kaushik, E-mail: kaushikpal@whu.edu.cn [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 8 East Lake South Road, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhan, Bihong, E-mail: bihong_zhan@whu.edu.cn [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 8 East Lake South Road, Wuhan 430072 (China); Madhu Mohan, M.L.N. [Liquid Crystal Research Laboratory (LCRL), Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam 638 401 (India); Schirhagl, Romana [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of BioMedical Engineering, Ant. Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Wang, Guoping, E-mail: guopingwang@whu.edu.cn [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 8 East Lake South Road, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • One step bench top novel synthesis and growth dynamics of ZnO structures are successfully performed. • Nanostructures dispersing liquid crystals (NDLC) is recently found to have significant influence on the nucleation and growth of many functional nanocrystals (NCs), and provide a fundamental approach to modify the crystallographic phase, size, morphology, and electronic configuration of nanomaterials. • Electro-optical switching application ensures the bright field droplet design marble pattern of smectic G phase, nematic and most significant twist nematic phase pattern are obtained. • Spontaneous polarization, rotational viscosity and response time study, exploring smart applications in LCD technology. - Abstract: The controlled fabrication of nanometer-scale objects is without doubt one of the central issues in current science and technology. In this article, we exhibit a simple, one-step bench top synthesis of zinc oxide nano-tetrapods and nano-spheres which were tailored by the facial growth of nano-wires (diameter ≈ 24 nm; length ≈ 118 nm) and nano-cubes (≈395 nm edge) to nano-sphere (diameter ≈ 585 nm) appeaded. The possibilities of inexpensive, simple solvo-chemical synthesis of nanostructures were considered. In this article, a successful attempt has been made that ZnO nano-structures dispersed on well aligned hydrogen bonded liquid crystals (HBLC) comprising azelaic acid (AC) with p-n-alkyloxy benzoic acid (nBAO) by varying the respective alkyloxy carbon number (n = 5). The dispersion of nanomaterials with HBLC is an effective route to enhance the existing functionalities. A series of these composite materials were analyzed by polarizing optical microscope's electro-optical switching. An interesting feature of AC + nBAO is the inducement of tilted smectic G phase with increasing carbon chain length. Phase diagrams of the above hybrid ZnO nanomaterial influenced LC complex and pure LC were

  18. Study on synthesis and optical properties of Al-doped ZnO hierarchical nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Wang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly densified Al-doped ZnO (denoted as Al-ZnO hierarchical nanostructures were synthesized on transparent quartz substrate by chemical vapor deposition. It is found that the heating temperature plays a key role on controlling the morphologies of the Al-ZnO hierarchical nanostructures through a temperature dependent migration of Al atoms. Such uneven distribution of Al element in the hierarchical nanostructures is clearly evidenced by the x-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS measurements. The obtained Al-ZnO hierarchical nanostructures have transmittance of above 60% in the visible region. The photoluminescence (PL spectra at low-temperature (20 K were also measured.

  19. Effects of post-heated ZnO seed layers on structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soaram; Nam, Giwoong; Yim, Kwang Gug; Lee, Jewon; Kim, Yangsoo; Leem, Jae-Young

    2013-05-01

    ZnO nanostructures were grown by the hydrothermal method on ZnO seed layers post-heated in the range 350°C-500°C. The effects of the post-heated ZnO seed layers on the structural and optical properties of the ZnO nanostructures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The average grain sizes in the ZnO seed layers increased with increasing post-heating temperature, and nano-fibrous structures were observed on the surface of the ZnO seed layers post-heated at 450°C. The ZnO seed layers post-heated in the range 350°C-500°C affected the residual stress, lattice distortion in the ZnO nanostructures and the intensity, positions, and full widths at half maximum of 2 θ and PL peaks in the XRD and PL spectra for the ZnO nanostructures.

  20. ZnO nanostructured microspheres and grown structures by thermal treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jun Wang; Shunxiao Zhang; Jia You; Huijun Yan; Zhanshuang Li; Xiaoyan Jing; Milin Zhang

    2008-08-01

    Synthesis of flower-shaped ZnO nanostructures composed of ZnO nanosticks was achieved by the solution process using zinc acetate dihydrate, sodium hydroxide and polyethylene glycol-20000 (PEG-20000) at 180°C for 4 h. The diameter of individual nanosticks was about 100 nm. Detailed structure characterizations demonstrate that the synthesized products are wurtzite hexagonal phase, grown along the [001] direction. The infrared (IR) spectrum shows the standard peak of zinc oxide at 571 cm-1. Raman scattering exhibits a sharp and strong 2 mode at 441 cm-1 which further confirms the good crystal and wurtzite hexagonal phase of the grown nanostructures.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of ZnO Nanowire–CdO Composite Nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Tak Youngjo; Seol Minsu; Yong Kijung; Senthil Karuppanan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract ZnO nanowire–CdO composite nanostructures were fabricated by a simple two-step process involving ammonia solution method and thermal evaporation. First, ZnO nanowires (NWs) were grown on Si substrate by aqueous ammonia solution method and then CdO was deposited on these ZnO NWs by thermal evaporation of cadmium chloride powder. The surface morphology and structure of the synthesized composite structures were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and transm...

  2. Fabrication of ZnO photonic amorphous diamond nanostructure from parrot feathers for modulated photoluminescence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengli; Yu, Ke; Liao, Na; Yin, Haihong; Lou, Lei; Yu, Qian; Liao, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2011-12-01

    A ZnO photonic amorphous diamond nanostructure was successfully synthesised using a feather barb of the Rosy-Faced Lovebird as supporting template via a facile sol-gel process. Different from ordered structures, an isotropic PBG around 500 nm was evidenced from reflectance spectra and an optical metallurgical microscopy image, which overlaps with the visible emission peak of ZnO. As a result, the inhibition of visible emission inside the PBG and the enhancement of UV emission at the PBG edges have both been observed, which is independent from the incident angle. Moreover, the rapid thermal annealing can also help improve the crystallinity of ZnO and raise the UV/visible emission ratio without affecting the structure. These results can be very useful for the study of the modification of the optical emission properties of ZnO and other semiconductor materials as well as research on ZnO random lasing.

  3. Influence of preparation methods on photoluminescence properties of ZnO films on quartz glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lei; LIAN Jian-she; LIU Yu-hua; JIANG Qing

    2008-01-01

    The influence of preparation methods on the photoluminescence properties of ZnO film was studied. Two methods were applied to fabricate ZnO films in a conventional pulsed laser deposition apparatus. One is high temperature (500-700 ℃) oxidation of the metallic zinc film that is obtained by pulsed laser deposition. The other is pulse laser ablation of Zn target in oxygen atmosphere at low temperature (100-250 ℃). The photoluminescence property was detected by PL spectrum. The room temperature PL spectra of the ZnO films obtained by oxidation method show single violet luminescence emission centered at 424 nm (or 2.90 eV) without any accompanied deep-level emission and UV emission. The violet emission is attributed to interstitial zinc in the films. Nanostructure ZnO film with c-axis (002) orientation is obtained by pulsed laser deposition. The ZnO film deposited at 200 ℃ shows single strong ultraviolet emission. The excellent UV emission is attributed to the good crystalline quality of the film and low intrinsic defects at such low temperature.

  4. Highly Branched Sn-Doped ZnO Nanostructures for Sunlight Driven Photocatalytic Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultralong, highly branched Sn-doped zinc oxide (ZnO nanostructures were fabricated using a simple substrate-free chemical vapor deposition (CVD method. The nanostructures exhibited efficient photocatalytic activities in degradation of methylene blue (MB under natural sunlight. 100% of MB with the concentration of 10 mg/L could be completely removed within 36 minutes. Possible reasons for the enhanced photocatalytic effect were analyzed.

  5. Highly Branched Sn-Doped ZnO Nanostructures for Sunlight Driven Photocatalytic Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Ultralong, highly branched Sn-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were fabricated using a simple substrate-free chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The nanostructures exhibited efficient photocatalytic activities in degradation of methylene blue (MB) under natural sunlight. 100% of MB with the concentration of 10 mg/L could be completely removed within 36 minutes. Possible reasons for the enhanced photocatalytic effect were analyzed.

  6. Preparation, characterization and properties of ZnO nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiaolian; Zhang, Xiaoming; Chen, Ruxue; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhu, Ji; Wang, Xiaomin

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, using the hydrothermal synthesis method, NaOH, Zn(NO3)2, anhydrous ethanol, deionized water as raw material to prepare ZnO nanomaterial, and by X ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) on the synthesis of nano materials, surface morphology and phase luminescence characterization. The results show that the nano materials synthesized for single-phase ZnO, belonging to the six wurtzite structure; material surface shaped, arranged evenly distributed, and were the top six party structure; ZnO nano materials synthesized with strong emission spectra, emission peak is located at 394nm.

  7. Evaluation of gas-sensing properties of ZnO nanostructures electrochemically doped with Au nanophases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilonardo, Elena; Penza, Michele; Alvisi, Marco; Di Franco, Cinzia; Palmisano, Francesco; Torsi, Luisa; Cioffi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    A one-step electrochemical method based on sacrificial anode electrolysis (SAE) was used to deposit stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) directly on the surface of nanostructured ZnO powders, previously synthesized through a sol-gel process. The effect of thermal annealing temperatures (300 and 550 °C) on chemical, morphological, and structural properties of pristine and Au-doped ZnO nancomposites (Au@ZnO) was investigated. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM), as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), revealed the successful deposition of nanoscale gold on the surface of spherical and rod-like ZnO nanostructures, obtained after annealing at 300 and 550 °C, respectively. The pristine ZnO and Au@ZnO nanocomposites are proposed as active layer in chemiresistive gas sensors for low-cost processing. Gas-sensing measurements towards NO2 were collected at 300 °C, evaluating not only the Au-doping effect, but also the influence of the different ZnO nanostructures on the gas-sensing properties.

  8. Structural and photovoltaic characteristics of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Muhammad, E-mail: saleem.malikape@gmail.com [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems of the Education Ministry of China, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Fang, L. [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems of the Education Ministry of China, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Shaukat, Saleem F.; Ahmad, M. Ashfaq [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Raza, Rizwan, E-mail: razahussaini786@gmail.com [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Jamil, Ayesha; Aslam, Samia [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Abbas, Ghazanfar [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Hierarchically ZnO nanostructures electrodes were grown using hot plate magnetic stirring at different growth reaction temperature. • We have investigated the effect of working temperature of 160°, 170°, 180°, and 190° on the growth mechanism of nanospheres and on the power conversion efficiency of DSSCs. • ZnO nanospheres with perfect aggregation show superior power conversion efficiency of 1.24% which is about 83% higher than nanoparticles DSSC. • An obvious vogue is that the overall power conversion efficiency decreases as the degree of the spherical aggregation is gradually destroyed. - Abstract: Structural and photovoltaic characteristics of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures solar cell have been studied in relation to growth reaction temperature. It is found that the hierarchical ZnO nanostructures network to act not only as large surface area substrates but also as a transport medium for electrons injected from the dye molecules. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency is decreased by increasing the growth reaction temperature of ZnO electrodes. The best conversion efficiency of a 0.25 cm{sup 2} cell is measured to be 1.24% under 100 mW cm{sup −2} irradiation.

  9. Evaluation of gas-sensing properties of ZnO nanostructures electrochemically doped with Au nanophases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dilonardo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-step electrochemical method based on sacrificial anode electrolysis (SAE was used to deposit stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs directly on the surface of nanostructured ZnO powders, previously synthesized through a sol–gel process. The effect of thermal annealing temperatures (300 and 550 °C on chemical, morphological, and structural properties of pristine and Au-doped ZnO nancomposites (Au@ZnO was investigated. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM, as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, revealed the successful deposition of nanoscale gold on the surface of spherical and rod-like ZnO nanostructures, obtained after annealing at 300 and 550 °C, respectively. The pristine ZnO and Au@ZnO nanocomposites are proposed as active layer in chemiresistive gas sensors for low-cost processing. Gas-sensing measurements towards NO2 were collected at 300 °C, evaluating not only the Au-doping effect, but also the influence of the different ZnO nanostructures on the gas-sensing properties.

  10. Preparation and properties of ZnO nano-whiskers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    By a novel controlled combustion synthesis method, a large amount of ZnO nano-whiskers with different morphologies like nanotetrapods, long-leg nanotetrapod and multipods, were prepared without any catalysts and additives in open air at high temperature. Their morphologies, structures and optical properties were in-vestigated by using SEM, XRD and PL spectrum. The possible growth mechanisms on the ZnO nano-whiskers were proposed in this paper.

  11. Temperature-dependence on the structural, optical, andparamagnetic properties of ZnO nanostructures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlongo, GH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface Science 293 (2014) 62– 70 Temperature-dependence on the structural, optical, andparamagnetic properties of ZnO nanostructures Gugu H. Mhlongoa,∗, David E. Motaunga,∗∗, Steven S. Nkosib, H.C. Swartc,Gerald F. Malgasd, Kenneth T. Hilliea...

  12. Fluorescence enhancement and multiple protein detection in ZnO nanostructure microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Chen-Hsiang; Chou, Shu-Jen; Pan, F M; Sheu, Jeng-Tzong

    2016-01-15

    In this study, different morphological ZnO nanostructures, those of sharp nanowires (NWs), rod NWs, and hexahedral-puncheon nanostructures, were grown in microfluidic channels on the same glass substrate. Characterizations of correspondent biomolecule binding properties were simulated and demonstrated. The surface was modified using 3-ammineopropyl-triethoxysilane (3-APTES) and biotin-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (NHS-biotin). Different concentrations (4.17pM to 41.7nM) of dye-conjugated streptavidin were simultaneously infused through the second microfluidic channels, which lie 90° from the first microfluidic channels. The florescent intensity at the crossover areas showed good agreement with simulations, with sharp ZnO NWs exhibiting the largest dynamic range and the highest fluorescent intensity. We further characterize correspondent protein detection using sharp ZnO NWs. The surfaces of these ZnO NWs were modified with mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG), infused through the second microfluidic channels with dye-conjugated (Alexa 546) anti-mouse IgG in different concentrations. Concentrations ranging from 417fM to 41.7nM can be resolved using sharp ZnO NWs. Finally, multiple protein detection was demonstrated using a five-by-eight microfluidic channel array. Fluorescence images present clear multiple detections at the crossover areas when using the sharp ZnO NWs for simultaneous dye-conjugated anti-mouse IgG and dye-conjugated anti-rabbit IgG (Alexa 647) detection.

  13. Hierarchical Assembly of SnO2/ZnO Nanostructures for Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liangliang; Hong, Minghui; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2015-06-25

    SnO2/ZnO hierarchical heterostructures have been successfully synthesized by combining electrospinning technique and hydrothermal method. Various morphologies of the secondary ZnO nanostructures including nanorods (NRs) and nanosheets (NSs) can be tailored by adding surfactants. Photocatalytic performance of the heterostructures was investigated and obvious enhancement was demonstrated in degradation of the organic pollutant, compared to the primary SnO2-based nanofibers (NFs) and bare ZnO. Furthermore, it was found that the H2 evolution from water splitting was achieved by photocatalysis of heterostructured nanocomposites after sulfurization treatment. This synthetic methodology described herein promises to be an effective approach for fabricating variety of nanostructures for enhanced catalytic applications. The heterostructured nanomaterials have considerable potential to address the environmental and energy issues via degradation of pollutant and generation of clean H2 fuel.

  14. Ultra violet sensors based on nanostructured ZnO spheres in network of nanowires: a novel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luykx A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe ZnO nanostructures consisting of micro spheres in a network of nano wires were synthesized by direct vapor phase method. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy measurements were carried out to understand the chemical nature of the sample. ZnO nanostructures exhibited band edge luminescence at 383 nm. The nanostructure based ZnO thin films were used to fabricate UV sensors. The photoresponse measurements were carried out and the responsivity was measured to be 50 mA W−1. The rise and decay time measurements were also measured.

  15. pH-Sensing Characteristics of Hydrothermal Al-Doped ZnO Nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Jyh-Liang Wang; Po-Yu Yang; Tsang-Yen Hsieh; Chuan-Chou Hwang; Miin-Horng Juang

    2013-01-01

    Highly sensitive and stable pH-sensing properties of an extended-gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) based on the aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) nanostructures have been demonstrated. The AZO nanostructures with different Al concentrations were synthesized on AZO/glass substrate via a simple hydrothermal growth method at 85°C. The AZO sensing nanostructures were connected with the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). Afterwards, the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and ...

  16. Facile synthesis of ZnO nanostructures and investigation of structural and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Neeti, E-mail: neetidtripathi@gmail.com; Rath, Shyama

    2013-12-15

    ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by chemical bath deposition method, using zinc nitrate [Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}] and hexa-methylene-tetra-amine [(HMT),C(H{sub 2}){sub 6}N{sub 4}] as precursors. Controlled size and shape evolution of ZnO nanostructures were achieved by changing the HMT concentration from 0.025 M to 0.1 M, whereas Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} concentration kept constant. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman study confirmed the formation of single crystalline, hexagonal wurtzite ZnO structure. Sharp peaks in Raman spectra, corresponding to E{sub 2}(low) and E{sub 2}(high) referred to wurtzite structure with higher order of crystallinity. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the shape and size of the nanostructures reduced, with increasing concentration of HMT. Further, effect of structure's size was observed in the band gap (shift). Photoluminescence study showed two peaks at ∼ 380 nm and ∼ 540 nm corresponding to the band to band transition and defect transitions. Modifications of properties are explained in detail on the basis of shape and size change of the structures and possible mechanism is discussed. - Highlights: • ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by chemical bath deposition method. • Particle’s shape and sizes were controlled by varying the HMT concentrations. • Effect of particle’s sizes was observed in the band gap (shift) and photoluminescence. • HMT is an effective suppressor of ZnO directional growth. • Shape evolution of ZnO particles can be tailored by varying the HMT concentrations.

  17. Effect of W-DOPING on Morphology, Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanostructures Synthesized via Thermal Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshghi, Hosein; Arjmand, Yaser

    2012-10-01

    Undoped and W-doped ZnO nanostructures were prepared by heating Zn and WO3 powders in the presence of oxygen gas without any catalyst, using the thermal evaporation method at 950°C. Samples were characterized by FESEM images, also EDS, XRD and PL spectra. FESEM images showed the formation of nanowires in the undoped sample and porous nanostructures as flat-surface granules with various sizes in the doped samples. XRD spectra of the samples confirmed the formation of wurtzite hexagonal structure with (002) as the preferred orientation, while its intensity has reduced as the doping concentration has increased. Meanwhile, the room temperature PL spectra have indicated this variation is in conjunction with the reduction in the intensity of UV emission and appearance of a violet emission at 420 nm (2.95 eV).

  18. ZnO Micro- and Nanostructures Obtained by Thermal Oxidation: Microstructure, Morphogenesis, Optical, and Photoluminescence Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Escobedo-Morales

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ZnO micro- and nanostructures were obtained through thermal oxidation of Zn powders at high temperature under air atmosphere. A detailed study of the microstructure, morphology, optical, and photoluminescence properties of the generated products at different stages of thermal oxidation is presented. It was found that the exposure time has a strong influence on the resulting morphology. The morphogenesis of the different ZnO structures is discussed, and experimental parameters for fabricating ZnO tetrapods, hollow, core-shell, elongated, or rounded structures by thermal oxidation method are proposed on the basis on the obtained results. Notoriously, the crystal lattice of the ZnO structures has negligible residual strain, although, the density of point defects increases when the thermal treatment is extended; as consequence, their visible luminescence upon UV excitation enhances.

  19. Effect of the reaction conditions on the formation of the ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perillo, P. M.; Atia, M. N.; Rodríguez, D. F.

    2017-01-01

    ZnO nanorods were synthesized through a simple chemical method by reacting Zn(C2H3O2)2·2H2O and NaOH at low temperature and the effects of changing the order of addition of reactants on the morphological evolution of ZnO nanorods were investigated. The samples were characterized by using XRD, SEM, EDX, TEM, BET and Raman techniques. Optical properties of the ZnO nanostructures were too investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy at room temperature. The hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) for all the samples. SEM and TEM analysis indicated that different morphologies were obtained by changing the order of addition of reactants.

  20. Effect of solution concentration on the functional properties of ZnO nanostructures: Role of Hexamethylenetetramine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Si Nae; Park, Keun Young; Seo, Yong Jun; Ahmed, Faheem; Anwar, M. S.; Koo, Bon Heun

    2013-05-01

    In this research, ZnO nanorods have been successfully synthesized via wet chemical method. XRD results revealed the single phase nature with the wurtzite structure of the as prepared ZnO nanorods. By only varying the concentration of Hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) in the solution, morphology of ZnO changed from hexagonal facet nanorods to pencil like nanorods and size of nanorods also changed. The band gap of as-synthesized ZnO nanorods was found to increase with increasing the concentration of HMT in the solution. The narrow full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the UV emission of PL spectra indicated that the grown ZnO nanorods have high crystal quality and is well matched with the obtained XRD results. These results revealed that the concentration of Hexamethylenetetramine plays a vital role to control the properties of ZnO nanorods.

  1. Microscopic origins of the surface exciton photoluminescence in ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Mahua; Jung, Yun Suk; Kim, Hong Koo; Kumar, Kumarappan; Hughes, Gregory J.; Newcomb, S.; Henry, Martin O.; McGlynn, Enda

    2012-02-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) studies of the surface exciton peak in ZnO nanostructures at ~3.367 eV are reported to elucidate the nature and origin of the emission and its relationship to nanostructure morphology. Localised voltage application in high vacuum and different gas atmospheres show a consistent PL variation (and recovery), allowing an association of the PL to a bound excitonic transition at the ZnO surface modified by an adsorbate. Studies of samples treated by plasma and of samples exposed to UV light under high vacuum conditions show no consistent effects on the surface exciton peak indicating no involvement of oxygen species. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data indicate involvement of adsorbed OH species. The relationship of the surface exciton peak to the nanostructure morphology is discussed in light of x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy data.

  2. Enhanced Gas Sensing Properties of Spin-coated Na-doped ZnO Nanostructured Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyooni, Mohamed A.; Shaban, Mohamed; El Sayed, Adel M.

    2017-01-01

    In this report, the structures, morphologies, optical, electrical and gas sensing properties of ZnO and ZnO: Na spin-coated films are studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results reveal that the films are of a single phase wurtzite ZnO with a preferential orientation along (002) direction parallel to c-axis. Na doping reduces the crystalline quality of the films. The plane surface of ZnO film turned to be wrinkle net-work structure after doping. The reflectance and the optical band gap of the ZnO film decreased after Na doping. The wrinkle net-work nanostructured Na-doped film shows an unusually sensitivity, 81.9% @ 50 sccm, for CO2 gas at room temperature compared to 1.0% for the pure ZnO film. The signals to noise ratio (SNR) and detection limit of Na-doped ZnO sensor are 0.24 and 0.42 sccm, respectively. These enhanced sensing properties are ascribed to high surface-to-volume ratio, hoping effect, and the increase of O- vacancies density according to Kroger VinK effect. The response time increased from 179 to 240 s by the incorporation of Na atoms @50 sccm. This response time increased as the CO2 concentration increased. The recovery time is increased from 122 to 472 s by the incorporation of Na atoms @50 sccm. PMID:28145506

  3. Doping effect on the optical properties of ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoehr, M. [Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois,104 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Institut Universitaire de Technologie, Universite de Haute Alsace, 61 rue Albert Camus, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Juillaguet, S. [Groupe d' Etude des Semi-conducteurs, Universite Montpellier II, Place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Kyaw, T.M.; Wen, J.G. [Institut Universitaire de Technologie, Universite de Haute Alsace, 61 rue Albert Camus, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France)

    2007-04-15

    High quality undoped and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} or In{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped ZnO nanostructures are grown by chemical vapor transport and condensation. The doping effect on the optical properties is investigated by photoluminescence. At room temperature, photoluminescence on Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped ZnO nanostructures reveals an enhancement of the ultraviolet near band edge emission at 390 nm, while the intensity of the deep level emission at 530 nm weakens. At 5 K, an intense neutral-donor-bound exciton (D{sup 0}X) line dominates the undoped and doped ZnO photoluminescence spectra. The presence of well resolved two-electron satellite lines allow to determine the type of donors. At 5 K, the results indicate that ZnO nanostructures grown with 10% of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} display an excellent optical quality, proved by an intense D{sup 0}X line, a high intensity ratio between the D{sup 0}X line and the deep level emission as well as the presence of numerous phonon replicas of the main lines. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Improved photovoltaic performance of multiple carbon-doped ZnO nanostructures under UV and visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianbin; Du, Hejun; Sun, Xiao Wei; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Sun, Gengzhi; Li, Fengji; Zheng, Lianxi; Zhang, Sam

    2014-09-01

    We report synthesis of multiple carbon-doped ZnO nanostructures by using carbon cloth as substrates to obtain multiple hollow ZnO microtube-nanowire structures. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analysis clearly show that carbon is doped into ZnO through substitution of carbon for oxygen in the growth and annealing processes. Upon exposure to 633-nm red laser, a distinct photoresponse can be observed, which indicates that carbon doping in ZnO can well extend its light harvesting to visible light region. Furthermore, a prototype of photovoltaic cell was fabricated to demonstrate the photovoltaic performance of multiple carbon-doped ZnO nanostructures under UV and visible light irradiation. This result shows that carbon-doped ZnO can act as effective photoactive materials for photoelectric components.

  5. Growth and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown on ZnO seed layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yong; Feneberg, Martin; Reiser, Anton; Tischer, Ingo; Wiedenmann, Michael; Frey, Reinhard; Roeder, Uwe; Sauer, Rolf; Thonke, Klaus [Institut fuer Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Using a ZnO seed layer, we grow well-aligned ZnO nanopillars on different substrates including a-plane sapphire, c-plane GaN, and (100) silicon. We use Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to characterize the morphology of the ZnO seed layers and of the ZnO nanopillars. Layers and nanopillars were also investigated by optical spectroscopy. For all kinds of substrates used, we find well-faceted nanopillars which are uniform along the whole length. The data indicate that they grow via the vapour-solid (VS) mechanism under well-controlled growth conditions. The photoluminescence of the ZnO nanopillars shows sharp near-band-edge luminescence and nearly no green or yellow band luminescence, indicating very low contamination.

  6. Glancing angle deposited Al-doped ZnO nanostructures with different structural and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, A., E-mail: yildizab@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara (Turkey); Cansizoglu, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Turkoz, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Department of Electrical-Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Karabuk, Karabuk (Turkey); Abdulrahman, R.; Al-Hilo, Alaa; Cansizoglu, M.F.; Demirkan, T.M.; Karabacak, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanostructure arrays with different shapes (tilted rods, vertical rods, spirals, and zigzags) were fabricated by utilizing glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique in a DC sputter growth unit at room temperature. During GLAD, all the samples were tilted at an oblique angle of about 90° with respect to incoming flux direction. In order to vary the shapes of nanostructures, each sample was rotated at different speeds around the substrate normal axis. Rotation speed did not only affect the shape but also changed the microstructural and optical properties of GLAD AZO nanostructures. The experimental results reveal that GLAD AZO nanostructures of different shapes each have unique morphological, crystal structure, mechanical, and optical properties determined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission, and reflectance measurements. Vertical nanorods display the largest grain size, minimum strain, lowest defect density, and highest optical transmittance compared to the other shapes. Growth dynamics of GLAD has been discussed to explain the dependence of structural and optical properties of nanostructures on the substrate rotation speed. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanostructures with different shapes were fabricated. • They have unique morphological, crystal structure, and optical properties. • Vertical AZO nanorods show an enhanced optical transmittance.

  7. Porous nanostructured ZnO films deposited by picosecond laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sima, Cornelia [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 405 Atomistilor, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Laser Department, 409 Atomistilor, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Grigoriu, Constantin, E-mail: grigoriu@ifin.nipne.ro [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Laser Department, 409 Atomistilor, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Besleaga, Cristina; Mitran, Tudor; Ion, Lucian; Antohe, Stefan [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 405 Atomistilor, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2012-08-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We deposite porous nanostructured ZnO films by picoseconds laser ablation (PLA). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes of the films structure on the experimental parameter deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrate PLA capability to produce ZnO nanostructured films free of particulates. - Abstract: Porous nanostructured polycrystalline ZnO films, free of large particulates, were deposited by picosecond laser ablation. Using a Zn target, zinc oxide films were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates using a picosecond Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser (8 ps, 50 kHz, 532 nm, 0.17 J/cm{sup 2}) in an oxygen atmosphere at room temperature (RT). The morpho-structural characteristics of ZnO films deposited at different oxygen pressures (150-900 mTorr) and gas flow rates (0.25 and 10 sccm) were studied. The post-deposition influence of annealing (250-550 Degree-Sign C) in oxygen on the film characteristics was also investigated. At RT, a mixture of Zn and ZnO formed. At substrate temperatures above 350 Degree-Sign C, the films were completely oxidized, containing a ZnO wurtzite phase with crystallite sizes of 12.2-40.1 nm. At pressures of up to 450 mTorr, the porous films consisted of well-distinguished primary nanoparticles with average sizes of 45-58 nm, while at higher pressures, larger clusters (3.1-14.7 {mu}m) were dominant, leading to thicker films; higher flow rates favored clustering.

  8. Effect of gallium concentrations on the morphologies, structural and optical properties of Ga-doped ZnO nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarni, H; El-Gomati, M M; Al-Assiri, M S

    2014-07-01

    The effect of gallium ion concentrations (0.5 and 2%) on the morphologies, structural and optical properties of Ga-doped ZnO nanostructures are presented. Ga-doped ZnO nanostructures were synthesized on silicon substrates by simple thermal evaporation process using metallic zinc and Ga powders in the presence of oxygen. Interestingly, it was observed that Ga-ions incorporation in ZnO nanomaterials play an important role on the growth kinetics and hence on the morphologies of as-grown Ga-doped ZnO nanostructures. It was seen that at low Ga-concentration, needle-shaped Ga-doped ZnO nanostructures are formed, presumably by subsequent stacking of hexagonal plates. However, when increasing the Ga-concentration, multipods of Ga-doped ZnO were grown. In addition to the morphologies, incorporating Ga-ions into ZnO also affect the room-temperature photoluminescence properties. Therefore, at lower Ga-ion concentration, an intense UV emission was observed while at high Ga-concentration a deep level emission was seen in the room-temperature photoluminescence spectra. This research demonstrates that by controlling the Ga-ion concentration the morphologies and optical properties of ZnO nanomaterials can be tailored.

  9. Effect of NaOH molar concentration on optical and ferroelectric properties of ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chand, Prakash, E-mail: KK_PC2006@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Gaur, Anurag; Kumar, Ashavani [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Gaur, Umesh Kumar [Centre of Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method at different NaOH mol%. • Effects of molar concentration on structural, optical and ferroelectric properties are investigated. • A significant reduction in optical band gap has been observed by varying NaOH mol%. • Room temperature ferroelectricity has been observed for these nanostructures. - Abstract: The present study reports the effects of NaOH concentrations in hydrothermally grown ZnO nanostructures on structural, optical and ferroelectric properties at different selected NaOH molar concentrations (3–7 M). X-ray diffraction, Raman and photoluminescence analysis confirms the formation of pure phase of ZnO. FESEM images show that the average grain size of ZnO nanostructures increases from 61 to 95 nm as molar concentration increases from 3 to 7 M, respectively. Transmission electron microscope analysis also reveals that an average grain size of ZnO nanostructures increases from 34 to 55 nm as molarity increases from 3 to 7 M concentrations. A significant reduction in the optical band gap is observed from 4.41 to 3.96 eV by increasing molar concentration from 3 to 7 M, respectively. The decrease in the band gap with molar concentration could be due to the increase of density of localize state in the conduction band. Furthermore, ferroelectricity is observed in ZnO nanostructures at room temperature which is interesting and adds an additional dimension to its applications.

  10. Electron field emission characteristics of different surface morphologies of ZnO nanostructures coated on carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuan-Wei; Lian, Huan-Bin; Cai, Jhen-Hong; Wang, Yao-Te; Lee, Kuei-Yi

    2011-12-01

    The optimal carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles with a hexagonal arrangement were synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD). To enhance the electron field emission characteristics of the pristine CNTs, the zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures coated on CNT bundles using another TCVD technique. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the ZnO nanostructures were grown onto the CNT surface uniformly, and the surface morphology of ZnO nanostructures varied with the distance between the CNT bundle and the zinc acetate. The results of field emissions showed that the ZnO nanostructures grown onto the CNTs could improve the electron field emission characteristics. The enhancement of field emission characteristics was attributed to the increase of emission sites formed by the nanostructures of ZnO grown onto the CNT surface, and each ZnO nanostructure could be regarded as an individual field emission site. In addition, ZnO-coated CNT bundles exhibited a good emission uniformity and stable current density. These results demonstrated that ZnO-coated CNTs is a promising field emitter material.

  11. Sol–Gel and Thermally Evaporated Nanostructured Thin ZnO Films for Photocatalytic Degradation of Trichlorophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Sawsan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present work, thermal evaporation and sol–gel coating techniques were applied to fabricate nanostructured thin ZnO films. The phase structure and surface morphology of the obtained films were investigated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM, respectively. The topography and 2D profile of the thin ZnO films prepared by both techniques were studied by optical profiler. The results revealed that the thermally evaporated thin film has a comparatively smoother surface of hexagonal wurtzite structure with grain size 12 nm and 51 m2/g. On the other hand, sol–gel films exhibited rough surface with a strong preferred orientation of 25 nm grain size and 27 m2/g surface area. Following deposition process, the obtained films were applied for the photodegradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP in water in presence of UV irradiation. The concentrations of TCP and its intermediates produced in the solution during the photodegradation were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC at defined irradiation times. Complete decay of TCP and its intermediates was observed after 60 min when the thermal evaporated photocatalyst was applied. However, by operating sol–gel catalyst, the concentration of intermediates initially increased and then remained constant with irradiation time. Although the degradation of TCP followed first-order kinetic for both catalysts, higher photocatalytic activity was exhibited by the thermally evaporated ZnO thin film in comparison with sol–gel one.

  12. An economic approach to fabricate photo sensor based on nanostructured ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huse, Nanasaheb; Upadhye, Deepak; Sharma, Ramphal

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructural ZnO Thin Films have been synthesized by simple and economic Chemical Bath Deposition technique onto glass substrate with bath temperature at 60°C for 1 hour. Structural, Optical, Electrical and topographical properties of the prepared Thin Films were investigated by GIXRD, I-V Measurement System, UV-Visible Spectrophotometer and AFM respectively. Calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the standard JCPDS card (36-1451) values, exhibits Hexagonal Wurtzite crystal structure. I-V Measurement curve has shown ohmic nature in dark condition and responds to light illumination which reveals Photo sensor properties. After illumination of 60W light, decrease in resistance was observed from 110.9 KΩ to 104.4 KΩ. The change in current and calculated Photo sensitivity was found to be 3.51 µA and 6.3% respectively. Optical band gap was found to be 3.24 eV. AFM images revealed uniform deposition over entire glass substrate with 32.27 nm average roughness of the film.

  13. A novel hierarchical ZnO disordered/ordered bilayer nanostructured film for dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yamin, E-mail: yaminfengccnuphy@outlook.com; Wu, Fei; Jiang, Jian; Zhu, Jianhui; Fodjouong, Ghislain Joel; Meng, Gaoxiang; Xing, Yanmin; Wang, Wenwu; Huang, Xintang, E-mail: xthuang@phy.ccnu.edu.cn

    2013-12-25

    Graphical abstract: A novel hierarchical disordered/ordered bilayer ZnO nanostructured film in the length of 18 μm have been successfully synthesized on the FTO substrate; the hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film electrodes applied in DSSCs exhibit photoelectric conversion efficiency as high as 5.16%. Highlights: •A novel hierarchical ZnO structure film was fabricated on a FTO substrate. •Hierarchical ZnO film is applied as the electrodes for dye sensitized solar cells. •The film possess high specific surface area and fast electron transport effect. •The light-scattering effect of the hierarchical film is pronounced. •The energy conversion efficiency of hierarchical ZnO electrode reaches to 5.16%. -- Abstract: A novel hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film is synthesized via a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method followed by a treatment of thermal decomposition onto a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. This hierarchical film is composed of disordered ZnO nanorods (NRs) (top layer) and ordered ZnO nanowires (NWs) (bottom layer). The products possess the following features such as high specific surface area, fast electron transport, and pronounced light-scattering effect, which are quite suitable for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) applications. A light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 5.16% is achieved when the hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film is used as the photoanode under 100 mW cm{sup −2} illumination. This efficiency is found to be much higher than that of the DSSCs with pure ordered ZnO NWs (1.45%) and disordered ZnO NRs (3.31%) photoanodes.

  14. Oxygen vacancy induced band gap narrowing of ZnO nanostructures by an electrochemically active biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Sajid Ali; Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Kalathil, Shafeer; Nisar, Ambreen; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2013-10-07

    Band gap narrowing is important and advantageous for potential visible light photocatalytic applications involving metal oxide nanostructures. This paper reports a simple biogenic approach for the promotion of oxygen vacancies in pure zinc oxide (p-ZnO) nanostructures using an electrochemically active biofilm (EAB), which is different from traditional techniques for narrowing the band gap of nanomaterials. The novel protocol improved the visible photocatalytic activity of modified ZnO (m-ZnO) nanostructures through the promotion of oxygen vacancies, which resulted in band gap narrowing of the ZnO nanostructure (Eg = 3.05 eV) without dopants. X-ray diffraction, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed the oxygen vacancy and band gap narrowing of m-ZnO. m-ZnO enhanced the visible light catalytic activity for the degradation of different classes of dyes and 4-nitrophenol compared to p-ZnO, which confirmed the band gap narrowing because of oxygen defects. This study shed light on the modification of metal oxide nanostructures by EAB with a controlled band structure.

  15. Structural, morphological and photoluminescence properties of W-doped ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngom, B.D., E-mail: bdngom@tlabs.ac.za [Groupes de physique du Solide et Sciences des Materiaux (GPSSM), Faculte des Sciences et Techniques Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (UCAD), B.P. 25114, Dakar-Fann Dakar (Senegal); NANO-Sciences Laboratories, Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Sakho, O. [Groupes de physique du Solide et Sciences des Materiaux (GPSSM), Faculte des Sciences et Techniques Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (UCAD), B.P. 25114, Dakar-Fann Dakar (Senegal); Manyala, N. [Department of Physics, Institute of Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Kana, J.B. [Departement de physique, Universite Yaounde 1, Yaounde (Cameroon); Mlungisi, N. [NANO-Sciences Laboratories, Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Guerbous, L. [Nuclear Research Center of Algiers - CRNA, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon BP 399 Alger Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Fasasi, A.Y. [Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State (Nigeria); Maaza, M. [NANO-Sciences Laboratories, Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Beye, A.C. [Groupes de physique du Solide et Sciences des Materiaux (GPSSM), Faculte des Sciences et Techniques Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (UCAD), B.P. 25114, Dakar-Fann Dakar (Senegal)

    2009-05-30

    W-doped ZnO nanostructures were synthesized at substrate temperature of 600 deg. C by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), from different wt% of WO{sub 3} and ZnO mixed together. The resulting nanostructures have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence for structural, surface morphology and optical properties as function of W-doping. XRD results show that the films have preferred orientation along a c-axis (0 0 L) plane. We have observed nanorods on all samples, except that W-doped samples show perfectly aligned nanorods. The nanorods exhibit near-band-edge (NBE) ultraviolet (UV) and violet emissions with strong deep-level blue emissions and green emissions at room temperature.

  16. Vibrational Order, Structural Properties, and Optical Gap of ZnO Nanostructures Sintered through Thermal Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Londono-Calderon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sintering of different ZnO nanostructures by the thermal decomposition of zinc acetate is reported. Morphological changes from nanorods to nanoparticles are exhibited with the increase of the decomposition temperature from 300 to 500°C. The material showed a loss in the crystalline order with the increase in the temperature, which is correlated to the loss of oxygen due to the low heating rate used. Nanoparticles have a greater vibrational freedom than nanorods which is demonstrated in the rise of the main Raman mode E 2(high during the transformation. The energy band gap of the nanostructured material is lower than the ZnO bulk material and decreases with the rise in the temperature.

  17. Double-layered ZnO nanostructures for efficient perovskite solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    To date, a single layer of TiO2 or ZnO has been the most successful implementations of any electron transport layer (ETL) in solution-processed perovskite solar cells. In a quest to improve the ETL, we explore a new nanostructured double-layer ZnO film for mesoscopic perovskite-based thin film photovoltaics. This approach yields a maximum power conversion efficiency of 10.35%, which we attribute to the morphology of oxide layer and to faster electron transport. The successful implementation of the low-temperature hydrothermally processed double-layer ZnO film as ETL in perovskite solar cells highlights the opportunities to further improve the efficiencies by focusing on the ETL in this rapidly developing field. This journal is

  18. Room temperature ferromagnetism in ZnO prepared by microemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyu Xu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Clear room temperature ferromagnetism has been observed in ZnO powders prepared by microemulsion. The O vacancy (VO clusters mediated by the VO with one electron (F center contributed to the ferromagnetism, while the isolated F centers contributed to the low temperature paramagnetism. Annealing in H2 incorporated interstitial H (Hi in ZnO, and removed the isolated F centers, leading to the suppression of the paramagnetism. The ferromagnetism has been considered to originate from the VO clusters mediated by the Hi, leading to the enhancement of the coercivity. The ferromagnetism disappeared after annealing in air due to the reduction of Hi.

  19. Vibrational Order, Structural Properties, and Optical Gap of ZnO Nanostructures Sintered through Thermal Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The sintering of different ZnO nanostructures by the thermal decomposition of zinc acetate is reported. Morphological changes from nanorods to nanoparticles are exhibited with the increase of the decomposition temperature from 300 to 500°C. The material showed a loss in the crystalline order with the increase in the temperature, which is correlated to the loss of oxygen due to the low heating rate used. Nanoparticles have a greater vibrational freedom than nanorods which is demonstrated in th...

  20. Nanostructured Zn and ZnO nanowire thin films for mechanical and self-cleaning applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaik, Ummar Pasha [Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C R Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Purkayastha, Debarun Dhar, E-mail: ddebarun@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Nagaland, Chumukedima, Dimapur 797103 (India); Krishna, M. Ghanashyam [Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C R Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500046 (India); School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C R Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Madhurima, V. [Department of Physics, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur 610004 (India)

    2015-03-01

    Highlights: • Zn metal films were deposited by thermal evaporation, on various substrates. • Upon annealing Zn there is transformation of the Zn nanosheets into ZnO nanowires. • ZnO nanowires are superhydrophobic and exhibit wetting transition on UV exposure. • ZnO will be useful in self-cleaning, mechanical and oxidation resistance surfaces. - Abstract: Nanostructured Zn metal films were deposited by thermal evaporation, on borosilicate glass, Quartz, sapphire, lanthanum aluminate and yttria stabilized zirconia substrates. The as-deposited films are nanocrystalline and show a morphology that consists of triangular nanosheets. The films are hydrophobic with contact angles between 102° and 120° with hardness and Young's modulus between 0.15–0.8 GPa and 18–300 GPa, respectively. Thermal annealing of the films at 500 °C results only in partial oxidation of Zn to ZnO, which indicates good oxidation resistance. Annealing also causes transformation of the Zn nanosheets into ZnO nanowires that are polycrystalline in nature. The ZnO nanowires are superhydrophobic with contact angles between 159° and 162°, contact angle hysteresis between 5° and 10° and exhibit a reversible superhydrophobic–hydrophilic transition under UV irradiation. The nanowires are much softer than the as-deposited Zn metal films, with hardness between 0.02 and 0.4 GPa and Young's modulus between 3 and 35 GPa. The current study thus demonstrates a simple process for fabrication of nanostructured Zn metal films followed by a one-step transformation to nanowires with properties that will be very attractive for mechanical and self-cleaning applications.

  1. ZnO thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoutsouva, M.G. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780 Athens (Greece); Panagopoulos, C.N., E-mail: chpanag@metal.ntua.gr [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780 Athens (Greece); Papadimitriou, D. [National Technical University of Athens, Department of Physics, GR-15780 Athens (Greece); Fasaki, I.; Kompitsas, M. [Theor. and Phys./Chem. Institute, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 48 Vas. Konstantinou Ave., 11635 Athens (Greece)

    2011-04-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on soda lime glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in an oxygen-reactive atmosphere. The structural, optical, and electrical properties of the as-prepared thin films were studied in dependence of substrate temperature and oxygen pressure. High quality polycrystalline ZnO films with hexagonal wurtzite structure were deposited at substrate temperatures of 100 and 300 deg. C. The RMS roughness of the deposited oxide films was found to be in the range 2-9 nm and was only slightly dependent on substrate temperature and oxygen pressure. Electrical measurements indicated a decrease of film resistivity with the increase of substrate temperature and the decrease of oxygen pressure. The ZnO films exhibited high transmittance of 90% and their energy band gap and thickness were in the range 3.26-3.30 eV and 256-627 nm, respectively.

  2. Synthesis and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures in imidazolium-based ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbaghan, Maryam; Shahvelayati, Ashraf Sadat; Bashtani, Seyede Elahe

    2012-08-01

    Different morphologies of ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized by a simple reflux method, in imidazolium-based ionic liquids and water as a solvent. The effects of ionic liquid as a template with different concentrations and the amount of sodium hydroxide on the morphology and size of nanostructures were investigated. The structural and optical properties of these ZnO particles were studied by using XRD, SEM and UV-Visible. The characteristic results revealed that using different ionic liquids in water not only prevent a drastic increase in the crystallite size of the zinc oxide species but also provide suitable conditions for the oriented growth of primary nanoparticles with nano sheet and nano hallow block. The results show that the longer alkyl chain at position-1 of imidazole ring or using dicationic ionic liquid with a definite concentration cause the more width of nano sheet. A possible mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of ZnO nanostructures with different morphology.

  3. Growth of ZnO nanostructures by femtosecond laser irradiation of polycrystalline targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, G.; Ryu, Y. K.; de la Cruz, A. Ruíz; Puerto, D.; Solís, J.; Fernández, P.

    2015-11-01

    The formation of LIPSS upon irradiation with ultrashort laser pulses on the surface of polycrystalline ZnO samples and the potential use of irradiated areas as growth patterns for the production of highly ordered nanostructures upon redeposition have been studied. For this purpose, we have performed different sets of irradiation experiments including static irradiation experiments at low and high repetition rates, as well as scanned beam experiments at high repetition rate, this later in order to generate relatively large template regions for nanostructure growth by redeposition. In all cases, LIPSS formation has been achieved in the ZnO polycrystalline surface. Under appropriate irradiation conditions, the material is redeposited rendering a high density of nanostructures with high aspect ratios and good crystal quality. Given the special luminescent properties and applications of ZnO, particular attention has been paid to the luminescence properties after irradiation and after post-irradiation thermal treatments. The observed evolution has been correlated with evolution of point defects in the treated surfaces. Thermal treatments cause significant changes in both the topography and the cathodoluminescent emission, such as the development of laminar structures, the emergence of nucleation centers and the recovery of ultraviolet emission previously quenched as a consequence of irradiation. Interestingly, LIPSS remain after the luminescent recovery by thermal annealing, opening the possibility to control both luminescence properties and grain size while maintaining an ordered structure with a high effective surface area.

  4. Effect of zinc nitrate concentration on the structural and the optical properties of ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hee Yeon [Department of Information Display Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se Han [Research Institute of Information Display, Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Whan, E-mail: twk@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Information Display Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Information Display, Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-01

    ZnO nanorods and nanodisks were formed on indium-tin-oxide-coated glass substrates by using an electrochemical deposition method. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the ZnO nanorods were transformed into nanodisks with increasing Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} concentration. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the ZnO nanostructures had wurzite structures. The full widths at half maxima of the near band-edge emission peak of photoluminescence spectra at 300 K for ZnO nanorods were small, indicative of the high quality of the nanorods. These results indicate that the structural and the optical properties of ZnO nanostructures vary by changing Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} concentration.

  5. Effect of zinc nitrate concentration on the structural and the optical properties of ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hee Yeon; Lee, Se Han; Kim, Tae Whan

    2010-08-01

    ZnO nanorods and nanodisks were formed on indium-tin-oxide-coated glass substrates by using an electrochemical deposition method. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the ZnO nanorods were transformed into nanodisks with increasing Zn(NO 3) 2 concentration. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the ZnO nanostructures had wurzite structures. The full widths at half maxima of the near band-edge emission peak of photoluminescence spectra at 300 K for ZnO nanorods were small, indicative of the high quality of the nanorods. These results indicate that the structural and the optical properties of ZnO nanostructures vary by changing Zn(NO 3) 2 concentration.

  6. Sn doping induced enhancement in the activity of ZnO nanostructures against antibiotic resistant S. aureus bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan T

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tariq Jan,1 Javed Iqbal,1 Muhammad Ismail,2 M Zakaullah,3 Sajjad Haider Naqvi,4 Noor Badshah51Laboratory of Nanoscience and Technology, Department of Physics, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 2Institute of Biomedical and Genetic Engineering, Islamabad, Pakistan; 3Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 4Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan; 5Department of Basic Science, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, PakistanAbstract: Highly ionic metal oxide nanostructures are attractive, not only for their physiochemical properties but also for antibacterial activity. Zinc oxide (ZnO nanostructures are known to have inhibitory activity against many pathogens but very little is known about doping effects on it. The antibacterial activity of undoped ZnO and tin (Sn doped ZnO nanostructures synthesized by a simple, versatile, and wet chemical technique have been investigated against Escherichia coli, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial strains. It has been interestingly observed that Sn doping enhanced the inhibitory activity of ZnO against S. aureus more efficiently than the other two bacterial strains. From cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS production studies it is found that Sn doping concentration in ZnO does not alter the cytotoxicity and ROS production very much. It has also been observed that undoped and Sn doped ZnO nanostructures are biosafe and biocompatible materials towards SH-SY5Y Cells. The observed behavior of ZnO nanostructures with Sn doping is a new way to prevent bacterial infections of S. aureus, especially on skin, when using these nanostructures in creams or lotions in addition to their sunscreen property as an ultraviolet filter. Structural investigations have confirmed the formation of a single phase wurtzite structure of ZnO. The morphology of ZnO nanostructures is found to vary

  7. Ultrasonic irradiation effects on electrochemical synthesis of ZnO nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajnorouzi, Abazar; Afzalzadeh, Reza; Ghanati, Faezeh

    2014-07-01

    In the present article, electrochemical synthesis of ZnO nanostructures in presence of ultrasonic irradiation is investigated. The ultrasonic bath use for synthesis is calibrated using hydrophone method so that its frequency and acoustic power were obtained. From the results of the experimentation the role of ultrasonic irradiation in synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles is discussed. Diameter of the ZnO nanoparticles produced in the electrolyte was compared and investigated in absence and presence of the ultrasonic irradiation utilizing UV-visible photo-spectrometer. Then electrodeposited ZnO layer on the ITO glass as cathode's surface in absence and presence of the ultrasonic irradiation were studied by UV-visible photo-spectrometer and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and the results were compared. FE-SEM micrographs show, higher growth of nanosheets on the cathode electrode in presence of ultrasonic irradiation. Experiment shows synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles in presence of the ultrasonic irradiation happen 10 times faster.

  8. Preparation and characterization of ZnO nanometer powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴振玉; 方正; 肖利; 徐洪耀

    2004-01-01

    Hard zinc from thermo-plating zinc factory had been treated for preparation of ZnO nano-powder by chemical precipitation. The ion-type and non-ion-type surface-active reagents were added in different steps and ultrasonic agitation was used in preparing process. TG/DTG was applied to determine thermo-decomposition temperature of the precursor as about 450 ℃. The product is light yellow, and had been characterized by XRD, SBET and TEM,through which the good dispersing sphere particles with the average diameter of approximately 50 - 60 nm are observed, and the crystal is pure ZnO with hexahedral structure. The cost of preparing nanometer zinc oxide is low.

  9. Effect of excitation intensity on fluorescence spectra in ZnO nanostructures and its origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG YuGang; ZHANG LiDe

    2009-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures with three kinds of morphologies, namely, tetrapod-, rod-, and sheet-like shape, are synthesized by chemical vapor deposition, conventional solution-phase, and hydrothermal meth-ods, respectively. The fluorescence measurements display that the spectra of these nanostructures exhibit similar unexpected change laws with the altering excitation intensity. It is observed that when the excitation intensity increases, for the green emission band, the peak position shows a small blue-shift, the width turns broader, and the intensity grows first stronger and then weaker; for the UV emission band, the peak position exhibits a significant red-shift, and the width and intensity have the similar behaviors with those of the green band. Additionally, the relative intensity of green emission to UV emission decreases gradually. It is clarified that the origin of this abnormal phenomenon is as-cribed to the local laser heating effect and the high sensitivity of nanostructures to this heating effect.

  10. Effect of excitation intensity on fluorescence spectra in ZnO nanostructures and its origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures with three kinds of morphologies, namely,tetrapod-,rod-,and sheet-like shape, are synthesized by chemical vapor deposition, conventional solution-phase,and hydrothermal methods, respectively.The fluorescence measurements display that the spectra of these nanostructures exhibit similar unexpected change laws with the altering excitation intensity. It is observed that when the excitation intensity increases, for the green emission band,the peak position shows a small blue-shift, the width turns broader,and the intensity grows first stronger and then weaker;for the UV emission band, the peak position exhibits a significant red-shift,and the width and intensity have the similar behaviors with those of the green band.Additionally,the relative intensity of green emission to UV emission decreases gradually.It is clarified that the origin of this abnormal phenomenon is ascribed to the local laser heating effect and the high sensitivity of nanostructures to this heating effect.

  11. Preparation and characterization of ZnO and Fe-doped ZnO films by sol-gel method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xin; Wang,Jiangang; Ma, Jing; Hu, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    ZnO and Fe-doped ZnO thin films are prepared on glass substrate by sol-gel method, and the surface morphology, structure and optical property are analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The results show that both films have a smooth surface and a hexagonal wurtzite structure with orienting along the (101) plane. Compared with the ZnO film, the surface of Fe-doped ZnO film becomes smoother, and its...

  12. Boron doped nanostructure ZnO films deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Seniye; Ozbas, Omer

    2015-02-01

    ZnO is an II-VI compound semiconductor with a wide direct band gap of 3.3 eV at room temperature. Doped with group III elements (B, Al or Ga), it becomes an attractive candidate to replace tin oxide (SnO2) or indium tin oxide (ITO) as transparent conducting electrodes in solar cell devices and flat panel display due to competitive electrical and optical properties. In this work, ZnO and boron doped ZnO (ZnO:B) films have been deposited onto glass substrates at 350 ± 5 °C by a cost-efficient ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. The optical, structural, morphological and electrical properties of nanostructure undoped and ZnO:B films have been investigated. Electrical resistivity of films has been analyzed by four-probe technique. Optical properties and thicknesses of the films have been examined in the wavelength range 1200-1600 nm by using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements. The optical constants (refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k)) and the thicknesses of the films have been fitted according to Cauchy model. The optical method has been used to determine the band gap value of the films. Transmission spectra have been taken by UV spectrophotometer. It is found that both ZnO and ZnO:B films have high average optical transmission (≥80%). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that the obtained ZnO has a hexagonal wurtzite type structure. The morphological properties of the films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface morphology of the nanostructure films is found to depend on the concentration of B. As a result, ZnO:B films are promising contender for their potential use as transparent window layer and electrodes in solar cells.

  13. Photoelectrochemical characterization of the role of organic sensitizers adsorbed on nanostructured ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastall, Andreas; Loewenstein, Thomas; Schlettwein, Derck [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Porous sensitized ZnO is a promising material for application as electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) to utilize the intense absorption of organic sensitizers in the visible spectral range. Electrochemical deposition of ZnO from aqueous solutions is a low temperature process (<150 C) which allows the use of various substrates. The process can be performed at low energy input and cost and is therefore promising short pay-back times and high net energy gains. The role of the adsorbed sensitizer dye and resulting charge carrier generation, collection, but also recombination in the interface of ZnO/sensitizer/electrolyte of DSSC were analyzed in detail by transient photocurrent measurements, intensity modulated photocurrent and photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS), photovoltage decay and charge-extraction. Results are discussed for different sensitizers adsorbed to the ZnO surface and for ZnO prepared on various substrates and optimized in structure and morphology.

  14. Nanostructured Zn and ZnO nanowire thin films for mechanical and self-cleaning applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Ummar Pasha; Purkayastha, Debarun Dhar; Krishna, M. Ghanashyam; Madhurima, V.

    2015-03-01

    Nanostructured Zn metal films were deposited by thermal evaporation, on borosilicate glass, Quartz, sapphire, lanthanum aluminate and yttria stabilized zirconia substrates. The as-deposited films are nanocrystalline and show a morphology that consists of triangular nanosheets. The films are hydrophobic with contact angles between 102° and 120° with hardness and Young's modulus between 0.15-0.8 GPa and 18-300 GPa, respectively. Thermal annealing of the films at 500 °C results only in partial oxidation of Zn to ZnO, which indicates good oxidation resistance. Annealing also causes transformation of the Zn nanosheets into ZnO nanowires that are polycrystalline in nature. The ZnO nanowires are superhydrophobic with contact angles between 159° and 162°, contact angle hysteresis between 5° and 10° and exhibit a reversible superhydrophobic-hydrophilic transition under UV irradiation. The nanowires are much softer than the as-deposited Zn metal films, with hardness between 0.02 and 0.4 GPa and Young's modulus between 3 and 35 GPa. The current study thus demonstrates a simple process for fabrication of nanostructured Zn metal films followed by a one-step transformation to nanowires with properties that will be very attractive for mechanical and self-cleaning applications.

  15. ZnO thin films and nanostructures for emerging optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D. J.; Teherani, F. H.; Sandana, V. E.; Razeghi, M.

    2010-02-01

    ZnO-based thin films and nanostructures grown by PLD for various emerging optoelectronic applications. AZO thin films are currently displacing ITO for many TCO applications due to recent improvements in attainable AZO conductivity combined with processing, cost and toxicity advantages. Advances in the channel mobilities and Id on/off ratios in ZnO-based TTFTs have opened up the potential for use as a replacement for a-Si in AM-OLED and AM-LCD screens. Angular-dependent specular reflection measurements of self-forming, moth-eye-like, nanostructure arrays grown by PLD were seen to have growth of InGaN-based solar cells on cheap substrates. The green gap in InGaN-based LEDs was combated by substituting low Ts PLD n-ZnO for MOCVD n-GaN in inverted hybrid heterojunctions. This approach maintained the integrity of the InGaN MQWs and gave LEDs with green emission at just over 510 nm. Hybrid n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunctions were also seen to have the potential for UV (375 nm) EL, characteristic of ZnO NBE emission. This suggests that there was significant hole injection into the ZnO and that such LEDs could profit from the relatively high exciton binding energy of ZnO.

  16. Microstructural Study of ZnO Nanostructures by Rietveld Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pola-Albores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanorods were synthesized by induced seeds by chemical bath deposition using hexamethylenetetramine (HMT as a precipitant agent and zinc nitrate (ZN as Zn2+ source at 90°C. The influence of reactants ratio was studied from 2 to 0.25 ZN/HMT molar. The results obtained by scanning electron microscopy confirm that the diameter of nanorods was affected directly by the concentration of both zinc and OH− sources. Nanotubes (hollow nanorods were obtained with high HMT concentrations and were turning over nanorods as HMT concentration decreased. Microstructural information was obtained by Rietveld refinement of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction data. These results evidence low-textured materials with oriented volumes less than 18% coming from (101 planes in Bragg condition.

  17. Preparation and integration of nanostructured titanium dioxide

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Hua Chun

    2011-10-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a chemically stable nontoxic transition-metal oxide associated with a wide range of existing chemical engineering processes. In this short review, recent research endeavors in preparation and integration of nanostructured TiO2 materials system will be featured and discussed for their potential new applications. Because material development always plays pivotal roles in the progress of a particular engineering discipline, the reviewed subjects will provide useful information to stimulate nanoscale research of chemical engineering, linking established fundamentals with practical applications. Some critical issues and challenges regarding further development of this important functional material for nanotechnology will also be addressed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preparation and photocatalytic property of a novel dumbbell-shaped ZnO microcrystal photocatalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Jian-Hui; Dong, Shu-Ying; Wang, Yong-Kui

    2009-01-01

    achieved 68.0%, 99.0% and 98.5%, the TOC removal efficiencies achieved 43.2%, 59.4% and 70.6%, respectively. Compared to commercial ZnO, 16-22% higher TOC removal efficiency was obtained by the dumbbell-shaped ZnO. The results indicated that the prepared dumbbell-shaped ZnO microcrystal photocatalyst...

  19. Nanostructured ZnO films: A study of molecular influence on transport properties by impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sappia, Luciano D.; Trujillo, Matias R. [Instituto Superior de Investigaciones Biológicas (INSIBIO), CONICET, Chacabuco 461, T4000ILI San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); Laboratorio de Medios e Interfases (LAMEIN), Departamento de Bioingeniería, Fac. de Cs. Exactas y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Av. Independencia 1800, 4000 San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); Lorite, Israel [Division of Superconductivity and Magnetism, Institute for Experimental Physics II, University of Leipzig, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Madrid, Rossana E., E-mail: rmadrid@herrera.unt.edu.ar [Instituto Superior de Investigaciones Biológicas (INSIBIO), CONICET, Chacabuco 461, T4000ILI San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); Laboratorio de Medios e Interfases (LAMEIN), Departamento de Bioingeniería, Fac. de Cs. Exactas y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Av. Independencia 1800, 4000 San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); Tirado, Monica [NanoProject and Laboratorio de Nanomateriales y Propiedades Dieléctricas, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Avenida Independencia 1800, Tucumán (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); and others

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We study electrical transport in nanostructured ZnO films by impedance spectroscopy. • Bioaggregates on the surface produce strong changes in film transport properties. • This behavior is explained by modeling data with RC parallel circuits. • Electrical responses of ZnO films to aggregates are promising for biosensing. - Abstract: Nanomaterials based on ZnO have been used to build glucose sensors due to its high isoelectric point, which is important when a protein like Glucose Oxidase (GOx) is attached to a surface. It also creates a biologically friendly environment to preserve the activity of the enzyme. In this work we study the electrical transport properties of ZnO thin films (TFs) and single crystals (SC) in contact with different solutions by using impedance spectroscopy. We have found that the composition of the liquid, by means of the charge of the ions, produces strong changes in the transport properties of the TF. The enzyme GOx and phosphate buffer solutions have the major effect in the conduction through the films, which can be explained by the entrapment of carriers at the grain boundaries of the TFs. These results can help to design a new concept in glucose biosensing.

  20. Structural and optoelectronic properties of glucose capped Al and Cu doped ZnO nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patwari Gunjan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Al and Cu doped ZnO nanoparticles are considered as appropriate for modulation of structural and optoelectronic properties. Al atoms are found to substitute the host Zn whereas Cu dopants mainly segregate in grain boundaries and thereby determine the optical properties. The undoped as well as Al and Cu doped ZnO exhibit spherical well defined particles. The spherical nanoparticles change to rod type structures on co-doping. The average particle size decreases on doping what consequently results in an increment in band gap. Blue shift in UV absorption is governed by the functional group of glucose; further blue shift occurring on metal doping may be attributed to Burstein-Moss effect. PL spectra of doped and undoped ZnO show a dominant near band gap UV emission along with visible emission owing to the defects. The PL peak intensity increases on doping with Cu and Al. The linear I-V characteristics indicate the ohmic behavior of ZnO nanostructures.

  1. Growth and properties of electrodeposited transparent Al-doped ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baka, O.; Mentar, L.; Khelladi, M. R.; Azizi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanostructures were fabricated on fluorine-doped tin-oxide (FTO)- coated glass substrates by using electrodeposition. The effects of the doping concentration of Al on the morphological, microstructural, electrical and optical properties of the nanostructures were investigated. From the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) observation, when the amount of Al was increased in the solution, the grains size was observed to decreases. The observed changes in the morphology indicate that Al acts as nucleation centers in the vacancy sites of ZnO and destroys the crystalline structure at high doping level. Effectively, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the undoped and the doped ZnO nanostructures has a polycrystalline nature and a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a (002) preferential orientation. The photoluminescence (PL) room-temperature measurements showed that the incorporation of Al in the Zn lattice can improve the intensity of ultraviolet (UV) emission, thus suggesting its greater prospects for use in UV optoelectronic devices.

  2. Microscopic origins of the surface exciton photoluminescence peak in ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Mahua; Jung, Yun Suk; Kim, Hong Koo; Kumar, Kumarappan; Hughes, Gregory J.; Newcomb, S.; Henry, Martin O.; McGlynn, Enda

    2011-06-01

    We report photoluminescence (PL) studies of the surface exciton peak in ZnO nanostructures at ~3.367 eV aimed at elucidation of the nature and origin of the emission and its relationship to the nanostructure morphology. PL spectra in conjunction with localized voltage application in high vacuum and different gas atmospheres show a consistent variation (and recovery), allowing an association of the PL to a bound excitonic transition at the ZnO surface, which is modified by an adsorbate. PL studies of samples treated by plasma and of samples exposed to UV light under high vacuum conditions, both well-known processes for desorption of surface adsorbed oxygen, show no consistent effects on the surface exciton peak indicating the lack of involvement of oxygen species. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data strongly suggest involvement of adsorbed OH species. X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy data are presented also, and the relationship of the surface exciton peak to the nanostructure morphology is discussed.

  3. Control of the morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures via hot mixing of reverse micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jing; Li, Xiao-Lei; Qin, Wen-Jing; Niu, Kai-Yang; Yang, Jing; Ling, Tao; Du, Xi-Wen

    2010-09-07

    ZnO nanostructures with controllable morphology were obtained by hot mixing reverse micelles containing Zn(NO(3))(2) or monoethanol amine aqueous solution. The ratio of water to surfactant concentration (omega(0)) was found to play a decisive role in determining the final morphology, namely, nanotetrahedrons formed at a lower omega(0) value and nanorods formed at a higher value. However, the hot mixing technique is propitious for obtaining nanostructures with uniform size. The ZnO nanotetrahedrons obtained gave a strong blue emission arising from interface state, and the ZnO nanorods emitted green light related to donor defects. Our results indicate that the hot mixing of reverse micelles is a unique way to tune the morphology and properties of nanostructures.

  4. pH-Sensing Characteristics of Hydrothermal Al-Doped ZnO Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Liang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly sensitive and stable pH-sensing properties of an extended-gate field-effect transistor (EGFET based on the aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO nanostructures have been demonstrated. The AZO nanostructures with different Al concentrations were synthesized on AZO/glass substrate via a simple hydrothermal growth method at 85°C. The AZO sensing nanostructures were connected with the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET. Afterwards, the current-voltage (I-V characteristics and the sensing properties of the pH-EGFET sensors were obtained in different buffer solutions, respectively. As a result, the pH-sensing characteristics of AZO nanostructured pH-EGFET sensors with Al dosage of 3 at.% can exhibit the higher sensitivity of 57.95 mV/pH, the larger linearity of 0.9998, the smaller deviation of 0.023 in linearity, the lower drift rate of 1.27 mV/hour, and the lower threshold voltage of 1.32 V with a wider sensing range (pH 1 ~ pH 13. Hence, the outstanding stability and durability of AZO nanostructured ionic EGFET sensors are attractive for the electrochemical application of flexible and disposable biosensor.

  5. Spray pyrolytic deposition of ZnO thin layers composed of low dimensional nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaid Bushiri, M.; Agouram, S.; Reig, C.; Martínez-Tomás, M. C.; Jimenez, J.; Hortelano, V.; Muñoz-Sanjosé, V.

    ZnO nanolayers composed of fine nanostructures have been successively grown by spray pyrolytic deposition at 300 ∘C over amorphous glass substrates. As deposited samples were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), showing a granular morphology with grain size in the limit of the microscope resolution. CL measurement shows a broad near band edge (3.4 eV) emission of ZnO in the UV region and the defect level emissions in the green region of the spectrum. The use of intermittent spray pyrolytic deposition is shown as an alternative to increase the homogeneity of the samples when temperatures near to the precursor pyrolytic decomposition is selected, long depositions times are involved, and low thermal conductive substrates are used. We have focused on one of these low thermal conductive substrates, glass, on which spheroid shaped microstructures and inhomogeneities appear.

  6. Consequence of cobalt on structural, optical and dielectric properties in ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zia, Amir, E-mail: amirziaphysics@hotmail.com [Center for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmed, S. [Center for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad (Pakistan); Advanced Electronics Laboratory, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Shah, N.A.; Anis-ur-Rehman, M. [COMSATS, Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, E.U. [Center for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad (Pakistan); Basit, M. [Centre for Solid State Physics, Punjab University (Pakistan)

    2015-09-15

    The critical role of cobalt dopant in ZnO nanostructures with different cobalt concentrations has been explored on the basis of structural, optical and dielectric mechanisms. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the Co{sup +2} ions replace Zn{sup +2} ions in the ZnO matrix, producing lattice strain. Diffused Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS) shows a red shift in optical energy band gap with increase in cobalt content, along with the presence of transitions in high spin states due to tetrahedrally coordinated cobalt ions. The dielectric characterization explains the disparity in dynamic dielectric parameters like capacitance, dielectric constant, tangent loss, AC conductivity and impedance as a function of frequency. Capacitance and both static and dynamic dielectric constants found to be decreasing with cobalt addition. The anomaly in these pronounced parameters can address the key problems of the material at higher frequencies device operation.

  7. Bulk-Quantity Synthesis and Conductive Properties of Comb-Like Dendritic ZnO Nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Zhi-Min; ZHANG Hong-Zhou; XU Jun; YU Da-Peng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Adopting a simple low-temperature (~ 500℃) vapour process, we have synthesized bulk quantity comb-like dendritic ZnO nanostructures in large area.An atomic force microscope equipped with Au-coated probes was employed to elucidate the current-voltage characteristic of the individual ZnO nanocomb.The connection electrodes were defined by depositing Pt wires using focused ion beam (FIB).A rectification effect was observed,while it was slightly suppressed compared with that of the previous reports.The good conductive properties of the sample can be attributed to the Ga+ ions implantation through the FIB process of electrode definition.We suggest that the material and the FIB method can be developed to fabricate novel nanosized devices.

  8. ZnO 1-D nanostructures: Low temperature synthesis and characterizations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Apurba Dev; S Chaudhuri; B N Dev

    2008-06-01

    ZnO is one of the most important semiconductors having a wide variety of applications in photonic, field emission and sensing devices. In addition, it exhibits a wide variety of morphologies in the nano regime that can be grown by tuning the growth habit of the ZnO crystal. Among various nanostructures, oriented 1-D nanoforms are particularly important for applications such as UV laser, sensors, UV LED, field emission displays, piezoelectric nanogenerator etc. We have developed a soft chemical approach to fabricate well-aligned arrays of various 1-D nanoforms like nanonails, nanowires and nanorods. The microstructural and photoluminescence properties of all the structures were investigated and tuned by varying the synthesis parameters. Field emission study from the aligned nanorod arrays exhibited high current density and a low turn-on field. These arrays also exhibited very strong UV emission and week defect emission. These structures can be utilized to fabricate efficient UV LEDs.

  9. Synthesis of ZnO Nanostructures for Low Temperature CO and UV Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar Abbas Shah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, synthesis and results of the low temperature sensing of carbon monoxide (CO gas and room temperature UV sensors using one dimensional (1-D ZnO nanostructures are presented. Comb-like structures, belts and rods, and needle-shaped nanobelts were synthesized by varying synthesis temperature using a vapor transport method. Needle-like ZnO nanobelts are unique as, according to our knowledge, there is no evidence of such morphology in previous literature. The structural, morphological and optical characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and diffused reflectance spectroscopy techniques. It was observed that the sensing response of comb-like structures for UV light was greater as compared to the other grown structures. Comb-like structure based gas sensors successfully detect CO at 75 °C while other structures did not show any response.

  10. Phase Pure Synthesis and Morphology Dependent Magnetization in Mn Doped ZnO Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtaza Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zn0.95Mn0.05O nanostructures were synthesized using sol gel derived autocombustion technique. As-burnt samples were thermally annealed at different temperatures (400, 600, and 800°C for 8 hours to investigate their effect on structural morphology and magnetic behavior. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopic studies demonstrated the improvement in crystallinity of phase pure wurtzite structure of Mn doped ZnO with variation of annealing temperature. Energy dispersive X-ray elemental compositional analysis confirmed the exact nominal compositions of the reactants. Electrical resistivity measurements were performed with variation in temperature, which depicted the semiconducting nature similar to parent ZnO after 5 at% Mn doping. Magnetic measurements by superconducting quantum interference device detected an enhanced trend of ferromagnetic interactions in thermally annealed compositions attributed to the improved structural morphology and crystalline refinement process.

  11. A Facile Synthesis of Granular ZnO Nanostructures for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahbubur Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular ZnO nanostructures of single-crystalline wurtzite hexagonal phases were synthesized by a facile and low-cost chemical method in aqueous condition. The average size of ZnO nanograin increased with reflux time, and it significantly affected the open circuit potential (Voc while the short circuit current density (Jsc was not changed much. The overall energy conversion efficiency was 1.82% with the smaller grain size of ca. 250 nm when it was used as photoelectrode of DSSCs. The positive shifting of the Fermi energy (EF and low density of surface states (DOS were consistent with the reduction of the recombination of excited electron with electrolyte for smaller grains.

  12. A nano-structured ZnO film as diagnostic X-ray sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenca, Claudia Patricia Varela; Liborio da Silveira, Matheus Augusto; Macedo, Marcelo Andrade; Pereira dos Santos, Luiz Antonio [CNEN/CRCN-NE Av. Prof. Luiz Freire, 1 Cidade Universitaria RECIFE-PE CEP 50740-540 (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Currently some international organizations such as WHO and IAEA have shown concerns about the quality of diagnostic services in clinics and hospitals that use ionizing radiation. In fact, the IAEA recommend that the characteristics of the X-ray beam must be adjusted to obtain the highest quality of the radiographic image with the minimum exposure to the patient. Several types of detectors may be used for monitoring X-ray beams, such as: ionization chamber, photodiode, phototransistor, among others. Recently nano-structured films made of various types of metal oxide materials have been used for various technological applications. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to present a sort of device based on a nano-structured zinc oxide (ZnO) to operate as a diagnostic X-ray sensor. By depositing a thin film on the glass substrate some ZnO semiconductor samples were built by sputtering techniques and then mounted in a BNC type connector to perform the electrical characterization. To test the device, we choose a standard X-Ray beam, the RQR9 radiation quality, which is normally used as the tool and condition for calibrating diagnostic X-Ray instruments in the energy range of computed tomography, in accordance with the stated requirements of IEC 61267. A 6430 sub-femto-ammeter, Keithley, was used as electrometer to perform the output readings and simultaneously bias the ZnO sensor. Analysis of the angular dependence and the dose rate were performed to evaluate how the device responds under the RQR9 radiation spectra. Although the results have shown that the ZnO film presents a certain angular dependence, if an angle of incidence of photons is selected, the device displays reproducibility as X-ray sensor and has the feature of radiation hardness unlike other types of semiconductor electronic devices typically used as an X-ray detector. (authors)

  13. UV-A light-induced photodegradation of Acid Blue 113 in the presence of Sm-doped ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandiyarajan, Thangaraj; Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan; Karthikeyan, Balasubramanian; Sathishkumar, Panneerselvam; Mansilla, Héctor D.; Contreras, David; Ruiz, José

    2015-05-01

    In this report, optical and photocatalytic degradation of Acid Blue 113 (AB 113) has been investigated in an aqueous heterogeneous media containing pure and Sm-doped ZnO nanostructures which were prepared by a simple wet chemical route. X-ray diffraction measurement confirmed that the prepared nanostructures were in hexagonal wurtzite structure and the dopant Sm ion was incorporated into the Zn lattice. Interesting morphological changes involving a nanosheet-star-spherical transition were observed upon Sm doping and annealing, which were identified through transmission electron microscope. Optical absorption measurements showed an exciton absorption band and a band gap narrowing with respect to the Sm concentrations. The photodegradation of Acid Blue 113 under UV-A radiation by using pure and Sm-doped ZnO nanostructures showed that samarium played an important role in the significant improvement of the photodegradation efficiency and the optimum amount of Sm ion was found to be 1 mmol %. Further, the possible degradation mechanism was proposed herein.

  14. Persistent Photoconductivity Studies in Nanostructured ZnO UV Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Look David

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The phenomenon of persistent photoconductivity is elusive and has not been addressed to an extent to attract attention both in micro and nanoscale devices due to unavailability of clear material systems and device configurations capable of providing comprehensive information. In this work, we have employed a nanostructured (nanowire diameter 30–65 nm and 5 μm in length ZnO-based metal–semiconductor–metal photoconductor device in order to study the origin of persistent photoconductivity. The current–voltage measurements were carried with and without UV illumination under different oxygen levels. The photoresponse measurements indicated a persistent conductivity trend for depleted oxygen conditions. The persistent conductivity phenomenon is explained on the theoretical model that proposes the change of a neutral anion vacancy to a charged state.

  15. In Situ Interferometry of MOCVD-Grown ZnO for Nucleation-Layer-Based Optimization and Nanostructure Formation Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biethan, J.-P.; Considine, L.; Pavlidis, D.

    2011-04-01

    A reliable in situ interferometry technique allowed accurate prediction of the change in ZnO morphology during growth on various substrate types. Interferometry results showed that a 40-nm-thick nucleation layer on top of GaN allows growth of smooth and monocrystalline ZnO layers, as also confirmed by x-ray diffractometry (XRD). Studies of ZnO growth on silicon indicated that the surface morphology changes during the high-temperature growth step, resulting in needle-shaped ZnO on top of a thin ZnO initial layer. The observed surface morphology change corresponded to the interferometer signature and allowed identification of nanostructure formation.

  16. Novel ZnO nanostructures grown on carbon nanotubes by thermal evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrissanthopoulos, A. [Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, Rio Patras GR-26504 (Greece)], E-mail: acrissan@upatras.gr; Baskoutas, S.; Bouropoulos, N. [Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, Rio Patras GR-26504 (Greece); Dracopoulos, V. [Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas-Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes - FORTH/ICE-HT, P.O. Box 1414, GR-26504 Patras (Greece); Tasis, D. [Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, Rio Patras GR-26504 (Greece); Yannopoulos, S.N. [Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas-Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes - FORTH/ICE-HT, P.O. Box 1414, GR-26504 Patras (Greece)

    2007-10-15

    We report on the formation of ZnO/carbon nanotubes heterostructures achieved by means of a thermal evaporation method. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the main building block of the observed morphologies was the nanorod whose self-assembling resulted in various structures such as polypods and nano-hedgehogs, depending on various factors as well as the location of the ZnO-CNT junction. X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectroscopy were used to study the structure and optical properties of obtained nanostructures. Semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations gave evidence for the nature of the binding between ZnO and CNTs.

  17. Self-assembly of ZnO nanoparticles and preparation of bulk ZnO porous nanosolids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiulin; XU Hongyan; YU Lili; LI Mei; WANG Chengjian; CUI Deliang; JIANG Minhua

    2005-01-01

    Novel bulk ZnO porous nanosolids were prepared by a unique solvothermal hot-press method, using ZnO nanoparticles and several kinds of solvents as the starting materials. It was found from the experiments that ZnO nanoparticles underwent a "self-assembly process" under some specific hydrothermal hot-press conditions. As a result, some "nanoflowers" formed. The results showed that porous nanosolids with uniform pore diameters could be obtained when water distributed uniformly among the ZnO nanoparticles. On the contrary, if the uniformity of the distribution of water was poor, "nanoflowers" would appear in the water-rich region. It was also found that the photoluminescence of ZnO porous nanosolids was affected by the self-assembly phenomenon. In addition, the results also showed that, both the volume and diameters of the pores could be adjusted by changing either the hot-press temperature, pressure or the kinds of solvents.

  18. Electrical and photocatalytic properties of boron-doped ZnO nanostructure grown on PET-ITO flexible substrates by hydrothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Ai, Taotao; Yu, Qi

    2017-02-13

    Boron-doped zinc oxide sheet-spheres were synthesized on PET-ITO flexible substrates using a hydrothermal method at 90 °C for 5 h. The results of X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the B atoms were successfully doped into the ZnO lattice, the incorporation of B led to an increase in the lattice constant of ZnO and a change in its internal stress. The growth mechanism of pure ZnO nanorods and B-doped ZnO sheet-spheres was specifically investigated. The as-prepared BZO/PET-ITO heterojunction possessed obvious rectification properties and its positive turn-on voltage was 0.4 V. The carrier transport mechanisms involved three models such as hot carrier tunneling theory, tunneling recombination, and series-resistance effect were explored. The BZO/PET-ITO nanostructures were more effective than pure ZnO to degrade the RY 15, and the degradation rate reached 41.45%. The decomposition process with BZO nanostructure followed first-order reaction kinetics. The photocurrent and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that the B-doping could promote the separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs, which was beneficial to enhance the photocatalytic activity. The photocurrent density of B-doped and pure ZnO/PET-ITO were 0.055 mA/cm(2) and 0.016 mA/cm(2), respectively. The photocatalytic mechanism of the sample was analyzed by the energy band theory.

  19. Electrical and photocatalytic properties of boron-doped ZnO nanostructure grown on PET–ITO flexible substrates by hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Ai, Taotao; Yu, Qi

    2017-02-01

    Boron-doped zinc oxide sheet-spheres were synthesized on PET–ITO flexible substrates using a hydrothermal method at 90 °C for 5 h. The results of X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the B atoms were successfully doped into the ZnO lattice, the incorporation of B led to an increase in the lattice constant of ZnO and a change in its internal stress. The growth mechanism of pure ZnO nanorods and B-doped ZnO sheet-spheres was specifically investigated. The as-prepared BZO/PET–ITO heterojunction possessed obvious rectification properties and its positive turn-on voltage was 0.4 V. The carrier transport mechanisms involved three models such as hot carrier tunneling theory, tunneling recombination, and series-resistance effect were explored. The BZO/PET–ITO nanostructures were more effective than pure ZnO to degrade the RY 15, and the degradation rate reached 41.45%. The decomposition process with BZO nanostructure followed first-order reaction kinetics. The photocurrent and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that the B-doping could promote the separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs, which was beneficial to enhance the photocatalytic activity. The photocurrent density of B-doped and pure ZnO/PET–ITO were 0.055 mA/cm2 and 0.016 mA/cm2, respectively. The photocatalytic mechanism of the sample was analyzed by the energy band theory.

  20. Imprinted ZnO nanostructure-based electrochemical sensing of calcitonin: A clinical marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Santanu; Roy, Ekta [Department of Applied Chemistry, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Jharkhand 826 004 (India); Madhuri, Rashmi, E-mail: rshmmadhuri@gmail.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Jharkhand 826 004 (India); Sharma, Prashant K. [Functional Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Jharkhand 826 004 (India)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Molecular imprinting-based sensor for medullary thyroid carcinoma marker was developed. • ZnO nanostructure was used as a platform for synthesis of imprinted polymer. • Imprinted polymer was prepared by ARGET–ATRP method. • A novel and biocompatible tyrosine amino acid derivative was used as monomer. • Linear working range is found from 9.99 ng L{sup −1} to 7.919 mg L{sup −1} with LOD 3.09 ng L{sup −1}. - Abstract: The present work describes an exciting method for the selective and sensitive determination of calcitonin in human blood serum samples. Adopting the surface molecular imprinting technique, a calcitonin-imprinted polymer was prepared on the surface of the zinc oxide nanostructure. Firstly, a biocompatible tyrosine derivative as a monomer was grafted onto the surface of zinc oxide nanostructure followed by their polymerization on vinyl functionalized electrode surface by activator regenerated by electron transfer–atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET–ATRP) technique. Such sensor can predict the small change in the concentration of calcitonin in the human body and it may also consider to be as cost-effective, renewable, disposable, and reliable for clinical studies having no such cross-reactivity and matrix effect from real samples. The morphologies and properties of the proposed sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, difference pulse voltammetry and chronocoulometry. The linear working range was found to be 9.99 ng L{sup −1} to 7.919 mg L{sup −1} and the detection limit as low as 3.09 ± 0.01 ng L{sup −1} (standard deviation for three replicate measurements) (S/N = 3)

  1. Synthesis, characterization and application of semiconducting oxide (Cu2O and ZnO) nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D P Singh; Jai Singh; P R Mishra; R S Tiwari; O N Srivastava

    2008-06-01

    In the present study, we report the synthesis, characterization and application of nanostructured oxide materials. The oxide materials (Cu2O and ZnO) have been synthesized by electrolysis based oxidation and thermal oxidation methods. Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanostructures have been synthesized by anodic oxidation of copper through a simple electrolysis process employing plain water (with ionic conductivity, ∼ 6 S/m) as electrolyte. In this method no special electrolytes, chemicals and surfactants are needed. The method is based on anodization pursuant to the simple electrolysis of water at different voltages. Two different types of Cu2O nanostructures have been found. One type got delaminated from copper anode and was collected from the bottom of the electrochemical cell and the other was located on the copper anode itself. The nanostructures collected from the bottom of the cell are either nanothreads embodying beads of different diameters, ∼ 10–40 nm or nanowires (length, ∼ 600–1000 nm and diameter, ∼ 10–25 nm). Those present on the copper anode were nanoblocks with preponderance of nanocubes (nanocube edge, ∼ 400 nm). The copper electrode served as a sacrificial anode for the synthesis of different nanostructures. Aligned ZnO nanorod array has been successfully synthesized by simple thermal evaporation catalyst free method. Detailed structural characterizations revealed that the as synthesized aligned ZnO nanorods are single crystalline, with a hexagonal phase, and with growth along the [0001] direction. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectra showed a weak ultraviolet emission at 380 nm, a broad blue band at 435 nm and a strong orange–red emission at 630 nm. Structural/microstructural characterization of these nanomaterials have been carried out employing scanning (XL-20) and transmission electron microscopic (Philips EM, CM-12 and Technai 20G2) techniques and X-ray diffraction techniques having graphite monochromater with CuK radiation

  2. Ethanol-Sensing Characteristics of Nanostructured ZnO: Nanorods, Nanowires, and Porous Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quy, Chu Thi; Hung, Chu Manh; Van Duy, Nguyen; Hoa, Nguyen Duc; Jiao, Mingzhi; Nguyen, Hugo

    2017-06-01

    The morphology and crystalline size of metal oxide-sensing materials are believed to have a strong influence on the performance of gas sensors. In this paper, we report a comparative study on the ethanol-sensing characteristics of ZnO nanorods, nanowires, and porous nanoparticles. The porous ZnO nanoparticles were prepared using a simple thermal decomposition of a sheet-like hydrozincite, whereas the nanorods and nanowires were grown by hydrothermal and chemical vapor deposition methods, respectively. The morphology and crystal structure of the synthesized materials were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Ethanol gas-sensing characteristics were systematically studied at different temperatures. Our findings show that for ethanol gas-sensing applications, ZnO porous nanoparticles exhibited the best sensitivity, followed by the nanowires and nanorods. Gas-sensing properties were also examined with respect to the role of crystal growth orientation, crystal size, and porosity.

  3. ZnO layers prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoudi, C.; Abd-Lefdil, S.; Sayah, D.; Cadene, M.

    1998-02-01

    Highly transparent undoped and indium doped ZnO thin films have been grown on glass substrates by using the spray pyrolysis process. Conditions of preparation have been optimized to get good quality and reproducible films with required properties. Polycrystalline films with an hexagonal Wurtzite-type structure were easily obtained under the optimum spraying conditions. Both of samples have shown high transmission coefficient in the visible and infrared wavelength range with sharp absorption edge around 380 nm which closely corresponds to the intrinsic band-gap of ZnO (3.2 eV). Orientation and crystallites size were remarkably modified by deposition temperature and indium doping. Des couches minces de ZnO, hautement transparentes, non dopées et dopées à l'indium ont été élaborées sur un substrat en verre par le procédé de pulvérisation chimique réactive spray. Les conditions de préparation ont été optimisées pour l'obtention de couches reproductibles, de bonne qualité et ayant les propriétés requises. Des films polycristallins, présentant une structure hexagonale de type Wurtzite, ont été aisément obtenus dans les conditions optimales de pulvérisation. Tous les échantillons ont présenté un coefficient de transmission élevé dans le domaine du visible et du proche infrarouge, avec une absorption brutale au voisinage de 380 nm, correspondant au gap optique du ZnO (3,2 eV). L'orientation et la taille des cristallites ont été remarquablement modifiées par la température du dépôt et par le dopage à l'indium.

  4. Nanostructured ZnO films in forms of rod, plate and flower: Electrodeposition mechanisms and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıcır, Nur; Tüken, Tunç; Erken, Ozge; Gumus, Cebrail; Ufuktepe, Yuksel

    2016-07-01

    Uniformity and reproducibility of well-defined ZnO nanostructures are particularly important issues for fabrication and applications of these nanomaterials. In present study, we report selective morphology control during electrodeposition, by adjusting the hydroxyl generation rate and Zn(OH)2 deposition. In presence of remarkably high chloride concentration (0.3 M) and -1.0 V deposition potential, slow precipitation conditions were provided in 5 mM Zn(NO3)2 solution. By doing so, we have obtained highly ordered, vertically aligned and uniformly spaced hexagon shaped nanoplates, on ITO surface. We have also investigated the mechanism for shifting the morphology from rod/plate to flower like structure of ZnO, for better understanding the reproducibility. For this reason, the influence of various supporting electrolytes (sodium/ammonium salts of acetate) has been investigated for interpretation of the influence of OH- concentration nearby the surface. From rod to plate and flower nanostructures, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were realized for characterization, also the optical properties were studied.

  5. Magnetic Properties of Gadolinium-Doped ZnO Films and Nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Roqan, Iman S.

    2016-08-29

    The magnetic properties of Gd-doped ZnO films and nanostructures are important to the development of next-generation spintronic devices. Here, we elucidate the significant role played by Gd-oxygen-deficiency defects in mediating/inducing ferromagnetic coupling in in situ Gd-doped ZnO thin films deposited at low oxygen pressure by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Samples deposited at higher oxygen pressures exhibited diamagnetic responses. Vacuum annealing was used on these diamagnetic samples (grown at a relatively high oxygen pressures) to create oxygen- deficiency defects with the aim of demonstrating reproducibility of room-temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM). Samples annealed at oxygen environment exhibited super‐ paramagnetism and blocking-temperature effects. The samples possessed secondary phases; Gd segregation led to superparamagnetism. Theoretical studies showed a shift of the 4f level of Gd to the conduction band minimum (CBM) in Gd-doped ZnO nanowires, which led to an overlap with the Fermi level, resulting in strong exchange coupling and consequently RTFM.

  6. On-chip Fabrication of High Performance Nanostructured ZnO UV Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenezi, Mohammad R.; Henley, Simon J.; Silva, S. R. P.

    2015-02-01

    Developing rationally controlled bottom-up device fabrication processes is essential for the achievement of high performance optimal devices. We report a controlled, seedless and site-selective hydrothermal technique to fabricate high-performance nanostructured ZnO UV-detectors directly on-chip. We demonstrate that by controlling the nanowire growth process, via tuning the experimental parameters such as the concentration of reactants and the growth time, and by introducing a refresh of the growth solution, the device structure efficiency can be enhanced to significantly improve its performance. The on-chip fabricated bridging nanosyringe ultraviolet detector demonstrates improved sensitivity (~105), nanowatts detectability, and ultrafast response-time (90 ms) and recovery-time (210 ms). The improvement in response-time and recovery-time is attributed to the unique nanowire-nanowire junction barrier dominated resistance and the direct contact between ZnO and Au electrodes. Furthermore, the enhanced sensitivity and nanowatts detectability of the bridging nanosyringe device are due to the reduction in dimensionality and ultrahigh surface-to-volume ratio. This work paves the way toward low cost, large scale, low temperature, seedless and site-selective fabrication of high performance ZnO nanowire sensors on flexible and transparent substrates.

  7. Photoluminescence quenching and enhanced optical conductivity of P3HT derived Ho3+-doped ZnO nanostructures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kabongo, GL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we demonstrate the surface effect and optoelectronic properties of holmium (Ho(sup3+))-doped ZnO in P3HT polymer nanocomposite. We incorporated ZnO:Ho(sup3+) (0.5 mol% Ho) nanostructures in the pristine P3HT-conjugated polymer...

  8. The influence of ZnO nanostructures on the structure, optical and photovoltaic properties of organic materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malgas, GF

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Films Vol. 555 The influence of ZnO nanostructures on the structure, optical and photovoltaic properties of organic materials Gerald F. Malgas a,b,⁎, David E. Motaung a,⁎⁎, Gugu H. Mhlongo a, Steven S. Nkosi c, Bonex W. Mwakikunga a, Malcolm...

  9. Low temperature growth of ZnO nanostructures on flexible polystyrene substrates for optical, photoluminescence and wettability applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durga Prasad, Muvva; Pasha Shaik, Ummar; Madhurima, V.; Ghanashyam Krishna, M.

    2016-08-01

    The growth of ZnO nanostructures on flexible polystyrene substrates by a simple vacuum thermal evaporation process is reported. The ZnO films are deposited on polystyrene surfaces of 6 μm thickness which are initially anchored on glass substrates. The as-deposited films are annealed at temperatures up to 180 °C for 6-24 h after which the polystyrene is lifted off from the glass substrates to yield nanostructured films on a flexible substrate. At 180 °C there is transformation of the partially oxidized as-deposited films into nearly stoichiometric ZnO. This is accompanied by the formation of nanostructures such as nanorods, nanotubes and nanodoughnuts. The films, which were 50-200 nm in thickness, are polycrystalline in nature and also exhibit Zn/ZnO core-shell structures under favorable conditions. The nanostructures exhibit transmission greater than 80% in the visible and near infrared regions and band gaps of the order of 4 eV. The films exhibit strong blue photoluminescence and the peak position as well as intensity of emission can be tuned by varying thickness and annealing conditions. To demonstrate the flexibility, the ZnO coated polystyrene substrates were wrapped around a LED to show UV blocking property. Wettability studies indicate that films are hydrophobic with water contact angles between 92°-95°.

  10. Preparation of electron buffer layer with crystalline ZnO nanoparticles in inverted organic photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghwan; Kang, Taeho; Choi, Yoon-Young; Oh, Seong-Geun

    2017-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles synthesized through sol-gel method were used to fabricate the electron buffer layer in inverted organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) after thermal treatment. To investigate the effect of thermal treatment on the formation of crystalline ZnO nanoparticles, the amorphous ZnO nanoparticles were treated via hydrothermal method. The crystalline phase of ZnO with well-ordered structure could be obtained when the amorphous phase of ZnO was processed under hydrothermal treatment at 170 °C. The crystalline structure of ZnO thin film in inverted organic solar cell could be obtained under relatively low annealing temperature by using thermally treated ZnO nanoparticles. The OPVs fabricated by using crystalline ZnO nanoparticles for electron buffer layer exhibited higher efficiency than the conventional ZnO nanoparticles. The best power conversion efficiency (PCE) was achieved for 7.16% through the ZnO film using the crystalline ZnO nanoparticles. The proposed method to prepared ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) could effectively reduce energy consumption during the fabrication of OPVs, which would greatly contribute to advantages such as lower manufacturing costs, higher productivity and application on flexible substrates.

  11. Biofunctionalization of carbon nanotubes/chitosan hybrids on Ti implants by atom layer deposited ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yizhou; Liu, Xiangmei; Yeung, Kelvin W. K.; Chu, Paul K.; Wu, Shuilin

    2017-04-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures of ZnO using atomic layer deposition (ALD) on chitosan (CS) modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were first introduced onto the surfaces of biomedical implants. When the content of ZnO is not sufficient, CNTs can strengthen the antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus by 8% and 39%, respectively. CS can improve the cytocompatibility of CNTs and ZnO. The amount of Zn content can be controlled by changing the cycling numbers of ALD processes. This hybrid coating can not only endow medical implants with high self-antibacterial efficacy against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) of over 73% and 98%, respectively, but also regulate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts by controlling the amount of ZnO.

  12. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures electrochemically synthesized on AZO/Ag/AZO-multilayer-film-coated polyethersulfone substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dohyun; Yoo, Chan Ho; No, Young Soo; Kim, Su Youn; Kim, Tae Whan; Cho, Woon-Jo; Kim, Jin Young

    2012-05-01

    ZnO nanostructures were formed on Al-doped ZnO (AZO)/Ag/AZO-multilayer-film-coated flexible polyethersulfone (PES) substrates at low temperature by using an electrochemical deposition method. The resistivity of the AZO/Ag/AZO multilayer films decreased with increasing thickness of the Ag film. X-ray diffraction patterns for the ZnO nanostructures showed that the crystal structure of the ZnO was hexagonal wurtzite and that the orientation was along the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the ZnO nanostructures grown at current densities of -1.0 and -1.5 mA/cm2 were ZnO nanorods with diameters of 150 nm and ZnO nanoflowers with a planar dimension, respectively. Photoluminescence spectra showed that the band-edge emission peak of the ZnO nanostructures dominantly appeared in the ultraviolet region. These results showed that ZnO nanorods and nanoflowers with high quality were synthesized on AZO/Ag/AZO-multilayer-film-coated PES substrates.

  13. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures electrochemically synthesized on AZO/Ag/AZO-multilayer-film-coated polyethersulfone substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Dohyun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Chanho; No, Youngsoo; Kim, Suyoun; Kim, Taewhan [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Woonjo [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jinyoung [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    ZnO nanostructures were formed on Al-doped ZnO (AZO)/Ag/AZO-multilayer-film-coated flexible polyethersulfone (PES) substrates at low temperature by using an electrochemical deposition method. The resistivity of the AZO/Ag/AZO multilayer films decreased with increasing thickness of the Ag film. X-ray diffraction patterns for the ZnO nanostructures showed that the crystal structure of the ZnO was hexagonal wurtzite and that the orientation was along the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the ZnO nanostructures grown at current densities of - 1.0 and - 1.5 mA/cm{sup 2} were ZnO nanorods with diameters of 150 nm and ZnO nanoflowers with a planar dimension, respectively. Photoluminescence spectra showed that the band-edge emission peak of the ZnO nanostructures dominantly appeared in the ultraviolet region. These results showed that ZnO nanorods and nanoflowers with high quality were synthesized on AZO/Ag/AZO-multilayer-film-coated PES substrates.

  14. Nanoporous ZnO prepared by electrochemical anodization deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, L. S.; Hassan, Z.; Mohd Bakhori, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    Anodic physical deposition is a method that joins technical simplicity, environment friendly, non-toxic, low investment cost, and ease in morphology control. Nanoporous ZnO with high internal rough surface and polycrystalline nature has been prepared via a simple chemical technique. Anodization of Znic (Zn) foil was studied in a mixed of ammonium sulfate and sodium hydroxide solution under the affect of various anodization durations. The as-prepared samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX). An optical characterization by a Raman spectrometer was performed to investigate their optical properties. The PL and Raman results revealed both good compromise with the features of our samples and dormant for forthcoming utilizations for example smart sensors system and other modern solid state technologies. The formation of porous structures has been confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy investigations.

  15. Growth of ZnO nanostructures on Au-coated Si: Influence of growth temperature on growth mechanism and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajendra; McGlynn, E.; Biswas, M.;

    2008-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures were grown on Au-catalyzed Si silicon substrates using vapor phase transport at growth temperatures from 800 to 1150 degrees C. The sample location ensured a low Zn vapor supersaturation during growth. Nanostructures grown at 800 and 850 degrees C showed a faceted rodlike...... growth tended to dominate resulting in the formation of a porous, nanostructured morphology. In all cases growth was seen only on the Au-coated region. Our results show that the majority of the nanostructures grow via a vapor-solid mechanism at low growth temperatures with no evidence of Au nanoparticles...... morphology with mainly one-dimensional (1D) growth along the nanorod axis. Samples grown at intermediate temperatures (900, 950, and 1050 degrees C) in all cases showed significant three dimensional (3D) growth at the base of 1D nanostructures. At higher growth temperatures (1100 and 1150 degrees C) 3D...

  16. Preparation and photocatalytic property of a novel dumbbell-shaped ZnO microcrystal photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Hui; Dong, Shu-Ying; Wang, Yong-Kui; Sun, Sheng-Peng

    2009-12-30

    A novel dumbbell-shaped ZnO microcrystal photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method in the present study. The prepared ZnO photocatalyst was systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTA), photoluminescence spectrum (PL) and UV-vis absorption spectrum (UV-vis). The characterizations of dumbbell-shaped ZnO were also compared with the commercial ZnO. The results show that the prepared ZnO photocatalyst has a unique dumbbell shape and it belongs to the hexagonal wurtzite family. In addition, the photocatalytic activity of the prepared dumbbell-shaped ZnO microcrystal photocatalyst was evaluated by the degradation of three different kinds of dyes wastewater (Crystal Violet, Methyl Violet and Methylene Blue). After 75 min reaction, the decolourization efficiencies of the three kinds of dyes wastewater achieved 68.0%, 99.0% and 98.5%, the TOC removal efficiencies achieved 43.2%, 59.4% and 70.6%, respectively. Compared to commercial ZnO, 16-22% higher TOC removal efficiency was obtained by the dumbbell-shaped ZnO. The results indicated that the prepared dumbbell-shaped ZnO microcrystal photocatalyst showed good photocatalytic activity and it could be considered as a promising photocatalyst for dyes wastewater treatment.

  17. Preparation and characterization of Ce-doped ZnO nanofibers by an electrospinning method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Pil Kim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available ZnO and Ce-doped ZnO Nanofibers on (111 Pt/SiO2/Si substrates were produced using an electrospinning technique. The as-prepared composite fibres were subjected to high-temperature calcination to produce inorganic fibers. After calcining at a temperature of 500 °C, the average diameter of the ZnO and Ce-doped ZnO nanofibers were determined to be 170 nm and 225 nm, respectively. The average grain size of the ZnO and Ce-doped ZnO nanofibers were about 50 nm and 57 nm, respectively. The microstructure, chemical bonding state and photoluminescence of the produced ZnO and Ce-doped ZnO nanofibers were investigated. The Ce-doped ZnO nanofiber can be assigned to the presence of Ce ions on substitutional sites of Zn ions and the Ce3+ state from X-ray photoelectron spectra. Compared with PL spectra of ZnO nanofibers, the peak position of the UV emission of the Ce-doped ZnO nanofibers is sharply suppressed while the green emission band is highly enhanced.

  18. Synthesis of 1D, 2D, and 3D ZnO Polycrystalline Nanostructures Using the Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Kuan Tseng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employed various polyol solvents to synthesize zinc oxide polycrystalline nanostructures in the form of fibers (1D, rhombic flakes (2D, and spheres (3D. The synthetic process primarily involved the use of zinc acetate dihydrate in polyol solutions, which were used to derive precursors of zinc alkoxides. Following hydrolysis at 160°C, the zinc alkoxide particles self-assembled into polycrystalline nanostructures with different morphologies. Following calcination at 500°C for 1 h, polycrystalline ZnO with good crystallinity was obtained. FE-SEM explored variations in surface morphology; XRD was used to analyze the crystalline structures and crystallinity of the products, which were confirmed as ZnO wurtzite structures. FE-TEM verified that the ZnO nanostructures were polycrystalline. Furthermore, we employed TGA/DSC to observe the phase transition. According to the results of property analyses, we proposed models of the relevant formation mechanisms. Finally, various ZnO structures were applied in the degradation of methylene blue to compare their photocatalytic efficiency.

  19. CdS quantum dots sensitized Cu doped ZnO nanostructured thin films for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poornima, K.; Gopala Krishnan, K.; Lalitha, B.; Raja, M.

    2015-07-01

    ZnO nanorods and Cu doped ZnO nanorods thin films have been prepared by simple hydrothermal method. CdS quantum dots are sensitized with Cu doped ZnO nanorod thin films using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The X-ray diffraction study reveals that ZnO nanorods, and CdS quantum dot sensitized Cu doped ZnO nanorods exhibit hexagonal structure. The scanning electron microscope image shows the presence of ZnO nanorods. The average diameter and length of the aligned nanorod is 300 nm and 1.5 μm respectively. The absorption spectra shows that the absorption edge of CdS quantum dot sensitized ZnO nanorod thin film is shifted toward longer wavelength region when compared to the absorption edge of ZnO nanorods film. The conversion efficiency of the CdS quantum dot sensitized Cu doped ZnO nanorod thin film solar cell is 1.5%.

  20. Characterization of nanostructured ZnO thin films deposited through vacuum evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Alberto Alvarado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel technique to deposit ZnO thin films through a metal vacuum evaporation technique using colloidal nanoparticles (average size of 30 nm, which were synthesized by our research group, as source. These thin films had a thickness between 45 and 123 nm as measured by profilometry. XRD patterns of the deposited thin films were obtained. According to the HRSEM micrographs worm-shaped nanostructures are observed in samples annealed at 600 °C and this characteristic disappears as the annealing temperature increases. The films obtained were annealed from 25 to 1000 °C, showing a gradual increase in transmittance spectra up to 85%. The optical band gaps obtained for these films are about 3.22 eV. The PL measurement shows an emission in the red and in the violet region and there is a correlation with the annealing process.

  1. Structure-dependent optical and electrical transport properties of nanostructured Al-doped ZnO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondoni, P; Ghidelli, M; Di Fonzo, F; Carminati, M; Russo, V; Li Bassi, A; Casari, C S

    2012-09-14

    The structure-property relation of nanostructured Al-doped ZnO thin films has been investigated in detail through a systematic variation of structure and morphology, with particular emphasis on how they affect optical and electrical properties. A variety of structures, ranging from compact polycrystalline films to mesoporous, hierarchically organized cluster assemblies, are grown by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature at different oxygen pressures. We investigate the dependence of functional properties on structure and morphology and show how the correlation between electrical and optical properties can be studied to evaluate energy gap, conduction band effective mass and transport mechanisms. Understanding these properties opens up opportunities for specific applications in photovoltaic devices, where optimized combinations of conductivity, transparency and light scattering are required.

  2. Enhanced photoluminescence and heterojunction characteristics of pulsed laser deposited ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannam, Ramanjaneyulu; Kumar, E. Senthil; Priyadarshini, D. M.; Bellarmine, F.; DasGupta, Nandita; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.

    2017-10-01

    We report on the growth of ZnO nanostructures in different gas ambient (Ar and N2) using pulsed laser deposition technique. Despite the similar growth temperature, use of N2 ambient gas resulted in well-aligned nanorods with flat surface at the tip, whereas, nanorods grown with Ar ambient exhibited tapered tips. The Nanorods grown under N2 ambient exhibited additional Raman modes corresponding to N induced zinc interstitials. The nanorods are c-axis oriented and highly epitaxial in nature. Photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals that the UV emission can be significantly enhanced by 10 times for the nanorods grown under Ar ambient. The enhanced UV emission is attributed to the reduction in polarization electric field along the c-axis. n-ZnO nanorods/p-Si heterojunction showed rectifying I-V characteristics with a turn of voltage of 3.4 V.

  3. Characterization of nanostructured ZnO thin films deposited through vacuum evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Jose Alberto; Maldonado, Arturo; Juarez, Héctor; Pacio, Mauricio; Perez, Rene

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a novel technique to deposit ZnO thin films through a metal vacuum evaporation technique using colloidal nanoparticles (average size of 30 nm), which were synthesized by our research group, as source. These thin films had a thickness between 45 and 123 nm as measured by profilometry. XRD patterns of the deposited thin films were obtained. According to the HRSEM micrographs worm-shaped nanostructures are observed in samples annealed at 600 °C and this characteristic disappears as the annealing temperature increases. The films obtained were annealed from 25 to 1000 °C, showing a gradual increase in transmittance spectra up to 85%. The optical band gaps obtained for these films are about 3.22 eV. The PL measurement shows an emission in the red and in the violet region and there is a correlation with the annealing process.

  4. Preparation of Superhydrophobic ZnO Films on Zinc Substrate by Chemical Solution Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wen-guo; LI Ji-hong; LU Shi-xiang; DUAN Ya-qiong; MA Cheng-xiang; SHI Xiao-feng; CHEN Yi-ling; YANG Yan-bo

    2012-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surface was prepared on the zinc substrate by chemical solution method via immersing clean pure zinc substrate into a water solution of zinc nitrate hexahydrate[Zn(NO3)2.6H2O] and hexamethylenetetraamine(C6H12N4) at 95℃ in water bath for 1.5 h,then modified with 18 alkanethiol.The best resulting surface shows superhydrophobic properties with a water contact angle of about 158° and a low water roll-off angle of around 3°.The prepared samples were characterize.d by powder X-ray diffraction(XRD),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDX),transmission electron microscopy(TEM),and scanning electron microscopy(SEM).SEM images of the films show that the resulting surface exhibits flower-shaped micro- and nano-structure.The surfaces of the prepared films were composed of ZnO nanorods which were wurtzite structure.The special flower-like micro- and nano-structure along with the low surface energy leads to the surface superhydrophobicity.

  5. Effects of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate on the crystal structures and photocatalytic performance of ZnO powders prepared by hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Limin; Dong, Shuying; Li, Qilu; Li, Yifan; Pi, Yunqing; Liu, Menglin; Han, Xiao; Sun, Jianhui, E-mail: sunjh@htu.cn

    2015-11-15

    A facile and efficient route for the controllable synthesis of ZnO nanostructures by hydrothermal method using sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant was reported. The obtained products were well characterized with the aid of various techniques to probe their crystallographic, morphological, chemical, electrochemical and optical properties. The prepared products were used as photocatalysts in the application of the degradation of metronidazole (MNZ)-contained wastewater under visible light irradiation. A 4.5-fold augmentation of degradation efficiency was in turn observed for optimal ZnO (ZO-0.75) photocatalyst compared with that of sample without SDBS addition (ZO) under the visible light irradiation. The effects of SDBS dosage on the crystal structures of prepared samples as well as the crystal growth mechanism were also probed. - Graphical abstract: ZnO photocatalysts were fabricated through a facile and efficient hydrothermal method using SDBS as structure-directing surfactant in a controllable manner. In particular, the sample with different SDBS dosage exhibited distinct crystal structure and photocatalytic performance. - Highlights: • A rod-like ZnO photocatalyst was facilely synthesized by using SDBS as surfactant. • The effect of SDBS dosage on the crystal structure of photocatalyst was probed. • The probably crystal growth mechanism of prepared photocatalyst was explored. • The optimal ZnO with 0.75 g SDBS dosage displayed the best photocatalytic activity.

  6. Ultrasonic spray pyrolysis growth of ZnO and ZnO:Al nanostructured films: Application to photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenanakis, G., E-mail: gkenanak@iesl.forth.gr [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology – Hellas, P.O. Box 1385, Vassilika Vouton, 711 10 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Katsarakis, N. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology – Hellas, P.O. Box 1385, Vassilika Vouton, 711 10 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Center of Materials Technology and Photonics, School of Applied Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 710 04 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Al–ZnO thin films and nanostructures were obtained by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. • The texture and morphology of the samples depend on the deposition parameters. • The photocatalytic degradation of stearic acid was studied upon UV-A irradiation. - Abstract: Pure and Al-doped ZnO (Al = 1, 3, 5%) nanostructured thin films were grown at 400 °C on glass substrates by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, a simple, environmental-friendly and inexpensive method, using aqueous solutions as precursors. The structural and morphological characteristics of the samples depend drastically on deposition parameters; ZnO nanostructured films, nanopetals and nanorods were systematically obtained by simply varying the precursor solution and/or the spraying time. Transmittance measurements have shown that all samples are transparent in the visible wavelength region. Finally, the photocatalytic properties of the samples were investigated against the degradation of stearic acid under UV-A light illumination (365 nm); both pure and Al-doped ZnO nanostructured thin films show good photocatalytic activity regarding the degradation of stearic acid, due to their good crystallinity and large surface area.

  7. Optical and morphological properties of ZnO- and TiO2-derived nanostructures synthesized via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moloto, N

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A microwave-assisted hydrothermal method was used to synthesize ZnO and TiO2 nanostructures. The experimental results show that the method resulted in crystalline monodispersed ZnO nanorods that have pointed tips with hexagonal crystal phase. TiO2...

  8. Multifunctional ZnO interfaces with hierarchical micro- and nanostructures: bio-inspiration from the compound eyes of butterflies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Sha; Yang, Yefeng; Jin, Yizheng; Huang, Jingyun; Zhao, Binghui; Ye, Zhizhen [Zhejiang University, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hangzhou (China)

    2010-07-15

    Multifunctional zinc oxide (ZnO) interfaces were fabricated by utilizing the technique of low-temperature metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The ZnO interfacial material exhibit antiwetting, antireflectance, and photonic properties derived from the unique hierarchical micro- and nanostructures of the compound eye of the butterflies. We demonstrate that the fabrication of the multifunctional interfaces by using biotemplates can be applied to other materials, such as Pt. Our study provides an excellent example to obtain multifunctional interfaces by learning from nature. (orig.)

  9. Nanostructured ZnO Arrays with Self-ZnO Layer Created Using Simple Electrostatic Layer-by-Layer Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PilHo Huh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of unique ZnO nanoarrays utilizing photodynamic polymer, surface-relief grating structures, and unique electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly as a simple and economical methodology was demonstrated. Atomic force microscope (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDAX analysis were employed to characterize elemental composition and morphology of the resulting ZnO nanostructures with self-ZnO layer. Optical behavior of the final product was studied by UV-vis-NIR absorption and photoluminescence (PL spectra.

  10. Characteristics of ZnO nanostructures synthesized by sonochemical reaction: Effects of continuous and pulse waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widiyastuti, W., E-mail: widi@chem-eng.its.ac.id; Machmudah, Siti; Kusdianto,; Nurtono, Tantular; Winardi, Sugeng [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS Sukolilo Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Nanostructured ZnO was synthesized by a sonochemical reaction. Ultrasonic irradiation were set up in continuous, pulse in 3 seconds on and a second off (on:off=3:1), and pulse in 2 seconds on and a second off (on:off=2:1) wave modes for 1.5 hours. The characteristics of particles generated by these modes such as morphology, crystallinity, FTIR, photoluminescence, and photocatalytic activity to degrade methylene blue were compared. Zinc nitrate and ammonia water-based solutions were selected as chemicals without the addition of other surfactants. The morphology of the generated ZnO particles could be tuned from flower-like, needle- or hairy-like, and spherical structures by changing the mode of ultrasonic irradiation from continuous, on:off=3:1, and on:off=2:1 modes, respectively. The generated particles indicated that a wurtzite structure of ZnO in a hexagonal phase was formed. The crystalline sizes of particles generated in continuous, on:off=3:1, and on:off=2:1 modes were 28, 27, 24 nm. A similar position of reduction peak of FTIR in all samples indicated that no differences in particles chemical bonding characteristics. Photoluminescence intensity was also decreased with changes the wave mode from continuous to pulse. Photocatalytic activity was also evaluated resulting in particles synthesized by continuous mode had the highest methylene blue degradation degree following by on:off=3:1, and on:off=2:1 modes.

  11. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Co doped ZnO nanodisks and nanorods prepared by a facile wet chemical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, Sini; Satpati, Biswarup; Mohapatra, Satyabrata

    2014-07-07

    Cobalt doped ZnO nanodisks and nanorods were synthesized by a facile wet chemical method and well characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated for sunlight driven degradation of an aqueous methylene blue (MB) solution. The results showed that Co doped ZnO nanodisks and nanorods exhibit highly enhanced photocatalytic activity, as compared to pure ZnO nanodisks and nanorods. The enhanced photocatalytic activities of Co doped ZnO nanostructures were attributed to the combined effects of enhanced surface area of ZnO nanodisks and improved charge separation efficiency due to optimal Co doping which inhibit recombination of photogenerated charge carriers. The possible mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of Co doped ZnO nanostructures is tentatively proposed.

  12. Decoration of ZnO Nanorods with Coral Reefs like NiO Nanostructures by the Hydrothermal Growth Method and Their Luminescence Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Ali Abbasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite nanostructures of coral reefs like p-type NiO/n-type ZnO were synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates by hydrothermal growth. Structural characterization was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. This investigation shows that the adopted synthesis leads to high crystalline quality nanostructures. The morphological study shows that the coral reefs like nanostructures are densely packed on the ZnO nanorods. Cathodoluminescence (CL spectra for the synthesized composite nanostructures are dominated mainly by a broad interstitial defect related luminescence centered at ~630 nm. Spatially resolved CL images reveal that the luminescence of the decorated ZnO nanostructures is enhanced by the presence of the NiO.

  13. Preparation and UV-light Absorption Property of Oleic Acid Surface Modified ZnO Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Jong-hun; GUO Yu-peng; CHEN Yue; WANG Zi-chen

    2011-01-01

    Syntheses of zince oxide(ZnO) nanoparticles by direct precipitation and surface modification with oleic acid were reported. ZnO nanoparticles were characterized via X-ray diffractometry(XRD), transmission electron microscopy(TEM), infrared spectroscopy(IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The prepared ZnO nanoparticles were nearly spherical and highly crystalline with an average size of 29 nm. In addition, high UV-light absorption properties of oleic acid surface modified ZnO nanoparticles were successfully obtained for a dispersion of ZnO nanoparticles in ethanol.

  14. Effect of (Fe, Co) co-doping on the structural, electrical and magnetic properties of ZnO nanocrystals prepared by solution combustion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, Mast, E-mail: mastram1999@yahoo.com; Negi, N.S.

    2016-01-15

    The structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub 0.05}Fe{sub x}O (where, x=0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 mol%) nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion method are reported. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX) have been used for structural and compositional analysis. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed the existence of hexagonal wurtzite structure of parent ZnO with co-doping. The microstructural studies reveal the dense nanostructured morphology of these samples. The DC electrical conductivity measurements have been carried out in the temperature range of 300–450 K. The DC electrical conductivity decreases with the increasing Fe concentration. The magnetic studies reveal room temperature ferromagnetisation in doped ZnO nanoparticles. The magnetic properties of ZnO nanoparticles improve with increasing Fe dopant concentration.

  15. A comparative study on the structural properties of ZnO and Ni-doped ZnO nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyungho; Jin, Zhuguang; Abe, Yoshio; Kawamura, Midori; 金, 敬鎬; 阿部, 良夫; 川村, みどり

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the structural properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods with various Ni doping amounts. The length and diameter of the nanorods decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing Ni doping amount to 5 mM. Ni-doped ZnO (Ni-ZnO) nanorods exhibited better crystalline quality than undoped ZnO nanorods. In the visible wavelength region, the optical transmittance of Ni-ZnO nanorods was slightly lower than that of ZnO nanorods. Upon further increasing the Ni doping amount (7 mM), ...

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Nano-Structure Metal Oxides and Peroxides Prepared by Laser Ablation in Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drmosh, Qasem Ahmed Qasem

    Pulsed laser ablation technique was applied for synthesize of ZnO, ZnO 2 and SnO2 nanostructure using metallic target in different liquids. For this purpose, a laser emitting pulsed UV radiations generated by the third harmonic of Nd:YAG (λ= 355 nm) was applied. For the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), a high-purity metallic plate of Zn was fixed at the bottom of a glass cell in the presence of deionized water and was irradiated at different laser energies (80- 100- 120) mJ per pulse. The average sizes and lattice parameters of ZnO produced by this method were estimated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). ZnO nanoparticles were also produced by ablation of zinc target in the presence of deionized water mixed with two types of surfactants: cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and octaethylene glycol monododecyl (OGM). The results showed that the average grain sizes decreased from 38 nm in the case of deionized water to 27 nm and 19 nm in CTAB and OGM respectively. The PL emission in CTAB and OGM showed two peaks: the sharp UV emission at 380 nm and a broad visible peak ranging from 450 nm to 600 nm. Zinc peroxide (ZnO2) nanoparticles having grain size less than 5 nm were also synthesized using pulsed laser ablation in aqueous solution in the presence of different surfactants and solid zinc target in 3 % hydrogen peroxide H2O2 for the first time. The effect of surfactants on the optical and structure of ZnO2 was studied by applying different spectroscopic techniques. The presence of the cubic phase of zinc peroxide in all samples was confirmed with XRD, and the grain sizes were 4.7 nm, 3.7 nm, 3.3 nm and 2.8 nm in pure H2O2; and H2O 2 mixed with SDS, CTAB and OGM respectively. For optical characterization, FTIR transmittance spectra of ZnO2 nanoparticles prepared with and without surfactants showed characteristic peaks of ZnO2 absorption at 435-445 cm-1. FTIR spectrum also revealed that the adsorbed surfactants on zinc peroxide disappeared in case of CTAB and OGM

  17. Self-Styled ZnO Nanostructures Promotes the Cancer Cell Damage and Supresses the Epithelial Phenotype of Glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Rizwan; Kaushik, Neha; Khan, Farheen; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive researches have been done on the applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) for the biological purposes. However, the role and toxicity mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures (ZnO-NSts) such as nanoplates (NPls), nanorods (NRs), nanosheets (NSs), nanoflowers (NFs) on cancer cells are not largely known. Present study was focused to investigate the possible mechanisms of apoptosis induced by self-designed ZnO-NSts, prepared at fix pH via solution process and exposed against human T98G gliomas including various cancers and non-malignant embryonic kidney HEK293, MRC5 fibroblast cells. NSts were used for the induction of cell death in malignant human T98G gliomas including various cancers and compared with the non-malignant cells. Notably, NRs were found to induce higher cytotoxicity, inhibitory effects on cancer and normal cells in a dose dependent manner. We also showed that NRs induced cancer cell death through oxidative stress and caspase-dependent pathways. Furthermore, quantitative and qualitative analysis of ZnO-NSts have also been confirmed by statistical analytical parameters such as precision, accuracy, linearity, limits of detection and limit of quantitation. These self-styled NSts could provide new perception in the research of targeted cancer nanotechnology and have potentiality to improve new therapeutic outcomes with poor diagnosis.

  18. Snowflake-Shaped ZnO Nanostructures-Based Gas Sensor for Sensitive Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianli Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs have been considered severe risks to human health. Gas sensors for the sensitive detection of VOCs are highly required. However, the preparation of gas-sensing materials with a high gas diffusion performance remains a great challenge. Here, through a simple hydrothermal method accompanied with a subsequent thermal treatment, a special porous snowflake-shaped ZnO nanostructure was presented for sensitive detection of VOCs including diethyl ether, methylbenzene, and ethanol. The fabricated gas sensors exhibit a good sensing performance including high responses to VOCs and a short response/recovery time. The responses of the ZnO-based gas sensor to 100 ppm ethanol, methylbenzene, and diethyl ether are about 27, 21, and 11, respectively, while the response times to diethyl ether and methylbenzene are less than 10 seconds. The gas adsorption-desorption kinetics is also investigated, which shows that the gas-sensing behaviors to different target gases are remarkably different, making it possible for target recognition in practical applications.

  19. Optical and Morphological Properties of ZnO- and TiO2-Derived Nanostructures Synthesized via a Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Method

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A microwave-assisted hydrothermal method was used to synthesize ZnO and TiO2 nanostructures. The experimental results show that the method resulted in crystalline monodispersed ZnO nanorods that have pointed tips with hexagonal crystal phase. TiO2 nanotubes were also formed with minimum bundles. The mechanism for the formation of the tubes was validated by HRTEM results. The optical properties of both ZnO and TiO2 nanostructures showed characteristics of strong quantum confinement regime. The...

  20. Optical and Morphological Properties of ZnO- and TiO2-Derived Nanostructures Synthesized via a Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosipho Moloto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A microwave-assisted hydrothermal method was used to synthesize ZnO and TiO2 nanostructures. The experimental results show that the method resulted in crystalline monodispersed ZnO nanorods that have pointed tips with hexagonal crystal phase. TiO2 nanotubes were also formed with minimum bundles. The mechanism for the formation of the tubes was validated by HRTEM results. The optical properties of both ZnO and TiO2 nanostructures showed characteristics of strong quantum confinement regime. The photoluminescence spectrum of TiO2 nanotubes shows good improvement from previously reported data.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanoparticles and Nanocomposite of ZnO and MgO by Sonochemical Method and their Application for Zinc Polycarboxylate Dental Cement Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the synthesis of nanoparticles of ZnO and MgO and ZnO/MgO nanocomposite by the sonochemical method. At first, nanoparticles were synthesized by the reaction of Zn(CHCOO32 and Mg(CHCOO32 with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and constant frequency ultrasonic waves (sonochemical method. Then, ZnO/MgO nanocomposite was prepared through reaction of magnesium acetate with TMAH in the presence of ZnO nanoparticles and PVP as structure director using ultrasonic assisted method. After filtration, the synthesized solution was obtained containing magnesium hydroxide in the presence of ZnO nanoparticles. It was calcinated at the temperature of 550 ºC, so that ZnO/MgO nanocomposite could be produced. The effects of different parameters on particle size and morphology of final ZnO and MgO powders and ZnO/MgO nanocomposite were optimized by ‘‘one at a time’’ method. Under optimum conditions, spongy shaped, uniformed and homogeneous nanostructured zinc oxide and magnesium oxide powders were obtained with particle sizes of 25–50 and 30-60 nm, respectively. ZnO/MgO nanocomposite was also obtained with more spongy morphology and particle size about 65 nm. Both synthesized ZnO and MgO nanoparticles and ZnO/MgO nanocomposite were successfully applied to the preparation of zinc polycarboxylate dental cement.

  2. Ten years' venturing in ZnO nanostructures: from discovery to scientific understanding and to technology applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Lin WANG

    2009-01-01

    Zinc oxide is a unique material that exhibits semiconducting,piezoelectric and pyroelectric multiple properties.Nanostructures of ZnO are equally important as carbon nanotubes and silicon nanowires (NWs) for nanotechnology,and have great potential applications in nano-electronics,optoelectronics,sensors,field emission,light emitting diodes,photocatalysis,nanogenerators,and nanopiezotronics.Ever since the discovery of nanobelts (NBs) in 2001 by my group,a world wide research in ZnO has been kicked off.This review introduces my group's experience in venturing the discovery,understanding and applications of ZnO NWs and NBs.The aim is to introduce the progress made in my research in the last 10 years in accompany to the huge social advances and economic development taking place in China in the last 10 years.

  3. Synthesis and Field Emission of ZnO Nanostructures on CuO Catalyzed Porous Silicon Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ke; ZHANG Yong-Sheng; OUYANG Shi-Xi; ZHANG Qing-Jie; LUO Lai-Qiang; ZHANG Qiu-Xiang; CHANG Zhong-Kun; LI Li-Jun; ZHU Zi-Qiang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Ma ss production of ZnO nanobelts and hexagonal nanorods has been successfully synthesized on CuO catalyzed porous silicon (PS) using a simple vapour-solid (VS) growth method. A comparison of their morphologies is investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirms that ZnO nanobelts and nanorods are single crystalline with the growth direction of (0110) and (0001), respectively.Field emission tests indicate that the ZnO nanostructures on porous silicon have low turn-on field of about3.6 V/μm (at 1.0μA/cm2) and the threshold field of about 8.3 V/μm (at 1.0mA/cm2), high emission site density(ESD) of approximately 104 cm-2.

  4. Nanostructural Effect of ZnO on Light Extraction Efficiency of Near-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Jae Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ZnO nanostructures on the light output power of 375 nm near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (NUV-LEDs was investigated by comparing one-dimensional (1D nanorods (NR-ZnO with two-dimensional (2D nanosheets (NS-ZnO. ZnO nanostructures were grown on a planar indium tin oxide (ITO by solution based method at low temperature of 90°C without degradation of the forward voltage. At an injection current of 100 mA, the light output efficiency of NUV-LED with NR-ZnO was enhanced by around 30% compared to the conventional NUV-LEDs without ZnO nanostructures. This improvement is due to the formation of a surface texturing, resulting in a larger escape cone and a multiple scattering for the photons in the NUV-LED, whereas the light output efficiency of NUV-LED with NS-ZnO was lower than that of the conventional NUV-LEDs due to the internal reflection and light absorption in the defective sites of NS-ZnO.

  5. Eosin Yellowish Dye-Sensitized ZnO Nanostructure-Based Solar Cells Employing Solid PEO Redox Couple Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kanmani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanostructures are synthesized by low-temperature methods, and they possess polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferential c-axial growth. Morphological study by SEM shows the presence of ~30 nm sized spherical-shaped ZnO nanoparticle, the branched flower-like ZnO composed of many nanorods (length: 1.2 to 4.2 μm and diameter: 0.3 to 0.4 μm, and ~50 nm diameter of individual ZnO nanorods. Reduction in photoemission intensity of nanorods infers the decrease in electron-hole recombination rate, which offers better photovoltaic performance. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC based on ZnO nanorods sensitized with Eosin yellowish dye exhibits a maximum optimal energy conversion efficiency of 0.163% compared to that of nanoparticles and nanoflowers, due to better dye loading and direct conduction pathway for electron transport.

  6. Electrophoretic deposition of ZnO nanostructures: Au nanoclusters on Si substrates induce self-assembled nanowire growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Claudia [Laboratorio de Nanomateriales y Propiedades Dieléctricas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); Marin, Oscar [CONICET – LAFISO, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); Real, Silvina [Laboratorio de Nanomateriales y Propiedades Dieléctricas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); Comedi, David [CONICET – LAFISO, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); Tirado, Mónica, E-mail: mtirado@herrera.unt.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Nanomateriales y Propiedades Dieléctricas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nanowires were grown on silicon substrate by electrophoretic deposition technique without use a porous template. • The growth was induced by Au nanoclusters and was performed at room temperature. • The photoluminescence spectrum for the nanowires obtained shows a broad UV-blue excitonic emission peak and a low emission in the green region. - Abstract: The present work reports the self-assembled growth of ZnO nanowires on silicon substrate with nanometer sized Au clusters using electrophoretic deposition technique at room temperature without a sacrificial template. A colloidal suspension of ≈5 nm sized ZnO nanoparticles dispersed in 2-propanol was used (nanoparticle bandgap of 3.47 eV as determined from absorbance measurements). The results show that the Au nanoclusters on the silicon substrate induce the self-assembly of the ZnO nanoparticles into vertically aligned ZnO nanowires. This effect is tentatively explained as being due to increased electric field intensities near the Au nanoclusters during the electrophoretic deposition. Photoluminescence measurements reveal the presence of quantum confined excitons and a relatively low concentration of deep defects in the nanowires. The electric field guided growth of semiconductor nanostructures at room temperature has great industrial potential as it minimizes production costs and enables the use of substrate materials not withstanding high temperatures.

  7. Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on ZnO and M13 Bacteriophage nanostructures (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Myeong; Kim, Kyujungg; Hong, Suck Won; Oh, Jin-Woo; Kim, Hyung Kook; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the portable and wearable electronic devices, operated in the power range of microwatt to miliwatt, become available thank to the nanotechnology development and become an essential element for a comfortable life. Our recent research interest mainly focuses on the fabrication of piezoelectric nanogenerators based on smart nanomaterials such as zinc oxide novel nanostructure, M13 bacteriophage. In this talk, we present a simple strategy for fabricating the freestanding ZnO nanorods/graphene/ZnO nanorods double sided heterostructures. The characterization of the double sided heterostructures by using SEM, and Raman scattering spectroscopy reveals the key process and working mechanism of a formation of the heterostructure. The mechanism is discussed in detail in term of the decomposed seed layer and the vacancy defect of graphene. The approach consists of a facile one-step fabrication process and could achieve ZnO coverage with a higher number density than that of the epitaxial single heterostructure. The resulting improvement in the number density of nanorods has a direct beneficial effect on the double side heterostructured nanogenerator performance. The total output voltage and current density are improved up to 2 times compared to those of a single heterostructure due to the coupling of the piezoelectric effects from both upward and downward grown nanorods. The facile one-step fabrication process suggests that double sided heterostructures would improve the performance of electrical and optoelectrical device, such as touch pad, pressure sensor, biosensor and dye-sensitized solar cells. Further, ioinspired nanogenerators based on vertically aligned phage nanopillars are inceptively demonstrated. Vertically aligned phage nanopillars enable not only a high piezoelectric response but also a tuneable piezoelectricity. Piezoelectricity is also modulated by tuning of the protein's dipoles in each phage. The sufficient electrical power from phage nanopillars thus

  8. Field-emission characteristics of Al-doped ZnO nanostructures hydrothermally synthesized at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Po-Yu; Wang, Jyh-Liang; Tsai, Wei-Chih; Wang, Shui-Jinn; Lin, Jia-Chuan; Lee, I-Che; Chang, Chia-Tsung; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2011-07-01

    The aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) nanostructures with different Al concentrations were synthesized on AZO/glass substrate via a simple hydrothermal growth method at a temperature as low as 85 degrees C. The morphologies, crystallinity, optical emission properties, and chemical bonding states of AZO nanostructures show evident dependence on the aluminum dosage. The morphologies of AZO nanostructures were changed from vertically aligned nanowires (NWs), and NWs coexisted with nanosheets (NSs), to complete NSs in respect of the Al-dosages of 0-3 at.%, 5 at.%, and 7 at.%, correspondingly. The undoped ZnO and lightly Al-doped AZO (< or = 3 at.%) NWs are single-crystalline wurtzite structure. In contrast, heavily Al-doped AZO sample is polycrystalline. The AZO nanostructure with 3 at.% Al-dosages reveals the optimal crystallinity and less structural defects, reflecting the longest carrier lifetime and highest conductivity. Consequently, the field-emission characteristics of such an AZO emitter can exhibit the higher current density, larger field-enhancement factor (beta) of 3131, lower turn-on field of 2.17 V/microm, and lower threshold field of 3.43 V/microm.

  9. Realizing a facile and environmental-friendly fabrication of high-performance multi-crystalline silicon solar cells by employing ZnO nanostructures and an Al2O3 passivation layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Lu, Hong-Liang; Sun, Long; Ren, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Hao; Ji, Xin-Ming; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ding, Shi-Jin; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, David Wei

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays, the multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells dominate the photovoltaic industry. However, the current acid etching method on mc-Si surface used by firms can hardly suppress the average reflectance value below 25% in the visible light spectrum. Meanwhile, the nitric acid and the hydrofluoric contained in the etching solution is both environmental unfriendly and highly toxic to human. Here, a mc-Si solar cell based on ZnO nanostructures and an Al2O3 spacer layer is demonstrated. The eco-friendly fabrication is realized by low temperature atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 layer as well as ZnO seed layer. Moreover, the ZnO nanostructures are prepared by nontoxic and low cost hydro-thermal growth process. Results show that the best passivation quality of the n+ -type mc-Si surface can be achieved by balancing the Si dangling bond saturation level and the negative charge concentration in the Al2O3 film. Moreover, the average reflectance on cell surface can be suppressed to 8.2% in 400-900 nm range by controlling the thickness of ZnO seed layer. With these two combined refinements, a maximum solar cell efficiency of 15.8% is obtained eventually. This work offer a facile way to realize the environmental friendly fabrication of high performance mc-Si solar cells.

  10. 一维纳米结构氧化锌的水热法制备及紫外光敏特性研究%Hydrothermal Synthesis of One Dimensional Nanostructure ZnO and Its Ultraviolet Photosensitivity Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祥涛; 吴起白; 张海燕; 魏爱香; 刘俊

    2009-01-01

    在陶瓷衬底上制作叉指状金电极,采用低温水热法生长一维纳米结构氧化锌,制得氧化锌紫外光电导型探测器.探讨了反应溶液的浓度对氧化锌纳米结构形貌及紫外光电导特性的影响.X射线衍射分析表明,产物为六方纤锌矿结构的ZnO.扫描电镜观察显示.产物为一维纳米结构,因反应溶液浓度的不同直径介于80~500nm.光电测试表明,一维纳米结构氧化锌的紫外光电导特性受其表面形貌的影响显著.%Comb-shaped Au electrodes are prepared on ceramic substrate firstly, and then the one dimensional nanostructure is synthesised by hydrothermal method in order to get ZnO UV detector. The effect of the concentration of solution on the growth of nanostructure ZnO and UV sensitivity has been studied. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the product is pure phase zinc oxide. The morphology of one dimensional nanostructure is characterized by SEM. The diameter of one dimensional nanostructure ZnO obtained is 80~500nm. Test shows that the UV conductivity properties of ZnO are affected by their surface topography.

  11. Improvement of antimony sulfide photo absorber performance by interface modification in Sb2S3-ZnO hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asad; Hasanain, Syed Khurshid; Ali, Tahir; Sultan, Muhammad

    2017-03-01

    Metal-oxide chalcogenide nanostructures as part of hybrid systems are very important for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. It is however known that the various interfaces within the hybrid structures play a crucial role in limiting the efficiency of these devices. Here we report on the improvement of Sb2S3 structure through modification of interface between Zn-oxide nanostructures and chalcogenides. ZnO nanorods were grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM analysis confirmed the single phase wurtzite structure and c-axis orientation of the ZnO nanorod arrays. Antimony tri-sulfide (Sb2S3) was deposited on ZnO nanords by CBD and subsequently annealed at 300 °C in argon environment for 30 min. XRD and the XPS analysis of ZnO-Sb2S3 system showed the dominant presence of Sb2O3 rather than Sb2S3. Since oxidation of Sb2S3 is understood to proceed mainly from the ZnO-Sb2S3 interface, a ZnS interlayer was introduced between ZnO nanorods and Sb2S3 by chemical route. The subsequent structural and optical properties of the ZnO-ZnS-Sb2S3 system are analyzed in detail. The introduction of sulfide interlayer prevents the oxidation of Sb2S3 which is evident from reduced oxide phase in Sb2S3. Significant improvement in the structural and optical properties of Sb2S3 are reported as compared to the parent ZnO-Sb2S3 system. This gain in the optical properties of hybrid ZnO-ZnS-Sb2S3 nanostructures is explained as being related to successful prevention of Sb2O3 formation at the Sb-ZnO interface and stabilization of the desired Sb2S3.

  12. Photocatalytic, optical and magnetic properties of Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by chemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Khanesh; Chitkara, Mansi; Sandhu, Inderjit Singh [Nanomaterials Research Laboratory (NRL), Department of Applied Sciences, Chitkara University, Rajpura 140401, Punjab (India); Mehta, D. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Kumar, Sanjeev, E-mail: sanjeevkumar@chitkara.edu.in [Department of Physics, G.G.D.S.D. College, Chandigarh 160030 (India)

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • Zn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O nanoparticles are synthesized using bottom-up wet chemical precipitation technique. • Photocatalytic activity was evaluated by monitoring the photodegradation of methylene blue dye. • Specific magnetization values of the synthesized materials are found to depend on Fe concentration. -- Abstract: Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) capped Zn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O (0.000001 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.1) nanocrystalline powders were prepared by chemical co-precipitation technique. Structural, optical and magnetic characterizations of the annealed samples were performed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV–visible spectrophotometry, photoluminescence (PL) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements. XRD and TEM studies reveal that the synthesized ZnO nanocrystals have hexagonal wurtzite structure with average crystalline size ∼8–15 nm. EDXRF and FTIR measurements confirmed the doping and incorporation of Fe impurities in ZnO nanostructures. Photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized samples was determined by degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye in aqueous solution under UV/sunlight exposure. The dependence of photocatalytic behavior and luminescence efficiency on the dopant concentration was studied in detail. Magnetic measurements performed at room temperature show that pure ZnO exhibits diamagnetic behavior, ferromagnetic order was clearly observed at minute concentration of Fe impurity (at 0.000010%) and large concentration of dopant (at 10%) leads to strong paramagnetic component in all the Fe-doped ZnO samples.

  13. Microwave-assisted Facile and Ultrafast Growth of ZnO Nanostructures and Proposition of Alternative Microwave-assisted Methods to Address Growth Stoppage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Abu Ul Hassan Sarwar; Kang, Mingi; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2016-04-01

    The time constraint in the growth of ZnO nanostructures when using a hydrothermal method is of paramount importance in contemporary research, where a long fabrication time rots the very essence of the research on ZnO nanostructures. In this study, we present the facile and ultrafast growth of ZnO nanostructures in a domestic microwave oven within a pressurized environment in just a few minutes. This method is preferred for the conventional solution-based method because of the ultrafast supersaturation of zinc salts and the fabrication of high-quality nanostructures. The study of the effect of seed layer density, growth time, and the solution’s molar concentration on the morphology, alignment, density, and aspect ratio of ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) is explored. It is found in a microwave-assisted direct growth method that ~5 mins is the optimum time beyond which homogeneous nucleation supersedes heterogeneous nucleation, which results in the growth stoppage of ZNRs. To deal with this issue, we propound different methods such as microwave-assisted solution-replacement, preheating, and PEI-based growth methods, where growth stoppage is addressed and ZNRs with a high aspect ratio can be grown. Furthermore, high-quality ZnO nanoflowers and ZnO nanowalls are fabricated via ammonium hydroxide treatment in a very short time.

  14. Blue-emitting photoluminescence of rod-like and needle-like ZnO nanostructures formed by hot-water treatment of sol–gel derived coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Wai Kian, E-mail: tanwaikian@cie.ignite.tut.ac.jp [Center for International Education, Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Abdul Razak, Khairunisak; Lockman, Zainovia [School of Materials and Mineral Resources, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang 14300 Malaysia (Malaysia); Matsuda, Atsunori, E-mail: matsuda@tut.ee.ac.jp [Center for International Education, Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    The morphological evolution of the zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures generated by hot-water treatment (HWT) of sol–gel derived coatings as a function of temperature from 30 to 90 °C was investigated. With increasing HWT temperature, the ZnO crystals evolved from nanoparticles to rod-like and needle-like nanostructures. High-resolution transmission electron microscope observations of rod-like and needle-like nanostructures generated at 60 and 90 °C indicated single crystal ZnO wurtzite structure was obtained. All the hot-water treated samples exhibited blue emission at approximately 440 nm in room temperature. The intensity of blue emission increased with higher HWT temperatures. The unique photoluminescence emission characteristic remained even after heat-treatment at 400 °C for 1 h. As the emission peak obtained in our work is approximately 440 nm (2.82 eV), the emission peak is corresponding to the electron transition from the interstitial Zn to the top of valence band. This facile formation of blue-emitting ZnO nanostructures at low-temperature can be utilized on substrate with low thermal stability for optoelectronic applications such as light emitting devices and biological fluorescence labeling. - Highlights: • Facile and novel formation of ZnO nanostructures by low temperature hot-water treatment. • No catalyst or inhibitor is used. • Evolution of ZnO nanostructures formation as a function of temperature is reported. • Dominant blue emissions are observed from the as-formed and annealed ZnO films. • Ultraviolet and visible emissions are observed for hot-water treated films.

  15. Fabrication of ZnO nanostructures sensitized with CdS quantum dots for photovoltaic application using a convenient solution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Huan [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Gengmin, E-mail: zgmin@pku.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); SIP-UCLA Institute for Technology Advancement, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu Province (China); Yin, Jianbo [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liang, Jia; Sun, Wentao; Shen, Ziyong [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures sensitized with cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs) were fabricated using a simple and inexpensive solution method. ZnO nanostructures, in the form of either nanocones or nanorods, were first grown directly from fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates in aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA, C{sub 6}H{sub 12}N{sub 4}) under external voltages. Then, CdS QDs were attached to these ZnO nanostructures via reactions in the mixed aqueous solutions of cadmium nitrate (Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and thioacetamide (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}NS). Photovoltaic responses were obtained from the quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) in which these CdS QD-covered ZnO nanostructures were employed as the photoanodes. The morphologies of the ZnO nanostructures, which could be effectively modulated via the substrate location in the solutions during the fabrication, were found to have played an important role in determining the properties of the QDSSCs.

  16. Al-doped ZnO Nanostructured Thin Films: Density Functional Theory and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, J. V. N.; Rahman, A.; Jayaganthan, R.; Chowdhury, Rajib; Haranath, D.

    2015-06-01

    Nanostructured Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films are deposited on glass substrates by electroless deposition technique in the present work. AZO films with Al concentration from 1 at.% to 5 at.% are investigated for their structural and morphological properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). An excellent homogeneity is achieved with average crystallite sizes of below 32 nm and a nearly constant root mean square (RMS) surface roughness between 1 nm and 3 nm, for various Al doping concentrations. These smooth and uniform films are characterized for their optical and photoluminescence (PL) properties. A higher value of average transparency between 79% and 92% in the wavelength range of 300-800 nm is achieved, and the PL intensity is found to be a strong function of doping. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations agree with the measured transmittance values, in addition to their predicted electronic structure. Moreover, time-resolved PL measurements indicate that the luminescence decay time decreases with increased doping concentration.

  17. A low-temperature ZnO nanowire ethanol gas sensor prepared on plastic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hung; Chang, Shoou-Jinn; Hsueh, Ting-Jen

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a low-temperature ZnO nanowire ethanol gas sensor was prepared on plastic substrate. The operating temperature of the ZnO nanowire ethanol gas sensor was reduced to room temperature using ultraviolet illumination. The experimental results indicate a favorable sensor response at low temperature, with the best response at 60 °C. The results also reveal that the ZnO nanowire ethanol gas sensor can be easily integrated into portable products, whose waste heat can improve sensor response and achieve energy savings, while energy consumption can be further reduced by solar irradiation.

  18. Structural defects and photoluminescence studies of sol-gel prepared ZnO and Al-doped ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, K. M.; Bhat, Shreesha; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2016-11-01

    ZnO and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films were synthesized using sol-gel spin-coating method. The powder XRD analysis revealed the stress relaxation mechanism upon Al doping in ZnO film. The reduction in the imaginary part of the dielectric constant and suppression of deep level acceptor type octahedral oxygen interstitial defects account for the reduction in carrier concentration in AZO with respect to ZnO. Electrical conductivity measurements and grain boundary conduction model are used to quantify the carrier concentration. From the Commission Internationale d'Eclairge diagram of ZnO and AZO, color parameters like dominant wavelength, color purity and luminosity are determined and reported for the first time. The prepared ZnO and AZO films show considerable blue emission. These films can be used for white light generation.

  19. Nanostructured SnO2-ZnO heterojunction photocatalysts showing enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of organic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Tamez; Nicolas, Yohann; Olivier, Céline; Toupance, Thierry; Servant, Laurent; Müller, Mathis M; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Ziegler, Jürgen; Jaegermann, Wolfram

    2012-07-16

    Nanoporous SnO(2)-ZnO heterojunction nanocatalyst was prepared by a straightforward two-step procedure involving, first, the synthesis of nanosized SnO(2) particles by homogeneous precipitation combined with a hydrothermal treatment and, second, the reaction of the as-prepared SnO(2) particles with zinc acetate followed by calcination at 500 °C. The resulting nanocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR, Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen adsorption-desorption analyses, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The SnO(2)-ZnO photocatalyst was made of a mesoporous network of aggregated wurtzite ZnO and cassiterite SnO(2) nanocrystallites, the size of which was estimated to be 27 and 4.5 nm, respectively, after calcination. According to UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the evident energy band gap value of the SnO(2)-ZnO photocatalyst was estimated to be 3.23 eV to be compared with those of pure SnO(2), that is, 3.7 eV, and ZnO, that is, 3.2 eV, analogues. The energy band diagram of the SnO(2)-ZnO heterostructure was directly determined by combining XPS and the energy band gap values. The valence band and conduction band offsets were calculated to be 0.70 ± 0.05 eV and 0.20 ± 0.05 eV, respectively, which revealed a type-II band alignment. Moreover, the heterostructure SnO(2)-ZnO photocatalyst showed much higher photocatalytic activities for the degradation of methylene blue than those of individual SnO(2) and ZnO nanomaterials. This behavior was rationalized in terms of better charge separation and the suppression of charge recombination in the SnO(2)-ZnO photocatalyst because of the energy difference between the conduction band edges of SnO(2) and ZnO as evidenced by the band alignment determination. Finally, this mesoporous SnO(2)-ZnO heterojunction nanocatalyst was stable and could be easily recycled several times opening new avenues for potential industrial

  20. Field emission property of ZnO nanowires prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The field emission property of cold cathode emitters utilizing the ZnO nanowires with various conditions prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique was discussed. It is found that the emission current was enhanced in the emitters having higher aspect ratio as well as smaller sheet resistance. Applying of post-annealing process, utilization of additional Mo back electrode in the cathode, and coating of Moon the ZnO nanowires resulted in the improvement of the emission current and lowerin...

  1. Simple preparation and catalytic properties of ZnO for ozonation degradation of phenol in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ming Dong; Guang Li Wang; Ping Ping Jiang; Ai Min Zhang; Lin Yue; Xiao Ming Zhang

    2011-01-01

    ZnO particles about 200 nm were prepared through a facile hydrothermal method. Compared with single ozonation, the degradation efficiency of phenol increased about 23.7% and the degradation efficiency of intermediates improved about four times in the presence of ZnO at 298 K. In addition, the catalyst had good stability in the ozonation process. The influence of temperature was investigated and it was found that the better catalysis efficiency could be obtained at lower temperature.

  2. Synthesis of nanostructured and microstructured ZnO and Zn(OH)2 on activated carbon cloth by hydrothermal and microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosayebi, Elham; Azizian, Saeid; Hajian, Ali

    2015-05-01

    Nanostructured and microstructured ZnO and Zn(OH)2 loaded on activated carbon cloth were synthesized by microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition and hydrothermal methods. By hydrothermal method the deposited sample on carbon fiber is pure ZnO with dandelion-like nanostructures. By microwave-assisted chemical bath method the structure and composition of deposited sample depends on solution pH. At pH = 9.8 the deposited sample on carbon fiber is pure ZnO with flower-like microstructure; but at pH = 10.8 the sample is a mixture of ZnO and Zn(OH)2 with flower-like and rhombic microstructures, respectively. The mechanism of crystal grow by microwave-assisted chemical bath method was investigated by SEM method at both pH.

  3. Nanostructured antireflective bilayers: Optical design and preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detrich, Ádám [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, Centre for Colloid Chemistry, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Nagy, Norbert [Research Centre for Natural Sciences (MTA TTK), Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science (MFA), P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Nyári, Mária; Albert, Emőke; Zámbó, Dániel [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, Centre for Colloid Chemistry, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Hórvölgyi, Zoltán, E-mail: zhorvolgyi@mail.bme.hu [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, Centre for Colloid Chemistry, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-05-01

    We show different methods for tailoring and fabrication of various cost-effective antireflective nanocoatings on transparent and non-transparent substrates. The main purpose was to prepare coatings with decreased reflectance in the full visible wavelength range using simple wet layer deposition techniques. Structure of coatings was designed by optical simulations applying simplified calculations. The refractive index of substrates was also considered for the calculations. The advantageous optical properties were achieved by bilayered structures combining compact and porous sol–gel derived oxide layers and nanoparticulate films. The bilayered structures enhance the flexibility of design by not only the selection of the layer thicknesses but also by different ways of adjusting the effective refractive index of the layers. Furthermore, chemical stability of the coatings was also investigated. The optical and structural properties of prepared films and bilayered coatings were studied by UV–vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The transmittance of coated glass substrates was above 97.5%, while the reflectance of coated silicon substrates was below 4% between 450 nm and 900 nm. - Highlights: • Designed antireflective bilayered coatings on glass and silicon. • Simple, colloid chemical approaches to preparation. • Favorable optical properties by combining compact and porous oxide layers. • Different ways for adjusting the effective refractive index. • Strong chemical resistance against acidic effects.

  4. Preparation, structural and optical characterization of ZnO, ZnO: Al nanopowder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, R. Raj; Rajendran, K.; Sambath, K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, ZnO and ZnO:Al nanopowders have been synthesized by low cost hydrothermal method. Zinc nitrate, hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and aluminium nitrate are used as precursors for ZnO and AZO with different molar ratios. The structural and optical characterization of doped and un-doped ZnO powders have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), photoluminescence (PL) and ultra violet visible (UV-Vis) absorption studies. The SEM results show that the hydrothermal synthesis can be used to obtain nanoparticles with different morphology. It is observed that the grain size of the AZO nanoparticles increased with increasing of Al concentration. The PL measurement of AZO shows that broad range of green emission around 550nm with high intensity. The green emission resulted mainly because of intrinsic defects.

  5. Preparation, structural and optical characterization of ZnO, ZnO: Al nanopowder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, R. Raj [Department of ECE, Gojan School of Business and Technology, Chennai (India); Rajendran, K. [Department of Electronics, Government Arts College for Women, Ramanathapuram, TN (India); Sambath, K. [Department of ECS, Sri Krishna Arts and Science College, Coimbatore, TN (India)

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, ZnO and ZnO:Al nanopowders have been synthesized by low cost hydrothermal method. Zinc nitrate, hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and aluminium nitrate are used as precursors for ZnO and AZO with different molar ratios. The structural and optical characterization of doped and un-doped ZnO powders have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), photoluminescence (PL) and ultra violet visible (UV-Vis) absorption studies. The SEM results show that the hydrothermal synthesis can be used to obtain nanoparticles with different morphology. It is observed that the grain size of the AZO nanoparticles increased with increasing of Al concentration. The PL measurement of AZO shows that broad range of green emission around 550nm with high intensity. The green emission resulted mainly because of intrinsic defects.

  6. Cycling behaviour of sponge-like nanostructured ZnO as thin-film Li-ion battery anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garino, Nadia, E-mail: nadia.garino@iit.it [Center for Space Human Robotics @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento, 21, 10129 Turin (Italy); Lamberti, Andrea; Gazia, Rossana; Chiodoni, Angelica [Center for Space Human Robotics @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento, 21, 10129 Turin (Italy); Gerbaldi, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.gerbaldi@polito.it [Center for Space Human Robotics @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento, 21, 10129 Turin (Italy); GAME Lab, Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Zn is thermally oxidized in ambient air to obtain sponge-like ZnO film. • Polycrystalline, transparent, porous thin film is obtained. • Film exhibits stabile specific capacity (∼300 mAh g{sup −1}) after prolonged cycling. • Sponge-like ZnO film shows promising prospects as Li-ion battery anode. - Abstract: Single phase wurtzitic porous ZnO thin films are obtained by a simple two-step method, involving the sputtering deposition of a sponge-like metallic Zn layer, followed by a moderately low temperature treatment for the complete zinc oxidation. Thanks to its 3D nanostructuration, the superimposition of small branches able to grow in length almost isotropically and forming a complex topography, sponge-like ZnO can combine the fast transport properties of one dimensional material and the high surface area usually provided by nanocrystalline electrodes. When galvanostatically tested in lithium cell, after the initial decay, it can provide an almost stable specific capacity higher than 50 μAh cm{sup −2} after prolonged cycling at estimated 0.7 C, with very high Coulombic efficiency.

  7. ALD grown nanostructured ZnO thin films: Effect of substrate temperature on thickness and energy band gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Iqbal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured ZnO thin films with high transparency have been grown on glass substrate by atomic layer deposition at various temperatures ranging from 100 °C to 300 °C. Efforts have been made to observe the effect of substrate temperature on the thickness of the deposited thin films and its consequences on the energy band gap. A remarkably high growth rate of 0.56 nm per cycle at a substrate temperature of 200 °C for ZnO thin films have been achieved. This is the maximum growth rate for ALD deposited ZnO thin films ever reported so far to the best of our knowledge. The studies of field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry patterns confirm the deposition of uniform and high quality nanosturtured ZnO thin films which have a polycrystalline nature with preferential orientation along (100 plane. The thickness of the films deposited at different substrate temperatures was measured by ellipsometry and surface profiling system while the UV–visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy studies have been used to evaluate the optical properties of the respective thin films. It has been observed that the thickness of the thin film depends on the substrate temperatures which ultimately affect the optical and structural parameters of the thin films.

  8. Effect of molarity of TiO2 seeded-template to the growth of ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asib, N. A. M.; Afaah, A. N.; Aadila, A.; Mahmud, M. R.; Lim, Y. C.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.; Khusaimi, Z.

    2015-05-01

    ZnO nanostructures were deposited by solution-immersion method on TiO2 layers by sol-gel spin-coating technique. Seven layers of TiO2 were coated on glass substrates at different molarities, followed by annealing treatment and solution-immersion process in aqueous solution containing 1:1 ratio of 0.05 M of zinc nitrate hexahydrate (Zn(NO3)2.6H2O) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) (C6H12N4). FESEM images confirmed that ZnO nanostructures grown on TiO2 seeded-template are in needle-like shape with smaller tip can be observed. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy showed that as the molarity of TiO2 seeded- template increase, the intensity of PL emission at UV region decrease. UV emission peak for 0.10 M and 0.25 M are higher compared to UV emission peak film of 0.50 M and 1.00 M, which are too low. Meanwhile, the UV absorption properties of the nanostructured thin film for 0.25 M of TiO2 seeded-template was higher compared to other thin films.

  9. Nano-structured polymer composites and process for preparing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmyer, Marc; Chen, Liang

    2013-04-16

    A process for preparing a polymer composite that includes reacting (a) a multi-functional monomer and (b) a block copolymer comprising (i) a first block and (ii) a second block that includes a functional group capable of reacting with the multi-functional monomer, to form a crosslinked, nano-structured, bi-continuous composite. The composite includes a continuous matrix phase and a second continuous phase comprising the first block of the block copolymer.

  10. Theoretical study of optical dielectric response of ZnO nanostructure film deposited on silica substrate using Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissa, Shivangi; Naruka, Preeti; Bishnoi, Nidhi [Dept. of Physics, Engineering College Bikaner-334004, Rajasthan, India shiwangi-bissa2005@yahoo.co.in (India)

    2016-05-06

    In the present study the dielectric optical response of various nanostructures of ZnO deposited on silica substrate has been studied using Maxwell-Garnett Effective Medium Theory. Using the volume filling factors for different nanostructures of ZnO the effective dielectric constant has been evaluated. The variation of this effective dielectric constant with the frequency of applied signal has been investigated. Moreover, the reflectance of the film, power absorption and variation of refractive index with frequency has been studied. The results obtained show that the quantum confinement effects in ZnO nano-structural films deposited on silica substrate give rise to distinct optical properties making it an ideal choice for high power THz generation.

  11. Photoluminescence Quenching and Enhanced Optical Conductivity of P3HT-Derived Ho(3+)-Doped ZnO Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabongo, Guy L; Mbule, Pontsho S; Mhlongo, Gugu H; Mothudi, Bakang M; Hillie, Kenneth T; Dhlamini, Mokhotjwa S

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we demonstrate the surface effect and optoelectronic properties of holmium (Ho(3+))-doped ZnO in P3HT polymer nanocomposite. We incorporated ZnO:Ho(3+) (0.5 mol% Ho) nanostructures in the pristine P3HT-conjugated polymer and systematically studied the effect of the nanostructures on the optical characteristics. Detailed UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis revealed enhanced absorption coefficient and optical conductivity in the P3HT-ZnO:Ho(3+) film as compared to the pristine P3HT. Moreover, the obtained photoluminescence (PL) results established the improvement of exciton dissociation as a result of ZnO:Ho(3+) nanostructures inclusion. The occurrence of PL quenching is the result of enhanced charge transfer due to ZnO:Ho(3+) nanostructures in the polymer, whereas energy transfer from ZnO:Ho(3+) to P3HT was verified. Overall, the current investigation revealed a systematic tailoring of the optoelectronic properties of pristine P3HT after inclusion of ZnO:Ho(3+) nanostructures, thus opening brilliant perspectives for applications in various optoelectronic devices.

  12. Photoluminescence Quenching and Enhanced Optical Conductivity of P3HT-Derived Ho3+-Doped ZnO Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabongo, Guy L.; Mbule, Pontsho S.; Mhlongo, Gugu H.; Mothudi, Bakang M.; Hillie, Kenneth T.; Dhlamini, Mokhotjwa S.

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we demonstrate the surface effect and optoelectronic properties of holmium (Ho3+)-doped ZnO in P3HT polymer nanocomposite. We incorporated ZnO:Ho3+ (0.5 mol% Ho) nanostructures in the pristine P3HT-conjugated polymer and systematically studied the effect of the nanostructures on the optical characteristics. Detailed UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis revealed enhanced absorption coefficient and optical conductivity in the P3HT-ZnO:Ho3+ film as compared to the pristine P3HT. Moreover, the obtained photoluminescence (PL) results established the improvement of exciton dissociation as a result of ZnO:Ho3+ nanostructures inclusion. The occurrence of PL quenching is the result of enhanced charge transfer due to ZnO:Ho3+ nanostructures in the polymer, whereas energy transfer from ZnO:Ho3+ to P3HT was verified. Overall, the current investigation revealed a systematic tailoring of the optoelectronic properties of pristine P3HT after inclusion of ZnO:Ho3+ nanostructures, thus opening brilliant perspectives for applications in various optoelectronic devices.

  13. Femtosecond pulse laser-induced self-organized nanostructures on the surface of ZnO crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Min-Jian; Guo Guang-Lei; Yang Jun-Yi; Ma Ning-Hua; Ye Guo; Guo Xiao-Dong; Li Ru-Xin; Ma Hong-Liang

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports serf-organized nanostructures observed on the surface of ZnO crystal after irradiation by a focused beam of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser with a repetition rate of 250 kHz. For a linearly polarized femtosecond laser, the periodic nanograting structure on the ablation crater surface was promoted. The period of self-organization structures is about 180 nm. The grating orientation is adjusted by the laser polarization direction. A long range Bragglike grating is formed by moving the sample at a speed of 10/μm/s. For a circularly polarized laser beam, uniform spherical nanoparticles were formed as a result of Coulomb explosion during the interaction of near-infrared laser with ZnO crystal.

  14. Synthesis of nanostructural ZnO using hydrothermal method for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    ZnO nanocrystals with different morphologies were successful synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method combined with and without hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide(CTAB).The phases and morphologies of the products were measured using X-ray diffraction(XRD),scanning electron microscopy(SEM),and transmission electron microscopy(TEM),respectively.The results indicated that the ZnO nanocrystals with different morphologies were of hexagonal wurtzite structure.ZnO nanorods were obtained without using CTAB,and then the morphology of ZnO changed to ZnO nanoflower and the density of nanoflower became denser with the increase of CTAB concentration.ZnO nanoflower and ZnO nanorod as photoanode were applied to dye-sensitized solar cells(DSSC),respectively.The nanoflower shows a higher dye loading,so DSSC with the use of the ZnO nanoflower possesses a higher conversion efficiency than ZnO nanorod.

  15. Simple way for preparation of ZnO films by surfactant mediated spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stambolova, Irina; Blaskov, Vladimir; Shipochka, Maria [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, BAS, Acad. G. Bonchev St., bl.11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Vassilev, Sasho [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, BAS, Acad. G. Bonchev St., bl.10, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Petkova, Vilma [Institute of Mineralogy and Crystallography ' Acad. Ivan Kostov' , BAS, Acad. G. Bonchev St., bl.107, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Loukanov, Alexandre, E-mail: alexandre_loukanov@abv.bg [Laboratory of Engineering NanoBiotechnology, Department of Engineering Geoecology, University of Mining and Geology ' St. Ivan Rilski' , Sofia 1700 (Bulgaria)

    2012-08-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO was prepared by surfactant mediated spray pyrolysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The film surface morphology can be enhanced by PVA addition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PVA improves significant the photocatalytic activity of ZnO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The zinc acetate precursor is preferred for film preparation than nitrate one. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline porous ZnO films are deposited onto alumina foil substrates by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) modified spray pyrolysis. Water and ethanol-water mixture were used for preparation of the sols. The effect of polyvinyl alcohol on the morphological and photocatalytical properties of ZnO films was studied. It was found that the polyvinyl alcohol plays important role in formation of porous films structure with ganglia like morphology. Relatively compact granular morphology was observed for the ZnO samples, grown without organic surfactant. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed the formation of phase-pure ZnO thin films. The FTIR spectra and DTA-TG analyses of the precursor mixtures: Zn(CH{sub 3}COOH){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}0 with PVA revealed that ZnO is formed before the final decomposition of the polymer at 350 Degree-Sign C. It was observed that both: the acetate precursor and the organic surfactant could enhance significantly the photocatalytic properties of the ZnO films. The films obtained from sols, containing PVA showed better photocatalytic decolorization of Malachite Green dye, than the films, deposited from unmodified sols.

  16. Preparation and characterization of porous TiO2/ZnO composite nanofibers via electrospinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Ying Wang; Yang Yang; Xiang Li; Li Juan Li; Ce Wang

    2010-01-01

    Porous TiO2/ZnO composite nanofibers have been successfully prepared by electrospinning technique for the first time.It was generated by calcining TiO2/ZnCl2/PVP[PVP:poly(vinyi pyrrolidone)]nanofibers,which were electrospun from a mixture solution of TiO2,ZnCl2 and PVE Transmission electron microscopy(TEM)and X-ray diffraction(XRD)analyses were used to identify the morphology of the TiO2/ZnO nanofibers and a formation of inorganic TiO2/ZnO fibers.The porous structure of the TiO2/ZnO fbers was characterized by N2 adsoption/desorption isotherm.Surface photovoltage spectroscopy(SPS)and photo-catalytic activity measurements revealed advance properties of the porous TiO2/ZnO composite nanofibers and the results were compared with pure TiO2 nanofibers,pure ZnO nanofibers and TiO2/ZnO nanoparticles.

  17. Structural studies of ZnO nanostructures by varying the deposition parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, S. H. A.; Sahdan, M. Z.; Ichimura, M.; Supee, A.; Rahim, S.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film on the growth of ZnO nanorods (NRs) was investigated. The structures of ZnO NRs were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method in aqueous solution of N2O6Zn.6H2O and C6H12N4 at 90°C of deposition temperature. One of the ZnO NRs samples was deposited on a ZnO seed layer coated on a glass substrate to investigate the properties of ZnO NRs without receiving effect of other materials. Next, for diode application, the ZnO NRs was deposited on tin monosulfide (SnS) coated on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate (SnS/ITO). The next, the ZnO structural properties were studied from surface morphology, X-ray diffractometer (XRD) spectra, and chemical composition by using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), XRD and energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). The growth of ZnO NRs on ZnO seed layer was investigated by ZnO seed layer condition while the growth of ZnO NRs on SnS/ITO was investigated by deposition time and deposition temperature parameters. From FESEM images, aligned ZnO NRs were obtained, and the diameters of ZnO NRs were 0.024-3.94 µm. The SnS thin film was affected by the diameter of ZnO NRs which are the ZnO NRs grow on SnS thin films has a larger diameter compared to ZnO NRs grow on ZnO seed layer. Besides that, all of ZnO peaks observed from XRD corresponding to the wurzite structure and preferentially oriented along the c-axis. In addition, EDX shows a high composition of zinc (Zn) and oxygen (O) signals, which indicated that the NRs are indeed made up of Zn and O.

  18. Electromechanical properties of 1D ZnO nanostructures: nanopiezotronics building blocks, surface and size-scale effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Kasra; Attariani, Hamed

    2014-03-14

    One-dimensional (1D) zinc oxide nanostructures are the main components of nanogenerators and central to the emerging field of nanopiezotronics. Understanding the underlying physics and quantifying the electromechanical properties of these structures, the topic of this research study, play a major role in designing next-generation nanoelectromechanical devices. Here, atomistic simulations are utilized to study surface and size-scale effects on the electromechanical response of 1D ZnO nanostructures. It is shown that the mechanical and piezoelectric properties of these structures are controlled by their size, cross-sectional geometry, and loading configuration. The study reveals enhancement of the piezoelectric and elastic modulus of ZnO nanowires (NW) with diameter d > 1 nm, followed by a sudden drop for d < 1 nm due to transformation of NWs to nanotubes (NTs). Degradation of mechanical and piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanobelts (NBs) followed by an enhancement in piezoelectric properties occurs when their lower dimension is reduced to <1 nm. The latter enhancement can be explained in the context of surface reconfiguration and formation of hexagon-tetragon (HT) pairs at the intersection of (21[combining macron]1[combining macron]0) and (011[combining macron]0) planes in NBs. Transition from a surface-reconstructed dominant to a surface-relaxed dominant region is demonstrated for lateral dimensions <1 nm. New phase-transformation (PT) kinetics from piezoelectric wurtzite to nonpiezoelectric body-centered tetragonal (WZ → BCT) and graphite-like phase (WZ → HX) structures occurs in ZnO NWs loaded up to large strains of ∼10%.

  19. Hydrothermal preparation of nanocrystalline ZnO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guipeng Feng; Liyun Yang; Tianxi Wang; Jiamin Zhang; Tianjun Lou

    2012-01-01

    A green hydrothermal method was proposed for the synthesis of nanocrystalline ZnO2,using Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6 powder and 6 vol% H2O2 aqueous solution as the starting materials.Characterization results from X-ray diffraction,Raman,high resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction revealed that the products synthesized at 80-120℃ for 6-18 h were pure cubic phase ZnO2 nanocrystals.Room temperature photoluminescence spectra of the as-synthesized ZnO2 nanocrystals displayed a wide and strong emission band in the visible region of about 525-570 nm upon laser excitation at 325 nm,which may have originated from their surface state and other crystal defects.

  20. Controllable synthesis of flower- and rod-like ZnO nanostructures by simply tuning the ratio of sodium hydroxide to zinc acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunyan; Mu, Jin

    2007-02-01

    A controlled synthesis of flower- and rod-like ZnO nanostructures in a hydrothermal phase has been realized in the absence of an additional template. The well-defined morphologies are obtained by simply tuning the ratio of sodium hydroxide to zinc acetate in a narrow range. The products are characterized by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The growth mechanism is suggested to be that the supersaturation of the precursor Zn(OH)42- results in various nucleation habits, which induce the ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies.

  1. Room temperature ferromagnetism in undoped ZnO nanofibers prepared by electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Das, Arnab, E-mail: arnab.das@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Kar, Manoranjan, E-mail: mano@iitp.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Patna 800013 (India); Srinivasan, Ananthakrishanan, E-mail: asrini@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India)

    2014-09-01

    We report ferromagnetic behavior in undoped ZnO nanofibers prepared by electrospinning a solution of zinc acetate and poly vinyl alcohol followed by annealing at 550 °C for about 90 min. X-ray diffraction patterns of the heat treated as-spun composite fibers reveal the formation of ZnO nanowires in wurtzite structure with no noticeable impurity phases. ZnO nanowires annealed between 500 °C and 600 °C exhibited room temperature ferromagnetism with decreasing magnetization with increasing annealing temperature. Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in as-spun fibers annealed in air as well as under vacuum. However, vacuum annealed nanofibers show higher magnetization as compared to air annealed fibers, which indicates that oxygen vacancy is a cause for the observed room temperature ferromagnetism in the ZnO nanofibers.

  2. Annealing Heat Treatment of ZnO Nanoparticles Grown on Porous Si Substrate Using Spin-Coating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Eswar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanoparticles were successfully deposited on porous silicon (PSi substrate using spin-coating method. In order to prepare PSi, electrochemical etching was employed to modify the Si surface. Zinc acetate dihydrate was used as a starting material in ZnO sol-gel solution preparation. The postannealing treatments were investigated on morphologies and photoluminescence (PL properties of the ZnO thin films. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM results indicate that the thin films composed by ZnO nanoparticles were distributed uniformly on PSi. The average sizes of ZnO nanoparticle increase with increasing annealing temperature. Atomic force microscopic (AFM analysis reveals that ZnO thin films annealed at 500°C had the smoothest surface. PL spectra show two peaks that completely correspond to nanostructured ZnO and PSi. These findings indicate that the ZnO nanostructures grown on PSi are promising for application as light emitting devices.

  3. Effects of temperature and pressure on morphologies of quasi-one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures fabricated via thermal evaporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-cheng; CAI Wei; MENG Xiang-long

    2006-01-01

    Quasi one-dimensional zinc oxide nanomaterials were synthesized by thermal evaporation. The structure,morphologies and composition of ZnO nanomaterials prepared under different conditions were studied by XRD,TEM,SEM and EDX. The morphologies are strongly sensitive to the temperature and the pressure during growth,including nanowires,nanobelts,nanocombs and pyramidal-like nanomaterials.

  4. Preparation and characterization of ZnO nanofibers by electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddheswaran, R. [Material Research Centre, Department of Physics, Velammal Engineering College, Chennai-600066 (India); Department of Physics, Pachaiyappa' s College, Chennai- 600 030 (India); Sankar, R.; Ramesh Babu, M.; Jayavel, R. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai-600 025 (India); Rathnakumari, M.; Sureshkumar, P. [Material Research Centre, Department of Physics, Velammal Engineering College, Chennai-600066 (India); Murugakoothan, P. [Department of Physics, Pachaiyappa' s College, Chennai- 600 030 (India)

    2006-05-15

    Electrospun ZnO nanofibers were obtained by calcinating PVA/Zinc Acetate composite fibers at various temperatures. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) revealed that the ZnO fibers have diameters in the range of 100-200 nm. The fibers were characterized by FT- IR, TGA-DTA, and XRD studies. The XRD results showed that the crystal structure and the morphology of the fibers were largely dependent on the calcination temperature (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Hybrid nanostructure heterojunction solar cells fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanotubes grown on reduced graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Kaikun; Huang Liwei; Zou Lianfeng; Wang, Howard [Institute for Materials Research, Binghamton University, State University of New York, Binghamton, NY 13902 (United States); Xu Congkang, E-mail: wangh@binghamton.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Binghamton University, State University of New York, Binghamton, NY 13902 (United States)

    2011-10-07

    Using reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films as the transparent conductive coating, inorganic/organic hybrid nanostructure heterojunction photovoltaic devices have been fabricated through hydrothermal synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) and nanotubes (ZnO-NTs) on rGO films followed by the spin casting of a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) film. The data show that larger interfacial area in ZnO-NT/P3HT composites improves the exciton dissociation and the higher electrode conductance of rGO films helps the power output. This study offers an alternative to manufacturing nanostructure heterojunction solar cells at low temperatures using potentially low cost materials.

  6. Surface nanostructuring of thin film composite membranes via grafting polymerization and incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isawi, Heba; El-Sayed, Magdi H.; Feng, Xianshe; Shawky, Hosam; Abdel Mottaleb, Mohamed S.

    2016-11-01

    A new approach for modification of polyamid thin film composite membrane PA(TFC) using synthesized ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was shown to enhance the membrane performances for reverse osmosis water desalination. First, active layer of synthesis PA(TFC) membrane was activated with an aqueous solution of free radical graft polymerization of hydrophilic methacrylic acid (MAA) monomer onto the surface of the PA(TFC) membrane resulting PMAA-g-PA(TFC). Second, the PA(TFC) membrane has been developed by incorporation of ZnO NPs into the MAA grafting solution resulting the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane. The surface properties of the synthesized nanoparticles and prepared membranes were investigated using the FTIR, XRD and SEM. Morphology studies demonstrated that ZnO NPs have been successfully incorporated into the active grafting layer over PA(TFC) composite membranes. The zinc leaching from the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) was minimal, as shown by batch tests that indicated stabilization of the ZnO NPs on the membrane surfaces. Compared with the a pure PA(TFC) and PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membranes, the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) was more hydrophilic, with an improved water contact angle (∼50 ± 3°) over the PMAA-g-PA(TFC) (63 ± 2.5°). The ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane showed salt rejection of 97% (of the total groundwater salinity), 99% of dissolved bivalent ions (Ca2+, SO42-and Mg2+), and 98% of mono valent ions constituents (Cl- and Na+). In addition, antifouling performance of the membranes was determined using E. coli as a potential foulant. This demonstrates that the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane can significantly improve the membrane performances and was favorable to enhance the selectivity, permeability, water flux, mechanical properties and the bio-antifouling properties of the membranes for water desalination.

  7. ZnO Nanostructures Grown on AlN/Sapphire Substrates by MOCVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Hong-Yuan; HU Wei-Guo; ZHANG Pan-Feng; LIU Xiang-Lin; ZHU Qin-Sheng; WANG Zhan-Guo

    2007-01-01

    ZnO nanorods and nanotubes are successful synthesized on AlN/sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The different morphology and structure properties of ZnO nanorods and nanotubes are found to be affected by the A1N under-layer. The photoluminescence spectra show the optical properties of the ZnO nanorods and nanotubes, in which a blueshift of UV emission is observed and is attributed to the surface effect.

  8. Investigations on the growth of manifold morphologies and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The growth of ZnO nanostructures under various combinations of argon and oxygen pressures by radio frequency magnetron sputtering has been reported. The anisotropic transformation of nanostructures from the vertical standing nanorods to self branched lateral nanowires has been observed due to the change in the migration length of the adatoms owing to the deposition pressure and temperature. A dominant (002) reflection having narrow full width at half maximum of the vertical standing nanorods ...

  9. Preparation of ZnO crystal by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new method to prepare ZnO crystal was put forward. The preparation process was studied and the mechanism of this method was also discussed. The results show that the sol particles will aggregate when being dehydrated and will form into hard compact gel body through the hard agglomeration between particles. This dry gel is a hard compact agglomeration composed of the first sol particles. At high sintering temperature, the small compacted particles will easily grow up and form a fine ZnO crystal.

  10. Photo-physical studies of pyridine capped ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, H. S.; Singh, Karamjit; Kavita; Kumar, Sunil; Choubey, R. K.

    2014-07-01

    Pyridine capped ZnO nanocrystals with different sizes were synthesized at room temperature by wet chemical synthesis. Pyridine provides the control over the morphology of final product. X-ray study confirms the crystalline hexagonal structure of the capped and uncapped ZnO nanocrystals. The particle size was found to decrease with increase in capping concentration. Electron microscopy investigation reveals the uniform morphology of the product. Optical absorption studies indicate the blue shift effect for pyridine capped ZnO as compare to uncapped ZnO.

  11. Preparation and antibacterial properties of titanium-doped ZnO from different zinc salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tong; Hao, Han; Hao, Wen-Ting; Yi, Shu-Min; Li, Xue-Peng; Li, Jian-Rong

    2014-02-27

    To research the relationship of micro-structures and antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders and probe their antibacterial mechanism, titanium-doped ZnO powders with different shapes and sizes were prepared from different zinc salts by alcohothermal method. The ZnO powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and the antibacterial activities of titanium-doped ZnO powders on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Furthermore, the tested strains were characterized by SEM, and the electrical conductance variation trend of the bacterial suspension was characterized. The results indicate that the morphologies of the powders are different due to preparation from different zinc salts. The XRD results manifest that the samples synthesized from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride are zincite ZnO, and the sample synthesized from zinc sulfate is the mixture of ZnO, ZnTiO3, and ZnSO4 · 3Zn (OH)2 crystal. UV-vis spectra show that the absorption edges of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are red shifted to more than 400 nm which are prepared from zinc acetate, zinc nitrate, and zinc chloride. The antibacterial activity of titanium-doped ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride is optimal, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) are lower than 0.25 g L-1. Likewise, when the bacteria are treated by ZnO powders synthesized from zinc chloride, the bacterial cells are damaged most seriously, and the electrical conductance increment of bacterial suspension is slightly high. It can be inferred that the antibacterial properties of the titanium-doped ZnO powders are relevant to the microstructure, particle size, and the crystal. The powders can damage the cell

  12. Structural and Optical Properties of Eu Doped ZnO Nanorods prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Alarawi, Abeer

    2014-06-23

    Nano structured wide band gap semiconductors have attracted attention of many researchers due to their potential electronic and optoelectronic applications. In this thesis, we report successful synthesis of well aligned Eu doped ZnO nano-rods prepared, for the first time to our knowledge, by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) without any catalyst. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns shows that these Eu doped ZnO nanorods are grown along the c-axis of ZnO wurtzite structure. We have studied the effect of the PLD growth conditions on forming vertically aligned Eu doped ZnO nanorods. The structural properties of the material are investigated using a -scanning electron microscope (SEM). The PLD parameters must be carefully controlled in order to obtain c-axis oriented ZnO nanorods on sapphire substrates, without the use of any catalyst. The experiments conducted in order to identify the optimal growth conditions confirmed that, by adjusting the target-substrate distance, substrate temperature, laser energy and deposition duration, the nanorod size could be successfully controlled. Most importantly, the results indicated that the photoluminescence (PL) properties reflect the quality of the ZnO nanorods. These parameters can change the material’s structure from one-dimensional to two-dimensional however the laser energy and frequency affect the size and the height of the nanorods; the xygen pressure changes the density of the nanorods.

  13. Effect of Al Doping on Structural, Electrical, Optical and Photoluminescence Properties of Nano-Structural ZnO Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Mozibur Rahman; M.K.R. Khan; M. Rafiqul Islam; M.A. Halim; M. Shahjahan; M.A. Hakim; Dilip Kumar Saha; Jasim Uddin Khan

    2012-01-01

    The nano-structural Al-doped ZnO thin films of different morphologies deposited on glass substrate were successfully fabricated at substrate temperature of 350 ℃ by an inexpensive spray pyrolysis method. The structural, electrical, optical and photoluminescence properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction study revealed the crystalline wurtzite (hexagonal) structure of the films with nano-grains. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs indicated the formation of a large variety of nano-structures during film growth. The spectral absorption of the films occurred at the absorption edge of -410 nm. In the present study, the optical band gap energy 3.28 eV of ZnO decreased gradually to 3.05 eV for 4 mol% of AI doping. The deep level activation energy decreased and carrier concentrations increased substantially with increasing doping. Exciting with the energy 3.543 eV (A=350 nm), a narrow and a broad characteristic photoluminescence peaks that correspond to the near band edge (NBE) and deep level emissions (DLE), respectively emerged.

  14. Preparation of Al-doped ZnO nanocrystalline aggregates with enhanced performance for dye adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Que, WenXiu; Yuan, Yuan; Zhong, Peng; Liao, YuLong

    2012-07-01

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanocrystalline aggregates (NCAs) were prepared by a low cost colloid chemistry method and effects of the Al-doped concentration on the morphological and structural properties of the AZO NCAs were studied. The dye adsorption ability of the AZO NCAs with various Al-doped concentrations was also investigated. Results indicate that the doping of the Al ions not only does not change the wurtzite structure of the ZnO crystal but also can reduce the crystallite grain size and the particle size distribution of the NCAs, which gives them a higher specific surface area and dye adsorption ability than that of the ZnO NCAs. The as-prepared AZO NCAs would be a promising material to be applied in the dye sensitized solar cells and water treatment.

  15. Sims Characterisation of ZnO Layer Prepared By Pulsed Laser Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Vincze

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available New material development requires new technologies to create and prepare basic material for semiconductor industry and device applications. Materials have given properties, which exhibit particulary small tolerances. One of the most important and promising material is recently ZnO. ZnO has specific properties for near UV emission and absorption optical devices. The pulsed laser deposition (PLD is one of the methods to prepare this type of material. The aim of this paper is to compare properties of ZnO layers deposited from pure Zn target in oxygen atmosphere and the analysis of their surface properties by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS, atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  16. Incorporation of ZnO and their composite nanostructured material into a cotton fabric platform for wearable device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluswamy, Pandiyarasan; Sathiyamoorthy, Suhasini; Khan, Faizan; Ghosh, Aranya; Abhijit, Majumdar; Hayakawa, Yasuhiro; Ikeda, Hiroya

    2017-02-10

    The central idea of this paper is to innovate a new approach for the development of wearable device materials through the coating of cotton fabric with ZnO and Sb-/Ag-/ZnO composites. The study was designed in order to have a clear understanding of the role of ZnO as well as the modified composite thereof under investigation. Cotton fabric with uniform ZnO/ZnO-composite layers on the surface was successfully synthesized via a solvothermal method. The growth behaviors were investigated by comparing ZnO and ZnO-composites. The structural, morphological, chemical states, optical, electrical and thermopower properties of these fabrics were studied. Nanostructured ZnO-composite fabric had enhanced UV shielding with a value of 83.96. It is found that the ZnO-composite fabrics have increased electrical conductivity. The thermopower value of the ZnO-composite fabric could reach 471.9μVK(-1). Such materials are anticipated to be worthwhile as wearable electronic devices and as protective textiles.

  17. 控制纳米结构以调控氧化锌的发光、磁性和细胞毒性∗%Tuning the photoluminescence, magnetism and cytotoxicity of ZnO by tailoring the nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章建辉; 韩季刚

    2015-01-01

    ZnO nanomaterials have been extensively investigated for its broad applications such as room-temperature UV lasers, light-emitting diodes, solar cells, dilute magnetic semiconductors, bio-labeling, and target medicines. Tuning and optimizing the properties of ZnO nanostructures are urgent for the practical applications. Here, the photoluminescence, magnetism, and cytotoxicity of ZnO nanparticles have been effectively tuned by adjusting the nanostructures. Firstly, by developing the novel polyvinylpyrrolidone(PVP)-directed crystallization route, microwave heating-assisted forced hydrolysis method, and post-treating with surfactants, a series of high pure ZnO nanostructures including spheres, semi-spheres, rods, tubes, T-type tubes, tripods, wafers, gears, double layers, multilayer, capped pots, and bowls with tunable size and surface component/charge has been successfully prepared. The PVP can greatly promote the ZnO nucleation by binding water, and direct the ZnO growth by forming a variety of soft-templates and/or selectively capping the specific ZnO facet which is confirmed by the infrared absorption spectra. Secondly, the band-edge UV emission of ZnO has been greatly modified in both intensity and peak position by simply changing the sizes, shapes, and surface component of the ZnO nanoparticles. However, changing the surface charge of ZnO nanoparticles can only vary the intensity of the band-edge UV emission of ZnO. Significantly, the fluorescence of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) is increased by up to ∼90 fold through doping the FITC molecules into the ZnO naoncrystals, which can effectively separate the FITC molelcules and avoid the energy transfer and the resulting fluorescence self-quenching. Thirdly, the room temperature ferromagnetism with tunable intensity is induced in the ZnO nanoparticles by coating them with different surfactants at different concentrations. As confirmed by the x-ray photoemission spectra, the coated surfactant molecules can

  18. Preparation and reactivity of gasless nanostructured energetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukyan, Khachatur V; Shuck, Christopher E; Rogachev, Alexander S; Mukasyan, Alexander S

    2015-04-02

    High-Energy Ball Milling (HEBM) is a ball milling process where a powder mixture placed in the ball mill is subjected to high-energy collisions from the balls. Among other applications, it is a versatile technique that allows for effective preparation of gasless reactive nanostructured materials with high energy density per volume (Ni+Al, Ta+C, Ti+C). The structural transformations of reactive media, which take place during HEBM, define the reaction mechanism in the produced energetic composites. Varying the processing conditions permits fine tuning of the milling-induced microstructures of the fabricated composite particles. In turn, the reactivity, i.e., self-ignition temperature, ignition delay time, as well as reaction kinetics, of high energy density materials depends on its microstructure. Analysis of the milling-induced microstructures suggests that the formation of fresh oxygen-free intimate high surface area contacts between the reagents is responsible for the enhancement of their reactivity. This manifests itself in a reduction of ignition temperature and delay time, an increased rate of chemical reaction, and an overall decrease of the effective activation energy of the reaction. The protocol provides a detailed description for the preparation of reactive nanocomposites with tailored microstructure using short-term HEBM method. It also describes a high-speed thermal imaging technique to determine the ignition/combustion characteristics of the energetic materials. The protocol can be adapted to preparation and characterization of a variety of nanostructured energetic composites.

  19. Tuning the work function of randomly oriented ZnO nanostructures by capping with faceted Au nanostructure and oxygen defects: enhanced field emission experiments and DFT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Guha, Puspendu; Thapa, Ranjit; Selvaraj, Sinthika; Kumar, Mohit; Rakshit, Bipul; Dash, Tapan; Bar, Rajshekhar; Ray, Samit K; Satyam, Parlapalli Venkata

    2016-03-29

    The lowering of the work function (Φ) can lead to a better field emission (FE) behavior at lower threshold fields. We report on enhanced FE from randomly oriented and faceted Au-capped ZnO hetero-nanostructures (HNs) having more oxygen defects. Large-area arrays of non-aligned, faceted Au-capped ZnO HNs, such as nanowires (NWs) and triangular nanoflakes (TNFs) are grown using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Enhanced FE properties from the TNF sample resulted in a turn-on field as low as 0.52 V μm(-1) at a current density of 0.1 mA cm(-2) and a field enhancement factor (β) as high as ≈5.16 × 10(5). Under similar experimental conditions, drawing the same current density from an NW specimen needs a higher turn-on field (0.86 V μm(-1)) and to exhibit nearly four times less field enhancement factor compared to the TNFs samples. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements confirm the presence of more oxygen defects in the TNF samples compared to the NW samples. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements show the average local work function to be 4.70 ± 0.1 eV for the TNF sample, which is ≈ 0.34 eV lower than the NW sample. Using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the estimated Φ values are found to be 4.98 eV for ZnO(0001), 4.17 eV for Au(001)/ZnO(0001) and 3.91 eV for Au(001)/Ovac-ZnO(0001) surfaces. The DFT results are qualitatively in agreement with our experimental results. The presence of Au nanostructures on top of O-deficient and sharp-tipped TNFs results in enhanced FE performance following their reduced tunneling barrier via pinning of effective Φ.

  20. Investigation of preparation conditions and photocatalytic efficiency of nano ZnO using different polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumavalavan, Munusamy; Yang, Fang-Mai; Lee, Jiunn-Fwu

    2013-08-01

    The development of a complete set of extensive studies combining both the preparation factors of catalysts and photocatalytic experimental factors for the photodegradation of methylene blue, crystal violet, and Congo red using effective nano zinc oxide (ZnO) obtained from polysaccharides (chitosans, corn starch, and sodium alginate) as chelating agents was the main objective of this study. The influence of nature of polysaccharides, ratio of reactants, calcination temperatures during preparation process, and effects of photocatalytic experimental conditions on photodegradation was investigated. Corn starch and sodium alginate were found to be effective chelating agents and optimum preparation parameters were set as 3:3 % ratio of reactants and 450 °C calcination temperature to prepare nano ZnO with good photocatalytic activity. The order of organic dyes based on their photodegradation rates was arranged as crystal violet > methylene blue > Congo red. Our findings shed light on the optimization of both preparation conditions of photocatalysts and photocatalytic experimental conditions.

  1. Enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism in electrodeposited Co-doped ZnO nanostructured thin films by controlling the oxygen vacancy defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simimol, A. [Nanomaterials Research Lab, Surface Engineering Division, CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Post Bag No. 1779, Bangalore 560017 (India); Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut 673601 (India); Anappara, Aji A. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut 673601 (India); Greulich-Weber, S. [Department of Physics, Nanophotonic Materials, Faculty of Science, University of Paderborn, 33095 Paderborn (Germany); Chowdhury, Prasanta [Nanomaterials Research Lab, Surface Engineering Division, CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Post Bag No. 1779, Bangalore 560017 (India); Barshilia, Harish C., E-mail: harish@nal.res.in

    2015-06-07

    We report the growth of un-doped and cobalt doped ZnO nanostructures fabricated on FTO coated glass substrates using electrodeposition method. A detailed study on the effects of dopant concentration on morphology, structural, optical, and magnetic properties of the ZnO nanostructures has been carried out systematically by varying the Co concentration (c.{sub Co}) from 0.01 to 1 mM. For c.{sub Co }≤ 0.2 mM, h-wurtzite phase with no secondary phases of Co were present in the ZnO nanostructures. For c.{sub Co} ≤ 0.2 mM, the photoluminescence spectra exhibited a decrease in the intensity of ultraviolet emission as well as band-gap narrowing with an increase in dopant concentration. All the doped samples displayed a broad emission in the visible range and its intensity increased with an increase in Co concentration. It was found that the defect centers such as oxygen vacancies and zinc interstitials were the source of the visible emission. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed, Co was primarily in the divalent state, replacing the Zn ion inside the tetrahedral crystal site of ZnO without forming any cluster or secondary phases of Co. The un-doped ZnO nanorods exhibited diamagnetic behavior and it remained up to a c.{sub Co} of 0.05 mM, while for c.{sub Co }> 0.05 mM, the ZnO nanostructures exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. The coercivity increased to 695 G for 0.2 mM Co-doped sample and then it decreased for c.{sub Co }> 0.2 mM. Our results illustrate that up to a threshold concentration of 0.2 mM, the strong ferromagnetism is due to the oxygen vacancy defects centers, which exist in the Co-doped ZnO nanostructures. The origin of strong ferromagnetism at room temperature in Co-doped ZnO nanostructures is attributed to the s-d exchange interaction between the localized spin moments resulting from the oxygen vacancies and d electrons of Co{sup 2+} ions. Our findings provide a new insight for tuning the

  2. Investigations on the growth of manifold morphologies and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, P. Sundara; Ramakrishnan, V.; Jeganathan, K.

    2013-08-01

    The growth of ZnO nanostructures under various combinations of argon and oxygen pressures by radio frequency magnetron sputtering has been reported. The anisotropic transformation of nanostructures from the vertical standing nanorods to self branched lateral nanowires has been observed due to the change in the migration length of the adatoms owing to the deposition pressure and temperature. A dominant (002) reflection having narrow full width at half maximum of the vertical standing nanorods depicts the preferential orientation along c-axis of wurtzite ZnO with high crystalline nature. It is further substantiated by a sharp E2high phonon mode of ZnO nanorods at 437.2 cm-1. A broad green emission at 2.28 eV pertaining to oxygen vacancies that quenches with increasing the oxygen pressure due to the compensation of oxygen vacancies while zinc vacancy mediated emission at 3.01 eV is enhanced.

  3. Investigations on the growth of manifold morphologies and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sundara Venkatesh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth of ZnO nanostructures under various combinations of argon and oxygen pressures by radio frequency magnetron sputtering has been reported. The anisotropic transformation of nanostructures from the vertical standing nanorods to self branched lateral nanowires has been observed due to the change in the migration length of the adatoms owing to the deposition pressure and temperature. A dominant (002 reflection having narrow full width at half maximum of the vertical standing nanorods depicts the preferential orientation along c-axis of wurtzite ZnO with high crystalline nature. It is further substantiated by a sharp E2high phonon mode of ZnO nanorods at 437.2 cm−1. A broad green emission at 2.28 eV pertaining to oxygen vacancies that quenches with increasing the oxygen pressure due to the compensation of oxygen vacancies while zinc vacancy mediated emission at 3.01 eV is enhanced.

  4. Effect of pH on the morphology of ZnO nanostructures and its influence on structural and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayerfrancis, Arokiyadoss [Department of Physics, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam 603110 (India); SSN Research Center, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam 603110 (India); Balaji Bhargav, P., E-mail: balajibhargavp@ssn.edu.in [Department of Physics, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam 603110 (India); SSN Research Center, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam 603110 (India); Ahmed, Nafis; Chandra, Balaji [SSN Research Center, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam 603110 (India); Dhara, Sandip [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2015-01-15

    Pristine ZnO nanostructure of rods, flakes and flowers are synthesized by hydrothermal method, using equimolar aqueous solutions of zinc-nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine at different pH. The influence of pH value on the formation of different morphological structures of ZnO is investigated. The structural and morphological properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies and field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) analyses. The XRD results confirm that the crystallinity of ZnO nanostructures are improved after annealing with the wurtzite crystal structure. FTIR studies are carried out in order to ascertain the presence of various functional groups present in the material. Optical studies, using Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy shows presence of novel defects with newly assigned zone boundary phonon mode.

  5. Effect of pH on the morphology of ZnO nanostructures and its influence on structural and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayerfrancis, Arokiyadoss; Balaji Bhargav, P.; Ahmed, Nafis; Chandra, Balaji; Dhara, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    Pristine ZnO nanostructure of rods, flakes and flowers are synthesized by hydrothermal method, using equimolar aqueous solutions of zinc-nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine at different pH. The influence of pH value on the formation of different morphological structures of ZnO is investigated. The structural and morphological properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies and field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) analyses. The XRD results confirm that the crystallinity of ZnO nanostructures are improved after annealing with the wurtzite crystal structure. FTIR studies are carried out in order to ascertain the presence of various functional groups present in the material. Optical studies, using Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy shows presence of novel defects with newly assigned zone boundary phonon mode.

  6. Effects of stabilizer ratio on photoluminescence properties of sol-gel ZnO nano-structured thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudjouan, F. [Laboratoire de Génie de l' Environnement, Université de Bejaia, 06000 Bejaia (Algeria); Chelouche, A., E-mail: azeddinechelouche@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Génie de l' Environnement, Université de Bejaia, 06000 Bejaia (Algeria); Touam, T. [Laboratoire des Semi-conducteurs, Université Badji Mokhtar, BP 12, Annaba 23000 (Algeria); Djouadi, D. [Laboratoire de Génie de l' Environnement, Université de Bejaia, 06000 Bejaia (Algeria); Khodja, S. [Laboratoire des Semi-conducteurs, Université Badji Mokhtar, BP 12, Annaba 23000 (Algeria); Tazerout, M. [Laboratoire de Génie de l' Environnement, Université de Bejaia, 06000 Bejaia (Algeria); Ouerdane, Y. [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, 42 000 Saint-Etienne (France); Hadjoub, Z. [Laboratoire des Semi-conducteurs, Université Badji Mokhtar, BP 12, Annaba 23000 (Algeria)

    2015-02-15

    Nanostructured ZnO thin films with different molar ratios of MEA to zinc acetate (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0) have been deposited on glass substrates by a sol–gel dip coating technique. X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, UV–visible spectrophotometry and photoluminescence spectroscopy have been employed to investigate the effect of MEA stabilizer ratio on structural, morphological, absorbance and emission properties of the ZnO thin films. Diffraction patterns have shown that all the films are polycrystalline and exhibit a wurtzite hexagonal structure. The c axis orientation has been enhanced with increasing stabilizer ratio. SEM micrographs have revealed that the morphology of the ZnO films depend on stabilizer ratio. The UV–visible absorption spectra have demonstrated that the optical absorption is affected by stabilizer ratio. The photoluminescence spectra have indicated one ultraviolet and two visible emission bands (green and red), while band intensities are found to be dependent on stabilizer ratio. ZnO thin films deposited at MEA ratio of 1.0 show the highest UV emission while the minimum UV emission intensity is observed in thin films deposited at ratio of 0.5 and the maximum green has been recorded for films deposited at MEA ratio of 2.0. - Highlight: • c axis orientation increases with increasing MEA ratio. • The increase of MEA ration from 0.5 to 1.0 enhances greatly the UV emission. • The larger I{sub UV}/I{sub visible} is obtained for the MEA to Zn ratio of 1:1. • The MEA ratio of 0.5 favors the formation of large density of V{sub zn}. • The MEA ratio of 2.0 increases the V{sub o} density.

  7. MICROWAVE ASSISTED PREPARATION OF CYCLIC UREAS FROM DIAMINES IN THE PRESENCE OF ZNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microwave-assisted facile method for the preparation of various ureas, cyclic ureas, and urethanes has been developed that affords nearly quantitative yield of products at 120 degrees C (150 W), 71 kPa within 10 min using ZnO as a catalyst. The enhanced selectivity in this rea...

  8. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by aerosol spray pyrolysis: candidates for room temperature methane and hydrogen gas sensing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motaung, DE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on the synthesis of ZnO films by aerosol spray pyrolysis method at different deposition times.The surface morphology, crystal structure and the cross-sectional analysis of the prepared ZnO filmswere characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD...

  9. Electrochemical preparation of hematite nanostructured films for solar hydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebadzadeh T.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical water splitting is a clean and promising technique for using a renewable source of energy, i.e., solar energy, to produce hydrogen. In this work electrochemical formation of iron oxyhydroxide and its conversion to hematite (α- Fe2O3 through thermal treatment have been studied. Oxyhydroxide iron compounds have been prepared onto SnO2/F covered glass substrate by potential cycling with two different potential sweep rate values; then calcined at 520 °C in air to obtain α-Fe2O3 nanostrutured films for their implementation as photoanode in a photoelectrochemical cell. X-ray diffraction analysis allowed finding that iron oxides films have nanocrystalline character. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that films have nanostructured morphology. The obtained results are discussed considering the influence of potential sweep rate employed during the preparation of iron oxyhydroxide film on optical, structural and morphological properties of hematite nanostructured films. Results show that films have acceptable characteristics as photoanode in a photoelectrochemical cell for hydrogen generation from water.

  10. Photocatalytic properties of ZnO micromaterials prepared by hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junshan; Huang, Shaofu; Luo, Pengfei; Huang, Shuanghe

    2016-12-01

    ZnO microrods were prepared by a simple and inexpensive hydrothermal method. The structure, morphology and optical properties of the micromaterials were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The FE-SEM micrographs indicated that the sizes of the microrods were 0.2-1 μm in width and 2-5 μm in length. With methyl orange as a model degradation target, photocatalytic performance of the microrods under ultraviolet radiation was evaluated. The results indicate that the photocatalytic activity of ZnO microrods was satisfactory even under low power ultraviolet irradiation.

  11. Ferromagnetism in co-doped zno particles prepared by vaporization condensation in a solar image furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, B.; Sandiumenge, F.; Balcells, Ll.; Fontcuberta, J.; Sibieude, F.; Monty, C.

    2005-04-01

    We report on the structural and magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO particles prepared by vaporization-condensation in the solar furnace in Odeillo. X-ray diffraction data show no traces of Co segregation or any other phase different from ZnO. High-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) and transmision electron microscopy (TEM) techniques have also been used to characterize particles. Irrespective of their composition, the shape and size of the obtained particles, as well as their magnetic properties, clearly depend on the preparation conditions. The samples prepared in vacuum exhibit hysteretic behavior with low coercivity (about 100 Oe) at T = 5 K and saturation magnetization well below that expecte for Co2+ in a tetrahedral crystal field. On the other hand, samples prepared at high pressure (70-100 Torr inside the balloon) are paramagnetic.

  12. Preparation, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2/ZnO Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liqin; Fu, Xiujun; Han, Yang; Chang, E; Wu, Haitao; Wang, Haiying; Li, Kuiying; Qi, Xiaowen

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles of the TiO2/ZnO composite photocatalysts were prepared via sol-gel process. The crystalline structure, morphology, thermal stability, and pore structure properties of the composite photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, TG-DTA, and N2 physical adsorption measurements. The photocatalytic activity of the composite catalysts was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation reaction of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solution. The best preparation parameters for the composite ph...

  13. A Simple Method for the Preparation of ZnO Prickly Spheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da Zhi LI; Xin Yu SONG; Si Xiu SUN; Jin Xin GUO

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of ZnO prickly spheres using precipitation followed by heating treatment was investigated. Zn(OH)2 precursor was prepared by precipitation process using Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O in mixed 1-propanol-water solvent. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the anionic surfactant was added to control the morphology. The size and structure of ZnO prickly spheres were studied using XRD, TEM and SEM. The results showed that the morphologies and size of the spheres strongly depended on the volume ratio of 1-propanol /water and molar ratio of SDS/Zn2+. ZnO prickly spheres composed of nanorods could be obtained, when the volume ratio of 1-propanol/water = 2:3 and the molar ratio of Zn2+/SDS ≈ 450:1.

  14. Characterization and Wettability of ZnO Film Prepared by Chemical Etching Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hua-xi; JIA Hui-ying; ZENG Jian-bo; CONG Qian; REN Lu-quan

    2013-01-01

    ZnO thin films were prepared by a chemical etching method and their wettability was investigated.The structure and surface composition structure were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy,X-ray photoelectronic spectrometry(XPS),X-ray diffraction(XRD) and Raman spectrometry.These analyses reveal that the etched films were large-scale micro-nanohierarchical structures composed of a Zn core and a ZnO coating.Superhydrophobic surfaces with water contact angles of over 150° were obtained by n-octadecanethiol(ODT) modification.The XPS and Raman results indicate that ODT molecules were bound to the ZnO surface with the S head group by forming Zn—S bond.

  15. Synthesis of butterfly-like ZnO nanostructures and study of their self-reducing ability toward Au(3+) ions for enhanced photocatalytic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueling; Liu, Yumeng; Zheng, Yan; Ding, Kun; Nie, Shijie; Yang, Ping

    2016-02-14

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures with diverse morphologies were successfully fabricated via a simple one-step hydrothermal synthesis and subsequent calcination. The formation of butterfly-like ZnO was mainly ascribed to a typical nucleation-growth-assembly process as a result of electrostatic interactions between the nanoparticles and the reconstructed sheets. Au nanoparticles (NPs) created from Au(3+) ions were deposited on the butterfly-like ZnO without the use of any reducing agents by simply stirring the solution at room temperature. Tartaric acid was present in the ZnO calcined at a low temperature (300 °C), which resulted in the self-reducing ability of ZnO toward the Au(3+) ions. The Au NPs were closely connected with the ZnO matrix. This close connection resulted in hierarchical ZnO-Au composites with efficient photocatalytic activity for use in environmental remediation. Compared with the pure ZnO sample calcined at 300 °C, the hierarchical ZnO-Au composites showed an enhanced photocatalytic performance toward rhodamine B. The results of photodegradation indicated that the incorporation of the Au NPs drastically increased the photocatalytic efficiency by promoting the separation of the electron-hole pairs created by the absorption of photons.

  16. Evolution of room temperature ferromagnetism with increasing 1D growth in Ni-doped ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Bappaditya, E-mail: bpal.iitg@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014 (India); Dhara, Soumen; Giri, P.K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Sarkar, D., E-mail: sarkardeepali@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014 (India)

    2015-10-25

    Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O (x = 0, 0.03, and 0.5) 1D nanostructures showing room temperature ferromagnetism (RT FM) with high moment have been synthesized by a solvothermal route. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis reveal the growth of single phase wurtzite structure Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O NRs of diameter 60–70 nm and length of 0.4–0.6 μm with the successful incorporation of Ni ions inside ZnO matrix. High resolution TEM lattice images show that all the NRs are single crystalline with a d-spacing of 2.57 Å with c-axis growth. Room temperature magnetic measurements exhibit strong ferromagnetic characteristic with magnetic moment of 1.13 emu/g, coercivity of 150 G. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra exhibit near band edge UV emission as well as defect related visible emission which is expected to play a significant role in the FM ordering, also PL spectra reveal slight band edge modification due to doping effect. Systemic structural, magnetic, and optical properties reveal that both the nature of the defects as well as Ni{sup 2+} ions are significant ingredients to attain FM characteristics with high moment and ordering temperature in the 1-dimensional ZnO NRs. Magnetic interaction is analysed using a bound magnetic polaron model and expected to arise from the intrinsic exchange interaction of Ni ions, Zn {sub V}acancy and O iterstitial related defects. - Highlights: • Room temperature ferromagnetism with high moment in Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O nanorods. • Magnetic moment has increased with c-axis 1D growth of ZnO nanostructure. • XPS spectra confirm that the Ni ions are in 2+ valance state inside ZnO matrix. • PL spectra demonstrate presence of strong Zn{sub V}, O{sub i} defect modes. • Intrinsic exchange interaction of Ni ions and Zn{sub V}, O{sub i} defects yields ferromagnetism.

  17. Antibacterial, Structural and Optical Characterization of Mechano-Chemically Prepared ZnO Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umair Manzoor

    Full Text Available Structural investigations, optical properties and antibacterial performance of the pure Zinc Oxide (ZnO nanoparticles (NPs synthesized by mechano-chemical method are presented. The morphology, dimensions and crystallinity of the ZnO NPs were controlled by tweaking the mechanical agitation of the mixture and subsequent thermal treatment. ZnO nanoparticles in small (< 20 nm dimensions with spherical morphology and narrow size distribution were successfully obtained after treating the mechano-chemically prepared samples at 250°C. However, higher temperature treatments produced larger particles. TEM, XRD and UV-Vis spectroscopy results suggested crystalline and phase pure ZnO. The NPs demonstrated promising antibacterial activity against Gram negative foodborne and waterborne bacterial pathogens i.e. Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, Campylobacter jejuni and Vibrio cholerae as well as Gram positive methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, thus potential for medical applications. Scanning electron microscopy and survival assay indicated that most probably ZnO nanoparticles cause changes in cellular morphology which eventually causes bacterial cell death.

  18. Optical and structural properties of ZnO hexagonal rods prepared by thermal chemical vapor deposition technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Reyhani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, ZnO nanostructure hexagonal pyramid rods with high optical and structural quality were synthesized by the simple thermal chemical vapor deposition of Zn powder without a metal catalyst. Surface morphologies were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. XRD analyses demonstrated that ZnO hexagonal pyramid rods had a wurtzite structure with the orientation of (002. Investigation of optical properties of samples by photoluminescence spectrum exhibited a sharp UV emission peak at 380nm. The quality and composition of the ZnO pyramid rods were characterized using the Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR at room temperature. In addition, the growth mechanism of ZnO hexagonal rods is also briefly discussed.

  19. (0 0 2-oriented growth and morphologies of ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Dongyun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc acetate was used as a starting material to prepare Zn-solutions from solvents and ligands with different boiling temperature. The ZnO thin films were prepared on Si(1 0 0 substrates by spin-coating method. The effect of baking temperature and boiling temperature of the solvents and ligands on their morphologies and orientation was investigated. The solvents and ligands with high boiling temperature were favorable for relaxation of mechanical stress to form the smooth ZnO thin films. As the solvents and ligands with low boiling temperature were used to prepare Zn-solutions, the prepared ZnO thin films showed (0 0 2 preferred orientation. As n-propanol, 2-methoxyethanol, 2-(methylaminoethanol and monoethanolamine were used to prepare Zn-solutions, highly (0 0 2-oriented ZnO thin films were formed by adjusting the baking temperature.

  20. Properties and characterization of bionanocomposite films prepared with various biopolymers and ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-06-15

    This study was aimed to develop biopolymer based antimicrobial films for active food packaging and to reduce environmental pollution caused by accumulation of synthetic packaging. The ZnO NPs were incorporated as antimicrobials into different biopolymers such as agar, carrageenan and CMC. Solvent casting method was performed to prepare active nanocomposite films. Methods such as FE-SEM, FT-IR and XRD were used to characterize resulting films. Physical, mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties were also examined. Remarkable surface morphological differences were observed between control and nanocomposite films. The crystallinity of ZnO was confirmed by XRD analysis. The addition of ZnO NPs increased color, UV barrier, moisture content, hydrophobicity, elongation and thermal stability of the films, while decreased WVP, tensile strength and elastic modulus. ZnO NPs impregnated films inhibited growth of L. monocytogenes and E. coli. So these newly prepared nanocomposite films can be used as active packaging film to extend shelf-life of food.

  1. ZnO micro-nano composite hydrophobic film prepared by the three-step method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kai; Li, Hua; Zhang, Han; Xu, Xiao-Liang; Gong, Mao-Gang; Yang, Zhou

    2009-05-01

    The hydrophobicity of the lotus leaf is mainly due to its surface micro-nano composite structure. In order to mimic the lotus structure, ZnO micro-nano composite hydrophobic films were prepared via the three-step method. On thin buffer films of SiO2, which were first fabricated on glass substrates by the sol-gel dip-coating method, a ZnO seed layer was deposited via RF magnetron sputtering. Then two different ZnO films, micro-nano and micro-only flower-like structures, were grown by the hydrothermal method. The prepared films have different hydrophobic properties after surface modification. The structures of the obtained ZnO films were characterized using x-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. A conclusion that a micro-nano composite structure is more beneficial to hydrophobicity than a micro-only structure was obtained through research into the effect of structure on hydrophobic properties.

  2. Hierarchical ZnO particles grafting by fluorocarbon polymer derivative: Preparation and superhydrophobic behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dahai; Jia, Mengqiu, E-mail: jiamq@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The hierarchical particles were prepared by a simple, mild hydrothermal process. • The obtained “chestnut” ZnO particles show dual-scale morphology with high roughness. • FEVE derivative was creatively imported to graft onto hierarchical particles. • Superhydrophobic surfaces were obtained, on which the contact angles surpass 150°. • A special model was proposed to explain the wetting state in this work. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces on the basis of hierarchical ZnO particles grafted by fluoroethylene-vinylether (FEVE) polymer derivative were prepared using a facile, mild and low-cost method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the resulting ZnO particles via hydrothermal process exhibit micro–nano dual-scale morphology with high purity under a suitable surfactant amount and alkali concentration. The grafting of FEVE derivative was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), suggesting that hierarchical surface of ZnO particles was an imported monomolecular layer of fluorocarbon polymer. The obtained surface fabricated by drop-casting shows considerably high contact angle and good resistance to water immersion. The wetting behavior in this work was furthermore analyzed by theoretical wetting model. This work demonstrates that the sufficient low-wettable surface and high roughness both take a vital role in the superhydrophobic behavior.

  3. First-principles Study of the Au surfactant on the growth of Zn vacancies in ZnO nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚明

    2007-01-01

    Influence of Au surfactant on the growth of Zn atom vacancies in ZnO nanostructures has been investigated by using first-principles slab calculations based on density functional theory.The adsorption of Au atoms on the Zn -terminated(0001)polar surface with a(2×2)sudace unit cell is studied by using a standard supercell model.It is found that (1)the binding energies of Au atoms on (0001)-Zn increase and the most stable position of the Au atom is invariable;(2)on the (0001)surface,the preferred sites for Zn atom vacancy are on the first layer of Zn atoms;(3)Under the Au surfactant,the Zn atom vacancies become more difficult to form.

  4. Growth and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures by vapor transport process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Y.H. [Key Laboratory of Excited State Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100039 (China); Center for Advanced Opto-Electronic Functional Material Research, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Liu, Y.C. [Center for Advanced Opto-Electronic Functional Material Research, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)]. E-mail: ycliu@nenu.edu.cn; Dong, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Lu, L.X. [School of Science, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Zhao, D.X. [Key Laboratory of Excited State Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Zhang, J.Y. [Key Laboratory of Excited State Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Lu, Y.M. [Key Laboratory of Excited State Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Shen, D.Z. [Key Laboratory of Excited State Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Fan, X.W. [Key Laboratory of Excited State Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2007-05-15

    ZnO nanorods and ZnO nanotubes have been fabricated by thermally evaporating the metal Zn powder. The ZnO nanorod obtained on the ITO substrate located above the Zn source has the uneven diameter with the abrupt change in its middle, which may originate from the decrease of the Zn vapor in the system. The ZnO nanotubes with the rough surfaces were obtained in the upstream region. The negative thermal quenching of the photoluminescence can be observed in the ZnO nanotubes. This is related with the abundant surface/interface defects which can introduce a large number of middle states in the band gap. According to Shibata's model, the activation energy of the electrons from the middle states to the initial states can be obtained by fitting the experimental data of the temperature dependence of the ultraviolet photoluminescence intensity. The fitting energy values are as high as {approx}100 meV, which may be responsible for the negative thermal quenching in a high-temperature range from 163.5 to 205.6 K.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of one-dimensional Ag-doped ZnO/Ga-doped ZnO coaxial nanostructure diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsien-Ming; Chang, Yu-Tsui; Wu, Wen-Wei; Wu, Jenn-Ming

    2014-04-09

    In the pursuit of high injection current diode nanodevices, entire one-dimensional (1D) ZnO coaxial nanostructures with p-n homojunctions is one of the ideal structures. In this study, we synthesized entire 1D ZnO-based coaxial homojunction diodes with p-type Ag-doped ZnO (SZO) nanostructure shells covering n-type Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) nanopagoda (NPG) cores by a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique. The entire 1D SZO-GZO and SZO-ZnO coaxial nanostructures exhibit better diode characteristics, such as lower threshold voltage, better rectification ratios, and better ideality factor n, than that reported for either 2D or 2D-1D p-n heterojunction and/or homojunction diodes. The binding energies of Ga and Ag were evaluated by low-temperature and temperature-dependent photoluminescence. In comparison, the SZO-GZO coaxial p-n nanostructures display better diode performance than the SZO-ZnO ones.

  6. Effect of substrate temperature on structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by thermal evaporation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Nguyen; Trung, Do Quang; Kien, N. D. T.; Huy, P. T.; Nguyen, D. H.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, ZnO nanostructures were synthesized on SiO2/Si substrate by thermal evaporation method. The dependence of the crystalline phase, morphologies and chemical composition of the samples grown at different substrate temperatures were systematically studied. The XRD, Raman spectra, FTIR spectra and XPS results reveal the existence of Zn2SiO4 phase, beside the ZnO phase. The Zn2SiO4 phase dominates at high substrate temperature and vise versa. Under UV excitation at room temperature, the samples show three distinct emission bands namely UV ( 380 nm), green ( 525 nm), and NIR (730 nm). The increase of the PL intensity of the NIR emission with increasing substrate temperature, indicates the relation between this emission and the higher Zn2SiO4 phase content in the samples. Origin of the rarely observed NIR emission band is attributed to the energy transition from non-bridging oxygen hole centers of SiO2 to the Zni and Vo states of Zn2SiO4.

  7. Photovoltaic properties of undoped ZnO thin films prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikhmayies, S.J. [Applied Science Private Univ., Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Physics; Abu El-Haija, N.M.; Ahmad-Bitar, R.N. [Jordan Univ., Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Physics

    2009-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) can be used as a window material, transparent electrode and active layer in different types of solar cells, UV emitters, and UV sensors. In addition to being low cost, ZnO is more abundant than indium tin oxide. ZnO is non toxic and has a high chemical stability in reduction environments. When ZnO films are made without any intentional doping, they exhibit n-type conductivity. ZnO thin films can be prepared by reactive sputtering, laser ablation, chemical-vapour deposition, laser molecular-beam epitaxy, thermal evaporation, sol-gel, atomic layer deposition and spray pyrolysis, with the latter being simple, inexpensive and adaptable to large area depositions. In this work ZnCl{sub 2} was used as a source of Zn where it was dissolved in distilled water. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the films were investigated due to their important characteristic for solar cell applications. Polycrystalline ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis using a home-made spraying system at substrate temperature of 450 degrees C. The films were characterized by recording and analyzing their I-V plots, their transmittance, X-ray diffraction and SEM micrographs. There resistivity was found to be about 200 ohms per cm and their bandgap energy about 3.27 eV. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the films have a hexagonal wurtzite structure and are highly ordered with a preferential orientation (002). SEM images revealed that the substrates are continuously covered and the surface of the film is uniform. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Effect of ZnO doping on the structural and optical properties of BaWO 4 thin films prepared using pulsed laser ablation technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Venugopalan Pillai; R Vinodkumar; V Ganesan; Peter Koshy; V P Mahadevan Pillai

    2010-12-01

    BaWO4 doped with ZnO (2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 wt%) nanostructured films are prepared on quartz substrates by pulsed laser ablation. The films are post annealed at 900°C. GIXRD analysis of the post-annealed films reveal the change of orientation of scheelite tetragonal crystal growth from 1 1 2 reflection plane to 0 0 4 planes when doping concentration is more than 3 wt%. The AFM images show that film with 7 wt% ZnO doping concentration has good ceramic pattern with surface features giving a minimum value of rms surface roughness suitable for optoelectronic device applications. The optical transmittance and band-gap energy of the films are found to decrease considerably on post-annealing which can be due to the increase in grain size of the crystallites on annealing. Thus doping with ZnO improves the surface features of the films and increases the optical band-gap energy.

  9. Growth of Comb-like ZnO Nanostructures for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were fabricated by using well-crystallized ZnO nanocombs directly grown onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO via noncatalytic thermal evaporation process. The thin films of as-grown ZnO nanocombs were used as photoanode materials to fabricate the DSSCs, which exhibited an overall light to electricity conversion efficiency of 0.68% with a fill factor of 34%, short-circuit current of 3.14 mA/cm2, and open-circuit voltage of 0.671 V. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report in which thin film of ZnO nanocombs was used as photoanode materials to fabricate the DSSCs.

  10. The Structural and Electrical Properties of Nanostructures ZnO Thin Films on Flexible Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Sa’adah Muhamad Sauki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO thin films were deposited on Teflon substrates by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering method at different substrate temperature. The dependence of residual stress on the substrate temperature was investigated in this work due to the growth process, the bombardment of energetic particles and process heating to the deposited thin films. From field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM images, samples that deposited at various substrate temperatures consists nano-sized particles. The obtained X-ray diffraction (XRD results, it suggested that ZnO thin film deposited at 40oC with highly c-axis oriented shows unstressed film compared to other thin films. Besides that, the ZnO thin films deposited at 40oC shows improved electrical properties.

  11. Catalytic growth of ZnO nanostructures by r.f. magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo-Hernández María

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The catalytic effect of gold seed particles deposited on a substrate prior to zinc oxide (ZnO thin film growth by magnetron sputtering was investigated. For this purpose, selected ultra thin gold layers, with thicknesses close to the percolation threshold, are deposited by thermal evaporation in ultra high vacuum (UHV conditions and subsequently annealed to form gold nanodroplets. The ZnO structures are subsequently deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering in a UHV chamber, and possible morphological differences between the ZnO grown on top of the substrate and on the gold are investigated. The results indicate a moderate catalytic effect for a deposited gold underlayer of 4 nm, quite close to the gold thin film percolation thickness.

  12. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of Fe2O3/ZnO and Fe3O4/ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patij Shah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Composite Iron oxide-Zinc oxide (α-Fe2O3/ZnO and Fe3O4/ZnO was synthesized by two step method. In the first step, uniform α-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 particles were prepared through a hydrolysis process of ferric chloride at 80°C. In the second step, the ZnO particles were included in the α-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 particles by a zinc acetate [Zn(Ac2·2H2O] assisted hydrothermal method at low temperature (90 °C. X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX was used to study its structural properties. The α-Fe2O3 and ZnO phases were identified by XRD, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX. The photoactivities of α-Fe2O3/ZnO and Fe3O4/ZnO nanoparticles under UV irradiation were quantified by the degradation of formaldehyde. The determination of magnetic property was also carried out by Gouy balance method.

  13. Controllable synthesis of flake-like Al-doped ZnO nanostructures and its application in inverted organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xi; Fang, Guojia; Guo, Shishang; Liu, Nishuang; Gao, Huimin; Qin, Pingli; Li, Songzhan; Long, Hao; Zheng, Qiao; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2011-10-04

    Flake-like Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanostructures including dense AZO nanorods were obtained via a low-temperature (100°C) hydrothermal process. By doping and varying Al concentrations, the electrical conductivity (σ) and morphology of the AZO nanostructures can be readily controlled. The effect of σ and morphology of the AZO nanostructures on the performance of the inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) was studied. It presents that the optimized power conversion efficiency of the AZO-based IOSCs is improved by approximately 58.7% compared with that of un-doped ZnO-based IOSCs. This is attributed to that the flake-like AZO nanostructures of high σ and tunable morphology not only provide a high-conduction pathway to facilitate electron transport but also lead to a large interfacial area for exciton dissociation and charge collection by electrodes.

  14. Controllable synthesis of flake-like Al-doped ZnO nanostructures and its application in inverted organic solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Flake-like Al-doped ZnO (AZO nanostructures including dense AZO nanorods were obtained via a low-temperature (100°C hydrothermal process. By doping and varying Al concentrations, the electrical conductivity (σ and morphology of the AZO nanostructures can be readily controlled. The effect of σ and morphology of the AZO nanostructures on the performance of the inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs was studied. It presents that the optimized power conversion efficiency of the AZO-based IOSCs is improved by approximately 58.7% compared with that of un-doped ZnO-based IOSCs. This is attributed to that the flake-like AZO nanostructures of high σ and tunable morphology not only provide a high-conduction pathway to facilitate electron transport but also lead to a large interfacial area for exciton dissociation and charge collection by electrodes.

  15. Comparative study of ZnO thin films prepared by different sol-gel route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Esmaieli Ghodsi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available   Retraction Notice    The paper "Comparative study of ZnO thin films prepared by different sol-gel route" by H. Absalan and F. E. Ghodsi, which appeared in Iranian Journal of Physics Research, Vol. 11, No. 4, 423-428 (in Farsi is translation of the paper "Comparative Study of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Different Sol-Gel Route" by F. E. Ghodsi and H. Absalan, which appeared in ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, Vol 118 (2010 (in English and for this reason is retracted from this journal.The corresponding author  (and also the first author is the only responsible person for this action.   

  16. Effect of deposition parameters and strontium doping on characteristics of nanostructured ZnO thin film by chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheeba, N. H., E-mail: sheebames.naser@gmail.com [M.E.S. Asmabi College, P. Vemballur, Thrissur, Kerala (India); Naduvath, J., E-mail: johnsnaduvath@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai (India); Abraham, A., E-mail: anithakklm@gmail.com; Philip, R. R., E-mail: reenatara@rediffmail.com [Thin Film Research Lab, U.C. College, Aluva, Kerala (India); Weiss, M. P., E-mail: matthew@hope.edu, E-mail: zachary.diener@hope.edu, E-mail: remillard@hope.edu, E-mail: deyoung@hope.edu; Diener, Z. J., E-mail: matthew@hope.edu, E-mail: zachary.diener@hope.edu, E-mail: remillard@hope.edu, E-mail: deyoung@hope.edu; Remillard, S. K., E-mail: matthew@hope.edu, E-mail: zachary.diener@hope.edu, E-mail: remillard@hope.edu, E-mail: deyoung@hope.edu; DeYoung, P. A., E-mail: matthew@hope.edu, E-mail: zachary.diener@hope.edu, E-mail: remillard@hope.edu, E-mail: deyoung@hope.edu [Hope Ion Beam Accelerator Laboratory, Hope College, Holland, MI (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Polycrystalline thin films of ZnO and Sr-doped ZnO (ZnO:Sr) on ultrasonically cleaned soda lime glass substrates are synthesized through successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction. The XRD profiles of ZnO and ZnO:Sr films prepared at different number of deposition cycles exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferred orientation along (002) direction. The crystallites are found to be nano sized, having variation in size with the increase in number of depositions cycles and also with Sr doping. Optical absorbance studies reveal a systematically controllable blueshift in band gap of Sr-doped ZnO films. SEM images indicate enhanced assembling of crystallites to form elongated rods as number of dips increased in Sr doped ZnO. The films are found to be n-type with the Sr doping having little effect on the electrical properties.

  17. Effect of deposition parameters and strontium doping on characteristics of nanostructured ZnO thin film by chemical bath deposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeba, N. H.; Naduvath, J.; Abraham, A.; Weiss, M. P.; Diener, Z. J.; Remillard, S. K.; DeYoung, P. A.; Philip, R. R.

    2014-10-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of ZnO and Sr-doped ZnO (ZnO:Sr) on ultrasonically cleaned soda lime glass substrates are synthesized through successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction. The XRD profiles of ZnO and ZnO:Sr films prepared at different number of deposition cycles exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferred orientation along (002) direction. The crystallites are found to be nano sized, having variation in size with the increase in number of depositions cycles and also with Sr doping. Optical absorbance studies reveal a systematically controllable blueshift in band gap of Sr-doped ZnO films. SEM images indicate enhanced assembling of crystallites to form elongated rods as number of dips increased in Sr doped ZnO. The films are found to be n-type with the Sr doping having little effect on the electrical properties.

  18. Preparation of ZnO nanoparticles showing upconversion luminescence through simple chemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjana, R.; Subha, P. P.; Markose, Kurias K.; Jayaraj, M. K., E-mail: mkj@cusat.ac.in [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, Kerala, India-682022 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Upconversion luminescence is an interesting area while considering its applications in a vast variety of fields. Rare earth ions like erbium is the most studied and efficient candidate for achieving upconversion. Erbium and ytterbium co-doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared through co-precipitation method. A strong red emission has been obtained while exciting with 980 nm laser. Dependence of luminescence emission colour on ytterbium concentration has been studied.

  19. Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline ZnO by direct precipitation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siqingaowa; Zhaorigetu; Yao Hongxia; Garidi

    2006-01-01

    Nanocrystalline ZnO was prepared with ZnCl2·2H2O and (NH4)2CO3 as raw materials by direct precipitation method.The precursor was proved to be [Zn5(OH)6(CO3)2] by TG-DTG-DTA and IR analysis.This precursor was calcined at 300℃ for 1,2 and 3 hours respectively,and then the nanocrystalline ZnO of different grain size were obtained.The nanocrystalline ZnO was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD),TEM and Brunner-Emmett-Teller method (BET).Experimental results for nanocrystalline ZnO showed that the minimum size was about 8nm,the maximum was about 15 nm and the mean grain size was 12 nm,the surface area was 80.56 m2/g and the purity was 99.9% when the precursor was calcined at 300℃ for 2 h.

  20. ZnO micro-nano composite hydrophobic film prepared by the three-step method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Kai; Li Hua; Zhang Han; Xu Xiao-Liang; Gong Mao-Gang; Yang Zhou

    2009-01-01

    The hydrophobicity of the lotus leaf is mainly due to its surface micro-nano composite structure. In order to mimic the lotus structure, ZnO micro-nano composite hydrophobic films were prcpared via the three-step method. On thin buffer films of SiO2, which were first fabricated on glass substrates by the sol gel dip-coating method, a ZnO seed layer was deposited via RF magnetron sputtering. Then two different ZnO films, micro-nano and micro-only flower-like structures, were grown by the hydrothermal method. The prepared films have different hydrophobic properties after surface modification. The structures of the obtained ZnO films were characterized using x-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. A conclusion that a micro-nano composite structure is more beneficial to hydrophobicity than a micro-only structure was obtained through research into the effect of structure on hydrophobic properties.

  1. Magneto-optical studies on doped and undoped ZnO nano-structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowski, Stephanie; Chen, Limei; Heimbrodt, Wolfram [Department of Physics and Material Science Center, Philipps-University Marburg, Renthof 5, D-35032 Marburg (Germany); Geburt, Sebastian; Ronning, Carsten [Physikalisch-Astronomische Fakultaet, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    High quality ZnO nanowires doped with different content of Manganese and Cobalt as well as ZnO quantum wells embedded between ZnMgO barriers are investigated by magneto photoluminescence and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) in a split-coil superconducting magnet system. The measurements have been performed in magnetic fields up to 7 Tesla in a temperature range 1.6-300 K. MCD and Zeeman-spectroscopy in the excitonic region have been used to determine the g-factors of the samples. Even in case of transition metal doped ZnO surprisingly small Zeeman-splitting has been found. The reason for the rather small values as well as the change of sign of the g-value will be discussed. The transition metal doped ZnO shows also an interesting difference concerning the optical 3d intra-ionic transitions. Whereas in the Co-doped samples the 3d transitions are observable in case of the Mn-doped samples the Mn-PL is rather vanishing. The physical reasons for the odd behaviour will be discussed.

  2. From Bloch to random lasing in ZnO self-assembled nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Fernandez, Pedro David; Cefe, López

    2013-01-01

    study the lasing threshold in both cases and its dependence on the structural parameters. Finally, we present the transition from Bloch to random lasing by deliberately doping a ZnO inverse photonic crystal with a controlled amount of lattice vacancies effectively converting it into a translationally...

  3. ZnO THIN FILMS PREPARED BY SPRAY-PYROLYSIS TECHNIQUE FROM ORGANO-METALLIC PRECURSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mikulics

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Presented experiments utilize methanolic solution of zinc acetyl-acetonate as a precursor and sapphire (001 as a substrate for deposition of thin films of ZnO. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed polycrystalline character of prepared films with preferential growth orientation along c-axis. The roughness of prepared films was assessed by AFM microscopy and represented by roughness root mean square (RMS value in range of 1.8 - 433 nm. The surface morphology was mapped by scanning electron microscopy showing periodical structure with several local defects. The optical transmittance spectrum of ZnO films was measured in wavelength range of 200-1000 nm. Prepared films are transparent in visible range with sharp ultra-violet cut-off at approximately 370 nm. Raman spectroscopy confirmed wurtzite structure and the presence of compressive stress within its structure as well as the occurrence of oxygen vacancies. The four-point Van der Pauw method was used to study the transport prosperities. The resistivity of presented ZnO films was found 8 × 10–2 Ω cm with carrier density of 1.3 × 1018 cm–3 and electron mobility of 40 cm2 V–1 s–1.

  4. Structure and optical properties of Cd substituted ZnO (Zn1-xCdxO) nanostructures synthesized by high pressure solution route

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    We report synthesis of Cd substituted ZnO nanostructures (Zn1-xCdxO with x upto \\approx .09) by high pressure solution growth method. The synthesized nanostructures comprise of nanocrystals that are both particles (~ 10-15 nm) and rods which grow along (002) direction as established by Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Rietveld analysis of the XRD data shows monotonous increase of the unit cell volume with the increase of Cd concentration. The optica...

  5. Preparation and investigation of optical, structural, and morphological properties of nanostructured ZnO:Mn thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Amoupour; F E Ghodsi; H Andarva; A Abdolahzadeh Ziabari

    2013-08-01

    Nanostructured ZnO:Mn thin films have been prepared by sol–gel dip coating method. The content of Mn in the sol was varied from 0 to 12 wt%. The effect of Mn concentration on the optical, structural, and morphological properties of ZnO thin films were studied by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV–visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results showed that the films have hexagonal wurtzite structure at lower content of Mn. The diffraction peaks corresponding to ZnO disappeared and two diffraction peaks of MnO2 and Mn3O4 appeared at the highest value of doping concentration (viz., 12 wt\\%). SEM results revealed that the surface smoothness of the films improved at higher content of Mn. The optical band gap of the films decreased from 3.89 to 3.15 eV when the Mn concentration increased from 0 to 12 wt\\%. The PL spectra of the films showed the characteristic peaks linked to band-to-band, green and yellow emissions. Besides, the PL intensity of the samples decreased with increase in Mn concentration.

  6. A study on the sensing of NO(sub2) and O(sub2) utilizing ZnO films grown by aerosol spray pyrolysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlongo, GH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the preparation and characterization of ZnO nanostructured thin films obtained using aerosol spray pyrolysis method at different deposition periods. Aiming at understanding the chemical composition, structural...

  7. Investigations on the hydrothermal preparation of shape-engineered zinc oxide nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal Ram, S. D.; Kang, T. W.; Ravi, G.

    2013-12-01

    Investigations are made on the effective chemical ambience and physical conditions in the hydrothermal method for the engineering of various shapes of ZnO nanostructures having different aspect ratios. Different zinc-ion sources are chosen and their reaction with hexamethylenetetramine, NaOH, triethanolamine etc., separately and in combinations, are exploited for shaping a variety of nanostructures, such as nanotubes bunches, spheres, dumbbell-like hexagonal rods, nano-flakes, of larger surface area and higher aspect ratio by varying the pH of the solution and altering the generation of zinc metal ions or its metal-hydroxide complexes. The reaction mechanisms for the formations of a variety of nanostructures are discussed on the basis of energy minimization, interfacial tension and the growth kinetics of formation.

  8. EDTA-assisted synthesis of rose-like ZnO architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhen [Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China); Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China); Fang, Yaoguo [Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China); Peng, Liwei; Wu, Minghong [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China); Pan, Dengyu

    2010-10-15

    Rose-like ZnO nanostructures were prepared by a low-temperature solution route with assistance of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA-2Na). The morphology of ZnO nanostructures was found to change from nanowire arrays to rose- and tower-like architectures with increasing the molar ratio of EDTA-2Na/Zn{sup 2+}. Also, the shape evolution of ZnO nanostructures with time was observed from flat nanosheets to wrinkled nanosheets and to rose-like nanostructures. EDTA-2Na as a strong complexing agent was found to play a key role in the shape evolution. Photoluminescence spectra show that the rose-like ZnO architectures have more defects than the nanowire arrays. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Multiscale modeling of nanostructured ZnO based devices for optoelectronic applications: Dynamically-coupled structural fields, charge, and thermal transport processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abdulmuin; Alqahtani, Saad; Nishat, Md Rezaul Karim; Ahmed, Shaikh; SIU Nanoelectronics Research Group Team

    Recently, hybrid ZnO nanostructures (such as ZnO deposited on ZnO-alloys, Si, GaN, polymer, conducting oxides, and organic compounds) have attracted much attention for their possible applications in optoelectronic devices (such as solar cells, light emitting and laser diodes), as well as in spintronics (such as spin-based memory, and logic). However, efficiency and performance of these hybrid ZnO devices strongly depend on an intricate interplay of complex, nonlinear, highly stochastic and dynamically-coupled structural fields, charge, and thermal transport processes at different length and time scales, which have not yet been fully assessed experimentally. In this work, we study the effects of these coupled processes on the electronic and optical emission properties in nanostructured ZnO devices. The multiscale computational framework employs the atomistic valence force-field molecular mechanics, models for linear and non-linear polarization, the 8-band sp3s* tight-binding models, and coupling to a TCAD toolkit to determine the terminal properties of the device. A series of numerical experiments are performed (by varying different nanoscale parameters such as size, geometry, crystal cut, composition, and electrostatics) that mainly aim to improve the efficiency of these devices. Supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation Grant No. 1102192.

  10. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag–ZnO hybrid plasmonic nanostructures prepared by a facile wet chemical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sini Kuriakose

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of Ag–ZnO hybrid plasmonic nanostructures with enhanced photocatalytic activity by a facile wet-chemical method. The structural, optical, plasmonic and photocatalytic properties of the Ag–ZnO hybrid nanostructures were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, photoluminescence (PL and UV–visible absorption spectroscopy. The effects of citrate concentration and Ag nanoparticle loading on the photocatalytic activity of Ag–ZnO hybrid nanostructures towards sun-light driven degradation of methylene blue (MB have been investigated. Increase in citrate concentration has been found to result in the formation of nanodisk-like structures, due to citrate-assisted oriented attachment of ZnO nanoparticles. The decoration of ZnO nanostructures with Ag nanoparticles resulted in a significant enhancement of the photocatalytic degradation efficiency, which has been found to increase with the extent of Ag nanoparticle loading.

  11. Influence of rare earth ions on microstructural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riyajuddin, Sk., E-mail: riyaj5303@gmail.com; Ahmad, Shabbir; Faizan, M. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Naseem, Swaleha; Khan, Wasi; Naqvi, A. H. [Centre of Excellence in Materials Science (Nanomaterials), Department of Applied Physics, Z.H. College of Engg. & Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Pure and 3% rare earth ions (Nd{sup 3+} & Gd{sup 3+}) doped ZnO samples were synthesized by sol-gel method, followed by annealing at temperature 450°C for 2hr. The samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy. XRD result confirmed single phase nature of all samples with crystalline structure. The average crystallite size of the doped samples found to be decreases as caculated using Debye-Scherrer’s formula. FTIR spectra indicate absorption band centered at 464 cm{sup −1} which is attributed to Zn-O lattice vibration. It confirms the formaton of compounds. UV-visible spectroscopy was used to study the optical properties and band gap of the synthesised materials using Tauc’s relation.

  12. Influence of rare earth ions on microstructural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyajuddin, Sk.; Naseem, Swaleha; Khan, Wasi; Ahmad, Shabbir; Faizan, M.; Naqvi, A. H.

    2016-05-01

    Pure and 3% rare earth ions (Nd3+ & Gd3+) doped ZnO samples were synthesized by sol-gel method, followed by annealing at temperature 450°C for 2hr. The samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy. XRD result confirmed single phase nature of all samples with crystalline structure. The average crystallite size of the doped samples found to be decreases as caculated using Debye-Scherrer's formula. FTIR spectra indicate absorption band centered at 464 cm-1 which is attributed to Zn-O lattice vibration. It confirms the formaton of compounds. UV-visible spectroscopy was used to study the optical properties and band gap of the synthesised materials using Tauc's relation.

  13. High Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of ZnO Based Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li

    This thesis investigated the high temperature thermoelectric properties of ZnO based materials. The investigation first focused on the doping mechanisms of Al-doped ZnO, and then the influence of spark plasma sintering conditions on the thermoelectric properties of Al, Ga-dually doped ZnO....... Following that, the nanostructuring effect for Al-doped ZnO was systematically investigated using samples with different microstructure morphologies. At last, the newly developed ZnCdO materials with superior thermoelectric properties and thermal stability were introduced as promising substitutions...... for conventional ZnO materials. For Al-doped ZnO, α- and γ-Al2O3 were selectively used as dopants in order to understand the doping mechanism of each phase and their effects on the thermoelectric properties. The samples were prepared by the spark plasma sintering technique from precursors calcined at various...

  14. Aggregation and growth of ZnO quantum dots prepared from sol-gel chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santilli, C.V.; Pulcinelli, S.H.; Caetano, B.L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Briois, V.B [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Saint-Aubin (France)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Herein we discuss in depth the mechanisms of growth control of ZnO quantum dots (Q-dot) prepared from the zinc oxy-acetate ethanolic solution by the addition of LiOH. Through in situ monitoring of Q-dot radii and of aggregation index calculated from UV-Vis absorption spectra and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) the aggregation and growth of ZnO nanocrystal was well described from two kinetic models: during the first step (t< 50 min) the structural evolution is controlled by the coalescence caused by the oriented attachment between the nanocrystal aggregates while at the advanced time (t> 50 min) the Q-dot coarsening follows the Ostwald ripening (OR) mechanism. From the higher oriented attachment efficiency observed here as compared with early reported synthesis using NaOH and KOH, we propose an universal mechanism to control coalescence and coarsening of ZnO nanocrystal provided from the shield caused by the adsorption of the alkali cation. From X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results we demonstrate that this mechanism is also useful to prepare Q-dot powders with controlled size. (author)

  15. The structural and mechanical behaviours of Boron-doped ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senol, Abdulkadir; Demirozu Senol, Sevim; Ozturk, Ozgur; Asikuzun, Elif; Tasci, Ahmet Tolga; Terzioglu, Cabir

    2015-03-01

    Undoped and Boron (B)-doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanopowders were synthesized by Hydrothermal method. The structural and mechanical behaviours of B doped ZnO (Zn1-xBx O, x =0, 0.05, 0.07, 0.11) were systematically examined. The crystal structure, phases, sizes and microstructure of Zn1-xBx O powder samples characterized by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Microhardness values of all B doped ZnO powders were measured with different loads (0.245, 0.490, 0.980, 1.960 ve 2.940 N) using a digital Vickers microhardness tester. The experimental microhardness data were used to determine elastic modules, yield strength, and fracture toughness value of the samples. Additionally, the experimental results were analyzed using the various theoretical models namely, Kick's Law, Elastic/Plastic Deformation (EPD) models, Proportional Specimen Resistance (PSR), and Hays-Kendall (HK) approach. The Vickers microhardness measurements revealed that hardness of Zn1-xBx O powder samples increased with B doping. This research partially supported by Abant Izzet Baysal University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Department under the Grant No. BAP-2013.03.02.609.

  16. Effect of Morphology of ZnO Nanostructures on Their Toxicity to Marine Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, X.; Wong, S.; Palma, S.; Fisher, N.S.

    2011-04-01

    The influence of ZnO nanoparticle morphology on its toxicity for marine diatoms was evaluated. Four ZnO nanoparticle motifs, possessing distinctive sizes and shapes, were synthesized without adding surfactants. Diameters of ZnO spheres ranged from 6.3 nm to 15.7 nm, and lengths of rod-shaped particles were 242 nm to 862 nm. Their effects on the growth of the marine diatoms, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Chaetoceros gracilis, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, were determined in laboratory cultures. Between 4.1 and 4.9% of the Zn from all types of nanoparticles dissolved within 72 h and was neither concentration dependent nor morphology dependent. Addition of all nanoparticles at all concentrations tested stopped growth of T. pseudonana and C. gracilis, whereas P. tricornutum was the least sensitive, with its growth rate inversely proportional to nanoparticle concentration. Bioaccumulation of Zn released from nanoparticles in T. pseudonana was sufficient to kill this diatom. The toxicity of rod-shaped particles to P. triocornutum was noted to be greater than that of the spheres. The overall results suggest that toxicity studies assessing the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms need to consider both the dissolution of these particles and the cellular interaction of nanoparticle aggregates.

  17. Experimental Studies on Doped and Co-Doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared by RF Diode Sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Our research on the growing and characterizing of p-type ZnO thin films, prepared by radio frequency (RF) diode sputtering, mono-doped with nitrogen, and co-doped with aluminium and nitrogen, is a response of the need from p-type ZnO thin films for device applications. The dopants determine the conductivity type of the film and its physical properties. We obtained p-type ZnO thin films by RF diode sputtering and using a nitrogen dopant source. The novelty in our approach is in the use of a pl...

  18. Ferromagnetism of Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel process at room temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Gui-jun; WANG Jin-bin; ZHONG Xiang-li; ZHOU Gong-cheng; YAN Hai-long

    2006-01-01

    Mn-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles are prepared by an ultrasonic assisted sol gel process. Transmission electron microscopy shows pseudo-hexagonal nanoparticles with an average size of about 24 nm. From the analysis of X-ray diffraction,the Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles are identified to be a wurtzite structure without any impurity phases. The magnetic properties are measured by using su perconducting quantum interference device. For the ZnO with 2 % Mn doping concentration, a good hyster esis loop indicates fine ferromagnetism with a Curie temperature higher than 350 K.

  19. Preparation and characterization of CeO_2 doped ZnO nano-tubes fluorescent composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李酽; 刘秀琳; 栗建钢

    2010-01-01

    ZnO nanotubes were hydrothermally synthesized and the ZNTs/CeO2 fluorescent composite were prepared by introducing nano CeO2 particles into ZnO nano-tubes via a chemical solution adsorption and annealing process. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy and room temperature photoluminescence measurement. Due to the interaction between Ce4+ and the surface atoms of ZnO2 nano-tubes, a photoluminescence enhancement was obser...

  20. Simple method for preparation of nanostructure on microchannel surface and its usage for enzyme-immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Masaya; Kaneno, Jun; Uehara, Masato; Fujii, Masayuki; Shimizu, Hazime; Maeda, Hideaki

    2003-03-07

    We developed a novel preparation method of nanostructure on the microchannel surface formed by sol-gel like simple treatment with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, which is suitable for a highly efficient enzyme-immobilized microchannel reactor.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Minoxidil Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenxi; Chen, Lina; Huang, Xinyan; Shao, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are interesting delivery systems for enhancing the penetration of an active substance through the skin after topical administration. The present paper described the development of a novel NLCs for minoxidil (MXD) topical delivery. Stearic acid and oleic acid that showed the highest solubility for MXD were selected as solid lipid and liquid lipid, respectively, and the NLCs were prepared by hot high pressure homogenization method. The minoxidil loaded NLCs prepared accordingly to the optimal formulation exhibited spherical shape with a mean diameter of 281.4 ± 7.4 nm, polydispersity of 0.207 ± 0.009, zeta potential of -32.90 ± 1.23 mV, drug entrapment efficiency of 92.48 ± 0.31%, and drug loading of 13.85 ± 0.47%. Storage stability studies demonstrated that the particle size and entrapment efficiency of the MXD-NLCs were not changed during 3 months both at 4°C and room temperature. Moreover, the release of MXD from the NLCs was faster than drug release from SLNs. In vitro skin permeability test demonstrated that MXD-NLCs had a more pronounced permeation and retention profile than MXD-SLNs. Furthermore, no erythema was observed after administration of MXD-NLCs. All these results indicated that the developed MXD-NLCs could be a promising and effective nanocarrier for topical delivery of MXD.

  2. Controlling of morphology and electrocatalytic properties of cobalt oxide nanostructures prepared by potentiodynamic deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallaj, Rahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhtari, Keivan [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O.Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salimi, Abdollah, E-mail: absalimi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O.Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltanian, Saied [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Electrodeposited cobalt oxide nanostructures were prepared by Repetitive Triangular Potential Scans (RTPS) as a simple, remarkably fast and scalable potentiodynamic method. Electrochemical deposition of cobalt oxide nanostructures onto GC electrode was performed from aqueous Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, (pH 6) solution using cyclic voltammetry method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the morphology of fabricated nanostructures. The evaluation of electrochemical properties of deposited films was performed using cyclic voltametry (CV) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) techniques. The analysis of the experimental data clearly showed that the variations of potential scanning ranges during deposition process have drastic effects on the geometry, chemical structure and particle size of cobalt oxide nanoparticles. In addition, the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of prepared nanostructures can be controlled through applying different potential windows in electrodeposition process. The imaging and voltammetric studies suggested to the existence of at least three different shapes of cobalt-oxide nanostructures in various potential windows applied for electrodeposition. With enlarging the applied potential window, the spherical-like cobalt oxide nanoparticles with particles sizes about 30–50 nm changed to the grain-like structures (30 nm × 80 nm) and then to the worm-like cobalt oxide nanostructures with 30 nm diameter and 200–400 nm in length. Furthermore, the roughness of the prepared nanostructures increased with increasing positive potential window. The GC electrodes modified with cobalt oxide nanostructures shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and As (III) oxidation. The electrocatalytic activity of cobalt oxide nanostructures prepared at more positive potential window toward hydrogen peroxide oxidation was increased, while for As(III) oxidation the electrocatalytic

  3. ZnO and copper indium chalcogenide heterojunctions prepared by inexpensive methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berruet, M., E-mail: berruetm@gmail.com [División Electroquímica y Corrosión, Facultad de Ingeniería, INTEMA, CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Juan B. Justo 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina); Di Iorio, Y. [División Electroquímica y Corrosión, Facultad de Ingeniería, INTEMA, CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Juan B. Justo 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina); Troviano, M. [Instituto de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería de Procesos, Biotecnología y Energías Alternativas (PROBIEN, CONICET-UNCo), Buenos Aires 1400, Q8300IBX Neuquén (Argentina); Vázquez, M. [División Electroquímica y Corrosión, Facultad de Ingeniería, INTEMA, CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Juan B. Justo 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2014-12-15

    Solution-based techniques were used to prepare ZnO/CuIn(Se, S){sub 2} heterojunctions that serve as solar cell prototypes. A duplex layer of ZnO (compact + porous) was electrodeposited. Chalcogenide thin films were deposited using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method (SILAR). By subsequent thermal treatments in two different atmospheres, CuInSe{sub 2} (CISe) and CuInSe{sub 2−x}S{sub x} (CISeS) were obtained. The composition and morphology of the annealed films were characterized by GXRD, micro-Raman spectroscopy and SEM. Devices prepared with CISe and CISeS show a clear photo-response. The introduction of a buffer layer of TiO{sub 2} into the ZnO/chalcogenide interface was necessary to detect photocurrent. The presence of CISeS improves the response of the cell, with higher values of short circuit current density, open circuit potential and fill factor. These promising results show that it is possible to prepare photovoltaic heterojunctions by depositing chalcogenides onto porous ZnO substrates using low-cost solution-based techniques. - Highlights: • Heterojunctions that serve as solar cell prototypes were prepared using solution-based techniques. • The devices comprised a double layer of ZnO and CuInSe{sub 2} or CuInSe{sub 0.4}S{sub 1.6}. • A TiO{sub 2} buffer layer in the ZnO/chalcogenide interface is necessary to detect photocurrent. • The incorporation of S improved the response of the photovoltaic heterojunction.

  4. Significance of postgrowth processing of ZnO nanostructures on antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Shahid; Rehman, Malik A; Ismail, Hammad; Mirza, Bushra; Bhatti, Arshad S

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we highlighted the effect of surface modifications of one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanostructures (NSs) grown by the vapor-solid mechanism on their antibacterial activity. Two sets of ZnO NSs were modified separately - one set was modified by annealing in an Ar environment, and the second set was modified in O2 plasma. Annealing in Ar below 800°C resulted in a compressed lattice, which was due to removal of Zn interstitials and increased O vacancies. Annealing above 1,000°C caused the formation of a new prominent phase, Zn2SiO4. Plasma oxidation of the ZnO NSs caused an expansion in the lattice due to the removal of O vacancies and incorporation of excess O. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was employed for the quantification of defects associated with Zn and O in the as-grown and processed ZnO NS. Two distinct bands were observed, one in the ultraviolet (UV) region, due to interband transitions, and other in the visible region, due to defects associated with Zn and O. PL confirmed the surface modification of ZnO NS, as substantial decrease in intensities of visible band was observed. Antibacterial activity of the modified ZnO NSs demonstrated that the surface modifications by Ar annealing limited the antibacterial characteristics of ZnO NS against Staphylococcus aureus. However, ZnO NSs annealed at 1,000°C or higher showed a remarkable antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. O2 plasma-treated NS showed appreciable antibacterial activity against both E. coli and S. aureus. The minimum inhibition concentration was determined to be 0.5 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL for Ar-annealed and plasma-oxidized ZnO NS, respectively. It was thus proved that the O content at the surface of the ZnO NS was crucial to tune the antibacterial activity against both selected gram-negative (E. coli) and gram-positive (S. aureus) bacterial species.

  5. Field emission studies of novel ZnO nanostructures in high and low field regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramgir, Niranjan S [Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411 008 (India); Late, Dattatray J [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune-411007 (India); Bhise, Ashok B [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune-411007 (India); Mulla, Imtiaz S [Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411 008 (India); More, Mahendra A [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune-411007 (India); Joag, Dilip S [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune-411007 (India); Pillai, Vijayamohanan K [Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411 008 (India)

    2006-06-14

    A study of the field emission characteristics of novel structures of ZnO, namely marigolds, multipods and microbelts, has been carried out in both the close proximity configuration and the conventional field emission microscope. The use of a conventional field emission microscope overcomes the drawback of arc formation at high field values. The nonlinearity in the Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) plot, a characteristic feature of semiconductors has been observed and explained on the basis of electron emission from both the conduction and the valence bands. The current stability exhibited by these structures is also promising for future device applications.

  6. Field emission studies of novel ZnO nanostructures in high and low field regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramgir, Niranjan S.; Late, Dattatray J.; Bhise, Ashok B.; Mulla, Imtiaz S.; More, Mahendra A.; Joag, Dilip S.; Pillai, Vijayamohanan K.

    2006-06-01

    A study of the field emission characteristics of novel structures of ZnO, namely marigolds, multipods and microbelts, has been carried out in both the close proximity configuration and the conventional field emission microscope. The use of a conventional field emission microscope overcomes the drawback of arc formation at high field values. The nonlinearity in the Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) plot, a characteristic feature of semiconductors has been observed and explained on the basis of electron emission from both the conduction and the valence bands. The current stability exhibited by these structures is also promising for future device applications.

  7. Structural characterization of supported nanocrystalline ZnO thin films prepared by dip-coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanova, J.R. [CITEDEF-CINSO-CONICET Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos, Juan B. de La Salle 4397, B1603ALO, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Heredia, E.A., E-mail: eheredia@citedef.gob.ar [CITEDEF-CINSO-CONICET Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos, Juan B. de La Salle 4397, B1603ALO, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bojorge, C.D.; Canepa, H.R. [CITEDEF-CINSO-CONICET Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos, Juan B. de La Salle 4397, B1603ALO, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kellermann, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Craievich, A.F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Nanocrystalline ZnO thin films prepared by the sol-gel dip-coating technique were characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray reflectivity (XR) and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). The structures of several thin films subjected to (i) isochronous annealing at 350, 450 and 550 deg. C, and (ii) isothermal annealing at 450 deg. C during different time periods, were characterized. The studied thin films are composed of ZnO nanocrystals as revealed by analysing several GIXD patterns, from which their average sizes were determined. Thin film thickness and roughness were determined from quantitative analyses of AFM images and XR patterns. The analysis of XR patterns also yielded the average density of the studied films. Our GISAXS study indicates that the studied ZnO thin films contain nanopores with an ellipsoidal shape, and flattened along the direction normal to the substrate surface. The thin film annealed at the highest temperature, T = 550 deg. C, exhibits higher density and lower thickness and nanoporosity volume fraction, than those annealed at 350 and 450 deg. C. These results indicate that thermal annealing at the highest temperature (550 deg. C) induces a noticeable compaction effect on the structure of the studied thin films.

  8. Photoluminescence properties of ZnO thin films prepared by DC magnetron sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bing-chu; LIU Xiao-yan; GAO Fei; MA Xue-long

    2008-01-01

    ZnO thin films were prepared by direct current(DC) reactive magnetron sputtering under different oxygen partial pressures.And then the samples were annealed in vacuum at 450 ℃. The effects of the oxygen partial pressures and the treatment of annealing in vacuum on the photoluminescence and the concentration of six intrinsic defects in ZnO thin films such as oxygen vacancy(Vo),zinc vacancy(VZn), antisite oxygen(OZn), antisite zinc(ZnO), interstitial oxygen(Oi) and interstitial zinc(Zni) were studied. The results show that a green photoluminescence peak at 520 nm can be observed in all the samples, whose intensity increases with increasing oxygen partial pressure; for the sample annealed in vacuum, the intensity of the green peak increases as well. The green photoluminescence peak observed in ZnO may be attributed to zinc vacancy, which probably originates from transitions between electrons in the conduction band and zinc vacancy levels, or from transitions between electrons in zinc vacancy levels and up valence band.

  9. Preparation and optical characteristics of ZnO films by chelating sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lirong; JIN Zhengguo; BU Shaojing; SUN Yingchun; CHENG Zhijie

    2004-01-01

    The effect of different annealing temperatures on the structure, morphology, and optical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by the chelating sol-gel method was investigated. Zinc-oxide thin films were coated on quartz glass substrates by dip coating. Zinc nitrate, absolute ethanol, and citric acid were used as precursor, solvent, and chelating agent, respectively. The results show that ZnO films derived from zinc-citrate have lower crystallization temperature (below 400°C),and that the crystal structure is wurtzite. The films, treated over 500°C, consist of nano-particles and show to be porous at 600°C. The particle size of the film increases with the increase of the annealing temperature. The largest particle size is 60 nm at 600°C. The optical transmittances related to the annealing temperatures become 90% higher in the visible range. The film shows a starting absorption at 380 nm, and the optical band-gap of the thin film (fired at 500°C) is 3.25 eV and close to the intrinsic band-gap of ZnO (3.2 eV).

  10. Influence of the preparation method on the structure, optical and photocatalytic properties of nanosized ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gancheva, M., E-mail: mancheva@svr.igic.bas.bg [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Science, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., bl.11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria); Uzunov, I.; Iordanova, R. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Science, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., bl.11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria); Papazova, K. [University of Sofia, Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, James Bourchier 1 Blvd., 1164, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-08-15

    Mechanochemical activation is the most commonly applied approach for improving the photocatalytic properties of commercial zinc oxide. Here we show that ZnO obtained by two-pathway decomposition of basic zinc carbonate also possesses a very good photocatalytic activity. Nanosized ZnO powders were successfully prepared by thermal and mechanochemical decomposition of Zn{sub 5}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}, precipitated under soft conditions. The precursor and final products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (TG/DTA), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and B.E.T method. The morphology of the ZnO was observed by SEM analysis. The optical and photocatalytic properties of the prepared zinc oxides were also investigated and compared with commercial ZnO. The band gaps of the thermal and mechanochemical obtained ZnO nanopowders are 3.22 and 3.04 eV, respectively. The degree of decomposition of Malachite Green under UV and visible irradiations in the presence of ZnO prepared by both methods reached levels above 90%. Better catalytic activity was found for the visible region. It was established that the process follows second order kinetics. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Synthesis of nanosized ZnO from hydrozincite by thermal and mechanochemical route. • ZnO powders possess high photocatalytic activity under UV and visible irradiation. • The degree of decomposition of Malachite Green is more than 90% for the both ZnO's. • The photodecomposition of MG under UV/Vis irradiation follows second order kinetics.

  11. Effect of Oxidation Condition on Growth of N: ZnO Prepared by Oxidizing Sputtering Zn-N Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xuesi; Li, Guojian; Xiao, Lin; Chen, Guozhen; Wang, Kai; Wang, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen-doped zinc oxide (N: ZnO) films have been prepared by oxidizing reactive RF magnetron-sputtering zinc nitride (Zn-N) films. The effect of oxidation temperature and oxidation time on the growth, transmittance, and electrical properties of the film has been explored. The results show that both long oxidation time and high oxidation temperature can obtain the film with a good transmittance (over 80 % for visible and infrared light) and a high carrier concentration. The N: ZnO film exhibits a special growth model with the oxidation time and is first to form a N: ZnO particle on the surface, then to become a N: ZnO layer, and followed by the inside Zn-N segregating to the surface to oxidize N: ZnO. The surface particle oxidized more adequately than the inside. However, the X-ray photoemission spectroscopy results show that the lower N concentration results in the lower N substitution in the O lattice (No). This leads to the formation of n-type N: ZnO and the decrease of carrier concentration. Thus, this method can be used to tune the microstructure, optical transmittance, and electrical properties of the N: ZnO film.

  12. Substrate Temperature Effects on Room Temperature Sensing Properties of Nanostructured ZnO Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Jonnala Rakesh; Mani, Ganesh Kumar; Shankar, Prabakaran; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates using chemical spray pyrolysis technique at different substrate temperatures such as 523, 623 and 723 K. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the formation of polycrystalline films with hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure and revealed the change in preferential orientation of the crystal planes. Scanning electron micrographs showed the formation of uniformly distributed spherical shaped grains at low deposition temperature and pebbles like structure at the higher temperature. Transmittance of 85% was observed for the film deposited at 723 K. The band gap of the films was found to be increased from 3.15 to 3.23 eV with a rise in deposition temperature. The electrical conductivity of the films was found to be improved with an increase in substrate temperature. Surface of ZnO thin films deposited at 523 K, 623 K and 723 K were found to be hydrophobic with the contact angles of 92°, 105° and 128° respectively. The room temperature gas sensing characteristics of all the films were studied and found that the film deposited at 623 K showed a better response towards ammonia vapour.

  13. Preparation, Characterization, and Biotoxicity of Nanosized Doped ZnO Photocatalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Lingling Liu; XiangRui Wang; Xiuping Yang; Wenhong Fan; Xiaolong Wang; Ning Wang; Xiaomin Li; Feng Xue

    2014-01-01

    Metal-doped nanosized ZnO (nZnO) photocatalyst has been widely used for its typical properties and has thus gained considerable attention. In this study, five types of nZnO (nondoped nZnO, iron- (Fe-) doped nZnO, cobalt- (Co-) doped nZnO, nickel- (Ni-) doped nZnO, and manganese- (Mn-) doped nZnO) materials were prepared through a wet chemical method and then exposed to Daphnia magna (D. magna) at low and high concentrations (50 and 250 μg L−1). Results showed that the different metal-doped nZ...

  14. Photocatalytic hollow TiO2 and ZnO nanospheres prepared by atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justh, Nóra; Bakos, László Péter; Hernádi, Klára; Kiss, Gabriella; Réti, Balázs; Erdélyi, Zoltán; Parditka, Bence; Szilágyi, Imre Miklós

    2017-06-28

    Carbon nanospheres (CNSs) were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis, and coated with TiO2 and ZnO nanofilms by atomic layer deposition. Subsequently, through burning out the carbon core templates hollow metal oxide nanospheres were obtained. The substrates, the carbon-metal oxide composites and the hollow nanospheres were characterized with TG/DTA-MS, FTIR, Raman, XRD, SEM-EDX, TEM-SAED and their photocatalytic activity was also investigated. The results indicate that CNSs are not beneficial for photocatalysis, but the crystalline hollow metal oxide nanospheres have considerable photocatalytic activity.

  15. Preparation,characterization and infrared emissivity study of Ce-doped ZnO films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜芳黎; 王宁; 张冬梅; 沈应中

    2010-01-01

    Ce-doped ZnO films were prepared by the sol-gel method with spin coating onto glass substrates.Zinc acetate dihydrate,ethanol,diethanolamine and cerium nitrate hexahydrate were used as starting material,solvent,stabilizer and dopant source,respectively.Structure and microstructure of the films were characterized with X-ray diffraction(XRD),field emission-scanning electron microscopy(FE-SEM) and the energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry(EDS).The infrared properties were also investigated.It was found that Ce-...

  16. Preparation and characterization of highly photosensitive ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez González, Antonio E.; Nair, P. K.

    1996-07-01

    Highly photosensitive ZnO films were prepared by the chemical technique Successive Ion Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR). The films posses high optical transmittance (>90%) in the VIS and IR ranges. The cristallinity, orientation of the crystallites and surface morphology undergo changes with annealing. The optical transmittance and reflectance measurements indicated changes in the position of the optical absorption edge: shifting from 353 nm to 366 nm when annealed at 450 °C for 2 hours. The films are highly photosensitive, offering photocurrent to dark current ratio of 105, in as prepared films under 900 Wm-2 illumination from a solar simulator. Annealing in oxygen, hydrogen and vacuum improved the dark conductivity and the photoconductivity of the films. This effect is related to the modification of the defect statistics of the films and involves cation interstitials and anion vacancies. The studies indicate that the ZnO films prepared by the SILAR process may be used, with appropriated postdeposition treatments, for specific applications.

  17. Effect of preparation methods and optical band gap of ZnO nanomaterials on photodegradation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Laila I.; El-Molla, Sahar A.; Ibrahim, Marwa M.; Mahmoud, Hala R.; Naghmash, Mona A.

    2016-08-01

    Improving of photo-oxidative efficiency of ZnO has become of importance to meet the requirements of environmental protection. In this research, ZnO nanomaterials prepared by three different methods (thermal decomposition, precipitation and sol-gel-combustion using metal nitrate and different fuels (urea, oxalic acid and citric acid)). Various molar ratios of citric acid to salt used as variable parameter (0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, and 1.50). These nanomaterials were characterized by studying their structural, morphological, surface and optical properties. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of Remazol Red RB-133 (RR) under UV-light irradiation. The obtained results showed that the photocatalytic efficiency was affected by preparation method, type and ratio of fuel to salt. The optimum is a gel precursor containing zinc nitrate and citric acid prepared in the molar ratio of 1. The highly active nanomaterial was applied for photocatalytic degradation of mixtures of two dyes - (RR) and Methylene Blue (MB).

  18. Annealing Effect of ZnO Seed Layer on Enhancing Photocatalytic Activity of ZnO/TiO2 Nanostructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Young Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO/titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanorods have been synthesized via a hydrothermal method for ZnO nanorods and an electron-beam deposition for TiO2 nanorods. This work examined the effect of annealing ZnO seed layer on the photocatalytic activity of the ZnO/TiO2 nanorods which was determined from photodecomposition of methylene blue under UV irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of the ZnO/TiO2 nanorods was improved with increasing annealing temperature of the seed layer from 300°C to 500°C. Annealing the seed layer at 500°C showed the best photocatalytic activity resulting from high UV absorption ability, a large surface area with flower structure and copious oxygen defects which promote separation of electron-hole pairs reducing electron recombination. The prepared nanorods were characterized by field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, photoluminescence (PL, and UV-visible spectroscopy.

  19. ZnO薄膜的制备及应用%Preparation and Application of ZnO Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瀚

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces ZnO about its crystal structure and photoelectric property,as well as preparation methods about ZnO films and the relative merits of the methods. Sol - gel thchnique is a greatly welcomed chemial method because of its low cost,simple technics,easy to handle and to controtl doping. ZnO films and doping ZnO films have been wide used for its photoelectric property and have a wide developmental foreground.%本文简要介绍了ZnO的晶体结构和其具有的光电性能,然后介绍了薄膜的几种制备方法,并分别阐述了这些方法的优、缺点,以及ZnO薄膜、掺杂ZnO薄膜的应用.

  20. COMPETITION BETWEEN THE REACTION MEDIUM AND NANOSTRUCTURED ZnO IN THE PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF ANTHRACENE. TOWARD AN OPTIMAL PROCESS FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS REMEDIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca L. Martínez-Vargas

    Full Text Available Contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs is considered an important health issue due to the toxicity of these compounds. Photocatalytic degradation of anthracene, a representative molecule of PAHs, using the high quantum yield semiconductor ZnO, has been reported. The solubility of anthracene in water makes necessary to use mixtures with organic solvents in fundamental degradation studies. It is well known that some organic solvents participate in the photochemical transformation of this molecule. In the PAHs photocatalysis, the competition between a semiconductor and solvents has not reported. Therefore, in this work, we decided to study the photocatalytic degradation of anthracene with two common reaction media and nanostructured ZnO. The semiconductor was obtained by a one pot method which consists in an alkaline hydrolysis of Zn(CH3COO2·2H2O in ethanol. Nanoparticles size in colloidal dispersion was calculated using UV-Vis spectroscopy and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microcopy (HR-TEM. ZnO powder was isolated and characterized by X-ray diffraction to be used in photocatalytic experiments. Surface area determination and photocurrent spectroscopic experiments were also carried out. Linear sweep voltammetries under darkness and UV-Vis irradiation indicate a charge separation due to photoexcitation. Photocatalytic experiments in ethanol:water pH 12 (1:1 and acetone:water pH 12 (1:1, with and without ZnO was explored. The results demonstrated that ethanol:water and acetone:water promotes the photo-transformation of anthracene to 9,10-anthraquinone. Meanwhile, ZnO transformed anthracene to benzoic acid and to 9,10-anthraquinone in ethanol:water and acetone:water, respectively. A faster photochemical kinetic is observed when acetone was used as solvent in the presence and in the absence of ZnO.

  1. Synthesis and properties of Ag/ZnO core/shell nanostructures prepared by excimer laser ablation in liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ag/ZnO core/shell nanostructure was synthesised by a 248-nm KrF excimer pulsed laser ablation in a liquid solution for the first time. It was found that the surface plasma resonance absorption of the Ag/ZnO core/shell nanostructures can be tuned by the thickness of the ZnO shell, which is in agreement with the finite difference in the time domain simulation. Furthermore, the ultraviolet emission spectrum of the Ag/ZnO core/shell nanostructures was stronger and blue-shifted compared with that of pure ZnO nanoparticles. This interesting photoluminescent phenomenon is analysed in detail and a possible explanation is proposed.

  2. Mn doped nanostucture ZnO thin film for photo sensor and gas sensor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Sandip V.; Upadhye, Deepak S.; Shaikh, Shahid U.; Birajadar, Ravikiran B.; Siddiqui, Farha Y.; Ghule, Anil V.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2013-02-01

    Mn doped nanostructure ZnO thin film prepared by soft chemically route method. ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrate by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique (SILAR). After deposit ZnO thin film dipped in MnSO4 solution for 1 min. The optical properties as absorbance were determined using UV-Spectrophotometer and band gap was also calculated. The Structural properties were studied by XRD. The improvement in gas sensing properties was found to enhance after doping of Mn on ZnO thin film. The Photo Sensor nature was calculated by I-V characteristics.

  3. Hierarchical structures of ZnO spherical particles synthesized solvothermally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Noriko; Haneda, Hajime

    2011-12-01

    We review the solvothermal synthesis, using a mixture of ethylene glycol (EG) and water as the solvent, of zinc oxide (ZnO) particles having spherical and flower-like shapes and hierarchical nanostructures. The preparation conditions of the ZnO particles and the microscopic characterization of the morphology are summarized. We found the following three effects of the ratio of EG to water on the formation of hierarchical structures: (i) EG restricts the growth of ZnO microcrystals, (ii) EG promotes the self-assembly of small crystallites into spheroidal particles and (iii) the high water content of EG results in hollow spheres.

  4. Hierarchical structures of ZnO spherical particles synthesized solvothermally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Saito and Hajime Haneda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the solvothermal synthesis, using a mixture of ethylene glycol (EG and water as the solvent, of zinc oxide (ZnO particles having spherical and flower-like shapes and hierarchical nanostructures. The preparation conditions of the ZnO particles and the microscopic characterization of the morphology are summarized. We found the following three effects of the ratio of EG to water on the formation of hierarchical structures: (i EG restricts the growth of ZnO microcrystals, (ii EG promotes the self-assembly of small crystallites into spheroidal particles and (iii the high water content of EG results in hollow spheres.

  5. Preparation and characterization of sol-gel Al-doped ZnO thin films and ZnO nanowire arrays grown on Al-doped ZnO seed layer by hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jin; Que, Wenxiu [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi' an, Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China)

    2010-12-15

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanocrystalline thin films are prepared by a sol-gel technique. Effects of the Al-doped concentration on microstructural, electrical and optical properties of the AZO thin films are studied and discussed. Results indicate that the AZO crystalline thin film with a highly preferred c-axis orientation perpendicular to the substrate is grown, and the AZO thin film with a small crystal grain size of 30-40 nm, high transmittance of above 90% in visible region, and low resistivity of 1.9 x 10{sup -2} {omega} cm can be obtained when the Al-doped concentration is up to 1 at%. Furthermore, ZnO nanowire (ZnO NW) arrays with a large surface area are grown on the sol-gel derived AZO thin film, which acts as a seed layer, by using a hydrothermal method. Optical properties of the grown ZnO NW arrays reveal that a high transmittance in visible region can be obtained, and only a strong UV emission at about 380 nm is observed in the room-temperature photoluminescence spectra, which implies that few crystal defects exist inside the as-assembled ZnO NW arrays. (author)

  6. Screen-Printing of ZnO Nanostructures from Sol-Gel Solutions for Their Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Kuhu; Braden, Erik V; Bonke, Shannon A; Bach, Udo; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-08-24

    Diblock copolymers have been used in sol-gel synthesis to successfully tailor the nanoscale morphology of thin ZnO films. As the fabrication of several-micron-thick mesoporous films such as those required in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was difficult with this approach, we exploited the benefits of diblock-copolymer-directed synthesis that made it compatible with screen printing. The simple conversion of the diblock copolymer ZnO precursor sol to a screen-printing paste was not possible as it resulted in poor film properties. To overcome this problem, an alternative route is proposed in which the diblock copolymer ZnO precursor sol is first blade coated and calcined, then converted to a screen-printing paste. This allows the benefits of diblock-copolymer-directed particle formation to be compatible with printing methods. The morphologies of the ZnO nanostructures were studied by SEM and correlated with the current density-voltage characteristics.

  7. In-vitro antibacterial study of zinc oxide nanostructures on Streptococcus sobrinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo; Sirelkhatim, Amna; Hasan, Habsah; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Masudi, Sam'an Malik; Seeni, Azman; Rahman, Rosliza Abd

    2014-10-01

    Zinc oxide nanostructures were prepared using a pilot plant of zinc oxide boiling furnace. Generally, it produced two types of nanostructures different in morphology; one is rod-like shaped (ZnO-1) and a plate-like shape (ZnO-2). The properties of ZnO were studied by structural, optical and morphological using XRD, PL and FESEM respectively. The XRD patterns confirmed the wurtzite structures of ZnO with the calculated crystallite size of 41 nm (ZnO-1) and 42 nm (ZnO-2) using Scherrer formula. The NBE peaks were determined by photoluminescence spectra which reveal peak at 3.25 eV and 3.23 eV for ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 respectively. Prior to that, the morphologies for both ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 were demonstrated from FESEM micrographs. Subsequently the antibacterial study was conducted using in-vitro broth dilution technique towards a gram positive bacterium Streptococcus sobrinus (ATCC 33478) to investigate the level of antibacterial effect of zinc oxide nanostructures as antibacterial agent. Gradual increment of ZnO concentrations from 10-20 mM affected the inhibition level after twenty four hours of incubation. In conjunction with concentration increment of ZnO, the percentage inhibition towards Streptococcus sobrinus was also increased accordingly. The highest inhibition occurred at 20 mM of ZnO-1 and ZnO-2 for 98% and 77% respectively. It showed that ZnO has good properties as antibacterial agent and relevancy with data presented by XRD, PL and FESEM were determined.

  8. Polymer crystallization as a tool to pattern hybrid nanostructures: growth of 12 nm ZnO arrays in poly(3-hexylthiophene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi Moghaddam, Reza; Huettner, Sven; Vaynzof, Yana; Ducati, Caterina; Divitini, Giorgio; Lohwasser, Ruth H; Musselman, Kevin P; Sepe, Alessandro; Scherer, Maik R J; Thelakkat, Mukundan; Steiner, Ullrich; Friend, Richard H

    2013-09-11

    Well-ordered hybrid materials with a 10 nm length scale are highly desired. We make use of the natural length scale (typically 10-15 nm) of the alternating crystalline and amorphous layers that are generally found in semicrystalline polymers to direct the growth of a semiconducting metal oxide. This approach is exemplified with the growth of ZnO within a carboxylic acid end-functionalized poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT-COOH). The metal-oxide precursor vapors diffuse into the amorphous parts of the semicrystalline polymer so that sheets of ZnO up to 0.5 μm in size can be grown. This P3HT-ZnO nanostructure further functions as a donor-acceptor photovoltaic system, with length scales appropriate for charge photogeneration.

  9. Hydro- and solvothermally-prepared ZnO and its catalytic effect on photodegradation of reactive orange 16 dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simović Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, zinc oxide powders were obtained by two different techniques: hydro- and solvothermal synthesis starting from Zn(NO32 and Zn(CH3COO2, respectively. The influence of synthetic procedure on the structural, microstructural, thermal and photocatalytic properties of the prepared ZnO powders was investigated. Both ZnO samples were further annealed at moderate conditions (300°C to avoid grain growth and to remove traces of impurities. In all four cases a single-phase hexagonal ZnO was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction. The morphology of prepared ZnO powders was different and it varied from rounded nanograins to microrods. All prepared samples showed higher photocatalytic efficiency in degradation of textile azo-dye Reactive Orange 16(RO16 than the commercial ZnO. In addition, the non-annealed samples had better photocatalytic properties than the commercial Degussa P25 TiO2 powder. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45007, br. ON171032 i br. ON172013

  10. Preparation of tetrapod-like ZnO whiskers from waste hot dipping zinc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艺锋; 唐谟堂; 杨声海; 张保平; 杨建广

    2004-01-01

    Large and uniform tetrapod-like ZnO whiskers (T-ZnO) were prepared from waste hot dipping zinc by vapor oxidation and examined by means of X-ray diffraction and ICP-AES analysis and scanning electron microscope.The products are pure hexagonal wurtzite crystals with tetrapod shape and edge size of center body 5 - 6μm and needle length of 100 - 130 μm. The size and shape of ZnO particles are fully controlled by the growth conditions and TZnO can be obtained only at 850 - 1 000 ℃ and total gas flow rate ranging from 40 to 250 L @ h-1 in which the size of the T-ZnO particles varies slightly with temperature. The process of the formation of T-ZnO is that T-ZnO may nucleate at the initial stage with a complete tetrapod shape and develop to the large size, but not the process of preferential growth of octahedral nuclei and subsequent growth of the needles. The experiment presents a new method to prepare T-ZnO economically by using the waste hot dipping zinc.

  11. Preparation of ZnO nanorods on conductive PET-ITO-Ag fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiwen; Ji, Shuai; Chen, Yuanyu; Zhang, Hong; Gong, Yumei; Guo, Jing

    2016-12-01

    We studied the vertical ZnO nanorods grown on conductive conventional polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers which are prepared by electroless silver depositing on tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) coated PET fibers through an efficient and low-cost green approach. The PET fibers were firstly functionalized with a layer of ITO gel synthesized through a sol-gel process at rather low temperature, simply by immersing the fibers into ITO sol for several minutes followed by gelation at 120 °C. Once the ITO gel layer surface was activated by SnCl2, a continuous, uniform, and compact layer of silver was carried out on the surface of the PET-ITO fibers through electroless plating operation at room temperature. The as-prepared PET-ITO-Ag fibers had good electrical conductivity, with surface resistivity as low as 0.23 mΩ cm. The overall procedure is simple, efficient, nontoxic, and controllable. The conductive PET-ITO-Ag fiber was used successfully as a flexible basal material to plant vertical ZnO nanorods through controlling the seeding and growth processes. The morphology of the PET-ITO, PET-ITO-Ag, and PET-ITO-Ag-ZnO fibers were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Undergone the whole process, although the tensile strength of the fiber decreased slightly, they may still exert their applications in flexible electronic such as photovoltaic and piezoelectric devices.

  12. Preparation of ZnO Photocatalyst for the Efficient and Rapid Photocatalytic Degradation of Azo Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoqing; Wu, Zhansheng; Liu, Dandan; Gao, Zhenzhen

    2017-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) photocatalysts were synthesized by sol-gel method using zinc acetate as precursor for degradation of azo dyes under UV irradiation. The resultant samples were characterized by different techniques, such as XRD, SEM, and EDX. The influence of preparation conditions such as calcination temperature and composite ratio on the degradation of methyl orange (MO) was investigated. ZnO prepared with a composite ratio of 4:1 and calcination temperature of 400 °C exhibited 99.70% removal rate for MO. The effect of operation parameters on the degradation was also studied. Results showed that the removal rate of azo dyes increased with the increased dosage of catalyst and decreased initial concentration of azo dyes and the acidic condition is favorable for degradation. Furthermore, the kinetics and scavengers of the reactive species during the degradation were also investigated. It was found that the degradation of azo dyes fitted the first-order kinetics and superoxide ions were the main species. The proposed photocatalyst can efficiently and rapidly degrade azo dyes; thus, this economical and environment-friendly photocatalyst can be applied to the treatment of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes.

  13. Nanocystalline ZnO films prepared via polymeric precursor method (Pechini)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, C.; Doria, J.; Paucar, C.; Hernandez, M. [Laboratorio de Materiales Ceramicos y Vitreos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, A.A. 568, Medellin (Colombia); Mosquera, A.; Rodriguez, J.E. [Grupo CYTEMAC, Universidad del Cauca, Calle 5 No 4-70, Popayan (Colombia); Gomez, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Medellin, A.A. 568, Medellin (Colombia); Baca, E. [Grupo de Ingenieria de Nuevos Materiales, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360 Cali (Colombia); Moran, O., E-mail: omoranc@unal.edu.c [Laboratorio de Materiales Ceramicos y Vitreos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, A.A. 568, Medellin (Colombia)

    2010-09-01

    The polymeric precursor method (Pechini) was employed to prepare high-quality nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) films. Briefly, the process started off with the preparation of a coating solution by the Pechini process followed by a coating of the glass substrates by a dip-coating technique and subsequent heat-treatment of the as-deposited films up to 550 {sup o}C for 30 min. The Rietveld profile analysis of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra revealed the wuerzite structure as expected for ZnO with a P6{sub 3}mc symmetry. No additional peaks were observed that would correspond to any secondary crystalline phase. The average crystallites size was 20 nm as calculated by Sherrer's equation. UV-vis spectroscopy showed sharp ultraviolet absorption edges at {approx}380 nm. The absorption edge analysis yielded optical band gap energy of 3.24 eV with electronic transition of the direct transition type. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis showed asymmetric and symmetric stretching modes of the carboxyl group (C=O). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed a crack-free surface morphology indicating that coating of the amorphous glass substrates was homogeneous on large surface areas. The temperature dependent conductivity featured a typical semiconducting-like behavior with resistivity approaching 3x10{sup -1} {Omega} cm at 220 K.

  14. Accelerated Thermal-Aging-Induced Degradation of Organometal Triiodide Perovskite on ZnO Nanostructures and Its Effect on Hybrid Photovoltaic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Dhar, A

    2016-07-20

    Organometal halide perovskite materials are presently some of the pacesetters for light harvesting in hybrid photovoltaic devices because of their excellent inherent electrical and optical properties. However, long-term durability of such perovskite materials remains a major bottleneck for their commercialization especially in countries with hot and humid climatic conditions, thus violating the international standards for photovoltaic technology. Albeit, TiO2 as an electron-transport layer has been well investigated for perovskite solar cells; the high-temperature processing makes it unsuitable for low-cost and large-scale roll-to-roll production of flexible photovoltaic devices. Herein, we have chosen low-temperature (photovoltaic devices. We have also elaborately addressed the effect of the annealing duration on the conversion of a precursor solution into the required perovskite phase on ZnO nanostructures. The investigations show that the presence of ZnO nanostructures accelerates the rate of degradation of MAPbI3 films under ambient annealing and thus requires proper optimization. The role of ZnO in enhancing the degradation kinetics of the perovskite layer has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and a buffer layer passivation technique. The effect of the annealing duration of the MAPbI3 perovskite on the optical, morphological, and compositional behavior has been closely studied and correlated with the photovoltaic efficiency. The study captures the degradation behavior of the commercially interesting MAPbI3 perovskite on a ZnO electron-transport layer and thus can provide insight for developing alternative families of perovskite material with better thermal and environmental stability for application in low-cost flexible photovoltaic technology.

  15. A comparative study of supercapacitive performances of nickel cobalt layered double hydroxides coated on ZnO nanostructured arrays on textile fibre as electrodes for wearable energy storage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Nguyen Thi Hong; Ngoc, Huynh Van; Lingappan, Niranjanmurthi; Kang, Dae Joon

    2014-02-21

    We demonstrated an efficient method for the fabrication of novel, flexible electrodes based on ZnO nanoflakes and nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxides (denoted as ZnONF/NiCoLDH) as a core-shell nanostructure on textile substrates for wearable energy storage devices. NiCoLDH coated ZnO nanowire (denoted as ZnONW/NiCoLDH) flexible electrodes are also prepared for comparison. As an electrode for supercapacitors, ZnONF/NiCoLDH exhibits a high specific capacitance of 1624 F g(-1), which is nearly 1.6 times greater than ZnONW/NiCoLDH counterparts. It also shows a maximum energy density of 48.32 W h kg(-1) at a power density of 27.53 kW kg(-1), and an excellent cycling stability with capacitance retention of 94% and a Coulombic efficiency of 93% over 2000 cycles. We believe that the superior performance of the ZnONF/NiCoLDH hybrids is due primarily to the large surface area of the nanoflake structure and the open spaces between nanoflakes, both of which provide a large space for the deposition of NiCoLDH, resulting in reduced internal resistance and improved capacitance performance. Our results are significant for the development of electrode materials for high-performance wearable energy storage devices.

  16. Preparation, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2/ZnO Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles of the TiO2/ZnO composite photocatalysts were prepared via sol-gel process. The crystalline structure, morphology, thermal stability, and pore structure properties of the composite photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, TG-DTA, and N2 physical adsorption measurements. The photocatalytic activity of the composite catalysts was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation reaction of methyl orange (MO in aqueous solution. The best preparation parameters for the composite photocatalysts were obtained through systematical experiments. Furthermore, the photocatalytic degradation reaction of aqueous MO solution followed the first-order reaction kinetics; the relative equation can be described as ln(C0/C=0.5689t, and the calculated correlation constant (R2 is 0.9937 for the calibration curve.

  17. Synthesis of ZnO Hierarchical Nanostructures by Fiber-template Method%纤维模板合成ZnO分级纳米结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄惜惜; 田永涛; 王杰; 王文闯; 何豪; 王新昌; 李新建

    2013-01-01

    The ZnO hierarchical nanostructures were synthesized by a simple chemical solution method under a low temperature condition using fiber (cotton fiber,nylon fiber,copper filament,silver filament and hair) as template.The ZnO nanorods covered on the fiber surface vertically and densely.The diameter of ZnO nanorod was about several hundred nanometers and the length was about 2 ~ 3 micrometers.The fiber of fabric (cotton fiber,nylon fiber),metal filament (copper,silver) and animal hair (human hair) could be used as template to synthesize ZnO hierarchical nanostructure,which was universalistic.The ZnO hierarchical nanostructure had a larger specific surface area and could be assembled into twodimensional or three-dimensional structures which could have important potential applications in sensors and solar cells.%在低温条件下,以纤维(棉纤维、尼龙纤维、铜丝、银丝、头发)为模板,通过简单的化学溶液生长,合成由ZnO纳米棒组成的分级结构,ZnO纳米棒竖直包覆在纤维表面,生长密集,棒的直径约几百纳米,长度为2~3 μm.该方法可以以织物纤维(棉纤维、尼龙纤维)、金属细丝(铜丝、银丝)和动物毛发(头发)为模板合成由ZnO纳米棒组成的分级结构,具有一定的普适性.该分级结构比表面积较大,同时可以通过组合构成二维或三维结构,在传感器和太阳能电池等方面具有重要的潜在应用价值.

  18. A Comparative Study of Nanostructured TiO2, ZnO and Bilayer TiO2/ZnO Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Mamta; Tripathi, S. K.

    2015-04-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2), Zinc oxide (ZnO) and bilayer TiO2/ZnO (TZO) based cells have been developed and sensitized with five organic dyes and one cocktail dye composed of five dyes. Photovoltaic performance of TiO2 and ZnO solar cell sensitized with six dyes is compared to that of bilayer TZO cells. The forward current is found to increase with applied voltage in the range V ≤ 0.4 V, which is dominated by thermionic emission, whereas in 0.4 ≤ V ≤ 0.7 V, the current transport is due to space charge-limited current controlled by exponential trap distribution in all devices. The combined properties of the materials enhance the efficiency of composite TZO cells. TiO2 permits the formation of an energy barrier at the ZnO electrode/electrolyte interface, which reduces the back electron transfer from the conduction band of ZnO to I3 - in the electrolyte. Also, due to the TiO2 layer on the ZnO, the latter forms a compact layer between flourine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/TiO2 which benefits the fast electron transfer from TiO2 to ZnO to FTO glass. This reduces the charge recombination occurring at the ZnO/FTO interface leading to higher open circuit voltage ( V oc), higher short circuit current ( J sc), lower series resistance ( R s), and in turn higher efficiency in TZO solar cells as compared to ZnO cells. Among the six dyes, Eosin-Y and Rose Bengal dye gave the best performance as sensitizers with TZO.

  19. Preparation and characterization of GA/RDX nanostructured energetic composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YUANFEI LAN; XUEBAO WANG; YUNJUN LUO

    2016-12-01

    Graphene aerogel (GA) with nano-porous structure was assembled through the formation of physical cross-links between graphene sheets by a facile sol–gel method and supercritical CO$_2$ drying process. Thenhexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was added and trapped in the nano-porous three-dimensional networks of GA to obtain a novel GA/RDX nanostructured energetic composite. The composition, morphology andstructure of the obtained GA/RDX nanostructured energetic composite were characterized by elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen sorption tests and X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the thermal decompositioncharacteristic was investigated by thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. The results showed that GA could be a perfect aerogel matrix for the fabrication of GA/RDX nanostructured energetic composite due to itsunique nano-porous structure and attributes. It was also demonstrated that RDX homogeneously disperses in the asprepared GA/RDX nanostructured energetic composite at nanometric scale. GA showed promising catalytic effects for the thermal decomposition of RDX. After incorporating with GA, the decomposition of RDX was obviously accelerated.

  20. Tailoring surface and photocatalytic properties of ZnO and nitrogen-doped ZnO nanostructures using microwave-assisted facile hydrothermal synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, R.; Cedeño, V.; Ramos-Corona, A.; Gutiérrez, R.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Ares, O.; Bartolo-Pérez, P.; Quintana, P.

    2017-08-01

    Microwave hydrothermal synthesis, using an experimental 23 factorial design, was used to produce tunable ZnO nano- and microstructures, and their potential as photocatalysts was explored. Photocatalytic reactions were conducted in a microreactor batch system under UV and visible light irradiation, while monitoring methylene blue degradation, as a model system. The variables considered in the microwave reactor to produce ZnO nano- or microstructures, were time, NaOH concentration and synthesis temperature. It was found that, specific surface area and volume/surface area ratio were affected as a consequence of the synthesis conditions. In the second stage, the samples were plasma treated in a nitrogen atmosphere, with the purpose of introducing nitrogen into the ZnO crystalline structure. The central idea is to induce changes in the material structure as well as in its optical absorption, to make the plasma-treated material useful as photocatalyst in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Pristine ZnO and nitrogen-doped ZnO compounds were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), specific surface area (BET), XPS, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results show that the methodology presented in this work is effective in tailoring the specific surface area of the ZnO compounds and incorporation of nitrogen into their structure, factors which in turn, affect its photocatalytic behavior.

  1. Surface engineering of ZnO nanostructures for semiconductor-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Chen, Zhenhua; Zapien, Juan Antonio; Lee, Chun-Sing; Zhang, Wenjun

    2014-08-20

    Semiconductor-sensitized solar cells (SSCs) are emerging as promising devices for achieving efficient and low-cost solar-energy conversion. The recent progress in the development of ZnO-nanostructure-based SSCs is reviewed here, and the key issues for their efficiency improvement, such as enhancing light harvesting and increasing carrier generation, separation, and collection, are highlighted from aspects of surface-engineering techniques. The impact of other factors such as electrolyte and counter electrodes on the photovoltaic performance is also addressed. The current challenges and perspectives for the further advance of ZnO-based SSCs are discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A simple and cheap method for preparation of coupled ZrO2/ZnO with high photocatalytic activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng; ZHANG Bingru; LI Fengting

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare a new photocatalyst with high activities for degradation of organic pollutants.Coupled ZrO2/ZnO photocatalyst was prepared with a simple precipitation method with cheap raw materials zinc acetate and zirconium oxychloride,and was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).Reactive brilliant red X-3B was used as a model compotmd to investigate the photocatalytic activity of synthesized catalysts in water under 254 nm UV irradiation.Results show that the optimal calcination temperature and coupling molar ratio of Zr were 350℃ and 2.5%,respectively.At the calcination temperature of 350℃,ZrO2 was dispersed on the surface of hexagonal ZnO in the form of amorphous clusters.The particle size of ZrO2.ZnO decreased with the decrease of calcination temperature and the increase of Zr coupling amount.ZrO2/ZnO has better photocatalytic activity for degradation of reactive brilliant red (RBR) X-3B than pure ZnO and P25-TiO2.

  3. Structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis: Effect of precursor concentration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F Zahedi; R S Dariani; S M Rozati

    2014-05-01

    ZnO thin films have been prepared using zinc acetate precursor by spray pyrolytic decomposition of zinc acetate on glass substrates at 450 °C. Effect of precursor concentration on structural and optical properties has been investigated. ZnO films are polycrystalline with (002) plane as preferential orientation. The optical transmission spectrum shows that transmission increases with decrease in the concentration and the maximum transmission in visible region is about 95% for ZnO films prepared with 0.1 M. The direct band-gap value decreases from 3.37 to 3.19 eV, when the precursor concentration increases from 0.1 to 0.4 M. Photoluminescence spectra at room temperature show an ultraviolet (UV) emission at 3.26 eV and two visible emissions at 2.82 and 2.38 eV. Lowest resistivity is obtained at 2.09 cm for 0.3 M. The current–voltage characteristic of the ZnO thin films were measured in dark and under UV illumination. The values of photocurrent and photoresponsivity at 5 V are increased with increase in precursor concentration and reaches to maximum value of 1148 A and 0.287 A/W, respectively which is correlated to structural properties of ZnO thin films.

  4. [Preparation of two poor water soluble drugs - nanoporous ZnO solid dispersions and the mechanism of drug dissolution improvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bei; Sun, Chang-shan; Zhi, Zhuang-zhi; Wang, Yan; Chang, Di; Wang, Si-ling; Jiang, Tong-ying

    2011-11-01

    Nanoporous ZnO was used as a carrier to prepare drug solid dispersion, the mechanism of which to improve the drug dissolution was also studied. Nanoporous ZnO, obtained through chemical deposition method, was used as a carrier to prepare indomethacin and cilostazol solid dispersions by melt-quenching method, separately. The results of scanning electron microscope, surface area analyzer, fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimeter and X-ray diffraction showed that drugs were implanted into nanopores of ZnO by physical adsorption effect and highly dispersed into nanopores of ZnO in amorphous form, moreover, these nanopores strongly inhibited amorphous recrystallization in the condition of 45 degrees C and 75% RH. In addition, the results of the dissolution tested in vitro exhibited that the accumulated dissolutions of indomethacin and cilostazol solid dispersions achieved about 90% within 5 min and approximately 80% within 30 min. It was indicated in this study that the mechanism of drug dissolution improvement was associated with the effects of nanoporous ZnO carrier on increasing drug dispersion, controlling drug in nanopores as amorphous form and inhibiting amorphous recrystallization.

  5. Heavy lithium-doped ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Ardyanian; N Sedigh

    2014-10-01

    Lithium-doped ZnO thin films (ZnO : Li) were prepared by spray pyrolysis method on the glass substrates for ( = [Li]/[Zn]) value varied between 5 and 70%. Structural, electrical and optical properties of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis–NIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Hall effect and sheet resistance measurements. XRD results show that for ≤ 50%, the structure of the films tends to be polycrystals of wurtzite structure with preferred direction along (0 0 2). The best crystalline order is found at = 20% and the crystal structure is stable until = 60%. The Hall effect results describe that Li doping leads to change in the conduction type from - to -type, again it changes to -type at = 70% and is attributed to self-compensation effect. Moreover, the carrier density was calculated in the order of 1013 cm-3. The resistivity of Li-doped films decreases until 22 cm at = 50%. Optical bandgap was reduced slightly, from 3.27 to 3.24 eV as a function of the grain size. Optical transmittance in the visible range reaches = 97%, by increasing of Li content until = 20%. Electrical and optical properties are coherent with structural results.

  6. Optical characterization of pure and Al-doped ZnO prepared by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belka, Radosław; Keczkowska, Justyna; Kasińska, Justyna

    2016-09-01

    In this paper the preparation process and optical characterization of pure and Al3+ doped zinc oxide (Al:ZnO) coatings will be presented. ZnO based materials have been studied extensively due to their potential applications in optoelectronic devices as conductive gas sensors, transparent conductive, electrodes, solar cell windows, varistors, UVfilters or photovoltaic cells. It is II-VI semiconductor with wide-band gap of 3.37 eV and large exciton binding energy of 60meV. It is possible to improve the conductivity of ZnO coating by intentionally doping ZnO with aluminium ions during preparation process. Such transparent and conducting thin films, known as AZO (Aluminium Zinc Oxide) films, are very good candidate for application as transparent conducting materials in many optoelectronic devices. The well-known sol-gel method is used for preparation of solution, coated on glass substrates by dip coating process. Prepared samples were investigated by Raman and UV-VIS spectroscopy. Transmittance as well as specular and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy methods were used for studies of optical parameters. We found that Al admixture influences on optical bandgap of ZnO.

  7. PREPARATION OF BIOACTIVE NANOSTRUCTURE SCAFFOLD WITH IMPROVED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. EMADI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly porous scaffolds with open structure are today the best candidates for bone substitution to ensure bone oxygenation and angiogenesis. In this study, we developed a new route to enhance the compressive strength of porous hydroxyapatite scaffold made of natural bone. Briefly, the spongy bone of an adult bovine was extracted, annealed, and coated by a nanostructure bioactive glass layer to be subsequently sintered at different temperatures. The apatite formation ability on the surfaces of the coated scaffolds was investigated by standard procedures. Our results showed that the scaffold and coating microstructure consisted of the grains smaller than 100 nm. These nanostructures improved the compressive strength and bioactivity of highly porous scaffold. The results showed that with increasing the sintering temperature, the compressive strength of scaffolds increased while their in vitro bioactivity decreased.

  8. Percentage of different aluminum doping influence the morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured growth for sensor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, R., E-mail: ruziana12@gmail.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre, Institue of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Pahang, 26400 Bandar Tun Razak Jengka, Pahang (Malaysia); Ismail, A. S., E-mail: kyrin-samaxi@yahoo.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Khusaimi, Z., E-mail: Zurai142@salam.uitm.edu.my [NANO-SciTech Centre, Institue of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Mamat, M. H., E-mail: hafiz-030@yahoo.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre, Institue of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Alrokayan, Salman A. H., E-mail: dr.salman@alrokayan.com; Khan, Haseeb A., E-mail: khan-haseeb@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Rusop, M., E-mail: nanouitm@gmail.com [NANO-SciTech Centre, Institue of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Pahang, 26400 Bandar Tun Razak Jengka, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    In this work, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) with different aluminum (Al) doping percentage was synthesis by sol gel immersion method. Al doped ZnO at various doping percentage from 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. It was found that with different Al percentage influence the morphological and optical properties of ZnO growth. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) image showed the use of different Al doping causes the difference in geometry and size of ZnO nanorods growth. Based on UV-Vis spectroscopy, the transmittance at 1% Al doping has the highest spectrum.

  9. Photo electrical and optical anomaly in ferromagnetic cobalt doped ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Amir; Ahmed, S.; Shah, N. A.; Khan, E. U.

    2015-06-01

    For the development of novel devices, the correlation of oxygen vacancies and room temperature ferromagnetism in cobalt doped zinc oxide nanostructures synthesized by Co precipitation route reported earlier Zia et al (2014 Phys. Scr. 89 105802) has been further explored on the basis of structural, optical, magnetic and photoelectrical measurements. In the current study, x-ray diffraction data is further exploited for the measurement of d-spacing, c-direction growth for the plane (002) and cell volume. Increased volume of the unit cell is observed with the increase in cobalt content. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy analysis reveals the reduction in optical energy band gap with the increase in cobalt concentration. The saturated and remanence magnetization were found to be increasing with cobalt addition during the magnetic analysis. The photoelectrical conductivity has maximum value for the sample Co (3% mol) and least recovery time as compared to Co (0% mol). The sensing response was found to be decreasing with the addition of cobalt. The anomalies in the photoelectric parameters clearly reflect the presence of photoconductive nature, which may have ramifications for device engineers.

  10. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by aerosol spray pyrolysis: Candidates for room temperature methane and hydrogen gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaung, D. E.; Mhlongo, G. H.; Kortidis, I.; Nkosi, S. S.; Malgas, G. F.; Mwakikunga, B. W.; Ray, S. Sinha; Kiriakidis, G.

    2013-08-01

    We report on the synthesis of ZnO films by aerosol spray pyrolysis method at different deposition times. The surface morphology, crystal structure and the cross-sectional analysis of the prepared ZnO films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). XRD analysis revealed that the ZnO films are polycrystalline in nature. Structural analysis exploiting cross-sectional TEM profile showed that the films composed of nano-particles and columnar structures growing perpendicular to the substrate. AFM revealed that the columnar structures have a higher surface roughness as compared to the nanoparticles. The effect of ZnO crystallite size and crystallinity on the gas sensing performance of hydrogen and methane gases was also evaluated. Sensing film based on ZnO nanoparticles has numerous advantages in terms of its reliability and high sensitivity. These sensing materials revealed an improved response to methane and hydrogen gases at room temperature due to their high surface area, indicating their possible application as a gas sensor.

  11. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by aerosol spray pyrolysis: Candidates for room temperature methane and hydrogen gas sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motaung, D.E., E-mail: dmotaung@csir.co.za [DST/CSIR Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P. O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Mhlongo, G.H., E-mail: gmhlongo@csir.co.za [DST/CSIR Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P. O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Kortidis, I. [Transparent Conductive Materials Lab, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, 100N. Plastira str., Vassilika Vouton, 70013 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Nkosi, S.S., E-mail: skosi@csir.co.za [CSIR-National Laser Centre, 626 Meiring Naude Rd, Brummeria, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); School of Physics, University of Witwatersrand, Private Bag X3, Johannesburg 2030 (South Africa); Malgas, G.F.; Mwakikunga, B.W.; Ray, S.Sinha [DST/CSIR Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P. O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Kiriakidis, G., E-mail: kiriakid@iesl.forth.gr [Transparent Conductive Materials Lab, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, 100N. Plastira str., Vassilika Vouton, 70013 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); University of Crete, Department of Physics, 710 03 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2013-08-15

    We report on the synthesis of ZnO films by aerosol spray pyrolysis method at different deposition times. The surface morphology, crystal structure and the cross-sectional analysis of the prepared ZnO films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). XRD analysis revealed that the ZnO films are polycrystalline in nature. Structural analysis exploiting cross-sectional TEM profile showed that the films composed of nano-particles and columnar structures growing perpendicular to the substrate. AFM revealed that the columnar structures have a higher surface roughness as compared to the nanoparticles. The effect of ZnO crystallite size and crystallinity on the gas sensing performance of hydrogen and methane gases was also evaluated. Sensing film based on ZnO nanoparticles has numerous advantages in terms of its reliability and high sensitivity. These sensing materials revealed an improved response to methane and hydrogen gases at room temperature due to their high surface area, indicating their possible application as a gas sensor.

  12. Crystalline nanostructured Cu doped ZnO thin films grown at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition technique and their characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drmosh, Qasem A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Rao, Saleem G.; Yamani, Zain H. [Laser Research Group, Department of Physics, Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Gondal, Mohammed A., E-mail: magondal@kfupm.edu.sa [Laser Research Group, Department of Physics, Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-04-01

    We report structural and optical properties of Cu doped ZnO (ZnO:Cu) thin films deposited on glass substrate at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method without pre and post annealing contrary to all previous reports. For preparation of (ZnO:Cu) composites pure Zn and Cu targets in special geometrical arrangements were exposed to 248 nm radiations generated by KrF exciter laser. The laser energy was 200 mJ with 10 Hz frequency and 20 ns pulse width. The effect of Cu concentration on crystal structure, morphology, and optical properties were investigated by XRD, FESEM and photoluminescence spectrometer respectively. A systematic shift in ZnO (0 0 2) peak with Cu concentration observed in XRD spectra demonstrated that Cu ion has been incorporated in ZnO lattice. Uniform film with narrow size range grains were observed in FESEM images. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra measured at room temperature revealed a systematic red shift in ZnO emission peak and decrease in the band gap with the increase in Cu concentration. These results entail that PLD technique can be realized to deposit high quality crystalline ZnO and ZnO:Cu thin films without pre and post heat treatment which is normally practiced worldwide for such structures.

  13. Aqueous chemical growth of free standing vertical ZnO nanoprisms, nanorods and nanodiskettes with improved texture co-efficient and tunable size uniformity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, S.D.G. [Bharath Niketan Engineering College, Department of Physics, Aundipatti (India); Ravi, G.; Mahalingam, T. [Alagappa University, Department of Physics, Karaikudi (India); Athimoolam, A. [Fatima Michael College of Engineering and Technology, Department of Physics, Madurai (India); Kulandainathan, M.A. [Central Electro Chemical Research Institute, Karaikudi (India)

    2011-12-15

    Tuning the morphology, size and aspect ratio of free standing ZnO nanostructured arrays by a simple hydrothermal method is reported. Pre-coated ZnO seed layers of two different thicknesses ({approx}350 nm or 550 nm) were used as substrates to grow ZnO nanostructures for the study. Various parameters such as chemical ambience, pH of the solution, strength of the Zn{sup 2+} atoms and thickness of seed bed are varied to analyze their effects on the resultant ZnO nanostructures. Vertically oriented hexagonal nanorods, multi-angular nanorods, hexagonal diskette and popcorn-like nanostructures are obtained by altering the experimental parameters. All the produced nanostructures were analysed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis and found to be grown in the (002) orientation of wurtzite ZnO. The texture co-efficient of ZnO layer was improved by combining a thick seed layer with higher cationic strength. Surface morphological studies reveal various nanostructures such as nanorods, diskettes and popcorn-like structures based on various preparation conditions. The optical property of the closest packed nanorods array was recorded by UV-VIS spectrometry, and the band gap value simulated from the results reflect the near characteristic band gap of ZnO. The surface roughness profile taken from the Atomic Force Microscopy reveals a roughness of less than 320 nm. (orig.)

  14. Imprinted ZnO nanostructure-based electrochemical sensing of calcitonin: a clinical marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Santanu; Roy, Ekta; Madhuri, Rashmi; Sharma, Prashant K

    2015-01-01

    The present work describes an exciting method for the selective and sensitive determination of calcitonin in human blood serum samples. Adopting the surface molecular imprinting technique, a calcitonin-imprinted polymer was prepared on the surface of the zinc oxide nanostructure. Firstly, a biocompatible tyrosine derivative as a monomer was grafted onto the surface of zinc oxide nanostructure followed by their polymerization on vinyl functionalized electrode surface by activator regenerated by electron transfer-atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET-ATRP) technique. Such sensor can predict the small change in the concentration of calcitonin in the human body and it may also consider to be as cost-effective, renewable, disposable, and reliable for clinical studies having no such cross-reactivity and matrix effect from real samples. The morphologies and properties of the proposed sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, difference pulse voltammetry and chronocoulometry. The linear working range was found to be 9.99 ng L(-1) to 7.919 mg L(-1) and the detection limit as low as 3.09±0.01 ng L(-1) (standard deviation for three replicate measurements) (S/N=3).

  15. Photocatalytic decomposition of dyes using ZnO doped SnO2 nanoparticles prepared by solvothermal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Rashad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO doped SnO2 has been successfully synthesized by the solvothermal method using methanol as organic solvent. The effect of ZnO/SnO2 molar ratios on the crystal structure, microstructure, optical and photocatalytic properties has been investigated. The synthesized samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N2 physical adsorption, FT-IR spectroscopy and UV–Vis spectroscopy. XRD results revealed that all diffraction peaks positions agree well with the reflection of a tetragonal rutile structure of SnO2 phase without extra peaks at 0.1ZnO:0.9SnO2 and 0.2ZnO:0.8SnO2 molar ratios. However, the secondary phase of ZnO at 0.3ZnO:0.7SnO2 molar ratio was investigated. TEM images revealed that the shape of SnO2 particles was spherical and the particle sizes of SnO2 and 0.3ZnO:0.7SnO2 molar ratio were 6.2 and 16.4 nm, respectively. The newly prepared samples have been tested by the determination of photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB. The results indicated that Zn2+ doping at 0.3ZnO:0.7 SnO2 molar ratio showed the highest photocatalytic activity for the MB photodegradation. The heightened photocatalytic activity of ZnO/SnO2 could be ascribed to the enhanced charge separation derived from the coupling of ZnO with SnO2 due to the potential energy differences between SnO2 and ZnO. The recycling tests demonstrated that 0.3ZnO:0.7 SnO2 photocatalysts were quite stable during that liquid–solid heterogeneous photocatalysis since no decrease in activity in the first four cycles was observed.

  16. Ferromagnetism in co-doped zno particles prepared by vaporization-condensation in a solar image furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, B. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus Universitari de Bellaterra, Bellaterra 08193 (Spain)]. E-mail: ben.martinez@icmab.es; Sandiumenge, F. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus Universitari de Bellaterra, Bellaterra 08193 (Spain); Balcells, Ll. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus Universitari de Bellaterra, Bellaterra 08193 (Spain); Fontcuberta, J. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus Universitari de Bellaterra, Bellaterra 08193 (Spain); Sibieude, F. [CNRS/Institut de science et genie des Materiaux et Procedes, BP5 Odeillo, 66125-cedex Font Romeu (France); Monty, C. [CNRS/Institut de science et genie des Materiaux et Procedes, BP5 Odeillo, 66125-cedex Font Romeu (France)

    2005-04-15

    We report on the structural and magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO particles prepared by vaporization-condensation in the solar furnace in Odeillo. X-ray diffraction data show no traces of Co segregation or any other phase different from ZnO. High-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) and transmision electron microscopy (TEM) techniques have also been used to characterize particles. Irrespective of their composition, the shape and size of the obtained particles, as well as their magnetic properties, clearly depend on the preparation conditions. The samples prepared in vacuum exhibit hysteretic behavior with low coercivity (about 100Oe) at T=5K and saturation magnetization well below that expecte for Co{sup 2+} in a tetrahedral crystal field. On the other hand, samples prepared at high pressure (70-100Torr inside the balloon) are paramagnetic.

  17. A Study on the Antibacterial Activity Of Zno Nanoparticles Prepared By Combustion Method against E Coli

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Crystalline Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized by low temperature solution combustion method using Oxalyl dihydrazide (ODH) as fuel, at much lower temperature (300oC). X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the formation of wurtzite-structured pure ZnO No peaks from any else phases of ZnO and no impurity peaks were observed, indicating the high purity of the obtained hexagonal ZnO nanocrystals. The antibacterial activity of the formed nano ZnO were investigated against...

  18. Voltammetric Sensor Based on Fe-doped ZnO and TiO2 Nanostructures-modified Carbon-paste Electrode for Determination of Levodopa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaraki Firooz, Azam; Hosseini Nia, Bahram; Beheshtian, Javad; Ghalkhani, Masoumeh

    2017-10-01

    In this study, undoped and 1 wt.% Fe-doped with ZnO, and TiO2 nanostructures were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method without using templates. The influence of the Fe dopant on structural, optical and electrochemical response was studied by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectra, photoluminescence spectra and electrochemical characterization system. The electrochemical response of the carbon paste electrode modified with synthesized nanostructures (undoped ZnO and TiO2 as well as doped with Fe ions) toward levodopa (L-Dopa) was studied. Cyclic voltammetry using provided modified electrodes showed electro-catalytic properties for electro-oxidation of L-Dopa and a significant reduction was observed in the anodic overvoltage compared to the bare electrode. The results indicated the presence of the sufficient dopants. The best response was obtained in terms of the current enhancement, overvoltage reduction, and reversibility improvement of the L-Dopa oxidation reaction under experimental conditions by the modified electrode with TiO2 nanoparticles doped with Fe ions.

  19. Electrical properties of ZnO varistors prepared by direct mixing of constituent phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Varistor samples containing different amounts of constituent phases were prepared by direct mixing of constituent phases. Detailed electrical characterization was performed to explain the influence of minor phases (spinel and intergranular phases on overall properties. Characterization included investigation of the non-linear coefficients (α, breakdown electric field (EB, leakage currents (JL, grain boundary barrier hight (ΦB and constant β from current-voltage characteristics, as well as calculation of activation energies for conduction (EA from ac impedance spectroscopy in the temperature interval 30-410°C. Varistors sintered at 1100 °C for 1 h showed pronounced differences in electrical properties depending on relative molar ratios of the phases. Results were discussed in the sense of possible reduction of the content of minor phases in ZnO varistors.

  20. Photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of ZnO powders prepared via sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerachai Sangchay

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on synthesis of ZnO powders via sol-gel method. The prepared powders were calcined at the temperature of 300, 500 and 700°C for 1 h with the heating rate of 10°C/min. The microstructures of the fabricated powders were characterized by SEM and XRD techniques, and the results show that all samples were the agglomeration and spherical shape and reveal only the wurtzite phase. The photocatalytic activities of the powders were also tested via the degradation of methylene blue (MB solution under UV irradiation. Finally, antibacterial activity efficiency was evaluated by the inactivation of E. coli. It was observed that higher calcined at the temperature gives better photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. With the highest calcined at the temperature investigated in this experiment (T700 condition the powders show photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of 80.06 and 99.00%, respectively.

  1. Preparation of dye-adsorbing ZnO thin films by electroless deposition and their photoelectrochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, Satoshi; Nishikiori, Hiromasa

    2013-09-25

    Dye-adsorbing ZnO thin films were prepared on ITO films by electroless deposition. The films were formed in an aqueous solution containing zinc nitrate, dimethylamine-borane, and eosin Y at 328 K. The film thickness was 1.2-2.0 μm. Thinner and larger-plane hexagonal columns were produced from the solution containing a higher concentration of eosin Y. A photocurrent was observed in the electrodes containing such ZnO films during light irradiation. The photoelectrochemical performance of the film was improved by increasing the concentration of eosin Y because of increases in the amount of absorbed photons and the electronic conductivity of ZnO.

  2. Hydrothermal Preparation of TiO2-ZnO Nano Core-Shell Structure with Quantum Size Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asl, Shahab Khameneh; Rad, M. Kianpour; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.

    2011-12-01

    Nano sized ZnO on TiO2 spherical core shells were prepared by using hydrothermal method. The particle size of initial TiO2 was around 20 nm, and the specific surface area was 50 m2/gr. Different ratios of TiO2 and ZnO applied to synthesize core shell particle. X-ray diffraction (XRD) used to phase characterization and crystalline size, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to morphology and microstructure investigations. S. Brunauer, P. H. Emmett and E. Teller method (BET) to find specific surface area, Diffusive UV-visible-NIR spectrometry to bang gap calculations. The results indicate that powders with a shell of zinc oxide in specific range have the quantum size effect. Titanium oxide and zinc oxide have similar band gap, but TiO2 could act as a template to produced 2D structure of ZnO with modified physical properties.

  3. Effect of growth time on Ti-doped ZnO nanorods prepared by low-temperature chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidier, Shaker A.; Hashim, M. R.; Al-Diabat, Ahmad M.; Bououdina, M.

    2017-04-01

    Ti-doped ZnO nanorod arrays were grown onto Si substrate using chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at 93 °C. To investigate the effect of time deposition on the morphological, and structural properties, four Ti-doped ZnO samples were prepared at various deposition periods of time (2, 3.5, 5, and 6.5 h). FESEM images displayed high-quality and uniform nanorods with a mean length strongly dependent upon deposition time; i.e. it increases for prolonged growth time. Additionally, EFTEM images reveal a strong erosion on the lateral side for the sample prepared for 6.5 h as compared to 5 h. This might be attributed to the dissolution reaction of ZnO with for prolonged growth time. XRD analysis confirms the formation of a hexagonal wurtzite-type structure for all samples with a preferred growth orientation along the c-axis direction. The (100) peak intensity was enhanced and then quenched, which might be the result of an erosion on the lateral side of nanorods as seen in EFTEM. This study confirms the important role of growth time on the morphological features of Ti-doped ZnO nanorods prepared using CBD.

  4. Hexagonal ZnO porous plates prepared from microwave synthesized layered zinc hydroxide sulphate via thermal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machovsky, Michal, E-mail: machovsky@ft.utb.cz [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcirnou 3685, 760 01 Zlin (Czech Republic); Polymer Centre, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T.G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin (Czech Republic); Kuritka, Ivo, E-mail: ivo@kuritka.net [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcirnou 3685, 760 01 Zlin (Czech Republic); Polymer Centre, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T.G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin (Czech Republic); Sedlak, Jakub, E-mail: j1sedlak@ft.utb.cz [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcirnou 3685, 760 01 Zlin (Czech Republic); Polymer Centre, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T.G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin (Czech Republic); Pastorek, Miroslav, E-mail: pastorek@ft.utb.cz [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcirnou 3685, 760 01 Zlin (Czech Republic); Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T.G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin (Czech Republic)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Zinc hydroxy sulphate was synthesized in 3 min via microwave hydrothermal route. • Zinc hydroxy sulphate was converted into mesh like porous ZnO by calcining at 900°. • The process of transformation is topotactic. - Abstract: Layered zinc hydroxide sulphate (ZHS) was prepared by microwave-assisted hydrothermal precipitation of zinc sulphate monohydrate with hexamethylenetetramine. Under ambient conditions, the structure of ZHS determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) was found to be a mixture of zinc hydroxide sulphate pentahydrate Zn{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}·5H{sub 2}O and tetrahydrate Zn{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}·4H{sub 2}O. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used for characterization of the prepared materials. Based on the interpretation of ZHS's thermal decomposition profile obtained by thermogravimetric analysis, ZnO of high purity was prepared by calcination at 900 °C for 2 h. The structure of the resulting ZnO was confirmed by the XRD. The morphology examination by scanning electron microscopy revealed a porous mesh-like ZnO structure developed from the ZHS precursor at the expense of mass removal due to the release of water and sulphate during the calcination.

  5. Heterogeneous lollipop-like V2O5/ZnO array: a promising composite nanostructure for visible light photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, C W; Rao, Y F; Alyamani, A; Chu, W; Chen, M J; Patterson, D A; Emanuelsson, E A C; Gao, W

    2010-07-20

    ZnO/V(2)O(5) core-shell nanostructures have been prepared by a two-step synthesis route through combined hydrothermal growth and magnetron sputtering. After annealing under oxygen ambience, a ZnO/V(2)O(5) heterogeneous lollipop-like nanoarray formed. The microstructure and crystal orientation of those nanolollipops were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), which show single crystal structure. The optical properties were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and showed quite different absorption curves for the as-deposited and annealed samples. The ZnO/V(2)O(5) nanolollipops demonstrated excellent photocatalytic activity in terms of decomposing 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP) under visible light, indicating their promising potential as catalysts for industrial wastewater and soil pollution treatments.

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Highly Oriented ZnO Film by Ultrasonic Assisted SILAR Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xiangdong; LI Xiaomin; YU Weidong

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasonic Assisted SILAR method ( UA-SILAR ) was developed and highly oriented ZnO films were deposited on the glass substrate by this novel technique. The crystallinity and microstructure of as-deposited ZnO films were analyzed by means of XRD and SEM. Moreover, the underling deposition mechanism of ZnO films was discussed. Results show that obtained ZnO films exhibit an excellent crystallinity with the preferential orientation of (002) plane. The crystalline grain of films is about 40nm in size, which is supported by both the Sherrer equation and the SEM result. However, the ZnO film is composed of numerous clustered particulates in the size of 200 to 300 nm, and each particulate is the compact aggregation of smaller ZnO crystalline grains. It is speculated that the excellent crystallinity of ZnO films may chiefly originate from the cavatition effect of the ultrasonic rinsing process.

  7. Influence of pH on ZnO nanocrystalline thin films prepared by sol–gel dip coating method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Sivakumar; V Senthil Kumar; N Muthukumarasamy; M Thambidurai; T S Senthil

    2012-06-01

    ZnO nanocrystalline thin films have been prepared on glass substrates by sol–gel dip coating method. ZnO thin films have been coated at room temperature and at four different pH values of 4, 6, 8 and 10. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed that ZnO nanocrystalline thin films are of hexagonal structure and the grain size was found to be in the range of 25–45 nm. Scanning electron microscopic images show that the surface morphology improves with increase of pH values. TEM analysis reveals formation of ZnO nanocrystalline with an average grain size of 44 nm. The compositional analysis results show that Zn and O are present in the sample. Optical band studies show that the films are highly transparent and exhibit a direct bandgap. The bandgap has been found to lie in the range of 3.14–3.32 eV depending on pH suggesting the formation of ZnO nanocrystalline thin films.

  8. Effects of Ar/O{sub 2} gas ratio on ZnO films prepared by using ion beam deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myoung; Jeon, Juwon; Jeon, Daewoo; Sahoo, Trilochan; Lee, Mihee; Lee, Ruda; Jang, Leewoon; Ju, Jinwoo; Lee, Inhwan [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Youngje; Kwak, Joonseop [Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    ZnO films were grown on (0001) sapphire substrates by using ion beam deposition. The effects of Ar/O{sub 2} gas ratio in the ion gun on the properties of the ZnO films were investigated. The films were deposited using various Ar/O{sub 2} gas ratios at room temperature (RT) and 400 .deg. C. All the ZnO films grown at RT showed a smooth and homogeneous surface with compressive strain. For an Ar/O{sub 2} gas ratio of 7/3, the ZnO film showed the lowest surface roughness and strain among the samples. At a higher substrate temperature of 400 .deg. C, the morphologies and the structural properties were more sensitive to the Ar/O{sub 2} gas ratios. Photoluminescence measurements showed that the samples deposited at RT exhibited strong deep level emissions in the visible range and near band edge emissions. On the other hand, the films prepared at 400 .deg. C displayed weaker defect related emissions. The present work suggests that the Ar/O{sub 2} gas ratio affects the stoichiometry and, thus, the structural and optical properties of the ZnO films.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanostructures with varying morphology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KHALIDA AKHTAR; NAILA ZUBAIR; SAIRA IKRAM; ZIA ULLAH KHAN; HINA KHALID

    2017-06-01

    Uniform fine particles of zinc oxide were prepared in three different morphologies and sizes by the controlled precipitation process from aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate in the presence of ethylene glycol. Ammonium hydroxidesolution was used as the precipitant. Composition of the reactant solution, pH and temperature significantly affected the particle uniformity with respect to shape and size. Uniformity in the particles morphological feature was achieved under a narrow set of experimental conditions. pH of the reactant solutions and isoelectric point of zinc oxide were considered the master variables, controlling the particle size. One of the batch of the as-prepared zinc oxide particles was calcined at 750$^{\\circ}$C, which increased its crystallinity, changed its various lattice parameters, Zn–O bond length and preferred orientationof the crystal $hkl$ planes. Calcination had little effect on the original morphology of the zinc oxide particles.

  10. Preparation and photocatalytic activities of 3D flower-like CuO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingfei, Fan; Qi, Lan; Meili, Zhang; Ximei, Fan; Zuowan, Zhou; Chaoliang, Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Hierarchical 3D flower-like CuO nanostructures on the Cu substrates were synthesized by a wet chemical method and subsequent heat treatment. The synthesis, structure and morphologies of obtained samples under different concentrations of Na2S2O3 were investigated in detail and the possible growth mechanisms of the 3D flower-like CuO nanostructures were discussed. Na2S2O3 plays a key role in the generation of the 3D flower-like CuO nanostructures. When the concentration of Na2S2O3 is more than 0.4 mol/L, the 3D flower-like CuO nanostructures can be prepared on the Cu foils. The photocatalytic performances were studied by analyzing the degradation of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solution in the presence of hydroxide water (H2O2). The 3D flower-like CuO nanostructures exhibit higher photocatalytic activity (96.2% degradation rate) than commercial CuO particles (36.3% degradation rate). The origin of the higher photocatalytic activity of the 3D flower-like CuO nanostructures was also discussed. Project supported by the High-Tech Research and Development Program of China (No. 2009AA03Z427).

  11. Controlled fabrication of oriented co-doped ZnO clustered nanoassemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barick, K C; Aslam, M; Dravid, Vinayak P; Bahadur, D

    2010-09-01

    Clustered nanoassemblies of Mn doped ZnO and co-doped ZnO (Mn, Sn co-doped ZnO; Mn, Sb co-doped ZnO; and Mn, Bi co-doped ZnO) were prepared by refluxing their respective precursors in diethylene glycol medium. The co-doping elements, Sn, Sb and Bi exist in multi oxidation states by forming Zn-O-M (M=Sb, Bi and Sn) bonds in hexagonal wurtzite nanostructure. The analyses of detailed structural characterization performed by XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), show that co-doping ions are successfully incorporated into the ZnO nanostructure and do not appear as precipitates or secondary phases. HRTEM analysis also confirmed the oriented attachment of nanocrystals as well as their defect structures. The formation/activation of higher amount of intrinsic host defects, for instance, oxygen vacancies in co-doped ZnO as compared to Mn doped ZnO sample is evident from Raman spectra. The doped and co-doped samples exhibit ferromagnetic like behavior at room temperature presumably due to the presence of defects. Specifically, it has been observed that the incorporation of dopant and co-dopants into ZnO structure can modulate the local electronic structure due to the formation/activation of defects and hence, cause significant changes in their structural, vibrational, optical and magnetic properties.

  12. Investigation of the electrical and ethanol-vapour sensing properties of the junctions based on ZnO nanostructured thin film doped with copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dimitre Tz.; Nikolaev, Nikolay K.; Papazova, Karolina I.; Krasteva, Lyudmila K.; Pronin, Igor A.; Averin, Igor A.; Bojinova, Assya S.; Georgieva, Angelina Ts.; Yakushova, Nadejda D.; Peshkova, Tatyana V.; Karmanov, Andrey A.; Kaneva, Nina V.; Moshnikov, Vyacheslav A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the investigation of ethanol sensing properties of the junctions composed by two plane-parallel nanostructured thin film electrodes. One of them consists of pure ZnO and the other one is composed of ZnO doped with Cu. The thickness of the lower layer was kept constant for all of the investigated structures. The thickness of the upper layer was varied. The samples were produced with different thickness of the top layer by changing the numbers of dip-coatings cycles. On produced junction structures we investigate the dependence of the potential difference on the temperature in the air flow and the changes that occur under exposure to flow of air with certain concentration of ethanol vapour. For ZnO/ZnO:Cu junction with top layer produced by two dip-coatings cycles, the potential difference under the air flow were getting more positive values up to 290 °C and then the values were decreasing, while for ZnO/ZnO:Cu junction with top layer produced by three dip-coatings cycles, the potential difference were getting more negative values with increasing the temperature. However in both cases the potential difference increases in value, when the structures are exposed to the vapour of ethanol. On this installation by the exchange the content of gas atmosphere at fixed temperature the ethanol concentration dependence of the potential difference of produced junction structures were evaluated. Both samples have shown nonlinear dependence of signal towards the concentration of ethanol vapour. The observed results for ZnO/ZnO:Cu were compared with those of the junctions composed by layers of ZnO doped with Ga and pure ZnO nanowires. The performed fractal analysis based on the SEM images showed a correlation between the fractal dimension of the surface of the upper layer of the samples and gas-sensitive properties of the sensing structures.

  13. Growth behavior and electrical performance of Ga-doped ZnO nanorod/p-Si heterojunction diodes prepared using a hydrothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Geun Chul; Hwang, Soo Min; Lim, Jun Hyung; Joo, Jinho

    2014-01-01

    The incorporation of foreign elements into ZnO nanostructures is of significant interest for tuning the structure and optical and electrical properties in nanoscale optoelectronic devices. In this study, Ga-doped 1-D ZnO nanorods were synthesized using a hydrothermal route, in which the doping content of Ga was varied from 0% to 10%. The pn heterojunction diodes based on the n-type Ga-doped ZnO nanorod/p-type Si substrates were constructed, and the effect of the Ga doping on the morphology, chemical bonding structure, and optical properties of the ZnO nanorods was systematically investigated as well as the diode performance. With increasing Ga content, the average diameter of the ZnO nanorods was increased, whereas the amount of oxygen vacancies was reduced. In addition, the Ga-doped ZnO nanorod/p-Si diodes showed a well-defined rectifying behavior in the I-V characteristics and an improvement in the electrical conductivity (diode performance) by the Ga doping, which was attributed to the increased charge carrier (electron) concentration and the reduced defect states in the nanorods by incorporating Ga. The results suggest that Ga doping is an effective way to tailor the morphology, optical, electronic, and electrical properties of ZnO nanorods for various applications such as field-effect transistors (FETs), light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and laser diodes (LDs).

  14. Effects of Cr-doping on the photoluminescence and ferromagnetism at room temperature in ZnO nanomaterials prepared by soft chemistry route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Baiqi [School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China) and State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Electron Microscopy Laboratory, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: wbqpaper@126.com; Iqbal, Javed [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shan Xudong [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, and Electron Microscopy Laboratory, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Huang Guowei [School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Fu Honggang [The Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Material Sciences, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Yu Ronghai [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yu Dapeng [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, and Electron Microscopy Laboratory, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: yudp@pku.edu.cn

    2009-01-15

    The pure and Cr-doped ZnO nanomaterials were prepared by soft chemistry route. The crystallinity and morphology of as-prepared ZnO nanomaterials were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), which show that Cr-doping could influence crystal and improve the oriented growth of ZnO nanomaterials. The amount of contents and valence state of Cr ions were investigated by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which demonstrate that the Cr ions are uniformly doped about 2 atm% in each nanowire and are in +3 valence state in doped ZnO nanomaterials. The effect of Cr-doping on the photoluminescence (PL) and magnetic properties of as-prepared ZnO nanomaterials were principally investigated at room temperature. The Cr-doping can adjust the energy level of ZnO nanocrystal and increase the amount of defects and oxygen vacancies, which lead to shift in the emission peak position in ultraviolet (UV) region and enhance the PL performance in visible light (VL) region of ZnO nanomaterials. In addition, the presence of Cr dopant in ZnO structures establishes the room-temperature ferromagnetism, which is possibly related to the existence of defects and oxygen vacancies as well as due to exchange interaction between Cr 3d and O 2p spin moments.

  15. The effect of solvent on the morphology of ZnO nanostructure assembly by dielectrophoresis and its device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ferrara, Vera; Pacheri Madathil, Aneesh; De Girolamo Del Mauro, Anna; Massera, Ettore; Polichetti, Tiziana; Rametta, Gabriella

    2012-07-01

    Different zinc oxide nanostructured morphologies were grown on photolithographically patterned silicon/silicon dioxide substrates by dielectrophoresis technique using different solvents, such as water and ethanol, obtaining rod-like and net-like nanostructures, respectively. The formation of continuous nanostructures was confirmed by scanning electron microscopic, atomic force microscopic images, and electrical characterizations. The rod-like zinc oxide nanostructures were observed in the 10 μm gap between the fingers in the pattern, whereas net-like nanostructures were formed independently of microgap. A qualitative study about the mechanism for the assembly of zinc oxide continuous nanostructures was presented. Devices were electrically characterized, at room temperature, in controlled environment to measure the conductance behavior in ultraviolet and humidity environment. Devices based on zinc oxide nanostructures grown in ethanol medium show better responses under both ultraviolet and humidity, because of the net-like structure with high surface-to-volume ratio.

  16. 两步法实现ZnO纳米结构的集成及光学性质研究%Integration and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanostructures by Two-step Thermal Evaporation Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范东华; 申冬玲; 张榕

    2009-01-01

    Integration of ZnO nanotubes and nanorods is realized through simple two-step thermal evaporation deposition process. SEM image indicates that a number of nanowires grow from ~200℃ Si substrate via layer-by-layer growth model. EDS and XRD results display that one-step-prepared samples consist of plentiful Zn and little oxide. SEM and TEM images of samples prepared at step two testify that at high temperature, integration of ZnO nanotubes and nanorods is realized using the one-step-prepared samples as substrate. TEM results indicate that the nanorods on the surface of nanotubes are single crystal. The variety of work pressures may control the size and morphology of nanorods located on the surface of nanotubes, resulting in the formation of ZnO nanostructures with controllable morphologies. The morn-temperature photoluminescence spectra show that the optical properties of samples can be modulated by controllable morphology.%通过简单的两步热蒸发方法成功地实现了ZnO纳米管和纳米棒的集成.SEM结果表明,大量的纳米线以层层生长的机理从约200℃低温Si基片表面生长出来.EDS和XRD结果进一步表明第一步所制备的样品主要是由大量Zn和少量Zn的氧化物组成.第二步所制备样品的SEM和TME图像证实了在高温下以第一步所制备的样品作为第二步的基片,可实现纳米管和纳米棒的集成.TEM图像表明,纳米管的表面所生长的纳米棒是单晶的.通过改变工作气压,可调控纳米管表面纳米棒的尺寸和形貌,实现ZnO纳米结构可控生长.室温光致发光谱表明,样品的光学性质可通过可控的形貌来调制.

  17. Nanostructured Sulfide Composite Coating Prepared by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关耀辉

    2006-01-01

    Nanostructured FeS-SiC coating was deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The microstructure and phase composition of the coating were characterized with SEM and XRD, respectively. In addition, the size distribution of the reconstituted powders and the porosity of the coating have been measured. It was found that the reconstitiuted powers with sizes in the range of 20 to 80 μm had excellent flowability and were suitable for plasma spraying process. The assprayed FeS-SiC composite coating exhibited a bimodal distribution with small grains (30~80nm) and large grains (100~200nm). The coating was mainly composed of FeS and SiC, a small quantity of Fe1-x S and oxide were also found. The porosity of the coating was approximately 19 %.

  18. Electrically conductive nanostructured silver doped zinc oxide (Ag:ZnO) prepared by solution-immersion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afaah, A. N.; Asib, N. A. M.; Aadila, A.; Mohamed, R.; Rusop, M.; Khusaimi, Z.

    2016-07-01

    p-type ZnO films have been fabricated on ZnO-seeded glass substrate, using AgNO3 as a source of silver dopant by facile solution-immersion. Cleaned glass substrate were seeded with ZnO by mist-atomisation, and next the seeded substrates were immersed in Ag:ZnO solution. The effects of Ag doping concentration on the Ag-doped ZnO have been investigated. The substrates were immersed in different concentrations of Ag dopant with variation of 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 at. %. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). In order to investigate the electrical properties, the films were characterized by Current-Voltage (I-V) measurement. FESEM micrographs showed uniform distribution of nanostructured ZnO and Ag:ZnO. Besides, the electrical properties of Ag-doped ZnO were also dependent on the doping concentration. The I-V measurement result indicated the electrical properties of 1 at. % Ag:ZnO thin film owned highest electrical conductivity.

  19. Influence of growth temperature on morphological, structural and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanostructure thin layers and powders deposited by thermal evaporation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yaser Arjmand; Hosein Eshghi

    2014-12-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were grown as thin films on the p-silicon (100) wafer and also in the form of powder inside the boat by heating (550–950 °C) zinc powder in the presence of oxygen without any catalyst or additives, using the thermal evaporation method. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy images, as well as energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction spectra, indicate that although the grown samples are covered with various nanostructure shapes, such as nanowires, nanorods, flower-like nanostructures andmicrocages, all have a reasonable stoichiometric composition in the polycrystalline wurtzite phase along (002) in the thin layer samples and along (101) in the powder samples within the boat. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectra of the thin layer samples revealed not only the ultraviolet (UV) emission blue shift of the samples with an increase in the growth temperature, but also found that the emission intensity ratio of UV/visible (∼510 nm) has a maximum and minimum, corresponding to that grown at 750 and 950 °C, respectively.

  20. Physical and Optical Properties of SnO2/ZnO Film Prepared by an RF Magnetron Sputtering Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jooyoung; Lee, Ikjae; Kim, Jaeyong

    2016-03-01

    Al-, Ga-, and In-doped ZnO thin films are widely used in many technical applications, such as in solar cells and on transparent conducting oxides having high optical transmission and low resistivity values. We prepared SnO2-doped ZnO thin films on quartz substrates by using an RF magnetron sputtering method at a substrate temperature of 350 degrees C. The ratio of SnO2 to ZnO was varied from 0 to 5:5 to investigate the effects of Sn on structure and physical properties of ZnO film. The samples were synthesized at a base pressure of 1.3 x 10(-4) Pa with a working pressure of 1.3 Pa and an RF power of 40 W under Ar atmosphere. The results of X-ray diffraction data revealed that pure ZnO films exhibit a strong (002) orientation and a polycrystalline wurzite hexagonal structure. However, as increasing the SnO2 concentration, ZnO transforms to an amorphous phase. The results of the Hall-effect-measurement system revealed that the resistivity values of the films increased as increasing the doping level of SnO2. The AFM data of morphology and microstructure showed that the grain size decreased with increasing SnO2 contents while the total area of grain the boundary increased. The average value of the transmittance of the films in the visible light range was 80-95% and was shifted toward to the shorter wavelengths of the absorption edges with increasing SnO2 contents.

  1. Growth Mechanism of Different Morphologies of ZnO Crystals Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Wang; Juan Xie; Kangping Yan; Ming Duan

    2011-01-01

    Different morphologies of zinc oxide (ZnO), including microrods, hexagonal pyramid-like rods and flower-like rod aggregates, had been synthesized, respectively, on glass substrates by controlling the reaction conditions (such as precursor concentration, reaction time and pH value) of hydrothermal method. The morphologies of the as-obtained ZnO were observed with scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Also, the crystalline natures of different ZnO crystals were analyzed with X-ray diffraction. The possible growth mechanism of ZnO crystals with different morphologies was discussed.

  2. A facile and fast route to prepare antimony (Sb) nanostructures without additives

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, M.A.

    2011-12-01

    Herein, we report a safe, low cost and reproducible approach for the synthesis of antimony (Sb) nanostructures with most of them having prism like morphology and having well defined faces in the range of ∼70210 nm. The organics free approach is based on a reaction of antimony powder and pure water at ∼210 °C without using any harmful additives and amines. The XRD pattern confirmed the composition and crystallinity of the grown nanostructures. The reported method besides being organics free is economical, fast and free of pollution, which will make it suitable for large scale production. Furthermore, it is well expected that such a technique could be extended to prepare many other important metal and metal oxide nanostructures. The prospects of the process are bright and promising. © 2012 Sharif University of Technology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A new sonochemical method for preparation of different morphologies of CuInS2 nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Omid Amiri; Masoud Salavati-Niasari; Mehdi Mousavi-Kamazani; Davood Ghanbari; Mohammad Sabet; Kamal Saberyan

    2014-08-01

    CuInS2 nanostructures were synthesized by sonochemical route using (bis(salicylate)copper(II)) as a new copper precursor. The effects of different parameters such as sulphur source, solvent, power of irradiation and reaction time on the morphology of the products were investigated. Nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) and Fourier transform infrared (FT–IR) spectroscopy. CuInS2 nanostructures paste was prepared by doctor’s blade technique on the transparent conductive oxide (TCO). The fill factor (FF), open circuit voltage (oc), and short circuit current (sc) were obtained by I–V characterization.

  4. Substrate Temperature Effect on Charge Transport Performance of ZnO Electron Transport Layer Prepared by a Facile Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis in Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel ultrasonic spray pyrolysis for high-quality ZnO films based on zinc-ammonia solution was achieved in air. To investigate the structural and optical properties as well as the performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs, ZnO films at different substrate temperatures and thicknesses were prepared. The performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM based PSC was found to be improved due to the ZnO films. The crystal structure and roughness of the ZnO films fabricated at different temperatures were found to affect the performance of PSCs. The optimized power conversion efficiency was found to be maximum for PSCs with ZnO films prepared at 200°C. The growth process of these ZnO films is very simple, cost-effective, and compatible for larger-scale PSC preparation. The precursor used for spray pyrolysis is environmentally friendly and helps to achieve ZnO film preparation at a relative low temperature.

  5. Preparation and properties on hollow nano-structured smoke material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-cui; Dai, Meng-yan; Fang, Guo-feng; Shi, Wei-dong; Cheng, Xiang; Liu, Hai-feng; Zhang, Tong

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, the weapon systems of laser guidance and infrared (IR) imaging guidance have been widely used in modern warfare because of their high precision and strong anti-interference. Notwithstanding, military smoke, as a rapid and effective passive jamming means, can effectively counteract the attack of enemy precision-guided weapons by scattering and absorbability. Conventional smoke has good attenuation capability only to visible light (0.4-0.76 μm), but hardly any effect to other electromagnetic wave band. The weapon systems of laser guidance and IR imaging guidance usually work in broad band, including near IR (1-3 μm), middle IR (3-5 μm), far IR (8-14 μm), and so on. Accordingly, exploiting and using new efficient obscurant materials, which is one of the important factors that develop smoke technology, have become a focus and attracted more interests around the world. Then nano-structured materials that are developing very quickly have turned into our new choice. Hollow nano-structured materials (HNSM) have many special properties because of their nano-size wall-thickness and sub-micron grain-size. After a lot of HNSM were synthesized in this paper, their physical and chemical properties, including grain size, phase composition, microstructure, optical properties and resistivity were tested and analysed. Then the experimental results of the optical properties showed that HNSM exhibit excellent wave-absorbing ability in ultraviolet, visible and infrared regions. On the basis of the physicochemmical properties, HNSM are firstly applied in smoke technology field. And the obscuration performance of HNSM smoke was tested in smoke chamber. The testing waveband included 1.06μm and 10.6μm laser, 3-5μm and 8-14μm IR radiation. Then the main parameters were obtained, including the attenuation rate, the transmission rate, the mass extinction coefficient, the efficiency obscuring time, and the sedimentation rate, etc. The main parameters of HNSM smoke were

  6. Preparation, characterization of Sb-doped ZnO nanocrystals and their excellent solar light driven photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Ramzi; Othmen, Walid Ben Haj; Elhouichet, Habib; Férid, Mokhtar

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, undoped and antimony (Sb) doped ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) were prepared by a simple and economical sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the purity of the obtained phase and its high crystallinity. Raman analysis confirms the hexagonal Wurtzite ZnO structure. According to the diffuse reflectance results, the band gap was found to decrease up to 3% of Sb doping (ZSb3 sample). The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements reveal that Sb ions occupied both Zn and interstitials sites. The successful substitution of antimony in ZnO lattice suggests the formation of the complex (SbZn-2 VZn) acceptor level above the valence band. Particularly for ZSb3 sample, the UV photoluminescence (PL) band presents an obvious red-shift attributed to the formation of this complex. Rhodamine B (RhB) was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of Sb-doped ZnO NCs under sunlight irradiation. It was found that oxygen vacancies play a major role in the photocatalytic process by trapping the excited electrons and inhibiting the radiative recombination. During the photocatalytic mechanism, the Sb doping, expressed through the apparition of the (SbZn-2 VZn) correspondent acceptor level, enhances the sunlight absorption within the ZnO band gap, which stimulates the generation of hydroxyl radicals and promotes the photocatalytics reaction rates. Such important contribution of the hydroxyl radicals was confirmed experimentally when using ethanol as scavenger in the photocatalytic reaction. The photodegradation experiments reveal that ZSb3 sample exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity among all the prepared samples and presents a good cycling stability and reusability. The influence of the initial pH in the photodegradation efficiency was also monitored and discussed.

  7. Preparation and characterization of electrodeposited ZnO and ZnO:Co nanorod films for heterojunction diode applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caglar, Yasemin, E-mail: yasemincaglar@anadolu.edu.tr [Anadolu University, Science Faculty, Physics Department, Eskisehir (Turkey); Arslan, Andaç [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Art and Science Faculty, Chemistry Department, Eskisehir (Turkey); Ilican, Saliha [Anadolu University, Science Faculty, Physics Department, Eskisehir (Turkey); Hür, Evrim [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Art and Science Faculty, Chemistry Department, Eskisehir (Turkey); Aksoy, Seval; Caglar, Mujdat [Anadolu University, Science Faculty, Physics Department, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Undoped and Co-doped ZnO films were deposited on p-Si by electrodeposition method. •The effects of Co doping on some properties of ZnO films were investigated. •ZnO morphology was converted uniform multi-oriented rods with incorporation of Co. •Co-doped ZnO nanorod films showed a multi-oriented spear-like structure. -- Abstract: Well-aligned undoped and Co-doped nanorod ZnO films were grown by electrochemical deposition onto p-Si substrates from an aqueous route. Aqueous solution of Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}⋅6H{sub 2}O and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) were prepared using triple distilled water. Two different atomic ratios of Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}⋅6H{sub 2}O were used as a dopant element. Electrodepositions were carried out in a conventional three electrode cell for the working electrode (p-Si), reference electrode (Ag/AgCl, sat.) and counter electrode (platin wire). The effects of Co doping on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of ZnO films were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement showed that the undoped ZnO nanorod film was crystallized in the hexagonal wurtzite phase and presented a preferential orientation along the c-axis. Only one peak, corresponding to the (0 0 2) phase, appeared on the diffractograms. The lattice parameters and texture coefficient values were calculated. The nanorods were confirmed by the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) measurements. The FE-SEM image showed that the ZnO nanorods grow uniformly on the substrates, providing a surface with fairly homogeneous roughness. The surface morphology was transformed into uniform multi-oriented rods with incorporation of Co. Co-doped ZnO nanorod films showed a multi-oriented spear-like structure. The diffuse reflectance spectra of the films were measured and the optical band gap values were determined using Kubelka–Munk theory. The van der Pauw method was used to measure the sheet resistance of the films. The sheet resistance

  8. Preparation and Ethanol Sensing Properties of ZnO Nanoparticles via a Novel Sol-Gel Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi Daryakenari, A.; AHMADI DARYAKENARI M.; Bahari, Y.; Omivar, H.

    2012-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles were prepared using a novel sol-gel method. Chemical reactions were carried out between zinc acetate and methanol under ambient conditions using monoethanol amine (MEA) as surfactant and subsequent heating at 2 0 0 ∘ C . The powders were calcined, pressed into pellets, and presintered. The properties of the product were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. For gas sensing experiment, etha...

  9. Nanostructured ZnO in a Metglas/ZnO/Hemoglobin Modified Electrode to Detect the Oxidation of the Hemoglobin Simultaneously by Cyclic Voltammetry and Magnetoelastic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagasti, Ariane; Bouropoulos, Nikolaos; Kouzoudis, Dimitris; Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos; Topoglidis, Emmanuel; Gutiérrez, Jon

    2017-07-25

    In the present work, a nanostructured ZnO layer was synthesized onto a Metglas magnetoelastic ribbon to immobilize hemoglobin (Hb) on it and study the Hb's electrochemical behavior towards hydrogen peroxide. Hb oxidation by H₂O₂ was monitored simultaneously by two different techniques: Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Magnetoelastic Resonance (MR). The Metglas/ZnO/Hb system was simultaneously used as a working electrode for the CV scans and as a magnetoelastic sensor excited by external coils, which drive it to resonance and interrogate it. The ZnO nanoparticles for the ZnO layer were grown hydrothermally and fully characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL). Additionally, the ZnO layer's elastic modulus was measured using a new method, which makes use of the Metglas substrate. For the detection experiments, the electrochemical cell was performed with a glass vial, where the three electrodes (working, counter and reference) were immersed into PBS (Phosphate Buffer Solution) solution and small H₂O₂ drops were added, one at a time. CV scans were taken every 30 s and 5 min after the addition of each drop and meanwhile a magnetoelastic measurement was taken by the external coils. The CV plots reveal direct electrochemical behavior of Hb and display good electrocatalytic response to the reduction of H₂O₂. The measured catalysis currents increase linearly with the H₂O₂ concentration in a wide range of 25-350 μM with a correlation coefficient 0.99. The detection limit is 25-50 μM. Moreover, the Metglas/ZnO/Hb electrode displays rapid response (30 s) to H₂O₂, and exhibits good stability and reproducibility of the measurements. On the other hand, the magnetoelastic measurements show a small linear mass increase versus the H₂O₂ concentration with a slope of 152 ng/μM, which is probably due to H₂O₂ adsorption in ZnO during the electrochemical reaction. No such effects were detected during

  10. Preparation of TiO2 Nanocrystallite Powders Coated with 9 mol% ZnO for Cosmetic Applications in Sunscreens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Chin Wang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of TiO2 nanocrystallite powders coated with and without 9 mol% ZnO has been studied for cosmetic applications in sunscreens by a co-precipitation process using TiCl4 and Zn(NO32·6H2O as starting materials. XRD results show that the phases of anatase TiO2 and rutile TiO2 coexist for precursor powders without added ZnO (T-0Z and calcined at 523 to 973 K for 2 h. When the T-0Z precursor powders are calcined at 1273 K for 2 h, only the rutile TiO2 appears. In addition, when the TiO2 precursor powders contain 9 mol% ZnO (T-9Z are calcined at 873 to 973 K for 2 h, the crystallized samples are composed of the major phase of rutile TiO2 and the minor phases of anatase TiO2 and Zn2Ti3O8. The analyses of UV/VIS/NIR spectra reveal that the absorption of the T-9Z precursor powders after being calcined has a red-shift effect in the UV range with increasing calcination temperature. Therefore, the TiO2 nanocrystallite powders coated with 9 mol% ZnO can be used as the attenuate agent in the UV-A region for cosmetic applications in sunscreens.

  11. Preparation of photocatalytic ZnO nanoparticles and application in photochemical degradation of betamethasone sodium phosphate using taguchi approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giahi, M.; Farajpour, G.; Taghavi, H.; Shokri, S.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a sol-gel method for the first time. Taguchi method was used to identify the several factors that may affect degradation percentage of betamethasone sodium phosphate in wastewater in UV/K2S2O8/nano-ZnO system. Our experimental design consisted of testing five factors, i.e., dosage of K2S2O8, concentration of betamethasone sodium phosphate, amount of ZnO, irradiation time and initial pH. With four levels of each factor tested. It was found that, optimum parameters are irradiation time, 180 min; pH 9.0; betamethasone sodium phosphate, 30 mg/L; amount of ZnO, 13 mg; K2S2O8, 1 mM. The percentage contribution of each factor was determined by the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that irradiation time; pH; amount of ZnO; drug concentration and dosage of K2S2O8 contributed by 46.73, 28.56, 11.56, 6.70, and 6.44%, respectively. Finally, the kinetics process was studied and the photodegradation rate of betamethasone sodium phosphate was found to obey pseudo-first-order kinetics equation represented by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.

  12. Preparation of TiO₂ nanocrystallite powders coated with 9 mol% ZnO for cosmetic applications in sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Horng-Huey; Chen, Hui-Ting; Yen, Feng-Ling; Lu, Wan-Chen; Kuo, Chih-Wei; Wang, Moo-Chin

    2012-01-01

    The preparation of TiO(2) nanocrystallite powders coated with and without 9 mol% ZnO has been studied for cosmetic applications in sunscreens by a co-precipitation process using TiCl(4) and Zn(NO(3))(2)·6H(2)O as starting materials. XRD results show that the phases of anatase TiO(2) and rutile TiO(2) coexist for precursor powders without added ZnO (T-0Z) and calcined at 523 to 973 K for 2 h. When the T-0Z precursor powders are calcined at 1273 K for 2 h, only the rutile TiO(2) appears. In addition, when the TiO(2) precursor powders contain 9 mol% ZnO (T-9Z) are calcined at 873 to 973 K for 2 h, the crystallized samples are composed of the major phase of rutile TiO(2) and the minor phases of anatase TiO(2) and Zn(2)Ti(3)O(8). The analyses of UV/VIS/NIR spectra reveal that the absorption of the T-9Z precursor powders after being calcined has a red-shift effect in the UV range with increasing calcination temperature. Therefore, the TiO(2) nanocrystallite powders coated with 9 mol% ZnO can be used as the attenuate agent in the UV-A region for cosmetic applications in sunscreens.

  13. Preparation of ZnO Nanospheres and Their Applications in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-Zhe; WU Li-Hui; LIU Yan-Ping; XIE Er-Qing; YAN De; CHEN Jiang-Tao

    2009-01-01

    ZnO nanospheres are synthesized by a two-step self-assembly method.X-ray diffraction pattern and Raman scattering spectra measurements show that all the samples present a typical wurtzite structure.A regular sphere shape is inspected by field emission scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope for the samples.It is shown that the as-synthesized ZnO nanosphere is composed of numbers of primary particles with size of around 10 nm.A possible growth mechanism for the two-step self-assembly ZnO nanosphere is proposed.After applying the ZnO nanospheres to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs),a 117% increase of the overall light to electricity conversion efficiency η is observed compared with that of the ZnO nanoparticles based DSSCs.Associated with the UV-vis results,light scattering is assigned to the great improvement of η.

  14. Structural and Morphological Properties of Nanostructured ZnO Particles Grown by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Method with Horizontal Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Flores-Carrasco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized in a horizontal furnace at 500°C using different zinc nitrate hexahydrate concentrations (0.01 and 0.1 M as reactive solution by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The physical-chemical properties of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles have been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. With the TGA is has optimized the temperature at which the initial reactive (Zn(NO32·6H2O, is decomposed completely to give way to its corresponding oxide, ZnO. SEM revealed secondary particles with a quasispherical shape that do not change significantly with the increasing of precursor solution concentration as well as some content of the broken spheres. Increasing the precursor solution concentration leads to the increase in the average size of ZnO secondary particles from 248±73 to 470±160 nm; XRD reveals the similar tendency for the crystallite size which changes from 23±4 to 45±4 nm. HRTEM implies that the secondary particles are with hierarchical structure composed of primary nanosized subunits. These results showed that the precursor concentration plays an important role in the evolution on the size, stoichiometry, and morphology of ZnO nanoparticles.

  15. Electrochemical deposition of nano-structured ZnO on the nanocrystalline TiO2 film and its characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    One-dimensional structure of ZnO nanorod arrays on nanocrystalline TiO2/ITO conductive glass substrates has been fabricated by cathodic reduction electrochemical deposition methods in the three-electrode system,with zinc nitrate aqueous solution as the electrolyte,and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra.The effects of film substrates,electrolyte concentration,deposition time,and methenamine (HMT) addition on ZnO deposition and its luminescent property were investigated in detail.The results show that,compared with on the ITO glass substrate,ZnO is much easily achieved by electrochemical deposition on the TiO2 nanoparticle thin films.ZnO is hexagonally structured wurtzite with the c-axis preferred growth,and further forms nanorod arrays vertically on the substrates.It is favorable to the growth of ZnO to extend the deposition time,to increase the electrolyte concentration,and to add a certain amount of HMT in the system,consequently improving the crystallinity and orientation of ZnO arrays.It is demonstrated that the obtained ZnO arrays with high crystallinity and good orientation display strong band-edge UV (375 nm) and weak surface-state-related green (520 nm) emission peaks.

  16. Bio-inspired synthesis of ZnO polyhedral single crystals under eggshell membrane direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Huilan; Song, Fang; Dong, Qun; Li, Tuoqi; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Di [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai (China)

    2011-07-15

    A simple and versatile technique was developed to prepare hierarchical ZnO single crystals by introducing eggshell membrane (ESM) to a bio-inspired approach. Based on the control of nucleation and gestation, ZnO nanocrystallites could grow at three dimensions into polyhedral single crystals through a surface sol-gel process followed by a calcination treatment. Different from traditional wet chemical techniques, our synthetic process depends more on the restrictive or directing functions of the ESM biomacromolecules. The hierarchical ZnO nanostructures doped with polyhedral single crystallites could be desirable for catalysts, photoelectrochemical devices, especially solar cells. (orig.)

  17. Effect of Sn Doping on the Properties of Nano-Structured ZnO Thin Films Deposited by Co-Sputtering Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Rahman, K S; Haque, F; Khan, N A; Akhtaruzzaman, M; Alam, M M; Ruslan, H; Sopian, K; Amin, N

    2015-11-01

    In this study, tin doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Sn) nano-structured thin films were successfully deposited by co-sputtering of ZnO and Sn on top of glass substrate. The effect of Sn doping on the microstructure, phase, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the films were extensively investigated by means of XRD, EDX, SEM, AFM, Hall Effect measurement, and UV-Vis spectrometry. The results showed that the undoped ZnO film exhibited preferred orientation along the c-axis of the hexagonal wurtzite structure. With increase of Sn doping, the peak position of the (002) plane was shifted to the higher 20 values, and ultimately changed to amorphous structure. The absorption edge was shifted to blue region which confirmed the excitonic quantum confinement effect in the films. Consequently, improved surface morphology with optical bandgap, reduced average particle size, reduced resistivity, enhanced Hall mobility and carrier concentration were observed in the doped films after vacuum annealing. Among all of the as-deposited and annealed ZnO:Sn films investigated in this study, annealed film doped with 8 at.% of Sn concentration exhibited the best properties with a bandgap of 3.84 eV, RMS roughness of 2.51 nm, resistivity of 2.36 ohm-cm, and Hall mobility of 83 cm2 V(-1) s(-1).

  18. PLD prepared nanostructured Pt-CeO2 thin films containing ionic platinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorokhta, M.; Khalakhan, I.; Matolínová, I.; Nováková, J.; Haviar, S.; Lančok, J.; Novotný, M.; Yoshikawa, H.; Matolín, V.

    2017-02-01

    The composition of nanostructured Pt-CeO2 films on graphite substrates prepared by pulsed laser deposition has been investigated by means of hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The influence of morphology of the graphite substrates was investigated with respect to the relative concentrations of ionic and metallic Pt species in the films. It was found that the degree of Pt2+ enrichment is directly related to the surface morphology of graphite substrates. In particular, the deposition of Pt-CeO2 films on rough graphite substrate etched in oxygen plasma yielded nanostructured Pt-CeO2 catalyst films with high surface area and high Pt2+/Pt0 ratio. The presented results demonstrate that PLD is a suitable method for the preparation of thin Pt-CeO2 catalyst films for fuel cell applications.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-Structured SiO2 Thin Films on Carbon Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Chun XIONG; Dong Zhou YAN; Gang WEI

    2003-01-01

    Nano-structured SiO2 thin films were prepared on the surface of carbon steel for the first time by LPD. The compositions of the films were analyzed by XPS, and the surface morphology of the thin films were observed by AFM. The thin films were constituted by compact particles of SiO2, and there was no Fe in the films. In the process of film forming, the SiO2 colloid particles were deposited or absorbed directly onto the surface of carbon steel substrates that were activated by acid solution containing inhibitor, and corrosion of the substrates was avoided. The nano-structured SiO2 thin films that were prepared had excellent protective efficiency to the carbon steel.

  20. White-light emission of ZnO nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shi-Shuai; Zhang Zhong; Hang Jin-Zhao; Feng Xiu-Peng; Liu Ru-Xi

    2011-01-01

    In:ZnO nanoparticles are prepared by the sol-gel process.The ratios of In/(Zn+In) are 0%,5%,8%,10%,and 15%,respectively.Crystal phase structures and optoelectronic properties of these samples are characterized and the chromaticity coordinates of different samples are also calculated in CIE-XYZ colour system.The results show that preferred growth direction of ZnO changes from (002) plane to (001) plane and interplanar distance becomes shorter.When the doping amount of In is 5%,Zn atoms are completely replaced by In atoms.The resistivities of the samples first decrease,then increase afterwards with the increase of the amount of In.With the increase of In,the ultraviolet emission is redshifted and new peaks occur at 465 nm,535 nm,and 630 nm.The sample with 10% indium has white-light emission.The band structures of samples with 0% and 12.5% indium are investigated by the first principle method.The mechanism of white emission is discussed from the viewpoint of additional energy levels.

  1. Morphologies, Preparations and Applications of Layered Double Hydroxide Micro-/Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingdong Dong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs, also well-known as hydrotalcite-like layered clays, have been widely investigated in the fields of catalysts and catalyst support, anion exchanger, electrical and optical functional materials, flame retardants and nanoadditives. This feature article focuses on the progress in micro-/nanostructured LDHs in terms of morphology, and also on the preparations, applications, and perspectives of the LDHs with different morphologies.

  2. Structure and properties of Co-doped ZnO films prepared by thermal oxidization under a high magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guojian; Wang, Huimin; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Zhen; Du, Jiaojiao; Ma, Yonghui

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a high magnetic field applied during oxidation on the structure, optical transmittance, resistivity, and magnetism of cobalt (Co)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films prepared by oxidizing evaporated Zn/Co bilayer thin films in open air was studied. The relationship between the structure and properties of films oxidized with and without an applied magnetic field was analyzed. The results show that the high magnetic field obviously changed the structure and properties of the Co-doped ZnO films. The Lorentz force of the high magnetic field suppressed the oxidation growth on nanowhiskers. As a result, ZnO nanowires were formed without a magnetic field, whereas polyhedral particles formed under a 6 T magnetic field. This morphology variation from dendrite to polyhedron caused the transmittance below 1,200 nm of the film oxidized under a magnetic field of 6 T to be much lower than that of the film oxidized without a magnetic field. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy indicated that the high magnetic field suppressed Co substitution in the ZnO lattice, increased the concentration of oxygen vacancies, and changed the chemical state of Co. The increased concentration of oxygen vacancies affected the temperature dependence of the resistivity of the film oxidized under a magnetic field of 6 T compared with that of the film oxidized without a magnetic field. The changes of oxygen vacancy concentration and Co state caused by the application of the high magnetic field also increase the ferromagnetism of the film at room temperature. All of these results indicate that a high magnetic field is an effective tool to modify the structure and properties of ZnO thin films.

  3. A Study on the Antibacterial Activity Of Zno Nanoparticles Prepared By Combustion Method against E Coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durga Prasad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Crystalline Zinc Oxide (ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by low temperature solution combustion method using Oxalyl dihydrazide (ODH as fuel, at much lower temperature (300oC. X-ray diffraction (XRD confirmed the formation of wurtzite-structured pure ZnO No peaks from any else phases of ZnO and no impurity peaks were observed, indicating the high purity of the obtained hexagonal ZnO nanocrystals. The antibacterial activity of the formed nano ZnO were investigated against the pathogenic bacteria namely against E-coli. The bacteriological test is performed in Luria-Bertani and Nutrient agar media on solid agar plates and liquid broth system using different concentration of ZnO by standard microbial method. We have used both colony counting method and disk diffusion method. In both the methods ZnO nanoparticles with 100microg/L showed best antibacterial activity, and further studies on destruction of bacterial genomic DNA was done using PCR and gel electrophoresis revealed the DNA fragment bands, this activity might be due to surface charge interactions between the particles and cells. Free radical scavenging properties of the particles might have helped in cell wall disruption, and drastic antimicrobial action.

  4. Effect of surface microstructure and wettability on plasma protein adsorption to ZnO thin films prepared at different RF powers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zhanyun; Chen Min; Chen Dihu [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Pan Shirong, E-mail: stscdh@mail.sysu.edu.c [Artificial Heart Lab, the 1st Affiliate Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, the adsorption behavior of plasma proteins on the surface of ZnO thin films prepared by radio frequency (RF) sputtering under different sputtering powers was studied. The microstructures and surface properties of the ZnO thin films were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible optical absorption spectroscopy and contact angle techniques. The results show that the ZnO thin films have better orientation of the (0 0 2) peak with increasing RF power, especially at around 160 W, and the optical band gap of the ZnO films varies from 3.2 to 3.4 eV. The contact angle test carried out by the sessile drop technique denoted a hydrophobic surface of the ZnO films, and the surface energy and adhesive work of the ZnO thin films decreased with increasing sputtering power. The amounts of human fibrinogen (HFG) and human serum albumin (HSA) adsorbing on the ZnO films and reference samples were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results show that fewer plasma proteins and a smaller HFG/HSA ratio adsorb on the ZnO thin films' surface.

  5. Effect of surface microstructure and wettability on plasma protein adsorption to ZnO thin films prepared at different RF powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhan-Yun; Chen, Min; Pan, Shi-Rong; Chen, Di-Hu

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, the adsorption behavior of plasma proteins on the surface of ZnO thin films prepared by radio frequency (RF) sputtering under different sputtering powers was studied. The microstructures and surface properties of the ZnO thin films were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible optical absorption spectroscopy and contact angle techniques. The results show that the ZnO thin films have better orientation of the (0 0 2) peak with increasing RF power, especially at around 160 W, and the optical band gap of the ZnO films varies from 3.2 to 3.4 eV. The contact angle test carried out by the sessile drop technique denoted a hydrophobic surface of the ZnO films, and the surface energy and adhesive work of the ZnO thin films decreased with increasing sputtering power. The amounts of human fibrinogen (HFG) and human serum albumin (HSA) adsorbing on the ZnO films and reference samples were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results show that fewer plasma proteins and a smaller HFG/HSA ratio adsorb on the ZnO thin films' surface.

  6. Annealing Effect of ZnO Seed Layer on Enhancing Photocatalytic Activity of ZnO/TiO2 Nanostructure

    OpenAIRE

    Woo-Young Kim; Soon-Wook Kim; Dae-Hwang Yoo; Eui Jung Kim; Sung Hong Hahn

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO)/titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorods have been synthesized via a hydrothermal method for ZnO nanorods and an electron-beam deposition for TiO2 nanorods. This work examined the effect of annealing ZnO seed layer on the photocatalytic activity of the ZnO/TiO2 nanorods which was determined from photodecomposition of methylene blue under UV irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of the ZnO/TiO2 nanorods was improved with increasing annealing temperature of the seed layer from 300°C...

  7. Electrodeposition of ZnO nano-wires lattices with a controlled morphology; Electrodepot de reseaux de nanofils de ZnO a morphologie controlee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, J.; Tena-Zaera, R.; Katty, A.; Levy-Clement, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. de Chimie Metallurgique des Terres Rares, UPR 209, 94 - Thiais (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this work, it is shown that the electrodeposition is a changeable low cost method which allows, according to the synthesis conditions, to obtain not only plane thin layers of ZnO but different nano-structures too. In a first part, are presented the formation conditions of a compact thin layer of nanocrystalline ZnO electrodeposited on a conducing glass substrate. This layer plays a buffer layer role for the deposition of a lattice of ZnO nano-wires. The step of nano-wires nucleation is not only determined by the electrochemical parameters but by the properties of the buffer layer too as the grain sizes and its thickness. In this context, the use of an electrodeposition method in two steps allows to control the nano-wires length and diameter and their density. The morphology and the structural and optical properties of these nano-structures have been analyzed by different techniques as the scanning and transmission electron microscopy, the X-ray diffraction and the optical spectroscopy. These studies show that ZnO nano-structures are formed of monocrystalline ZnO nano-wires, presenting a great developed surface and a great optical transparency in the visible. These properties make ZnO a good material for the development of nano-structured photovoltaic cells as the extremely thin absorber cells (PV ETA) or those with dye (DSSC) which are generally prepared with porous polycrystalline TiO{sub 2}. Its replacement by a lattice of monocrystalline ZnO nano-wires allows to reduce considerably the number of grain boundaries and in consequence to improve the transport of the electrons. The results are then promising for the PV ETA cells with ZnO nano-wires. (O.M.)

  8. Preparation of ZnO and ZnS nanoparticles and in-vitro study of their antimicrobial effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Falahati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc sulfide (ZnS & zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles was evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against four pathogenic strains. ZnS&ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by simple aqueous chemical reaction in an aqueous solution. The main advantage of these nanoparticles (size of 10-30 nm was that simply could be prepared by using cheap precursors in a cost effective and high throughput manner. Structural, morphological and chemical composition of the prepared nanoparticles were investigated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and energy dispersion X-ray dispersive fluorescence spectroscopy (EDAX. The antimicrobial effects of the ZnS&ZnOnanoparticls were studied by serial dilution technique and also by well diffusion technique against four pathogenic microorganism strains of Staphyloccusaureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Candidiaalbicans. Both nanoparticles of ZnS&ZnO showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive Staphyloccusaureus and Gram negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeroginosa and fungi of Candidiaalbicans. The best antimicrobial efficacy (as MIC of 50 µg/ml was related to effect of ZnO nanoparticles on Staphyloccusaureus and most resistant pathogen was Candidiaaibicans against ZnS nanoparticles with MIC more than 250 µg/ml. Zinc sulfide (ZnS & zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles was evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against four pathogenic strains. ZnS&ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by simple aqueous chemical reaction in an aqueous solution.

  9. Nanostructures of zinc oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Lin Wang

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO is a unique material that exhibits semiconducting, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric multiple properties. Using a solid-vapor phase thermal sublimation technique, nanocombs, nanorings, nanohelixes/nanosprings, nanobows, nanobelts, nanowires, and nanocages of ZnO have been synthesized under specific growth conditions. These unique nanostructures unambiguously demonstrate that ZnO is probably the richest family of nanostructures among all materials, both in structures and properties. The nanostructures could have novel applications in optoelectronics, sensors, transducers, and biomedical science because it is bio-safe.

  10. Effect of the pillar ligand on preventing agglomeration of ZnO nanoparticles prepared from Zn(II metal-organic frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moeinian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs represent a new class of highly porous materials. On this regard,  two nano porous metal-organic frameworks of [Zn2(1,4-bdc2(H2O2∙(DMF2]n (1 and [Zn2(1,4-bdc2(dabco]·4DMF·1⁄2H2O (2, (1,4-bdc = benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate, dabco = 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane and DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide were synthesized and characterized. They were used for preparation of ZnO nanomaterials. With calcination of 1, agglomerated ZnO nanoparticles could be fabricated, but by the same process on 2, the tendency of ZnO nanoparticles to agglomeration was decreased. In addition, the ZnO nanoparticles prepared from compound 2 had smaller diameter than those obtained from compound 1. In fact, the role of organic dabco ligands in 2 is similar to the role of polymeric stabilizers in formation of nanoparticles. Finally, considering the various applications of ZnO nanomaterials such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, photodiodes, gas sensors and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs, it seems that preparation of ZnO nanomaterials from their MOFs could be one of the simple and effective methods which may be applied for preparation of them.

  11. Preparation of porous TiO{sub 2}/ZnO composite film and its photocathodic protection properties for 304 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hongmei; Liu, Wei, E-mail: weiliu@ouc.edu.cn; Cao, Lixin; Su, Ge; Duan, Ruijing

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Porous TiO{sub 2}/ZnO composite films were prepared on the 304 stainless steel. • The preparation parameters of the composite films were optimized. • Porous TiO{sub 2}/ZnO composite films provide an effective photogenerated cathodic protection for 304 stainless steel. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2}/ZnO composite films with porous structure were prepared on the 304 stainless steel (304SS) by the sol-gel method and heating treatment. The crystalline phase and morphology of as-prepared TiO{sub 2}/ZnO composite films were characterized systematically by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, respectively. The influences of Ti/Zn molar ratio and the annealing temperature on the photoelectric property of the samples have been investigated and their photocathodic protection performances for 304 stainless steel under dark and UV conditions have also been evaluated in 3.0% NaCl solution by the electrochemical measurements. The results indicate that porous TiO{sub 2}/ZnO composite film has a great enhancement of the light absorption and photoelectric property under UV illumination. This can be ascribed to the mutual effect of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO heterojunctions and the porous structures in the composite films, which provide a better photogenerated cathodic protection for 304SS.

  12. Antibacterial efficiencies of TiO{sub 2} nanostructured layers prepared in organic viscous electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitriu, Cristina [University Politehnica of Bucharest, 313 Splaiul Independentei, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Popescu, Marian [University Politehnica of Bucharest, 313 Splaiul Independentei, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnologies, 126A, Erou Iancu Nicolae Street, 077190 Bucharest (Romania); Ungureanu, Camelia [University Politehnica of Bucharest, 313 Splaiul Independentei, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Pirvu, Cristian, E-mail: c_pirvu@yahoo.com [University Politehnica of Bucharest, 313 Splaiul Independentei, 060042 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ti substrate was covered with a nanostructured TiO{sub 2} layer in viscous electrolytes. • The formation mechanism and surface morphologies are very different. • The shielding covering the nanotubes incorporate the used electrolytes. • TiO{sub 2} nanostructured layers showed antibacterial efficiencies. - Abstract: Using easy and cheap potential step anodization in electrolytes with different molar mass and water content, a Ti substrate was covered with a nanostructured TiO{sub 2} layer. Surface characterization of the prepared samples was conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and contact angle analysis. The formation mechanism and surface morphologies are very different, depending on the molar mass and water percent of electrolyte solutions used for anodizing Ti substrate. The electrochemical behavior of the samples was studied using Tafel plots, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy recorded in a simulated body fluid. All used anodizing treatments have conducted to samples with increased corrosion protection. The paper