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Sample records for prepared insoluble dietary

  1. Biochemical and microstructural Ccharacteristics of insoluble and soluble dietary fiber prepared from mushroom sclerotia of Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporus rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka-Hing; Cheung, Peter C K; Wu, Jin-Zhong

    2003-11-19

    The proximate composition of sclerotia of Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporus rhinoceros, and Wolfiporia cocos, together with the yield, purity, monosaccharide profile, and microstructure of their insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) fractions prepared from AOAC enzymatic-gravimetric methods were investigated and compared. All three sclerotia were typical carbohydrate rich sclerotia [ranging from 90.5 to 98.1% dry matter (DM)] with an exceptionally low amount of crude lipid content (ranging from 0.02 to 0.14% DM). Besides, all three sclerotia possessed substantial amounts of IDF (ranging from 77.4 to 94.6% DM) with notably high levels of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) (89.9-92.2% DM) in which glucose was the predominant sugar residue (90.6-97.2% of NSP DM). On the contrary, both the yield (only ranging from 1.45 to 2.50% DM) and the amount of NSP (ranging from 22.4 to 29.6% DM) of the three sclerotial SDF fractions were very low. Scanning electron micrographs showed fragments of interwoven hyphae and insoluble materials in the three sclerotial IDF fractions, but only an amorphous structure of soluble materials was observed in the SDF fractions. The potential use of these fiber preparations was discussed.

  2. [Determination of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in foods by enzymatic-gravimetric method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Yang, Y; Zhou, R; Bian, L

    2001-11-01

    For studying the contents of dietary fiber in general foods and functional foods, a enzymatic-gravimetric method recommended by AOAC was established in our laboratory. The method for the determination of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in foods and functional foods could be used for many other kind of foods. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of reproducibility between-run and within-run were 2.04%-7.85%, 3.42%-55.23% respectively. The repeatability of the methods was good, and the methods are suitable for many foods.

  3. [Soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in cereals and legumes cultivated in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Ayala, C; Vera, G; Pennacchiotti, I; Araya, H

    1990-03-01

    Insoluble, soluble and total dietary fiber (DF) were determined in 35 varieties of certified whole seeds (without processing) of cereals (rice, oat, rye, and wheat) and legumes (pea, cowpea, beans, chikpea, lentil and lupine). The enzymatic method of Asp, Johansson and Siljestrom was used, with modifications in relation to time of incubation with alpha amylase, filtration system and volumes of the filtrates. Results were expressed as g/100 g dry weight. Total DF for cereals showed a range from 10.1 (wheat var. Chasqui) to 22.2 (rice var Quella). Rye, var. Tetra Baer and oats var. Pony Baer presented the highest soluble fiber content (3.3 and 3.9, respectively). In legumes, total DF fluctuated between 12.7 (pea, var. yellow) and 36.6 (lupine, var. Multolupa). Bean, var. Pinto INIA and lupine var. Multolupa presented the highest soluble fiber values (5.8 for both). Based on the results of this research work, it might be concluded that great variation exists in regard to the amount of total soluble and insoluble DF in cereals and legumes, a fact which impedes generalization as to its content in each food item.

  4. NMR characterization of lignins isolated from fruit and vegetable insoluble dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzel, Mirko; Ralph, John

    2006-10-18

    Compositional information for lignins in food is rare and concentrated on cereal grains and brans. As lignins are suspected to have important health roles in the dietary fiber complex, the confusing current information derived from nonspecific lignin determination methods needs to be augmented by diagnostic structural studies. For this study, lignin fractions were isolated from kiwi, pear, rhubarb, and, for comparison, wheat bran insoluble dietary fiber. Clean pear and kiwi lignin isolates allowed for substantive structural profiling, but it is suggested that the significance of lignin in wheat has been overestimated by reliance on nonspecific analytical methods. Volume integration of NMR contours in two-dimensional (13)C-(1)H correlation spectra shows that pear and wheat lignins have comparable guaiacyl and syringyl contributions and that kiwi lignins are particularly guaiacyl-rich (approximately 94% guaiacyl) and suggest that rhubarb lignins, which could not be isolated from contaminating materials, are as syringyl-rich (approximately 96% syringyl) as lignins from any known natural or transgenic fiber source. Typical lignin structures, including those newly NMR-validated (glycerols, spirodienones, and dibenzodioxocins), and resinols implicated as possible mammalian lignan precursors in the gut are demonstrated via their NMR correlation spectra in the fruit and vegetable samples. A novel putative benzodioxane structure appears to be associated with the kiwi lignin. It is concluded that the fruits and vegetables examined contain authentic lignins and that the detailed structural analysis exposes limitations of currently accepted analytical methods.

  5. Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Insoluble Dietary Fiber Isolated from Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea [L.] Verdc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedericks, Claudine F; Jideani, Victoria A

    2015-09-01

    Bambara groundnut (BGN) is a widely cultivated legume with a rich nutritional profile, yet despite its many benefits it still remains underutilized. To highlight its potential value, 4 BGN varieties-brown, red, black eye, and brown eye were subjected to sequential enzymatic treatments followed by centrifugation to obtain the insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) fraction. The IDFs were vacuum-dried and evaluated for color, hydration properties, fat absorption, polyphenolic compounds, neutral sugars, and uronic acids. An optimized white bread formulation was also determined using brown BGN-IDF in an optimal (IV) mixture design. Three mixture components constrained at lower and upper limits (water: 57% to 60%, yeast: 2.3% to 5.3%, and BGN-IDF: 7% to 10%) were evaluated for their effects on responses of specific loaf volume, gumminess, chewiness, and resilience of the loaves. All BGN-IDFs differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) across all color parameters. Polyphenols were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest in red and brown BGN-IDFs. Arabinose/galactose (31.04% to 37.12%), xylose (16.53% to 27.30%), and mannose (14.48% to 22.24%) were the major sugars identified. Swelling capacity was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest for brown eye BGN-IDF (7.72 ± 0.49 mL/g). Water retention capacity ranged from 1.63 to 2.01 g water/g dry weight. Fat absorption for red BGN-IDF differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the best optimal white bread formulation enriched with brown BGN-IDF was established with numerical optimization at 59.5% water, 4.3% yeast, and 8.5% BGN-IDF. Overall positive physicochemical and functional properties were observed for BGN-IDFs, and it was shown that an optimal white bread enriched with BGN-IDF could be produced. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Determination of insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fiber (CODEX definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Barry V; DeVries, Jonathan W; Rader, Jeanne I; Cohen, Gerald; Prosky, Leon; Mugford, David C; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of insoluble (IDF), soluble (SDF), and total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official Methods 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates water-insoluble and water-soluble dietary fiber. This method extends the capabilities of the previously adopted AOAC Official Method 2009.01, Total Dietary Fiber in Foods, Enzymatic-Gravimetric-Liquid Chromatographic Method, applicable to plant material, foods, and food ingredients consistent with CODEX Definition 2009, including naturally occurring, isolated, modified, and synthetic polymers meeting that definition. The method was evaluated through an AOAC/AACC collaborative study. Twenty-two laboratories participated, with 19 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 10.45 to 29.90%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC 2002.02 followed by the isolation, fractionation, and gravimetric procedures of AOAC 985.29 (and its extensions 991.42 and 993.19) and 991.43 results in quantitation of IDF and soluble dietary fiber that precipitates (SDFP). The filtrate from the quantitation of water-alcohol-insoluble dietary fiber is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the SDF that remains soluble (SDFS), i.e., all dietary fiber polymers of degree of polymerization = 3 and higher, consisting primarily, but not exclusively, of oligosaccharides. SDF is calculated as the sum of SDFP and SDFS. TDF is calculated as the sum of IDF and SDF. The within-laboratory variability, repeatability SD (Sr), for IDF ranged from 0.13 to 0.71, and the between-laboratory variability, reproducibility SD (SR), for IDF ranged from 0.42 to 2.24. The within

  7. Dietary toxicity of soluble and insoluble molybdenum to northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Jennifer M; Lambert, Charles E; Zyskowski, Justin A; Engfehr, Cheryl L; Fletcher, Oscar J; Clark, Shanna L; Tiwary, Asheesh; Gulde, Cynthia M; Sample, Bradley E

    2016-03-01

    Limited data are available on the effects of molybdenum (Mo) on avian wildlife, which impairs evaluation of ecological exposure and risk. While Mo is an essential trace nutrient in birds, little is known of its toxicity to birds exposed to molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), the predominant form found in molybdenite ore. The chemical form and bioavailability of Mo is important in determining its toxicity. Avian toxicity tests typically involve a soluble form of Mo, such as sodium molybdate dihydrate (SMD, Na2MoO4·2H2O); however MoS2 is generally insoluble, with low bioaccessibility under most environmental conditions. The current study monitored survival and general health (body weight and food consumption) of 9-day old northern bobwhite exposed to soluble Mo (SMD) and ore-related Mo (MoS2) in their diet for 30 days. Toxicity and bioavailability (e.g. tissue distribution) of the two Mo forms were compared. Histopathology evaluations and serum, kidney, liver, and bone tissue sample analyses were conducted. Copper, a nutrient integrally associated with Mo toxicity, was also measured in the diet and tissue. No treatment-related mortality occurred and no treatment-related lesions were recorded for either Mo form. Tissue analyses detected increased Mo concentrations in serum, kidney, liver, and bone tissues following exposure to SMD, with decreasing concentrations following a post-exposure period. For the soluble form, a No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Concentration (NOAEC) of 1200 mg Mo as SMD/kg feed (134 mg SMD/kg body weight/day) was identified based on body weight and food consumption. No adverse effects were observed in birds exposed to MoS2 at the maximum dose of 5000 mg MoS2/kg feed (545 mg MoS2/kg body weight/day). These results show that effects associated with MoS2, the more environmentally prevalent and less bioavailable Mo form, are much less than those observed for SMD. These data should support more realistic representations of exposure and risks to avian receptors

  8. In vitro hypoglycemic and cholesterol lowering effects of dietary fiber prepared from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsor-Atindana, John; Zhong, Fang; Mothibe, Kebitsamang Joseph

    2012-10-01

    Three dietary fiber (DF) powders; soluble dietary fiber (SDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and total dietary fiber (TDF) were prepared from cocoa bean shells (CBS) by enzymatic treatment. These DFs were evaluated for their effects on glucose adsorption, glucose diffusion, starch hydrolysis, cholesterol binding, sodium cholate binding and oil binding capacities using in vitro model systems by simulating gastric intestinal conditions. The results showed that SDF generally exhibited significantly (p 0.05) glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI) and oil binding capacity, when compared with IDF and TDF which both showed similar effects. Moreover, it was discovered that the three CBS dietary fiber powders contained intrinsic antioxidants (phenolic compounds). The study suggested that CBS could be an alternative cheap source of DF with additional benefits. Thus, CBS fibers could be incorporated as low calorie bulk ingredients in high-fiber diet to reduce calorie and cholesterol levels and control blood glucose level.

  9. Insoluble Dietary Fiber from Pear Pomace Can Prevent High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats Mainly by Improving the Structure of the Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shimin; Cui, Xingtian; Guo, Mingzhang; Tian, Yiling; Xu, Wentao; Huang, Kunlun; Zhang, Yuxing

    2017-04-28

    Supplement of dietary fibers (DF) is regarded as one of the most effective way to prevent and relieve chronic diseases caused by long-term intake of a high-fat diet in the current society. The health benefits of soluble dietary fibers (SDF) have been widely researched and applied, whereas the insoluble dietary fibers (IDF), which represent a higher proportion in plant food, were mistakenly thought to have effects only in fecal bulking. In this article, we proved the anti-obesity and glucose homeostasis improvement effects of IDF from pear pomace at first, and then the mechanisms responsible for these effects were analyzed. The preliminary study by real-time PCR and ELISA showed that this kind of IDF caused more changes in the gut microbiota compared with in satiety hormone or in hepatic metabolism. Further analysis of the gut microbiota by high-throughput amplicon sequencing showed IDF from pear pomace obviously improved the structure of the gut microbiota. Specifically, it promoted the growth of Bacteroidetes and inhibited the growth of Firmicutes. These results are coincident with previous hypothesis that the ratio of Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes is negatively related with obesity. In conclusion, our results demonstrated IDF from pear pomace could prevent high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats mainly by improving the structure of the gut microbiota.

  10. Preparation of free, soluble conjugate, and insoluble-bound phenolic compounds from peels of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) and evaluation of antioxidant activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Zhang, Huilin; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2012-02-01

    The soluble phenolic compounds of rambutan peels (RP) were extracted by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and the operating parameters were optimized. The optimal conditions obtained were ethanol concentration of 80.85%, extraction time of 58.39 s, and the ratio of liquid to solid of 24.51:1. The soluble phenolic content by MAE was 213.76 mg GAE/g DW. The free, soluble conjugate, and insoluble-boaund phenolic compounds were prepared by alkaline hydrolysis, and the contents of 3 fractions were 185.12, 27.98 and 9.37 mg GAE/g DW, respectively. The contents of syringic acid and p-coumaric acid were high in the free fraction, showing 16.86 and 19.44 mg/g DW, and the soluble conjugate and insoluble-bound phenolics were mainly composed of gallic acid and caffeic acid. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of 3 fractions were evaluated in 5 model systems. Results indicated that the free fraction had high antioxidant activities, compared with the soluble conjugate and insoluble-bound fractions. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity of insoluble dietary fiber powders from citrus (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) pomace as affected by ultrafine grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Bingbing; Ye, Fayin; Li, Hang; Hu, Qiang; Xue, Shan; Zhao, Guohua

    2014-07-23

    The effects of mechanical and jet grindings on the proximate composition, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of insoluble antioxidant dietary fiber powder from citrus pomace (IADFP-CP) were investigated in comparison with ordinary grinding. IADFP-CP from jet grinding showed higher levels of crude fat, total sugar, and free phenolics and lower levels of crude protein and bound phenolics than that from ordinary grinding. Totally, 14 phenolics (9 free, 1 bound, and 4 free/bound) in IADFP-CP were identified by RP-HPLC-DAD/ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Hesperidin accounted for >57% of total phenolics in IADFP-CP. Among IADFP-CPs, the jet-ground presented the highest free phenolics but the lowest bound phenolics. The IADFP-CP from jet grinding presented the highest antioxidant capacity of free phenolics (by DPPH and FRAP assays), followed by the ones from mechanical and then ordinary grinding. The present study suggests that jet grinding could improve the extraction of phenolic compounds from IADFP-CP and increase the antioxidant capacities of free phenolics and the resultant powder.

  12. Dietary supplement good manufacturing practices: preparing for compliance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mead, William J

    2012-01-01

    "Dietary Supplement GMP is a one-stop "how-to" road map to the final dietary supplement GMP regulations recently issued by the FDA covering the manufacture, packaging, and holding of dietary supplement...

  13. Determinação da fibra alimentar insolúvel, solúvel e total de produtos derivados do milho Determination of insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fiber of corn products

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    Maria da Graça Kolinski Callegaro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do milho é de grande importância na agricultura brasileira, com ampla distribuição do norte ao sul do país. O milho pode ser uma fonte significativa de fibra, dependendo da forma como é utilizado na alimentação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os teores de fibra alimentar insolúvel (FAI, solúvel (FAS e total (FAT de produtos derivados do milho. Determinou-se também os teores de umidade, resíduo mineral fixo, extrato etéreo e proteína bruta das amostras analisadas. Trabalhou-se com amostras de canjica, pipoca, farinha fina, farinha média e farinha pré-cozida. O método utilizado na determinação de fibra foi o de Prosky et al. Entre os produtos analisados observou-se que a pipoca apresentou o maior teor de FAT (média de 12,15% e a canjica o menor (média de 2,39 %. Em relação às farinhas, a fina e a média apresentaram teores de fibra semelhantes, enquanto as amostras de farinha pré-cozida apresentaram um teor um pouco mais baixo. Em todos os produtos analisados, a FAI correspondeu a mais de 90% da fibra total. Quanto aos demais constituintes avaliados, encontrou-se, neste trabalho, valores de acordo com os já disponíveis na literatura.Corn crop is of great importance to Brazilian agriculture, ranging from the north to the south of the country. Corn can be an important source of fiber, depending on the way it is used as food. The objective of this work was to evaluate the content of insoluble (IDF, soluble (SDF, and total (TDF dietary fiber of corn-derived products. The content of moisture, ash, lipids, and crude protein were also determined in the samples. We have worked with "canjica", popcorn, and meal (finely ground, medium ground, and pre-cooked. The PROSKY'S enzymic-gravimetric method was used to determine dietary fiber. Among the products analyzed, we have observed that the popcorn showed the greatest content of TDF (12.15%, and the "canjica" showed the smallest one (2.39%. Thin and medium corn meals

  14. Associations between adult perception of body weight, diet, preparing meals and dietary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Guzek, Dominika

    The links between dietary patterns, the perception of one’s body weight and diet as well preparing meals are poorly recognised in the literature. In order to develop effective nutritional education and focused interventions, more of such information is thereby required to improve the nation’s health To identify dietary patterns based on declared food consumption rates and subject responses on whether dieting, perception of body weight and diet and preparing meals are linked to such dietary patterns The survey was conducted in 2016 on 344 consumers chosen for age (20-65 years) and their consent for study participation. Rates of eating the foods selected were measured using a 7-point scale. Cluster analysis was used to identify three dietary patterns of behaviour: ‘potentially beneficial to health’, ‘potentially unfavourable for health; deficient’ and ‘potentially unfavourable for health; excessive’. The analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 23.0 There were significantly more subjects showing ‘potentially beneficial for health’ behaviour, normal body weight, those dieting (whether now or in the past) and those who evaluated their diet as being very good or good compared to other groups. They were also more involved in preparing their meals at home. Differences were found between the ‘unfavourable for health’ dietary patterns concerning subject’s involvement in meal preparation. The dietary pattern for ‘deficient’ behaviour found lower rates of those preparing their meals at home The pattern of potentially beneficial dietary habits was linked to weight control through a slimming diet and greater involvement in the preparation of food for consumption. The results show the need to develop food choice skills rather than just transferring knowledge in the nutrition education process

  15. Family Food Preparation and Its Effects on Adolescent Dietary Quality and Eating Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; MacLehose, Richard F; Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe parent and adolescent involvement in food preparation for the family and to examine whether adolescents' food preparation involvement was related to their dietary quality (e.g., fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and various common nutrients) and eating patterns (e.g., frequency of breakfast, family meals, fast food intake). Data from two linked population-based studies, Eating and Activity in Teens 2010 and Families and Eating and Activity among Teens were used in cross-sectional analyses. Mothers (n = 1,875), stepmothers (n = 18), fathers (n = 977), stepfathers (n = 105), and adolescents (n = 2,108) from socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse households participated in the study. Adolescents completed food frequency questionnaires and surveys in school. Parents individually completed surveys by mail or phone. Linear regression was used to estimate differences in adolescent dietary quality and eating patterns between those who do and do not engage in meal preparation. Parent and adolescent report of "usually preparing food for the family" was related to several sociodemographic characteristics, including race/ethnicity (minority populations), parent education (college or higher), parent employment status (part time or stay-at-home caregiver), household size (≤3 children), and adolescent gender (female). Adolescent involvement in food preparation for the family was significantly associated with several markers of better dietary quality and better eating patterns. In contrast, parent involvement in food preparation for the family was unrelated to adolescent dietary intake. Results suggest that involving adolescents in food preparation for the family is related to better adolescent dietary quality and eating patterns. Public health interventions and health care providers may want to encourage adolescents to help with food preparation for the family. Additionally, adolescents

  16. The effects of banana peel preparations on the properties of banana peel dietary fibre concentrate

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    Phatcharaporn Wachirasiri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different preparation methods of banana peel, dry milling, wet milling, wet milling and tap water washing, and wet milling and hot water washing were investigated on their effects on the chemical composition and properties of the banana peel dietary fibre concentrate (BDFC. The dry milling process gave the BDFC a significant higher fat, protein, and starch content than the wet milling process, resulting in a lower water holding capacity (WHC and oil holding capacity(OHC. Washing after wet milling could enhance the concentration of total dietary fibre by improving the removal of protein and fat. Washing with hot water after wet milling process caused a higher loss of soluble fibre fraction, resulting in a lower WHC and OHC of the obtained BDFC when compared to washing with tap water. Wet milling and tap water washing gave the BDFC the highest concentration of total and soluble dietary fibre, WHC and OHC.

  17. Effects of Dietary Addition of a Low-Pectin Apple Fibre Preparation on Rats

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    Fotschki Bartosz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to scrutinise if the dietary addition of a low-pectin fibre preparation obtained from apple pomace, the by-product of apple concentrate processing, is able to favourably affect the gut metabolism, antioxidant status and blood bio-markers of the organism, as it takes place when apple fibre is present in the diet as an unprocessed ingredient. The nutritional experiment was performed on rats allocated to 2 groups of 10 animals each and fed for 2 weeks with either a control cellulose-containing diet or an experimental low-pectin apple fibre-containing diet. To induce metabolic disorders a diet rich in saturated fat and fructose was used in both diet-specific groups. The dietary apple fibre preparation (AFP significantly reduced the activity of sucrase and maltase in the mucosa of the small intestine. In the caecal digesta, the dietary AFP significantly increased bacterial α-glucosidase and α-galactosidase activity, whereas bacterial β-glucuronidase activity was significantly reduced. Also, the content of short chain fatty acids in the caecal digesta was significantly increased after the AFP supplementation. In the blood serum, the dietary AFP significantly reduced the glucose concentration, and decreased the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. In conclusion, the tested dietary AFP is still able to favourably affect the gut metabolism and can also ameliorate blood glucose concentration, which seems to be related to the inhibition of mucosal disaccharidase activities. However, the analysed preparation has no influence on the antioxidant status of the organism and may trigger adverse effects on cholesterol metabolism.

  18. How does the preparation of rye porridge affect molecular weight distribution of extractable dietary fibers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, Allah; Aman, Per; Andersson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Extractable dietary fiber (DF) plays an important role in nutrition. This study on porridge making with whole grain rye investigated the effect of rest time of flour slurries at room temperature before cooking and amount of flour and salt in the recipe on the content of DF components and molecular weight distribution of extractable fructan, mixed linkage (1→3)(1→4)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan) and arabinoxylan (AX) in the porridge. The content of total DF was increased (from about 20% to 23% of dry matter) during porridge making due to formation of insoluble resistant starch. A small but significant increase in the extractability of β-glucan (P = 0.016) and AX (P = 0.002) due to rest time was also noted. The molecular weight of extractable fructan and AX remained stable during porridge making. However, incubation of the rye flour slurries at increased temperature resulted in a significant decrease in extractable AX molecular weight. The molecular weight of extractable β-glucan decreased greatly during a rest time before cooking, most likely by the action of endogenous enzymes. The amount of salt and flour used in the recipe had small but significant effects on the molecular weight of β-glucan. These results show that whole grain rye porridge made without a rest time before cooking contains extractable DF components maintaining high molecular weights. High molecular weight is most likely of nutritional importance.

  19. How Does the Preparation of Rye Porridge Affect Molecular Weight Distribution of Extractable Dietary Fibers?

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    Roger Andersson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Extractable dietary fiber (DF plays an important role in nutrition. This study on porridge making with whole grain rye investigated the effect of rest time of flour slurries at room temperature before cooking and amount of flour and salt in the recipe on the content of DF components and molecular weight distribution of extractable fructan, mixed linkage (1→3(1→4-β-D-glucan (β-glucan and arabinoxylan (AX in the porridge. The content of total DF was increased (from about 20% to 23% of dry matter during porridge making due to formation of insoluble resistant starch. A small but significant increase in the extractability of β-glucan (P = 0.016 and AX (P = 0.002 due to rest time was also noted. The molecular weight of extractable fructan and AX remained stable during porridge making. However, incubation of the rye flour slurries at increased temperature resulted in a significant decrease in extractable AX molecular weight. The molecular weight of extractable β-glucan decreased greatly during a rest time before cooking, most likely by the action of endogenous enzymes. The amount of salt and flour used in the recipe had small but significant effects on the molecular weight of β-glucan. These results show that whole grain rye porridge made without a rest time before cooking contains extractable DF components maintaining high molecular weights. High molecular weight is most likely of nutritional importance.

  20. A new dietary model to study colorectal carcinogenesis: experimental design, food preparation, and experimental findings.

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    Rozen, P; Liberman, V; Lubin, F; Angel, S; Owen, R; Trostler, N; Shkolnik, T; Kritchevsky, D

    1996-01-01

    Experimental dietary studies of human colorectal carcinogenesis are usually based on the AIN-76A diet, which is dissimilar to human food in source, preparation, and content. The aims of this study were to examine the feasibility of preparing and feeding rats the diet of a specific human population at risk for colorectal neoplasia and to determine whether changes in the colonic morphology and metabolic contents would differ from those resulting from a standard rat diet. The mean daily food intake composition of a previously evaluated adenoma patient case-control study was used for the "human adenoma" (HA) experimental diet. Foods were prepared as for usual human consumption and processed by dehydration to the physical characteristics of an animal diet. Sixty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized and fed ad libitum the HA or the AIN-76A diet. Every eight weeks, eight rats from each group were sacrificed, and the colons and contents were examined. Analysis of the prepared food showed no significant deleterious changes; food intake and weight gain were similar in both groups. Compared with the controls, the colonic contents of rats fed the HA diet contained significantly less calcium, concentrations of neutral sterols, total lipids, and cholic and deoxycholic acids were increased, and there were no colonic histological changes other than significant epithelial hyperproliferation. This initial study demonstrated that the HA diet can be successfully processed for feeding to experimental animals and is acceptable and adequate for growth but induces significant metabolic and hyperproliferative changes in the rat colon. This dietary model may be useful for studies of human food, narrowing the gap between animal experimentation and human nutritional research.

  1. Dietary fibers from mushroom sclerotia: 1. Preparation and physicochemical and functional properties.

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    Wong, Ka-Hing; Cheung, Peter C K

    2005-11-30

    Preparation of three novel dietary fibers (DFs) from mushroom sclerotia, namely, Pleurotus tuberregium, Polyporous rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos, by a scale-up modified AOAC procedure using industrial enzymes was investigated. A remarkably high level of total dietary fiber (TDF) ranging from 81.7 to 96.3% sample dry matter (DM), in which a content of nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) ranging from 86.6 to 94.3% sclerotial TDF DM, was obtained from the three sclerotia. All sclerotial DFs were rich in beta-glucan (the glucose residue ranged from 89.7 to 94.5% NSP DM) with a very low level of resistant glycogen (ranged from 3.77 to 3.94% sclerotial TDF DM). All three novel sclerotial DFs also exhibited similar, if not better, physicochemical and functional properties (pH, color, water binding capacity, oil holding capacity, and emulsifying properties) as those of barely DF control and commercial DF-rich ingredients. The potential use of the three mushroom sclerotial DFs as a new beta-glucan type DF-rich ingredient in the food industry was discussed.

  2. Modificações do método gravimétrico não enzimático para determinar fibra alimentar solúvel e insolúvel em frutos Modifications in the gravimetric non enzymatic method for determination of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonete Barbosa Guerra

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Modificações do tratamento da amostra e da seqüência operacional do método gravimétrico não enzimático foram realizadas, com vistas a simplificá-lo e permitir a quantificação das frações solúvel e insolúvel da fibra alimentar total. MÉTODOS: A influência da liofilização foi inicialmente avaliada em amostras de goiaba e, posteriormente, em acerola, manga, pinha, sapoti e uva. As modificações inerentes à seqüência metodológica foram testadas nos referidos frutos e em abacaxi, caju, maracujá e morango. RESULTADOS: As médias de fibra alimentar total obtidas para goiaba liofilizada e não liofilizada: 10,47%±1,15 e 10,53 %±0,88, respectivamente, demonstram: boa reprodutibilidade do método e inexistência de diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos aplicados à goiaba e demais frutos. Diferentemente do constatado na determinação da Fibra Alimentar Insolúvel, cujo percentual variou de 99,6% para o caju a 54,0% para a acerola, os dados gerados para a fibra alimentar solúvel foram desconsiderados, dada a dispersibilidade apresentada. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados evidenciam que as amostras prescindem da liofilização e que a quantificação da Fibra Alimentar Solúvel requer ajustes na etapa de precipitação.OBJETIVES: Modifications in the treatment of samples and operational sequence of the gravimetric non enzymatic method were carried out in order to simplify it and allow the quantification of soluble and insoluble quantities of the total dietary fiber. METHODS: Lyophilization influence was first evaluated in guava samples and afterward in samples of acerola, mango, sugar apples, sapodilla and grapes. The mentioned fruits and also pineapple, cashew, passion fruit and strawberry were tested for the modifications intrinsic in the methodological sequence. RESULTS: The average total dietary fiber for guava, both lyophilized and non-lyophilized, were: 10.50% ±0.97 and 10.53% ±0.88, respectively

  3. The formation of insoluble Tc depends on bacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Uchida, Shigeo; Koiso, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    The formation of insoluble Tc (>0.2 μm in size) in ponding water of paddy soil was investigated. The ponding water prepared by flooding with deionized water was collected at a one-week intervals during the 120 days of the experimental period. The collected sample was incubated with 3 kBq mL -1 TcO 4 - at 25degC for 14 days. The mean value of relative amounts of insolubilized Tc was less than 0.6% of total Tc. This result suggested that flooding with deionized water was not effective for the formation of insoluble Tc. When the ponding water sample was incubated with TcO 4 - under anaerobic conditions, Tc was scarcely insolubilized. On the other hand, a significant fraction of the Tc was insolubilized in the ponding water sample supplemented with nutrients that promote bacterial activity. Also, the amount of insoluble Tc increased with time. From these results, it was concluded that the formation of insoluble Tc in the ponding water depends on enhanced bacterial activity rather than just anaerobic conditions. (author)

  4. Soluble antioxidant compounds regenerate the antioxidants bound to insoluble parts of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ecem Evrim; Gökmen, Vural; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2013-10-30

    This study aimed to investigate the regeneration potential of antioxidant capacity of an insoluble food matrix. Investigations were performed in vitro with several food matrices rich in dietary fiber (DF) and bound antioxidants. After removal of the soluble fraction, the antioxidant capacity (AC) of the insoluble fraction was measured by the QUENCHER procedure using ABTS(•+) or DPPH(•) radicals. After measurement, the insoluble residue was washed out to remove the excess of radicals and treated with pure antioxidant solution or antioxidant-rich beverage to regenerate depleted antioxidants on the fiber. Results revealed that the antioxidant capacity of compounds chemically bound to the insoluble moiety could be reconstituted in the presence of other hydrogen-donating substances in the liquid phase. Regeneration efficiency was found to range between 21.5 and 154.3% depending on the type of insoluble food matrix and regeneration agent. Among the food matrices studied, cereal products were found to have slightly higher regeneration efficiency, whereas antioxidant-rich beverages were more effective than pure antioxidants as regeneration agents. Taking wheat bran as reference insoluble material, the regeneration abilities of beverages were in the following order: green tea > espresso coffee > black tea > instant coffee > orange juice > red wine. These results highlighted the possible physiological relevance of antioxidants bound to the insoluble food material in the gastrointestinal tract. During the digestion process they could react with the free radicals and at the same time they can be regenerated by other soluble antioxidant compounds present in the meal.

  5. Water-insoluble Silk Films with Silk I Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Q.; Hu, X; Wang, X; Kluge, J; Lu, S; Cebe, P; Kaplan, D

    2010-01-01

    Water-insoluble regenerated silk materials are normally produced by increasing the {beta}-sheet content (silk II). In the present study water-insoluble silk films were prepared by controlling the very slow drying of Bombyx mori silk solutions, resulting in the formation of stable films with a predominant silk I instead of silk II structure. Wide angle X-ray scattering indicated that the silk films stabilized by slow drying were mainly composed of silk I rather than silk II, while water- and methanol-annealed silk films had a higher silk II content. The silk films prepared by slow drying had a globule-like structure at the core surrounded by nano-filaments. The core region was composed of silk I and silk II, surrounded by hydrophilic nano-filaments containing random turns and {alpha}-helix secondary structures. The insoluble silk films prepared by slow drying had unique thermal, mechanical and degradative properties. Differential scanning calorimetry results revealed that silk I crystals had stable thermal properties up to 250 C, without crystallization above the T{sub g}, but degraded at lower temperatures than silk II structure. Compared with water- and methanol-annealed films the films prepared by slow drying had better mechanical ductility and were more rapidly enzymatically degraded, reflecting the differences in secondary structure achieved via differences in post processing of the cast silk films. Importantly, the silk I structure, a key intermediate secondary structure for the formation of mechanically robust natural silk fibers, was successfully generated by the present approach of very slow drying, mimicking the natural process. The results also point to a new mode of generating new types of silk biomaterials with enhanced mechanical properties and increased degradation rates, while maintaining water insolubility, along with a low {beta}-sheet content.

  6. The characterization of insoluble dissolver residues and the development of treatment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, H.T.; Brown, P.E.; Pateman, R.J.; Wilkinson, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    Characterization studies have been carried out on the insoluble residue arising from laboratory scale dissolution of single pins of mixed oxide fuel irradiated in the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR). Similar characterization work has also been completed on six samples of insoluble residue recovered from the reprocessing of complete sub-assemblies of mixed oxide fuel irradiated in PFR. Treatment methods for the dissolver insolubles have consisted of preparing immobilized samples in sand/ordinary portland cement (OPC), sand/pulverized fly ash (PFA)/OPC, and blast furnace slag (BFS)/OPC. A programme of leach testing has been carried out according to the conditions laid down in the international Standard Organization Test. Four samples of DFR originated insoluble residues and six samples of PFR originated insoluble residues have been immobilized and leach tested. Variations have included experiments to evaluate the leach rate under temperature influence and to acid wash prior to immobilization

  7. Soluble Antioxidant Compounds Regenerate the Antioxidants Bound to Insoluble Parts of Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celik, E.E.; Gökmen, V.; Fogliano, V.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the regeneration potential of antioxidant capacity of an insoluble food matrix. Investigations were performed in vitro with several food matrices rich in dietary fiber (DF) and bound antioxidants. After removal of the soluble fraction, the antioxidant capacity (AC) of

  8. Influence of BMI and dietary restraint on self-selected portions of prepared meals in US women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, David; Rytz, Andréas; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Forde, Ciarán G; Martin, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    The rise of obesity prevalence has been attributed in part to an increase in food and beverage portion sizes selected and consumed among overweight and obese consumers. Nevertheless, evidence from observations of adults is mixed and contradictory findings might reflect the use of small or unrepresentative samples. The objective of this study was i) to determine the extent to which BMI and dietary restraint predict self-selected portion sizes for a range of commercially available prepared savoury meals and ii) to consider the importance of these variables relative to two previously established predictors of portion selection, expected satiation and expected liking. A representative sample of female consumers (N = 300, range 18-55 years) evaluated 15 frozen savoury prepared meals. For each meal, participants rated their expected satiation and expected liking, and selected their ideal portion using a previously validated computer-based task. Dietary restraint was quantified using the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ-R). Hierarchical multiple regression was performed on self-selected portions with age, hunger level, and meal familiarity entered as control variables in the first step of the model, expected satiation and expected liking as predictor variables in the second step, and DEBQ-R and BMI as exploratory predictor variables in the third step. The second and third steps significantly explained variance in portion size selection (18% and 4%, respectively). Larger portion selections were significantly associated with lower dietary restraint and with lower expected satiation. There was a positive relationship between BMI and portion size selection (p = 0.06) and between expected liking and portion size selection (p = 0.06). Our discussion considers future research directions, the limited variance explained by our model, and the potential for portion size underreporting by overweight participants. Copyright © 2016 Nestec S.A. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  9. Development of Dietary Polyphenol Preparations for Treating Veterans with Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    of older adults with mild cognitive impairment (14) Page-25 Fatigue & Inflammation  Chocolate , which contains a high quantity of many flavonoids...dietary polyphenol intake outside of the therapy Page-35 Impact  Gather key information for a larger efficacy study of CGJ  Safety/tolerability...Mellor DD, Atkin SL. High cocoa polyphenol rich chocolate may reduce the burden of the symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome. Nutr.J 2010;9:55. 16. Kumar GP

  10. Determination of insoluble azides by thermometric titrimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, A P; Godinho, O E; Costa, J L

    1977-09-01

    A method for determination of azide, based on the thermometric titration of this anion with hydrochloric acid, is described. Although this reaction has a large enthalpy change (DeltaH = -3.6 kcal/ mole), sulphate is added as an endothermic thermometric indicator to improve the end-point. The application of the method to the analysis of insoluble azides has been studied.

  11. Does involvement in food preparation track from adolescence to young adulthood and is it associated with better dietary quality? Findings from a 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Melissa N; Larson, Nicole I; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2012-07-01

    To examine whether involvement in food preparation tracks over time, between adolescence (15-18 years), emerging adulthood (19-23 years) and the mid-to-late twenties (24-28 years), as well as 10-year longitudinal associations between home food preparation, dietary quality and meal patterning. Population-based, longitudinal cohort study. Participants were originally sampled from Minnesota public secondary schools (USA). Participants enrolled in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults)-I, EAT-II and EAT-III (n 1321). Most participants in their mid-to-late twenties reported an enjoyment of cooking (73 % of males, 80 % of females); however, few prepared meals including vegetables most days of the week (24 % of males, 41 % of females). Participants in their mid-to-late twenties who enjoyed cooking were more likely to have engaged in food preparation as adolescents and emerging adults (P prepared meals including vegetables were more likely to have engaged in food preparation as emerging adults (P food preparation predicted better dietary quality five years later in the mid-to-late twenties, including higher intakes of fruit, vegetables and dark green/orange vegetables, and less sugar-sweetened beverage and fast-food consumption. Associations between adolescent food preparation and later dietary quality yielded few significant results. Food preparation behaviours appeared to track over time and engagement in food preparation during emerging adulthood, but not adolescence, was associated with healthier dietary intake during the mid-to-late twenties. Intervention studies are needed to understand whether promoting healthy food preparation results in improvements in eating patterns during the transition to adulthood.

  12. Does involvement in food preparation track from adolescence to young adulthood and is it associated with better dietary quality? Findings from a ten-year longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether involvement in food preparation tracks over time, between adolescence (15–18 years), emerging adulthood (19–23 years), and the mid-to-late twenties (24–28 years), as well as examine 10-year longitudinal associations between home food preparation, dietary quality and meal patterning. Design Population-based, longitudinal cohort study. Setting Participants were originally sampled from Minnesota public secondary schools (USA). Subjects Participants enrolled in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens)-I, EAT-II, and EAT-III (n=1,321). Results Most participants in their mid-to-late twenties reported an enjoyment of cooking (73% of males, 80% of females); however, few prepared meals including vegetables most days of the week (24% males, 41% females). Participants in their mid-to-late twenties who enjoyed cooking were more likely to have engaged in food preparation as adolescents and emerging adults (pprepared meals including vegetables were more likely to have engaged in food preparation as emerging adults (pfood preparation predicted better dietary quality five years later in the mid-to-late twenties, including higher intakes of fruit, vegetables, dark green/orange vegetables, and less sugar sweetened beverage and fast food consumption. Associations between adolescent food preparation and later dietary quality yielded few significant results. Conclusions Food preparation behaviors appeared to track over time, and engagement in food preparation during emerging adulthood, but not adolescence, was associated with healthier dietary intake during the mid-to-late twenties. Intervention studies are needed to understand whether promoting healthy food preparation results in improvements in eating patterns during the transition to adulthood. PMID:22124458

  13. Effect of ultrafine grinding on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of dietary fiber from wine grape pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Wine grape pomace dietary fiber powders were prepared by superfine grinding, whose effects were investigated on the composition, functional and antioxidant properties of the wine grape pomace dietary fiber products. The results showed that superfine grinding could effectively pulverize the fiber particles to submicron scale. As particle size decrease, the functional properties (water-holding capacity, water-retention capacity, swelling capacity, oil-binding capacity, and nitrite ion absorption capacity) of wine grape pomace dietary fiber were significantly (p fiber components from insoluble to soluble fractions was observed. The antioxidant activities of wine grape pomace and dietary fiber before and after grinding were in terms of DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS diammonium salt radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content. Compared with dietary fiber before and after grinding, micronized insoluble dietary fiber showed increased ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content yet decreased DPPH radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were detected between ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content.

  14. Determination of insoluble avian eggshell matrix proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšík, Ivan; Sedláková, Pavla; Lacinová, Kateřina; Pataridis, Statis; Eckhardt, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 397, č. 1 (2010), s. 205-214 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/0675; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : eggshell proteins * insoluble proteins * matrix proteins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.841, year: 2010

  15. 21 CFR 184.1372 - Insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... high fructose corn syrup described in § 184.1866. They are derived from recognized species of precisely... ingredient is used as an enzyme, as defined in § 170.3(o)(9) of this chapter, to convert glucose to fructose. (2) The ingredient is used in high fructose corn syrup, at levels not to exceed current good...

  16. Diffusion of insoluble carbon in zirconium oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Vykhodets, V B; Koester, U; Kondrat'ev, V V; Kesarev, A G; Hulsen, C; Kurennykh, T E

    2011-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of insoluble carbon in zirconium oxides has been obtained for the temperature range of 900-1000A degrees C. There are no published data on the diffusion of insoluble impurities; these data are of current interest for the diffusion theory and nuclear technologies. Tracer atoms 13C have been introduced into oxides by means of ion implantation and the kinetics of their emission from the samples in the process of annealing in air has been analyzed. The measurements have been performed using the methods of nuclear microanalysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The diffusion activation energy is 2.7 eV and the carbon diffusion coefficient is about six orders of magnitude smaller than that for oxygen self-diffusion in the same systems. This result indicates the strong anomaly of the diffusion properties of carbon in oxides. As a result, zirconium oxides cannot be used in some nuclear technologies, in particular, as a material of sources for accelerators of short-lived carbon isotopes.

  17. Comparative fermentation of insoluble carbohydrates in an in vitro human feces model spiked with Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Anne; van Zanten, Gabriella C.; Jensen, Susanne L.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber and slow carbohydrates can have differential beneficial effects on gut microbial composition and metabolism. Insoluble substrates such as RS cannot be used in continuous simulation systems and we tested an in vitro batch fermentation system for possible prebiotic effects using waxy...... by each insoluble carbohydrate resulting in a clear decrease in the ratio of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Notably, all carbohydrates tested appeared to block the formation of the potentially harmful branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) fermentation products, but supported lactobacilli growth and increase...... of bifidobacteria, Enterobactericeae and Faecalibacterium prausnizii. Degradative resistance of the lintner starch were linked to these effects. Problems using continuous fermentation systems for insoluble prebiotics and interpretation of batch fermentation data are discussed....

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INSOLUBLE SALT SIMULANT TO SUPPORT ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING TESTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibling, R

    2008-01-01

    salt simulant described in this report represents the initial attempt to represent the material which may be encountered during final waste removal and tank cleaning. The final selected simulant was produced by heating and evaporation of a salt slurry sample to remove excess water and promote formation and precipitation of solids with solubility characteristics which are consistent with actual tank insoluble salt samples. The exact anion composition of the final product solids is not explicitly known since the chemical components in the final product are distributed between the solid and liquid phases. By combining the liquid phase analyses and total solids analysis with mass balance requirements a calculated composition of assumed simple compounds was obtained and is shown in Table 0-1. Additional improvements to and further characterization of the insoluble salt simulant are possible. During the development of these simulants it was recognized that: (1) Additional waste characterization on the residues from salt dissolution tests with actual waste samples to determine the amount of species such as carbonate, oxalate and aluminosilicate would allow fewer assumptions to be made in constructing an insoluble salt simulant. (2) The tank history will impact the amount and type of insoluble solids that exist in the salt dissolution solids. Varying the method of simulant production (elevated temperature processing time, degree of evaporation, amount of mixing (shear) during preparation, etc.) should be tested

  19. Role of dietary fibers on health of the gastro-intestinal system and related types of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fibers are classified into water soluble or insoluble, and most plant foods include in their composition variable amounts of a mixture of soluble and insoluble fibers. This soluble or insoluble nature of fiber is related to its physiological effects. Insoluble fibers are characterized by high porosity, low density and the ability to increase fecal bulk, and act by facilitating intestinal transit, thus reducing the exposure to carcinogens in the colon and therefore acting as protectors...

  20. DETERMINATION OF DIETARY FIBRE – THE INFLUENCE OF MILLING FRACTION AND MIXING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž FERJANČIČ

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibre is an important constituent of a healthy diet, composed of non-digestible carbohydrates and lignin. Over the last decades dietary fibre has gained importance for human nutrition, due to its beneficial effects on health. In addition to classical enzyme-gravimetric methods, new methods for the determination of total, insoluble and soluble dietary fibres in foods have recently been developed, but have not yet been fully implemented for use. For the purpose of creating food composition databases and for food labelling, the classical AOAC 985.29 and 991.43 methods are still widely used. The methods are enzyme-gravimetric and therefore sensitive to enzyme kinetics. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of milling fraction and mixing of the sample on dietary fibre content determined with the AOAC method 991.43. The results showed that milling fraction significantly influences the content of dietary fibre, especially in unprocessed or slightly processed cereals, the mixing acts synergistically with milling. According to the results it is proposed to mill the sample between 200 and 500 μm. For accurate determination of dietary fibre content, it is necessary to prepare the sample correctly, since the AOAC 991.43 method is, despite its robustness, sensitive during the sample preparation step.

  1. Digestive and functional properties of a partially hydrolyzed cassava solid waste with high insoluble fiber concentration Propriedades funcionais-digestivas do concentrado de fibra alimentar obtido de mandioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorivaldo da Silva Raupp

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Starch factories generate large amounts of cassava solid waste. A small amount is utilized for animal feed but most of it is discharged with deleterious effects to the envirounment. A edible food with a high content of insoluble dietary fiber (60.9%, named "partially hidrolyzed cassava waste" (PHCW, was prepared from industrial cassava solid waste by an enzymatic process. PHCW or wheat bran (WB were fed to model rats and both promoted digestive function effects, but PHCW produced the greatest effect. The insoluble fiber constituent from PHCW (and not the soluble fiber, promoted the greatest fecal bulking, fecal weight and defecation frequency in rats, as compared to WB. Such results indicate that the partially hydrolyzed cassava waste presents digestive function properties which allow it to be used as an adequate source of insoluble dietary fiber in the formulation of functional food for human nutrition.As fecularias e polvilheiras produzem grandes quantidades de bagaço de mandioca. A proposta dessa pesquisa consistiu determinar, em ratos modelo, a propriedade funcional-digestiva do produto alimentício bagaço de mandioca hidrolisado (BMH, um concentrado de fibra alimentar (60,9%, peso seco que foi obtido a partir do bagaço de mandioca da polvilheira e através de processo de hidrólise enzimática. O BMH produziu efeitos fisiológicos no trato digestivo dos ratos modelos mais acentuados que os efeitos produzidos pelo farelo de trigo (FT. Foram os componentes insolúveis da fibra alimentar do BMH, e não a fração solúvel, os que mais contribuíram para o maior volume e peso das fezes e, por conseguinte, para o maior número de defecações. Por isso, o BMH pode ser usado como fonte alternativa de fibra alimentar para a formulação de alimentos, principalmente os consumidos por indivíduos com a finalidade de regular ou manter normal a funcionalidade digestiva.

  2. The effective synthesis of Insoluble sulfur using electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Daejin; Yu, Kookhyun [Dongguk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Vulcanization is process that formed crosslinking by Insoluble sulfur between linear structure of rubber polymer. Recently, Synthesis of Insoluble sulfur is used Thermal polymerization using about 250 {approx} 300 .deg. C and extraction process is used carbon disulfide(CS2) for separation between soluble sulfur and insoluble sulfur. But this process isn't environmental, economical and safety. This research was focus on developing of insoluble sulfur synthesis process using electron beam. This new process is using under the 140 .deg. C. Because of that, explosion risk is decrease, environmental and economical factor is increased. The sulfur can be melt by increase temperature or made solution using carbon disulfide. And electron beam is irradiated melting sulfur or sulfur solution. After irradiation, The high purity insoluble sulfur can be obtained by separation with carbon disulfide.

  3. Microstructural characteristics of toluene and quinoline-insolubles from coal-tar pitch and their cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panaitescu, C. [University POLITEHNICA Bucharest, Faculty of Industrial Chemistry, Fuel Laboratory, Polizu St. 1, Sector 1, 011061, Bucharest (Romania); Predeanu, G. [Metallurgical Research Institute, Department of Raw Materials, Mehadia St. 39, Sector 6, 060543 Bucharest (Romania)

    2007-08-01

    The structural composition of coal-tar pitch used in the preparation of the special binder-pitch, was determined with special emphasis on the optical properties of the {beta}-resins, as typical components necessary to obtain electrodes of best quality through the pyrogenetic processes of baking and graphitization. In addition to raw toluene- and quinoline-insolubles (TI, QI), the corresponding cokes were analysed to evaluate, by structural composition and microtexture, the behaviour of pitch fractions during carbonization. The results suggest the dependence of the texture development on the type of toluene- and quinoline-insolubles and {beta}-resins during processing conditions, which influence the mesophase formation. An original and important result of the carbopetrographical study is represented by the identification and evaluation of {beta}-resins in the coke texture. (author)

  4. Nutritional and sensory quality evaluation of sponge cake prepared by incorporation of high dietary fiber containing mango (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) pulp and peel flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziah, A A Noor; Min, W Lee; Bhat, Rajeev

    2011-09-01

    Sponge cake prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with mango pulp and mango peel flours (MPuF and MPeF, respectively) at different concentrations (control, 5%, 10%, 20% or 30%) were investigated for the physico-chemical, nutritional and organoleptic characteristics. Results showed sponge cake incorporated with MPuF and MPeF to have high dietary fiber with low fat, calorie, hydrolysis and predicted glycemic index compared with the control. Increasing the levels of MPuF and MPeF in sponge cake had significant impact on the volume, firmness and color. Sensory evaluation showed sponge cake formulated with 10% MPuF and 10% MPeF to be the most acceptable. MPeF and MPuF have high potential as fiber-rich ingredients and can be utilized in the preparation of cake and other bakery products to improve the nutritional qualities.

  5. [Use of nopal dietary fiber in a powder dessert formulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz, Carmen; Sepúlveda, Elena; Pak, Nelly; Vallejos, Ximena

    2002-12-01

    The development of diverse types of foods of low caloric value and with high content in dietary fiber have occupied a preponderant place in the food industry in the last years, due to the growing interest of the consumers for a healthy and nutritious diet. Pre-cooked or quick to prepare foods are attractive for the time they save; if to this you add their nutritious value, the attractiveness is even greater. For this reason, this study analyzes different formulations of a powder to prepare a dessert (flan), with different percentages of incorporation of nopal flour, as a source of dietary fiber (16%, 18%, 20%). Two flavors (melon and banana) were tried. It was observed that the flan flavored with banana and with 16% of nopal flour, reached better sensorial characteristics. Greater percentages of nopal flour negatively affected the sensorial characteristics, mainly flavor, color and texture. The analysis showed that the powder presented 5.7% of moisture, low water activity (0.48) and therefore a low total recount of microorganisms. The content of protein was high (27.2%), the ether extract low (2.0%) similar to the caloric contribution (40 Kcal/portion). The flan showed a 9.8% of total dietary fiber, being greater the contribution of soluble fiber (6.1%) than that of insoluble fiber (3.7%). Due to these characteristics this formulation could be considered as a food that provides benefits for the human health.

  6. Antioxidant Activities of Selected Berries and Their Free, Esterified, and Insoluble-Bound Phenolic Acid Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    To explore the potential of berries as natural sources of bioactive compounds, the quantities of free, esterified, and insoluble-bound phenolic acids in a number of berries were determined. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the berries were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays, in addition to determination of their metal ion chelating activities. Furthermore, several phenolic compounds were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography. Of the 6 tested berries, black chokeberry and blackberry exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities, and the various berry samples were found to contain catechin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, epicatechin, vanillic acid, quercitrin, resveratrol, morin, naringenin, and apigenin. Moreover, the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of the fractions containing insoluble-bound phenolic acids were higher than those containing the free and esterified phenolic acids. The results imply that the insoluble-bound fractions of these berries are important natural sources of antioxidants for the preparation of functional food ingredients and preventing diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:29662846

  7. Preparation of dietary fibre-enriched materials from preharvest dropped apples and their utilisation as a high-fibre flour substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yujeong; Kim, Yongwook; Bae, In Young; Lee, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Suyong

    2013-06-01

    Preharvest dropped apples from a weather disaster are generally discarded or used in animal feed due to reduced market value. In this study, they were utilised to produce dietary fibre-enriched materials (DFEMs) and their baking performance in a food system was then evaluated as a high-fibre and low-calorie flour substitute. Hydrothermal treatment and fractionation of preharvest dropped apple powder produced fibre-rich fractions (856.2 g kg(-1)). The use of DFEMs increased the pasting properties of wheat flour and improved dough mixing stability. When DFEMs were incorporated in the cookie formulation (2, 4 and 6 g dietary fibre per serving), the cookie dough exhibited increased elongational viscosity and solid-like behaviour which became more pronounced with increasing levels of DEFMs. After baking, reduced spread was observed in DFEM cookies which could be readily attributed to their rheological characteristics. However, greater moisture retention by DFEMs produced cookie samples with softer texture. DFEMs prepared from preharvest dropped apples could be successfully evaluated in a cookie model system as a high-fibre and low-calorie substitute for wheat flour. This study suggests a new value-added application of preharvest dropped fruits, positively extending their use for better healthful diets. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Dietary Intake, Body Composition, and Menstrual Cycle Changes during Competition Preparation and Recovery in a Drug-Free Figure Competitor: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Tanya M.; Loenneke, Jeremy P.; Davy, Brenda M.

    2016-01-01

    Physique competitions are events in which competitors are judged on muscular appearance and symmetry. The purpose of this retrospective case study was to describe changes in dietary intake, body mass/composition, and the menstrual cycle during the 20-week competition preparation (PREP) and 20-week post competition recovery (REC) periods of a drug-free amateur female figure competitor (age = 26–27, BMI = 19.5 kg/m2). Dietary intake (via weighed food records) and body mass were assessed daily and averaged weekly. Body composition was estimated via Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and 7-site skinfold measurements. Energy intake, body mass and composition, and energy availability decreased during the 20-week PREP period (changes of ~298 kcals, 5.1 kg, 6.5% body fat, and 5.4 kcal/kg fat free mass, respectively) and returned to baseline values by end of the 20-week REC period. Menstrual cycle irregularity was reported within the first month of PREP and the last menstruation was reported at week 11 of PREP. Given the potentially adverse health outcomes associated with caloric restriction, future, prospective cohort studies on the physiological response to PREP and REC are warranted in drug-free, female physique competitors. PMID:27879627

  9. Performance of hemicellulolytic enzymes in culture supernatants from a wide range of fungi on insoluble wheat straw and corn fiber fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gool, van M.P.; Toth, K.; Schols, H.A.; Szakacs, G.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are a good source of hemicellulolytic enzymes for biomass degradation. Enzyme preparations were obtained as culture supernatants from 78 fungal isolates grown on wheat straw as carbon source. These enzyme preparations were utilized in the hydrolysis of insoluble wheat straw and

  10. Small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans associated with mature insoluble elastin serve as binding sites for galectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Aiko; Nonaka, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Takashi; Nakamura, Takanori; Nishi, Nozomu

    2017-11-01

    We previously reported that galectin-9 (Gal-9), an immunomodulatory animal lectin, could bind to insoluble collagen preparations and exerted direct cytocidal effects on immune cells. In the present study, we found that mature insoluble elastin is capable of binding Gal-9 and other members of the human galectin family. Lectin blot analysis of a series of commercial water-soluble elastin preparations, PES-(A) ~ PES-(E), revealed that only PES-(E) contained substances recognized by Gal-9. Gal-9-interacting substances in PES-(E) were affinity-purified, digested with trypsin and then analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC. Peptide fragments derived from five members of the small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan family, versican, lumican, osteoglycin/mimecan, prolargin, and fibromodulin, were identified by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. The results indicate that Gal-9 and possibly other galectins recognize glycans attached to small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans associated with insoluble elastin and also indicate the possibility that mature insoluble elastin serves as an extracellular reservoir for galectins.

  11. Investigation of Rheological Impacts on Sludge Batch 3 as Insoluble Solids and Wash Endpoints are Adjusted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellinger, T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently processing and immobilizing radioactive sludge slurry into a durable borosilicate glass. The DWPF has already processed three sludge batches (Sludge Batch 1A, Sludge Batch 1B, and Sludge Batch 2) and is currently processing the fourth sludge batch (Sludge Batch 3). A sludge batch is defined as a single tank of sludge slurry or a combination of sludge slurries from different tanks that has been or will be qualified before being transferred to DWPF. As a part of the Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) qualification task, rheology measurements of the sludge slurry were requested at different insoluble solids loadings. These measurements were requested in order to gain insight into potential processing problems that may occur as the insoluble solids are adjusted up or down (by concentration or dilution) during the process. As a part of this study, a portion of the ''as received'' SB3 sample was washed with inhibited water (0.015 M NaOH and 0.015 M NaNO2) to target 0.5M Na versus a measured 1M Na in the supernate. The purpose of the ''washing'' step was to allow a comparison of the SB3 rheological data to the rheological data collected for Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and to determine if there was a dependence of the yield stress and consistency as a function of washing. The ''as received'' SB3 rheology data was also compared to SB3 simulants prepared by the Simulant Development Program in order to provide guidance for selecting a simulant that is more representative of the rheological properties of the radioactive sludge slurry. A summary of the observations, conclusions are: (1) The yield stress and plastic viscosity increased as the weight percent insoluble solids were increased for the ''as received'' and ''washed'' SB3 samples, at a fixed pH. (2) For the same insoluble solids loading, the yield stress for the SB2 sample is approximately a factor of three higher than the ''as received'' SB3 sample. There also appears to be small

  12. Comparison of five procedures for the purification of insoluble elastin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daamen, W.F.; Hafmans, T.G.M.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van

    2001-01-01

    Elastin is an insoluble, highly cross-linked protein, providing elasticity to organs like lung. aorta, and ligaments. Despite its remarkable mechanical properties. elastin has found little use as a biomaterial. Purification of intact elastin from elastic fibres presents a major challenge, among

  13. Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: Improved cellulase productivity by insoluble solids recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Noah Daniel; Börjesson, Johan; Pedersen, Lars Saaby

    2013-01-01

    To take advantage of this effect, the amount of solids recycled should be maximized, based on a given processes ability to deal with higher solids concentrations and volumes. Recycling of enzymes by recycling the insoluble solids fraction was thus shown to be an effective method to decrease enzym...

  14. The impact of a community-based food skills intervention on cooking confidence, food preparation methods and dietary choices - an exploratory trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrieden, Wendy L; Anderson, Annie S; Longbottom, Pat J; Valentine, Karen; Stead, Martine; Caraher, Martin; Lang, Tim; Gray, Bill; Dowler, Elizabeth

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of undertaking a food skills intervention study in areas of social deprivation aimed at altering cooking confidence, food preparation methods and dietary choices. A standardised skills programme was implemented in community-based settings. Pre- (T1) and post-intervention (T2) and 6-month follow-up (T3) measures (7-day diaries and self-administered questionnaires) were undertaken in intervention and comparison groups. Eight urban communities in Scotland. One hundred and thirteen adults living in areas of social deprivation. It was clear that many subjects led fragmented lives and found commitment to intervention classes problematic. Sixty-three subjects completed the final (T3) assessments. The response to each component varied due to inability to attend sessions, illness, study requirements, employment, moving out of the area, change in circumstances, loss of interest and loss of postal questionnaires. At baseline, reported consumption of fruit and vegetables was low (mean frequency 8.1 +/- 4.78 times per week). Fruit intake increased significantly (P food skills intervention is likely to have a small but positive effect on food choice and confidence in food preparation. A full-scale randomised controlled trial in this hard-to-reach group would require a range of flexible approaches rather than a fully defined intervention, and presents challenges for trial design.

  15. Dietary risk evaluation for 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tea preparations made of teas available on the Polish retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, Marek; Kamińska, Marta; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2018-01-02

    The aim of this work was to assess dietary risk resulting from consumption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with tea infusions. To this end, levels of 28 PAHs in black, green, red and white teas available on the Polish retail market have been assessed. Profiles and correlation between concentrations of individual PAHs have been identified. A model study on transfer of PAHs from tea leaves into tea preparations has been conducted. Relatively high concentrations of 28 evaluated PAHs have been found in 58 tested samples of black, green, red and white teas sampled on the Polish retail market. Total concentration ∑28PAH ranged from 57 to 696 µg kg -1 with mean 258 µg kg -1 (dry tea leaves). The most mature tea leaves fermented to a small degree contained relatively the highest PAH levels among all four tested tea types. Relatively low PAH transfer rates into tea infusions and limited volumes of the consumed tea keep the risks associated with PAH dietary intake at a safely low level. The worst-case scenario dietary intake values were 7.62/0.82/0.097 ng kg -1 b.w. day -1 (estimated on the basis of the maximum found concentrations 696/113/23 µg kg -1 and maximum observed transfer rates 24/16/9%) for ∑28PAH/∑PAH4/B[a]P, respectively. MOE values calculated using the above worst case estimates exceeded 700,000 and 400,000 (BMDL 10 0.07 and 0.34 mg kg -1 b.w. day -1 ) for B[a]P and PAH4, respectively. Both B[a]P and PAH4 concentrations may be used as indicators of total PAH concentration in tea leaves; PAH4 slightly better fits low molecular weight PAHs. Several correlations between various PAHs/groups of PAHs have been identified, the strongest one (R 2 = 0.92) between PAH4 and EU PAH 15+1.

  16. Accumulation of solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble antioxidant phenolics in edible bean sprouts: implication of germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-You Gan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Edible bean sprouts are popular fresh vegetables widely recognized for their nutritional quality. However, while their antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition in both solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble extracts has not been systematically evaluated. Methods: The antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition in both solvent-soluble and solvent-insoluble fractions of 12 cultivars of edible bean sprouts were evaluated, and relationships of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content were also analyzed. Results: Sprouts demonstrated a wide range of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content, with lower but substantial antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in the solvent-insoluble fractions. Highest levels were found in the green mung bean sprout. Phenolic compounds, such as catechin, ellagic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid and p-coumaric acid were widely detected in these sprouts. Additionally, a positive correlation was discovered between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in these edible bean sprouts. Conclusions: Germination generally resulted in the accumulation of antioxidant phenolics in the most edible bean sprouts. Edible bean sprouts with high antioxidant phenolics can be valuable natural sources of dietary antioxidants for the prevention of oxidative stress-related chronic diseases.

  17. Devitrification of defense nuclear waste glasses: role of melt insolubles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Time-temperature-transformation (TTT) curves have been determined for simulated nuclear waste glasses bounding the compositional range in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Formulations include all of the minor chemical elements such as ruthenium and chromium which have limited solubility in borosilicate glasses. Heterogeneous nucleation of spinel on ruthenium dioxide, and subsequent nucleation of acmite on spinel is the major devitrification path. Heterogeneous nucleation on melt insolubles causes more rapid growth of crystalline devitrification phases, than in glass free of melt insolubles. These studies point out the importance of simulating waste glass composition and processing as accurately as possible to obtain reliable estimates of glass performance. 11 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  18. Insolubility of trapped particle motion in a magnetic dipole field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragt, A.J.; Finn, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Topological and numerical techniques are used to show that the problem of trapped charged particle motion in a magnetic dipole field is insoluble. Similar results hold for motion in the earth's magnetic field and are of interest for radiation belt phenomena. Pedagogical discussion is devoted to the subject of how it can happen that a classical mechanics problem is insoluble and in what sense. It is shown that the complete adiabatic magnetic moment series is divergent and that due to the existence of homoclinic points the solutions to the equations of motion are too complicated to be written in closed form. As a consequence, there is currently no rigorous theoretical explanation for the empirical success of adiabatic orbit theory, and a completely satisfactory mathematical justification will be far from easy

  19. Chemical Structure of Insoluble Organic Matter of Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, S.; Robert, F.; Binet, L.; Gourier, D.; Rouzaud, J.-N.; Largeau, C.

    A detailed knowledge of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) of the meteorites is essential to estimate to what extent the interstellar organic matter was preserved during the formation of the solar system and to decipher the synthetic pathways of this matter in space. Although predominant, the insoluble organic fraction has been much less extensively studied than soluble one due to specific analytical difficulties. The present work reports the examination of the IOM of two carbonaceous meteorites, Orgueil and Murchison through a number of various spectroscopic and microscopic methods, i. e. XANES for sulphur, carbon and nitrogen, solid state 13C NMR, electron paramagnetic resonance, electron nuclear double resonance and high resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  20. Soybean lecithin: acetone insoluble residue fractionation and their volatile components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly, Saadia M.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The acetone insoluble residue was isolated from soybean lecithin. This residue was solvent fractionated resulted in four fractions, namely, acetic acid soluble, acetic acid insoluble, benzene phase and benzene insoluble phase. Concerning phospholipid constitution of these four fractions, it was found that the first fraction contains PC, PE and PI in percentages of 56.0, 21.6 and 19.0 respectively. The 2nd fraction makes 39 % PC and 60 % CER, besides some traces of PE and PI. The benzene phase is mainly all PC with some traces of PE. The last fraction is 80.6 % CER and 20 % PC. The fatty acid composition of these four fractions besides soluble in acetone, crude and degummed soybean oil and total phospholipids was recorded. Generally, it was found that the major saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were palmitic and linoleic. Volatile components of these samples except acetic acid insoluble were reported. Fourty nine compounds were separated. Thirty two components including aliphatic aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters and acids were identified. Aldehydes and ketones showed a changed through the seven samples. They increased by degumming.4,5-Dimethylelisoxazole had a strong lecithin like flavour, so it can be used as an indicator for the degumming process.2-Pentylfuran showed a significant decrease by degumming. Other compounds, such as esters and alcohols had no distinguish effect on the volatile products through process.El residuo insoluble en acetona fue aislado de la lecitina de soja. Este residuo fue fraccionado por solventes en cuatro fracciones: soluble en ácido acético, insoluble en ácido acético, fase benceno y fase insoluble en benceno. Concerniente a la constitución de los fosfolípidos de estas cuatro fracciones, se encontró que la primera fracción contiene PC, PE y PI en porcentajes del 56.0, 21.6 y 19.0 respectivamente. La segunda fracción tuvo 39 % PC y 60 % CER, junto a algunas trazas de PE y PI. La fase benceno est

  1. Relaciones agua-solutos-matriz insoluble en algunos sistemas alimentarios.

    OpenAIRE

    Chenoll Cuadros, Maria De La Creu

    2008-01-01

    Una gran parte de los alimentos estructurados pueden considerarse, de forma simplificada, constituidos por tres componentes: una matriz insoluble (que puede ser, por ejemplo, proteica, o compuesta por carbohidratos), agua y una serie de sólidos solubles (añadidos o no). Las relaciones de estos componentes entre sí, sus interacciones, y el modo en que varían durante determinados procesos industriales son factores que condicionan sus propiedades, tales como nutricionales y de calidad sensorial ...

  2. Symbiotic responses to insoluble phosphorus supply in common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study the effect of insoluble phosphorus (IP) in hydroponic culture, two common bean varieties, that is, WAFA and REBIA were inoculated separately with three rhizobia strains (P.Tb.09, CIAT899 and P.OM.09) and were grown under mineral P (250 ìmol P (KH2PO4)) versus IP (250 ìmol P (Ca2HPO4)). Results ...

  3. Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: Improved cellulase productivity by insoluble solids recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background It is necessary to develop efficient methods to produce renewable fuels from lignocellulosic biomass. One of the main challenges to the industrialization of lignocellulose conversion processes is the large amount of cellulase enzymes used for the hydrolysis of cellulose. One method for decreasing the amount of enzyme used is to recycle the enzymes. In this study, the recycle of enzymes associated with the insoluble solid fraction after the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated for pretreated corn stover under a variety of recycling conditions. Results It was found that a significant amount of cellulase activity could be recovered by recycling the insoluble biomass fraction, and the enzyme dosage could be decreased by 30% to achieve the same glucose yields under the most favorable conditions. Enzyme productivity (g glucose produced/g enzyme applied) increased between 30 and 50% by the recycling, depending on the reaction conditions. While increasing the amount of solids recycled increased process performance, the methods applicability was limited by its positive correlation with increasing total solids concentrations, reaction volumes, and lignin content of the insoluble residue. However, increasing amounts of lignin rich residue during the recycle did not negatively impact glucose yields. Conclusions To take advantage of this effect, the amount of solids recycled should be maximized, based on a given processes ability to deal with higher solids concentrations and volumes. Recycling of enzymes by recycling the insoluble solids fraction was thus shown to be an effective method to decrease enzyme usage, and research should be continued for its industrial application. PMID:23336604

  4. Clearance of insoluble dust from the lower respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, P E; Gibb, F R; Johnson, L

    1964-01-01

    Clearance of tagged heavy metal aerosols (Fe, Hg, Mn, Ba, and U) in female beagles by in vivo counting was assessed. Fecal excretion paralleled lower respiratory tract clearance of Fe. No Fe was found in blood, indicating its biological insolubility. Ultrafiltration tests (an indication of biological solubility) ranked the heavy metals as: Hg, Mn, Fe, and U in order of decreasing solubility. The solubility ratios were remarkably similar to the ratios of inverse biological half-times.

  5. Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: Improved cellulase productivity by insoluble solids recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Noah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is necessary to develop efficient methods to produce renewable fuels from lignocellulosic biomass. One of the main challenges to the industrialization of lignocellulose conversion processes is the large amount of cellulase enzymes used for the hydrolysis of cellulose. One method for decreasing the amount of enzyme used is to recycle the enzymes. In this study, the recycle of enzymes associated with the insoluble solid fraction after the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated for pretreated corn stover under a variety of recycling conditions. Results It was found that a significant amount of cellulase activity could be recovered by recycling the insoluble biomass fraction, and the enzyme dosage could be decreased by 30% to achieve the same glucose yields under the most favorable conditions. Enzyme productivity (g glucose produced/g enzyme applied increased between 30 and 50% by the recycling, depending on the reaction conditions. While increasing the amount of solids recycled increased process performance, the methods applicability was limited by its positive correlation with increasing total solids concentrations, reaction volumes, and lignin content of the insoluble residue. However, increasing amounts of lignin rich residue during the recycle did not negatively impact glucose yields. Conclusions To take advantage of this effect, the amount of solids recycled should be maximized, based on a given processes ability to deal with higher solids concentrations and volumes. Recycling of enzymes by recycling the insoluble solids fraction was thus shown to be an effective method to decrease enzyme usage, and research should be continued for its industrial application.

  6. Selection and production of insoluble xylan hydrolyzing enzyme by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-03-07

    Mar 7, 2011 ... The effect of pH and temperature on the enzyme activity and stability of crude enzyme produced by T. lanuginosus THKU 56 were investigated. To study the effect of pH on activity, the reaction mixture of 0.5 ml of enzyme and 0.5 ml of 1% insoluble oat spelt xylan in 50 mM buffers with various pH values ...

  7. Comparison of dietary fiber methods for foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, M M; Lane, S A

    1981-11-01

    In order to evaluate several proposed dietary fiber methods, 12 food samples, representing different food classes, were analyzed by (1) neutral and acid detergent fiber methods (NDF, ADF); (2) NDF with enzyme modification (ENDF); (3) a 2-fraction enzyme method for soluble, insoluble, and total dietary fiber, proposed by Furda (SDF, IDF, TDF); (+) a 1-fraction enzyme method for total dietary fiber proposed by Hellendoorn (TDF). Foods included cereals, fruits, vegetables, pectin, locust bean gum, and soybean polysaccharides. Results show that TDF by Furda and Hellendoorn methods agree reasonably well with literature values by the Southgate method, but ENDF is consistently lower; that ENDF and IDF (Furda method) agree reasonably well; that except for corn corn bran fiber (insoluble) and pectin and locus bean fiber (soluble), all materials have significant fractions of both soluble and insoluble fiber. The Furda method was used on numerous food and ingredient samples and was found to be practical and informative and to have acceptable precision (RSD values of 2.65-7.05%). It is suggested that the Furda (or similar) method be given consideration for the analysis of foods for dietary fiber.

  8. Development of Stable Solidification Method for Insoluble Ferrocyanides-13170

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikarashi, Yuki; Masud, Rana Syed; Mimura, Hitoshi [Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aramaki-Aza-Aoba6-6-01-2, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan); Ishizaki, Eiji; Matsukura, Minoru [UNION SHOWA K.K. 17-20, Mita 2-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0073 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    The development of stable solidification method of insoluble ferrocyanides sludge is an important subject for the safety decontamination in Fukushima NPP-1. By using the excellent immobilizing properties of zeolites such as gas trapping ability and self-sintering properties, the stable solidification of insoluble ferrocyanides was accomplished. The immobilization ratio of Cs for K{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O saturated with Cs{sup +} ions (Cs{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O) was estimated to be less than 0.1% above 1,000 deg. C; the adsorbed Cs{sup +} ions are completely volatilized. In contrast, the novel stable solid form was produced by the press-sintering of the mixture of Cs{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O and zeolites at higher temperature of 1,000 deg. C and 1,100 deg. C; Cs volatilization and cyanide release were completely depressed. The immobilization ratio of Cs, under the mixing conditions of Cs{sub 2}[CoFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O:CP= 1:1 and calcining temperature: 1,000 deg. C, was estimated to be nearly 100%. As for the kinds of zeolites, natural mordenite (NM), clinoptilolite (CP) and Chabazite tended to have higher immobilization ratio compared to zeolite A. This may be due to the difference in the phase transformation between natural zeolites and synthetic zeolite A. In the case of the composites (K{sub 2-X}Ni{sub X/2}[NiFe(CN){sub 6}].nH{sub 2}O loaded natural mordenite), relatively high immobilization ratio of Cs was also obtained. This method using zeolite matrices can be applied to the stable solidification of the solid wastes of insoluble ferrocyanides sludge. (authors)

  9. [Use of algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) flour as protein and dietary fiber source in cookies and fried chips manufacture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Berta; Estévez, Ana María; Fuentes, Carolina; Venegas, Daniela

    2009-06-01

    Limiting amino acids of the protein from chilean "algarrobo" are isoleucine, theronine and methionine/cyteine. Cereals and legume blends allow to improve the amino acid balance, since legume have more lysine, and cereals are richer in sulphur amino acids. Due to the nutritional interest of "algarrobo" cotyledons, the use of "algarrobo cotyledon" flour (ACF) in sweet and salty snack manufacture was evaluated. Cookies and fried salty chips with 0%, 10% and 20% ACF were prepared. Flours were analyzed for color, particle size, moisture, proximate composition, available lysine, and soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber. Cookies and chips were analyzed for the same characteristics (except for particle size); besides there were determined water activity, weight and size of the units, and also, the caloric value was computed. Sensory quality and acceptance of both products were evaluated. It is noticeable the high amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber (63.6; 10.2; 4.3 and 4.2 g/100 g dmb, respectively), available lysine (62.4 mg/g protein) and total dietary fiber (24.2 g/100 g dmb) of ACF. Both, cookies and chips with ACF, showed a significant increase in the amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber and, available lysine (from 15.5 to 19,3 and from 20.3 a 29.6 mg lisina/g protein, respectively), and total dietary fiber (from 1.39 to 2.80 and from 1.60 a 5.60 g/100 g dmb, respectively). All of the cookies trials were well accepted ("I like it very much"); chips with 10% of AFC showed the highest acceptance ("I like it"). It can be concluded that the use of ACF in cookies and chips manufacture increases the contribution of available lysine; their protein and dietary fiber content, improving the soluble/insoluble fiber ratio, without affect neither their physical nor their sensory acceptance.

  10. Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussinger, Peter M.; Lindemuth, James E.

    1997-01-01

    The principal objective of this Phase 2 SBIR program was to develop and demonstrate a practically insoluble coating for nickel-based superalloys for Stirling engine heat pipe applications. Specific technical objectives of the program were: (1) Determine the solubility corrosion rates for Nickel 200, Inconel 718, and Udimet 72OLI in a simulated Stirling engine heat pipe environment, (2) Develop coating processes and techniques for capillary groove and screen wick structures, (3) Evaluate the durability and solubility corrosion rates for capillary groove and screen wick structures coated with an insoluble coating in cylindrical heat pipes operating under Stirling engine conditions, and (4) Design and fabricate a coated full-scale, partial segment of the current Stirling engine heat pipe for the Stirling Space Power Convertor program. The work effort successfully demonstrated a two-step nickel aluminide coating process for groove wick structures and interior wall surfaces in contact with liquid metals; demonstrated a one-step nickel aluminide coating process for nickel screen wick structures; and developed and demonstrated a two-step aluminum-to-nickel aluminide coating process for nickel screen wick structures. In addition, the full-scale, partial segment was fabricated and the interior surfaces and wick structures were coated. The heat pipe was charged with sodium, processed, and scheduled to be life tested for up to ten years as a Phase 3 effort.

  11. Application of insoluble fibers in the fining of wine phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Raúl F; Smith, Paul; Bindon, Keren A

    2013-05-08

    The application of animal-derived proteins as wine fining agents has been subject to increased regulation in recent years. As an alternative to protein-based fining agents, insoluble plant-derived fibers have the capacity to adsorb red wine tannins. Changes in red wine tannin were analyzed following application of fibers derived from apple and grape and protein-based fining agents. Other changes in wine composition, namely, color, monomeric phenolics, metals, and turbidity, were also determined. Wine tannin was maximally reduced by application of an apple pomace fiber and a grape pomace fiber (G4), removing 42 and 38%, respectively. Potassium caseinate maximally removed 19% of wine tannin, although applied at a lower dose. Fibers reduced anthocyanins, total phenolics, and wine color density, but changes in wine hue were minor. Proteins and apple fiber selectively removed high molecular mass phenolics, whereas grape fibers removed those of both high and low molecular mass. The results show that insoluble fibers may be considered as alternative fining agents for red wines.

  12. Microbial degradation of water-insoluble organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of solubilization on biodegradation of water-insoluble organic compounds was investigated. The effect of particle size on solubilization and degradation of 4-chlorobiphenyl (4-CB) and naphthalene by a microbial mixture was determined. The concentration of soluble compound was determined using gas-liquid chromatography. The rates of solubilization were inversely related to particle size for both compounds. The rates of mineralization of 14 C-labeled palmitic acid, octadecane, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), and Sevin (1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate) by microbial mixtures were determined by trapping the 14 CO 2 formed, and those rates were compared to solubilization rates determined by periodically filtering sterile MS amended with one of the compounds. Mineralization and colonization of the surface of 10 μg palmitic acid per 10 ml MS by Pseudomonas pseudoflava was determined by trapping 14 CO 2 and epifluorescence microscopy. Mineralization began before colonization and was initially exponential, but the rate then declined. The rate of mineralization at the end of the exponential phase approximated the rate of solubilization. The surface was completely covered about the time mineralization stopped. Unbound cells grew exponentially before colonization was detected; however, colonization of the surface was complete after the number of free cells stopped increasing. The data suggest that soluble palmitic acid is utilized before the insoluble phase but colonization is important in the mineralization of palmitic acid when solubilization becomes rate limiting

  13. Increasing potassium (K release from K-containing minerals in the presence of insoluble phosphate by bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sarikhani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phosphorus and potassium are major essential macronutrients for biological growth and development. Application of soil microorganisms is one approach to enhance crop growth. Some bacteria are efficient in releasing K and solubilizing P from mineral sources but their behavior was not studied more in presence together. Materials and methods: In this study the ability of seven bacterial strains, including Pseudomonas putida P13, P. putida Tabriz, P. fluorescens Tabriz, P. fluorescens Chao, Pantoea agglomerans P5, Azotobacter sp. and Bacillus megaterium JK3 to release mineral K from muscovite and biotite with application of insoluble (Ca3(PO42 or soluble (Na2HPO4 P-sources was investigated. Nutrient Broth was used to prepare an overnight culture of bacteria to inoculate in Aleksandrov medium, which was used to study the dissolution of silicate minerals. It should be mentioned that Aleksandrov medium was used to determine the amount of released P from tricalcium phosphate (TCP while muscovite was added to the medium as a sole source of potassium. Concentration of P was determined spectrophotometrically by ammonium-vanadate-molybdate method and K was determined by flame photometry. Results: The insoluble P-source led to a significantly increased released K into assay medium (66%, and the net release of K from the biotite was significantly enhanced. Among bacterial strains, the highest mean of released K was observed with P. putida P13 which released more K (27% than the control. The amounts of released K from micas in the presence of insoluble and soluble phosphate by P. putida P13 were 8.25 and 4.87 mg/g, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: Application of insoluble phosphate could increase K release from mica minerals. The enhanced releasing of mineral K might be attributed to the release of organic acids from the bacteria, a mechanism which plays a pivotal role in solubilizing phosphate from inorganic source of phosphate.

  14. Insoluble glycogen, a metabolizable internal adsorbent, decreases the lethality of endotoxin shock in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sipka

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Insoluble glycogen is an enzymatically modified form of naturally occurring soluble glycogen with a great adsorbing capacity. It can be metabolized by phagocytes to glucose. In this study we used insoluble glycogen intravenously in the experimental endotoxin shock of rats. Wistar male rats were sensitized to endotoxin by Pb acetate. The survival of rats were compared in groups of animals endotoxin shock treated and non-treated with insoluble glycogen. Furthermore, we have determined in vitro the binding capacity of insoluble glycogen for endotoxin, tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 and secretable phospholipase A2. Use of 10 mg/kg dose of insoluble glycogen could completely prevent the lethality of shock induced by LD50 quantity of endotoxin in rats. All animals treated survived. Insoluble glycogen is a form of ‘metabolizable internal adsorbents’. It can potentially be used for treatment of septic shock.

  15. Chemical composition and functional characteristics of dietary fiber-rich powder obtained from core of maize straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jin-Shun; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Pan; Wang, Lin-Shuang

    2017-07-15

    A novel dietary fiber (MsCDF) based core of maize straw (Core) was prepared by using high boiling solvent of sodium peroxide by high pressure pretreatment (HBSHP). The composition of MsCDF, and several physicochemical properties for MsCDF related to its nutritional quality were investigated. The results revealed that the MsCDF contains high contents total dietary fiber (TDF), soluble dietary fiber (SDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and two main monosaccharaides, xylose and glucose. Meanwhile, the studies of physicochemical properties of MsCDF indicated that MsCDF performed well water-holding capacity (WHC), oil-holding capacity (OHC), Swelling, solubility (SOL), Glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI) and adsorption capacity on cholesterol. The results of this study serve as evidence that MsCDF can be used as a functional food additive, Core can be used as a crude material to produce MsCDF and the technology of HBSHP can be used to modify the physico-chemical properties of Core. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Water insoluble and soluble lipids for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Ram I

    2005-04-05

    Among various synthetic gene carriers currently in use, liposomes composed of cationic lipids and co-lipids remain the most efficient transfection reagents. Physicochemical properties of lipid/plasmid complexes, such as cationic lipid structure, cationic lipid to co-lipid ratio, charge ratio, particle size and zeta potential have significant influence on gene expression and biodistribution. However, most cationic lipids are toxic and cationic liposomes/plasmid complexes do not disperse well inside the target tissues because of their large particle size. To overcome the problems associated with cationic lipids, we designed water soluble lipopolymers for gene delivery to various cells and tissues. This review provides a critical discussion on how the components of water insoluble and soluble lipids affect their transfection efficiency and biodistribution of lipid/plasmid complexes.

  17. Morphological Study of Insoluble Organic Matter Residues from Primitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changela, H. G.; Stroud, R. M.; Peeters, Z.; Nittler, L. R.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; DeGregorio, B. T.; Cody, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) constitutes a major proportion, 70-99%, of the total organic carbon found in primitive chondrites [1, 2]. One characteristic morphological component of IOM is nanoglobules [3, 4]. Some nanoglobules exhibit large N-15 and D enrichments relative to solar values, indicating that they likely originated in the ISM or the outskirts of the protoplanetary disk [3]. A recent study of samples from the Tagish Lake meteorite with varying levels of hydrothermal alteration suggest that nanoglobule abundance decreases with increasing hydrothermal alteration [5]. The aim of this study is to further document the morphologies of IOM from a range of primitive chondrites in order to determine any correlation of morphology with petrographic grade and chondrite class that could constrain the formation and/or alteration mechanisms.

  18. Solvent vapor annealing of an insoluble molecular semiconductor

    KAUST Repository

    Amassian, Aram

    2010-01-01

    Solvent vapor annealing has been proposed as a low-cost, highly versatile, and room-temperature alternative to thermal annealing of organic semiconductors and devices. In this article, we investigate the solvent vapor annealing process of a model insoluble molecular semiconductor thin film - pentacene on SiO 2 exposed to acetone vapor - using a combination of optical reflectance and two-dimensional grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements performed in situ, during processing. These measurements provide valuable and new insight into the solvent vapor annealing process; they demonstrate that solvent molecules interact mainly with the surface of the film to induce a solid-solid transition without noticeable swelling, dissolving or melting of the molecular material. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. N-succinyl-chitosan as a drug carrier: water-insoluble and water-soluble conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoshinori; Onishi, Hiraku; Machida, Yoshiharu

    2004-02-01

    N-succinyl-chitosan (Suc-Chi) has favourable properties as a drug carrier such as biocompatibility, low toxicity and long-term retention in the body. It was long retained in the systemic circulation after intravenous administration, and the plasma half-lives of Suc-Chi (MW: 3.4 x 10(5); succinylation degree: 0.81 mol/sugar unit; deacetylation degree: 1.0 mol/sugar unit) were ca. 100.3h in normal mice and 43 h in Sarcoma 180-bearing mice. The biodistribution of Suc-Chi into other tissues was trace apart from the prostate and lymph nodes. The maximum tolerable dose for the intraperitoneal injection of Suc-Chi to mice was greater than 2 g/kg. The water-insoluble and water-soluble conjugates could be prepared using a water-soluble carbodiimide and mitomycin C (MMC) or using an activated ester of glutaric MMC. In vitro release characteristics of these conjugates showed similar patterns, i.e. a pH-dependent manner, except that water-insoluble conjugates showed a slightly slower release of MMC than water-soluble ones. The conjugates of MMC with Suc-Chi showed good antitumour activities against various tumours such as murine leukaemias (L1210 and P388), B16 melanoma, Sarcoma 180 solid tumour, a murine liver metastatic tumour (M5076) and a murine hepatic cell carcinoma (MH134). This review summarizes the utilization of Suc-Chi as a drug carrier for macromolecular conjugates of MMC and the therapeutic efficacy of the conjugates against various tumours.

  20. Use of anionic denaturing detergents to purify insoluble proteins after overexpression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlager Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Many proteins form insoluble protein aggregates, called “inclusion bodies”, when overexpressed in E. coli. This is the biggest obstacle in biotechnology. Ever since the reversible denaturation of proteins by chaotropic agents such as urea or guanidinium hydrochloride had been shown, these compounds were predominantly used to dissolve inclusion bodies. Other denaturants exist but have received much less attention in protein purification. While the anionic, denaturing detergent sodiumdodecylsulphate (SDS is used extensively in analytical SDS-PAGE, it has rarely been used in preparative purification. Results Here we present a simple and versatile method to purify insoluble, hexahistidine-tagged proteins under denaturing conditions. It is based on dissolution of overexpressing bacterial cells in a buffer containing sodiumdodecylsulfate (SDS and whole-lysate denaturation of proteins. The excess of detergent is removed by cooling and centrifugation prior to affinity purification. Host- and overexpressed proteins do not co-precipitate with SDS and the residual concentration of detergent is compatible with affinity purification on Ni/NTA resin. We show that SDS can be replaced with another ionic detergent, Sarkosyl, during purification. Key advantages over denaturing purification in urea or guanidinium are speed, ease of use, low cost of denaturant and the compatibility of buffers with automated FPLC. Conclusion Ionic, denaturing detergents are useful in breaking the solubility barrier, a major obstacle in biotechnology. The method we present yields detergent-denatured protein. Methods to refold proteins from a detergent denatured state are known and therefore we propose that the procedure presented herein will be of general application in biotechnology.

  1. Determination of the water insoluble residuum in potassium salts using gamma logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishin, G.T.; Gavrilova, L.I.

    1976-01-01

    For potassium salts the relationship has been established between the concentration of heavy radioelements (the uranium-radium and thorium series) and the content of the water-insoluble, residue which is mainly represented by the clay-iodine fraction. A method is described for determining the content of the insoluble residue with the aid of PRKS-2 equipment. The results are given of experimental investigations aimed at studying the content of the insoluble residue in salts along the section of rising production wells. The results of the determination of the insoluble residue in potassium salts define their quality with an accuracy sufficient for industrial purposes

  2. Composition, properties and health benefits of indigestible carbohydrate polymers as dietary fiber: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta

    2013-10-01

    In last few decades, indigestible carbohydrates as dietary fiber have attracted interest of food scientists and technologists due to its several physiological benefits. Dietary fibers are generally of two types based on their solubility, i.e. soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Significant physicochemical properties of dietary fiber include solubility, viscosity, water holding capacity, bulking and fermentability. Some important dietary fibers are celluloses, hemicelluloses, hydrocolloids, resistant starches and non-digestible oligosaccharides. Inclusion of these fibers in daily diet imparts several health benefits such as prevention or reduction of bowel disorders, and decrease risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) provide dietary fibres high in pectic substances and xyloglucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Lisa M; Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Reuhs, Bradley L; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2015-01-15

    Dietary fibre of quinoa and amaranth was analysed for its insoluble and soluble fibre content, composition, and structure. Total dietary fibre content was 10% for quinoa and 11% for amaranth. For both pseudocereals, 78% of its dietary fibre was insoluble. Insoluble fibre (IDF) from quinoa and amaranth was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, xylose and glucose. Linkage analysis indicated that IDF was composed of homogalacturonans and rhamnogalacturonan-I with arabinan side-chains (∼55-60%), as well as highly branched xyloglucans (∼30%) and cellulose. For both pseudocereals, 22% of total dietary fibre was soluble; a higher proportion than that found in wheat and maize (∼15%). The soluble fibre (SDF) was composed of glucose, galacturonic acid and arabinose; for amaranth, xylose was also a major constituent. Xyloglucans made up ∼40-60% of the SDF and arabinose-rich pectic polysaccharides represented ∼34-55%. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Environmental conditions for the formation of insoluble Tc in water ponds located above paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Koiso, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    Optimum conditions for the formation of insoluble Tc (Tc in >0.2 μm size fraction) were studied using a microcosm including water ponds above a paddy field to understand Tc behavior in such fields. In the microcosm, soluble TcO 4 - was converted to insoluble forms, but no changes in the form of Tc were observed in filtered microcosm samples which were microorganisms-free. The formation of insoluble Tc was inhibited by the addition of the antibiotic chloramphenicol. In addition, the reduction of soluble Tc(VII)O 4 - to low-valence oxide was not observed in the filtered microcosm samples, although reducing conditions were present. These results indicated that bacteria were involved in the formation of insoluble Tc. Since oxidizing conditions influence bacterial metabolism, the formation of insoluble Tc by bacteria was studied under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The results showed that anaerobic conditions were favorable for the formation of insoluble Tc. In addition, the addition of formate as an electron donor to a microcosm sample facilitated the formation of insoluble Tc. The results suggested that insoluble Tc in the water ponds above paddy fields was caused by bacteria, which were shown to couple the oxidation of formate to the reduction of Tc(VII) during anaerobic respiration

  5. A new method for the analysis of soluble and insoluble oxalate in pulp and paper matrices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sithole, Bruce

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel method has been developed for determining soluble and insoluble forms of oxalate in pulp and paper samples by ion chromatography. Methanesulphonic acid is used to dissolve insoluble oxalate, and total oxalate is then determined by ion...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1400 - Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydroxyethyl cellulose film, water-insoluble. 177... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances... packaging food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Water-insoluble hydroxyethyl...

  7. Toward an experimental synthesis of the chondritic insoluble organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron, Kasia; Derenne, Sylvie; Robert, FrançOis; Rouzaud, Jean-NoëL.

    2015-08-01

    Based on the statistical model proposed for the molecular structure of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from the Murchison meteorite, it was recently proposed that, in the solar T-Tauri disk regions where (photo)dissociation of gaseous molecules takes place, aromatics result from the cyclization/aromatization of short aliphatics. This hypothesis is tested in this study, with n-alkanes being submitted to high-frequency discharge at low pressure. The contamination issue was eliminated using deuterated precursor. IOM was formed and studied using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, RuO4 oxidation, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It exhibits numerous similarities at the molecular level with the hydrocarbon backbone of the natural IOM, reinforcing the idea that the initial precursors of the IOM were originally chains in the gas. Moreover, a fine comparison between the chemical structure of several meteorite IOM suggests either that (i) the meteorite IOMs share a common precursor standing for the synthetic IOM or that (ii) the slight differences between the meteorite IOMs reflect differences in their environment at the time of their formation i.e., related to plasma temperature that, in turn, dictates the dissociation-recombination rates of organic fragments.

  8. Uptake kinetics of relatively insoluble particles by tracheobronchial lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Tracheobronchial lymph nodes accumulate a portion of material deposited in the deep lung following inhalation of relatively insoluble particles. Experiments involving a variety of compounds, inhaled singly or repeatedly, indicate that the kinetics of lymph node uptake are fairly independent of particle characteristics and mammalian species. The buildup per unit weight of nodal tissue compared with that of lung tissue, with time, can be represented by a linear logarithmic function. However, since the scatter in experimental points may be large at any given time after inhalation exposure, a number of different kinetic descriptions of uptake can be derived. The logarithmic pattern of accumulation can be approximated over an extended time range (several years) by use of a combination of first-order kinetics of loss from the lung and of buildup in lymph nodes, but it is recognized that the processes are much more complicated than this treatment would indicate. Clearance (loss) from the lymph nodes is not well defined, but this aspect is discussed in light of the kinetic models presented

  9. Plutonium extraction by the formation of insoluble salts (1960); Extraction du plutonium par formation de sels insolubles (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganivet, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-06-15

    The aim of this work is to convert Pu IV nitrate in solution into an insoluble salt. Three methods have been studied: 1) the conventional oxalic acid method was improved; 2) precipitation with 8-hydroxyquinoline was tried; 3) the hydrogen peroxide method was adapted to the eluates of the ionic resins from Marcoule. The yield from the oxalic process has been increased (loss of Pu in the mother-liquor brought from 200 mg/l to 20 mg/l). The study of Pu IV precipitation by 8-hydroxyquinoline has shown that the yield is excellent (Pu concentration in the mother-liquor less than 5 mg/h), but decontamination from impurities is nil. Finally, experiments on the precipitation by hydrogen peroxide of Pu IV solutions at the concentrations normally obtained from the anionic resins at Marcoule have given us good yields (Pu concentration in the mother-liquor less than 7 mg/l), and the purification is better than that obtained by oxalic acid (1000 ppm total impurities after a precipitation). (author) [French] L'objet de l'etude est la transformation en sel insoluble du nitrate de Pu IV en solution. Trois procedes ont ete etudies: 1) la methode classique a l'acide oxalique a ete amelioree, 2) la precipitation a la 8-hydroxyquinoleine a ete essayee; 3) le procede a l'eau oxygenee a ete adapte aux solutions d'elution des resines anion de Marcoule. Le rendement du procede oxalique a ete augmente (perte en Pu dans les eaux-meres ramenee de 200 mg/l a 20 mg/l). L'etude de la precipitation du Pu IV par la 8-hydroxyquinoleine a montre que le rendement etait excellent (concentration du Pu dans les eaux-meres inferieure a 5 mg/l), mais la decontamination en impuretes est nulle. Enfin, l'etude et l'application de la precipitation par l'eau oxygenee de solutions de Pu IV de concentrations habituellement obtenues a la sortie des resines anion a Marcoule nous ont permis d'obtenir un bon rendement (concentration de Pu dans les eaux-meres inferieure a 7 mg/l); la purification est meilleure que

  10. QUALITY AND NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF WHEAT BREAD WITH A PREPARATION OF OAT PROTEINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Sabat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate possibilities and advisability of the use of oats insoluble protein preparation for the production of wheat bread, in order to increase the amount of protein and biological value of protein in this kind of bakery. Research material consisted of the preparation of insoluble oats protein, wheat flour and wheat bread made with the share of oat protein: 5%, 7.5% and 10%, by weight of wheat flour. AOAC methods (2006 were used to determine protein, β-D-glucan and dietary fiber in raw materials and final products. Amino acid composition was measured with the help of amino acid analyzer AAA 400 and used to calculate chemical score (CS and the integrated index of essential amino acids (EAAI, according to FAO/WHO/UNU, 2007. Quality of breads was evaluated by their volume, baking yield and total baking loss, and organoleptic assessment. Bread crumb texture profile was analyzed by texture analyzer TA.XT Plus.

  11. Sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Sample preparation prior to HPLC analysis is certainly one of the most important steps to consider in trace or ultratrace analysis. For many years scientists have tried to simplify the sample preparation process. It is rarely possible to inject a neat liquid sample or a sample where preparation may not be any more complex than dissolution of the sample in a given solvent. The last process alone can remove insoluble materials, which is especially helpful with the samples in complex matrices if other interactions do not affect extraction. Here, it is very likely a large number of components will not dissolve and are, therefore, eliminated by a simple filtration process. In most cases, the process of sample preparation is not as simple as dissolution of the component interest. At times, enrichment is necessary, that is, the component of interest is present in very large volume or mass of material. It needs to be concentrated in some manner so a small volume of the concentrated or enriched sample can be injected into HPLC. 88 refs

  12. Physiochemical characterization of insoluble residues in California Sierra Nevada snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamean, Jessie; Axson, Jessica; Bondy, Amy; Craig, Rebecca; May, Nathaniel; Shen, Hongru; Weber, Michael; Warner, Katy; Pratt, Kerri; Ault, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The effects atmospheric aerosols have on cloud particle formation are dependent on both the aerosol physical and chemical characteristics. For instance, larger, irregular-shaped mineral dusts efficiently form cloud ice crystals, enhancing precipitation, whereas small, spherical pollution aerosols have the potential to form small cloud droplets that delay the autoconversion of cloudwater to precipitation. Thus, it is important to understand the physiochemical properties and sources of aerosols that influence cloud and precipitation formation. We present an in-depth analysis of the size, chemistry, and sources of soluble and insoluble residues found in snow collected at three locations in the California Sierra Nevada Mountains during the 2012/2013 winter season. For all sites, February snow samples contained high concentrations of regional pollutants such as ammonium nitrate and biomass burning species, while March snow samples were influenced by mineral dust. The snow at the lower elevation sites in closer proximity to the Central Valley of California were heavily influenced by agricultural and industrial emissions, whereas the highest elevation site was exposed to a mixture of Central Valley pollutants in addition to long-range transported dust from Asia and Africa. Further, air masses likely containing transported dust typically traveled over cloud top heights at the low elevation sites, but were incorporated into the cold (-28°C, on average) cloud tops more often at the highest elevation site, particularly in March, which we hypothesize led to enhanced ice crystal formation and thus the observation of dust in the snow collected at the ground. Overall, understanding the spatial and temporal dependence of aerosol sources is important for remote mountainous regions such as the Sierra Nevada where snowpack provides a steady, vital supply of water.

  13. Water-insoluble fractions of botanical foods lower blood ethanol levels in rats by physically maintaining the ethanol solution after ethanol administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunji Oshima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have analyzed the functions of foods and dietary constituents in the dynamics of alcohol metabolism. However, few studies have reported the function of dietary fibers in the dynamics of alcohol metabolism. Objective: We assessed the effects of botanical foods that contain dietary fibers on alcohol metabolism. Methods: The ability of the water-insoluble fraction (WIF of 18 kinds of botanical foods to maintain 15% (v/v ethanol solution was examined using easily handled filtration. A simple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the correlation between the filtered volumes and blood ethanol concentration (BEC in F344 rats 4 h after the ingestion of 4.0 g/kg of ethanol following dosage of 2.5% (w/v WIF of the experimental botanical foods. Furthermore, the supernatant (6.3 Brix; water-soluble fraction and precipitate (WIF of tomato, with a strong ethanol-maintaining ability, were obtained and BEC and the residual gastric ethanol in rats were determined 2 h after the administration of 4.0 g/kg of ethanol and the individuals fractions. Results: The filtered volumes of dropped ethanol solutions containing all the botanical foods tested except green peas were decreased compared with the ethanol solution without WIF (control. There was a significant correlation between the filtered volumes and blood ethanol concentration (BEC. There was no significant difference in the residual gastric ethanol between controls and the supernatant group; however, it was increased significantly in the WIF group than in controls or the supernatant group. Consistent with this, BEC reached a similar level in controls and the supernatant group but significantly decreased in the WIF group compared with controls or the supernatant group. Conclusions: These findings suggest that WIFs of botanical foods, which are mostly water-insoluble dietary fibers, possess the ability to absorb ethanol-containing solutions, and this ability correlates

  14. Retention of Proanthocyanidin in Wine-like Solution Is Conferred by a Dynamic Interaction between Soluble and Insoluble Grape Cell Wall Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, Keren A; Li, Sijing; Kassara, Stella; Smith, Paul A

    2016-11-09

    For better understanding of the factors that impact proanthocyanidin (PA) adsorption by insoluble cell walls or interaction with soluble cell wall-derived components, application of a commercial polygalacturonase enzyme preparation was investigated to modify grape cell wall structure. Soluble and insoluble cell wall material was isolated from the skin and mesocarp components of Vitis vinifera Shiraz grapes. It was observed that significant depolymerization of the insoluble grape cell wall occurred following enzyme application to both grape cell wall fractions, with increased solubilization of rhamnogalacturonan-enriched, low molecular weight polysaccharides. However, in the case of grape mesocarp, the solubilization of protein from cell walls (in buffer) was significant and increased only slightly by the enzyme treatment. Enzyme treatment significantly reduced the adsorption of PA by insoluble cell walls, but this effect was observed only when material solubilized from grape cell walls had been removed. The loss of PA through interaction with the soluble cell wall fraction was observed to be greater for mesocarp than skin cell walls. Subsequent experiments on the soluble mesocarp cell wall fraction confirmed a role for protein in the precipitation of PA. This identified a potential mechanism by which extracted grape PA may be lost from wine during vinification, as a precipitate with solubilized grape mesocarp proteins. Although protein was a minor component in terms of total concentration, losses of PA via precipitation with proteins were in the order of 50% of available PA. PA-induced precipitation could proceed until all protein was removed from solution and may account for the very low levels of residual protein observed in red wines. The results point to a dynamic interaction of grape insoluble and soluble components in modulating PA retention in wine.

  15. Study of a nickel-copper filter for the future conditioning of insoluble residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoni, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.massoni@cea.fr

    2016-10-15

    This paper deals with the feasibility of a separate conditioning for insoluble residues coming from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. The two possible conditioning routes considered for insoluble residues were (i) added with cladding hulls with the considered filter (route #1) or (ii) melted with a nickel copper alloy already studied (route #2). Only route #2 was dealt with in this study. In France, the current practice is to store insoluble residues in a water suspension. For the two conditioning routes described here, dry insoluble residues are required for safety with melted metals. A nickel-copper filter was developed that can serve for the two types of conditioning. A filtration test performed with molybdenum particles as insoluble residue surrogates was done. The particle-charged filter was sintered, and Mo particles were kept inside the filter. Thus an integrated flowsheet for the filtration and immobilization of insoluble residues was demonstrated. - Highlights: • The basics for an integrated flowsheet for the filtration and immobilization of insoluble residues were demonstrated. • The filter can serve as an immobilization matrix or can be added in another metal waste. • A theoretical calculation has shown that the conception of the filter should be done to avoid an excessive heat-up.

  16. Environmental interpretation using insoluble residues within reef coral skeletons: problems, pitfalls, and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Ann F.; Mann, Keith O.; Guzmán, Hector M.

    1993-03-01

    Insoluble residue concentrations have been measured within colonies of four massive reef corals from seven localities along the Caribbean coast of Panama to determine if detrital sediments, incorporated within the skeletal lattice during growth, record changes in sedimentation over the past twenty years. Amounts of resuspended sediment have increased to varying degrees at the seven localities over the past decades in response to increased deforestation in nearby terrestrial habitats. Preliminary results of correlation and regression analyses reveal few consistent temporal trends in the insoluble residue concentration. Analyses of variance suggest that amounts of insoluble residues, however, differ among environments within species, but that no consistent pattern of variation exists among species. D. strigosa and P. astreoides possess high concentrations at protected localities, S. siderea at localities with high amounts of resuspended sediment, and M. annularis at the least turbid localities. Little correlation exists between insoluble residue concentration and growth band width within species at each locality. Only in two more efficient suspension feeders ( S. siderea and D. strigosa) do weak negative correlations with growth band width exist overall. These results indicate that insoluble residue concentrations cannot be used unequivocally in environmental interpretation, until more is known about tissue damage, polyp behavior, and their effects on the incorporation of insolubles in the skeleton during growth in different coral species. Insoluble residue data are highly variable; therefore, large sample sizes and strong contrasts between environments are required to reveal significant trends.

  17. Novel films for drug delivery via the buccal mucosa using model soluble and insoluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianfar, Farnoosh; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Antonijevic, Milan D; Boateng, Joshua S

    2012-10-01

    Bioadhesive buccal films are innovative dosage forms with the ability to adhere to the mucosal surface and subsequently hydrate to release and deliver drugs across the buccal membrane. This study aims to formulate and characterize stable carrageenan (CAR) based buccal films with desirable drug loading capacity. The films were prepared using CAR, poloxamer (POL) 407, various grades of PEG (plasticizer) and loaded with paracetamol (PM) and indomethacin (IND) as model soluble and insoluble drugs, respectively. The films were characterized by texture analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), DSC, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and in vitro drug release studies. Optimized films were obtained from aqueous gels comprising 2.5% w/w κ-CAR 911, 4% w/w POL 407 and 6% w/w (PM) and 6.5% w/w (IND) of PEG 600 with maximum drug loading of 1.6% w/w and 0.8 % w/w for PM and IND, respectively. TGA showed residual water content of approximately 5% of films dry weight. DSC revealed a T(g) at 22.25 and 30.77°C for PM and IND, respectively, implying the presence of amorphous forms of both drugs which was confirmed by XRPD. Drug dissolution profiles in simulated saliva showed cumulative percent release of up to 45 and 57% of PM and IND, respectively, within 40 min of contact with dissolution medium simulating saliva.

  18. Incorporation of buriti endocarp flour in gluten-free whole cookies as potential source of dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Fernanda Salamoni; Damiani, Clarissa; de Melo, Adriane Alexandre Machado; Borges, Paulo Rogério Siriano; Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros Vilas

    2014-12-01

    Cookies were prepared by replacing a mixture of brown rice flour (70%) and corn starch (30%) (BRFCS) by buriti endocarp flour (BEF) (0, 5, 10, 15 or 20%). BEF figured as a potential source of dietary fiber (70.53 g 100 g(-1)), especially of insoluble fiber (67.50 g 100 g(-1)), and gluten-free whole cookies showed increased dietary fiber content by adding 5, 10, 15 and 20% BEF (8.58 to 20.02 g 100 g(-1)) when compared to control cookie (6.91 g 100 g(-1)). The addition of BEF affected diameter, spread ratio, color and texture of cookies. All cookies added with BEF were darker, harder and presented smaller diameter and smaller spread ratio than the control cookie. These difference increased proportionally to level of substitution of BRFSC by BEF. Gluten-free whole cookies with up to 15% BEF were well accepted by consumers. Therefore, the use of BEF in cookies may increase the availability of functional ingredients source of dietary fiber for celiac consumers, add economic value to buriti processing by-products and decrease environmental impacts due to the high amounts of waste generated by buriti processing industries.

  19. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid-soluble and -insoluble fractions of pelagic sediment: Readsorption revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, D.Z.; Wandless, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The extraction of the rare earth elements (REE) from deep-ocean pelagic sediment, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid, leads to the separation of approximately 70% of the bulk REE content into the soluble fraction and 30% into the insoluble fraction. The REE pattern of the soluble fraction, i.e., the content of REE normalized to average shale on an element-by-element basis and plotted against atomic number, resembles the pattern for seawater, whereas the pattern, as well as the absolute concentrations, in the insoluble fraction resembles the North American shale composite. These results preclude significant readsorption of the REE by the insoluble phases during the leaching procedure.

  20. Probing the mechanisms of drug release from amorphous solid dispersions in medium-soluble and medium-insoluble carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dajun D; Lee, Ping I

    2015-08-10

    The objective of the current study is to mechanistically differentiate the dissolution and supersaturation behaviors of amorphous drugs from amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) based on medium-soluble versus medium-insoluble carriers under nonsink dissolution conditions through a direct head-to-head comparison. ASDs of indomethacin (IND) were prepared in several polymers which exhibit different solubility behaviors in acidic (pH1.2) and basic (pH7.4) dissolution media. The selected polymers range from water-soluble (e.g., PVP and Soluplus) and water-insoluble (e.g., ethylcellulose and Eudragit RL PO) to those only soluble in an acidic or basic dissolution medium (e.g., Eudragit E100, Eudragit L100, and HPMCAS). At 20wt.% drug loading, DSC and powder XRD analysis confirmed that the majority of incorporated IND was present in an amorphous state. Our nonsink dissolution results confirm that whether the carrier matrix is medium soluble determines the release mechanism of amorphous drugs from ASD systems which has a direct impact on the rate of supersaturation generation, thus in turn affecting the evolution of supersaturation in amorphous systems. For example, under nonsink dissolution conditions, the release of amorphous IND from medium-soluble carriers is governed by a dissolution-controlled mechanism leading to an initial surge of supersaturation followed by a sharp decline in drug concentration due to rapid nucleation and crystallization. In contrast, the dissolution of IND ASD from medium-insoluble carriers is more gradual as drug release is regulated by a diffusion-controlled mechanism by which drug supersaturation is built up gradually and sustained over an extended period of time without any apparent decline. Since several tested carrier polymers can be switched from soluble to insoluble by simply changing the pH of the dissolution medium, the results obtained here provide unequivocal evidence of the proposed transition of kinetic solubility profiles from the

  1. Effects of commercial pectolytic and cellulolytic enzyme preparations on the apple cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongowski, G; Sembries, S

    2001-09-01

    The action of three different commercial enzyme combinations on apple cell wall material has been examined in a model system under conditions of mash and pomace treatment by using an alcohol-insoluble substance prepared from apples. A part of the total dietary fiber, for example, galacturonan (pectin), appeared in the soluble fraction after enzymatic mash treatment. The soluble fraction increased intensely during pomace treatment. Furthermore, enzyme actions caused a change in the water-binding capacity of residues as well as changes in the monosaccharide composition and in the molecular weight distribution of saccharides in filtrates (soluble parts). The extent of decomposition of cell wall material and the increase of soluble oligomeric and/or polymeric dietary fiber components are caused by both the composition (pectinases, cellulases, and hemicellulases) and the activities of the enzyme preparations. The model experiments allow an insight into the reactions occurring during enzyme action on the plant cell wall, for example, during apple juice production using pectolytic and cellulolytic enzyme preparations.

  2. Involvement of detergent-insoluble complexes in the intracellular transport of intestinal brush border enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1995-01-01

    A number of transmembrane digestive enzymes of the porcine small intestinal brush border membrane were found to be partially Triton X-100-insoluble at 0 degree C and colocalized in gradient centrifugation experiments with the GPI-anchored alkaline phosphatase in low-density, detergent-insoluble c...... intracellularly. I therefore propose that, in the enterocyte, the brush border enzymes are targeted directly from the trans-Golgi network toward the apical cell surface......., and their insolubility increased to that of the steady-state level soon after they achieved their mature, complex glycosylation, i.e., after passage through the Golgi complex. Detergent-insoluble complexes isolated by density gradient centrifugation were highly enriched in brush border enzymes, and the enrichment...

  3. Dietary branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and tumor growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, W.; Baron, L.; Baron, P.; White, F.; Banks, W.L. Jr.

    1986-03-05

    The effects of high dietary BCAA on tumor growth was examined in adult male Fischer 344 rats inoculated with 10/sup 6/ viable MCA fibrosarcoma cells. Ten days after tumor inoculation, when tumors were of palpable size, rats were divided into two groups at random. The experimental(E) group was fed the AIN-76 diet supplemented with 4X the BCAA content of diet casein and the control(C) group was fed the AIN-76 made isonitrogenous with the E diet by glutamic acid supplementation. Five rats from each group were killed at days 0,3,6, and 9. Rats were injected with /sup 14/C-Tyrosine and /sup 3/H-Thymidine i.p. (2 and 4 uCi/100g BW, respectively) an hour before they were killed. The incorporation of /sup 14/C and /sup 3/H into the acid insoluble fraction of the tumor tissues samples were measured. Single cell suspension of tumor were prepared for cell cycle kinetics analysis using a Coulter EPICS IV flow microflorometer. The percentage of normal and hyperdiploid cells were analyzed. Results showed that both tumor size and weight were doubled at each time point the rats were killed. At day 0, the /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C incorporation were 32 +/- 10dpm and 27 +/- 4dpm/mg tumor, respectively. The /sup 3/H incorporation dropped in both diet groups at days 6 and 9 but the /sup 14/C incorporation showed a decrease only at day 9. These changes were statistically significant, P>0.05. No difference in the tumor growth parameters used in this study can be attributed to the high dietary BCAA.

  4. Dietary branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, W.; Baron, L.; Baron, P.; White, F.; Banks, W.L. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of high dietary BCAA on tumor growth was examined in adult male Fischer 344 rats inoculated with 10 6 viable MCA fibrosarcoma cells. Ten days after tumor inoculation, when tumors were of palpable size, rats were divided into two groups at random. The experimental(E) group was fed the AIN-76 diet supplemented with 4X the BCAA content of diet casein and the control(C) group was fed the AIN-76 made isonitrogenous with the E diet by glutamic acid supplementation. Five rats from each group were killed at days 0,3,6, and 9. Rats were injected with 14 C-Tyrosine and 3 H-Thymidine i.p. (2 and 4 uCi/100g BW, respectively) an hour before they were killed. The incorporation of 14 C and 3 H into the acid insoluble fraction of the tumor tissues samples were measured. Single cell suspension of tumor were prepared for cell cycle kinetics analysis using a Coulter EPICS IV flow microflorometer. The percentage of normal and hyperdiploid cells were analyzed. Results showed that both tumor size and weight were doubled at each time point the rats were killed. At day 0, the 3 H and 14 C incorporation were 32 +/- 10dpm and 27 +/- 4dpm/mg tumor, respectively. The 3 H incorporation dropped in both diet groups at days 6 and 9 but the 14 C incorporation showed a decrease only at day 9. These changes were statistically significant, P>0.05. No difference in the tumor growth parameters used in this study can be attributed to the high dietary BCAA

  5. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet.

  6. Improved method for measurement of dietary fiber as non-starch polysaccharides in plant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englyst, H N; Cummings, J H

    1988-01-01

    A method is described that allows rapid estimation of total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber as the non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in plant foods. It is a modification of an earlier, more complex procedure. Starch is completely removed enzymatically, and NSP is measured as the sum of its constituent sugars released by acid hydrolysis. The sugars may, in turn, be measured by gas chromatography (GC), giving values for individual monosaccharides, or more rapidly by colorimetry. Both GC and colorimetry are suitable for routine measurement of total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber in cereals, fruits, and vegetables. Values obtained are not affected by food processing so the dietary fiber content of various processed foods and mixed diets can be calculated simply from knowing the amount in the raw materials. The additional information obtained by GC analysis is valuable in the interpretation of physiological studies and in epidemiology where disease is related to type and amount of dietary fiber.

  7. Real-time analysis of insoluble particles in glacial ice using single-particle mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Matthew; Zawadowicz, Maria A.; Das, Sarah B.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2017-11-01

    Insoluble aerosol particles trapped in glacial ice provide insight into past climates, but analysis requires information on climatically relevant particle properties, such as size, abundance, and internal mixing. We present a new analytical method using a time-of-flight single-particle mass spectrometer (SPMS) to determine the composition and size of insoluble particles in glacial ice over an aerodynamic size range of ˜ 0.2-3.0 µm diameter. Using samples from two Greenland ice cores, we developed a procedure to nebulize insoluble particles suspended in melted ice, evaporate condensed liquid from those particles, and transport them to the SPMS for analysis. We further determined size-dependent extraction and instrument transmission efficiencies to investigate the feasibility of determining particle-class-specific mass concentrations. We find SPMS can be used to provide constraints on the aerodynamic size, composition, and relative abundance of most insoluble particulate classes in ice core samples. We describe the importance of post-aqueous processing to particles, a process which occurs due to nebulization of aerosols from an aqueous suspension of originally soluble and insoluble aerosol components. This study represents an initial attempt to use SPMS as an emerging technique for the study of insoluble particulates in ice cores.

  8. An Insoluble Titanium-Lead Anode for Sulfate Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdman, Alla

    2005-05-11

    The project is devoted to the development of novel insoluble anodes for copper electrowinning and electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. The anodes are made of titanium-lead composite material produced by techniques of powder metallurgy, compaction of titanium powder, sintering and subsequent lead infiltration. The titanium-lead anode combines beneficial electrochemical behavior of a lead anode with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of a titanium anode. In the titanium-lead anode, the titanium stabilizes the lead, preventing it from spalling, and the lead sheathes the titanium, protecting it from passivation. Interconnections between manufacturing process, structure, composition and properties of the titanium-lead composite material were investigated. The material containing 20-30 vol.% of lead had optimal combination of mechanical and electrochemical properties. Optimal process parameters to manufacture the anodes were identified. Prototypes having optimized composition and structure were produced for testing in operating conditions of copper electrowinning and EMD production. Bench-scale, mini-pilot scale and pilot scale tests were performed. The test anodes were of both a plate design and a flow-through cylindrical design. The cylindrical anodes were composed of cylinders containing titanium inner rods and fitting over titanium-lead bushings. The cylindrical design allows the electrolyte to flow through the anode, which enhances diffusion of the electrolyte reactants. The cylindrical anodes demonstrate higher mass transport capabilities and increased electrical efficiency compared to the plate anodes. Copper electrowinning represents the primary target market for the titanium-lead anode. A full-size cylindrical anode performance in copper electrowinning conditions was monitored over a year. The test anode to cathode voltage was stable in the 1.8 to 2.0 volt range. Copper cathode morphology was very smooth and uniform. There was no

  9. [Ultraviolet-visible spectrometry analysis of insoluble xanthate heavy metal complexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Bo; Liu, Jin-Feng; Liu, Yao-Chi; Yang, Zhao-Guang; Li, Hai-Pu

    2014-11-01

    A ultraviolet-visible spectrometry method of determining insoluble xanthate heavy metal complexes in flotation wastewater was the first time to be put forward. In this work, the changes of ultraviolet-visible spectra of xanthate solution after the addition of various heavy metal ions were investigated firstly. It was found that Pb2+ and Cu2+ can form insoluble complexes with xanthate, while Fe2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+ have little effect on the ultraviolet absorption of xanthate solution. Then the removal efficiencies of filter membrane with different pore sizes were compared, and the 0.22 μm membrane was found to be effective to separate copper xanthate or lead xanthate from the filtrate. Furthermore, the results of the study on the reaction of sodium sulfide and insoluble xanthate heavy metal complexes showed that S(2-) can release the xanthate ion quantitatively from insoluble complexes to solution. Based on the above research, it was concluded that the amount of insoluble xanthate heavy metal complexes in water samples can be obtained through the increase of free xanthate in the filtrate after the addition of sodium sulfide. Finally, the feasibility of this method was verified by the application to the analysis of flotation wastewater from three ore-dressing plants in the Thirty-six Coves in Chenzhou.

  10. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  11. Crosslinked hydrogels?a promising class of insoluble solid molecular dispersion carriers for enhancing the delivery of poorly soluble drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Dajun D.; Lee, Ping I.

    2014-01-01

    Water-insoluble materials containing amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) are an emerging category of drug carriers which can effectively improve dissolution kinetics and kinetic solubility of poorly soluble drugs. ASDs based on water-insoluble crosslinked hydrogels have unique features in contrast to those based on conventional water-soluble and water-insoluble carriers. For example, solid molecular dispersions of poorly soluble drugs in poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) can maintain a ...

  12. Species variability in the gastrointestinal absorption and distribution of soluble or insoluble compounds of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Gorham, L.S.; Blanton, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    Absorption of plutonium was measured after administration to neonatal rats, dogs, and swine by gavage or inhalation. The amount absorbed was not appreciably different for any of the three species, but absorption of the soluble nitrate form was 1000 times higher than that of the insoluble oxide. The higher quantities of 238 Pu absorbed and retained in the GI tract of swine suggested that solubilization of the oxide in the lung may have caused the increase. Studies with the more insoluble 239 PuO 2 also resulted in increased retention

  13. Phytoestrogens/insoluble fibers and colonic estrogen receptor β: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Mariabeatrice; Di Leo, Alfredo; Pricci, Maria; Scavo, Maria Principia; Guido, Raffaella; Tanzi, Sabina; Piscitelli, Domenico; Pisani, Antonio; Ierardi, Enzo; Comelli, Maria Cristina; Barone, Michele

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To assess the safety and effect of the supplementation of a patented blend of dietary phytoestrogens and insoluble fibers on estrogen receptor (ER)-β and biological parameters in sporadic colonic adenomas. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial was performed. Patients scheduled to undergo surveillance colonoscopy for previous sporadic colonic adenomas were identified, and 60 eligible patients were randomized to placebo or active dietary intervention (ADI) twice a day, for 60 d before surveillance colonoscopy. ADI was a mixture of 175 mg milk thistle extract, 20 mg secoisolariciresinol and 750 mg oat fiber extract. ER-β and ER-α expression, apoptosis and proliferation (Ki-67 LI) were assessed in colon samples. RESULTS: No adverse event related to ADI was recorded. ADI administration showed a significant increases in ER-β protein (0.822 ± 0.08 vs 0.768 ± 0.10, P = 0.04) and a general trend to an increase in ER-β LI (39.222 ± 2.69 vs 37.708 ± 5.31, P = 0.06), ER-β/ER-α LI ratio (6.564 ± 10.04 vs 2.437 ± 1.53, P = 0.06), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (35.592 ± 14.97 vs 31.541 ± 11.54, P = 0.07) and Ki-67 (53.923 ± 20.91 vs 44.833 ± 10.38, P = 0.07) approximating statistical significance. A significant increase of ER-β protein (0.805 ± 0.13 vs 0.773 ± 0.13, P = 0.04), mRNA (2.278 ± 1.19 vs 1.105 ± 1.07, P < 0.02) and LI (47.533 ± 15.47 vs 34.875 ± 16.67, P < 0.05) and a decrease of ER-α protein (0.423 ± 0.06 vs 0.532 ± 0.11, P < 0.02) as well as a trend to increase of ER-β/ER-α protein in ADI vs placebo group were observed in patients without polyps (1.734 ± 0.20 vs 1.571 ± 0.42, P = 0.07). CONCLUSION: The role of ER-β on the control of apoptosis, and its amenability to dietary intervention, are supported in our study. PMID:23885143

  14. High dietary fiber intake prevents stroke at a population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Caffi, Sandro; Boschetti, Giovanni; Grasselli, Carla; Saugo, Mario; Giordano, Nunzia; Rapisarda, Valentina; Spinella, Paolo; Palatini, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    This research was aimed at clarifying whether high dietary fiber intake has an impact on incidence and risk of stroke at a population level. In 1647 unselected subjects, dietary fiber intake (DFI) was detected in a 12-year population-based study, using other dietary variables, anagraphics, biometrics, blood pressure, heart rate, blood lipids, glucose, insulin, uricaemia, fibrinogenaemia, erytrosedimentation rate, diabetes, insulin resistance, smoking, pulmonary disease and left ventricular hypertrophy as covariables. In adjusted Cox models, high DFI reduced the risk of stroke. In analysis based on quintiles of fiber intake adjusted for confounders, HR for incidence of stroke was lower when the daily intake of soluble fiber was >25 g or that of insoluble fiber was >47 g. In multivariate analyses, using these values as cut-off of DFI, the risk of stroke was lower in those intaking more that the cut-off of soluble (HR 0.31, 0.17-0.55) or insoluble (HR 0.35, 0.19-0.63) fiber. Incidence of stroke was also lower (-50%, p < 0.003 and -46%, p < 0.01, respectively). Higher dietary DFI is inversely and independently associated to incidence and risk of stroke in general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  16. Dewetting and deposition of thin films with insoluble surfactants from curved silicone hydrogel substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhamla, M.S.; Balemans, C.; Fuller, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the stabilizing effect of insoluble surfactant monolayers on thin aqueous films. We first describe an experimental platform that enables the formation of aqueous films laden with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayers on curved silicone hydrogel (SiHy) substrates. We show

  17. Water-holding capacity of soluble and insoluble polysaccharides in pressed potato fibre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramasamy, U.; Gruppen, H.; Kabel, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Pressed potato fibres (PPF), a by-product of starch production, has a high water-holding capacity (WHC).In this study, it is shown that the WHC is caused by a network of mainly insoluble, non-cellulosic cellwall polysaccharides (CWPs). Despite the solubilization of one-fourth of the CWPs from PPF,

  18. Investigation by phosphorus-32 isotope the capabilities of mushrooms to decompose insoluble phosphoric compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takhtobin, K.S.; Tashpulatov, D.T.; Shulman, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: One of global ecological problems of agriculture is the problem 'phosphatization' of soils. Only of 10% - 25% of phosphorus, introduced by the way fertilizers to acquire by plants, the other main part, as a result of chemical changes in soil, transforms in insoluble, hard-to-reach for plants forms. The study of possibility to extract the phosphorus from this insoluble forms is very important. Our investigations devoted to study of some strains of soil mushrooms which are capable to decompose insoluble phosphoric compounds, secreting an acids and enzymes. Soil mushrooms have symbiotic relationship with roots systems of plants and other microorganisms, they augment the contents of solvable phosphorus in soil, which is easy assimilate by plants. It increases efficiency of other kinds of fertilizers, keeping nitrogen, the potassium and as a whole leads to favourable, balanced composition of soil. In order to investigate quantitatively the capacity of different strains of soil mushrooms to canker insoluble forms of phosphorus we are introduce an isotope phosphorus-32 in such compound as Ca 3 (PO 4) 2. We are investigate by an isotope phosphorus-32 some characteristics of strains, in particular, the absorption capabilities of phosphorus-32 from Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 . It find out that the part of mushrooms absorbed phosphorus from Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , in particular, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium sp., Fusarium solani. (author)

  19. INSOLUBLE HYDROPHOBIN COMPLEXES IN THE WALLS OF SCHIZOPHYLLUM-COMMUNE AND OTHER FILAMENTOUS FUNGI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, OMH; FEKKES, MP; WOSTEN, HAB; WESSELS, JGH

    Two closely related cysteine-rich hydrophobic proteins, Sc3p and Sc4p, of the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune are developmentally regulated and associated with the walls of aerial hyphae and fruit-body hyphae. They are present in the walls as hot-SDS-insoluble complexes which can be extracted

  20. Effects of Toasting Time on Digestive Hydrolysis of Soluble and Insoluble 00-Rapeseed Meal Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Bruininx, Erik M.A.M.; Gruppen, Harry; Carré, Patrick; Quinsac, Alain; Poel, van der Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Thermal damage to proteins can reduce their nutritional value. The effects of toasting time on the kinetics of hydrolysis, the resulting molecular weight distribution of 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) and the soluble and insoluble protein fractions separated from the RSM were studied. Hydrolysis was

  1. Mathematical model of salt cavern leaching for gas storage in high-insoluble salt formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinlong; Shi, Xilin; Yang, Chunhe; Li, Yinping; Wang, Tongtao; Ma, Hongling

    2018-01-10

    A mathematical model is established to predict the salt cavern development during leaching in high-insoluble salt formations. The salt-brine mass transfer rate is introduced, and the effects of the insoluble sediments on the development of the cavern are included. Considering the salt mass conservation in the cavern, the couple equations of the cavern shape, brine concentration and brine velocity are derived. According to the falling and accumulating rules of the insoluble particles, the governing equations of the insoluble sediments are deduced. A computer program using VC++ language is developed to obtain the numerical solution of these equations. To verify the proposed model, the leaching processes of two salt caverns of Jintan underground gas storage are simulated by the program, using the actual geological and technological parameters. The same simulation is performed by the current mainstream leaching software in China. The simulation results of the two programs are compared with the available field data. It shows that the proposed software is more accurate on the shape prediction of the cavern bottom and roof, which demonstrates the reliability and applicability of the model.

  2. Secreted expression of Leuconostoc mesenteroides glucansucrase in Lactococcus lactis for the production of insoluble glucans

    Science.gov (United States)

    We expressed a glucansucrase, DsrI, from Leuconostoc mesenteroides that catalyzes formation of water-insoluble glucans from sucrose in Lactococcus lactis using a nisin-controlled gene expression system. Production of DsrI was optimized using several different background vectors, signal peptides, str...

  3. Biochemical Composition and Assembly of Biosilica-associated Insoluble Organic Matrices from the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzsch, Alexander; Pawolski, Damian; Milentyev, Alexander; Shevchenko, Anna; Scheffel, André; Poulsen, Nicole; Shevchenko, Andrej; Kröger, Nils

    2016-03-04

    The nano- and micropatterned biosilica cell walls of diatoms are remarkable examples of biological morphogenesis and possess highly interesting material properties. Only recently has it been demonstrated that biosilica-associated organic structures with specific nanopatterns (termed insoluble organic matrices) are general components of diatom biosilica. The model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana contains three types of insoluble organic matrices: chitin meshworks, organic microrings, and organic microplates, the latter being described in the present study for the first time. To date, little is known about the molecular composition, intracellular assembly, and biological functions of organic matrices. Here we have performed structural and functional analyses of the organic microrings and organic microplates from T. pseudonana. Proteomics analysis yielded seven proteins of unknown function (termed SiMat proteins) together with five known silica biomineralization proteins (four cingulins and one silaffin). The location of SiMat1-GFP in the insoluble organic microrings and the similarity of tyrosine- and lysine-rich functional domains identifies this protein as a new member of the cingulin protein family. Mass spectrometric analysis indicates that most of the lysine residues of cingulins and the other insoluble organic matrix proteins are post-translationally modified by short polyamine groups, which are known to enhance the silica formation activity of proteins. Studies with recombinant cingulins (rCinY2 and rCinW2) demonstrate that acidic conditions (pH 5.5) trigger the assembly of mixed cingulin aggregates that have silica formation activity. Our results suggest an important role for cingulins in the biogenesis of organic microrings and support the hypothesis that this type of insoluble organic matrix functions in biosilica morphogenesis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. A Review of Dietary Fiber in the Diabetic Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogoş Tiberius

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibers are a type of carbohydrates that are found in plant-based foods. They are not absorbed or digested by the body, but play an important role in maintaining good health. There are two types of dietary fiber - soluble and insoluble. Most foods contain both types, but are usually richer in one type than the other. Current evidence suggests that high-fiber diets, especially of the soluble variety, may offer some improvement in weight management, in carbohydrate metabolism, lower total and LDL cholesterol, and have other positive effects in patients diagnosed with diabetes (improvement of insulin sensitivity, modulation of the secretion of certain gut hormones, improvement of various metabolic and inflammatory markers associated with the metabolic syndrome, thus reducing the risk of cardio-metabolic diseases. The aim of our review is to reinforce the role of dietary fiber in the improvement of diabetes management

  5. Chromic oxide and acid-insoluble ash as markers in digestibility studies with growing pigs and sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brestenský, M; Nitrayová, S; Heger, J; Patráš, P

    2017-02-01

    The results of three experiments, focused on the determination of endogenous ileal flow (EIF) of amino acids (AA) and nitrogen (N) (Exp. 1), apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA and N (Exp. 2), and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), N, calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) (Exps. 2 and 3), were used to compare chromic oxide (Cr 2 O 3 ) and acid-insoluble ash (AIA) as digestibility markers. In Exps. 1 and 2, a total of six gilts fitted with T-cannula in terminal ileum, and in Exp. 3, a total of 24 pregnant sows were used. In Exps. 1 and 2, the pigs were assigned into four dietary treatments according to 4 × 6 crossover design (Exp. 1; diets with 0%, 4%, 8% and 12% of casein; Exp. 2 basal diet with different levels of phytase). In Exp. 3, the sows were assigned to four dietary treatments (basal diet with different levels of phytase) of six sows. In Exps. 1 and 2 ileal digesta and in Exps. 2 and 3 faeces were collected for the determination of EIF, AID and ATTD. Differences in EIF of AA determined by Cr 2 O 3 and AIA ranged (p ˃ 0.05) from -4.62 to 4.54%. The lowest EIF was for methionine and the greatest one for proline, determined by both markers. Apparent ileal digestibility determined by Cr 2 O 3 was slightly greater (p ˃ 0.05) in comparison with AIA. Differences ranged from 1.88% (Arg) to 7.08% (Gly). The greatest AID was for arginine and the lowest one for glycine, determined by both Cr 2 O 3 and AIA. Similarly for ATTD of DM, OM, N, Ca and P, there were no differences in digestibility determined by Cr 2 O 3 and AIA. Both, Cr 2 O 3 and AIA, are suitable and comparable markers for digestibility studies in pigs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Liberation of Desmosine and Isodesmosine as Amino Acids from Insoluble Elastin by Elastolytic Proteases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Hideyuki; Aikawa, Masanori; Libby, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The development of atherosclerotic lesions and abdominal aortic aneurysms involves degradation and loss of extracellular matrix components, such as collagen and elastin. Releases of the elastin cross-links desmosine (DES) and isodesmosine (IDE) may reflect elastin degradation in cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated the production of soluble elastin cross-linking structures by proteinases implicated in arterial diseases. Recombinant MMP-12 and neutrophil elastase liberated DES and IDE as amino acids from insoluble elastin. DES and IDE were also released from insoluble elastin exposed to monocyte/macrophage cell lines or human primary macrophages derived from peripheral blood monocytes. Elastin oxidized by reactive oxygen species (ROS) liberated more unconjugated DES and IDE than did non-oxidized elastin when incubated with MMP-12 or neutrophil elastase. These results support the exploration of free DES and IDE as biomarkers of elastin degradation. PMID:21726534

  7. Effect of additives on the formation of insolubles in a jet fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.D. [Wright Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Jones, E.G.; Goss, L.P.; Balster, W.J. [Systems Research Laboratories, Inc., Dayton, OH (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Dynamic near-isothermal techniques have proven to be valuable in assessing the tendency of aviation fuels to form surface and bulk insolubles under thermal stress. These methods are applied in this study to the investigation of the neat Jet-A fuel POSF-2827 and changes introduced by a series of four candidate additives. In each case fuel is stressed while flowing through a heat exchanger under near-isothermal conditions at 185{degrees}C. The average surface deposition rate as a function of stress duration and the quantity of both surface and bulk insolubles have been determined after complete consumption of the dissolved oxygen. The additives, introduced individually, include a common antioxidant, a metal deactivator, a dispersant, and a combination detergent/dispersant. Of the four additives, only the dispersant-types are found to improve fuel thermal stability.

  8. Chemical Methods for the Determination of Soluble and Insoluble Non-Starch Polysaccharides - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriţă

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides are macromolecules of monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds. Non-starch polysaccharides(NSP are principally non-α-glucan polysaccharides of the plant cell wall. They are a heterogeneous group ofpolysaccharides with varying degrees of water solubility, size, and structure. The water insoluble fiber fractioninclude cellulose, galactomannans, xylans, xyloglucans, and lignin, while the water-soluble fibers are the pectins,arabinogalactans, arabinoxylans, and β-(1,3(1,4-D-glucans (β-glucans. Both the enzymatic-gravimetric andenzymatic-chemical methods used for the determination of soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides haveundergone a number of modifications and improvements, most occurring over the last 20 years.

  9. Hydrolysis of insoluble fish protein residue from whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri by fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilásia Guimarães Martins

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A significant amount of insoluble fibrous protein, in the form of feather, hair, scales, skin and others are available as co-products of agro industrial processing. These wastes are rich in keratin and collagen. This study evaluated different fungi for the hydrolysis of insoluble fish protein residues. Proteins resulting from Micropogonias furnieri wastes through pH-shifting process were dried and milled for fermentation for 96 h. This resulted the production of keratinolytic enzymes in the medium. Trichoderma sp. on alkaline substrate (28.99 U mL-1 and Penicillium sp. on acidic substrate (31.20 U mL-1 showed the highest proteolytic activities. Penicillium sp. showed the largest free amino acid solubilization (0.146 mg mL-1 and Fusarium sp. the highest protein solubilization (6.17 mg mL-1.

  10. Novel trends in development of dietary fiber rich meat products-a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Nitin; Ahlawat, S S; Sharma, D P; Dabur, R S

    2015-02-01

    Meat and meat products are generally recognized as good sources of high biological value proteins, fat-soluble vitamins, minerals, trace elements and bioactive compounds. Changes in socioeconomic factors in recent years have increased the consumer's preference for ready to eat foods including meat products. The processing of meat and meat products leads to generation of many functional compounds beneficial to human health but most of those foods are rich in fat, added salts but deficient in complex carbohydrates like dietary fiber and pose a health hazard that somehow is proved to be a predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases, colon cancer, obesity including diabetes mellitus. With increasing consciousness among consumers about their nutrition and well being, there is a growing concern over nutritional diseases of affluence. Therefore an increase in dietary fiber inclusion in daily diet has been recommended. For adults, the recommended acceptable intakes of dietary fiber are 28-36 g/day, 70-80 % of which must be insoluble fiber. The insoluble fraction of dietary fiber has been related to intestinal regulation whereas soluble fiber is associated with decrease in cholesterol level and absorption of intestinal glucose. So incorporation of dietary fibers from different sources in meat products would help to enhance their desirability. Dietary fiber sources are generally agricultural byproducts that are comparatively cheap and incorporation in meat products reduces its overall cost. Whole grains and cereal brans are the rich source of insoluble fiber and pectins, gums, starch and other storage polysaccharides have high content of the soluble fraction. With this background, the effect of various dietary fibers on the quality attributes of meat and meat products with its physiological role has been reviewed here.

  11. Presence of insoluble Tau following rotenone exposure ameliorates basic pathways associated with neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo S. Chaves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation is an important feature of neurodegenerative disorders. In Alzheimer's disease (AD protein aggregates are composed of hyperphosphorylated Tau and amyloid beta peptide (Aβ. Despite the involvement and identification of the molecular composition of these aggregates, their role in AD pathophysiology is not fully understood. However, depositions of these insoluble aggregates are typically reported as pathogenic and toxic for cell homeostasis. New evidences suggest that the deposition of these aggregates is a protective mechanism that preserves cell from toxic insults associated with the early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. To better understand the biological role of the protein aggregation with regard its effects in cellular homeostasis, the present study investigated the role of insoluble Tau and Tau aggregates on crucial cellular parameters such as redox homeostasis, proteasome activity and autophagy in hippocampal cell cultures and hippocampus of aged Lewis rats using a rotenone-induced aggregation model. Neurons were exposed to rotenone in different concentrations and exposure times aiming to determine the interval required for Tau aggregation. Our experimental design allowed us to demonstrate that rotenone exposure induces Tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Oxidative stress triggered by rotenone exposure was observed with the absence of Tau aggregates and was reduced or absent when Tau aggregates were present. This reduction of oxidative stress along with the presence of insoluble Tau was independent of alterations in antioxidant enzymes activities or cell death. In addition, rotenone induced oxidative stress was mainly associated with decrease in proteasome activity and autophagy flux. Conversely, when insoluble Tau appeared, autophagy turns to be overactivated while proteasome activity remained low. Our studies significantly advance the understanding that Tau

  12. Determination of the rates of clearance of insoluble compounds of plutonium from the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, L.

    1974-04-01

    There are indications that the process of clearance of inhaled insoluble plutonium compounds from the lung may be represented by a model consisting of three exponential phases. A survey of published data on 'in vivo' and bioassay measurements made after 239 PuO 2 inhalation by men and dogs has been carried out, and the half times of the three exponential phases determined as approximately 1 day, 30 days and 500 days. (author)

  13. Typical Insoluble Particles in Fog Water at Milešovka Observatory (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišák, Jaroslav; Stoyanova, V.; Bartůňková, Kristýna; Tesař, Miroslav; Shoumkova, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 169, 5-6 (2012), s. 1083-1091 ISSN 0033-4553 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1918 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : Fog pollution * insoluble particles * meteorological conditions * sources of pollution Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.617, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/a404194u6138h65n/fulltext.pdf

  14. Chemical Methods for the Determination of Soluble and Insoluble Non-Starch Polysaccharides - Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica Căpriţă; Adrian Căpriţă

    2011-01-01

    Polysaccharides are macromolecules of monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds. Non-starch polysaccharides(NSP) are principally non-α-glucan polysaccharides of the plant cell wall. They are a heterogeneous group ofpolysaccharides with varying degrees of water solubility, size, and structure. The water insoluble fiber fractioninclude cellulose, galactomannans, xylans, xyloglucans, and lignin, while the water-soluble fibers are the pectins,arabinogalactans, arabinoxylans, and β-(1,3)(1,4)-D-g...

  15. Effect of gamma-radiation on a water-insoluble arabinoxylan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebringerová, A.; Pružinec, J.; Kačuráková, M.; Hromádková, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on a water-insoluble L-arabino-D-xylan has been studied by functional group and structural analysis using chemical methods and IR spectroscopy, by sugar composition analysis, and by viscosity measurements. The gamma irradiation has been shown to modify both sugar components of the arabinoxylan, accompanied by cleavage of the glycosidic linkages, depolymerization, and sugar decomposition, depending on the applied radiation dose, thus increasing the molecular and chemical heterogeneity of the polysaccharide. (author)

  16. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to exert potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of these particles, and overlook interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic. To address this gap, we developed a new parameterization that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable particles externally mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory to i find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH which yield atmospherically-relevant behavior, and, ii express activation properties (critical supersaturation that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter.

    The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2~0.98. A preliminary sensitivity study suggests that the sublinear response of droplet number to Köhler particle concentration is not as strong for FHH particles.

  17. Application of water-insoluble polymers to orally disintegrating tablets treated by high-pressure carbon dioxide gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshitaka; Maeda, Atsushi; Kondo, Hiromu; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-09-10

    The phase transition of pharmaceutical excipients that can be induced by humidifying or heating is well-known to increase the hardness of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs). However, these conditions are not applicable to drug substances that are chemically unstable against such stressors. Here, we describe a system which enhances the hardness of tablets containing water-insoluble polymers by using high-pressure carbon dioxide (CO2). On screening of 26 polymeric excipients, aminoalkyl methacrylate copolymer E (AMCE) markedly increased tablet hardness (+155N) when maintained in a high-pressure CO2 environment. ODTs containing 10% AMCE were prepared and treatment with 4.0MPa CO2 gas at 25°C for 10min increased the hardness to +30N, whose level corresponded to heating at 70°C for 720min. In addition, we confirmed the effects of CO2 pressure, temperature, treatment time, and AMCE content on the physical properties of ODTs. Optimal pressure of CO2 gas was considered to be approximately 3.5MPa for an AMCE formula, as excessive pressure delayed the disintegration of ODTs. Combination of high-pressure CO2 gas and AMCE is a prospective approach for increasing the tablet hardness for ODTs, and can be conducted without additional heat or moisture stress using a simple apparatus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Purification of antibodies to bacterial antigens by an immunoadsorbent and a method to quantify their reaction with insoluble bacterial targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, H.L.; Minden, P.

    1979-01-01

    A combination of procedures was employed to develop a radioimmunoassay which quantified the binding of antibodies to antigens of either intact Propionibacterium acnes or to antigens of insoluble extracts derived from the bacteria. Reactive antibody populations were purified by use of bacterial immunoadsorbents which were prepared by coupling P. acnes to diethylaminoethyl cellulose. Binding of antibodies was detected with [ 125 I]staphylococcal protein A ([ 125 I]SpA) and optimal conditions for the assay defined by varying the amounts of antibodies, bacterial antigenic targets and [ 125 I]SpA. In antibody excess, 100% of available [ 125 I]SpA was bound by the target-antibody complexes. However, when antibody concentration was limiting, a linear relationship was demonstrated between per cent specific binding of[ 125 I]SpA and antibodies bound to bacterial targets. These results were achieved only with immunoadsorbent-purified antibody populations and not with hyperimmune sera or IgG. The radioimmunoassay detected subtle antigenic differences and similarities between P. acnes, P. acnes extracts and a variety of unrelated microorganisms. (Auth.)

  19. Dissolving mechanism of strain P17 on insoluble phosphorus of yellow-brown soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Chuan-qing

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Strain P17 was a bacterial strain identified as Bacillus megaterium isolated from ground accumulating phosphate rock powder. The fermentation broth of strain P17 and the yellow-brown soil from Nanjing Agricultural University garden were collected to conduct this study. The simulation of fixed insoluble phosphorous forms after applying calcium superphosphate into yellow-brown soil was performed in pots, while available P and total P of soil were extremely positive correlative with those of groundwater. Then the dissolving effect of strain P17 on insoluble P of yellow-brown soil was studied. Results showed that Bacillus megaterium strain P17 had notable solubilizing effect on insoluble phosphates formed when too much water-soluble phosphorous fertilizer used. During 100 days after inoculation, strain P17 was dominant. Until the 120th day, compared with water addition, available P of strain P17 inoculation treated soil increased by 3 times with calcium superphosphate addition. Besides available P, pH, activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase and population of P-solubilizing microbes were detected respectively. P-solubilizing mechanism of P-solubilizing bacteria strain P17 seems to be a synergetic effect of pH decrease, organic acids, phosphatase, etc.

  20. Insoluble drug delivery strategies: review of recent advances and business prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalepu, Sandeep; Nekkanti, Vijaykumar

    2015-01-01

    The emerging trends in the combinatorial chemistry and drug design have led to the development of drug candidates with greater lipophilicity, high molecular weight and poor water solubility. Majority of the failures in new drug development have been attributed to poor water solubility of the drug. Issues associated with poor solubility can lead to low bioavailability resulting in suboptimal drug delivery. About 40% of drugs with market approval and nearly 90% of molecules in the discovery pipeline are poorly water-soluble. With the advent of various insoluble drug delivery technologies, the challenge to formulate poorly water soluble drugs could be achieved. Numerous drugs associated with poor solubility and low bioavailabilities have been formulated into successful drug products. Several marketed drugs were reformulated to improve efficacy, safety and patient compliance. In order to gain marketing exclusivity and patent protection for such products, revitalization of poorly soluble drugs using insoluble drug delivery technologies have been successfully adopted by many pharmaceutical companies. This review covers the recent advances in the field of insoluble drug delivery and business prospects. PMID:26579474

  1. Insoluble drug delivery strategies: review of recent advances and business prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kalepu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The emerging trends in the combinatorial chemistry and drug design have led to the development of drug candidates with greater lipophilicity, high molecular weight and poor water solubility. Majority of the failures in new drug development have been attributed to poor water solubility of the drug. Issues associated with poor solubility can lead to low bioavailability resulting in suboptimal drug delivery. About 40% of drugs with market approval and nearly 90% of molecules in the discovery pipeline are poorly water-soluble. With the advent of various insoluble drug delivery technologies, the challenge to formulate poorly water soluble drugs could be achieved. Numerous drugs associated with poor solubility and low bioavailabilities have been formulated into successful drug products. Several marketed drugs were reformulated to improve efficacy, safety and patient compliance. In order to gain marketing exclusivity and patent protection for such products, revitalization of poorly soluble drugs using insoluble drug delivery technologies have been successfully adopted by many pharmaceutical companies. This review covers the recent advances in the field of insoluble drug delivery and business prospects.

  2. Knockdown of versican 1 blocks cigarette-induced loss of insoluble elastin in human lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lu-lu; Lu, Yun-tao; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Lian; Merrilees, Mervyn J; Qu, Jie-ming

    2015-08-15

    COPD lung is characterized by loss of alveolar elastic fibers and an increase in the chondroitin sulfate (CS) matrix proteoglycan versican V1 (V1). V1 is a known inhibitor of elastic fiber deposition and this study investigates the effects of knockdown of V1, and add-back of CS, on CCL-210 lung fibroblasts treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) as a model for COPD. CSE inhibited fibroblast proliferation, viability, tropoelastin synthesis, and elastin deposition, and increased V1 synthesis and secretion. V1 siRNA decreased V1 and constituent CS, did not affect tropoelastin production, but blocked the CSE-induced loss in insoluble elastin. Exogenous CS reduced insoluble elastin, even in the presence of V1 siRNA. These findings confirm that V1 and CS impair the assembly of tropoelastin monomers into insoluble fibers, and further demonstrate that specific knockdown of V1 alleviates the impaired assembly of elastin seen in cultures of pulmonary fibroblasts exposed to CSE, indicating a regulatory role for this protein in the pathophysiology of COPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. COPPER RESISTANT STRAIN CANDIDA TROPICALIS RomCu5 INTERACTION WITH SOLUBLE AND INSOLUBLE COPPER COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ie. P. Prekrasna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the study was interaction of Candida tropicalis RomCu5 isolated from highland Ecuador ecosystem with soluble and insoluble copper compounds. Strain C. tropicalis RomCu5 was cultured in a liquid medium of Hiss in the presence of soluble (copper citrate and CuCl2 and insoluble (CuO and CuCO3 copper compounds. The biomass growth was determined by change in optical density of culture liquid, composition of the gas phase was measured on gas chromatograph, redox potential and pH of the culture fluid was defined potentiometrically. The concentration of soluble copper compounds was determined colorimetrically. Maximal permissible concentration of Cu2+ for C. tropicalis RomCu5 was 30 000 ppm of Cu2+ in form of copper citrate and 500 ppm of Cu2+ in form of CuCl2. C. tropicalis was metabolically active at super high concentrations of Cu2+, despite the inhibitory effect of Cu2+. C. tropicalis immobilized Cu2+ in the form of copper citrate and CuCl2 by it accumulation in the biomass. Due to medium acidification C. tropicalis dissolved CuO and CuCO3. High resistance of C. tropicalis to Cu2+ and ability to interact with soluble and insoluble copper compounds makes it biotechnologically perspective.

  4. Vegetables as a Source of Dietary Fiber to Prevent Degenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deddy Muchtadi

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available For long time vegetables were thought only as sources of several vitamins; however, it has been shown that vegetables contain other component, which is also important for maintaining body's health, i.e., dietary fiber. Dietary fiber is a group of polysaccharides oan other polymers, which cannot be digested by upper gastro-intestinal system of human. Dietary fiber can be grouped as soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, showing in different physiological effect. Soluble dietary fiber (SDF is effective in preventing cardiovascular disease, while insoluble dietary fiber (IDF can prevent the development of colon cancer, diverticulosis as well as obesity.Local vegetables found to contain high SDF (higher than 3,06% db are: watercress, green bean, carrot, eggplant, lettuce, broccoli, spinach, string bean, and aubergine; while which contain high IDF (higher than 40,60% db are: winged bean, watercress, chinese leaves, katuk leaves, lettuce, green bean, broccoli, carrot and spinach. Cooking (i.e. boiling, steaming and pan frying decrease the IDF content of vegetables, while their SDF content is not affected by cooking treatments.

  5. Presolar SiC Abundances in Primitive Meteorites by NanoSIMS Raster Ion Imaging of Insoluble Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J.; Busemann, H.; Alexander, C. M. O'd.; Nittler, L. R.; Schrader, D. L.; Orthous-Daunay, F. R.; Quirico, E.; Franchi, I. A.; Grady, M. M.

    2009-03-01

    We present results obtained with NanoSIMS raster ion imaging to determine the abundance of presolar SiC in the insoluble organic matter (IOM) extracted from a number of different classes of chondrites (both carbonaceous and ordinary).

  6. Micro-Scale Characteristics of Insoluble Organic Matter in Chondrites: A Coordinated TEM, STXM and SIMS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittler, L. R.; Alexander, C. M. O'd.; Cody, G. D.; de Gregorio, B. T.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Stroud, R. M.; Tiwari, A.

    2009-03-01

    A coordinated study of meteoritic insoluble organic matter reveals that hollow organic globules are chemically similar to other IOM, but abundances and sizes of globules vary between meteorites. IOM is sensitive to electron and X-ray induced beam damage.

  7. Impact of fat source and dietary fibers on feed intake, plasma metabolites, litter gain and the yield and composition of milk in sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Bruun, Thomas S; Poulsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    replace cereals in lactation diets. Thus, a standard lactation diet low in dietary fiber, and two high-fiber diets based on sugar beet pulp (SBP) or alfalfa meal (ALF) were formulated. The SBP diet was high in soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), whereas ALF being high in insoluble NSP. Each diet...

  8. Dietary saturated fat and fibre and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality among type 1 diabetic patients: the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenaker, D.A.J.M.; Toeller, M.; Chaturvedi, N.; Fuller, J.H.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis - Low adherence to recommendations for dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA) and fibre intake in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus may heighten their increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. We examined the relationship of SFA and total, soluble and insoluble

  9. Ligand-induced association of surface immunoglobulin with the detergent insoluble cytoskeleton may involve an 89K protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Woda, B.

    1986-01-01

    Membrane immunoglobulin of B-lymphocytes is thought to play an important role in antigen recognition and cellular activation. Binding of cross-linking ligands to surface immunoglobulin (SIg) on intact cells converts it to a detergent insoluble state, and this conversion is associated with the transmission of a mitogenic signal. Insolubilized membrane proteins may be solubilized by incubating the detergent insoluble cytoskeletons in buffers which convert F-actin to G-actin [(Buffer 1), 0.34M sucrose, 0.5mM ATP, 0.5mM Dithiothrietol and lmM EDTA]. Immunoprecipitation of SIg from the detergent soluble fraction of 35 S-methionine labeled non ligand treated rat B-cells results in the co-isolation of an 89K protein and a 44K protein, presumably actin. The 89K protein is not associated with the fraction of endogenous detergent insoluble SIg. On treatment of rat B cells with cross-linking ligand (anti-Ig) the 89K protein becomes detergent insoluble along with most of the SIg and co-isolates with SIg on immunoprecipitation of the detergent insoluble, buffer l solubilized fraction. The migration of the SIg-associated 89K protein from the detergent soluble fraction to the detergent insoluble fraction after ligand treatment, suggests that this protein might be involved in linking SIg to the underlying cytoskeleton and could be involved in the transmission of a mitogenic signal

  10. Commercial breakfast cereals available in Mexican markets and their contribution in dietary fiber, β-glucans and protein quality by rat bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón-Villa, María R; Barrón-Hoyos, Jesús M; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco J

    2014-09-01

    The beneficial effect of dietary fiber (DF) consumption has long been recognized. The global economy and open market trade policies have increased the availability of food products in Mexican markets, resulting in a wide variety of ready-to-eat commercial breakfast cereals classified as 'high fiber'. This research was aimed to evaluate the total dietary fiber contents, its fractions (soluble and insoluble) and β-glucan in 13 commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals, as well as to evaluate their protein quality by rat bioassays. Commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals had 7.42-39.82% insoluble dietary fiber, 2.53-12.85% soluble dietary fiber, and 0.45-4.96% β-glucan. These ready-to-eat commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals differed significantly in their total dietary fiber, their soluble and insoluble DF fractions, and also in their β-glucan contents. When supplied as experimental diets, in 14-day rat feeding trials, the 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals showed an adverse effect on the % N digestibility but protein utilization, as measured as net protein ratio (NPR), was not significantly affected. The consumption of these commercial breakfast cereals, especially those made of oats as the basic ingredient, is highly recommended, since these products, being a concentrated source of dietary fiber, do not affect their protein quality.

  11. Simulation study on insoluble granular corrosion products deposited in PWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xu; Zhou Tao; Ru Xiaolong; Lin Daping; Fang Xiaolu

    2014-01-01

    In the operation of reactor, such as fuel rods, reactor vessel internals etc. will be affected by corrosion erosion of high pressure coolant. It will produce many insoluble corrosion products. The FLUENT software is adopted to simulate insoluble granular corrosion products deposit distribution in the reactor core. The fluid phase uses the standard model to predict the flow field in the channel and forecast turbulence variation in the near-wall region. The insoluble granular corrosion products use DPM (Discrete Phase Model) to track the trajectory of the particles. The discrete phase model in FLUENT follows the Euler-Lagrange approach. The fluid phase is treated as a continuum by solving the Navier-Stokes equations, while the dispersed phase is solved by tracking a large number of particles through the calculated flow field. Through the study found, Corrosion products particles form high concentration area near the symmetry, and the entrance section of the corrosion products particles concentration is higher than export section. Corrosion products particles deposition attached on large area for the entrance of the cladding, this will change the core neutron flux distribution and the thermal conductivity of cladding material, and cause core axial offset anomaly (AOA). Corrosion products particles dot deposit in the outlet of cladding, which can lead to pitting phenomenon in a sheath. Pitting area will cause deterioration of heat transfer, destroy the cladding integrity. In view of the law of corrosion products deposition and corrosion characteristics of components in the reactor core. this paper proposes regular targeted local cleanup and other mitigation measures. (authors)

  12. Environmental monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and insoluble soap in Spanish sewage sludge samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Reis, Marco S; Saraiva, Pedro M; Vílchez, José L

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and insoluble soap performed on Spanish sewage sludge samples. This work focuses on finding statistical relations between LAS concentrations and insoluble soap in sewage sludge samples and variables related to wastewater treatment plants such as water hardness, population and treatment type. It is worth to mention that 38 samples, collected from different Spanish regions, were studied. The statistical tool we used was Principal Component Analysis (PC), in order to reduce the number of response variables. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and a non-parametric test such as the Kruskal-Wallis test were also studied through the estimation of the p-value (probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true) in order to study possible relations between the concentration of both analytes and the rest of variables. We also compared LAS and insoluble soap behaviors. In addition, the results obtained for LAS (mean value) were compared with the limit value proposed by the future Directive entitled "Working Document on Sludge". According to the results, the mean obtained for soap and LAS was 26.49 g kg(-1) and 6.15 g kg(-1) respectively. It is worth noting that LAS mean was significantly higher than the limit value (2.6 g kg(-1)). In addition, LAS and soap concentrations depend largely on water hardness. However, only LAS concentration depends on treatment type.

  13. Isolation, lactoperoxidase catalyzed radioiodination, and recovery of proteins bound to insoluble immunoadsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cort, S.; McDougall, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    A method for the direct radioiodination and recovery of proteins specifically adsorbed to an insoluble immunoadsorbent is described. The optimal conditions for adsorption, washing, radiolabelling by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination, and elution of radio-labelled proteins from the immunoadsorbent have been determined. The technique is a rapid and efficient means of isolating and radioiodinating specific proteins present in biological fluids and has been applied to the detection of immunoglobulin and histocompatibility antigens in mouse cell culture supernates. This method should be particularly applicable in research situations in which the specific antisera are available but the antigen concentration is low or the volume of material to be analyzed is limited

  14. Toxicity of 90Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study was initiated to determine health effects resulting from inhalation of 90 Sr in relatively insoluble form. Beagle dogs were briefly exposed by inhalation to produce lung burdens of 90 Sr that ranged from 0.12 to 96 μCi (4.4-3500 kBq)/kg body weight. Exposures to the higher concentrations of 90 Sr caused radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, typically resulting in death 90 Sr-exposed dogs were euthanized during the past year. One remaining exposed dog and one control dog are both 14 yr old and are being maintained for lifetime observation. (author)

  15. Daily dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    As part of study on ''Reference Asian Man'' to strengthen radiation protection, the data on the dietary consumption patterns of the Asian region were collected. Eight provided dietary data - Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, and Viet Nam. Whereas the dietary information from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Viet Nam are preliminary in nature, the dietary information from China, India, Japan and Philippines, on the other hand, is quite substantial. The population of the countries from which sufficient dietary data are available represents more than 2/3 of the population of the Asian region. The details of the individual data available on dietary parameters from different Asian countries are listed below

  16. The hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic effects of Cholazol H, a chemically functionalized insoluble fiber with bile acid sequestrant properties in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; Romano, C; Liang, J; Nicolosi, R J

    1998-08-01

    Cholazol H (Alpha-Beta Technology, Worcester, MA), a chemically functionalized, insoluble dietary fiber with bile acid sequestrant properties, was studied in 30 male F1 B Golden Syrian hamsters for its effect on plasma lipid concentrations and early atherogenesis in experiment 1. In experiment 2, 30 male Golden Syrian hamsters were studied for the effects on plasma lipids and fecal excretion of bile acids. In experiment 1, three groups of 10 hamsters each were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 5% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, hamsters were continued on the diet with either 0% drug (hypercholesterolemic diet [HCD]), 0.5% cholestyramine (CSTY), or 0.5% Cholazol H for 8 weeks. Fasting plasma lipids were measured at weeks 6, 10, and 14, and early atherosclerosis (fatty streak formation) was measured at week 14. Relative to HCD, CSTY and Cholazol H significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol (TC) (-37%, P coconut oil and 0.05% cholesterol and either 0% drug HCD, 0.5% CSTY, or 0.5% Cholazol H for 4 weeks. Fasting plasma lipids were measured at weeks 2 and 4, and fecal bile acids were measured at week 4. Both Cholazol H and CSTY were equally effective in significantly lowering plasma TC (-16%, P < .003, and -13%, P < .01, respectively) and nonHDL-C (-22%, P < .004, and -18%, P < .02, respectively), with no significant effect on HDL-C and TG relative to HCD. Cholazol H and CSTY produced a significantly greater concentration of fecal total bile acids (39%, P < .001, and 28%, P < .002, respectively) relative to HCD. Also, there was a 48% (P < .002) and 65% (P < .001) greater fecal concentration of cholic acid (CA) for Cholazol H-treated hamsters compared with HCD- and CSTY-treated hamsters, respectively. Cholazol H also significantly increased fecal concentration of deoxycholic acid (DCA; 56%, P < .02) compared with HCD. In summary, Cholazol H is as effective as CSTY for prevention of diet

  17. Fibras solúveis e insolúveis de verduras, tubérculos e canela para uso em nutrição clínica Soluble and insoluble fibres of vegetables, tubers and cinnamon for use in enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edma Maria de Araújo

    2009-06-01

    functional (isothiocyanate, indoles, lycopene, carotene, and chlorophyll. They were prepared in water solution and added to a homemade enteral formula. The soluble and insoluble fibres, proximate composition, and water activity (Aw were determined. The foods were added to the homemade enteral formula in the proportion of 100 g/2000 kcal/2 L and in the proportion of 150 g/2000 kcal/2 L to the water. The largest amount of dietary fibre (wet basis was found in the cinnamon (50.11%. The other foods results were: pumpkin, 1.76%, watercress 0.85%, cauliflower 1.51%, yam 1.56%, and tomato 1.00%. The Aw values were between 0.988 and 0.999, and so it indicates that the preparations can therefore be used in enteral diets, but they should be consumed soon after preparation to assure microbiological safety.

  18. Physicochemical Properties of Dietary Fibers from Artocarpus camansi Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, V.; Kusumaningsih, T.; Rumingtyas, Y. S.

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the dietary fiber (DF) contents of Artocorpus camansi (breadnut) fruit and examine their physicochemical properties, such as water-holding capacity (WAC), oil-holding capacity (OHC) and water absorption capacity (WAC). This fruit flour contained of both water soluble fibers (SDF), such as pectin (1.95%) and gum (0.4%), and water insoluble fibers (IDF) (89.25%). The IDF content of this fruit was significantly high in respect to other DF sources. The WHC, OHC and WAC of IDF were 4.10, 2.60 and 4.0%, respectively. Moreover, the WHC, OHC and WHC of total dietary fibers (TDF) were 4.2, 4.3 and 4.6%, respectively. The results showed that the DF of fruit flour had good physicochemical properties. The findings suggested that there is a potential application of A. camansi of fruit as functional ingredients in the food industry.

  19. Total, Soluble and Insoluble Oxalate Contents of Ripe Green and Golden Kiwifruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hà Vũ Hồng Nguyễn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green (Actinidia deliciosa L. and golden (Actinidia chinensis L. were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. The aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. The pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. Total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 M HCL at 21 °C for 15 min and soluble oxalates extracted at 21 °C in water for 15 min from each fraction. The total and soluble oxalate compositions of each fraction were determined using ion exchange HPLC chromatography. The pulp of golden kiwifruit contained lower amounts of total oxalates (15.7 vs. 19.3 mg/100 g FW and higher amounts of soluble oxalates (8.5 vs. 7.6 mg/100 g FW when compared to the green cultivar. The skin of the green cultivar contained lower levels of insoluble oxalates (36.9 vs. 43.6 mg/100 g FW, while the seeds of the green cultivar contained higher levels of insoluble oxalates 106.7 vs. 84.7 mg/100 g FW.

  20. Total, Soluble and Insoluble Oxalate Contents of Ripe Green and Golden Kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyễn, Hà Vũ Hồng; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2013-03-05

    Three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green ( Actinidia deliciosa L . ) and golden ( Actinidia chinensis L . ) were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. The aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. The pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. Total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 M HCL at 21 °C for 15 min and soluble oxalates extracted at 21 °C in water for 15 min from each fraction. The total and soluble oxalate compositions of each fraction were determined using ion exchange HPLC chromatography. The pulp of golden kiwifruit contained lower amounts of total oxalates (15.7 vs. 19.3 mg/100 g FW) and higher amounts of soluble oxalates (8.5 vs. 7.6 mg/100 g FW) when compared to the green cultivar. The skin of the green cultivar contained lower levels of insoluble oxalates (36.9 vs. 43.6 mg/100 g FW), while the seeds of the green cultivar contained higher levels of insoluble oxalates 106.7 vs. 84.7 mg/100 g FW.

  1. Content of insoluble bound phenolics in millets and their contribution to antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekara, Anoma; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2010-06-09

    Soluble and insoluble-bound phenolic extracts of several varieties of millet (kodo, finger, foxtail, proso, pearl, and little millets) whole grains were evaluated for their phenolic contents and antioxidative efficacy using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), reducing power (RP), and beta-carotene-linoleate model system as well as ferrous chelating activity. In addition, ferulic and p-coumaric acids were present in soluble and bound phenolic fractions of millets, and their contents were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS). Kodo millet had the highest total phenolic content, whereas proso millet possessed the least. All millet varieties showed high antioxidant activities, although the order of their efficacy was assay dependent. HPLC analysis of millet phenolic extracts demonstrated that the bound fractions contained more ferulic and p-coumaric acids compared to their soluble counterparts. The results of this study showed that soluble as well as bound fractions of millet grains are rich sources of phenolic compounds with antioxidant, metal chelating, and reducing power. The potential of whole millets as natural sources of antioxidants depends on the variety used. The importance of the insoluble bound fraction of millet as a source of ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid was established, and their contribution to the total phenolic content must be taken into account in the assessment of the antioxidant activity of millets.

  2. Etching kinetics of swift heavy ion irradiated silicone rubber with insoluble additives or reaction products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, D.; Mueller, M.; Petrov, A.; Farenzena, L.; Behar, M.; Papaleo, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    It is normally understood as a basic precondition of the etching of swift heavy ion tracks in polymers that both the additives and etching products are soluble in the etchant. If this is not given, the polymer surface may be gradually blocked by the deposition of the insoluble material that acts as a diffusion barrier for the penetration of fresh etchant into the tracks, and therefore the effective track etching speed will gradually be reduced. The etching kinetics is developed for that case, and the theory is compared with first experimental findings. For that purpose we have taken commercial silicone rubber foils as test materials, that were irradiated with GeV heavy ions through a mask at a fluence that corresponds to the onset of track overlapping. After etching with NaOH, the corresponding etching speed was recorded via the reduction of the foil thickness. The etching speed is seen to decrease with exposure time, in parallel to the development of an insoluble surface layer. It is discussed how to prevent that surface blocking, to maintain a high etching speed

  3. The molecular structure of the insoluble organic matter isolated from Murchison carbonaceous chondrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, F.; Derenne, S.

    2009-04-01

    During these last 10 years, our group has characterized the various molecular moieties of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from carbonaceous meteorites with the aim of reconstructing its overall molecular structure. Indeed, a precise knowledge of the structure of an organic macromolecule contains irreplaceable information that traces its mechanisms of synthesis and its conditions of formation. Such a modelled structure will be presented. Carbonaceous chondrites contain up to 3 wt % of carbon that is under the form of soluble and insoluble fractions. The IOM, which constitutes more than 75 wt% of the bulk organic matter, was isolated from the bulk rock through successive acid dissolutions. The chemical structure of the isolated IOM has been studied by both (1) destructive and (2) non destructive methods. Methods include thermal and chemical degradations followed by GC/MS, spectroscopic techniques (nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy; X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance) along with high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Although each technique alone cannot provide definite information on the chemical structure of such a complex material, the combination of the results can be used to reconstruct the molecular structure of the IOM. The proposed structure accounts for all these measured parameters. The details of this structure reveal information of the conditions of its formation in space and allow to discuss the mechanisms of organo-synthesis in the cosmochemical context of the formation of the solar system.

  4. Characterisation of detergent-insoluble membranes in pollen tubes of Nicotiana tabacum (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Moscatelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollen tubes are the vehicle for sperm cell delivery to the embryo sac during fertilisation of Angiosperms. They provide an intriguing model for unravelling mechanisms of growing to extremes. The asymmetric distribution of lipids and proteins in the pollen tube plasma membrane modulates ion fluxes and actin dynamics and is maintained by a delicate equilibrium between exocytosis and endocytosis. The structural constraints regulating polarised secretion and asymmetric protein distribution on the plasma membrane are mostly unknown. To address this problem, we investigated whether ordered membrane microdomains, namely membrane rafts, might contribute to sperm cell delivery. Detergent insoluble membranes, rich in sterols and sphingolipids, were isolated from tobacco pollen tubes. MALDI TOF/MS analysis revealed that actin, prohibitins and proteins involved in methylation reactions and in phosphoinositide pattern regulation are specifically present in pollen tube detergent insoluble membranes. Tubulins, voltage-dependent anion channels and proteins involved in membrane trafficking and signalling were also present. This paper reports the first evidence of membrane rafts in Angiosperm pollen tubes, opening new perspectives on the coordination of signal transduction, cytoskeleton dynamics and polarised secretion.

  5. SUMO-2 and PIAS1 Modulate Insoluble Mutant Huntingtin Protein Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Gire O’Rourke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A key feature in Huntington disease (HD is the accumulation of mutant Huntingtin (HTT protein, which may be regulated by posttranslational modifications. Here, we define the primary sites of SUMO modification in the amino-terminal domain of HTT, show modification downstream of this domain, and demonstrate that HTT is modified by the stress-inducible SUMO-2. A systematic study of E3 SUMO ligases demonstrates that PIAS1 is an E3 SUMO ligase for both HTT SUMO-1 and SUMO-2 modification and that reduction of dPIAS in a mutant HTT Drosophila model is protective. SUMO-2 modification regulates accumulation of insoluble HTT in HeLa cells in a manner that mimics proteasome inhibition and can be modulated by overexpression and acute knockdown of PIAS1. Finally, the accumulation of SUMO-2-modified proteins in the insoluble fraction of HD postmortem striata implicates SUMO-2 modification in the age-related pathogenic accumulation of mutant HTT and other cellular proteins that occurs during HD progression.

  6. Use of Hydrophilic Insoluble Polymers in the Restoration of Metal-Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiwei Qu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop cost-effective techniques that contribute to phytostabilization of severely metal-contaminated soils is a necessary task in environmental research. Hydrophilic insoluble polymers have been used for some time in diapers and other hygienic products and to increase the water-holding capacity of coarse-textured soils. These polymers contain groups, such as carboxyl groups, that are capable of forming bonds with metallic cations, thereby decreasing their bioavailability in soils. The use of polyacrylate polymers as soil amendments to restore metal-contaminated soils has been investigated in the Technical University of Lisbon since the late nineties. Plant growth and plant nutrients concentrations, extractable levels of metals in soil, and soil enzyme activities were used to monitor the improvement in soil quality following the application of these polymers. In contaminated soils, hydrophilic insoluble polymers can create microcosms that are rich in water and nutrients (counterions but only contain small concentrations of toxic elements; the conditions of these microenvironments are favorable to roots and microorganisms. In this paper we described the most relevant information available about this topic.

  7. Use of Hydrophilic Insoluble Polymers in the Restoration of Metal-Contaminated Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, G.; De Varennes, A.; Qu, G.

    2010-01-01

    To develop cost-effective techniques that contribute to phyto stabilization of severely metal-contaminated soils is a necessary task in environmental research. Hydrophilic insoluble polymers have been used for some time in diapers and other hygienic products and to increase the water-holding capacity of coarse-textured soils. These polymers contain groups, such as carboxyl groups, that are capable of forming bonds with metallic cations, thereby decreasing their bioavailability in soils. The use of polyacrylate polymers as soil amendments to restore metal-contaminated soils has been investigated in the Technical University of Lisbon since the late nineties. Plant growth and plant nutrients concentrations, extractable levels of metals in soil, and soil enzyme activities were used to monitor the improvement in soil quality following the application of these polymers. In contaminated soils, hydrophilic insoluble polymers can create microcosms that are rich in water and nutrients (counterions) but only contain small concentrations of toxic elements; the conditions of these micro environments are favorable to roots and microorganisms. In this paper we described the most relevant information available about this topic.

  8. Nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble drugs using a novel spray-drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafroth, Nina; Arpagaus, Cordin; Jadhav, Umesh Y; Makne, Sushil; Douroumis, Dennis

    2012-02-01

    In the current study nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble drugs was conducted using a novel piezoelectric spray-drying approach. Cyclosporin A (CyA) and dexamethasone (DEX) were encapsulated in biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) grades of different molecular weights. Spray-drying studies carried out with the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 employed with piezoelectric driven actuator. The processing parameters including inlet temperature, spray mesh diameter, sample flow rate, spray rate, applied pressure and sample concentration were examined in order to optimize the particle size and the obtained yield. The process parameters and the solute concentration showed a profound effect on the particle engineering and the obtained product yield. The produced powder presented consistent and reproducible spherical particles with narrow particle size distribution. Cyclosporin was found to be molecularly dispersed while dexamethasone was in crystalline state within the PLGA nanoparticles. Further evaluation revealed excellent drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and production yield. In vitro studies demonstrated sustained release patterns for the active substances. This novel spray-drying process proved to be efficient for nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble active substances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression of Insoluble Influenza Neuraminidase Type 1 (NA1 Protein in Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teen Lee Pua

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The avian influenza virus, particularly H5N1 strain, is highly virulent to poultry and mankind. Several expression systems, like yeast, baculovirus and mammalian cells, have been adopted to produce vaccine candidate for this lethal disease. The present research aimed at developing a recombinant vaccine candidate, neuraminidase type 1 (NA1, for the Malaysia isolate of H5N1 in Nicotiana benthamiana. The NA1 gene was fused directly in-frame in cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV-based pEAQ-HT vector with C-terminal polyhistidine-tag incorporated to ease the subsequent purification step. The expression of the NA1 gene in tobacco was confirmed at RNA and protein levels at 6 days post-infiltration (Dpi. From the insoluble fraction of the protein, a recombinant glycosylated NA1 protein with a molecular weight of ~56 kDa was immunogenically detected by a specific anti-NA polyclonal antibody. We report for the first time the insolubility of the plant-made NA1 protein where a native sequence was used for its expression. This study signifies the necessity of the use of optimised sequences for expression work and provides great opportunity for the exploration of plant-manufactured NA1 protein as vaccine candidate.

  10. Pathogenesis of Lafora Disease: Transition of Soluble Glycogen to Insoluble Polyglucosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Mitchell A; Nitschke, Silvia; Steup, Martin; Minassian, Berge A; Nitschke, Felix

    2017-08-11

    Lafora disease (LD, OMIM #254780) is a rare, recessively inherited neurodegenerative disease with adolescent onset, resulting in progressive myoclonus epilepsy which is fatal usually within ten years of symptom onset. The disease is caused by loss-of-function mutations in either of the two genes EPM2A (laforin) or EPM2B (malin). It characteristically involves the accumulation of insoluble glycogen-derived particles, named Lafora bodies (LBs), which are considered neurotoxic and causative of the disease. The pathogenesis of LD is therefore centred on the question of how insoluble LBs emerge from soluble glycogen. Recent data clearly show that an abnormal glycogen chain length distribution, but neither hyperphosphorylation nor impairment of general autophagy, strictly correlates with glycogen accumulation and the presence of LBs. This review summarizes results obtained with patients, mouse models, and cell lines and consolidates apparent paradoxes in the LD literature. Based on the growing body of evidence, it proposes that LD is predominantly caused by an impairment in chain-length regulation affecting only a small proportion of the cellular glycogen. A better grasp of LD pathogenesis will further develop our understanding of glycogen metabolism and structure. It will also facilitate the development of clinical interventions that appropriately target the underlying cause of LD.

  11. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  12. Identifying the source of a strong fullerene envelope arising from laser desorption mass spectrometric analysis of meteoritic insoluble organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Matthew R.; Zare, Richard N.

    2008-11-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) has been obtained from two carbonaceous chondrite meteorites and subjected to analysis by laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) using standard operating conditions that were optimized for fullerene detection (3-6 μJ pulses at 337 nm focused to a spot size of approximately 100 μm in diameter). The preparation process yields no free C 60 in the IOM, and other experiments suggest that this material does not contain appreciable amounts of fullerenes. Nevertheless, a pronounced high-mass envelope is observed in LDMS, extending from 720 amu to about 4000 amu, with peaks spaced apart every 24 amu (corresponding to the gain or loss of C 2 units). We attribute this high-mass envelope to the existence of various fullerene molecules. The present work demonstrates that these fullerene molecules are created by the laser desorption laser ionization process under typical laser conditions used for studying free fullerenes in organic solvent extracts of natural samples (toluene and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene). The implications of this false positive detection of fullerene molecules on the reports of fullerenes in other meteoritic samples have been investigated by introducing IOM into typical fullerene extraction procedures and examining the LDMS results. We found that IOM is capable of producing false positive signals in these experiments. The effect of ambient laboratory contamination producing fullerene signals is also described. It is found that extensive centrifugation of the meteoritic extracts is able to reduce the observed fullerene envelope, which points to an association of this envelope with IOM particulates that have passed through the filtering steps. We suggest the exercise of extreme caution in interpreting fullerene data from LDMS experiments.

  13. In vitro growth of flat aragonite crystals between the layers of the insoluble organic matrix of the abalone Haliotis laevigata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Katharina I.; Heinemann, Fabian; Rosenauer, Andreas; Fritz, Monika

    2012-11-01

    Nacre of abalone shells consists of aragonite platelets and organic material, the so-called organic matrix. During the growth process of the shell the aragonite platelets grow into a scaffold formed by the organic matrix. In this work we tried to mimic this growth process by placing a piece of the insoluble organic matrix (which is a part of the organic matrix) of the abalone Haliotis laevigata in a crystallization device which was flowed through by CaCl2 and NaHCO3 solutions. Using this setup amongst others flat aragonite crystals grow on the insoluble organic matrix. When investigating these crystals in a transmission electron microscope it is possible to recognize similarities to the structure of nacre, like the formation of mineral bridges and growth between layers of the insoluble organic matrix. These similarities are presented in this paper.

  14. Dewetting and deposition of thin films with insoluble surfactants from curved silicone hydrogel substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhamla, M Saad; Balemans, Caroline; Fuller, Gerald G

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the stabilizing effect of insoluble surfactant monolayers on thin aqueous films. We first describe an experimental platform that enables the formation of aqueous films laden with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayers on curved silicone hydrogel (SiHy) substrates. We show that these surfactant layers extend the lifetime of the aqueous films. The films eventually "dewet" by the nucleation and growth of dry areas and the onset of this dewetting can be controlled by the surface rheology of the DPPC layer. We thus demonstrate that increasing the interfacial rheology of the DPPC layer leads to stable films that delay dewetting. We also show that dewetting can be exploited to controllably pattern the underlying curved SiHy substrates with DPPC layers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Method of conversion of caustic liquid radioactive wastes containing sodium nitrates into solid insoluble products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.; Brownell, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    A proposal is made to convert caustic, liquid, radioactive wastes containing sodium nitrate into a solid product by reaction with powdered aluminium silicate at temperatures between 30 0 and 100 0 C, which is practically insoluble (10 -7 to 10 -10 g/cm 2 -day) and is thermally stable. A cancrinite is formed which binds the radioactive salts in the cage-like structure of its crystal lattice. The method is also suitable for liquid wastes from the Purex method as well as for wastes containing fission products of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in concentrations of 0.37 M to 0.01 M. Numerous detailed examples explain the invention. (UW/LH) [de

  16. Liposomes as vehicles for water insoluble platinum-based potential drug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaluđerović, Goran N; Dietrich, Andrea; Kommera, Harish

    2012-01-01

    -flow fractionation indicating size of around 120 nm. Stability study showed that LipoTHP-C11 was stable at 4 °C for more than two months. To test suitability of chosen formulation, LipoTHP-C11 was investigated against several tumor cell lines: H12.1, 1411HP, 518A2, A549, HT-29, MCF-7 and SW1736. Furthermore......Formulation of liposome delivery system loaded with water insoluble 2-(4-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yloxy)-undecyl)-propane-1,3-diamminedichloroplatinum(II), LipoTHP-C11 was carried out. The particle size distributions were determined by dynamic light scattering and asymmetrical flow field......, toxicity against normal fibroblasts was examined. LipoTHP-C11 may be used as an attractive candidate for further assessment in vivo as antitumor agent....

  17. Aging in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors: soluble--insoluble collagen ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R E; Yamamoto, T; Thorslund, T W

    1973-01-01

    The soluble--insoluble collagen ratio was determined in aortas removed at autopsy during the period 1966--70 (21--25 years post-exposure); 261 specimens were examined from persons of both sexes, age 30--89 years at death. A portion of the test samples were from persons located less than 1500 m from the hypocenter at the time of the bomb. The ratio in this group was not significantly different from persons who were not in Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the time of the explosions. However, a possible discrepancy was noted between the two exposure groups involving both males and females who were less than 60 years of age at the time of death with lower average values among the exposed groups. This observation is interpreted and related to the pronounced life-shortening effect of radiation when animals are exposed at a young age. (DLC)

  18. Source attribution of insoluble light-absorbing particles in seasonal snow across northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Hegg, D. A.; Huang, J.; Fu, Q.

    2013-06-01

    Seasonal snow samples obtained at 46 sites in 6 provinces of China in January and February 2010 were analyzed for a suite of chemical species and these data are combined with previously determined concentrations of insoluble light-absorbing particles (ILAP), including all particles that absorb light in the 650-700 nm wavelength interval. The ILAP, together with 14 other analytes, are used as input to a positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model to explore the sources of ILAP in the snow. The PMF analysis for ILAP sources is augmented with backward trajectory cluster analysis and the geographic locations of major source areas for the three source types. The two analyses are consistent and indicate that three factors/sources were responsible for the measured light absorption of snow: a soil dust source, an industrial pollution source, and a biomass and / or biofuel burning source. Soil dust was the main source of the ILAP, accounting for ~53% of ILAP on average.

  19. Generation of transverse waves in a liquid layer with insoluble surfactant subjected to temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikishev, Alexander B; Friedman, Barry A [Department of Physics, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX 77341 (United States); Nepomnyashchy, Alexander A, E-mail: amik@shsu.edu, E-mail: phy_baf@shsu.edu, E-mail: nepom@technion.ac.il [Department of Mathematics, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2016-12-15

    The formation of Faraday waves (FWs) at the surfactant-covered free surface of a vertically vibrated liquid layer is considered. The layer is subjected to a vertical temperature gradient. The surfactant is insoluble. Linear stability analysis and the Floquet method are used for disturbances with arbitrary wave numbers to find the regions of critical vibration amplitude where FWs are generated. The problem is considered for the semi-infinite liquid layer, as well as for the layer of a finite depth. It is shown numerically, that in the semi-infinite case the critical tongue of a neutral stability curve corresponding to the lowest value of the forcing amplitude is related to the subharmonic instability mode. It changes to the harmonic one in the case of finite depth. The influence of thermocapillary Marangoni number on the critical amplitude of FWs is studied. The growth of that number stabilizes the system, however, this effect is very weak. (paper)

  20. Brain Targeting of a Water Insoluble Antipsychotic Drug Haloperidol via the Intranasal Route Using PAMAM Dendrimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katare, Yogesh K; Daya, Ritesh P; Sookram Gray, Christal; Luckham, Roger E; Bhandari, Jayant; Chauhan, Abhay S; Mishra, Ram K

    2015-09-08

    Delivery of therapeutics to the brain is challenging because many organic molecules have inadequate aqueous solubility and limited bioavailability. We investigated the efficiency of a dendrimer-based formulation of a poorly aqueous soluble drug, haloperidol, in targeting the brain via intranasal and intraperitoneal administration. Aqueous solubility of haloperidol was increased by more than 100-fold in the developed formulation. Formulation was assessed via different routes of administration for behavioral (cataleptic and locomotor) responses, and for haloperidol distribution in plasma and brain tissues. Dendrimer-based formulation showed significantly higher distribution of haloperidol in the brain and plasma compared to a control formulation of haloperidol administered via intraperitoneal injection. Additionally, 6.7 times lower doses of the dendrimer-haloperidol formulation administered via the intranasal route produced behavioral responses that were comparable to those induced by haloperidol formulations administered via intraperitoneal injection. This study demonstrates the potential of dendrimer in improving the delivery of water insoluble drugs to brain.

  1. Toxicity of 90Y in a relatively insoluble form inhaled by Beagle dogs. XIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Hobbs, C.H.; Kusewitt, D.F.; McClellan, R.O.; Mauderly, J.L.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects of inhaled 90 Y in fused aluminosilicate particles in Beagle dogs are being studied. Eighty-nine dogs with initial lung burdens ranging from 80 to 5200 μCi 90 Y/kg body weight and 12 control dogs are being maintained for life span observations. The lung burdens achieved, short physical half-life and relative insolubility of the 90 Y in this vector resulted in a relatively high, rapidly decreasing radiation dose rate to the lung. To date, 69 exposed dogs have died; 38 from radiation pneumonitis, seven with pulmonary neoplasms and 24 from other causes. Four control dogs have died. Twenty-nine surviving exposed and eight control dogs are being studied for their life spans

  2. Toxicity of 90Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. XIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to 90 Sr in a relatively insoluble form to study long-term health effects. Lung burdens ranged from 0.12 to 96 μCi of 90 Sr/kg body weight. High levels of exposure resulted in radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis; lower level exposures caused long-term effects, including cancer of the lung, heart, and tracheobronchial lymph modes. Most of these tumors were hemangiosarcomas. Two control dogs and two 90 Sr-exposed dogs died or were euthanized during the past year. One exposed dog died with hemangiosarcoma of the spleen; the other exposed dog died with pulmonary thrombosis. One control dog died of pulmonary carcinoma, and the other control dog died of a carcinoma of the bladder. The remaining 19 exposed and 11 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation

  3. Pre-steady-state Kinetics for Hydrolysis of Insoluble Cellulose by Cellobiohydrolase Cel7A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Olsen, Jens Elmerdahl; Præstgaard, Eigil

    2012-01-01

    The transient kinetic behavior of enzyme reactions prior to the establishment of steady state is a major source of mechanistic information, yet this approach has not been utilized for cellulases acting on their natural substrate, insoluble cellulose. Here, we elucidate the pre-steady-state regime...... for the exo-acting cellulase Cel7A using amperometric biosensors and an explicit model for processive hydrolysis of cellulose. This analysis allows the identification of a pseudo-steady-state period and quantification of a processivity number as well as rate constants for the formation of a threaded enzyme...... to unveil fundamental reasons for the distinctive variability in hydrolytic activity found in different cellulase-substrate systems....

  4. The influence of different levels of micronized insoluble fiber on broiler performance and litter moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, M; Karimi Torshizi, M A; Rouzbehan, Y

    2011-09-01

    The effects of different levels of micronized insoluble fiber (MIF) on broiler performance and litter moisture were assessed in 320 one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308). Feed was supplemented with 0, 0.3, 0.4, or 0.5% MIF during both the starter (1 to 14 d) and grower (15 to 42 d) periods. Supplementation of MIF was associated with dose dependent increases in daily BW gain and feed conversion ratio throughout the experimental period (P 0.05). Supplementation of MIF resulted in dose dependent increases in the ileal villus height:crypt depth ratio and number of goblet cells (P litter moisture beginning during the third week (P broiler performance, intestinal morphology, and litter moisture.

  5. Lattice site occupation of insoluble impurity atoms in aluminium after implantation and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloska, M.K.

    1987-03-01

    Several elements, whose atoms are oversized and insoluble in aluminium, were implanted in aluminium single crystals at different temperatures. The substitutional fraction and the lattice site location were determined using the ion-channeling technique. The substitutional fractions obtained by in situ analyses are strongly dependent on the implantation temperature. At implantation and analysis temperatures below the temperature of stage III the substitutional fraction is significant larger than at temperatures above. With increasing heat of solution the substitutional fraction decreases for all implantation temperatures. The nonsubstitutional component consists of impurity atom-vacancy complexes. These complexes are formed in the cooling phase of the cascade. At temperatures above the temperature of stage III additional free mobile vacancies were captured by the impurity atoms. The capture radius is correlated with the heat of solution and the size mismatch energy. The results constitute for the first time an experimental confirmation of molecular dynamics calculations of cascade evolution. (orig./BHO)

  6. Characterization of the insoluble sludge from the dissolution of irradiated fast breeder reactor fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, Haruka; Arai, Yoichi; Shibata, Atsuhiro; Nomura, K.; Takeuchi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency - JAEA, 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1194 (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    Insoluble sludge is generated in the reprocessing of spent fuel. The sludge obtained from the dissolution of irradiated fuel from the Joyo experimental fast reactor was analyzed to evaluate its chemical form. The sludge was collected by the filtration of the dissolved fuel solution, and then washed in nitric acid. The yields of the sludge weight were less than 1% of the total fuel weight. The chemical composition of the sludge was analyzed after decomposition by alkaline fusion. Molybdenum, technetium, ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium were found to be the main constituent elements of the sludge. X-ray diffraction patterns of the sludge were attributable to Mo{sub 4}Ru{sub 4}RhPd, regardless of the experimental conditions. The concentrations of molybdenum and zirconium in the dissolved fast reactor fuel solutions were low, indicating that zirconium molybdate hydrate (ZMH) is produced in negligible amounts in the process. (authors)

  7. Insoluble granite-grit allows broiler chicks to have better growth performance and gut health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güray Erener

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of insoluble granite-grit on growth performance and gut health status of broiler chicks. One hundred and sixty 14-day-old broiler chicks were allocated to experimental groups control and grit feeding. Each group included 80 birds divided by four replicates, each consisting of 20 birds, 10 males and 10 females. Feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass weight, dressing percentage, gut length, abdominal fat pad, and liver, heart, and gizzard weights were determined. Starter diet included 230 g crude protein (CP kg−1 and 3.15 Mcal metabolizable energy (ME kg−1 during the days 14 to 21; grower diet included 212 g CP kg−1 and 3.20 Mcal ME kg−1; and finisher diet included 190 g CP kg−1 and 3.20 Mcal ME kg-1. Control birds were fed broiler diets, while grit-fed birds were allowed to consume broiler diets, including 3% insoluble granite-grit. Grit feeding improved the final body weight (2268 vs. 2336 g with better feed efficiency (2.03 vs. 1.95 and less feed intake (3780 vs. 3764 g. Grit feeding increased gizzard weight (31.63 vs. 48.00 g without affecting carcass weight (1643 vs. 1708 g, dressing percentage (73.50 vs. 73.60%, liver weight (42.69 vs. 40.69 g, heart weight (12.00 vs. 11.63 g, abdominal fat pad (34.50 vs. 35.38 g, and gut length (229.3 vs. 220.7 cm of broilers. Grit feeding affects daily gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio positively by increasing gizzard development and health.

  8. Molecular and isotope constraints on the formation of the insoluble organic matter of carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Sylvie; Robert, François

    2017-04-01

    The origin of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) of the carbonaceous meteorites remains an unsolved issue despite major achievements in the knowledge of its chemical structure. The latter led us to propose a model for its molecular structure. Based on the relationship between the aromatic moieties of the macromolecular structure and their aliphatic linkages, it was recently suggested that, its synthesis has taken place in the gas phase of the disk surrounding the Sun in its early T-Tauri phase and that organic radicals have played a central role in this organo-synthesis. To test experimentally this pathway, we submitted short hydrocarbons (methane, pentane, octane) to a microwave plasma discharge so as to produce in situ CHx radicals. The black organic residue deposited contained both soluble and insoluble OM. The comparison at the molecular level between the thus synthesized IOM and that of meteorite led to strong similarities thus supporting the proposed pathway for its organo-synthesis. Moreover, in the meteorite IOM, systematic deuterium enrichment relative to the protosolar value is observed at the bulk sample scale and micrometer-sized grains exhibit dramatic enrichments in deuterium interpreted as a heritage of the interstellar medium or resulting from ion-molecule reactions taking place in the diffuse part of the solar disk. In the aforementioned synthesized IOM, NanoSIMS analyses revealed large variations at a sub-micrometric spatial resolution. They likely reflect the differences in the D/H ratios of the CHx radicals whose polymerization is at the origin of the IOM. These isotopic heterogeneities are commensurable with those observed in meteorite IOM. As a consequence, the appearance of organic radicals in the ionized regions of the T-Tauri solar disk may have triggered the formation of organic compounds. This laboratory synthesis thus shed a new light on the formation conditions and pathways of the IOM of carbonaceous chondrites.

  9. Protective value of immune responses developed in goats vaccinated with insoluble proteins from Sarcoptes Scabiei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Tarigan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines developed from certain membrane proteins lining the lumen of arthropod’s gut have been demonstrated effective in the control of some arthropod ectoparasites. A similar approach could also be applied to Sarcoptes scabiei since this parasite also ingests its host immunoglobulins. To evaluate immune protection of the membrane proteins, insoluble mite proteins were fractionated by successive treatment in the solutions of 1.14 M NaCl, 2% SB 3-14 Zwitterion detergent, 6 M urea, 6 M guanidine-HCl and 5% SDS. Five groups of goats (6 or 7 goats per group were immunised respectively with the protein fractions. Vaccination was performed 6 times, each with a dosage of 250 μg proteins, and 3 week intervals between vaccination. Group 6 (7 goats received PBS and adjuvant only, and served as an unvaccinated control. One week after the last vaccination, all goats were challenged with 2000 live mites on the auricles. The development of lesions were examined at 1 day, 2 days, and then every week from week 1 to 8. All animals were bled and weighed every week, and at the end of the experiment, skin scrapings were collected to determine the mite burden. Antibody responses induced by vaccination and challenge were examined by ELISA and Western blotting. This experiment showed that vaccination with the insoluble-protein fractions resulted in the development of high level of specific antibodies but the responses did not have any protective value. The severity of lesions and mite burden in the vaccinated animals were not different from those in the unvaccinated control.

  10. Spatial distribution and potential sources of trace metals in insoluble particles of snow from Urumqi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolan; Jiang, Fengqing; Wang, Shaoping; Turdi, Muyesser; Zhang, Zhaoyong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize trace elements in snow in urban-suburb gradient over Urumqi city, China. The spatial distribution patterns of 11 trace metals in insoluble particulate matters of snow were revealed by using 102 snow samples collected in and around urban areas of Urumqi, a city suffering from severe wintertime air pollution in China. Similar spatial distribution for Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Pb was found and their two significant high-value areas located in the west and east, respectively, and a high-value area in the south, which were correlated with factory emissions, traffic activities, and construction fugitive dust. The high-value areas of Cr, Ni, and V occurred in the northeast corner and along main traffic paths, which were linked to oil refinery and vehicular emissions. High value of Be presented in the west of the city. The high-value area of Co in the northeast could be related to local soil. Cd and U displayed relatively even spatial patterns in the urban area. In view of distance from the urban center, e.g., from the first circular belt to the fourth circular belt, except Be, V, Cd, and U, the contents of other metals generally decreased from the first circular belt to the forth circular belt, implying the effect of human activity clearly. Additionally, prevailing northwesterly winds and occasionally southeasterly winds in winter were associated with decreased, generally, concentrations of trace metal in snow from the urban center to the southern suburb along a northwest and southeast transect. The information on concentrations and spatial distributions of these metals in insoluble particles of snow in winter will be valuable for further environmental protection and planning.

  11. Enzymatic Xylose Release from Pretreated Corn Bran Arabinoxylan: Differential Effects of Deacetylation and Deferuloylation on Insoluble and Soluble Substrate Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane; Viksø-Nielsen, Ander; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work enzymatic hydrolysis of arabinoxylan from pretreated corn bran (190 °C, 10 min) was evaluated by measuring the release of xylose and arabinose after treatment with a designed minimal mixture of monocomponent enzymes consisting of α-l-arabinofuranosidases, an endoxylanase......, and a β-xylosidase. The pretreatment divided the corn bran material 50:50 into soluble and insoluble fractions having A:X ratios of 0.66 and 0.40, respectively. Addition of acetyl xylan esterase to the monocomponent enzyme mixture almost doubled the xylose release from the insoluble substrate fraction...

  12. Methods for preparing synthetic freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E J; Davison, W; Hamilton-Taylor, J

    2002-03-01

    Synthetic solutions that emulate the major ion compositions of natural waters are useful in experiments aimed at understanding biogeochemical processes. Standard recipes exist for preparing synthetic analogues of seawater, with its relatively constant composition, but, due to the diversity of freshwaters, a range of compositions and recipes is required. Generic protocols are developed for preparing synthetic freshwaters of any desired composition. The major problems encountered in preparing hard and soft waters include dissolving sparingly soluble calcium carbonate, ensuring that the ionic components of each concentrated stock solution cannot form an insoluble salt and dealing with the supersaturation of calcium carbonate in many hard waters. For acidic waters the poor solubility of aluminium salts requires attention. These problems are overcome by preparing concentrated stock solutions according to carefully designed reaction paths that were tested using a combination of experiment and equilibrium modeling. These stock solutions must then be added in a prescribed order to prepare a final solution that is brought into equilibrium with the atmosphere. The example calculations for preparing hard, soft and acidic freshwater surrogates with major ion compositions the same as published analyses, are presented in a generalized fashion that should allow preparation of any synthetic freshwater according to its known analysis.

  13. Biochemical characterisation and dietary fibre analysis of sugar beet supplemented cookies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasha, I.; Jahangir, M.F.; Akhter, S.; Manzoor, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    This study was planned to utilize sugar beet powder as a rich source of dietary fibre in cookies. Purposely, five treatments namely T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 with 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% sugar beet powder addition in wheat flour were chosen to estimate fibre, antioxidant profiling and engineering properties of cookies. Results showed an increased content of all above mentioned parameters. With the increment in sugar beet powder addition in treatments, dietary fibre analysis have shown that total dietary fibre (TDF), insoluble dietary fibre (IDF) and soluble dietary fibre (SDF) have depicted increasing trend with maximum for T5 for all dietary fibre types. Significant results were obtained for in vitro antioxidant studies including total phenolic content (TPC) and DPPH that showed increasing trend with T1 0.6 mg GAE/g and maximum values for T5 with 2.0 mg GAE/g for TPC and for DPPH with T5 being maximum value of 1.7% and minimum for T1 with 1.3%. T5 treatment with 20% sugar beet gave best physicochemical results but disturbed sensory properties while T3 with 12% sugar beet powder showed good physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Therefore, T3 with 12% level is considered as the best source of dietary fibre in bakery products and can be considered as the prospective choice to address metabolic syndromes. (author)

  14. Defined drug release from 3D-printed composite tablets consisting of drug-loaded polyvinylalcohol and a water-soluble or water-insoluble polymer filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Tatsuaki; Nagata, Noriko; Hayashi, Naomi; Ogawa, Emi; Fukushige, Kaori; Sakai, Norihito; Ozeki, Tetsuya

    2018-05-30

    3D-printed tablets are a promising new approach for personalized medicine. In this study, we fabricated composite tablets consisting of two components, a drug and a filler, by using a fused deposition modeling-type 3D printer. Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) polymer containing calcein (a model drug) was used as the drug component and PVA or polylactic acid (PLA) polymer without drug was used as the water-soluble or water-insoluble filler, respectively. Various kinds of drug-PVA/PVA and drug-PVA/PLA composite tablets were designed, and the 3D-printed tablets exhibited good formability. The surface area of the exposed drug component is highly correlated with the initial drug release rate. Composite tablets with an exposed top and a bottom covered with a PLA layer were fabricated. These tablets showed zero-order drug release by maintaining the surface area of the exposed drug component during drug dissolution. In contrast, the drug release profile varied for tablets whose exposed surface area changed. Composite tablets with different drug release lag times were prepared by changing the thickness of the PVA filler coating the drug component. These results which used PVA and PLA filler will provide useful information for preparing the tablets with multi-components and tailor-made tablets with defined drug release profiles using 3D printers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of Rheological Impacts on the Defense Waste Processing Facility's Sludge Slurry Feed as Insoluble Solids and Wash Endpoints are Adjusted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellinger, T. L.; Howard, S.J.; Lee, M.C.; Galloway, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently pursuing an aggressive program to empty its High Level Waste (HLW) tanks and immobilize its radioactive waste into a durable borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To create a batch of feed for the DWPF, several tanks of radioactive sludge slurry are combined into one of the million gallon (i.e. 3.79 E06 liters) feed tanks for DWPF. Once these sludge slurries are combined, the soluble sodium and weight percent total solids are adjusted by a 'washing' process. The 'washing' process involves diluting the soluble sodium of the sludge slurry with inhibited water (0.015 M NaOH and 0.015 M NaNO 2 ) and allowing the sludge slurry to settle into two layers. The two layers in the tank consist of a clear supernate on top and a layer of settled sludge solids on the bottom. The clear supernate layer is then decanted to another hold tank. This 'washing' process is repeated until the desired wash endpoint (i.e. sodium concentration in the supernate) and weight percent total solids are achieved. A final washed batch of feed consists of approximately 500,000 gallons (i.e. 1.89 E06 liters). DWPF has already processed three batches of feed and is currently processing a fourth. Prior to processing a batch of feed in the DWPF, it must be well characterized. Samples of the prepared feed batch are sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for this characterization. As a part of the SRNL characterization for the fourth batch, rheology measurements were performed. Measurements were performed at different weight percent insoluble solids loadings to mimic potential facility processing scenarios (i.e. mixing/pumping of concentrated sludge slurry). In order to determine the influence of the soluble Na on the rheological properties of the sample, the supernate of the 'as received' sample was adjusted from 1 M soluble Na to 0.5 M soluble Na by using a lab scale version of the 'washing' process. Rheology

  16. Overview of insoluble radioactive cesium particles emitted from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Yukihiko

    2017-04-01

    In the early stage of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (F1NPS) accident, number of spot type contamination has been observed in computed autoradiography (Kashimura 2013, Shibata 2013, Satou 2014). It's means presence of radioactive particles, however, insoluble cesium particle was overlooked because cesium, which is dominant radioactive element in the accident, becomes ionized in the environment. Adachi et al. (2013) showed presence of cesium (Cs)-bearing particles within air dust sample collected at Tsukuba, 170 km south from the Fukushima site, in midnight of 14 to morning of 15 March 2011. These particles were micrometer order small particles and Cs was could be detectable as element using an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). However, other radioactive elements such as Co-60, Ru-103 and uranium, which were dominant element of radioactive particles delivered from Chernobyl accident, could not detected. Abe et al. (2014) employed a synchrotron radiation (SR)-micro(μ)-X-ray analysis to the Cs-bearing particles, and they were concluded that (1) contained elements derived from nuclear fission processes and from nuclear reactor and fuel materials; (2) were amorphous; (3) were highly oxidized; and (4) consisted of glassy spherules formed from a molten mixture of nuclear fuel and reactor material. In addition, Satou et al. (2016) and Yamaguchi et al. (2016) disclosed that silicate is main component of Cs-bearing particles. Satou et al. (2015) discovered two types of radioactive particles from soil samples collected in the vicinity of the F1NPS. These particles were remained in the natural environment more than four years, silicate is main component in common of each group particles. Group A particles were very similar to Cs-bearing particles reported by Adachi et al. except particle shape. On the other hand, group B is big particles found in north area from the F1NPS, and the strongest particles contained 20 kBq of Cs-137 within a particle

  17. QUALITY AND NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF WHEAT BREAD WITH A PREPARATION OF OAT PROTEINS

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Sabat; KrzysztofBuksa; Barbara Mickowska; Rafał Ziobro; Halina Gambuś; Dorota Pastuszka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possibilities and advisability of the use of oats insoluble protein preparation for the production of wheat bread, in order to increase the amount of protein and biological value of protein in this kind of bakery. Research material consisted of the preparation of insoluble oats protein, wheat flour and wheat bread made with the share of oat protein: 5%, 7.5% and 10%, by weight of wheat flour. AOAC methods (2006) were used to determine protein, β-D-gluc...

  18. Dietary practices and associated factors during pregnancy in northwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nana, Amanuel; Zema, Tona

    2018-05-25

    Pregnancy is the most crucial nutritionally demanding period of every woman's life. The high demand of nutrients to deposit energy in the form of new tissue, growth of existing maternal tissues such as breast and uterus and increased energy requirements for tissue synthesis makes pregnant women more vulnerable to malnutrition. Dietary practice is defined as an observable actions or behavior of dietary habit and can be classified as good dietary practices and poor dietary practices. The incidence of dietary inadequacies as a result of dietary habits and patterns in pregnancy is higher during pregnancy when compared to any other stage of the life cycle. Thus, this study aimed to assess dietary practices and associated factors during pregnancy in Bahir Dar town, Northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study was conducted from March 1 to April 1, 2016. A total of 616 pregnant women were participated in the study. All eligible pregnant women were identified through house-to-house visit with the help of health extension workers. Cluster sampling was used to select eligible pregnant women. The data were collected using interviewer administered questionnaire prepared in English and translated in to Amharic. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with dietary practices. This study has shown that 39.3% of the study participants had good dietary practices and the rest 60.7% of pregnant women reported poor dietary practices. Concerning dietary knowledge, 61.4% of the study participants had good dietary knowledge while 38.6% had poor dietary knowledge. Husband income, ownership of radio, history of disease and dietary knowledge were shown to have significant association (P < 0.05) with dietary practices. Dietary practices of pregnant women in the study area was suboptimal. Husband income, ownership of radio, history of disease

  19. Narrative Dietary Counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Kaufmann, Lisbeth; Hennesser, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....

  20. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly

  1. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  2. KEY ELEMENTS OF CHARACTERIZING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE INSOLUBLES THROUGH SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboul, S; Barbara Hamm, B

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of HLW is a prerequisite for effective planning of HLW disposition and site closure performance assessment activities. Adequate characterization typically requires application of a combination of data sources, including process knowledge, theoretical relationships, and real-waste analytical data. Consistently obtaining high quality real-waste analytical data is a challenge, particularly for HLW sludge insolubles, due to the inherent complexities associated with matrix heterogeneities, sampling access limitations, radiological constraints, analyte loss mechanisms, and analyte measurement interferences. Understanding how each of these complexities affects the analytical results is the first step to developing a sampling and analysis program that provides characterization data that are both meaningful and adequate. A summary of the key elements impacting SRS HLW sludge analytical data uncertainties is presented in this paper, along with guidelines for managing each of the impacts. The particular elements addressed include: (a) sample representativeness; (b) solid/liquid phase quantification effectiveness; (c) solids dissolution effectiveness; (d) analyte cross contamination, loss, and tracking; (e) dilution requirements; (f) interference removal; (g) analyte measurement technique; and (h) analytical detection limit constraints. A primary goal of understanding these elements is to provide a basis for quantifying total propagated data uncertainty

  3. Water-Insoluble Photosensitizer Nanocolloids Stabilized by Supramolecular Interfacial Assembly towards Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yamei; Ma, Kai; Jiao, Tifeng; Xing, Ruirui; Shen, Guizhi; Yan, Xuehai

    2017-02-01

    Nanoengineering of hydrophobic photosensitizers (PSs) is a promising approach for improved tumor delivery and enhanced photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficiency. A variety of delivery carriers have been developed for tumor delivery of PSs through the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. However, a high-performance PS delivery system with minimum use of carrier materials with excellent biocompatibility is highly appreciated. In this work, we utilized the spatiotemporal interfacial adhesion and assembly of supramolecular coordination to achieve the nanoengineering of water-insoluble photosensitizer Chlorin e6 (Ce6). The hydrophobic Ce6 nanoparticles are well stabilized in a aqueous medium by the interfacially-assembled film due to the coordination polymerization of tannic acid (TA) and ferric iron (Fe(III)). The resulting Ce6@TA-Fe(III) complex nanoparticles (referenced as Ce6@TA-Fe(III) NPs) significantly improves the drug loading content (~65%) and have an average size of 60 nm. The Ce6@TA-Fe(III) NPs are almost non-emissive as the aggregated states, but they can light up after intracellular internalization, which thus realizes low dark toxicity and excellent phototoxicity under laser irradiation. The Ce6@TA-Fe(III) NPs prolong blood circulation, promote tumor-selective accumulation of PSs, and enhanced antitumor efficacy in comparison to the free-carrier Ce6 in vivo evaluation.

  4. Software packages for simulating groundwater flow and the spreading of soluble and insoluble admixtures in aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshal, A.A.; Klein, I.S.; Svishchov, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Software programs are described designed for solving hydrogeological and environmental problems related to the analysis and prediction of groundwater flow and the spreading of solutes and insolubles in the saturated zones. The software package GWFS (Ground Water Flow Simulation) allows for simulating steady-state and unsteady-state flow in confined, unconfined, and confined-unconfined multi-layer and quasi-3D isotropic and anisotropic aquifer systems. Considered are intra-layer sources and sinks, infiltration, inter-layer leakages, the interrelationships with surface reservoirs and streams, interrelationships with the drains, aquifer discharge to surface sources. The MTS (Mass Transport Simulation) package is designed for solving solute transport problems. Taken into account is convective transport, hydrodynamic dispersion and diffusion, linear equilibrium sorption. The method of characteristics is being implemented here using the ''particles-in-cells'' scheme in which the transport is modeled with the help of tracers. The software package OWFS (Oil-Water Flow Simulation) is designed for the simulation of hydrocarbon (oil-water) migration in aquifers

  5. An Insoluble Benzoquinone-Based Organic Cathode for Use in Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhiqiang; Liu, Luojia; Zhao, Qing; Li, Fujun; Chen, Jun

    2017-10-02

    Application of organic electrode materials in rechargeable batteries has attracted great interest because such materials contain abundant carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen elements. However, organic electrodes are highly soluble in organic electrolytes. An organic electrode of 2,3,5,6-tetraphthalimido-1,4-benzoquinone (TPB) is reported in which rigid groups coordinate to a molecular benzoquinone skeleton. The material is insoluble in aprotic electrolyte, and demonstrates a high capacity retention of 91.4 % (204 mA h g -1 ) over 100 cycles at 0.2 C. The extended π-conjugation of the material contributes to enhancement of the electrochemical performance (155 mA h g -1 at 10 C). Moreover, density functional theory calculations suggest that favorable synergistic reactions between multiple carbonyl groups and lithium ions can enhance the initial lithium ion intercalation potential. The described approach may provide a novel entry to next-generation organic electrode materials with relevance to lithium-ion batteries. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Characterization of insoluble organic matter in primitive meteorites by microRaman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busemann, Henner; Alexander, M. O'd.; Nittler, Larry R.

    2007-08-01

    We have analyzed the chemically and isotopically well-characterized insoluble organic matter (IOM) extracted from 51 unequilibrated chondrites (8 CR, 9 CM, 1 CI, 3 ungrouped C, 9 CO, 9 CV, 10 ordinary, 1 CB and 1 E chondrites) using confocal imaging Raman spectroscopy. The average Raman properties of the IOM, as parameterized by the peak characteristics of the so-called D and G bands, which originate from aromatic C rings, show systematic trends that are correlated with meteorite (sub-) classification and IOM chemical compositions. Processes that affect the Raman and chemical properties of the IOM, such as thermal metamorphism experienced on the parent bodies, terrestrial weathering and amorphization due to irradiation in space, have been identified. We established separate sequences of metamorphism for ordinary, CO, oxidized, and reduced CV chondrites. Several spectra from the most primitive chondrites reveal the presence of organic matter that has been amorphized. This amorphization, usually the result of sputtering processes or UV or particle irradiation, could have occurred during the formation of the organic material in interstellar or protoplanetary ices or, less likely, on the surface of the parent bodies or during the transport of the meteorites to Earth. D band widths and peak metamorphic temperatures are strongly correlated, allowing for a straightforward estimation of these temperatures.

  7. Enrichment of deuterium in insoluble organic matter from primitive meteorites: A solar system origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remusat, Laurent; Palhol, Fabien; Robert, François; Derenne, Sylvie; France-Lanord, Christian

    2006-03-01

    Because of a systematic enrichment in deuterium, the insoluble organic matter (IOM) of the carbonaceous chondrites is considered to have formed in the interstellar medium. However, the D / H ratios in IOM remain much lower than those measured in the organic molecules commonly observed in the dense interstellar medium. In this study, the D / H ratio of different aromatic and aliphatic molecular fragments of IOM from the Orgueil meteorite was measured by GC-irMS (gas chromatography-isotopic ratio mass spectrometry). No correlation was observed between the D / H ratios and structural parameters characterizing the IOM, such as the H / C ratio. However, the δD of the benzylic, aliphatic and aromatic hydrogen into the IOM can be determined to be 1250‰, + 550‰ and + 150‰, respectively, relative to SMOW. This indicates that D-enrichment in IOM is correlated with the C-H bond dissociation energy. Such a correlation rules out IOM formation from observed interstellar molecules and suggests instead that the different components of IOM have acquired their D / H ratios by an exchange with a deuterium-rich reservoir after its synthesis. The same process can be invoked to account for the D / H composition of meteoritic water. Findings point to a common process for deuterium enrichment in the solar system.

  8. A Chemical Comparison of STARDUST Organics with Insoluble Organic Matter in Chondritic Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, G. D.; Yabuta, H.; Alexander, C. M.; Araki, T.; Kilcoyne, D.

    2006-12-01

    We have analyzed 15 organic rich particles extracted from the aerogel capture device flown on the STARDUST mission spacecraft to comet Wild 2 using C-, N-, and O-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Data were acquired with the Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) beam line 5.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. XANES can provide both quantitative molecular functional group information and atomic N/C and O/C data. We use these data to place the organic matter extracted from the Aerogel Capture device in context with a large database of C-, N-, and O-XANES spectra obtained on meteoritic Insoluble Organic Matter (IOM) obtained from type 1, 2, and 3 chondrites. We find that the organic chemistry of the particles extracted from aerogel varies in functional group abundances, but is universally very rich in heteroatoms (N and O). In several cases the organic carbon is closely associated with silica (possibly derived from the aerogel), but at a concentration far in excess of the intrinsic carbon abundance of synthesized (and flown) aerogel. Independently, 29-Si, 13-C, and 1-H solid state NMR was applied to analyze the nature of organic carbon present in the aerogel as byproduct of the synthesis. The intrinsic aerogel carbon is very simple in its functional group chemistry, very low in abundance, and differs completely from that detected in the extracted organic particles.

  9. Mid-infrared study of the molecular structure variability of insoluble organic matter from primitive chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthous-Daunay, F.-R.; Quirico, E.; Beck, P.; Brissaud, O.; Dartois, E.; Pino, T.; Schmitt, B.

    2013-03-01

    Insoluble Organic Matter (IOM) found in primitive meteorites was formed in the Early Solar System and subsequently processed on the parent asteroids. The location, temporal sequence and processes of formation of this IOM are still a matter of debate. In particular, there is no consensus on the actual effect of post-accretional aqueous alteration processes on the chemical composition and structure of IOM. In the most primitive chondrites (types 1 and 2), these alterations have so far been either neglected or generically assigned to oxidation processes induced by fluid circulation. A series of IOM samples extracted from 14 chondrites with extensively documented post-accretional histories have been studied by infrared spectroscopy. Aqueous alteration shows no detectable effect on the chemical composition and structure of IOM within or across chondrite classes. Indeed, the most effective post-accretional process appears to be a high-temperature short-duration heating event and concerns essentially type 2 chondrites. In any case, post-accretional processes cannot account for all the chemical and structural variations of IOM. Chondrites from the CI, CR and CM classes accreted IOM precursors with moderately variable compositions, suggesting a chemical heterogeneity of the protosolar disk. The 3.4 μm band, and possibly its overtones and combinations in the near-infrared range, appear to be tracer(s) of the chemical class and possibly of surface heating processes triggered by impacts.

  10. NMR studies of chemical structural variation of insoluble organic matter from different carbonaceous chondrite groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, George D.; Alexander, Conel M. O.'D.

    2005-02-01

    Solid-state 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic experiments have been performed on isolated meteoritic Insoluble Organic Matter (IOM) spanning four different carbonaceous chondrite meteorite groups; a CR2 (EET92042), a CI1 (Orgueil), a CM2 (Murchison), and the unique C2 meteorite, Tagish Lake. These solid state NMR experiments reveal considerable variation in bulk organic composition across the different meteorite group's IOM. The fraction of aromatic carbon increases as CR2 meteorite groups. Single pulse (SP) 13C magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments reveal the presence of nanodiamonds with an apparent concentration ranking in the IOM of CR2 IOM of all four meteoritic IOM fractions are highly substituted. Fast spinning SP 1H MAS NMR spectral data combined with other NMR experimental data reveal that the average hydrogen content of sp 3 bonded carbon functional groups is low, requiring a high degree of aliphatic chain branching in each IOM fraction. The variation in chemistry across the meteorite groups is consistent with alteration by low temperature chemical oxidation. It is concluded that such chemistry principally affected the aliphatic moieties whereas the aromatic moieties and nanodiamonds may have been largely unaffected.

  11. Model of molecular structure of the insoluble organic matter isolated from Murchison meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Sylvie; Robert, François

    2010-09-01

    The molecular structure of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) from Murchison meteorite has been investigated by our group for several years using a large set of analytical methods including various spectroscopies (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance, X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy), high resolution electron microscopy, and thermal (pyrolyses in the presence or not of tetramethylammonium hydroxide) and chemical (RuO4 oxidation) degradations. Taken together, these techniques provided a wealth of qualitative and quantitative information, from which we derived 11 elemental and molecular parameters on the same IOM residue. In addition to the basic elemental composition, these parameters describe the distribution of the different types of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur atoms as well as the size of the polyaromatic units. For this molecular structure, we therefore propose a model which fits with these 11 molecular quantitative parameters. Several cosmochemical implications are derived from this structure. Based on the fact that aromatic moieties are highly substituted and aliphatic chains highly branched, it can be anticipated that the synthesis of this IOM occurred through successive additions of single carbon units in the gas-phase ending by a spontaneous cyclization for chain length ≥7 C. As a whole, these observations favor an organosynthesis in the solar T-Tauri disk.

  12. The chemical structure of the insoluble organic matter from carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, S.; Robert, F.

    2008-09-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are the most primitive objects of the solar system. They contain substantial amounts of carbon (up to 3%), mostly occurring in macromolecular insoluble organic matter (IOM). This IOM is generally considered as a record of interstellar synthesis and may contain precursors of prebiotic molecules possibly deposited on earth by meteoritic bombardments. For these reasons, chondritic IOM has been raising interest for long and it is therefore of special interest to decipher its chemical structure. It is now well established that the chemical structure of this macromolecular material is based on aromatic moieties linked by short aliphatic chains and comprising substantial amounts of heteroatoms. However, its precise chemical structure could only be recently specified. The aim of this presentation is to propose a molecular model for the chemical structure of IOM isolated from non-metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrites. This model is derived from a large set of data obtained through a combination of techniques including various spectrocopies, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and chemical and thermal degradations. Cosmochemical implications of such a structure will also be discussed.

  13. An interspecies comparison of the biological effects of an inhaled, relatively insoluble beta emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, W.C.; Lundgren, D.L.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    Mice, rats, Syrian hamsters, and beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to graded levels of 144 Ce in relatively insoluble forms to demonstrate species similarities and differences regarding patterns of deposition, fate, dosimetry, and dose-response relationships. All animals were serially evaluated to determine lung burdens, held for life-span observation, necropsied at death, and examined histopathologically to characterize the lesions present and to determine the cause of death. The primary malignant lung tumors observed in rodents were predominantly squamous-cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas, whereas those in dogs at earlier times were primarily hemangiosarcomas and those in dogs that died at later times were pulmonary carcinomas. The relationship between the incidence of lung cancer and absorbed beta dose to the lung differed among species. The results of modeling these data provide a better understanding of how the choice of species can influence the outcome of a life-span study. The data are used to estimate the risk of lung cancer in man from an inhaled beta-emitting radionuclide. 26 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Stochastic Threshold Microdose Model for Cell Killing by Insoluble Metallic Nanomaterial Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Bobby R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel microdosimetric model for metallic nanomaterial-particles (MENAP)-induced cytotoxicity. The focus is on the engineered insoluble MENAP which represent a significant breakthrough in the design and development of new products for consumers, industry, and medicine. Increased production is rapidly occurring and may cause currently unrecognized health effects (e.g., nervous system dysfunction, heart disease, cancer); thus, dose-response models for MENAP-induced biological effects are needed to facilitate health risk assessment. The stochastic threshold microdose (STM) model presented introduces novel stochastic microdose metrics for use in constructing dose-response relationships for the frequency of specific cellular (e.g., cell killing, mutations, neoplastic transformation) or subcellular (e.g., mitochondria dysfunction) effects. A key metric is the exposure-time-dependent, specific burden (MENAP count) for a given critical target (e.g., mitochondria, nucleus). Exceeding a stochastic threshold specific burden triggers cell death. For critical targets in the cytoplasm, the autophagic mode of death is triggered. For the nuclear target, the apoptotic mode of death is triggered. Overall cell survival is evaluated for the indicated competing modes of death when both apply. The STM model can be applied to cytotoxicity data using Bayesian methods implemented via Markov chain Monte Carlo. PMID:21191483

  15. Biological effects of repeated inhalation exposure of beagle dogs to relatively insoluble aerosols of 144Ce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; McClellan, R.O.; Mauderly, J.L.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Beagle dogs were exposed repeatedly to a relatively insoluble form of 144 Ce (in fused aluminosilicate particles) to study the deposition, retention, and long-term biological effects for comparison with data from dogs that were exposed only once to a similar aerosol. Four groups of nine dogs each were exposed once every 8 weeks for 2 years (13 exposures) to achieve specified exposure goals. These goals were: to increase the lung burden by 2.5 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight with each exposure; to reestablish lung burdens of 9 or 4.5 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight and to expose controls to fused aluminosilicate particles containing nonradioactive cerium. To date, 19 exposed dogs and 2 control dogs have died or were euthanized. The most prevalent findings to date have been pulmonary carcinomas (7 dogs) and hemangiosarcomas in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes (3 dogs). Observations are continuing on the surviving 8 144 Ce-exposed and 7 control dogs who are now at approximately 2500 days (6.8 years) after the first exposure

  16. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by aged Beagle dogs. XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The toxicity of relatively insoluble 144 Ce inhaled by 8- to 10.5-year-old Beagle dogs is being investigated to determine possible age-related differences in long-term biological responses. Forty-two dogs were exposed to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 2.2 to 75 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight, and 12 control dogs were exposed to non-radioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. All 144 Ce-exposed and control dogs have died or were euthanized between 197 and 2726 days after the inhalation exposure. Prominent findings in the 144 Ce-exposed dogs were radiation pneumonitis in 19 of the 23 dogs that died during the first 943 days after exposure, and neoplastic disease in 13 of the 20 dogs that died beyond 904 days after exposure. Pulmonary tumors were found in five of these dogs. In contrast to the study with young adult dogs, in which pulmonary hemangiosarcomas were one of the prominent findings, all of these tumors were carcinomas

  17. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by aged Beagle dogs. X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The toxicity of relatively insoluble 144 Ce inhaled by 8- to 10.5-year old Beagle dogs is being investigated to provide possible age-related differences in long-term biological responses. Forty-two dogs were exposed, nose-only, to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 2.2 to 75 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight, and 12 control dogs were exposed to nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 39 144 Ce-exposed dogs and 10 control dogs have died or were euthanized between 197 and 2375 days after the inhalation exposure. Prominent findings in the 144 Ce-exposed dogs were radiation pneumonitis in 19 of the 23 dogs that died during the first 943 days after exposure and neoplastic disease in nine of the 16 dogs that died beyond 943 days after exposure. Pulmonary tumors were found in four of these dogs. Observations are continuing on the three surviving 144 Ce-exposed and two control dogs

  18. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by aged Beagle dogs. XIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Toxicity of relatively insoluble 144 Ce inhaled by 8 to 10.5 year-old Beagle dogs is being investigated to determine possible age-related differences in long-term biological responses. Forty-two dogs were exposed to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 2.2 to 75 μCi 144 Ce/kg (81-2800 kBq/kg) body weight, and 12 control dogs were exposed to non-radioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. All 144 Ce-exposed and control dogs have died or were euthanized between 197 and 2726 days after the inhalation exposure. Prominent findings in the 144 Ce-exposed dogs were radiation pneumonitis in 19 of the 23 dogs that died during the first 943 days after exposure, and neoplastic disease in 13 of the 20 dogs that died beyond 904 days after exposure. Pulmonary tumors were found in five of these dogs. In contrast to the study with young adult dogs, in which pulmonary hemangiosarcomas were one of the prominent findings, all of these tumors were carcinomas. 1 figure, 1 table

  19. Tumorigenic responses from single or repeated inhalation exposures to relatively insoluble aerosols of Ce-144

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1980-01-01

    Human occupational or environmental inhalation exposures may involve repeated or chronic exposures, but most laboratory studies of inhaled radionuclides have involved single exposures. This study was designed to compare the biological effects of repeated inhalation exposures of dogs to a relatively insoluble form of 144 Ce with existing data for singly-exposed dogs that had the same cumulative dose to the lungs two years after exposure. To date, the biological effects observed in these repeatedly-exposed dogs have been substantially different from those seen in singly-exposed dogs, particularly during the first 5 years after the initial exposure. Although pulmonary hemangiosarcoma was the prominent biological effect seen in singly-exposed dogs between 2 and 4 years after exposure, no lung tumors were seen during the 5 years after the first of the repeated exposures. This response plus other clinical observations are discussed in relation to the patterns of dose rate and cumulative dose for the different exposure conditions. (H.K.)

  20. Centrosome proteins form an insoluble perinuclear matrix during muscle cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srsen Vlastimil

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle fibres are formed by elongation and fusion of myoblasts into myotubes. During this differentiation process, the cytoskeleton is reorganized, and proteins of the centrosome re-localize to the surface of the nucleus. The exact timing of this event, and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Results We performed studies on mouse myoblast cell lines that were induced to differentiate in culture, to characterize the early events of centrosome protein re-localization. We demonstrate that this re-localization occurs already at the single cell stage, prior to fusion into myotubes. Centrosome proteins that accumulate at the nuclear surface form an insoluble matrix that can be reversibly disassembled if isolated nuclei are exposed to mitotic cytoplasm from Xenopus egg extract. Our microscopy data suggest that this perinuclear matrix of centrosome proteins consists of a system of interconnected fibrils. Conclusion Our data provide new insights into the reorganization of centrosome proteins during muscular differentiation, at the structural and biochemical level. Because we observe that centrosome protein re-localization occurs early during differentiation, we believe that it is of functional importance for the reorganization of the cytoskeleton in the differentiation process.

  1. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by aged beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of relatively insoluble 144 Ce inhaled by 8- to 10.5-year-old beagle dogs is being investigated to provide information on possible age-related differences in the resulting long-term biological responses. Forty-two dogs were exposed, nose-only, to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 2.2 to 75 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight, and 12 control dogs were exposed to nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 38 144 Ce-exposed dogs and 10 control dogs have died or were euthanized between 197 and 2375 days after inhalation of the 144 Ce. Prominent findings in the 144 Ce-exposed dogs were radiation pneumonitis in 19 dogs that died during the first 943 days post-exposure and neoplastic disease in seven of the 15 dogs. However, only one of these tumors killed the dog. No hemangiosarcomas have been observed in this study, although they were a prominent finding in immature or young adult dogs exposed to 144 Ce. Observations are continuing on the four surviving 144 Ce-exposed and two control dogs

  2. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry and effects of 144 Ce inhaled in fused aluminosilicate particles are being investigated in the beagle dog to assess the long-term biological consequences of release of relatively insoluble aerosol forms of 144 Ce that could occur in nuclear accidents. The effects resulting from the relatively protracted radiation dose patterns to the lung from this form of 144 Ce are being compared with effects of other radiation dose patterns to the lung. One hundred eleven dogs were exposed to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 0.0024 to 210 μCi/kg body weight and 15 control dogs were exposed to nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 65 144 Ce-exposed and 2 control dogs have died or were euthanized at 143 to 4578 days after inhalation of 144 Ce. Prominent findings in the 144 Ce-exposed dogs were radiation pneumonitis in 17 dogs that died at early times and neoplastic disease in 39 of the 48 dogs that died 750 days or later. Observations are continuing on the 46 144 Ce-exposed and 13 control dogs remaining alive at this time, at least 3337 days after exposure

  3. Toxicity of 90Sr inhaled in relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. XV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to 90 Sr in a relatively insoluble form to study long-term health effects. Lung burdens ranged from 0.12 to 96 μCi (4.4 to 3550 kBq) of 90 Sr/kg body weight. High levels of exposure resulted in radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis; lower level exposures caused long-term effects, including cancer of the lung, heart, and tracheobronchial lymph nodes. Most of these tumors were hemangiosarcomas. Two control dogs and four 90 Sr-exposed dogs died or were euthanized during the past year. One exposed dog died with hemangiosarcoma of the heart and pulmonary adenoma, another exposed dog died with angiosarcoma of tracheobronchial lymph nodes, another exposed dog died with hemangiosarcoma of the heart, and the fourth exposed dog died with hemangiosarcoma of tracheobronchial lymph nodes. One control dog died with adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and the other control dog died with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. The remaining 15 exposed and 9 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. 2 figures, 1 table

  4. Addition of soluble and insoluble neutron absorbers to the reactor coolant system of TMI-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, R.F.; Silverman, J.; Queen, S.P.; Ryan, R.F.; Austin, W.E.

    1984-07-01

    The physical and chemical properties of six elements were studied and combined with cost estimates to determine the feasibility of adding them to the TMI-2 reactor coolant to depress k/sub eff/ to less than or equal to 0.95. Both soluble and insoluble forms of the elements B, Cd, Gd, Li, Sm, and Eu were examined. Criticality calculations were performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the absorber concentration required to meet the 0.95 k/sub eff/ criterion. The conclusion reached is that all elements with the exception of boron have overriding disadvantages which preclude their use in this reactor. Solubility experiments in the reactor coolant show that boron solubility is the same as that of boron in pure aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide and boric acid; consequently, solubility is not a limiting factor in reaching the k/sub eff/ criterion. Examination of the effect of pH on sodium requirements and costs for processing to remove radionuclides revealed a sharp dependence; small decreases in pH lead to a large decrease in both sodium requirements and processing costs. Boron addition to meet any contemplated reactor safety requirements can be accomplished with existing equipment; however, this addition must be made with the reactor coolant system filled and pressurized to ensure uniform boron concentration

  5. Genotoxic potential evaluation of a cosmetic insoluble substance by the micronuclei assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, N; Shah, V; Minko, T

    2011-01-01

    An optical brightener (OB) powder (INCI: sodium silicoaluminate (and) glycidoxypropyl trimethyloxysilane/PEI-250 cross fluorescent brightener 230 salt (and) polyvinylalcohol crosspolymer) that is used in cosmetic facial products was tested for its genotoxic potential using the micronuclei test (MNT). It is a solid dry powder with an average size of 5 microns that is insoluble but dispersible in water. This study describes the exposure of cell culture to positive controls with and without enzymatic activation and to the test compound in different concentrations. We evaluated three end points: microscopic observation and quantification of micronuclei formation, and cell viability and proliferation. Both positive controls induced significant changes that were observed under the microscope and quantified. Based on its chemical nature, it was not anticipated that the test substance will degrade under the conditions of the experiments. However, the test is required to make sure that when solublized, impurities that may be present, even at trace levels, will not induce a genotoxic effect. The test compound did not promote micronuclei formation or change the viability or proliferation rate of cells. During this study we faced challenges such as solubilization and correlating viability data to genotoxicity data. These are described in the body of the paper. We believe that with the emergence of the 7(th) European amendment that bans animal testing, sharing these data and the study protocol serves as a key in building the understanding of the utilization of in vitro studies in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients.

  6. Micronization increases vitamin E carrying and releasing abilities of insoluble fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pang-Kuei; Chien, Po-Jung; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2008-03-26

    This study was to investigate the effects of micronization on vitamin-carrying capacity and slow-release ability of carambola (starfruit) insoluble fiber (IF) and cellulose using in vitro and in vivomodels. Upon micronization, carambola IF (8.1 microm) underwent structural changes to expose more functional groups in the fiber matrix and to exhibit higher oil-holding capacity ( approximately 20.4-fold). Micronized fibers in forms of fiber-vitamin composites, particularly the micronized carambola IF-vitamin composite, were capable of carrying vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) up to 9.6-fold over their unmicronized forms and releasing nutrient gradually. Animal studies demonstrated that the adminstration of micronized carambola IF-vitamin composite could maintain the plasma vitamin E of rats at relatively higher levels (2.1-3.6-fold of the initial values) for at least 5 h. The results suggested that micronized fibers, particularly the micronized carambola IF, could be exploited as potential nutrient carriers in food applications and also be used to produce slow-release formulations.

  7. Structure of insoluble immune complexes as studied by spectroturbidimetry and dynamic light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Burygin, Gennadii L.; Matora, Larisa Y.; Shchyogolev, Sergei Y.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

    2004-07-01

    We describe two variants of a method for determining the average composition of insoluble immune complex particles (IICP). The first variant is based on measuring the specific turbidity (the turbidity per unit mass concentration of the dispersed substance) and the average size of IICP determined from dynamic light scattering (DLS). In the second variant, the wavelength exponent (i.e., the slope of the logarithmic turbidity spectrum) is used in combination with specific turbidity measurements. Both variants allow the average biopolymer volume fraction to be determined in terms of the average refractive index of IICP. The method is exemplified by two experimental antigen+antibody systems: (i) lipopolysaccharide-protein complex (LPPC) of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245+rabbit anti-LPPC; and (ii) human IgG (hIgG)+sheep anti-hIgG. Our measurements by the two methods for both types of systems gave, on the average, the same result: the volume fraction of the IICP biopolymers is about 30%; accordingly, the volume fraction of buffer solvent is 70%.

  8. Source attribution of insoluble light-absorbing particles in seasonal snow across northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal snow samples obtained at 46 sites in 6 provinces of China in January and February 2010 were analyzed for a suite of chemical species and these data are combined with previously determined concentrations of insoluble light-absorbing particles (ILAP, including all particles that absorb light in the 650–700 nm wavelength interval. The ILAP, together with 14 other analytes, are used as input to a positive matrix factorization (PMF receptor model to explore the sources of ILAP in the snow. The PMF analysis for ILAP sources is augmented with backward trajectory cluster analysis and the geographic locations of major source areas for the three source types. The two analyses are consistent and indicate that three factors/sources were responsible for the measured light absorption of snow: a soil dust source, an industrial pollution source, and a biomass and / or biofuel burning source. Soil dust was the main source of the ILAP, accounting for ~53% of ILAP on average.

  9. Can we prepare our bodies over the year to cope with Ramadan fasting more easily? Imam Reza’s health and dietary recommendations for different months of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Roudi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weather conditions, comprised of multiple parameters (e.g., atmospheric pressure, wind, temperature, moisture, and heat vary during different months of the year. These variations influence almost all organisms including humans (1. Proper nutritional diet is one of the factors which can lead to human adjustment with atmospheric changes. Imam Reza, the eighth Shia Imam, has presented the most effective and thorough dietary suggestions for different months of the year. In this article, we studied his debates in his medical book, known as “Al-Risalah al-Dhahabiah fi alTibb” (the golden medical dissertation, using the analytical library method. We reviewed and highlighted these recommendations and tried to determine if they could promote the body stamina to cope with Ramadan fasting.

  10. Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal Dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both resistance and endurance-trained athletes have a higher dietary protein requirement of between 1.2 and 1.8 g protein/kg body weight (BW)/day, with an upper limit of 2 g protein/kg BW/day. To increase the rate of protein synthesis during the recovery period, immediate ingestion of protein postexercise is recommended ...

  11. Vacuna fenol-insoluble contra la brucelosis humana: evaluacion del poder inmunogenico en cobayos Phenol insoluble extract vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in humans: evaluation in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bolpe

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Se examinó una vacuna diseñada para inmunizar al hombre, preparada con extracto de fenol insoluble, para determinar si protegía a cobayos contra el desafío con la cepa virulenta B. abortus 2308. Se incluyeron en el experimento las vacunas vivas atenuadas B. abortus cepa 19 y B. melitensis Rev. 1, para comparar los resultados. Se vacunaron 93 animales en cada grupo, que fueron subdivididos en subgrupos de 31 y se los desafió con 10(4, 10³ y 10² unidades formadoras de colonias de la cepa B. abortus 2308 virulenta. El análisis global de los resultados demostró una protección del 11.9% en animales vacunados con el extracto de fenol insoluble, 65% en los vacunados con B. abortus cepa 19 y 95% en el grupo que recibió vacuna B. melitensis Rev. 1.A phenol insoluble extract vaccine proposed to immunize men against brucellosis was tested for its ability in protecting guinea pigs against challenge with virulent Brucella abortus strain 2308. Living attenuated Brucella abortus strain 19 and B. melitensis Rev. 1 were included in the experiment for comparison. Ninety three animals were vaccinated in each group and subdivided in subgroups of 31 for challenge with 10(4,10³ and 10² colony forming units of virulent B. abortus 2308. A global analysis of the results showed protection of 11.9%, 65% and 95% in animals vaccinated with phenol insoluble extract, strain 19 and Rev. 1, respectively.

  12. Effects of dietary fiber preparations made from maize starch on the growth and activity of selected bacteria from the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria phyla in fecal samples from obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczynska, Renata; Slizewska, Katarzyna; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Szalecki, Mieczyslaw; Kapusniak, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is a search for substances that would be very well tolerated by an organism and which could contribute to the activation of the growth of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria strains, with simultaneous inhibition of the growth of Firmicutes. High expectations in this regard are raised with the use of fiber preparations from starch - resistant corn dextrins, branched dextrins, resistant maltodextrins and soluble corn fiber. In this paper, the influence of fiber preparations made from corn starch was evaluated on growth and activity of Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes strains isolated from obese children. It was demonstrated that in the stool of obese children Firmicutes strains predominate, while Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria strains were in the minority. A supplementation of fecal culture with fiber preparations did not cause any significant changes in the number of strains of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Addition of fiber preparations to the fecal samples of obese children increased the amount of short-chain fatty acids, especially acetic (p < 0.01), propionic, butyric (p = 0.05) and lactic acid (p < 0.01).

  13. Removing uranium (VI) from aqueous solution with insoluble humic acid derived from leonardite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fande; Yuan, Guodong; Larson, Steven L; Ballard, John H; Waggoner, Charles A; Arslan, Zikri; Han, Fengxiang X

    2017-12-01

    The occurrence of uranium (U) and depleted uranium (DU)-contaminated wastes from anthropogenic activities is an important environmental problem. Insoluble humic acid derived from leonardite (L-HA) was investigated as a potential adsorbent for immobilizing U in the environment. The effect of initial pH, contact time, U concentration, and temperature on U(VI) adsorption onto L-HA was assessed. The U(VI) adsorption was pH-dependent and achieved equilibrium in 2 h. It could be well described with pseudo-second-order model, indicating that U(VI) adsorption onto L-HA involved chemisorption. The U(VI) adsorption mass increased with increasing temperature with maximum adsorption capacities of 91, 112 and 120 mg g -1 at 298, 308 and 318 K, respectively. The adsorption reaction was spontaneous and endothermic. We explored the processes of U(VI) desorption from the L-HA-U complex through batch desorption experiments in 1 mM NaNO 3 and in artificial seawater. The desorption process could be well described by pseudo-first-order model and reached equilibrium in 3 h. L-HA possessed a high propensity to adsorb U(VI). Once adsorbed, the release of U(VI) from L-HA-U complex was minimal in both 1 mM NaNO 3 and artificial seawater (0.06% and 0.40%, respectively). Being abundant, inexpensive, and safe, L-HA has good potential for use as a U adsorbent from aqueous solution or immobilizing U in soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Elemental, isotopic, and structural changes in Tagish Lake insoluble organic matter produced by parent body processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. M. O'd.; Cody, G. D.; Kebukawa, Y.; Bowden, R.; Fogel, M. L.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Nittler, L. R.; Herd, C. D. K.

    2014-04-01

    Here, we present the results of a multitechnique study of the bulk properties of insoluble organic material (IOM) from the Tagish Lake meteorite, including four lithologies that have undergone different degrees of aqueous alteration. The IOM C contents of all four lithologies are very uniform and comprise about half the bulk C and N contents of the lithologies. However, the bulk IOM elemental and isotopic compositions vary significantly. In particular, there is a correlated decrease in bulk IOM H/C ratios and δD values with increasing degree of alteration—the IOM in the least altered lithology is intermediate between CM and CR IOM, while that in the more altered lithologies resembles the very aromatic IOM in mildly metamorphosed CV and CO chondrites, and heated CMs. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, C X-ray absorption near-edge (XANES), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirm and quantitate this transformation from CR-like, relatively aliphatic IOM functional group chemistry to a highly aromatic one. The transformation is almost certainly thermally driven, and probably occurred under hydrothermal conditions. The lack of a paramagnetic shift in 13C NMR spectra and 1s-σ* exciton in the C-XANES spectra, both typically seen in metamorphosed chondrites, shows that the temperatures were lower and/or the timescales were shorter than experienced by even the least metamorphosed type 3 chondrites. Two endmember models were considered to quantitatively account for the changes in IOM functional group chemistry, but the one in which the transformations involved quantitative conversion of aliphatic material to aromatic material was the more successful. It seems likely that similar processes were involved in producing the diversity of IOM compositions and functional group chemistries among CR, CM, and CI chondrites. If correct, CRs experienced the lowest temperatures, while CM and CI chondrites experienced similar more elevated temperatures

  15. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by aged Beagle dogs. VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    The toxicity of relatively insoluble 144 Ce inhaled by 8- to 10.5-year-old dogs is being investigated to provide information on age-related differences in the response of dogs to lung burdens of this fission product. These data on aged dogs will be compared to the results of similar studies of dogs exposed at approximately 3 months or 12 to 14 months of age. Forty-two dogs were exposed, nose only, to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 2.2 to 75 μCi/kg body weight and 12 control dogs were exposed to nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 37 dogs have died or were euthanized 197 to 2375 days after inhalation of 144 Ce. The prominent findings were radiation pneumonitis in 19 dogs that died at early times with cumulative doses to lung of 20 000 to 74 000 rads and neoplastic disease in six of 14 dogs that died 943 days after exposure or later. Pulmonary tumors were found in four of these dogs. However, only one of these tumors killed the dog. No hemangiosarcomas have been observed in this study. This result is in contrast to the results with immature or young adult dogs exposed to 144 Ce. The difference may be a dose-related phenomenon since dogs which developed hemangiosarconomas had greater initial lung burdens of 144 Ce. Aged dogs with similar burdens died at earlier times with radiation pneumonitis. Observations are continuing on the five surviving 144 Ce-exposed and four control dogs

  16. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Hanika-Rebar, C.; Boecker, B.B.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry and effects of 144 Ce inhaled in fused aluminosilicate particles are being investigated in the Beagle dog to assess the biological consequences of release of 144 Ce in a relatively insoluble form such as might occur in certain types of nuclear accidents. The toxicity of inhaled 144 Ce is also of general interest since it is representative of intermediate-lived beta-emitting radionuclides. Two major studies with young adult dogs (12 to 14 months of age at exposure) are involved: (1) a metabolism and dosimetry study in which 24 dogs were serially sacrificed over an extended period of time, and (2) a longevity study with two series of dogs. Series I contains 15 dogs exposed to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 11 to 210 μCi/kg body weight and three control dogs exposed to nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. Series II contains 96 dogs exposed to aerosols of 144 Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles to yield initial lung burdens of 0.0024 to 66 μCi/kg body weight and 12 control dogs exposed to nonradioactive, fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 51 dogs have died or were euthanized at 143 to 3280 days after inhalation of 144 Ce. The prominent findings were radiation pneumonitis in 17 dogs that died or were euthanized at 750 days or later. The cumulative radiation dose to the lung at time of death has ranged from 550 to 140,000 rads. Serial observations are continuing on the 60 survivors and 15 controls

  17. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by immature Beagle dogs. VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Merickel, B.S.; Hahn, F.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of age at exposure on the resulting patterns of deposition, retention, dosimetry and biological effects from a single inhalation exposure to a relatively insoluble form of a beta-emitting radionuclide with a relatively long physical half-life is being investigated. Immature Beagle dogs (3 months of age) have been exposed once, by inhalation, to an aerosol of 144 Ce incorporated in fused aluminosilicate particles. Eighteen of these dogs were serially sacrificed to study the patterns of deposition, retention and dosimetry and the remaining 49 dogs received graded initial lung burdens that ranged from 0.004 to 140 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight and are being observed over their life span for study of the resulting long-term biological effects. Five control dogs are also included in this study. To date, 13 of the 144 Ce-exposed dogs in the longevity study and none of the controls have died. Dogs with the highest initial lung burdens of 144 Ce died first (during the first 4 months) with radiation pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis and congestive heart failure. Pulmonary hemangiosarcoma was the primary finding in dogs that died at 1.5 to 2 years after exposure. Deaths beyond that time have primarily involved extrapulmonary hemangiosarcomas. One dog, 627B, with an initial lung burden of 24 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight died during the past year at 2341 days after exposure with a widely disseminated hemangiosarcoma showing heavy involvement of the liver and skin. Observations are continuing on the surviving 36 144 Ce-exposed and five control dogs

  18. Toxicity of 91Y inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, C.H.; Hahn, F.F.; McClellan, R.O.; Mauderly, J.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of the radiation hazards due to inhalation of 91 Y in fused aluminosilicate particles have been undertaken in Beagle dogs to assess the biological consequences of inhaling a relatively insoluble, energetic beta emitter with an intermediate effective half-life in the lung. A radiation-dose pattern study in which 30 dogs were serially sacrificed from 0 to 320 days after inhalation exposure to 91 Y in fused aluminosilicate particles has been completed. A longevity study is in progress in which 96 dogs were exposed to achieve initial lung burdens ranging from 11 to 300 μCi 91 Y in fused aluminosilicate particles/kg body weight and 12 dogs were exposed to stable yttrium in fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 56 dogs have died in the longevity study between 113 and 2841 days after exposure. Forty of these dogs, with cumulative radiation doses to lung between 8,300 and 60,000 rads, died with clinicopathologic findings of radiation pneumonitis and/or pulmonary fibrosis at 113 to 1011 days after exposure. Fifteen dogs that died between 1115 and 2841 days after exposure with cumulative doses to lung ranging from 16,000 to 25,000 rads had pulmonary carcinomas. One dog that died at 1847 days after exposure with a cumulative dose to lung of 9,700 rads had a hemangiosarcoma of the spleen. Forty exposed dogs with doses to lung of 2,400 to 18,000 rads and 12 control dogs remain alive from 2563 to 3116 days after inhalation exposure and will continue to be studied throughout the remainder of their life span to determine the relationship between radiation dose, dose rate and biologic effects

  19. Platelet Counts in Insoluble Platelet-Rich Fibrin Clots: A Direct Method for Accurate Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Kitamura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF clots have been used in regenerative dentistry most often, with the assumption that growth factor levels are concentrated in proportion to the platelet concentration. Platelet counts in PRF are generally determined indirectly by platelet counting in other liquid fractions. This study shows a method for direct estimation of platelet counts in PRF. To validate this method by determination of the recovery rate, whole-blood samples were obtained with an anticoagulant from healthy donors, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP fractions were clotted with CaCl2 by centrifugation and digested with tissue-plasminogen activator. Platelet counts were estimated before clotting and after digestion using an automatic hemocytometer. The method was then tested on PRF clots. The quality of platelets was examined by scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometry. In PRP-derived fibrin matrices, the recovery rate of platelets and white blood cells was 91.6 and 74.6%, respectively, after 24 h of digestion. In PRF clots associated with small and large red thrombi, platelet counts were 92.6 and 67.2% of the respective total platelet counts. These findings suggest that our direct method is sufficient for estimating the number of platelets trapped in an insoluble fibrin matrix and for determining that platelets are distributed in PRF clots and red thrombi roughly in proportion to their individual volumes. Therefore, we propose this direct digestion method for more accurate estimation of platelet counts in most types of platelet-enriched fibrin matrix.

  20. Time-dependent association between platelet-bound fibrinogen and the Triton X-100 insoluble cytoskeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peerschke, E.I.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies indicated a correlation between the formation of EDTA-resistant (irreversible) platelet-fibrinogen interactions and platelet cytoskeleton formation. The present study explored the direct association of membrane-bound fibrinogen with the Triton X-100 insoluble cytoskeleton of aspirin-treated, gel-filtered platelets, activated but not aggregated with 20 mumol/L adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or 150 mU/mL human thrombin (THR) when bound fibrinogen had become resistant to dissociation by EDTA. Conversion of exogenous 125I-fibrinogen to fibrin was prevented by adding Gly-Pro-Arg and neutralizing THR with hirudin before initiating binding studies. After 60 minutes at 22 degrees C, the cytoskeleton of ADP-treated platelets contained 20% +/- 12% (mean +/- SD, n = 14) of membrane-bound 125I-fibrinogen, representing 10% to 50% of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding. The THR-activated cytoskeleton contained 45% +/- 15% of platelet bound fibrinogen, comprising 80% to 100% of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding. 125I-fibrinogen was not recovered with platelet cytoskeletons if binding was inhibited by the RGDS peptide, excess unlabeled fibrinogen, or disruption of the glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa complex by EDTA-treatment. Both development of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding and fibrinogen association with the cytoskeleton were time dependent and reached maxima 45 to 60 minutes after fibrinogen binding to stimulated platelets. Although a larger cytoskeleton formed after platelet stimulation with thrombin as compared with ADP, no change in cytoskeleton composition was noted with development of EDTA-resistant fibrinogen binding

  1. The synthesis and application involving regulation of the insoluble drug release from mesoporous silica nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jia; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Ying; Sun, Changshan; Gao, Yikun; Jiang, Tongying; Wang, Siling

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mesoporous silica nanotubes (SNT) were synthesized by using CNT as hard template, and the formation of the SNT shows that CTAB played a significant effect on the coating process. • The tube mesoporous silica materials which were seldom reported were applied in the drug delivery system to improve the loading amount and the drug dissolution. • The release rate could be controlled by the gelatin layer on the silica surface and the mechanism was illustrated. - Abstract: Mesoporous silica nanotubes (SNT) were synthesized using hard template carbon nanotubes (CNT) with the aid of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) in a method, which was simple and inexpensive. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and specific surface area analysis were employed to characterize the morphology and structure of SNT, and the formation mechanism of SNT was also examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. There are few published reports of the mesoporous SNT with large specific surface area applied in the drug delivery systems to improve the amount of drug loading. In addition, the structure of SNT allows investigators to control the drug particle size in the pore channels and significantly increase the drug dissolution rate. The insoluble drug, cilostazol, was chosen as a model drug to be loaded into SNT and we developed a simple and efficient method for regulating the drug release by using a gelatin coating with different thicknesses around the SNT. The release rate was adjusted by the amount of gelatin surrounding the SNT, with an increased barrier leading to a reduction in the release rate. A model developed on the basis of the Weibull modulus was established to fit the release results

  2. Thermoresponsive Interplay of Water Insoluble Poly(2-alkyl-2-oxazolines Composition and Supramolecular Host–Guest Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor R. de la Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of water insoluble poly[(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline-ran-(2-nonyl-2-oxazoline] amphiphilic copolymers was synthesized and their solubility properties in the presence of different supramolecular host molecules were investigated. The resulting polymer-cavitand assemblies exhibited a thermoresponsive behavior that could be modulated by variation of the copolymer composition and length. Interestingly, the large number of hydrophobic nonyl units across the polymer chain induced the formation of kinetically-trapped nanoparticles in solution. These nanoparticles further agglomerate into larger aggregates at a temperature that is dependent on the polymer composition and the cavitand type and concentration. The present research expands the understanding on the supramolecular interactions between water insoluble copolymers and supramolecular host molecules.

  3. Dietary Mutagen Exposure and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Donghui; Sue Day, Rena; Bondy, Melissa L.; Sinha, Rashmi; Nguyen, Nga T.; Evans, Douglas B.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Hassan, Manal M.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between dietary exposure to food mutagens and risk of pancreatic cancer, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center during June 2002 to May 2006. Atotal of 626 cases and 530 noncancer controls were frequency matched for race, sex and age (±5 years). Dietary exposure information was collected via personal interview using a meat preparation questionnaire. A significantly greater portion of the cases tha...

  4. Crosslinked hydrogels—a promising class of insoluble solid molecular dispersion carriers for enhancing the delivery of poorly soluble drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajun D. Sun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Water-insoluble materials containing amorphous solid dispersions (ASD are an emerging category of drug carriers which can effectively improve dissolution kinetics and kinetic solubility of poorly soluble drugs. ASDs based on water-insoluble crosslinked hydrogels have unique features in contrast to those based on conventional water-soluble and water-insoluble carriers. For example, solid molecular dispersions of poorly soluble drugs in poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PHEMA can maintain a high level of supersaturation over a prolonged period of time via a feedback-controlled diffusion mechanism thus avoiding the initial surge of supersaturation followed by a sharp decline in drug concentration typically encountered with ASDs based on water-soluble polymers. The creation of both immediate- and controlled-release ASD dosage forms is also achievable with the PHEMA based hydrogels. So far, ASD systems based on glassy PHEMA have been shown to be very effective in retarding precipitation of amorphous drugs in the solid state to achieve a robust physical stability. This review summarizes recent research efforts in investigating the potential of developing crosslinked PHEMA hydrogels as a promising alternative to conventional water-soluble ASD carriers, and a related finding that the rate of supersaturation generation does affect the kinetic solubility profiles implications to hydrogel based ASDs.

  5. Crosslinked hydrogels-a promising class of insoluble solid molecular dispersion carriers for enhancing the delivery of poorly soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dajun D; Lee, Ping I

    2014-02-01

    Water-insoluble materials containing amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) are an emerging category of drug carriers which can effectively improve dissolution kinetics and kinetic solubility of poorly soluble drugs. ASDs based on water-insoluble crosslinked hydrogels have unique features in contrast to those based on conventional water-soluble and water-insoluble carriers. For example, solid molecular dispersions of poorly soluble drugs in poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) can maintain a high level of supersaturation over a prolonged period of time via a feedback-controlled diffusion mechanism thus avoiding the initial surge of supersaturation followed by a sharp decline in drug concentration typically encountered with ASDs based on water-soluble polymers. The creation of both immediate- and controlled-release ASD dosage forms is also achievable with the PHEMA based hydrogels. So far, ASD systems based on glassy PHEMA have been shown to be very effective in retarding precipitation of amorphous drugs in the solid state to achieve a robust physical stability. This review summarizes recent research efforts in investigating the potential of developing crosslinked PHEMA hydrogels as a promising alternative to conventional water-soluble ASD carriers, and a related finding that the rate of supersaturation generation does affect the kinetic solubility profiles implications to hydrogel based ASDs.

  6. Determination of insoluble soap in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Vílchez, José L; Crovetto, Guillermo; Verge, Coral; de Ferrer, Juan A

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a new analytical procedure for determining insoluble Ca and Mg fatty acid salts (soaps) in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples. The number of analytical methodologies that focus in the determination of insoluble soap salts in different environmental compartments is very limited. In this work, we propose a methodology that involves a sample clean-up step with petroleum ether to remove soluble salts and a conversion of Ca and Mg insoluble salts into soluble potassium salts using tripotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetate salt and potassium carbonate, followed by the extraction of analytes from the samples using microwave-assisted extraction with methanol. An improved esterification procedure using 2,4-dibromoacetophenone before the liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection analysis also has been developed. The absence of matrix effect was demonstrated with two fatty acid Ca salts that are not commercial and are never detected in natural samples (C₁₃:₀ and C₁₇:₀). Therefore, it was possible to evaluate the matrix effect because both standards have similar environmental behavior (adsorption and precipitation) to commercial soaps (C₁₀:₀) to C₁₈:₀). We also studied the effect of the different variables on the clean-up, the conversion of Ca soap, and the extraction and derivatization procedures. The quantification limits found ranged from 0.4 to 0.8 mg/kg. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the development of a study on soap behavior in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples. © 2010 SETAC.

  7. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax-deductible donation. Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel ... arises requiring an expert’s care. © Copyright 1998-2018 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inc. (IFFGD). All ...

  8. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Mitochondrial Disorders Weight Loss A Acai Aloe Vera Anabolic Steroids Antioxidants (see Exercise and Athletic Performance ) ... Pills (see Weight Loss ) Dietary Supplements Vitamin D E Echinacea Ephedra Essiac/Flor-Essence European Elder Evening ...

  9. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  10. The Interaction between Dietary Fiber and Fat and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandi L. Navarro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Combined intakes of specific dietary fiber and fat subtypes protect against colon cancer in animal models. We evaluated associations between self-reported individual and combinations of fiber (insoluble, soluble, and pectins, specifically and fat (omega-6, omega-3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, specifically and colorectal cancer (CRC risk in the Women’s Health Initiative prospective cohort (n = 134,017. During a mean 11.7 years (1993–2010, 1952 incident CRC cases were identified. Cox regression models computed multivariate adjusted hazard ratios to estimate the association between dietary factors and CRC risk. Assessing fiber and fat individually, there was a modest trend for lower CRC risk with increasing intakes of total and insoluble fiber (p-trend 0.09 and 0.08. An interaction (p = 0.01 was observed between soluble fiber and DHA + EPA, with protective effects of DHA + EPA with lower intakes of soluble fiber and an attenuation at higher intakes, however this association was no longer significant after correction for multiple testing. These results suggest a modest protective effect of higher fiber intake on CRC risk, but not in combination with dietary fat subtypes. Given the robust results in preclinical models and mixed results in observational studies, controlled dietary interventions with standardized intakes are needed to better understand the interaction of specific fat and fiber subtypes on colon biology and ultimately CRC susceptibility in humans.

  11. Mechanistic Study of Utilization of Water-Insoluble Saccharomyces cerevisiae Glucans by Bifidobacterium breve Strain JCM1192.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keung, Hoi Yee; Li, Tsz Kai; Sham, Lok To; Cheung, Man Kit; Cheung, Peter Chi Keung; Kwan, Hoi Shan

    2017-04-01

    Bifidobacteria exert beneficial effects on hosts and are extensively used as probiotics. However, due to the genetic inaccessibility of these bacteria, little is known about their mechanisms of carbohydrate utilization and regulation. Bifidobacterium breve strain JCM1192 can grow on water-insoluble yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) cell wall glucans (YCWG), which were recently considered as potential prebiotics. According to the results of 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry, the YCWG were composed of highly branched (1→3,1→6)-β-glucans and (1→4,1→6)-α-glucans. Although the YCWG were composed of 78.3% β-glucans and 21.7% α-glucans, only α-glucans were consumed by the B. breve strain. The ABC transporter ( malEFG1 ) and pullulanase ( aapA ) genes were transcriptionally upregulated in the metabolism of insoluble yeast glucans, suggesting their potential involvement in the process. A nonsense mutation identified in the gene encoding an ABC transporter ATP-binding protein (MalK) led to growth failure of an ethyl methanesulfonate-generated mutant with yeast glucans. Coculture of the wild-type strain and the mutant showed that this protein was responsible for the import of yeast glucans or their breakdown products, rather than the export of α-glucan-catabolizing enzymes. Further characterization of the carbohydrate utilization of the mutant and three of its revertants indicated that this mutation was pleiotropic: the mutant could not grow with maltose, glycogen, dextrin, raffinose, cellobiose, melibiose, or turanose. We propose that insoluble yeast α-glucans are hydrolyzed by extracellular pullulanase into maltose and/or maltooligosaccharides, which are then transported into the cell by the ABC transport system composed of MalEFG1 and MalK. The mechanism elucidated here will facilitate the development of B. breve and water-insoluble yeast glucans as novel synbiotics. IMPORTANCE In general, Bifidobacterium strains are genetically intractable

  12. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by immature Beagle dogs. VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanika-Rebar, C.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1978-01-01

    Immature Beagle dogs (approx. = 3 months of age at exposure) have been exposed by inhalation to a relatively insoluble form of 144 Ce (in fused aluminosilicate particles) to compare the resulting patterns of metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects with those seen in dogs exposed at 12 and 14 months of age and at 8 to 10.5 years of age. Five blocks of longevity animals, each consisting of 10 exposed dogs and one control, are currently being studied. The initial lung burdens of the 144 Ce-exposed dogs range from 0.004 to 140 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight. Three dogs with initial lung burdens of 73 to 120 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight died at 66 to 121 days after exposure with pulmonary injury and congestive heart failure. One dog with an initial lung burden of 140 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight died at 91 days after exposure with severe radiation pneumonitis and minimal pulmonary fibrosis and another dog whose initial lung burden was 70 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight died at 511 days after exposure with pulmonary injury that was mainly fibrotic in nature. Four dogs with initial lung burdens of 52 to 79 μCi/kg body weight had primary pulmonary hemangiosarcomas and died between 618 and 738 days, with cumulative average absorbed beta doses to lung of 23,000 to 31,000 rads. Two of these dogs, 1027S and 1024D, died within the past year. One dog with an initial lung burden of 28 μCi/kg body weight was euthanized at 1227 days after exposure with an hemangiosarcoma of the mediastinum. Within the past year, Dog 627S, with an initial lung burden of 48 μCi/kg body weight, died 1732 days after exposure with hemangiosarcoma primary in the liver or spleen. A dog with an initial lung burden of 12 μCi/kg body weight died from epilepsy at 1520 days after exposure. Serial observations are continuing on the surviving 37 exposed and five control dogs

  13. Toxicity of 90Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on the biological effects of 90 Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs are being conducted to define the biological consequences of inhaling this radionuclide in a form which has a long retention time in the lung. One hundred and six dogs were exposed to a polydisperse aerosol (AMAD 1.4 to 2.8 μm and sigma/sub g/ 1.4 to 2.7) of fused aluminosilicate particles labeled with 90 Sr. Initial lung burdens ranged from 0.21 to 94 μCi 90 Sr per kilogram of body weight (μCi/kg). Eighteen control dogs were exposed to an aerosol of stable strontium in fused aluminosilicate particles. To date, 34 dogs having initial lung burdens of 8.9 to 94 μCi 90 Sr/kg and cumulative doses to lung of 33,000 to 96,000 rads have died from radiation pneumonitis and/or pulmonary fibrosis between 159 and 2596 days after exposure. Twenty-nine dogs with initial lung burdens of 3.7 to 36 μCi 90 Sr/kg and cumulative doses to lung of 13,000 to 68,000 rads have died from hemangiosarcomas in the lung, heart or mediastinum between 644 and 2565 days after exposure. In addition, one dog developed a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, another developed epidermoid carcinoma of the lung, another died of pneumonia while recovering from anesthesia, one dog died at 1821 days after exposure with an hemangiosarcoma of the spleen and two dogs developed squamous cell carcinomas in the nasal cavity. During the past year one dog was euthanized 2753 days after exposure (34,000 rads lung dose) as a result of an hemangiosarcoma which developed in a rib and spread widely. Another dog died 2830 days after exposure (35,000 rads lung dose) with a squamous cell carcinoma in the lung. An additional dog was euthanized 2636 days after exposure (12,000 rads lung dose) with widespread hemangiosarcoma of unknown origin. The remaining 36 exposed dogs and 18 controls are surviving at 1387 to 3168 days after exposure

  14. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method for interfacial flows with insoluble surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofeng

    Interfacial flows, fluid flows involving two or more fluids that do not mix, are common in many natural and industrial processes such as rain drop formation, crude oil recovery, polymer blending, fuel spray formation, and so on. Surfactants (surface active substances) play an important role in such processes because they significantly change the interfacial dynamics. In this thesis, an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method has been developed to numerically simulate interfacial flows with insoluble surfactants. The interface is captured using a coupled level set and volume of fluid method. To evolve the surfactant concentration, the method directly tracks the surfactant mass and the interfacial area. The surfactant concentration, which determines the local surface tension through an equation of state, is then computed as surfactant mass per interfacial area. By directly tracking the surfactant mass, the method conserves the surfactant mass exactly. To accurately approximate the interfacial area, the fluid interface is reconstructed using piecewise parabolas. The evolution of the level set function, volume fraction, interfacial area, and the surfactant mass is performed using an ALE approach. The fluid flow is governed by Stokes equations, which are solved using a finite element method. The surface forces are included in the momentum equation using a continuum surface stress formulation. To efficiently resolve the complex interfacial dynamics, interfacial regions of high surface curvature, and near contact regions between two interacting interfaces, the grid near the interface is adaptively refined. The method is extendible to axisymmetric and 3D spaces, and can be coupled with other flow solvers, such as Navier-Stokes and viscoelastic flow solvers, as well. The method has been applied to study the effect of surfactants on drop deformation and breakup in an extensional flow. Drop deformation results are compared with available experimental and theoretical

  15. an oxalate-peroxide complex used in the preparation of doped barium titanate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gijp, S.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Verweij, H.

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for the preparation of homogeneously doped barium titanate, which can be applied in non-linear dielectric elements. Ba and Ti salts are dissolved, mixed with hydrogen peroxide and added to a solution of ammonium oxalate, resulting in the formation of an insoluble peroxo-oxalate

  16. Unusual route for preparation of manganese(II), cobalt(II), zinc(II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Urea is physiologically very important. It is the chief nitrogenous product of protein metabolism. Urea has a melting point of 132°C, soluble in water and ethanol, but insoluble in ether. Urea is used for preparing formaldehyde–urea resin (plastics) (Feldman and Barbalata. 1996), barbiturates (Finar 1973), and fertilizers ( ...

  17. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  18. Absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients in sows as influenced by types and contents of dietary fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serena, A; Jørgensen, H; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2009-01-01

    crossover design. Variations in dietary concentration and solubility of dietary fiber were obtained by substituting starch-rich wheat and barley in the LF diet with dietary fiber-rich co-products (sugar beet pulp, potato pulp, pectin residue, brewers spent grain, pea hulls, and seed residue, which have......The current investigation was undertaken to study the absorption and plasma concentration of carbohydrate-derived nutrients [glucose, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and lactate] and the apparent insulin production in sows fed diets containing contrasting types and contents of dietary fiber. Six...... sows were fed 3 experimental diets, low fiber (LF; 177 g of dietary fiber and 44 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), high soluble fiber (HF-S; 429 g of dietary fiber and 111 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), and high insoluble fiber (HF-I; 455 g of dietary fiber and 74 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), in a repeated...

  19. New Extraterrestrial Signature of the Insoluble Organic Matter of the Orgueil, Murchison and Tagish Lake Meteorites as Revealed by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binet, L.; Gourier, D.; Derenne, S.; Robert, F.; Ciofini, I.

    2003-03-01

    EPR of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) of three chondrites revealed heterogeneously spread radicals including diradicaloids. These features not observed in terrestrial kerogens appear as an extraterrestrial signature of the chondritic IOM.

  20. Type of dietary fibre (soluble versus insoluble) influences digestion, faeces characteristics and faecal waste production in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirkolaie, A.K.; Leenhouwers, J.I.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    The physico-chemical properties of nutrients influence the physical characteristics of faeces and thus may affect waste removal efficiency. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of type of non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) on digesta viscosity, faeces recovery and nutrient digestibility in

  1. Can Insoluble Polysaccharide Concentration In Dental Plaque, Sugar Exposure And Cariogenic Microorganisms Predict Early Childhood Caries? A Follow-up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Parisotto; T. M.; Stipp; R.; Rodrigues; L. K. A.; Mattos-Graner; R. O.; Costa; L. S.; Nobre-dos-Santos; M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insoluble polysaccharide (IP) has been associated with caries prevalence in young children. However, the power of IP to predict ECC needs to be demonstrated. Aims: To assess the relationships between early childhood caries (ECC) and extracellular insoluble polysaccharides (IP) in dental plaque, sugar exposure and cariogenic microorganisms. Design: Visible plaque on maxillary incisors was recorded, followed by caries diagnosis in 65 preschoolers (3-4 years) at baseline and after 1 ...

  2. Dietary ecology of human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Masao

    1990-01-01

    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  3. Effect of different dietary concentrations of brown marine algae (Sargassum dentifebium prepared by different methods on plasma and yolk lipid profiles, yolk total carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. El-Deek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different concentrations (0%, 3% and 6% of brown marine algae (BMA, Sargassum dentifebium prepared according to different methods (sun-dried, SBMA; boiled, BBMA; autoclaved, ABMA on plasma and yolk lipid profiles, carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin in egg yolks was studied in hens aged from 23 to 42 weeks (30 hens per treatment. We determined the fatty acid profiles in BMA and in the egg yolk of hens fed different levels of BMA prepared according to different methods. In addition, plasma and yolk lipid profiles, yolk total carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin were determined at week 42 of age. Plasma and yolk cholesterol were significantly lower in groups fed diets containing either 3% or 6% BMA than in the control group, but high-density lipoprotein (HDL significantly decreased as BMA concentration increased. There was a significant similar decline in yolk triglycerides with inclusion of either 3% or 6% BMA in the laying hen diet. Palmitic acid was the main saturated fatty acid (SFA found in BMA and oleic acid (omega-9 and linoleic acid (omega-6 were the main unsaturated fatty acids (UFA, while there was a significant increase in palmitic acid in egg yolk when BMA was included at 6%. There was a significant increase in oleic acid (omega-9 when feed containing 3% BMA was given compared to the control group, but this decreased with a further increase in BMA. Linoleic acid (omega-6 also significantly decreased with inclusion of either 3% or 6% BMA. There was a significant increase in total carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin in the laying hen eggs as a result of feeding diets containing 3% and 6% BMA.

  4. Influence of drying temperature on dietary fibre, rehydration properties, texture and microstructure of Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Zura-Bravo, Liliana; Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto; Martinez-Monzó, Javier; Quispe-Fuentes, Issis; Puente, Luis; Di Scala, Karina

    2015-04-01

    The effects of air drying temperature on dietary fibre, texture and microstructure of the Cape gooseberry fruits during convective dehydration in the range of 50-90 ºC were investigated. The ratio of insoluble dietary fibre to soluble dietary fibre was higher than 7:1 for all dehydrated samples. At 50 ºC tissue structure damage was evidenced leading to the maximum water holding capacity (47.4 ± 2.8 g retained water/100 g water) and the lowest rehydration ratio (1.15 ± 0.06 g absorbed water/g d.m.). Texture analysis showed effects of drying temperatures on TPA parameters. Changes in microstructure tissue were also observed at the studied drying temperatures. Hot air drying technology leads not only to fruit preservation but also increases and adds value to Cape gooseberry, an asset to develop new functional products.

  5. Consumer accounts of favourable dietary behaviour change and comparison with official dietary guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Vidal, Leticia; Machín, Leandro; Moratorio, Ximena; Bandeira, Elisa; Curutchet, María Rosa; Bove, Isabel; Giménez, Ana

    2018-07-01

    The current study aimed to assess Uruguayan consumers' accounts of their own need to change their dietary patterns, their intended changes and the barriers related to doing so, and to compare the intentions and barriers with the recommendations of the national dietary guidelines. An online survey with 2381 Uruguayan employed adults, aged between 18 and 65 years, 65 % females, was conducted. Participants had to answer two open-ended questions related to changes they could make in the foods they eat and/or the way in which they eat to improve the quality of their diet and the reasons why they had not implemented those changes yet. Content analysis using inductive coding by two researchers was used to analyse the responses. Consumers mainly intended to change consumption of types of foods, particularly eating more fruits, vegetables and legumes and consuming less flour, but also intended to alter their eating patterns. Lack of time and the fact that healthy foods are perceived as being more expensive than unhealthy foods were major barriers to behaviour change. Some of the recommendations of the dietary guidelines, particularly those related to enjoying cooking and meals and engaging in it as a social activity, were not represented in consumer accounts. Accompanying policies to the dietary guidelines need to underline the importance of changes in dietary patterns, including greater enjoyment and sharing food preparation and meals in the company with others, address misconceptions about flour, and provide concrete, consumer-derived recommendations on how to enact the guidelines.

  6. Does Dietary Fiber Affect the Levels of Nutritional Components after Feed Formulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidu Adams

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on dietary fiber and nutrient bioavailability have gained an increasing interest in both human and animal nutrition. Questions are increasingly being asked regarding the faith of nutrient components such as proteins, minerals, vitamins, and lipids after feed formulation. The aim of this review is to evaluate the evidence with the perspective of fiber usage in feed formulation. The consumption of dietary fiber may affect the absorption of nutrients in different ways. The physicochemical factors of dietary fiber, such as fermentation, bulking ability, binding ability, viscosity and gel formation, water-holding capacity and solubility affect nutrient absorption. The dietary fiber intake influences the different methods in which nutrients are absorbed. The increase in the total fiber content of the diet may delay the glycemic response. Soluble fiber decreased blood glucose content whereas purified insoluble fiber has a little or no effect on the blood glucose levels after a meal. Dietary fiber and prebiotics influence the host animal well-being by regulating blood glucose or insulin levels, stool bulking effects, increasing the acidity of the gut, constructive synthesis of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs, decreasing intestinal transit time, stimulating the growth of intestinal microbes, and increasing blood parameters. Previous studies suggest that fiber affects the bioavailability of nutrients, and maintains the host wellness.

  7. Dietary antioxidants and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; DeRuisseau, Keith C; Quindry, John; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2004-01-01

    Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.

  8. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... single food. People consume meals and these meals vary during a day, over a year and during a life time. To comprehend some of this complexity it could be advantageous to investigate dietary patterns representing the whole diet as patterns might be better markers of growth and health than single...... childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  9. Dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, B; Stengel, C; Neiger, R

    2012-03-01

    Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated plasma thyroxine concentration and a dietary history of feeding raw food were included. Thyroxine (reference interval: 19·3 to 51·5 nmol/L) and in many cases also thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (reference interval: weight loss, aggressiveness, tachycardia, panting and restlessness while six dogs had no clinical signs. After changing the diet eight dogs were examined: thyroxine concentration normalised in all dogs and clinical signs resolved. Dietary hyperthyroidism can be seen in dogs on a raw meat diet or fed fresh or dried gullets. Increased plasma thyroxine concentration in a dog, either with or without signs of hyperthyroidism, should prompt the veterinarian to obtain a thorough dietary history. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  10. Search for EPR markers of the history and origin of the insoluble organic matter in extraterrestrial and terrestrial rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourier, Didier; Binet, Laurent; Scrzypczak, Audrey; Derenne, Sylvie; Robert, François

    2004-05-01

    The insoluble organic matter (IOM) of three carbonaceous meteorites (Orgueil, Murchison and Tagish Lake meteorites) and three samples of cherts (microcrystalline SiO 2 rock) containing microfossils with age ranging between 45 million years and 3.5 billion years is studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The age of the meteorites is that of the solar system (4.6 billion years). The purpose of this work was to determine the EPR parameters, which allow us to discriminate between biogenic and extra terrestrial origin for the organic matter. Such indicators should be relevant for the controversy regarding the biogenicity of the organic matter in the oldest cheroot (3.5 billion years) and in Martian meteorites containing microbe-like microstructures. The organic matter of meteorites contains a high concentration of diradicaloid moieties characterised by a diamagnetic ground state S=0 and a thermally accessible triplet state S=1. The three meteorites exhibit the same singlet-triplet gap (ST gap) Δ E≈0.1 eV. To the best of our knowledge, such diradicaloids are unknown in insoluble organic matter of terrestrial origin. We have also shown that the EPR linewidth of insoluble organic matter in cherts and coals decrease logarithmically with the age of the organic matter. We conclude from this result that the organic matter in the oldest cherts (3.5 billion years) has the same age as their SiO 2 matrix, and is not due to a latter contamination by bacteria, as was recently found in meteoritic samples.

  11. Deposition of insoluble elastin by pulmonary fibroblasts from patients with COPD is increased by treatment with versican siRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu L

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lian Wu,1,2 Jing Zhang,3 Jie Ming Qu,4 Chun-xue Bai,3 Mervyn J Merrilees5 1Department of Community and Health Services, Unitec, 2Department of Pharmacology & Clinical Pharmacology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 4Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of Anatomy and Medical Imaging, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract: A reduced content of alveolar elastic fibers is a key feature of COPD lung. Despite continued elastogenic potential by alveolar fibroblasts in the lung affected by COPD, repair of elastic fibers does not take place, which is due to increased levels of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan versican that inhibits the assembly of tropoelastin into fibers. In this study, primary pulmonary fibroblast cell lines from COPD and non-COPD patients were treated with a small interfering RNA (siRNA against versican to determine if knockdown of versican could restore the deposition of insoluble elastin. Versican siRNA treatment reduced versican expression and secretion by pulmonary fibroblasts from both COPD and non-COPD patients (P<0.01 and significantly increased deposition of insoluble elastin in the COPD cell cultures (P<0.05. The treatment, however, did not significantly affect production of soluble elastin (tropoelastin in either the COPD or non-COPD cell cultures, supporting a role for versican in inhibiting assembly but not synthesis of tropoelastin. These results suggest that removal or knockdown of versican may be a possible therapeutic strategy for increasing deposition of insoluble elastin and stimulating repair of elastic fibers in COPD lung. Keywords: pulmonary fibroblasts, COPD, elastin, versican

  12. Dietary fibre fractions in cereal foods measured by a new integrated AOAC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, Juergen; Themeier, Heinz; Neese, Ursula; Lindhauer, Meinolf G

    2013-10-01

    The reliable determination of soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre in baked goods and cereal flours is an important issue for research, nutritional labelling and marketing. We compared total dietary fibre (TDF) contents of selected cereal based foods determined by AOAC Method 991.43 and the new AOAC Method 2009.01. Fifteen bread and bakery products were included in the study. Our results showed that TDF values of cereal products determined by AOAC Method 2009.01 were always significantly higher than those determined by AOAC Method 991.43. This was explained by the inclusion of low molecular weight soluble fibre fractions and resistant starch fractions in the TDF measurement by AOAC 2009.01. This documents that nutritional labelling of cereal products poses the challenge how to update TDF data in nutrient databases in a reasonable time with an acceptable expenditure. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A Prospective Study of Different Types of Dietary Fiber and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Mirmiran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that dietary of intake different types of fiber could modify the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD in a large prospective cohort among Iranian adults. Methods: In 2006–2008, we used a validated food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake among 2295 health professionals with no previous history of heart disease. Subjects were subsequently followed until 2012 for incidence of CVD events. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate the risk of CVD across tertiles of total dietary fiber and different types of fiber. Linear regression models were also used to indicate the association of dietary fiber intakes with changes of cardiovascular risk factors during the follow-up. Results: Mean age of participants (42.8% men was 38.2 ± 13.4, at baseline. Mean (SD dietary intake of total fiber was 23.4 (8.9 g/day. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk score and dietary confounders, a significant inverse association was observed between intakes of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber and CVD risk, in the highest compared to the lowest tertiles (HR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.18–0.83, HR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.09–0.41, and HR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.14–0.69, respectively. Inverse relations were observed between risk of CVD and dietary fiber from legumes, fruits and vegetables; however, dietary fiber intake from grain and nut sources was not related to risk of CVD. Conclusion: Our findings confirmed that higher intakes of dietary fiber from different sources is associated with CVD events and modify its major risk-related factors.

  14. Dietary Reference Values for choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  15. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyem, Reema F.; Bawadi, Hiba A.; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M.; AbuMweis, Suhad S.; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Heath, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background & aimsDietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. MethodsDietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, g...

  16. Physicochemical characteristics of Bambara groundnut dietary fibres extracted using wet milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Maphosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to extract soluble and insoluble dietary fibres from four Bambara groundnut (BGN varieties (black-eye, brown-eye, brown and red using the wet milling method and evaluate their physicochemical properties. The swelling capacities of brown-eye (6.5 g/mL and black-eye (6.2 g/mL fibres were higher (p≤0.05 than those of red (6.0 g/mL and brown (5.5 g/mL fibres while the water holding capacities of black-eye and brown-eye fibres (2.84 g and 2.83 g water/g sample were higher (p≤0.05 than those of brown and red fibres. The bulk densities of insoluble dietary fibres (IDFs and soluble dietary fibres (SDFs ranged between 0.57 g/mL (red to 0.67 g/mL (brown-eye and 0.46 g/mL (brown-eye to 0.57 g/mL (black-eye, respectively. The oil binding capacities (OBCs of SDFs ranged between 2.78 g oil/g sample (brown and 4.03 g oil/g sample (brown-eye while the OBC of all IDFs did not differ (p>0.05, ranging between 1.52 g oil/g sample (brown and 1.40 g oil/g sample (brown-eye and black-eye. Black-eye and brown-eye dietary fibres had higher phenolic and total sugar content. The findings of this study indicate the potential of BGN fibres in food systems as fat replacers, emulsion stabilisers, water binders, bulking agents, thickeners and nutritional additives.

  17. Short communication: Evaluation of acid-insoluble ash and indigestible neutral detergent fiber as total-tract digestibility markers in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate acid-insoluble ash (AIA) and indigestible NDF (iNDF) as intrinsic digestibility markers in comparison with total fecal collection (TC) in dairy cows fed corn silage- and alfalfa haylage-based diets. The experiment was part of a larger experiment, which involved 8 Holstein cows [102±28.4 d in milk, 26.4±0.27 kg/d of dry matter (DM) intake, and 43±5.3 kg/d milk yield]. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with the following treatments: metabolizable protein (MP)-adequate diet [15.6% crude protein (CP); high-CP], MP-deficient diet (14.0% CP; low-CP), and 2 other low-CP diets supplemented (top-dressed) with ruminally protected Lys or Lys and Met. Data for the 3 low-CP diets were combined for this analysis. Total feces were collected for 5 consecutive days during each period to estimate total-tract apparent digestibility. Digestibility was also estimated using AIA (digestion with 2 N HCl) and iNDF (12-d ruminal incubation in 25-μm-pore-size bags). Significant diet × digestibility method interactions were observed for fecal output of nutrients and digestibility. Fecal output of nutrients estimated using AIA or iNDF was lower compared with TC and fecal output of DM, organic matter, and CP tended to be higher for iNDF compared with AIA for the high-CP diet. For the low-CP diet, however, fecal output of all nutrients was lower for AIA compared with TC and was higher for iNDF compared with TC. Data from this experiment showed that, compared with TC, AIA underestimated fecal output and overestimated digestibility, particularly evident with the fiber fractions and the protein-deficient diet. Compared with TC, fecal output was overestimated and digestibility of the low-CP diet was underestimated when iNDF was used as a marker, although the magnitude of the difference was smaller compared with that for AIA. In the conditions of the current study, iNDF appeared to be a more reliable digestibility marker

  18. Cross-Cultural Dietary Patterns: A College Course on Ethnically Diverse Eating Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Mary K.; Stuhldreher, Wendy L.

    1998-01-01

    A course on cross-cultural dietary patterns provides family and consumer sciences students with information about influences on ethnic diets while introducing food preparation and computer nutrient evaluation techniques. (SK)

  19. exposure of growing and adult captive cheetahs (Acinony Jubatus) to dietary isoflavones: twenty years later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, K.M.; Rutherfurd, S.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary isoflavones are associated with oestrogenic and anti-oestrogenic effects, and have been linked to infertility in cheetahs. This study aimed to determine the isoflavone content of commercially prepared diets consumed by captive cheetahs. Sixteen international zoological facilities provided

  20. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At

  1. Decomposition of insoluble and hard-to-degrade animal proteins by enzyme E77 and its potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Mitsuiki, Shinji; Takasugi, Mikako; Sakai, Masashi; Goto, Masatoshi; Kanouchi, Hiroaki; Oka, Tatsuzo

    2012-04-01

    Insoluble and hard-to-degrade animal proteins are group of troublesome proteins, such as collagen, elastin, keratin, and prion proteins that are largely generated by the meat industry and ultimately converted to industrial wastes. We analyzed the ability of the abnormal prion protein-degrading enzyme E77 to degrade insoluble and hard-to-degrade animal proteins including keratin, collagen, and elastin. The results indicate that E77 has a much higher keratinolytic activity than proteinase K and subtilisin. Maximal E77 keratinolytic activity was observed at pH 12.0 and 65 °C. E77 was also adsorbed by keratin in a pH-independent manner. E77 showed lower collagenolytic and elastinolytic specificities than proteinase K and subtilisin. Moreover, E77 treatment did not damage collagens in ovine small intestines but did almost completely remove the muscles. We consider that E77 has the potential ability for application in the processing of animal feedstuffs and sausages.

  2. Improved sample treatment for the determination of insoluble soap in sewage sludge samples by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A; Vílchez, J L; Crovetto, G; Verge, C; de Ferrer, J A

    2010-09-15

    A new selective and sensitive method for the determination of insoluble fatty acid salts (soap) in sewage sludge samples is proposed. The method involves a clean up of sample with petroleum ether, the conversion of calcium and magnesium insoluble salts into soluble potassium salts, potassium salts extraction with methanol, and a derivatization procedure previous to the liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) analysis. Three different extraction techniques (Soxhlet, microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasounds) were compared and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was selected as appropriate for our purpose. This allowed to reduce the extraction time and solvent waste (50 mL of methanol in contrast with 250 mL for Soxhlet procedure). The absence of matrix effect was demonstrated with two standards (C(13:0) and C(17:0)) that are not commercials and neither of them has been detected in sewage sludge samples. Therefore, it was possible to evaluate the matrix effect since both standards have similar environmental behaviour (adsorption and precipitation) to commercial soaps (C(10:0)-C(18:0)). The method was successfully applied to samples from different sources and consequently, with different composition. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Deposition of insoluble elastin by pulmonary fibroblasts from patients with COPD is increased by treatment with versican siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lian; Zhang, Jing; Qu, Jie Ming; Bai, Chun-Xue; Merrilees, Mervyn J

    2017-01-01

    A reduced content of alveolar elastic fibers is a key feature of COPD lung. Despite continued elastogenic potential by alveolar fibroblasts in the lung affected by COPD, repair of elastic fibers does not take place, which is due to increased levels of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan versican that inhibits the assembly of tropoelastin into fibers. In this study, primary pulmonary fibroblast cell lines from COPD and non-COPD patients were treated with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) against versican to determine if knockdown of versican could restore the deposition of insoluble elastin. Versican siRNA treatment reduced versican expression and secretion by pulmonary fibroblasts from both COPD and non-COPD patients ( P elastin in the COPD cell cultures ( P elastin (tropoelastin) in either the COPD or non-COPD cell cultures, supporting a role for versican in inhibiting assembly but not synthesis of tropoelastin. These results suggest that removal or knockdown of versican may be a possible therapeutic strategy for increasing deposition of insoluble elastin and stimulating repair of elastic fibers in COPD lung.

  4. The well-coordinated linkage between acidogenicity and aciduricity via insoluble glucans on the surface of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lihong; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Lux, Renate; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is considered the principal cariogenic bacterium for dental caries. Despite the recognition of their importance for cariogenesis, the possible coordination among S. mutans’ main virulence factors, including glucan production, acidogenicity and aciduricity, has been less well studied. In the present study, using S. mutans strains with surface-displayed pH-sensitive pHluorin, we revealed sucrose availability- and Gtf functionality-dependent proton accumulation on S. mutans surface. Consistent with this, using a pH-sensitive dye, we demonstrated that both in vivo cell-produced and in vitro enzymatically synthesized insoluble glucans displayed proton-concentrating ability. Global transcriptomics revealed proton accumulation triggers the up-regulation of genes encoding functions involved in acid tolerance response in a glucan-dependent manner. Our data suggested that this proton enrichment around S. mutans could pre-condition the bacterium for acid-stress. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found S. mutans strains defective in glucan production were more acid sensitive. Our study revealed for the first time that insoluble glucans is likely an essential factor linking acidogenicity with aciduricity. The coordination of these key virulence factors could provide new insights on how S. mutans may have become a major cariogenic pathogen. PMID:26657939

  5. Hydrodeoxygenation of water-insoluble bio-oil to alkanes using a highly dispersed Pd-Mo catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haohong; Dong, Juncai; Gu, Xianrui; Peng, Yung-Kang; Chen, Wenxing; Issariyakul, Titipong; Myers, William K; Li, Meng-Jung; Yi, Ni; Kilpatrick, Alexander F R; Wang, Yu; Zheng, Xusheng; Ji, Shufang; Wang, Qian; Feng, Junting; Chen, Dongliang; Li, Yadong; Buffet, Jean-Charles; Liu, Haichao; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman; O'Hare, Dermot

    2017-09-19

    Bio-oil, produced by the destructive distillation of cheap and renewable lignocellulosic biomass, contains high energy density oligomers in the water-insoluble fraction that can be utilized for diesel and valuable fine chemicals productions. Here, we show an efficient hydrodeoxygenation catalyst that combines highly dispersed palladium and ultrafine molybdenum phosphate nanoparticles on silica. Using phenol as a model substrate this catalyst is 100% effective and 97.5% selective for hydrodeoxygenation to cyclohexane under mild conditions in a batch reaction; this catalyst also demonstrates regeneration ability in long-term continuous flow tests. Detailed investigations into the nature of the catalyst show that it combines hydrogenation activity of Pd and high density of both Brønsted and Lewis acid sites; we believe these are key features for efficient catalytic hydrodeoxygenation behavior. Using a wood and bark-derived feedstock, this catalyst performs hydrodeoxygenation of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose-derived oligomers into liquid alkanes with high efficiency and yield.Bio-oil is a potential major source of renewable fuels and chemicals. Here, the authors report a palladium-molybdenum mixed catalyst for the selective hydrodeoxygenation of water-insoluble bio-oil to mixtures of alkanes with high carbon yield.

  6. Solvent optimization extraction of antioxidants from foxtail millet species' insoluble fibers and their free radical scavenging properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangoura, Mohamed Lamine; Nsor-Atindana, John; Ming, Zhou Hui

    2013-11-15

    In this study, water and 80% of four organic solvents were employed to optimize the extraction of antioxidants from two species of foxtail millet's insoluble fibers under the same temperature, time, and solid/solvent ratio. The results showed that the acetone was able to extract the maximum amount of antioxidants (2.32 mg/g fiber for white specie and 3.86 mg/g fiber for yellow specie) followed by methanol and propanol from both samples. The neutral and the ethanol on the other hand extracted small amount of the antioxidants from the two fiber materials. While considerable level of Total Polyphenols Content (TPC) was recorded in both the water and the organic solvents' extracts, only traces of Total Flavonoid content (TFC) were observed in water, methanol and ethanol extracts. Propanol and acetone extracts was negative to the TFC test. The potency of both white and yellow foxtail millets' insoluble fibers antioxidant extracts was investigated using five different in vitro tests. It was realized that there was a variation in their capacities to quench DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals for the time running of 0-60 min. The samples from the yellow cereal exhibited high inhibition capacity against ABTS(+). No correlation was observed between TPC and radical scavenging capacities for DPPH and ABTS(+). In general, the yellow species contained more antioxidants in comparison with the white one and this accounted for its high antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  8. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persephone Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  9. High insoluble fibre content increases in vitro starch digestibility in partially baked breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, Felicidad; Rivero, Pablo; Caballero, Pedro A; Quilez, Joan

    2012-12-01

    Wheat breads prepared from frozen partially baked breads were characterized by their content of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) by the in vitro starch digestibility method developed by Englyst. Breads with different contents and types of fibre and breads prepared with different fermentation processes were studied. Bread with inulin and with a double fermentation had the lowest RDS content of 58.8 ± 1.7 and 60.0 ± 1.9 (% dry matter), respectively. Wheat bran bread, seeded bread, triple fermentation white bread and baguette-type bread showed values of RDS between 63.1 ± 1.7 and 65.7 ± 1.7 with no significant differences between them (p breads than in breads with added fibre. The highest values of the starch digestive rate index (SDRI) were obtained by the three types of breads with added fibre, which ranged from 91.8 ± 3.5 to 95.8 ± 3.5 versus 80.2 ± 3.5 to 87.5 ± 3.5 for white wheat breads. A significant (p bread crumbs corroborated this statement.

  10. Comparison of acid-detergent lignin, alkaline-peroxide lignin, and acid-detergent insoluble ash as internal markers for predicting fecal output and digestibility by cattle offered bermudagrass hays of varying nutrient composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanani, Juvenal; Philipp, Dirk; Coffey, Kenneth P; Kegley, Elizabeth B; West, Charles P; Gadberry, Shane; Jennings, John; Young, Ashley N; Rhein, Robert T

    2014-01-13

    The potential for acid-detergent insoluble ash (ADIA), alkaline-peroxide lignin (APL), and acid-detergent lignin (ADL) to predict fecal output (FO) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) by cattle offered bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hays of different qualities was evaluated. Eight ruminally cannulated cows (594 ± 35.5 kg) were allocated randomly to 4 hay diets: low (L), medium low (ML), medium high (MH), and high (H) crude protein (CP) concentration (79, 111, 131, and 164 g CP/kg on a DM basis, respectively). Diets were offered in 3 periods with 2 diet replicates per period and were rotated across cows between periods. Cows were individually fed 20 g DM/kg of body weight in equal feedings at 08:00 and 16:00 h for a 10-d adaptation followed by a 5-d total fecal collection. Actual DM intake (DMI), DMD, and FO were determined based on hay offered, ort, and feces excreted. These components were then analyzed for ADL, APL, and ADIA concentration to determine marker recovery and marker-based estimates of FO and DMD. Forage DMI was affected by diet (P = 0.02), and DMI from MH and H was greater (P forages. Results from such studies may be used to develop improved equations to predict energy values of forages based on the relationship of dietary components to digestibility across a wide range of forages.

  11. Atmospheric deposition of beryllium in Central Europe: comparison of soluble and insoluble fractions in rime and snow across a pollution gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohdalkova, Leona; Novak, Martin; Voldrichova, Petra; Prechova, Eva; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Erbanova, Lucie; Krachler, Michael; Komarek, Arnost; Mikova, Jitka

    2012-11-15

    Little is known about atmospheric input of beryllium (Be) into ecosystems, despite its highly toxic behavior. For three consecutive winters (2009-2011), we measured Be concentrations in horizontal deposition (rime) and vertical deposition (snow) at 10 remote mountain-top locations in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. Beryllium was determined both in filtered waters, and in HF digests of insoluble particles. Across the sites, soluble Be concentrations in rime were 7 times higher, compared to snow (6.1 vs. 0.9ng·L(-1)). Rime scavenged the pollution-rich lower segments of clouds. The lowest Be concentrations were detected in the soluble fraction of snow. Across the sites, 34% of total Be deposition occurred in the form of soluble (bioavailable) Be, the rest were insoluble particles. Beryllium fluxes decreased in the order: vertical dry deposition insoluble>vertical dry deposition soluble>horizontal deposition soluble>vertical wet deposition insoluble>vertical wet deposition soluble>horizontal deposition insoluble. The average contributions of these Be forms to total deposition were 56, 21, 8, 7, 5 and 3%, respectively. Sites in the northeast were more Be-polluted than the rest of the country with sources of pollution in industrial Silesia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimation of the Body Content Following Inhalation of Insoluble Plutonium; Evaluation de la Charge Corporelle de Plutonium, a la Suite de l'Inhalation de Plutonium Insoluble; 041e 041f 0420 0415 0414 ; Carga Corporal Consecutiva a la Inhalacion de Plutonio Insoluble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolphin, G. W. [Authority Health and Safety Branch, Radiological Protection Division, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Harwell, Berks. (United Kingdom)

    1964-11-15

    The problem of estimating the body content of plutonium following the inhalation of plutonium oxide is of considerable practical importance and, on the grounds of the known insolubility of plutonium oxide, measurements of plutonium in urine might be considered valueless. This paper reviews the relevant published biological data from beagle dog experiments and also reviews data from two human cases. From this review it is concluded that there is evidence for believing that the body content, following an accidental inhalation, can be estimated from the measurements of plutonium excreted in urine at times greater than about 300 d after the intake. Some possible excretion methods are discussed. Finally, there is a comment on the radiological protection aspects of insoluble plutonium in the lungs and bronchial lymph nodes and it is stressed that the particular nature of the plutonium must be taken into consideration. (author) [French] Le probleme de l'evaluation de la charge corporelle de plutonium a la suite de l'inhalation d'oxyde de plutonium presente une grande importance sur l'e plan pratique et, en raison de l'insolubilite bien connue de l'oxyde de plutonium on peut etre tente de considerer comme sans valeur les dosages du plutonium contenu dans l'urine. L'auteur passe en revue les donnees biologiques pertinentes deja publiees a la suite d'experiences faites sur les chiens bigles, ainsi que des donnees relatives a deux cas d'inhalation par des hommes. D'apres cette etude, il y a lieu de croire qu'on peut evaluer la charge corporelle de plutonium, a la suite d'une inhalation accidentelle, en faisant des dosages du plutonium contenu dans l'urine plus de 300 jours apres l'absorption. Il discute plusieurs methodes possibles. Il examine, enfin, sous l'angle de la protection radiologique, la presence du plutonium insoluble dans les poumons et les ganglions lymphatiques des bronches et il insiste sur le fait qu'il faut tenir compte de la nature particuliere du plutonium

  13. Dietary Proteins and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  14. [Dietary counseling in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nathalie; Haslebacher, Yvonne; Teuscher-Sick, Patricia; Fischer, Beatrice

    2013-02-01

    Information on weight management and a healthy eating is accessible to anyone. However, recommendations are inconsistent. This often leads to confusion rather than to real changes in eating behavior. The principle of a long-term weight reduction is based on the idea of achieving negative energy balance with a healthy, balanced and slightly hypocaloric diet. The regimen is neither supposed to be rigid nor should it ban any food products or food products. Changes in eating patterns come about step by step and the counseling approach should be based on the patient's habits and capabilities. The basic requirement to successfully treat obese patients is their own motivation Therefore, the timing of launching the therapy needs to be well chosen. Apart from goals directly concerning weight loss, goals related to well-being, general health and exercise should be set and pursued. However, the main focus should be on changes of dietary behavior. Dietary counseling is preferably embedded in a multidisciplinary treatment concept.

  15. Immobilization of fission iodine by reaction with insoluble natural organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, S.M.; Schmett, G.T.; Kimble, G.; Emerson, D.W.; Turner, M.F.; Rudin, M.

    2008-01-01

    Iodine-129 is a fission product and highly mobile in the environment. Along with other stable isotopes of iodine, 129 I is released during reprocessing of nuclear fuel and must be trapped to prevent the release of radioactivity to the environment. Past studies have provided evidence that iodine can become associated with natural organic matter (NOM). This research explores the use of NOM (sphagnum peat and humic acid) to sequester iodine from the vapor and aqueous phases. NOM-associated iodine may be stable for geological storage. NOM-sequestered iodine can be recovered by pyrolysis to prepare target materials for transmutation. The nature of the NOM-iodine association has been explored. (author)

  16. Effecting dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2004-11-01

    A world epidemic of diet-related chronic disease is currently being faced. In the UK incidence of obesity alone has tripled in the last 20 years and this trend is predicted to continue. Consensus exists for the urgent need for a change in diet and other lifestyle factors and for the direction and targets for this change. The evidence for how this change can be achieved is less certain. It has been established that disease processes begin in childhood. Recent evidence indicates that dietary habits too are established in childhood but that these habits are amenable to change. While establishing a healthy lifestyle in childhood is paramount, interventions have the potential to promote positive change throughout the life course. Success in reversing current trends in diet-related disease will depend on commitment from legislators, health professionals, industry and individuals, and this collaboration must seek to address not only the food choices of the individual but also the environment that influences such choices. Recent public health policy development in England, if fully supported and implemented, is a positive move towards this goal. Evidence for effective strategies to promote dietary change at the individual level is emerging and three reviews of this evidence are discussed. In addition, three recent dietary intervention studies, in three different settings and with different methods and aims, are presented to illustrate methods of effecting dietary change. Further work is required on what factors influence the eating behaviour and physical activity of individuals. There is a need for further theory-based research on which to develop more effective strategies to enable individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles.

  17. Dietary treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.

  18. Natural Dietary Phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Most clinical phytosterol studies are performed by adding purified supplements to smaller phytosterol amounts present in the natural diet. However, natural dietary phytosterols themselves may also have important effects on cholesterol metabolism. Epidemiological work using food frequency questionnaires to estimate dietary intake suggest that extremes of normal consumption may be associated with 3-14% changes in LDL cholesterol. Standardized food databases do not have enough phytosterol values to allow calculation of phytosterol intake for individuals outside of specialized studies. Natural diets contain phytosterol amounts ranging from less than 60 mg/2000 kcal to over 500 mg/2000 kcal. Physiological studies in which whole body cholesterol metabolism is investigated show large effects of natural dietary phytosterols on cholesterol absorption efficiency, cholesterol biosynthesis and cholesterol excretion which exceed the magnitude of changes in LDL cholesterol. The dual effects of natural phytosterols on both LDL-C and whole body cholesterol metabolism need to be considered in relating them to potential protection from coronary heart disease risk.

  19. Dietary methanol and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of soluble dietary fibre content of Okara treated with high hydrostatic pressure and enzymes: a comparative evaluation of two methods (AOAC and HPLC-ELSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, E; Mateos-Aparicio, I; Rupérez, P

    2017-04-01

    Okara is a promising by-product from soybean and a rich source of dietary fibre, chiefly insoluble (IDF). To increase its solubility and functionality, a treatment with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) assisted by food grade enzymes - Ultraflo ® L or Viscozyme ® L- has been performed. To monitor the effectiveness, an analysis of dietary fibre, mainly the soluble fraction (SDF), was accomplished by the AOAC enzymatic-gravimetric method with dialysis followed by both, spectrophotometric methods and High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (HPLC-ELSD) analysis of the soluble fraction. A significant increase in SDF (≈1.5-times) to the expense of a decrease in IDF was shown and chromatograms revealed two peaks of 95 and 22 kDa. Thus, treated Okara possessed a more balanced and convenient ratio of soluble to insoluble dietary fibre, which could have health benefits as prebiotic. Inbuilt interferences of the official AOAC's method for dietary fibre were confirmed and the direct HPLC-ELSD approach was about twice more sensitive than spectrophotometric methods. Consequently, the direct HPLC-ELSD analysis of the supernatant is proposed as a cheaper, faster and reliable method. Combined HHP-treatments plus specific enzymes represent a promising alternative for the valorisation and preservation of agrofood by-products.

  1. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  2. [Effect of dietary fiber in the quantitative expression of butyrate receptor GPR43 in rats colon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte Osorio, L Y; Martínez Flores, H E; Ortiz Alvarado, R

    2011-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, propionate and butyrate are the major anions produced by the bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber (DF) in colon. Recently, butyrate has been recently studied because is important to maintain colonic functions and because it has been related with a protective effect in colorectal cancer, which is mainly, explained by its potential to regulate gene expression by inhibiting enzyme histonedeacetylase (HDAC). Several investigationsshown that SCFAreceptor GPR43 is involved insignal transduction mechanisms once they bind to ligands such as butyrate to generate different physiological effects in colonocytes. Determine if dietary fiber consumption from nopal (Opuntia ficus I.) containing a ratio of soluble-insoluble fiber 40/60, has a direct influence on the quantitative expression of butyrate-specific receptor GPR43. Wistar rats were fed with four different diets formulated at different concentrations of dietary fiber of 0, 5, 15 and 25% of dietary fiber from opuntia, respectively. The results shown an increase in the expression of GPR43 (93.1%) when rats was fed with a 5% fiber diet, using β-actin as a reference gene. The results of this investigation will contribute to determinate the relation of diet with intestinal health for the purpose of expanding the knowledge of butyric acid on colonic functions.

  3. One-pot synthesis of amino acid precursors with insoluble organic matter in planetesimals with aqueous activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Chan, Queenie H. S.; Tachibana, Shogo; Kobayashi, Kensei; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    The exogenous delivery of organic molecules could have played an important role in the emergence of life on the early Earth. Carbonaceous chondrites are known to contain indigenous amino acids as well as various organic compounds and complex macromolecular materials, such as the so-called insoluble organic matter (IOM), but the origins of the organic matter are still subject to debate. We report that the water-soluble amino acid precursors are synthesized from formaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, and ammonia with the presence of liquid water, simultaneously with macromolecular organic solids similar to the chondritic IOM. Amino acid products from hydrothermal experiments after acid hydrolysis include α-, β-, and γ-amino acids up to five carbons, for which relative abundances are similar to those extracted from carbonaceous chondrites. One-pot aqueous processing from simple ubiquitous molecules can thus produce a wide variety of meteoritic organic matter from amino acid precursors to macromolecular IOM in chondrite parent bodies. PMID:28345041

  4. Diradicaloids in the insoluble organic matter from the Tagish Lake meteorite: Comparison with the Orgueil and Murchison meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binet, L.; Gourier, D.; Derenne, S.; Pizzarello, S.; Becker, L.

    2004-10-01

    The radicals in the insoluble organic matter (IOM) from the Tagish Lake meteorites were studied by electron paramagnetic resonance and compared to those existing in the Orgueil and Murchison meteorites. As in the Orgueil and Murchison meteorites, the radicals in the Tagish Lake meteorite are heterogeneously distributed and comprise a substantial amount (~42%) of species with a thermally acessible triplet state and with the same singlet-triplet gap, ?E ??0.1 eV, as in the Orgueil and Murchison meteorites. These species were identified as diradicaloid moieties. The existence of similar diradicaloid moieties in three different carbonaceous chondrites but not in terrestrial IOM strongly suggests that these moieties could be "fingerprints" of the extraterrestrial origin of meteoritic IOM and markers of its synthetic pathway before its inclusion into a parent body.

  5. A successful strategy for the recovering of active P21, an insoluble recombinant protein of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marlus Alves Dos; Teixeira, Francesco Brugnera; Moreira, Heline Hellen Teixeira; Rodrigues, Adele Aud; Machado, Fabrício Castro; Clemente, Tatiana Mordente; Brigido, Paula Cristina; Silva, Rebecca Tavares E.; Purcino, Cecílio; Gomes, Rafael Gonçalves Barbosa; Bahia, Diana; Mortara, Renato Arruda; Munte, Claudia Elisabeth; Horjales, Eduardo; da Silva, Claudio Vieira

    2014-03-01

    Structural studies of proteins normally require large quantities of pure material that can only be obtained through heterologous expression systems and recombinant technique. In these procedures, large amounts of expressed protein are often found in the insoluble fraction, making protein purification from the soluble fraction inefficient, laborious, and costly. Usually, protein refolding is avoided due to a lack of experimental assays that can validate correct folding and that can compare the conformational population to that of the soluble fraction. Herein, we propose a validation method using simple and rapid 1D 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra that can efficiently compare protein samples, including individual information of the environment of each proton in the structure.

  6. Phase field study of interfacial diffusion-driven spheroidization in a composite comprized of two mutually insoluble phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Liang [Ames Laboratory; Russell, Alan [Ames Laboratory

    2014-03-27

    The phase field approach is a powerful computational technique to simulate morphological and microstructural evolution at the mesoscale. Spheroidization is a frequently observed morphological change of mesoscale heterogeneous structures during annealing. In this study, we used the diffuse interface phase field method to investigate the interfacial diffusion-driven spheroidization of cylindrical rod structures in a composite comprised of two mutually insoluble phases in a two-dimensional case. Perturbation of rod radius along a cylinder's axis has long been known to cause the necessary chemical potential gradient that drives spheroidization of the rod by Lord Rayleigh's instability theory. This theory indicates that a radius perturbation wavelength larger than the initial rod circumference would lead to cylindrical spheroidization. We investigated the effect of perturbation wavelength, interfacial energy, volume diffusion, phase composition, and interfacial percentage on the kinetics of spheroidization. The results match well with both the Rayleigh's instability criterion and experimental observations.

  7. X-ray fluorescence application in the determination of insoluble components in precipitation water at subtropical continental region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solci, Maria Cristina; Pelicho, Alescio Fachim; Aragao, Pedro Henrique Arruda; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do

    2002-01-01

    Wet and bulk rainwater samples were collected during the year 2001 at Londrina, Brazil. Two phases were analysed, the soluble fraction was obtained with a 0,8 μm filtration and the insoluble particulate material was collected on the cellulose membrane filter. pH and major ions (NO 3 - and SO 4 = ) were determined by ion chromatography. Elemental composition of the filtration residues was conveniently determined by EDXRF technique. The correlation coefficients between some metals in wet and bulk deposition sample were calculated in order to reveal common sources. The metals Fe, Ti and Mn were well correlated indicating their crustal origin. Pb, Zn and Br had high correlations indicating anthropogenic local emissions. (author)

  8. Novel cross-linked alcohol-insoluble solid (CL-AIS) affinity gel from pea pod for pectinesterase purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Chang; Lin, Guan-Hui; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Chang, Hung-Min

    2005-10-05

    Alcohol-insoluble solids (AIS) from pea pod were cross-linked (CL-AIS) and used as an affinity gel matrix to isolate pectin esterases (PEs) from tendril shoots of chayote (TSC) and jelly fig achenes (JFA), and the results were compared with those isolated by ion-exchange chromatography with a commercial resin. CL-AIS gel matrix in a column displayed poor absorption and purification fold of PE; however, highly methoxylated CL-AIS (HM-CL-AIS), by exposing CL-AIS to methanolic sulfuric acid to increase the degree of esterification (DE) to 92%, facilitated the enzyme purification. The purified TSC PE and JFA PE by the HM-CL-AIS column were proofed as a single band on an SDS-PAGE gel, showing that the HM-CL-AIS column was a good matrix for purification of PE, either with alkaline isoelectric point (pI) (TSC PE) or with acidic pI (JFA PE).

  9. Study of the contamination of components of the marine environment by soluble and insoluble forms of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraizier, A.; Ancellin, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    The experimental contamination of various physical components and organisms of the marine environment was carried out using radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 51 Cr, 60 Co, 106 Ru and 59 Fe. The relationships between the physico-chemical states of the radionuclides, the variations in the environmental conditions, and the properties of the experimental samples were clarified. Marine organisms were more readily contaminated by the insoluble forms of 106 Ru and 59 Fe than by the soluble forms. It appears that the physiology of the marine organisms can have a bearing on the degree and evolution of the contamination whatever the physico-chemical state of the radionuclides may be, but in certain circumstances the contamination level is independent of the variations in environmental conditions and the related variations in the physiology of the organism. (author)

  10. Self-Assembly of Charged Amphiphilic Diblock Copolymers with Insoluble Blocks of Decreasing Hydrophobicity: From Kinetically Frozen Colloids to Macrosurfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Jacquin; P Muller; H Cottet; O Theodoly

    2011-12-31

    We have investigated the self-assembly properties in aqueous solution of amphiphilic diblock copolymers with insoluble blocks of different hydrophobicity and demonstrated that the condition to obtain dynamic micelles is to design samples with insoluble blocks of low enough hydrophobicity. We focus here on results with new water-soluble amphiphilic diblock copolymers poly(diethyleneglycol ethylether acrylate)-b-poly(acrylic acid), or PDEGA-b-PAA. The physical characteristics of PDEGA-b-PAA micelles at high ionization have been determined by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). We show that PDEGA-b-PAA samples form micelles at thermodynamic equilibrium. The critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) decrease strongly with ionic strength and temperature due to a solvent quality decrease for, respectively, the corona and the core. This behavior of reversible aggregation is remarkable as compared to the behavior of kinetically frozen aggregation that has been widely observed with samples of similar architecture and different hydrophobic blocks, for example, poly(styrene)-b-poly(acrylic acid), PS-b-PAA, and poly(butyl acrylate)-b-poly(acrylic acid), PBA-b-PAA. We have measured the interfacial tension between water and the homopolymers PDEGA and PBA at, respectively, 3 and 20 mN/m at room temperature, which permits one to estimate the energy cost to extract a unimer from a micelle. The results are consistent with a micelle association that is fast for PDEGA-b-PAA and kinetically frozen PBA-b-PAA. Hence, PDEGA-b-PAA samples form a new system of synthetic charged macrosurfactant with unique properties of fast dynamic association, tunable charge, and water solubility even at temperatures and NaCl concentrations as high as 65 C and 1 M.

  11. The formation of light absorbing insoluble organic compounds from the reaction of biomass burning precursors and Fe(III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Avi; Lin, Peng; Bhaduri, Bhaskar; Laskin, Alexander; Rudich, Yinon

    2017-04-01

    Dust particles and volatile organic compounds from fuel or biomass burning are two major components that affect air quality in urban polluted areas. We characterized the products from the reaction of soluble Fe(III), a reactive transition metal originating from dust particles dissolution processes, with phenolic compounds , namely, guaiacol, syringol, catechol, o- and p- cresol that are known products of incomplete fuel and biomass combustion but also from other natural sources such as humic compounds degradation. We found that under acidic conditions comparable to those expected on a dust particle surface, phenolic compounds readily react with dissolved Fe(III), leading to the formation of insoluble polymeric compounds. We characterized the insoluble products by x-ray photoelectron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis and thermo-gravimetric analysis. We found that the major chromophores formed are oligomers (from dimers to pentamers) of the reaction precursors that efficiently absorb light between 300nm and 500nm. High variability of the mass absorption coefficient of the reaction products was observed with catechol and guaiacol showing high absorption at the 300-500nm range that is comparable to that of brown carbon (BrC) from biomass burning studies. The studied reaction is a potential source for the in-situ production of secondary BrC material under dark conditions. Our results suggest a reaction path for the formation of bio-available iron in coastal polluted areas where dust particles mix with biomass burning pollution plumes. Such mixing can occur, for instance in the coast of West Africa or North Africa during dust and biomass burning seasons

  12. Familial knockin mutation of LRRK2 causes lysosomal dysfunction and accumulation of endogenous insoluble α-synuclein in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapansky, Jason; Khasnavis, Saurabh; DeAndrade, Mark P; Nardozzi, Jonathan D; Falkson, Samuel R; Boyd, Justin D; Sanderson, John B; Bartels, Tim; Melrose, Heather L; LaVoie, Matthew J

    2018-03-01

    Missense mutations in the multi-domain kinase LRRK2 cause late onset familial Parkinson's disease. They most commonly with classic proteinopathy in the form of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites comprised of insoluble α-synuclein, but in rare cases can also manifest tauopathy. The normal function of LRRK2 has remained elusive, as have the cellular consequences of its mutation. Data from LRRK2 null model organisms and LRRK2-inhibitor treated animals support a physiological role for LRRK2 in regulating lysosome function. Since idiopathic and LRRK2-linked PD are associated with the intraneuronal accumulation of protein aggregates, a series of critical questions emerge. First, how do pathogenic mutations that increase LRRK2 kinase activity affect lysosome biology in neurons? Second, are mutation-induced changes in lysosome function sufficient to alter the metabolism of α-synuclein? Lastly, are changes caused by pathogenic mutation sensitive to reversal with LRRK2 kinase inhibitors? Here, we report that mutation of LRRK2 induces modest but significant changes in lysosomal morphology and acidification, and decreased basal autophagic flux when compared to WT neurons. These changes were associated with an accumulation of detergent-insoluble α-synuclein and increased neuronal release of α-synuclein and were reversed by pharmacologic inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity. These data demonstrate a critical and disease-relevant influence of native neuronal LRRK2 kinase activity on lysosome function and α-synuclein homeostasis. Furthermore, they also suggest that lysosome dysfunction, altered neuronal α-synuclein metabolism, and the insidious accumulation of aggregated protein over decades may contribute to pathogenesis in this late-onset form of familial PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gas release during salt-well pumping: Model predictions and laboratory validation studies for soluble and insoluble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peurrung, L.M.; Caley, S.M.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1997-08-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Of these, 67 are known or suspected to have leaked liquid from the tanks into the surrounding soil. Salt-well pumping, or interim stabilization, is a well-established operation for removing drainable interstitial liquid from SSTs. The overall objective of this ongoing study is to develop a quantitative understanding of the release rates and cumulative releases of flammable gases from SSTs as a result of salt-well pumping. The current study is an extension of the previous work reported by Peurrung et al. (1996). The first objective of this current study was to conduct laboratory experiments to quantify the release of soluble and insoluble gases. The second was to determine experimentally the role of characteristic waste heterogeneities on the gas release rates. The third objective was to evaluate and validate the computer model STOMP (Subsurface Transport over Multiple Phases) used by Peurrung et al. (1996) to predict the release of both soluble (typically ammonia) and insoluble gases (typically hydrogen) during and after salt-well pumping. The fourth and final objective of the current study was to predict the gas release behavior for a range of typical tank conditions and actual tank geometry. In these models, the authors seek to include all the pertinent salt-well pumping operational parameters and a realistic range of physical properties of the SST wastes. For predicting actual tank behavior, two-dimensional (2-D) simulations were performed with a representative 2-D tank geometry

  14. Immobilisation of fission iodine by reaction with insoluble natural organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmett, G.T.; Kimble, G.M.; Steinberg, S.M.; Emerson, D.W.; Cerefice, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants produce Iodine-129 ( 129 I) as a fission by-product. Iodine-129, along with other stable isotopes of iodine, is released during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. Silver-impregnated activated carbon, activated carbon, cinnabar and chalcocite have been used in the past to remove iodide and iodine from waste streams. There is environmental and geological evidence that iodine can become associated with natural organic matter (NOM). For example, a number of previous studies have shown that iodine (including 129 I) can be strongly retained in organic-rich surface soils and humic material. This research explores the use of NOM (sphagnum peat) to sequester iodine from acid vapour and aqueous solution. NOM may be stable for geological storage or the sequestered iodine can be recovered to prepare target materials for transmutation. The nature of the sphagnum iodine association has been explored as well as method that can be used to concentrate and recover sequestered iodine from the peat moss. (authors)

  15. Dietary Determinants of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Lisa W

    2005-01-01

    .... Epidemiologic studies suggest that dietary factors may be important in the etiology of PCa. The objective of our research is to determine how nutritional compounds genistein, betasitosterol (STT...

  16. Personnel Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, George, Ed.; Stodden, Robert, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Three articles comprise a section on personnel preparation in vocational education. Articles deal with two inservice programs in career/vocational education for the handicapped and a project to train paraprofessionals to assist special educators in vocational education. (CL)

  17. Dietary supplement good manufacturing practices: preparing for compliance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mead, William J

    2012-01-01

    .... Based on broad experience with GMP compliance techniques worked out over the years in the food, drug, and medical device industries, it is a must-have guide for all DS companies, especially the many...

  18. Solution preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results

  19. Family food involvement is related to healthier dietary intake in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Jessica Jarick; Fiese, Barbara H

    2018-03-27

    Children in the United States fall far short of meeting federal dietary recommendations. The unhealthy diets common amongst young children are of crucial public health concern, given that they can inhibit healthy development and are predictive of chronic diseases in adulthood. Research investigating behaviors that are related to dietary habits is crucial to allow a better understanding of the causes of unhealthy dietary practices. Involvement in food preparation is known to be associated with healthy dietary behaviors in school-aged children, but little is known about these behaviors and their correlates in younger children. The present study sought to examine the influences and correlates of involvement in family food preparation in children at ages three and four. Parents of preschool aged children (n = 497) completed surveys including information about demographic background, their children's family food involvement, dietary intake, mealtime routines, and problematic eating behaviors. Data were collected when children were three (wave one of the survey) and four years of age (wave two). Findings from this study indicate that family food involvement at age three is predictive of healthier dietary intake at age four (increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, decreased consumption of fast food). These findings indicate that family food involvement is predictive of healthier dietary behaviors in young children, and that outreach efforts focused on family food involvement in early childhood may improve children's dietary habits. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  1. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know Share Tweet Linkedin ... and nutrients you personally need. What are dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, ...

  2. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  3. Binding of 14C-labeled food mutagens (IQ, MeIQ, MeIQx) by dietary fiber in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoedin, P.B.; Nyman, M.E.; Nilsson, L.; Asp, N.L.; Jaegerstad, M.

    1985-01-01

    Binding of three mutagens, known to occur in fried or broiled foods, by thirteen different types of dietary fiber was investigated in vitro. Nonspecific binding by other food polymers was minimized by using protease and amylase treatment. Water-insoluble fiber components were responsible for most of the binding capacity. Generally, a slightly larger proportion of 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ) than of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo] -4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) was bound. There was a significant correlation between Klason lignin content and binding of mutagens. Optimum pH for binding was between 4 and 6. Dietary fiber from sorghum had the highest binding capacity, which could be due to the presence of a large Klason lignin fraction

  4. Soluble/insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable fractionation of Cd, Pb and Cu in Antarctic snow and its relationship with metal fractionations in the aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annibaldi A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A chemical fractionation methodology for determination of the (water soluble and the insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable fractions of Cd, Pb and Cu in Antarctic snow was set-up and verified for the additivity of the two fractions detected. Molten samples were filtrated and the water-insoluble fraction was extracted by dilute ultrapure HCl (pH ~1.5. Metal determinations were carried out in the two fractions by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The total metal concentrations in samples collected in the 2000–2001 austral summer in a clean area (Faraglione Camp in the neighbourhood of the Mario Zucchelli Italian Station were of the order of Cd 10-20 pg g−1, Pb 20–40 pg g−1, Cu 60–120 pg g−1 with an approximate equidistribution between soluble and insoluble fractions. These fractionations compare well (and show a quite consistent temporal trend with those observed in the aerosol samples collected in the same area/period and confirm the close relationship between metal distributions in snow/ice and in the aerosol. At the station metal concentrations increase due to anthropic contribution and the distribution changes with Cd predominantly present in the soluble fraction (~80%, while Pb and Cu are more concentrated in the insoluble fraction, 70–80% and ~70%, respectively.

  5. Quantitative Study of Ether Group Molecules in Insoluble Organic Matter from Carbonaceous Chondrites by CuO-NaOH Selective Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuta, H.; Cody, G. D.; Alexander, C. M. O'd.

    2006-03-01

    CuO-NaOH degradation of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) from the Murchison meteorite was conducted. A variety of carboxylic acids were indentified. Oxalic acid was most abundant. It was estimated that approximately ~30% of the IOM included ether groups containing molecules.

  6. Molecular Identification of the Carrier of the D-Anomaly in Insoluble Organic Matter of Orgueil Meteorite: Revising the Origin of the IOM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remusat, L.; Robert, F.; Meibom, A.; Mostefaoui, S.; Delpoux, O.; Binet, L.; Gourier, D.; Derenne, S.

    2008-03-01

    By combining NanoSIMS measurements and pulsed EPR data, we have identified the organic radicals as the carrier of the D-isotopic anomaly in the insoluble organic matter of Orgueil chondrite. This is consistent with a solar origin of the D-signature.

  7. Photo and thermochemical evolution of astrophysical ice analogues as a source for soluble and insoluble organic materials in Solar system minor bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marcellus, Pierre; Fresneau, Aurelien; Brunetto, Rosario; Danger, Gregoire; Duvernay, Fabrice; Meinert, Cornelia; Meierhenrich, Uwe J.; Borondics, Ferenc; Chiavassa, Thierry; Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Soluble and insoluble organic matter (IOM) is a key feature of primitive carbonaceous chondrites. We observe the formation of organic materials in the photothermochemical treatment of astrophysical ices in the laboratory. Starting from a low vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation dose on templates of astrophysical ices at 77 K, we obtain first a totally soluble form of organic matter at room temperature. Once this organic residue is formed, irradiating it further in vacuum results in the production of a thin altered dark crust on top of the initial soluble one. The whole residue is studied here by non-destructive methods inducing no alteration of samples, visible microscopy and mid-infrared (micro-)spectroscopy. After water extraction of the soluble part, an insoluble fraction remains on the sample holder which provides a largely different infrared spectrum when compared to the one of the soluble sample. Therefore, from the same VUV and thermal processing of initial simple ices, we produce first a soluble material from which a much larger irradiation dose leads to an insoluble one. Interestingly, this insoluble fraction shows some spectral similarities with natural samples of IOM extracted from two meteorites (Tagish Lake and Murchison), selected as examples of primitive materials. It suggests that the organic molecular diversity observed in meteorites may partly originate from the photo and thermal processing of interstellar/circum-stellar ices at the final stages of molecular cloud evolution towards the build-up of our Solar system.

  8. Effect of pH and salts on microstructure and viscoelastic properties of lemon peel acid insoluble fiber suspensions upon high pressure homogenization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, Katleen L.D.D.; Panozzo, Agnese; Moelants, Katlijn; Cardinaels, Ruth; Wallecan, Joël; Moldenaers, Paula; Hendrickx, Marc

    2018-01-01

    In the present paper the effect of pH and salts on microstructural and viscoelastic properties of lemon peel acid insoluble fiber residue (AR) suspensions upon mild and intense shearing was investigated. To this aim, AR suspensions were adjusted to a pH of 2.5 (as is), 4.5, 5.5, 7 or 10 prior to or

  9. Understanding the physics of functional fibers in the gastrointestinal tract: an evidence-based approach to resolving enduring misconceptions about insoluble and soluble fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enduring misconceptions about the physical effects of fiber in the gut have led to misunderstandings about the health benefits attributable to insoluble and soluble fiber. This review will focus on isolated functional fibers (eg, fiber supplements) whose effects on clinical outcomes have been readil...

  10. The investigation of MCM-48-type and MCM-41-type mesoporous silica as oral solid dispersion carriers for water insoluble cilostazol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanzhu; Sun, Lizhang; Jiang, Tongying; Zhang, Jinghai; Zhang, Chen; Sun, Changshan; Deng, Yihui; Sun, Jin; Wang, Siling

    2014-06-01

    To explore the suitable application of MCM-41 (Mobil Composition of Matter number forty-one)-type and MCM-48-type mesoporous silica in the oral water insoluble drug delivery system. Cilostazol (CLT) as a model drug was loaded into synthesized MCM-48 (Mobil Composition of Matter number forty-eight) and commercial MCM-41 by three common methods. The obtained MCM-41, MCM-48 and CLT-loaded samples were characterized by means of nitrogen adsorption, thermogravimetric analysis, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffractometer. It was found that solvent evaporation method was preferred according to the drug loading efficiency and the maximum percent cumulative drug dissolution. MCM-48 with 3D cubic pore structure and MCM-41 with 2D long tubular structure are nearly spherical particles in 300-500 nm. Nevertheless, the silica carriers with similar large specific surface areas and concentrating pore size distributions (978.66 m(2)/g, 3.8 nm for MCM-41 and 1108.04 m(2)/g, 3.6 nm for MCM-48) exhibited different adsorption behaviors for CLT. The maximum percent cumulative drug release of the two CLT/silica solid dispersion (CLT-MCM-48 and CLT-MCM-41) was 63.41% and 85.78% within 60 min, respectively; while in the subsequent 12 h release experiment, almost 100% cumulative drug release were both obtained. In the pharmacokinetics aspect, the maximum plasma concentrations of CLT-MCM-48 reached 3.63 mg/L by 0.92 h. The AUC0-∞ values of the CLT-MCM-41 and CLT-MCM-48 were 1.14-fold and 1.73-fold, respectively, compared with the commercial preparation. Our findings suggest that MCM-41-type and MCM-48-type mesoporous silica have great promise as solid dispersion carriers for sustained and immediate release separately.

  11. Carob pod insoluble fiber exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects in rabbits through sirtuin-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Muñoz, María; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Sandra; Lahera, Vicente; de las Heras, Natalia

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of an insoluble dietary fiber from carob pod (IFC) (1 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) in the diet) on alterations associated with atherosclerosis in rabbits with dyslipidemia. Male New Zealand rabbits (n = 30) were fed the following diets for 8 wk: 1) a control diet (SF412; Panlab) as a control group representing normal conditions; 2) a control supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil (DL) (SF302; Panlab) for 8 wk as a dyslipidemic group; and 3) a control containing 0.5% cholesterol + 14% coconut oil plus IFC (1 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1)) (DL+IFC) for 8 wk. IFC was administered in a pellet mixed with the DL diet. The DL-fed group developed mixed dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic lesions, which were associated with endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and fibrosis. Furthermore, sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) protein expression in the aorta were reduced to 77% and 63% of the control group, respectively (P < 0.05), in these rabbits. Administration of IFC to DL-fed rabbits reduced the size of the aortic lesion significantly (DL, 15.2% and DL+IFC, 2.6%) and normalized acetylcholine-induced relaxation (maximal response: control, 89.3%; DL, 61.6%; DL+IFC, 87.1%; P < 0.05) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression (DL, 52% and DL+IFC, 104% of the control group). IFC administration to DL-fed rabbits also reduced cluster of differentiation 36 (DL, 148% and DL+IFC, 104% of the control group; P < 0.05), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (DL, 141% and DL+IFC, 107% of the control group), tumor necrosis factor-α (DL, 166% and DL+IFC, 120% of the control group), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (DL, 153% and DL+IFC, 110% of the control group), transforming growth factor-β (DL, 173% and DL+IFC, 99% of the control group), and collagen I (DL, 157% and DL+IFC, 112% of the control group) in the aorta. These effects were accompanied by an enhancement of

  12. [A cross-sectional study on the changes in dietary behavior stages in resident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang-wen; Ma, Hai-yan; Yang, Ting-zhong; Liu, Ting-jie

    2004-05-01

    To explore the possibility of applying the concept of various stages of dietary behavior changes in Hangzhou residents. The dietary behavior was surveyed and analyzed in 1 388 Hangzhou residents with 18 year-old and older using the various dietary behavior change model model and stages of change. The proportion of Hangzhou residents with unhealthy dietary behavior was high and associated with gender and education level. The changes of dietary behavior could be divided into 5 stages, i.e. preintention, intention, preparation, action and maintenance. These stages of change happen consecutively. The changes of unhealthy dietary behavior do not match the improvement of health knowledge. Although a significant proportion of the residents understand that it is unhealthy to eat too much fat, pickles and high salt food, there are only a few of them really take action to reduce the consumption of these foods and to consume more milk, fruit and vegetable. There are multiple factors that affect the changes of dietary behavior in people. The changes of dietary behavior occur in various consecutive stages. Different intervention measures should be applied to people in different dietary behavior changes.

  13. Atmospheric deposition of beryllium in Central Europe: Comparison of soluble and insoluble fractions in rime and snow across a pollution gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohdalkova, Leona; Novak, Martin; Voldrichova, Petra; Prechova, Eva; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Erbanova, Lucie; Krachler, Michael; Komarek, Arnost; Mikova, Jitka

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about atmospheric input of beryllium (Be) into ecosystems, despite its highly toxic behavior. For three consecutive winters (2009–2011), we measured Be concentrations in horizontal deposition (rime) and vertical deposition (snow) at 10 remote mountain-top locations in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. Beryllium was determined both in filtered waters, and in HF digests of insoluble particles. Across the sites, soluble Be concentrations in rime were 7 times higher, compared to snow (6.1 vs. 0.9 ng·L −1 ). Rime scavenged the pollution-rich lower segments of clouds. The lowest Be concentrations were detected in the soluble fraction of snow. Across the sites, 34% of total Be deposition occurred in the form of soluble (bioavailable) Be, the rest were insoluble particles. Beryllium fluxes decreased in the order: vertical dry deposition insoluble > vertical dry deposition soluble > horizontal deposition soluble > vertical wet deposition insoluble > vertical wet deposition soluble > horizontal deposition insoluble. The average contributions of these Be forms to total deposition were 56, 21, 8, 7, 5 and 3%, respectively. Sites in the northeast were more Be-polluted than the rest of the country with sources of pollution in industrial Silesia. -- Highlights: ► We measured Be concentrations in rime and snow in the Czech Republic. ► Soluble Be concentrations in rime were 7 times higher than in snow. ► 34% of total Be deposition occurred in the form of soluble (bioavailable) Be. ► Dry-deposited fluxes dominated Be inputs. ► Soluble Be concentrations only rarely exceeded 30 ng·L −1 .

  14. The expression of a xylanase targeted to ER-protein bodies provides a simple strategy to produce active insoluble enzyme polymers in tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immaculada Llop-Tous

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Xylanases deserve particular attention due to their potential application in the feed, pulp bleaching and paper industries. We have developed here an efficient system for the production of an active xylanase in tobacco plants fused to a proline-rich domain (Zera of the maize storage protein γ-zein. Zera is a self-assembling domain able to form protein aggregates in vivo packed in newly formed endoplasmic reticulum-derived organelles known as protein bodies (PBs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tobacco leaves were transiently transformed with a binary vector containing the Zera-xylanase coding region, which was optimized for plant expression, under the control of the 35S CaMV promoter. The fusion protein was efficiently expressed and stored in dense PBs, resulting in yields of up to 9% of total protein. Zera-xylanase was post-translationally modified with high-mannose-type glycans. Xylanase fused to Zera was biologically active not only when solubilized from PBs but also in its insoluble form. The resistance of insoluble Zera-xylanase to trypsin digestion demonstrated that the correct folding of xylanase in PBs was not impaired by Zera oligomerization. The activity of insoluble Zera-xylanase was enhanced when substrate accessibility was facilitated by physical treatments such as ultrasound. Moreover, we found that the thermostability of the enzyme was improved when Zera was fused to the C-terminus of xylanase. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In the present work we have successfully produced an active insoluble aggregate of xylanase fused to Zera in plants. Zera-xylanase chimeric protein accumulates within ER-derived protein bodies as active aggregates that can easily be recovered by a simple density-based downstream process. The production of insoluble active Zera-xylanase protein in tobacco outlines the potential of Zera as a fusion partner for producing enzymes of biotechnological relevance. Zera-PBs could thus become efficient and low

  15. Dietary intervention in acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of

  16. Dietary Advice on Prescription: A novel approach to dietary counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Johansson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a novel approach to giving dietary advice, which is called “Dietary Advice on Prescription” (DAP; Matordning på Recept [MoR] in Swedish. It is the same principle as prescription on medicine and “Physical Activity on Prescription” (PAP; Fysisk aktivitet på Recept [FaR] in Swedish. The main idea is that a written prescription will strengthen the oral advice and emphasize certain aspects of the dietary recommendation. The DAP is on the brink of being tested in a planned study.

  17. Co-extraction of soluble and insoluble sugars from energy sorghum based on a hydrothermal hydrolysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiang; Tan, Xuesong; Zhuang, Xinshu; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Wen; Qi, Wei; Zhou, Guixiong; Luo, Yu; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-12-01

    A process for co-extraction of soluble and insoluble sugars from energy sorghum (ES) was developed based on hydrothermal hydrolysis (HH). Two series of ES were investigated: one (N) with a high biomass yield displayed a higher recalcitrance to sugar release, whereas the second (T) series was characterized by high sugar extraction. The highest total xylose recoveries of 87.2% and 98.7% were obtained for N-11 and T-106 under hydrolysis conditions of 180°C for 50min and 180°C for 30min, respectively. Moreover, the T series displayed higher enzymatic digestibility (ED) than the N series. The high degree of branching (arabinose/xylose ratio) and acetyl groups in the hemicellulose chains of T-106 would be expected to accelerate sugar release during the HH process. In addition, negative correlations between ED and the lignin content, crystallinity index (CrI) and syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) lignin ratio were observed. Furthermore, finding ways to overcome the thickness of the cell wall and heterogeneity of its chemical composition distribution would make cellulose more accessible to the enzyme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Properties of black carbon and other insoluble light-absorbing particles in seasonal snow of northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Wei; Wang, Xin; Wei, Hailun; Zhou, Yue; Shi, Jinsen; Hu, Zhiyuan; Jin, Hongchun; Chen, Quanliang

    2017-05-01

    A large field campaign was conducted and 284 snow samples were collected at 38 sites in Xinjiang Province and 6 sites in Qinghai Province across northwestern China from January to February 2012. A spectrophotometer combined with chemical analysis was used to measure the insoluble light-absorbing particles (ILAPs) and chemical components in seasonal snow. The results indicate that the cleanest snow was found in northeastern Xinjiang along the border of China, and it presented an estimated black carbon (CBCest) of approximately 5 ng g-1. The dirtiest snow presented a CBCest of approximately 450 ng g-1 near industrial cities in Xinjiang. Overall, the CBCest of most of the snow samples collected in this campaign was in the range of 10-150 ng g-1. Vertical variations in the snowpack ILAPs indicated a probable shift in emission sources with the progression of winter. An analysis of the fractional contributions to absorption implied that organic carbon (OC) dominated the 450 nm absorption in Qinghai, while the contributions from BC and OC were comparable in Xinjiang. Finally, a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was run to explore the sources of particulate light absorption, and the results indicated an optimal three-factor/source solution that included industrial pollution, biomass burning, and soil dust.

  19. Proteomic and biochemical basis for enhanced growth yield of Enterobacter sp. LCR1 on insoluble phosphate medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Rai, Lal Chand

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics and biochemical analyses were used to unravel the basis for higher growth yield of Enterobacter sp. LCR1 on insoluble phosphate medium compared to soluble. Proteomic analysis using 2-DE, MALDI-TOF/MS and LC-MS revealed the involvement of nine proteins. Down-regulation of fructose bisphosphate aldolase with decreased concentrations of glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate indicated diminished glycolysis. However, up-regulation of phosphoglycerate mutase, increase in the activities of 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase, 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate aldolase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase suggested induction of Entner-Doudoroff and pentose phosphate pathways. These pathways generate sufficient energy from gluconic acid, which is also used for biosynthesis as indicated by up-regulation of elongation factor Tu, elongation factor G and protein disulfide isomerase. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation resulting from organic acid oxidation leads to overexpressed manganese superoxide dismutase and increased activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. Thus the organism uses gluconate instead of glucose for energy, while alleviating extra ROS formation by oxidative defense enzymes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical simulation of heat-transfer and insoluble corrosion product deposition in lead-bismuth eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xu; Zhou Tao; Fang Xiaolu; Lin Daping; Ru Xiaolong

    2015-01-01

    As the primary coolant of ADS (accelerator driven sub-critical system), the safety of reactor will be threatened and the lifetime of the reactor will be shortened by appearing of the tiny particles in LBE (lead-bismuth eutectic) alloy. To this end, numerical simulation with the code of FLUENT was used to research the deposition distribution of insoluble corrosion products in rectangular channel. The standard k-ε model was selected to predict the turbulence variation in the rectangular channel. The discrete phase model (DPM) was used to track the trajectory of the particles. It is found that the deposition efficiency is positively correlated with the temperature difference between the fluid and cold wall. The near wall region with a high concentration of particulate matter and low temperature is in favor of particulate matter deposition on the wall. At the same time, the high turbulence kinetic near wall region is not conducive to the deposition of particulate matter. A secondary flow phenomenon occurs under the influence of boundary wall, namely that there are eight symmetrical regions in the radial direction. (authors)

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Human Tendon and Ligament: Solubilization and Analysis of Insoluble Extracellular Matrix in Connective Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nori; Taniguchi, Takako; Goda, Yuichiro; Kosaka, Hirofumi; Higashino, Kosaku; Sakai, Toshinori; Katoh, Shinsuke; Yasui, Natsuo; Sairyo, Koichi; Taniguchi, Hisaaki

    2016-12-02

    Connective tissues such as tendon, ligament and cartilage are mostly composed of extracellular matrix (ECM). These tissues are insoluble, mainly due to the highly cross-linked ECM proteins such as collagens. Difficulties obtaining suitable samples for mass spectrometric analysis render the application of modern proteomic technologies difficult. Complete solubilization of them would not only elucidate protein composition of normal tissues but also reveal pathophysiology of pathological tissues. Here we report complete solubilization of human Achilles tendon and yellow ligament, which is achieved by chemical digestion combined with successive protease treatment including elastase. The digestion mixture was subjected to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The low specificity of elastase was overcome by accurate mass analysis achieved using FT-ICR-MS. In addition to the detailed proteome of both tissues, we also quantitatively determine the major protein composition of samples, by measuring peak area of some characteristic peptides detected in tissue samples and in purified proteins. As a result, differences between human Achilles tendon and yellow ligament were elucidated at molecular level.

  2. Gradual and stepwise pyrolyses of insoluble organic matter from the Murchison meteorite revealing chemical structure and isotopic distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Fumiaki; Mimura, Koichi

    2011-11-01

    To study the detailed structural and isotopic heterogeneity of the insoluble organic matter (IOM) of the Murchison meteorite, we performed two types of pyrolytic experiments: gradual pyrolysis and stepwise pyrolysis. The pyrolysates from the IOM contained 5 specific organic groups: aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, sulfur-bearing compounds, nitrogen-bearing compounds, and oxygen-bearing compounds. The release temperatures and the compositions of these pyrolysates demonstrated that the IOM is composed of a thermally unstable part and a thermally stable part. The thermally unstable part mainly served as the linkage and substituent portion that bound the thermally stable part, which was dispersed throughout the IOM. The linkage and substituent portion consisted of aliphatic hydrocarbons from C 4 to C 8, aromatic hydrocarbons with up to 6 rings, sulfo and thiol groups (the main reservoirs of sulfur in the IOM), and carboxyl and hydroxyl groups (the main reservoirs of oxygen). However, the thermally stable part was composed of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing nitrogen heterocycles in the IOM. Isotopic data showed that the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in the linkage and substituent portion were rich in D and 13C, while the thermally stable part was deficient in D and 13C. The structural and isotopic features suggested that the IOM was formed by mixing sulfur- and oxygen-bearing compounds rich in D and 13C (e.g., polar compounds in the interstellar medium (ISM)) and nitrogen-bearing PAHs deficient in D and 13C (e.g., polymerized compounds in the ISM).

  3. Structure and isotopic ratios of aliphatic side chains in the insoluble organic matter of the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongsong; Alexandre, Marcelo R.; Wang, Yi

    2007-07-01

    We report in this paper the first molecular and isotopic characterization of individual aliphatic side chains from the insoluble organic matter (IOM) in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite using a novel combined approach of RuO 4 oxidation and solid phase microextraction (SPME). The aliphatic side chains in the IOM of Murchison were first released by oxidizing aromatic structures using RuO 4. Because the IOM of carbonaceous chondrites contains predominantly short (C 1 to C 9) aliphatic substitutions, the resulting low molecular weight monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) are highly volatile and water-soluble. The conventional aqueous extraction and derivatization procedures following RuO 4 oxidation are unable to recover MCAs for subsequent analyses. We overcame this problem by employing SPME to directly capture the MCAs from the aqueous solution. We selected a SPME fiber with greater affinity for longer chain monoacids to compensate for the exponential decline of monoacid concentrations with increasing carbon numbers in meteorite IOM, allowing more accurate identification and quantification for the less abundant monoacids. We also determined the carbon and hydrogen isotopic ratios of individual MCAs derived from Murchinson IOM. Our results reveal significant similarity in both molecular structures and hydrogen isotopic ratios between the IOM aliphatic side chains and water-soluble MCAs in Murchison, suggesting that these compounds had common precursors. Our combined new approach of RuO 4 oxidation-SPME provides a new way to probe the molecular and isotopic characteristics of aliphatic side chains in carbonaceous chondrites.

  4. The insoluble carbonaceous material of CM chondrites: A possible source of discrete organic compounds under hydrothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuta, Hikaru; Williams, Lynda B.; Cody, George D.; Alexander, Conel M. O. D.; Pizzarello, Sandra

    2007-08-01

    We report on the molecular analyses of the water- and solvent-soluble organic compounds released from the insoluble organic material (IOM) of the Murray meteorite upon treatment with weight-equivalent amounts of water and under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure. A varied suite of compounds was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). C3-C17 alkyl dicarboxylic acids and N- and O-containing hydroaromatic and aromatic compounds were found in the water extracts. The solvent extracts contained N-, O-, and S-containing aromatic compounds, a large number of their isomers and homologs, and a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of up to five rings, together with noncondensed aromatic species such as substituted benzenes, biphenyl, and terphenyls as well as their substituted homologs, and hydrated PAHs. Isotopic analyses showed that residue IOMs after hydrothermal treatment had lower deuterium and 15N content than the untreated material (ΔD = -833‰ and Δ15N = -24.1) but did not differ from it in 13C composition. The effect of the hydrothermolytic release was recorded in significant differences between the NMR spectra of untreated and residue IOM. A possible relation to common precursors for the dicarboxylic acids found in the IOM and bulk extracts is discussed.

  5. Selective release of D and 13C from insoluble organic matter of the Murchison meteorite by impact shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Koichi; Okamoto, Michioki; Sugitani, Kenichiro; Hashimoto, Shigemasa

    2007-03-01

    We performed shock-recovery experiments on insoluble organic matter (IOM) purified from the Murchison meteorite, and determined the abundances and isotope ratios of hydrogen and carbon in the shocked IOM sample. We also performed shock experiments on type III kerogen and compared the results of these experiments with the experimental results regarding IOM.The shock selectively released D and 13C from the IOM, while it preferably released H and 12C from the kerogen. The release of these elements from IOM cannot be explained in terms of the isotope effect, whereas their release from kerogen can be explained by this effect. The selective release of heavier isotopes from IOM would be due to its structure, in which D and 13C-enriched parts are present as an inhomogeneity and are weakly attached to the main network. Shock gave rise to a high release of D even at a lower degree of dehydrogenation compared with the stepwise heating of IOM. This effective release of D is probably an inherent result of shock, in which a dynamic high-pressure and high-temperature condition prevails. Thus, shock would effectively control the hydrogen isotope behavior of extraterrestrial organic matter during the evolution of the solar nebula.

  6. The Insoluble Carbonaceous Material of CM Chondrites as Possible Source of Discrete Organics During the Asteroidal Aqueous Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuta, H.; Williams, L.; Cody, G.; Pizzarello, S.

    2005-01-01

    The larger portion of the organic carbon in carbonaceous chondrites (CC) is present as a complex and heterogeneous macromolecular material that is insoluble in acids and most solvents (IOM). So far, it has been analyzed only as a whole by microscopy (TEM) and spectroscopy (IR, NMR, EPR), which have offered and overview of its chemical nature, bonding, and functional group composition. Chemical or pyrolytic decomposition has also been used in combination with GC-MS to identify individual compounds released by these processes. Their value in the recognition of the original IOM structure resides in the ability to properly interpret the decomposition pathways for any given process. We report here a preliminary study of IOM from the Murray meteorite that combines both the analytical approaches described above, under conditions that would realistically model the IOM hydrothermal exposure in the meteorite parent body. The aim is to document the possible release of water and solvent soluble organics, determine possible changes in NMR spectral features, and ascertain, by extension, the effect of this loss on the frame of the IOM residue. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  7. The effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Rajabiyan Moghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different sizes of insoluble grit on growth performance and carcass traits in broiler chickens. A total of 200 broilers (Ross 308, 10 days old, were randomly allotted to five experimental equal groups with four replicates of 10 chickens (five male and five female and fed with basal diet + ground wheat (without grit; basal diet + whole wheat (without grit and basal diet contain 1.5% grit of diet with sizes of 2, 3 and 4 mm. Growth performance (evaluated through weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio was determined on day 24 and 42. Also, carcass traits (relative weights of carcass, breast, thigh, liver, heart, gizzard and intestine and intestine length were assessed on day 42. Weight gains and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in broilers added with grit 2 mm compared to the control group (p<0.05, whereas; carcass traits were not significantly altered. These data suggest that grit with size of 2 mm improve growth performance in broiler chickens.

  8. Evaluation of some natural water-insoluble cellulosic material as lost circulation control additives in water-based drilling fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Alsabagh

    2015-12-01

    In this work, three natural water-insoluble cellulosic materials; peanut hulls, bagasse and sawdust were investigated as lost circulation control materials. One hundred and eight different LCM samples made of various materials were tested with mud. The experiments were conducted in a permeability plugging apparatus (PPA at a differential pressure of 100 psi and 300 psi, using 10, 60 and 90 ceramic discs. The performance of each LCM sample was determined based on the amount of spurt loss and total fluid loss of the mud according to the American Petroleum Institute (API standard. The obtained results showed that, the amount of the fluid loss depends on the LCM material, concentration and size distribution, testing results show that, the peanut gives the best results among the bagasse and sawdust, especially fine size which exhibited better results in the filtration characteristics due to the better filling properties of this size. Peanut hulls, bagasse and sawdust show a slight effect on the rheological properties of the mud. The results were discussed on light of particle size distribution.

  9. Preparation, characterization and in vitro dissolution study of Nitrazepam: Cyclodextrin inclusion complex

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, J. S.; Patel, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to prepare and characterize inclusion complexes of Nitrazepam with Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) and Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin (SBEβCD) to study the effect of complexation on the dissolution rate of Nitrazepam, a water-insoluble drug. The phase solubility profile of Nitrazepam with Hydroxypropyl- β-cyclodextrin and Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin was an AP-type, indicating the formation of 2:1 stoichiometric inclusion complexes. Gibbs free ene...

  10. Impact of cell wall-degrading enzymes on water-holding capacity and solubility of dietary fibre in rye and wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Karin; Nordlund, Emilia; Tornberg, Eva; Eliasson, Ann-Charlotte; Buchert, Johanna

    2013-03-15

    Rye and wheat bran were treated with several xylanases and endoglucanases, and the effects on physicochemical properties such as solubility, viscosity, water-holding capacity and particle size as well as the chemical composition of the soluble and insoluble fractions of the bran were studied. A large number of enzymes with well-defined activities were used. This enabled a comparison between enzymes of different origins and with different activities as well as a comparison between the effects of the enzymes on rye and wheat bran. The xylanases derived from Bacillus subtilis were the most effective in solubilising dietary fibre from wheat and rye bran. There was a tendency for a higher degree of degradation of the soluble or solubilised dietary fibre in rye bran than in wheat bran when treated with most of the enzymes. None of the enzymes increased the water-holding capacity of the bran or the viscosity of the aqueous phase. The content of insoluble material decreased as the dietary fibre was solubilised by the enzymes. The amount of material that may form a network to retain water in the system was thereby decreased. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. The impact of extrusion on the nutritional composition, dietary fiber and in vitro digestibility of gluten-free snacks based on rice, pea and carob flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, C; Cabellos, B; Sánchez, C; Cuadrado, C; Guillamón, E; Pedrosa, M M

    2017-10-18

    Consumers and the food industry are demanding healthier products. Expanded snacks with a high nutritional value were developed from different rice, pea and carob flour blends. The proximate composition, starch (total and resistant), amylose and amylopectin, dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble) contents, and the in vitro protein digestibility of different rice-legume formulations, were evaluated before and after the extrusion process. Compared with the corresponding non-extruded blends (control), the extrusion treatment did not change the total protein content, however, it reduced the soluble protein (61-86%), the fat (69-92%) and the resistant starch contents (100%). The total starch content of all studied blends increased (2-19%) after extrusion. The processing increased the in vitro protein digestibility, reaching values around 88-95% after extrusion. Total dietary fiber was reduced around 30%, and the insoluble fraction was affected to a larger extent than the soluble fraction by the extrusion process. Because of its balanced nutritional composition, high dietary fiber content, as well as low energy density, these novel gluten-free snack-like foods could be considered as functional foods and a healthier alternative to commercially available gluten-containing or gluten-free and low nutritional value snacks.

  12. Dietary fiber, organic acids and minerals in selected wild edible fruits of Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaia, Telma; Uamusse, Amália; Sjöholm, Ingegerd; Skog, Kerstin

    2013-12-01

    The harvesting, utilization and marketing of indigenous fruits and nuts have been central to the livelihoods of the majority of rural communities in African countries. In this study we report on the content of dietary fiber, minerals and selected organic acids in the pulps and kernels of the wild fruits most commonly consumed in southern Mozambique. The content of soluble fiber in the pulps ranged from 4.3 to 65.6 g/100 g and insoluble fiber from 2.6 to 45.8 g/100 g. In the kernels the content of soluble fiber ranged from 8.4 to 42.6 g/100 g and insoluble fiber from 14.7 to 20.9 g/100 g. Citric acid was found in all fruits up to 25.7 g/kg. The kernels of Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea were shown to be rich in calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc. The data may be useful in selecting wild fruit species appropriate for incorporation into diets.

  13. Effects of a dietary intervention on gastrointestinal symptoms after prostate cancer radiotherapy: Long-term results from a randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, Anna; Nygren, Peter; Persson, Christina; Berglund, Anders; Turesson, Ingela; Johansson, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: To evaluate the long-term effects of dietary intervention on gastrointestinal symptoms after highly dose-escalated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer, using boost with protons or high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Materials and methods: Patients were randomized to an intervention group (n = 64) advised to reduce insoluble dietary fiber and lactose intake, or to a standard care group (n = 66) advised to continue their usual diet. Gastrointestinal symptoms, other domains of health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and dietary intake were evaluated for ⩽24 months post-radiotherapy with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality-of-life questionnaires QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25, Gastrointestinal Side Effects Questionnaire, and Food Frequency Questionnaire. The effect of the intervention on gastrointestinal symptoms was evaluated using generalized estimating equations. Results: Dietary intervention had no obvious effect on long-term gastrointestinal symptoms or HRQOL. The intervention group markedly reduced their dietary fiber and lactose intake during radiotherapy, but adherence tended to decline over time. The vast majority of long-term gastrointestinal symptoms were reported as ‘a little’, with a noticeable difference from pre-treatment only for unintentional stool leakage, limitations on daily activities, and mucus discharge. Conclusion: Long-term gastrointestinal symptoms were predominantly mild, and dietary intervention was not superior to a usual diet in preventing these symptoms

  14. Vitellaria paradoxa Wood as a Potential Source of Dietary Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Alanamu ABDULRAHAMAN

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the tropical developing countries, diseases such as diabetes, tuberculosis, cancer, obesity have been a continuous cause of mortality. In recent times, nutrition experts have come up with new ideas for food recipe, with a view to improving human health. One of these ideas is to enhance dietary fibre content to improve food digestibility and bowel movement. In this study the effect of the processed insoluble wood fibres on the blood system of albino rats was studied by feeding the rats with the processed Vitellaria paradoxa wood fibres added to the animals� normal diet for a period of 28 days across four treatments namely the control, 10%, 15% and 20% processed wood fibres.. These cellulosic materials incorporated into normal diet of the albino rats did not cause a reduction in the live weight of the experimental animals. A paired sample t- test conducted on the two sets of data indicated no significant difference (P = 0.8390 > 0.05 in the mean difference between mean initial and final haematocrit. Therefore the wood fibre supplemented diet did not have had any deleterious effects on the quality and quantity of the rats� blood. Thus there is also a possibility that the cellulosic fibres did not reduce the plasma cholesterol level concentrations of the rats. Processed wood was also used in baking bread. The addition of cellulosic fibres did not negatively affect the physical, chemical and baking properties of bread, but it prolonged the shelf-life of the bread.

  15. Vitellaria paradoxa Wood as a Potential Source of Dietary Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Alanamu ABDULRAHAMAN

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the tropical developing countries, diseases such as diabetes, tuberculosis, cancer, obesity have been a continuous cause of mortality. In recent times, nutrition experts have come up with new ideas for food recipe, with a view to improving human health. One of these ideas is to enhance dietary fibre content to improve food digestibility and bowel movement. In this study the effect of the processed insoluble wood fibres on the blood system of albino rats was studied by feeding the rats with the processed Vitellaria paradoxa wood fibres added to the animals normal diet for a period of 28 days across four treatments namely the control, 10%, 15% and 20% processed wood fibres.. These cellulosic materials incorporated into normal diet of the albino rats did not cause a reduction in the live weight of the experimental animals. A paired sample t- test conducted on the two sets of data indicated no significant difference (P = 0.8390 > 0.05 in the mean difference between mean initial and final haematocrit. Therefore the wood fibre supplemented diet did not have had any deleterious effects on the quality and quantity of the rats blood. Thus there is also a possibility that the cellulosic fibres did not reduce the plasma cholesterol level concentrations of the rats. Processed wood was also used in baking bread. The addition of cellulosic fibres did not negatively affect the physical, chemical and baking properties of bread, but it prolonged the shelf-life of the bread.

  16. Dietary adherence in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    This article describes adherence to a low-fat dietary pattern (less than 20% energy from fat, five or more fruit/vegetable and six or more grain servings daily) in Years 1 and 5 of the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial, which was designed to examine the effects of a low-fat dietary pattern on risk of breast and colorectal cancers and other chronic diseases in postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to a low-fat dietary intervention arm (40%, n=19,542) or a usual diet control arm (60%, n=29,294). Women in the intervention arm completed 18 group sessions during the first year, followed by quarterly annual maintenance sessions. Adherence was assessed as control minus intervention (C-I) group differences in percent total energy from fat as estimated by a food frequency questionnaire. Based on these self-reported dietary data, mean C-I was 10.9 percentage points of energy from fat at Year 1, decreasing to 9.0 at Year 5. Factors associated with poorer adherence were being older, being African American or Hispanic (compared with white), having low income, and being obese. Group session attendance was strongly associated with better dietary adherence. There are many limitations of self-reported dietary data, particularly related to social desirability and intervention-associated bias. Nonetheless, these data indicate that long-term dietary change was achieved in this clinical trial setting and reinforce the potential of the ongoing trial to answer questions of public health importance.

  17. Evaluation of total dietary fiber concentration and composition of commercial diets used for management of diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dietary fat-responsive disease in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcas, Amy K; Larsen, Jennifer A; Owens, Tammy J; Nelson, Richard W; Kass, Philip H; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2015-09-01

    To determine total dietary fiber (TDF) concentration and composition of commercial diets used for management of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and dietary fat-responsive disease in dogs. Cross-sectional study. Dry (n = 11) and canned (8) canine therapeutic diets. Insoluble and soluble dietary fiber (IDF and SDF), high-molecular-weight SDF (HMWSDF), and low-molecular-weight SDF (LMWSDF) concentrations were determined. Variables were compared among diets categorized by product guide indication, formulation (dry vs canned), and regulatory criteria for light and low-fat diets. SDF (HMWSDF and LMWSDF) comprised a median of 30.4% (range, 9.4% to 53.7%) of TDF; LMWSDF contributed a median of 11.5% (range, 2.7% to 33.8%) of TDF. Diets for diabetes management had higher concentrations of IDF and TDF with lower proportions of SDF and LMWSDF contributing to TDF, compared with diets for treatment of fat-responsive disease. Fiber concentrations varied within diet categories and between canned and dry versions of the same diet (same name and manufacturer) for all pairs evaluated. Diets classified as light contained higher TDF and IDF concentrations than did non-light diets. All canned diets were classified as low fat, despite providing up to 38% of calories as fat. Diets provided a range of TDF concentrations and compositions; veterinarians should request TDF data from manufacturers, if not otherwise available. Consistent responses to dry and canned versions of the same diet cannot necessarily be expected, and diets with the same indications may not perform similarly. Many diets may not provide adequate fat restriction for treatment of dietary fat-responsive disease.

  18. Moving Forward, Looking Back: On the Frontlines of Dietary Shift in Rural Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Gross

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the broader context of the global nutritional transition, in this article we examine local dietary practices in the northern highlands of Ecuador drawing on ethnographic research. The results of this study demonstrate that the communities studied continue to prepare whole foods for the most part. However, processed foods are also desired and consumed in some households in the area. Finally, we discuss two discourses that motivate dietary choices in this region: nostalgia and cosmopolitanism.

  19. Abortion: The Insoluble Problem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    14 Aug 1971 ... The literature on the pros and cons of therapeutic abortion must by now virtually fill an average- sized library. Every expert in every field has had his say, sometimes by invitation and sometimes unasked, yet we seem to be no nearer the answer than when we started. The legal boffins have put their case, the ...

  20. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with information regarding dietary supplements and be advised to minimise risks for ... to promote strength and muscle mass, ... selective oestrogen receptor modulators or .... It has also come to the attention of the WADA that another sub-.

  1. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing. RESULTS: Mean total....... The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline...... polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group...

  2. Evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, F; Perry, G H; Di Rienzo, A

    2010-08-21

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area.

  3. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 Print this issue Should You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More ... Gut in Check Wise Choices Safe Use of Supplements Tell all of your health care providers about ...

  4. Alzheimer's disease dietary supplements in websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmour, Nicole; Vanderbyl, Brandy L; Zimmerman, Emma; Gauthier, Serge; Racine, Eric

    2013-12-01

    Consumer demand for health information and health services has rapidly evolved to capture and even propel the movement to online health information seeking. Seventeen percent (52 million) of health information internet users will look for information about memory loss, dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) (Fox Pew Internet & American life project: Online health search. Report. Pew Research Center. http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2006/Online-Health-Search-2006.aspx 2006, Pew Research Center. http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2011/HealthTopics.aspx 2011). We examined the content of the 25 most frequently retrieved websites marketing AD dietary supplements. We found that the majority of websites and their products claimed AD-related benefits, including improvement and enhancement of function, treatment for AD, prevention of AD, maintenance of function, delayed progression of AD, and decreased symptoms. Supplements were described as effective, natural, powerful or strong, dependable and pure or of high quality. Peer reviewed references to proper scientific studies were infrequent on websites. Statements highlighting the risks of dietary supplements were as common as statements mitigating or minimizing these risks. Different strategies were used to promote supplements such as popular appeals and testimonials. Further enforcement of relevant policy is needed and preparation of clinicians to deal with requests of patients and caregivers is indicated.

  5. How to select BCAA preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Akinobu; Suzuki, Kazuyuki

    2004-12-01

    In Japan, oral branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) preparations are used in nutritional therapy for correcting disorders of protein and amino acid metabolism in patients with liver cirrhosis. There are two forms of oral BCAA preparations: enteral nutrition products for liver failure (or elemental nutrition products for liver cirrhosis) and oral BCAA granular products. Granular products are indicated for patients with uncompensated liver cirrhosis who have no dietary restriction and hypoproteinemia. Enteral nutrition products are indicated for patients who have a history of hepatic encephalopathy and exhibit protein intolerance. In clinical practice, the existence of protein intolerance in patients with uncompensated liver cirrhosis should be determined based on a history of hepatic encephalopathy and blood ammonia concentration. When patients exhibit protein intolerance, they are given a low protein diet (approximately 0.5-1.0g/kg/day) with enteral nutrition products for liver failure. However, when patients consume adequate amounts of a well-balanced diet and ammonia concentration does not increase, it is possible to control their condition with granular products. However, when patients cannot achieve an adequate dietary intake, it is recommended that enteral nutrition products should be used in order to improve nutritional status, even if these patients do not have a history of encephalopathy.

  6. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Heath, Dennis D

    2017-06-01

    Dietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. Dietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, gender, occupation and marital status). The data was collected between January 2010 and December 2012, using interview-based questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between dietary choices and risk of developing colorectal cancer. Factor analysis revealed three major dietary patterns. The first pattern we identified as the "Healthy Pattern", the second was identified as "High Sugar/High Tea Pattern" and the third as "Western Pattern". In the Healthy Pattern group we found a 10.54% variation in food intake, while the intake variation was 11.64% in the Western Pattern. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Western Pattern food choice was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of developing CRC (OR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.12-3.16). The results for the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns showed a decrease, but the statistic was not significant for the risk of CRC development. The Western Pattern of dietary choice was directly associated with CRC. The association between the dietary food choice in the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns and colorectal cancer needs further study in our Jordanian population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimating chemical composition of atmospheric deposition fluxes from mineral insoluble particles deposition collected in the western Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the mass flux of atmospheric insoluble deposition and to constrain regional models of dust simulation, a network of automatic deposition collectors (CARAGA has been installed throughout the western Mediterranean Basin. Weekly samples of the insoluble fraction of total atmospheric deposition were collected concurrently on filters at five sites including four on western Mediterranean islands (Frioul and Corsica, France; Mallorca, Spain; and Lampedusa, Italy and one in the southern French Alps (Le Casset, and a weighing and ignition protocol was applied in order to quantify their mineral fraction. Atmospheric deposition is both a strong source of nutrients and metals for marine ecosystems in this area. However, there are few data on trace-metal deposition in the literature, since their deposition measurement is difficult to perform. In order to obtain more information from CARAGA atmospheric deposition samples, this study aimed to test their relevance in estimating elemental fluxes in addition to total mass fluxes. The elemental chemical analysis of ashed CARAGA filter samples was based on an acid digestion and an elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES and mass spectrometry (MS in a clean room. The sampling and analytical protocols were tested to determine the elemental composition for mineral dust tracers (Al, Ca, K, Mg and Ti, nutrients (P and Fe and trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, V and Zn from simulated wet deposition of dust analogues and traffic soot. The relative mass loss by dissolution in wet deposition was lower than 1 % for Al and Fe, and reached 13 % for P due to its larger solubility in water. For trace metals, this loss represented less than 3 % of the total mass concentration, except for Zn, Cu and Mn for which it could reach 10 %, especially in traffic soot. The chemical contamination during analysis was negligible for all the elements except for Cd

  8. Dietary fibre concentrate from Chilean algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) pods: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana María; Figuerola, Fernando; Bernuy, Enrique; Sáenz, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    Prosopis species are generally fast-growing, drought-resistant, nitrogen-fixing trees or shrubs. Fruits of Prosopis spp are indehiscent pods, where pericarp is formed by the epicarp, light brown in colour, and fibrous nature; the mesocarp known as pulp, which is rich in sugars; and the endocarp. The aim of this work was to obtain a fibre concentrate from the pods of Prosopis chilensis Mol. (Stuntz) and to determine the chemical, physical, and technological properties of the pod flour (PF) and of a fibre concentrate or pod purified flour (PPF). Acetone, ethanol, and water at different conditions of time and temperature were used in the purification process. PF showed 53.7 g/100 g of total sugar content, 4.2 g/100 g of reducing sugar content, 41.8 g/100 g of total dietary fibre, 35.8 g/100 g of insoluble fibre, and 6.0 g/100 g of soluble fibre content. The PPF has a total sugar content of 3.8 g/100 g, reducing sugar content of 2.2 g/100 g, total dietary fibre content of 80.8 g/100 g, insoluble fibre content of 75.1 g/100 g, and soluble fibre content of 5.7 g/100 g. The scanning electron microscopy analysis showed the existence of voids in the structure of PPF flour, which reveals the efficiency of the purification process with a high decrease in the total sugar content. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Molecular and compound-specific hydrogen isotope analyses of insoluble organic matter from different carbonaceous chondrite groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Huang, Yongsong; Alexander, Conel M. O.'D.; Fogel, Marilyn; Cody, George

    2005-07-01

    We have conducted the first systematic analyses of molecular distribution and δD values of individual compounds in pyrolysates of insoluble organic matter (IOM) from different carbonaceous chondrite groups, using flash pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compound-specific D/H analysis. IOM samples from six meteorites of different classifications, Elephant Moraine (EET) 92042 (CR2), Orgueil (CI1), Allan Hills (ALH) 83100 (CM1/2), Murchison (CM2), ALH 85013 (CM2), and Tagish Lake (C2) were isolated and studied. Except for the pyrolysate of Tagish Lake IOM, pyrolysates of all five meteorite IOM samples were dominated by an extensive series of aromatic (C 1 to C 7 alkyl-substituted benzenes, C 0 to C 2 alkyl-substituted naphthalenes), with aliphatic (straight chain and branched C 10 to C 15 alkanes) hydrocarbons and several S- and O- containing compounds (C 1 to C 2 alkylthiophenes, benzothiophene, benzaldehyde) being also present. The strong similarity in the pyrolysates of different carbonaceous chondrites suggests certain common characteristics in the formation mechanisms of IOM from different meteorites. The Tagish Lake IOM sample is unique in that its pyrolysate lacks most of the alkyl-substituted aromatic hydrocarbons detected in other meteorite IOM samples, suggesting distinctively different formation processes. Both bulk δD values of meteorite IOMs and weighted-average δD values of individual compounds in pyrolysates show a decreasing trend: CR2 > CI1 > CM2 > C2 (Tagish Lake), with the EET 92042 (CR2) IOM having the highest δD values (˜2000‰ higher than other samples). We attribute the high D contents in the IOM to primitive interstellar organic sources.

  10. New pyrolytic and spectroscopic data on Orgueil and Murchison insoluble organic matter: A different origin than soluble?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remusat, Laurent; Derenne, Sylvie; Robert, François; Knicker, Heike

    2005-08-01

    Pyrolysis with and without tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), vacuum pyrolysis, and solid state 15N nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used to examine the macromolecular insoluble organic matter (IOM) from the Orgueil and Murchison meteorites. Conventional pyrolysis reveals a set of poorly functionalized aromatic compounds, ranging from one to four rings and with random methyl substitutions. These compounds are in agreement with spectroscopic and pyrolytic results previously reported. For the first time, TMAH thermochemolysis was used to study extraterrestrial material. The detection of aromatics bearing methyl esters and methoxy groups reveals the occurrence of ester and ether bridges between aromatic units in the macromolecular network. No nitrogen-containing compounds were detected with TMAH thermochemolysis, although they are a common feature in terrestrial samples. Along with vacuum pyrolysis results, thermochemolysis shows that nitrogen is probably sequestered in condensed structures like heterocyclic aromatic rings, unlike oxygen, which is mainly located within linkages between aromatic units. This is confirmed by solid state 15N NMR performed on IOM from Orgueil, showing that nitrogen is present in pyrrole, indole, and carbazole moieties. These data show that amino acids are neither derived from the hydrolysis of IOM nor from a common precursor. In order to reconcile the literature isotopic data and the present molecular results, it is proposed that aldehydes and ketones (1) originated during irradiation of ice in space and (2) were then mobilized during the planetesimal hydrothermalism, yielding the formation of amino acids. If correct, prebiotic molecules are the products of the subsurface chemistry of planetesimals and are thus undetectable through astronomical probes.

  11. Insoluble elastin reduces collagen scaffold stiffness, improves viscoelastic properties, and induces a contractile phenotype in smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alan J; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2015-12-01

    Biomaterials with the capacity to innately guide cell behaviour while also displaying suitable mechanical properties remain a challenge in tissue engineering. Our approach to this has been to utilise insoluble elastin in combination with collagen as the basis of a biomimetic scaffold for cardiovascular tissue engineering. Elastin was found to markedly alter the mechanical and biological response of these collagen-based scaffolds. Specifically, during extensive mechanical assessment elastin was found to reduce the specific tensile and compressive moduli of the scaffolds in a concentration dependant manner while having minimal effect on scaffold microarchitecture with both scaffold porosity and pore size still within the ideal ranges for tissue engineering applications. However, the viscoelastic properties were significantly improved with elastin addition with a 3.5-fold decrease in induced creep strain, a 6-fold increase in cyclical strain recovery, and with a four-parameter viscoelastic model confirming the ability of elastin to confer resistance to long term deformation/creep. Furthermore, elastin was found to result in the modulation of SMC phenotype towards a contractile state which was determined via reduced proliferation and significantly enhanced expression of early (α-SMA), mid (calponin), and late stage (SM-MHC) contractile proteins. This allows the ability to utilise extracellular matrix proteins alone to modulate SMC phenotype without any exogenous factors added. Taken together, the ability of elastin to alter the mechanical and biological response of collagen scaffolds has led to the development of a biomimetic biomaterial highly suitable for cardiovascular tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative effects of inhaled relatively insoluble forms of 90Y, 144Ce, and 90Sr on canine peripheral lymphocyte function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, S.A.; Jones, R.K.; Snipes, M.B.; Lustgarten, C.S.

    1976-01-01

    Dogs that have inhaled relatively insoluble forms of either alpha- or beta-emitting radionuclides manifest a peripheral lymphopenia, the development and course of which depends on both total dose and dose rate. The remaining peripheral lymphocytes in dogs exposed to longer lived beta-emitting radionuclides showed a depressed function as measured by the ability to respond to plant mitogens in vitro. This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of dose rate on peripheral lymphocyte function by exposing dogs to aerosols of radionuclides with varied effective half-lives in the lung: 90 Y (2.6 days), 144 Ce (170 days), and 90 Sr (650 days). Three groups of four adult beagle dogs each were exposed by inhalation to 90 Y, 144 Ce, or 90 Sr in fused-clay particles. Two controls were matched with each group. Initial lung burdens and initial dose rates to the lung were 520 to 610 μCi/kg of body weight and 2200 to 2600 rads/day in the 90 Y group, 33 to 60 μCi/kg and 200 to 350 rads/day in the 144 Ce group, and 25 to 32 μCi/kg and 130 to 170 rads/day in the 90 Sr group. Hematologic parameters and lymphocyte function as measured by the ability of lymphocytes to respond to plant mitogen stimulation were evaluated on a weekly or biweekly basis for 8 weeks after exposure and on a monthly basis thereafter. The 90 Y-exposed dogs showed a marked lymphopenia within 1 week with a return to control levels by 20 weeks after exposure. The remaining peripheral lymphocytes, however, showed no functional changes in these dogs. Animals exposed to 144 Ce or 90 Sr developed a progressive and persisent lymphopenia and showed functional depression of the remaining lymphocytes as well. The relationships among dose pattern, lymphopenia, and lymphocyte-function depression are discussed

  13. Fluoride toothpaste containing 1.5% arginine and insoluble calcium as a new standard of care in caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Cate, J M; Cummins, D

    2013-01-01

    In spite of obvious achievements in prevention, caries remains a prevalent disease. Fluorides are effective by inhibiting enamel and dentin demineralization and enhancing remineralization, but have little or no influence on bacterial processes in dental plaque. Dental caries is a continuum of stages from reversible, early lesions to irreversible, pre-cavitated lesions and, ultimately, to cavities. Prevention should focus on strengthening protective and reducing pathological factors, and careful monitoring of the disease state. While fluoride and the mineral aspects of caries have been in focus for decades, new insights into the etiology of caries have generated novel concepts and approaches to its prevention and treatment. The observation that some plaque bacteria can produce alkali metabolites and, thus, raise pH or neutralize acid formed in plaque has long been known. Such pH rise factors are related to caries susceptibility. Nourishing the plaque with substrates that encourage alkali-producing reactions is a protective factor in the caries continuum. This article reviews the results of clinical studies with a novel toothpaste containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound, and fluoride which have demonstrated superior remineralization of white spot enamel lesions and rehardening of root surface lesions, favorable effects on the de-/remineralization balance, as well as superior cavity prevention efficacy compared to toothpaste with fluoride alone. Studies have also confirmed formation of ammonia and elevated pH levels in subjects using the arginine-containing toothpaste. This novel toothpaste effectively combines the established effects of fluoride on de- and remineralization with reduction of caries-inducing pathological factors resulting from plaque metabolism.

  14. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 chemotaxis proteins and electron-transport chain components essential for congregation near insoluble electron acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, H Wayne; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y; Nealson, Kenneth H

    2012-12-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cells utilize a behaviour response called electrokinesis to increase their speed in the vicinity of IEAs (insoluble electron acceptors), including manganese oxides, iron oxides and poised electrodes [Harris, El-Naggar, Bretschger, Ward, Romine, Obraztsova and Nealson (2010) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 326-331]. However, it is not currently understood how bacteria remain in the vicinity of the IEA and accumulate both on the surface and in the surrounding medium. In the present paper, we provide results indicating that cells that have contacted the IEAs swim faster than those that have not recently made contact. In addition, fast-swimming cells exhibit an enhancement of swimming reversals leading to rapid non-random accumulation of cells on, and adjacent to, mineral particles. We call the observed accumulation near IEAs 'congregation'. Congregation is eliminated by the loss of a critical gene involved with EET (extracellular electron transport) (cymA, SO_4591) and is altered or eliminated in several deletion mutants of homologues of genes that are involved with chemotaxis or energy taxis in Escherichia coli. These genes include chemotactic signal transduction protein (cheA-3, SO_3207), methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins with the Cache domain (mcp_cache, SO_2240) or the PAS (Per/Arnt/Sim) domain (mcp_pas, SO_1385). In the present paper, we report studies of S. oneidensis MR-1 that lend some insight into how microbes in this group can 'sense' the presence of a solid substrate such as a mineral surface, and maintain themselves in the vicinity of the mineral (i.e. via congregation), which may ultimately lead to attachment and biofilm formation.

  15. Phases and phase transition in insoluble and adsorbed monolayers of amide amphiphiles: Specific characteristics of the condensed phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollhardt, D

    2015-08-01

    For understanding the role of amide containing amphiphiles in inherently complex biological processes, monolayers at the air-water interface are used as simple biomimetic model systems. The specific characteristics of the condensed phases and phase transition in insoluble and adsorbed monolayers of amide amphiphiles are surveyed to highlight the effect of the chemical structure of the amide amphiphiles on the interfacial interactions in model monolayers. The mesoscopic topography and/or two-dimensional lattice structures of selected amino acid amphiphiles, amphiphilic N-alkylaldonamide, amide amphiphiles with specific tailored headgroups, such as amide amphiphiles based on derivatized ethanolamine, e.g. acylethanolamines (NAEs) and N-,O-diacylethanolamines (DAEs) are presented. Special attention is devoted the dominance of N,O-diacylated ethanolamine in mixed amphiphilic acid amide monolayers. The evidence that a first order phase transition can occur in adsorption layers and that condensed phase domains of mesoscopic scale can be formed in adsorption layers was first obtained on the basis of the experimental characteristics of a tailored amide amphiphile. New thermodynamic and kinetic concepts for the theoretical description of the characteristics of amide amphiphile's monolayers were developed. In particular, the equation of state for Langmuir monolayers generalized for the case that one, two or more phase transitions occur, and the new theory for phase transition in adsorbed monolayers are experimentally confirmed at first by amide amphiphile monolayers. Despite the significant progress made towards the understanding the model systems, these model studies are still limited to transfer the gained knowledge to biological systems where the fundamental physical principles are operative in the same way. The study of biomimetic systems, as described in this review, is only a first step in this direction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood among mayak facility workers who inhaled insoluble forms of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okladnikova, N. D.; Scott, B. R.; Tokarskaya, Z. B.; Zhuntova, G. V.; Khokhryakov, V. F.; Syrchikov, V. A.; Grigoryeva, E. S.

    2005-01-01

    A cytogenetic study was performed on 79 plutonium (Pu) workers chronically exposed to alpha radiation from inhaled, low-transportable (insoluble) compounds of airborne 239 Pu and to external gamma rays. Body burden estimates for 239 Pu ranged from 0 to 15.5 kBq. Chromosomal aberrations (CAs) (stable and unstable among peripheral blood lymphocytes and cumulative alpha radiation doses were evaluated ∼25 y after first contact with 239 Pu. For the cytogenetic analyses, a standard two-day peripheral blood lymphocyte culture technique was applied. While alpha radiation doses continually increase up to the time of cytogenetic measurements, significant gamma ray exposures essentially ceased long before the time of measurement, so that alpha and gamma doses were not correlated. For the exposed workers, the mean 239 Pu body burden (estimate), evaluated at the time of the cytogenetic measurement, was 1.23 ± 0.26 kBq and the corresponding mean absorbed external gamma ray dose (estimate) to the total body was 0.076 ± 0.009 Gy. Single and multivariate regression analyses were performed on the CA data. Stable, unstable and total aberrations increased as the 239 Pu body burden increased over the range 0-4.5 kBq. However, above this range little additional increase was observed. CAs were weakly correlated with time since the first intake of 239 Pu. No relationship between chromatid aberrations and 239 Pu incorporation was found. Unstable (but not stable) aberrations were correlated with gamma radiation dose. No significant relationship of CA and smoking was found. (authors)

  17. CCN activation experiments with adipic acid: effect of particle phase and adipic acid coatings on soluble and insoluble particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Hings

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Slightly soluble atmospherically relevant organic compounds may influence particle CCN activity and therefore cloud formation. Adipic acid is a frequently employed surrogate for such slightly soluble organic materials. The 11 published experimental studies on the CCN activity of adipic acid particles are not consistent with each other nor do they, in most cases, agree with the Köhler theory. The CCN activity of adipic acid aerosol particles was studied over a significantly wider range of conditions than in any previous single study. The work spans the conditions of the previous studies and also provides alternate methods for producing "wet" (deliquesced solution droplets and dry adipic acid particles without the need to produce them by atomization of aqueous solutions. The experiments suggest that the scatter in the previously published CCN measurements is most likely due to the difficulty of producing uncontaminated adipic acid particles by atomization of solutions and possibly also due to uncertainties in the calibration of the instruments. The CCN activation of the small (dm<150 nm initially dry particles is subject to a deliquescence barrier, while for the larger particles the activation follows the Köhler curve. Wet adipic acid particles follow the Köhler curve over the full range of particle diameters studied. In addition, the effect of adipic acid coatings on the CCN activity of both soluble and insoluble particles has also been studied. When a water-soluble core is coated by adipic acid, the CCN-hindering effect of particle phase is eliminated. An adipic acid coating on hydrophobic soot yields a CCN active particle. If the soot particle is relatively small (dcore≤102 nm, the CCN activity of the coated particles approaches the deliquescence line of adipic acid, suggesting that the total size of the particle determines CCN activation and the soot core acts as a scaffold.

  18. The Relationships Between Insoluble Precipitation Residues, Clouds, and Precipitation Over California's Southern Sierra Nevada During Winter Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamean, Jessie M.; White, Allen B.; Minnis, Patrick; Palikonda, Rabindra; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Prather, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Ice formation in orographic mixed-phase clouds can enhance precipitation and depends on the type of aerosols that serve as ice nucleating particles (INP). The resulting precipitation from these clouds is a viable source of water, especially for regions such as the California Sierra Nevada. Thus, a better understanding of the sources of INP that impact orographic clouds is important for assessing water availability in California. This study presents a multi-site, multi-year analysis of single particle insoluble residues in precipitation samples that likely influenced cloud ice and precipitation formation above Yosemite National Park. Dust and biological particles represented the dominant fraction of the residues (64% on average). Cloud glaciation, determined using GOES satellite observations, not only depended on high cloud tops (greater than 6.2 km) and low temperatures (less than -26 C), but also on the composition of the dust and biological residues. The greatest prevalence of ice-phase clouds occurred in conjunction with biologically-rich residues and mineral dust rich in calcium, followed by iron and aluminosilicates. Dust and biological particles are known to be efficient INP, thus these residues are what likely influenced ice formation in clouds above the sites and subsequent precipitation quantities reaching the surface during events with similar meteorology. The goal of this study is to use precipitation chemistry information to gain a better understanding of the potential sources of INP in the south-central Sierra Nevada, where cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions are under-studied and where mixed-phase orographic clouds represent a key element in the generation of precipitation and thus the water supply in California.

  19. Combined Effects of Supersaturation Rates and Doses on the Kinetic-Solubility Profiles of Amorphous Solid Dispersions Based on Water-Insoluble Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schver, Giovanna C R M; Lee, Ping I

    2018-05-07

    Under nonsink dissolution conditions, the kinetic-solubility profiles of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) based on soluble carriers typically exhibit so-called "spring-and-parachute" concentration-time behaviors. However, the kinetic-solubility profiles of ASDs based on insoluble carriers (including hydrogels) are known to show sustained supersaturation during nonsink dissolution through a matrix-regulated diffusion mechanism by which the supersaturation of the drug is built up gradually and sustained over an extended period without any dissolved polymers acting as crystallization inhibitors. Despite previous findings demonstrating the interplay between supersaturation rates and total doses on the kinetic-solubility profiles of soluble amorphous systems (including ASDs based on dissolution-regulated releases from soluble polymer carriers), the combined effects of supersaturation rates and doses on the kinetic-solubility profiles of ASDs based on diffusion-regulated releases from water-insoluble carriers have not been investigated previously. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine the impacts of total doses and supersaturation-generation rates on the resulting kinetic-solubility profiles of ASDs based on insoluble hydrogel carriers. We employed a previously established ASD-carrier system based on water-insoluble-cross-linked-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA)-hydrogel beads and two poorly water soluble model drugs: the weakly acidic indomethacin (IND) and the weakly basic posaconazole (PCZ). Our results show clearly for the first time that by using the smallest-particle-size fraction and a high dose (i.e., above the critical dose), it is indeed possible to significantly shorten the duration of sustained supersaturation in the kinetic-solubility profile of an ASD based on a water-insoluble hydrogel carrier, such that it resembles the spring-and-parachute dissolution profiles normally associated with ASDs based on soluble carriers. This generates

  20. Synthesis of imine bond containing insoluble polymeric ligand and its transition metal complexes, structural characterization and catalytic activity on esterification reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönül, İlyas; Ay, Burak; Karaca, Serkan; Saribiyik, Oguz Yunus; Yildiz, Emel; Serin, Selahattin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, synthesis of insoluble polymeric ligand (L) and its transition metal complexes [Cu(L)Cl 2 ]·2H 2 O (1) , [Co(L)Cl 2 (H 2 O) 2 ] (2) and [Ni(L)Cl 2 (H 2 O) 2 ] (3) , having the azomethine groups, were synthesized by the condensation reactions of the diamines and dialdehydes. The structural properties were characterized by the analytical and spectroscopic methods using by elemental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, Powder X-ray Diffraction, magnetic susceptibility and Inductively Coupled Plasma. The solubilities of the synthesized polymeric materials were also investigated and found as insoluble some organic and inorganic solvents. Additionally, their catalytic performance was carried out for the esterification reaction of acetic acid and butyl acetate. The highest conversion rate is 75.75% by using catalyst 1 . The esterification of butanol gave butyl acetate with 100% selectivity.

  1. Potent inhibitory effects of D-tagatose on the acid production and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of Streptococcus mutans GS5 in the presence of sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Daijo; Ogawa, Takaaki; Miyake, Minoru; Hasui, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Izumori, Ken; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    We examined and compared the inhibitory effects of D-tagatose on the growth, acid production, and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of GS5, a bacterial strain of Streptococcus mutans, with those of xylitol, D-psicose, L-psicose and L-tagatose. GS5 was cultured for 12h in a medium containing 10% (w/v) of xylitol, D-psicose, L-psicose, D-tagatose or L-tagatose, and the inhibitory effect of GS5 growth was assessed. Each sugar showed different inhibitory effects on GS5. Both D-tagatose and xylitol significantly inhibited the acid production and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of GS5 in the presence of 1% (w/v) sucrose. However, the inhibitory effect of acid production by D-tagatose was significantly stronger than that of xylitol in presence of sucrose.

  2. Racial differences in correlations between reported dietary intakes of carotenoids and their concentration biomarkers123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Lenore; Cambou, Mary C; Craft, Neal; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine; Jardack, Patricia; Ang, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Background: The predictive ability of dietary assessment methods to estimate specific circulating plasma carotenoid concentrations has been compared between African Americans and whites in only one study to date. Objective: The predictive abilities of 24-h dietary recalls and a food-frequency questionnaire in reporting dietary carotenoids when measured against concentration biomarkers were assessed in African Americans and compared with the findings in whites. Design: Data were collected from 250 generally healthy, nonsmoking white and African American participants aged 21–69 y, who completed 8 self-administered online 24-h dietary recalls and one National Cancer Institute diet-history questionnaire in the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Energetics Study. Mean intakes from 4-d dietary recalls were correlated with plasma xanthophyll concentrations (lutein + zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin) and hydrocarbon carotenoids (lycopene, α-carotene, and β-carotene). Results: Adjusted correlations of plasma carotenoids with reported dietary intakes for African Americans in the 24-h dietary recall ranged from 0.03 for β-carotene to 0.40 for β-cryptoxanthin. For whites, the correlations ranged from 0.13 for lycopene to 0.51 for β-cryptoxanthin. Conclusions: Despite stronger validity in reported energy intakes for African Americans than for whites in the 24-h dietary recall in the Energetics Study, both recalls and food-frequency dietary assessment methods yielded lower correlations in African Americans than in whites. This finding might be attributable to reporting differences in both dietary sources and food preparation or to racially related genetic variants influencing circulating concentrations. The current findings support the need to account for differences in race, age, sex, and body mass index in regression calibrations of dietary reports and measurement error adjustments. PMID:21389177

  3. Radioprotective preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, D.; Frattadochi, A.; Gattavecchia, E.; Ferri, E.; Tonnelli, D.

    1988-01-01

    The invention is intended for radiation injuries prophylaxis in mammals. It has an well expressed radioprotective effect against acute gamma irradiation on cellular level as well as a prolonged action when applied up to 48 hours before the acute irradiation. The preparation is a coprecipitate of the natural tripeptide glutathione (reduced form) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (pvp) in ratio 30-60/70-40. It is obtained by incubation method with subsequent lyophilization from water solution of the initial components. The molecular mass of the pvp is 20 till 360.10 3 . 2 claims

  4. Target preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinn, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A few of the more interesting of the 210 targets prepared in the Laboratory last year are listed. In addition the author continues to use powdered silver mixed with /sup 9,10/BeO to produce sources for accelerator radio dating of Alaskan and South Polar snow. Currently, he is trying to increase production by multiple sample processing. Also the author routinely makes 3 μg/cm 2 cracked slacked carbon stripper foils and is continuing research with some degree of success in making enriched 28 Si targets starting with the oxide

  5. The part of soluble and insoluble forms of Pb, Be, Ba, Ca, Mg, Sr in particulate matter and in the pharyngeal tonsils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gerycka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Previous studies have confirmed that the pharyngeal tonsil is a good biomarker of exposure due to its position relative to inhaled air so that multiple elements can be accumulated in this organ. The aim of the study is to determine the share of soluble and insoluble compounds of individual elements in suspended particles in the accumulation of Pb, Be, Ba, Sr, Ca,Mg by the pharyngeal tonsils. Material and methods. The content of the analyzed elements is defined in 86 samples of pharyngeal tonsils from children living in Tychy and in 76 samples of pharyngeal tonsils from children living in Chorzów, as well as in the suspended particles in the air occurring in soluble and insoluble form. The specified coefficients k1, k2 present in the equation division allow the indication the greater importance of soluble and insoluble fraction of an element present in the inhaled air. Results. The value of the coefficients in the equation division based on gender confirmed its importance. Conclusions. The values detect area variation in relation to passive smoking in the extent of accumulation of Pb, Be, Ba, Sr, Mg, Ca in pharyngeal tonsils.

  6. Acyclic cucurbit[n]uril-type molecular containers: influence of aromatic walls on their function as solubilizing excipients for insoluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ben; Isaacs, Lyle

    2014-11-26

    We studied the influence of the aromatic sidewalls on the ability of acyclic CB[n]-type molecular containers (1a-1e) to act as solubilizing agents for 19 insoluble drugs including the developmental anticancer agent PBS-1086. All five containers exhibit good water solubility and weak self-association (Ks ≤ 624 M(-1)). We constructed phase solubility diagrams to extract Krel and Ka values for the container·drug complexes. The acyclic CB[n]-type containers generally display significantly higher Ka values than HP-β-CD toward drugs. Containers 1a-1e bind the steroidal ring system and aromatic moieties of insoluble drugs. Compound 1b displays highest affinity toward most of the drugs studied. Containers 1a and 1b are broadly applicable and can be used to formulate a wider variety of insoluble drugs than was previously possible with cyclodextrin technology. For drugs that are solubilized by both HP-β-CD and 1a-1e, lower concentrations of 1a-1e are required to achieve identical [drug].

  7. A laboratory study of washing of SRS high-level waste radioactive sludge-evidence for insoluble sodium and cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.S.; Bibler, N.E.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments in the Shielded Cells at the Savannah River Technology Center were undertaken to simulate the full-scale sludge washing process and thereby identify potential problems, wash water requirements, sludge settling rates and the fate of various radioactive and non-radioactive species present in the sludge. The laboratory sludge washing experiments were conducted on a radioactive sludge sample taken from one of three processing tanks in Extended Sludge Processing. The sample of Tank 42H sludge was extensively characterized for both soluble and insoluble species (radioactive and non-radioactive) before beginning the washing study. The results of the washing experiments using inhibited water (0.01 M NaOH) indicate there is essentially no dissolution of species from the insoluble phase of the sludge during the washing. The addition of wash water to the sludge merely dilutes the salt dissolved in the interstitial supernate of the sludge. Another result from the experiments is that approximately 30% of the sodium and 86% of the Cs-137 in the original unwashed sludge is present in an insoluble form and does not wash out of the sludge

  8. The association between acculturation and dietary patterns of South Asian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Iris A; Gasevic, Danijela; Lear, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Dietary acculturation, specifically the adoption of western dietary habits, may result in adverse health effects such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the role of acculturation in dietary patterns as well as awareness and knowledge of healthy nutrition among South Asian immigrants. This is an especially important population to target as South Asians have higher prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which may be magnified with immigration. The current investigation is a sub-study of the Multi-Cultural Community Health Assessment Trial (M-CHAT). There were 207 participants of South Asian origin included in the initial study, 129 were born outside of Canada and had immigrated after the age of 18. The length of residence in Canada was used as a marker for acculturation. A questionnaire addressing perceived changes in dietary patterns, food preparation, and nutrition knowledge and awareness since immigration was used to assess dietary practices. The association between length of residence and variables related to perceived changes in dietary patterns was explored with Spearman correlation and significant associations were subsequently analyzed with ordinal logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, education and body mass index. South Asian immigrants in Canada reported a variety of positive dietary practices, including an increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and an improvement in food preparation (including an increase in grilling and a decrease in deep frying when cooking). However, there was a reported increase in the consumption of convenience foods, sugar-sweetened beverages, red meat and in dining out. South Asian immigrants in Canada reported a variety of positive dietary practices including an improvement in food preparation. Future health promotion strategies should encourage cultural sensitivity in efforts to reduce the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage, convenience foods

  9. The association between acculturation and dietary patterns of South Asian immigrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris A Lesser

    Full Text Available Dietary acculturation, specifically the adoption of western dietary habits, may result in adverse health effects such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the role of acculturation in dietary patterns as well as awareness and knowledge of healthy nutrition among South Asian immigrants. This is an especially important population to target as South Asians have higher prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which may be magnified with immigration. The current investigation is a sub-study of the Multi-Cultural Community Health Assessment Trial (M-CHAT. There were 207 participants of South Asian origin included in the initial study, 129 were born outside of Canada and had immigrated after the age of 18. The length of residence in Canada was used as a marker for acculturation. A questionnaire addressing perceived changes in dietary patterns, food preparation, and nutrition knowledge and awareness since immigration was used to assess dietary practices. The association between length of residence and variables related to perceived changes in dietary patterns was explored with Spearman correlation and significant associations were subsequently analyzed with ordinal logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, education and body mass index. South Asian immigrants in Canada reported a variety of positive dietary practices, including an increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and an improvement in food preparation (including an increase in grilling and a decrease in deep frying when cooking. However, there was a reported increase in the consumption of convenience foods, sugar-sweetened beverages, red meat and in dining out. South Asian immigrants in Canada reported a variety of positive dietary practices including an improvement in food preparation. Future health promotion strategies should encourage cultural sensitivity in efforts to reduce the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage

  10. The Content of Mercury in Herbal Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodziak-Dopierała, Barbara; Fischer, Agnieszka; Szczelina, Wioletta; Stojko, Jerzy

    2018-01-17

    The dietary supplement market in Poland has been growing rapidly, and the number of registered products and their consumption increases steadily. Among the most popular and the easiest to get are herbal supplements, available in any supermarket. The aim of this paper was to investigate the mercury content in the herbal supplements. The dietary supplements that have been examined (24) are available on the Polish market and contain one or more herbal ingredients. Supplements were pulverized in porcelain mortar and identified by AMA 254 atomic absorption spectrometer. The range of variations for all tested supplements was within 0.02-4293.07 μg/kg. The arithmetic mean of the total result was 193.77 μg/kg. A higher mercury content then this mean was found in preparations-bamboo shoots and alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The studies have shown that mercury is present in every examined herbal supplement, and its content exceeds in two preparations (with bamboo and alga) the permissible limit of 0.10 mg/kg. There were statistically significant differences in the occurrence of mercury depending on the herbal ingredient in the supplement. The lowest content was found in the preparation with Tanacetum parthenium and the highest with bamboo shoots. The mercury content in the tested herbal supplements was statistically significant in the form of a supplement-a tablet and a capsule. Daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly consumption of mercury with examined supplements was calculated-the results did not exceed the PTWI-provisional tolerable weekly intake of mercury. To increase consumer safety, it is imperative to conduct further research on dietary supplements and implement a stricter quality control of the dietary supplements.

  11. Dietary divercin modifies gastrointestinal microbiota and improves growth performance in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jozefiak, D.; Sip, A.; Rawski, M.

    2011-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary administration of a divercin AS7 liquid preparation on broiler chicken performance, nutrient digestibility, counts of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coliform bacteria, as well as on the microbial activity in the gastrointes......1. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary administration of a divercin AS7 liquid preparation on broiler chicken performance, nutrient digestibility, counts of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coliform bacteria, as well as on the microbial activity...

  12. Antigenotoxicity of Dietary Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lim-Sylianco

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzo(apyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, methylmethanesulfonate and tetracycline induced formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes indicating that these substances are genotoxic to bone marrow cells of the experimental mice.Genotoxicity of these substances to germ cells was also observed when low fertility index and high percentage dead implants were induced in experimental mice.When each genotoxin was administered to mice fed with diets containing 18 % coconut oil for 23 days, the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was greatly reduced. Antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil was very much greater than dietary soybean oil.Germ cell genotoxicity of each genotoxin was also reduced when male mice fed the 18 % coconut oil diet were used. When male mice treated with the genotoxin was mated with virgin females, fertility index was increased in the group fed with coconut oil diet. Percentage dead implants was reduced. The antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil on germ cells far exceeds that of dietary soybean oil.Dietary restriction of coconut oil diets enhanced the antigenotoxic activity of coconut oil in bone marrow cells and germs cells.Among the triacylglycerols of coconut oil, trilaurin gave the best antigenotoxic activity in bone marrow cells. Trilaurin is the major triacylglycerol in coconut oil.

  13. Dietary protein-fiber ratio associates with circulating levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M; Johnson, D W; Xu, H; Carrero, J J; Pascoe, E; French, C; Campbell, K L

    2015-09-01

    Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) are uremic toxins derived solely from colonic bacterial fermentation of protein. Dietary fiber may counteract this by limiting proteolytic bacterial fermentation. However, the influence of dietary intake on the generation of IS and PCS has not been adequately explored in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This cross-sectional study included 40 CKD participants (60% male; age 69 ± 10 years; 45% diabetic) with a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 24 ± 8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), who enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of synbiotic therapy. Total and free serum IS and PCS were measured at baseline by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Dietary intake was measured using in-depth diet histories collected by a dietitian. Associations between each toxin, dietary fiber (total, soluble and insoluble), dietary protein (total, and amino acids: tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine), and the protein-fiber index (ratio of protein to fiber) were assessed using linear regression. Dietary fiber was associated with free and total serum PCS (r = -0.42 and r = -0.44, both p protein and either toxin. The protein-fiber index was associated with total serum IS (r = 0.40, p = 0.012) and PCS (r = 0.43, p = 0.005), independent of eGFR, sex and diabetes. Dietary protein-fiber index is associated with serum IS and PCS levels. Such association, beyond fiber and protein alone, highlights the importance of the interplay between these nutrients. We speculate that dietary modification towards a lower protein-fiber index may contribute to lowering IS and PCS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary risk factors for colon and rectal cancers: a comparative case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Kenji; Hirose, Kaoru; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Kuriki, Kiyonori; Suzuki, Takeshi; Kato, Tomoyuki; Hirai, Takashi; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Tajima, Kazuo

    2006-05-01

    In Japan, the incidence rate of colon cancer has more rapidly increased than that of rectal cancer. The differential secular trends may be due to different dietary factors in the development of colon and rectal cancers. To compare dietary risk factors between colon and rectal cancers, we undertook a case-control study at Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Japan. Subjects were 507 patients with newly diagnosed colon (n = 265) and rectal (n = 242) cancers, and 2,535 cancer-free outpatients (controls). Intakes of nutrients and food groups were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire, and multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using unconditional logistic models. We found a decreasing risk of colon cancer with increasing intakes of calcium and insoluble dietary fiber; the multivariate ORs across quartiles of intake were 1.00, 0.90, 0.80, and 0.67 (trend p = 0.040), and 1.00, 0.69, 0.64, and 0.65 (trend p = 0.027), respectively. For rectal cancer, a higher consumption of carotene and meat was associated with a reduced risk; the corresponding ORs were 1.00, 1.10, 0.71, and 0.70 for carotene (trend p = 0.028), and 1.00, 0.99, 0.68, and 0.72 for meat (trend p = 0.036). Carbohydrate intake was positively correlated with the risk of rectal cancer (ORs over quartiles: 1.00, 1.14, 1.42, and 1.54; trend p = 0.048). This association was stronger in women, while fat consumption was inversely correlated with the risk of female colon and rectal cancers. Dietary risk factors appear to considerably differ between colon and rectal cancers.

  15. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid production, antioxidant activity in some germinated dietary seeds and the effect of cooking on their GABA content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasarin TIANSAWANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Germinated grains have been known as sources of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA that provide beneficial effects for human health. This study was aimed to investigate GABA production, dietary fiber, antioxidant activity, and the effect of cooking on GABA loss in germinated legumes and sesame. The highest GABA content was found in germinated mung bean, (0.8068 g kg-1, 24 h incubation followed by germinated soybean, germinated black bean and soaked sesame. Beside GABA, dietary fiber content also increased in all grains during germination where the insoluble dietary fiber fractions were always found in higher proportions to soluble dietary fiber fractions. Our results also confirmed that germinated mung bean is a rich source of GABA and dietary fibers. Microwave cooking resulted in the smallest loss of GABA in mung bean and sesame, while steaming led to the least GABA content loss in soybean and black bean. Therefore microwave cooking and steaming are the most recommended cooking processes to preserve GABA in germinated legumes and sesame.

  16. Dietary reference values for thiamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived dietary reference values (DRVs) for thiamin (vitamin B1). The Panel considers that data from depletion–repletion studies in adults on the amount of dietary thiamin intake...... were measured. Results from other depletion–repletion studies are in agreement with this value. The Panel agrees on the coefficient of variation of 20% used by the SCF to cover uncertainties related to distribution of thiamin requirements in the general population, and endorses the population reference...

  17. Estimation of the True Digestibility of Rumen Undegraded Dietary Protein in the Small Intestine of Ruminants by the Mobile Bag Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Torben; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Andersen, L. S.

    1992-01-01

    Dietary protein degraded to various extents by varying the time of rumen incubation was prepared from eight concentrates and four roughages. Intestinal digestibility was obtained using the mobile bag technique on intact protein and on the samples of undegraded dietary protein from each feed. The ...

  18. Inuit dietary patterns in modern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions.......The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions....

  19. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary...

  20. Estimating the Distribution of Dietary Consumption Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States the preferred method of obtaining dietary intake data is the 24-hour dietary recall, yet the measure of most interest is usual or long-term average daily intake, which is impossible to measure. Thus, usual dietary intake

  1. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by a...

  2. Determination of caffeine and identification of undeclared substances in dietary supplements and caffeine dietary exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Diana Brito da Justa; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2017-07-01

    Caffeine is one of the most consumed stimulants in the world, and is a frequent ingredient of dietary supplements. The aims of this work were to validate a GC-MS method for the quantitation of caffeine and identification of other substances in supplements, mainly weight loss products, and to estimate the caffeine intake by consumers. Sample preparation included extraction with chloroform:water in ultrasonic bath, centrifugation and analysis of the organic layer for caffeine quantitation, and extraction with methanol for identification of other substances. A total of 213 samples of 52 supplement products not registered in Brazil and seized by the Brazilian Federal Police were analyzed. From the 109 samples that declared the amount of caffeine present, 26.6% contained more than 120% of the specified content. Considering the maximum recommended dose stated on the product labels, the consumption of 47.9% of the samples would lead to a daily intake of caffeine above the safe limit of 400 mg. Undeclared drugs, including sibutramine, phenolphthalein, amphepramone and femproporex were found in 28 samples. These results show that consumers of dietary supplements should be aware that these products might contain caffeine at levels that could represent potential health risks, in addition to undeclared pharmaceutical drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary Patterns and Human Reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Vujkovic (Marijana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPart 1 of the thesis focuses on dietary patterns and fatty acid intake in couples undergoing IVF/ICSI fertility treatment. The studies described in Chapter 2, 3 and 4 are based on the FOod Lifestyle and Fertility Outcome study (FOLFO), a prospective cohort study examining the influence

  4. Dietary reference values for riboflavin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for riboflavin. The Panel considers that the inflection point in the urinary riboflavin excretion curve in relation to riboflavin intake...

  5. Dietary reference values for potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for potassium. The Panel decides to set DRVs on the basis of the relationships between potassium intake and blood pressure and stroke...

  6. 9691 KNOWLEDGE OF RECOMMENDED DIETARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    and obese body weight categories. Thus, this investigation indicated an ... understand the role of dietary cholesterol in disease progression or prevention. In addition, some consumers may regard all fats ... frequency of consumption of food rich in cholesterol, and medical check-up was used as an instrument for this study.

  7. Prohibited Contaminants in Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Neilson M

    With the increasing use of unregulated dietary supplements, athletes are at continued risk from adverse medical events and inadvertent doping. A review of Clinical Key, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases from 2012 to 2017 was performed using search terms, including dietary supplement, contamination, doping in athletes, inadvertent doping, and prohibited substances. The references of pertinent articles were reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 3. Poor manufacturing processes and intentional contamination with many banned substances continue to occur in dietary supplements sold in the United States. Certain sectors, such as weight loss and muscle-building supplements, pose a greater threat because they are more likely to be contaminated. Athletes will continue to be at risk for adverse events and failed doping tests due to contaminated dietary supplements until legislation changes how they are regulated. In the interim, there are several steps that can be taken to mitigate this risk, including improved education of medical staff and athletes and use of third party-certified products.

  8. The knowledge of dietary rules among patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Świrska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of diabetes increases in Poland and all over the world. Diet is an integral element of diabetes therapy. The knowledge of dietary rules and compliance with them facilitates body mass reduction and improves metabolic parameters of the body thus preventing diabetes’ complications development. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of dietary rules among diabetic patients. Material and methods: The study included 50 patients with recognized diabetes  who were hospitalized in SPSK-4 hospital in Lublin from January to May, 2016. In the study the diagnostic survey was applied. Results: The knowledge of basic dietary rules in diabetes among the majority of surveyed diabetic patients (64% was unsatisfactory. The most significant deficit included lack of acquaintance with glycemic index and carbohydrate exchanges thus making it impossible to make use of them in preparing everyday meals. The knowledge of the surveyed patients depended on their educational status, place of residence and age. Unsatisfactory knowledge was found among 82% of patients  with primary education vs. 40% with higher education, in 80% with countryside residence vs. 53% residing in town and in 80% of patients aged 31-40  and 41-55 years vs. 50% aged 18-30. Conclusion: Dietary education is a necessary element of diabetes therapy. Educating patients about diabetic diet should be repeated regularly as even patients with long-standing diabetes history have unsatisfactory knowledge about the dietary rules. Preferably, educating should be individual and adjusted to patient’s age and education.

  9. Dietary mutagen exposure and risk of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Donghui; Day, Rena Sue; Bondy, Melissa L; Sinha, Rashmi; Nguyen, Nga T; Evans, Douglas B; Abbruzzese, James L; Hassan, Manal M

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the association between dietary exposure to food mutagens and risk of pancreatic cancer, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center during June 2002 to May 2006. A total of 626 cases and 530 noncancer controls were frequency matched for race, sex and age (+/-5 years). Dietary exposure information was collected via personal interview using a meat preparation questionnaire. A significantly greater portion of the cases than controls showed a preference to well-done pork, bacon, grilled chicken, and pan-fried chicken, but not to hamburger and steak. Cases had a higher daily intake of food mutagens and mutagenicity activity (revertants per gram of daily meat intake) than controls did. The daily intakes of 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), as well as the mutagenic activity, were significant predictors for pancreatic cancer (P = 0.008, 0.031, and 0.029, respectively) with adjustment of other confounders. A significant trend of elevated cancer risk with increasing DiMeIQx intake was observed in quintile analysis (P(trend) = 0.024). A higher intake of dietary mutagens (those in the two top quintiles) was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of pancreatic cancer among those without a family history of cancer but not among those with a family history of cancer. A possible synergistic effect of dietary mutagen exposure and smoking was observed among individuals with the highest level of exposure (top 10%) to PhIP and BaP, P(interaction) = 0.09 and 0.099, respectively. These data support the hypothesis that dietary mutagen exposure alone and in interaction with other factors contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer.

  10. The impact of diet liberalization on bowel preparation for colonoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, James; Francis, Gloria; Matro, Rebecca; Kedika, Ramalinga; Grosso, Rachael; Keith, Scott W.; Kastenberg, David

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims?Dietary restrictions are integral to colonoscopy preparation and impact patient satisfaction. Utilizing split-dose, lower-volume polyethylene glycol 3350-electrolyte solution (PEG-ELS), this study compared colon preparation adequacy of a low-residue diet to clear liquids using a validated grading scale. Patients and methods?This was a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, single-center non-inferiority study evaluating diet the day prior to outpatient colonoscopy. ...

  11. The dietary fiber profile of fruit peels and functionality modifications induced by high hydrostatic pressure treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Ortigoza, Viridiana; García-Amezquita, Luis Eduardo; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O; Welti-Chanes, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and temperature on composition of non-conventional dietary fiber (DF) sources and functional properties were evaluated. Mango, orange, or prickly pear peels were processed at 600 MPa during 10 min at 22 ℃ and 55 ℃. Total (TDF), soluble (SDF), and insoluble (IDF) dietary fiber, water/oil holding, and retention capacity, solubility, swelling capacity, and bulk density were assayed. An increment in the SDF content was observed due to the effect of pressure with the greatest changes noticed in mango peel, increasing from 37.4% (control) to 45.7% (SDF/TDF) in the HHP-treated (55 ℃) sample. Constant values of TDF after the treatments suggest a conversion of IDF to SDF in mango (38.9%-40.5% dw) and orange (49.0%-50.8% dw) peels. The highest fiber solubility values were observed for mango peel ranging between 80.3% and 83.9%, but the highest increase, from 55.1% to 62.3%, due to treatment was displayed in orange peel processed at 22 ℃. A relationship between DF modifications induced by HHP treatment and changes in the functional properties of the materials was established. Application of HHP opens up the opportunity to modify non-conventional sources of DF and to obtain novel functional properties for different food applications.

  12. Fibroblast receptor for cell-substratum adhesion: studies on the interaction of baby hamster kidney cells with latex beads coated by cold insoluble globulin (plasma fibronectin)

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the interactions of uncharged latex beads (0.76 micrometer) with baby hamster kidney cells. Binding of beads to the cells occurred if the beads were coated by cold insoluble globulin (CIG) (plasma fibronectin) but not if the beads were coated by bovine albumin. Bovine albumin-coated beads did not bind to the cells even in the presence of excess CIG in the incubation medium. Binding of beads occurred randomly over the entire surfaces of cells in suspension. However,...

  13. Potent Inhibitory Effects of D-tagatose on the Acid Production and Water-insoluble Glucan Synthesis of Streptococcus mutans GS5 in the Presence of Sucrose

    OpenAIRE

    Sawada, Daijo; Ogawa, Takaaki; Miyake, Minoru; Hasui, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Izumori, Ken; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    We examined and compared the inhibitory effects of D-tagatose on the growth, acid production, and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of GS5, a bacterial strain of Streptococcus mutans, with those of xylitol, D-psicose, L-psicose and L-tagatose. GS5 was cultured for 12h in a medium containing 10オ (w/v) of xylitol, D-psicose, L-psicose, D-tagatose or L-tagatose, and the inhibitory effect of GS5 growth was assessed. Each sugar showed different inhibitory effects on GS5. Both D-tagatose and xylitol...

  14. Dietary Sources of High Sodium Intake in Turkey: SALTURK II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Erdem

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown daily salt intakes in Turkey to be far above the recommended limits. Knowing the sources of dietary salt could form a basis for preventive strategies aimed towards salt reduction. This study aimed to investigate dietary sources of salt in Turkey. A sub-group (n = 657 was selected from the PatenT2 study population, which represented the urban and rural areas of 4 major cities (Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir, and Konya. A questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, medical histories, detailed histories of diet, and salt consumption was completed. Participants were asked to collect a 24-h urine sample and to record their food intake (dietary recall on the same day. Of 925 participants selected, 657 (71% provided accurate 24-h urine collections, based on creatinine excretion data. The mean daily 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 252.0 ± 92.2 mmol/day, equal to daily salt intake of 14.8 ± 5.4 g. Of the 657 participants with accurate 24-h urine collections, 464 (70% provided fully completed dietary recalls. Among these 464 participants, there was a significant difference between the 24-h urinary sodium excretion-based salt intake estimation (14.5 ± 5.1 g/day and the dietary recall-based salt intake estimation (12.0 ± 7.0 g/day (p < 0.001. On the other hand, a positive correlation was obtained between the dietary recall-based daily salt intake and 24-h urinary sodium excretion-based daily salt intake (r = 0.277, p < 0.001. Bread was the main source of salt (34% followed by salt added during cooking and preparing food before serving (30%, salt from various processed foods (21%, and salt added at the table during food consumption (11%. Conclusively, this study confirmed a very high salt intake of the adult population in four major cities in Turkey. The present findings support the emerging salt reduction strategy in Turkey by promoting lower salt content in baked bread, and less salt use in habitual food

  15. Effect of Dietary Fiber Enrichment and Different Cooking Methods on Quality of Chicken Nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathera, Ashok K; Riar, C S; Yadav, Sanjay; Sharma, D P

    2017-01-01

    The effect of dietary fiber enrichment (wheat bran) and cooking methods (oven, steam and microwave) on functional and physico-chemical properties of raw nuggets formulation as well as nutritional, color and textural properties of chicken nuggets were analyzed in this study. Among different cooking methods used for nuggets preparation, steam cooked nuggets had significantly ( p cooking yield (97.16%) and total dietary fiber content (4.32%) in comparison to oven and microwave cooked nuggets. The effect of cooking methods and wheat bran incorporation was also noticed on textural properties of the nuggets. Hardness, firmness and toughness values of oven and steam cooked nuggets were significantly ( p cooked nuggets. Among nuggets prepared by different cooking methods, cohesiveness of microwave cooked nuggets was found to be significantly ( p cooked nuggets had significantly ( p cooked nuggets were found to be better among all nuggets due to their higher cooking yield and dietary fiber content.

  16. Dietary nutraceuticals as novel radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra

    2012-01-01

    There is long standing need to protect humans from the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation in the event of radiation related calamities or otherwise. Various dietary ingredients have formed an integral part of daily human diets. Most of the ingredients used in the Indian diet possess medicinal properties. However, little attention has been paid to screen the radioprotective ability of dietary ingredients. It is possible that use of dietary agents could protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations more effectively than other exotic synthetic agents simply because they are from natural biological sources, and may be more biocompatible than any other synthetic counterparts. Their acceptance for therapeutic purpose will be acceptable as they are part of daily human diets and do not have any known toxicity. This has been a stimulation to investigate the radioprotective ability of certain dietary ingredients including naringin and mangiferin in vivo and in vitro using micronuclei or survival assays. Treatment of mice with various doses of naringin or mangiferin reduced the symptoms of radiation-induced sickness including listlessness, irritability, lethargy, reduction in food and water intake, diarrhea, lacrimation, facial edema weight loss, emaciation, and epilation. Mice receiving various doses of naringin reduced the radiation-induced micronuclei formation and chromosome aberrations in bone marrow. Likewise, treatment of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with various concentrations of mangiferin reduced the radiation-induced DNA damage. The putative mechanisms of radioprotection are free radical scavenging, increased GSH accompanied by reduced lipid peroxidation. The use of dietary ingredients for radioprotection shall be encouraged as they are consumed daily and toxic implications are negligible. (author)

  17. Dietary Corn Bran Fermented by Bacillus subtilis MA139 Decreased Gut Cellulolytic Bacteria and Microbiota Diversity in Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state fermentation of feedstuffs by Bacillus subtilis MA139 can reduce insoluble dietary fiber content in vitro and improve growth performance in pigs. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary corn bran (CB fermented by B. subtilis on growth performance and gut microbiota composition in finishing pigs. A total of 60 finishing pigs were allocated to 3 dietary treatments consisting of a control (CON diet, a 10% CB diet, and a 10% fermented CB (FCB diet in a 21 d feeding trial. Growth performance and nutrient digestibility were evaluated. Fecal samples were determined for bacterial community diversity by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The dietary CB and FCB did not affect growth performance of finishing pigs. The digestibility of organic matter was decreased in both CB and FCB treatments compared with CON group (P < 0.05. The α-diversity for bacterial community analysis of Chao 1 in FCB treatment was lower than CON treatment (P < 0.05. The Fibrobacteres phylum belongs to cellulolytic bacteria was isolated, and their relative abundance in CB group showed no difference between CON and FCB treatments. The abundance of Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group in CB treatment was higher than CON and FCB groups (P < 0.05, whereas the population of norank_f_Prevotellaceae was higher in FCB group compared to CON and CB groups (P < 0.05. In conclusion, dietary FCB decreased the abundance of bacterial communities, particularly the population of bacteria related to cellulolytic degradation.

  18. Storage related changes of cell wall based dietary fiber components of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Judith; Stanojlovic, Luisa; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Bunzel, Mirko

    2017-03-01

    Storage related changes in the cell wall composition potentially affect the texture of plant-based foods and the physiological effects of cell wall based dietary fiber components. Therefore, a detailed characterization of cell wall polysaccharides and lignins from broccoli stems was performed. Freshly harvested broccoli and broccoli stored at 20°C and 1°C for different periods of time were analyzed. Effects on dietary fiber contents, polysaccharide composition, and on lignin contents/composition were much more pronounced during storage at 20°C than at 1°C. During storage, insoluble dietary fiber contents of broccoli stems increased up to 13%. Storage related polysaccharide modifications include an increase of the portions of cellulose, xylans, and homogalacturonans and a decrease of the neutral pectic side-chains arabinans and galactans. Broccoli stem lignins are generally rich in guaiacyl units. Lignins from freshly harvested broccoli stems contain slightly larger amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl units than syringyl units. Syringyl units are predominantly incorporated into the lignin polymers during storage, resulting in increased acetyl bromide soluble lignin contents. NMR-based analysis of the interunit linkage types of broccoli stem lignins revealed comparably large portions of resinol structures for a guaiacyl rich lignin. Incorporation of syringyl units into the polymers over storage predominantly occurs through β-O-4-linkages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary patterns and BMI status of adult women in greater Letaba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    prevalence estimated at 31.8% (Micklesfield et ... women, 3) to determine the dietary patterns of women and. 4) to compare the ... Women who were ill, pregnant or lactating .... energy for food preparation (51.9%) and 49.5% .... Alcohol consumption was very low, with 89.3% of ..... confirmed this in that the practices of the.

  20. Assessing patients' attitudes towards dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina; Jarosz, Mirosław; Siuba, Magdalena; Rambuszek, Michał

    2014-01-01

    There is currently many over the counter products on the market that exert nutritional or physiological effects on the human body. The differences between dietary supplements and non-prescription drugs are however poorly understood by the average consumer and may thus affect their expectations as to the desired effect produced on the body. To evaluate patients' knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplements as compared to non-prescription drugs. Subjects were 335 patients of the Mazowiecki Voivodeship Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. The data were collected from a face-to-face interview using a single and multiple choice questionnaire with 10 questions on dietary supplements. Statistical analysis used the Chi-square (χ2) test. The majority of respondents were found to be familiar with the term 'dietary supplements', but had difficulties in classifying these products into appropriate categories. Over 55% do not consider dietary supplements to be foodstuffs and more than 40% considered such products to be drugs. Most respondents thought that the main purpose of taking dietary supplements is to improve nutrition, but over one third expected them to also treat disease. Over 70% declared taking notice to which category the non-prescription products they bought belongs to ie. whether non-prescription drugs (medicinal products) or dietary supplements. Many patients mistakenly believe that dietary supplements are drugs and can be used to treat disease and health disorders. dietary supplements, opinion on dietary supplements, nutrition, dietary supplement vs. medicinal product.

  1. Simple simultaneous determination of soluble and insoluble trace metal components in sea salts by a combined coprecipitation/X-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsuki, Masaaki; Ali, Muhammad; Kyotani, Tomohiro; Fukasawa, Tsutomu

    1996-01-01

    An X-ray fluorescence method using the coprecipitation-preconcentration technique has been developed for simple determination of both acid-soluble and insoluble trace metal components, such as manganese, iron, nickel, copper and zinc in sea salts. A salt sample is dissolved in a nitric acid solution, and the residue is filtered off onto a membrane filter. After the pH is adjusted to 7-8, the filtrate is boiled, followed by addition of aluminum carrier, oxine and thionalide solutions. The solution is re-adjusted to pH 9, and kept at 80-85degC for 60 min. The precipitates are filtered off onto another membrane filter. X-Ray fluorescence intensities from two filters loaded with the residue and precipitates are measured and the concentrations of the elements are determined simultaneously using the calibration curves. Detection limits were 0.01 μg g -1 for manganese and copper, 0.04 μg g -1 for nickel and zinc, and 0.05 μg g -1 for iron, regardless of the soluble and the insoluble components. The present method was successfully applied to the analysis of sea salt samples. (author)

  2. Can insoluble polysaccharide concentration in dental plaque, sugar exposure and cariogenic microorganisms predict early childhood caries? A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisotto, T M; Stipp, R; Rodrigues, L K A; Mattos-Graner, R O; Costa, L S; Nobre-Dos-Santos, M

    2015-08-01

    Insoluble polysaccharide (IP) has been associated with caries prevalence in young children. However, the power of IP to predict ECC needs to be demonstrated. To assess the relationships between early childhood caries (ECC) and extracellular insoluble polysaccharides (IP) in dental plaque, sugar exposure and cariogenic microorganisms. Visible plaque on maxillary incisors was recorded, followed by caries diagnosis in 65 preschoolers (3-4 years) at baseline and after 1 year. Plaque was collected for mutans streptococci (MS), total microorganism (TM) and lactobacilli (LB) enumerations in selective media, as well as for IP analysis, which was later assessed by colorimetry. Sugar/sucrose exposure was assessed by a diet chart. Positive correlations were found among the prevalence of caries and MS, TM, LB, solid sucrose and visible dental plaque. Additionally, children with IP concentrations in dental plaque higher than 2.36 μg/mg (odds ratio-OR=6.8), with visible plaque on maxillary incisors (OR=4.3), harbouring LB (OR=13) and exposed to solid sugar more than twice/day (OR=5) showed higher risk of developing caries (pdental plaque and cariogenic microorganisms could predict caries development, partially explaining the ECC pattern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolution of insoluble eutectic Si particles in anodic oxidation films during adipic-sulfuric acid anodizing processes of ZL114A aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Lei; Liu, Jian-hua; Li, Song-mei; Yu, Mei; Wang, Lei; Cui, Yong-xin

    2015-03-01

    The effects of insoluble eutectic Si particles on the growth of anodic oxide films on ZL114A aluminum alloy substrates were investigated by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The anodic oxidation was performed at 25°C and a constant voltage of 15 V in a solution containing 50 g/L sulfuric acid and 10 g/L adipic acid. The thickness of the formed anodic oxidation film was approximately 7.13 μm. The interpore distance and the diameters of the major pores in the porous layer of the film were within the approximate ranges of 10-20 nm and 5-10 nm, respectively. Insoluble eutectic Si particles strongly influenced the morphology of the anodic oxidation films. The anodic oxidation films exhibited minimal defects and a uniform thickness on the ZL114A substrates; in contrast, when the front of the oxide oxidation films encountered eutectic Si particles, defects such as pits and non-uniform thickness were observed, and pits were observed in the films.

  4. Structural elucidation of a water-insoluble glucan produced by a glucosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans 6715 by chemical and instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    The structure of a water-insoluble polysaccharide produced by the glucosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans 6715 has been elucidated through the use of periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, dextranase digestion, concanavalin A binding studies, methylation followed by methanolysis, reductive cleavage and gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic analysis, carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance and fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy. These studies show that the water-insoluble glucan is comprised of 67% α-(1-3) linkages in a contiguous backbone with the remaining 33% existing as α-(1-6) linkages possibly as linear residues extending from α-(1-6) branch points. 14% of the residues exist as branch points and the ratio of linear extending α-(1-3) residues in the backbone to linear extending α-(1-6) residues in the side chain was found to be 5:2. Dextranase digestion and Smith degradation both gave rise to a high molecular weight fraction which is only α-(1-3) linked. In addition, the average length of the side chains was shown to not exceed 3 residues

  5. Catalyst of a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on a non-metallic porous support and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Peden, Charles H. F. [West Richland, WA; Choi, Saemin [Richland, WA

    2002-10-29

    The present invention includes a catalyst having (a) a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores; (b) a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on the non-metallic support; wherein at least a portion of the metal heteropoly acid salt is dispersed within said plurality of pores. The present invention also includes a method of depositing a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent onto a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores. The method has the steps of: (a) obtaining a first solution containing a first precursor of a metal salt cation; (b) obtaining a second solution containing a second precursor of a heteropoly acid anion in a solvent having a limited dissolution potential for said first precursor; (c) impregnating the non-metallic support with the first precursor forming a first precursor deposit within the plurality of pores, forming a first precursor impregnated support; (d) heating said first precursor impregnated support forming a bonded first precursor impregnated support; (e) impregnating the second precursor that reacts with the precursor deposit and forms the metal heteropoly acid salt.

  6. The population of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB from Cikaniki, Botol Mountain, and Ciptarasa Area, and the ability of PSB to solubilize insoluble P in solid pikovskaya medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULIASIH

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB were collected from plant rhizosphere at Cikaniki (1100 m asl., soil at Botol Mountain (1000, 1500, and 1800 m asl., and Ciptarasa (600, 1000, and 1500 m asl., area at Gunung Halimun National Park (GHNP. The soil ware collected randomly from 3 areas and taken from 0-15 cm depth in the plants rhizosphere at Cikaniki and forest floor soil in Gunung Botol and Ciptarasa. The result showed that the difference of elevation area, soil pH, forest vegetation, and microbial habitat (rhizosphere and forest floor were not the inhabitation factors of the biodiversity of PSB and their ability to solubilize insoluble phosphate, but the inhabitation factors on the growth of the PSB population. The highest population of PSB at GHNP was founded in the plant rhizosphere of Altingia exelsa Norona and Schima wallichii (Dc. Korth (107sel/g soil at Cikaniki and in the forest floor soil (108sel/g soil at Botol Mountain (1000 m asl.. Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Bacillus megaterium, and Chromobacterium sp. dominated Cikaniki, Botol Mountain and Ciptarasa area. Those isolates could solubilize insoluble phosphate on solid Pikovskaya medium with the range of diameter is 1.5-2.5 cm.

  7. 2A4 binds soluble and insoluble light chain aggregates from AL amyloidosis patients and promotes clearance of amyloid deposits by phagocytosis †.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, Mark; Torres, Ronald; Dolan, Philip J; Tam, Stephen J; Tapia, Jose R; Li, Lauri; Salmans, Joshua R; Barbour, Robin M; Shughrue, Paul J; Nijjar, Tarlochan; Schenk, Dale; Kinney, Gene G; Zago, Wagner

    2016-09-01

    Amyloid light chain (AL) amyloidosis is characterized by misfolded light chain (LC) (amyloid) deposition in various peripheral organs, leading to progressive dysfunction and death. There are no regulatory agency-approved treatments for AL amyloidosis, and none of the available standard of care approaches directly targets the LC protein that constitutes the amyloid. NEOD001, currently in late-stage clinical trials, is a conformation-specific, anti-LC antibody designed to specifically target misfolded LC aggregates and promote phagocytic clearance of AL amyloid deposits. The present study demonstrated that the monoclonal antibody 2A4, the murine form of NEOD001, binds to patient-derived soluble and insoluble LC aggregates and induces phagocytic clearance of AL amyloid in vitro. 2A4 specifically labeled all 21 fresh-frozen organ samples studied, which were derived from 10 patients representing both κ and λ LC amyloidosis subtypes. 2A4 immunoreactivity largely overlapped with thioflavin T-positive labeling, and 2A4 bound both soluble and insoluble LC aggregates extracted from patient tissue. Finally, 2A4 induced macrophage engagement and phagocytic clearance of AL amyloid deposits in vitro. These findings provide further evidence that 2A4/NEOD001 can effectively clear and remove human AL-amyloid from tissue and further support the rationale for the evaluation of NEOD001 in patients with AL amyloidosis.

  8. 2A4 binds soluble and insoluble light chain aggregates from AL amyloidosis patients and promotes clearance of amyloid deposits by phagocytosis †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, Mark; Torres, Ronald; Dolan, Philip J.; Tam, Stephen J.; Tapia, Jose R.; Li, Lauri; Salmans, Joshua R.; Barbour, Robin M.; Shughrue, Paul J.; Nijjar, Tarlochan; Schenk, Dale; Kinney, Gene G.; Zago, Wagner

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Amyloid light chain (AL) amyloidosis is characterized by misfolded light chain (LC) (amyloid) deposition in various peripheral organs, leading to progressive dysfunction and death. There are no regulatory agency–approved treatments for AL amyloidosis, and none of the available standard of care approaches directly targets the LC protein that constitutes the amyloid. NEOD001, currently in late-stage clinical trials, is a conformation-specific, anti-LC antibody designed to specifically target misfolded LC aggregates and promote phagocytic clearance of AL amyloid deposits. The present study demonstrated that the monoclonal antibody 2A4, the murine form of NEOD001, binds to patient-derived soluble and insoluble LC aggregates and induces phagocytic clearance of AL amyloid in vitro. 2A4 specifically labeled all 21 fresh-frozen organ samples studied, which were derived from 10 patients representing both κ and λ LC amyloidosis subtypes. 2A4 immunoreactivity largely overlapped with thioflavin T–positive labeling, and 2A4 bound both soluble and insoluble LC aggregates extracted from patient tissue. Finally, 2A4 induced macrophage engagement and phagocytic clearance of AL amyloid deposits in vitro. These findings provide further evidence that 2A4/NEOD001 can effectively clear and remove human AL-amyloid from tissue and further support the rationale for the evaluation of NEOD001 in patients with AL amyloidosis. PMID:27494229

  9. Development of Family-Based Dietary Self-Management Support Program on Dietary Behaviors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Indonesia: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aklima Aklima

    2012-08-01

    -solving strategies, and (5 goal-setting and action planning by assisting the patient to write the goals and action plan on a specially prepared form. All of these sessions would involve the patient‟s family. Follow-up visits may be needed to evaluate the dietary behaviors of patients. Conclusion: The collaboration of patients, family and health care professionals can have a positive impact on the dietary self-management behaviors of patients with T2DM. Further study is needed, as there is a growing awareness of the important role in diabetes management of integrating family support into routine diabetes management. Key words: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, dietary behaviors, self-management, and family support.

  10. The digestible energy, metabolizable energy, and net energy content of dietary fat sources in thirteen- and fifty-kilogram pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, T A; Patience, J F

    2017-09-01

    The objective was to determine the energy concentration of a diverse array of dietary fat sources and, from these data, develop regression equations that explain differences based on chemical composition. A total of 120 Genetiporc 6.0 × Genetiporc F25 (PIC, Inc., Hendersonville, TN) individually housed barrows were studied for 56 d. These barrows (initial BW of 9.9 ± 0.6 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 15 dietary treatments. Each experimental diet included 95% of a corn-soybean meal basal diet plus 5% either corn starch or 1 of 14 dietary fat sources. The 14 dietary fat sources (animal-vegetable blend, canola oil, choice white grease source A, choice white grease source B, coconut oil, corn oil source A, corn oil source B, fish oil, flaxseed oil, palm oil, poultry fat, soybean oil source A, soybean oil source B, and tallow) were selected to provide a diverse and robust range of unsaturated fatty acid:SFA ratios (U:S). Pigs were limit-fed experimental diets from d 0 to 10 and from d 46 to 56, providing a 7-d adaption for fecal collection on d 7 to 10 (13 kg BW) and d 53 to 56 (50 kg BW). At 13 kg BW, the average energy content of the 14 sources was 8.42 Mcal DE/kg, 8.26 Mcal ME/kg, and 7.27 Mcal NE/kg. At 50 kg BW, the average energy content was 8.45 Mcal DE/kg, 8.28 Mcal ME/kg, and 7.29 Mcal NE/kg. At 13 kg BW, the variation of dietary fat DE content was explained by DE (Mcal/kg) = 9.363 + [0.097 × (FFA, %)] - [0.016 × omega-6:omega-3 fatty acids ratio] - [1.240 × (arachidic acid, %)] - [5.054 × (insoluble impurities, %)] + [0.014 × (palmitic acid, %)] ( = 0.008, = 0.82). At 50 kg BW, the variation of dietary fat DE content was explained by DE (Mcal/kg) = 8.357 + [0.189 × U:S] - [0.195 × (FFA, %)] - [6.768 × (behenic acid, %)] + [0.024 × (PUFA, %)] ( = 0.002, = 0.81). In summary, the chemical composition of dietary fat explained a large degree of the variation observed in the energy content of dietary fat sources at both 13 and 50 kg BW.

  11. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on August, 1998. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from April to September, 1995. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium 90 and Cesium 137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  12. [Dietary fiber and nutritional support in pediatrics: current understanding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C L

    2010-01-01

    The article summarizes the materials on the use of dietary fiber (DF) in the diet of children of different ages. According to the few studies that DF used in children's diets, play an important role in the prevention and treatment of obesity and in lowering serum cholesterol, which reduces the risk of children of cardiovascular disease. Given that children and adolescents consume food insufficient number of DF should be encouraged to increase in baby food for their consumption at the expense of fruit, vegetables and products prepared from cereals. A number of recommendations on the level of consumption of DF children and adolescents of all ages.

  13. Dietary inadequacy in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquin, C G; Hernandez, M I; Hernandez, B M; Mancia, I Y

    1992-01-01

    Researchers conducted a dietary survey of 59 households selected at random in the marginal community of Peralta in San Salvador, El Salvador to ascertain nutritional needs of the families and identify factors which affect intrafamilial distribution and consumption of food. A nutritionist weighed all the food consumed by each family member in 1 day. 50% of the family members consumed just grain, sugar, oil, and/or beans. 93% of the people ate 90% of the required quantity of vitamin A. 88% ate inadequate amounts of riboflavin, 77% iron, and 40% protein. Moreover 58% of the households spent 61-100% of their income on food. No association occurred between caloric sufficiency and family size and between age and dietary adequacy. Therefore each family evenly distributed food among family members. Further poorer families consumed less food than the families of the higher socioeconomic group.

  14. The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major lipid components in the human diet and they are carriers of energy as well as important fatty acids. Many factors affect the digestion and absorption of TAGs. Evidence is accumulating that, in addition to the overall fatty acid profile, the TAG......, or one may speculate additionally on the possibilities of modifying the structure of fats to affect their absorption and the distribution of the fatty acids in the body after digestion and uptake. In this review we will summarize diverse aspects of TAG digestion and absorption, as well as the influences...... of the fatty acid composition and the intramolecular structure of dietary TAGs on their digestion and absorption....

  15. Dietary Carcinogens and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    detected by autoradiography on X-ray film with intensifying screens at - 70 0C. Using this TLC separation system, we have observed one abundant adduct...report in Science, published earlier this year, showed that resveratrol (a phytochemical found in many plant species) inhibited both cyclooxygenase I...the dietary phytochemical resveratrol significantly inhibits PhIP-DNA adduct formation in primary cultures of human mammary epithelial cells. From

  16. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.P.T.; Branch, W.J.; Southgate, D.A.T.

    1978-01-01

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  17. Issues in Nutrition: Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them. There currently is considerable research being performed on probiotics and how the gut microbiome affects health and disease states. Protein supplements may be useful in reducing mortality rates in elderly patients but they do not appear to increase quality of life. If used, protein supplements should contain essential amino acids. Casein and whey supplements, derived from dairy sources, help transport essential amino acids to tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the role of vitamin supplements in disease prevention, there have been few conclusive positive results. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  18. Marketing dietary supplements in the United States: A review of the requirements for new dietary ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, Chris; Patrick Noonan, W.

    2006-01-01

    Since the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act in 1994, the marketplace for dietary supplements has experienced dramatic growth. New products have redefined the entire marketplace, and new ingredients are introduced to consumers at lightning speed. As part of this act, laws were passed to ensure the safety of new dietary ingredients introduced into the United States marketplace. But more than 11 years later, these laws are frequently misunderstood, and more frequently ignored. This article reviews the regulatory landscape of new dietary ingredients and defines the issues manufacturers must contend with to legally market dietary supplements with new dietary ingredients in the U.S

  19. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  20. Dietary habits of obese patients qualified for bariatric procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebska-Mierzyńska, Marta; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Hady, Hady Razak; Dadan, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Patients with obesity, including morbid obesity, commit numerous dietary mistakes. They prefer high-energy diets, but of poor nutritional value. Patients qualified for bariatric procedures show deficiencies in vitamins and minerals due to insufficient intake of vegetables, fruit and whole grain products. Analysis of dietary habits in morbidly obese patients prepared for bariatric surgery, including assessment of eating style and frequency of consumption of certain products. The study group contained 39 people aged 18 - 65 years, who were surveyed with a questionnaire elaborated in the Department of Clinical Dietetics and Nutrition, Medical University of Bialystok. The following factors were assessed: number of meals, snacking between meals and eating at night, types of snacks eaten, and frequency of consumption of certain foods. Results were analyzed using Statistica 9.0. The majority of surveyed men (41.7%) ate three meals a day, whereas most women (40.7%) had at least 4 meals a day. Nearly 85% of the respondents admitted snacking between meals, mainly eating fruit, sweets and sandwiches. Whole grain cereal, milk and dairy products, fish, fruit, vegetables and pulses appeared in diet of patients qualified for treatment of obesity very rarely. Dietary habits of obese patients qualified for bariatric procedures are not consistent with recommendations. Therefore, these patients should receive nutritional education in order to foster proper eating habits that will help in the postoperative nutrition.

  1. Determinants of dietary diversity and the potential role of men in improving household nutrition in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus Ochieng

    Full Text Available Good nutrition is a prerequisite for a healthy and active life, especially for agriculture-dependent households. However, diets in most households in Tanzania lack diversity because the intake of meat, poultry, fish, and vegetables and fruits is low. This study estimates factors influencing dietary diversity of the household, children under five years, and women using primary survey data. It qualitatively assesses male dietary patterns and men's potential role in improving the nutritional status of the entire household. The findings show that the most consumed foods within the household are cereals, vegetables, oils and fats, spices, condiments and beverages. Children (d = 0.4; p<0.05 and women (d = 0.5; p<0.01 in female-headed households have low dietary diversity compared to those in male-headed households. Women and children access less diverse diets since 46% and 26%, achieved minimum dietary diversity respectively. Production of vegetables (coef. 0.34; p<0.05 play an important role in improving the dietary diversity of women. Gender (coef. 0.05; p<0.10 and education of the household head (coef. 0.02; p<0.01, food preparation and nutrition training (coef. 0.10; p<0.05 are important factors influencing dietary diversity of the members of a household. Results suggest that there is a need to support community-based programs to provide information on food and the importance of vegetables, their preparation, consumption and utilization to address food and nutrition challenges. Men can contribute towards improving household nutrition security by reducing consumption of food away from the home, especially during periods of food shortages. We recommend the use of complementary quantitative research to determine the patterns and dynamics of men's dietary diversity and compare it with that of other household members.

  2. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  3. Eating Away from Home: Influences on the Dietary Quality of Adolescents with Overweight or Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Allison W; Valente, Maria; Tu, Andrew; Mâsse, Louise C

    2017-12-01

    To examine the influence of peers and the source of meals and snacks on the dietary quality of adolescents seeking obesity treatment. Baseline surveys were completed by 173 adolescents with overweight or obesity (11-16 years old) enrolled in an e-health intervention in Vancouver, British Columbia. Dietary quality was assessed with three 24-h dietary recalls used to compute a Healthy Eating Index adapted to the Canadian context (HEI-C). Multiple linear regression examined associations between HEI-C scores and the frequency of: (i) meals prepared away from home, (ii) purchasing snacks from vending machines or stores, (iii) eating out with friends, and (iv) peers modeling healthy eating. Adolescents reported eating approximately 3 lunch or dinner meals prepared away from home and half purchased snacks from vending machines or stores per week. After adjusting for socio-demographics, less frequent purchases of snacks from vending machines or stores (b = -3.00, P = 0.03) was associated with higher HEI-C scores. More frequent dinner meals prepared away from home and eating out with friends were only associated with lower HEI-C scores in unadjusted models. Snack purchasing was associated with lower dietary quality among obesity treatment-seeking adolescents. Improving the healthfulness of foods obtained away from home may contribute to healthier diets among these adolescents.

  4. Social determinants of dietary habits in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse; Brøndsted, L.

    2001-01-01

    significantly associated with the intake of fruit and vegetables. Conclusions: Education seems to be the most important social variable to explain social differences in dietary habits. Additional variables are needed to explain dietary habits of women. Differences are seen for both foods and nutrients....... Sponsorship: The data analysis was financially supported by the Health Insurance Fund. Descriptors: socioeconomic status; education; dietary habits; diet surveys, E%; fat, fruit and vegetables....

  5. Increasing the biological value of dietary cutlets

    OpenAIRE

    SYZDYKOVA L.S.; DIKHANBAYEVA F.T.; BAZYLHANOVA E.CH

    2015-01-01

    Relevance of work: meat products are the main source of the proteins, necessary for activity of the person. In this article is determined the biological value of the cutlets with dietary properties. The purpose of this work is development of the production technology of dietary cutlets in branches of public catering and determination of their biological value. As a result of work dietary cutlets with the increased biological value due to addition of oatmeal are received.

  6. Consumption of whole-grain cereals during weight loss: effects on dietary quality, dietary fiber, magnesium, vitamin B-6, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Kathleen J; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Nguyen, Von T; Martini, Margaret; Zukley, Linda; Lowndes, Joshua; Dube, Thomas J; Fiutem, Justin J; Yount, Byron W; Rippe, James M

    2006-09-01

    While various weight-management approaches produce weight loss, they may differ in dietary quality. We monitored changes in nutrient intakes in overweight and obese subjects on three different weight-management programs. Randomized clinical trial (pilot study) with two 12-week phases: phase 1, weekly counseling; phase 2, monitoring only. One hundred eighty nonsmoking, sedentary overweight and obese adults began this outpatient study; 134 (body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)]=30.9+/-2.4; age=42.3+/-1.2 years) were used in analyses. Twenty-four weeks of exercise only (control group), hypocaloric diet plus exercise, or hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise. At weeks 0, 12, and 24, diet quality was assessed by 3-day food records and body weight was measured. Three-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. The hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise decreased energy intake more than exercise only (P=0.032). By week 12, the hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise and the hypocaloric diet plus exercise decreased total fat more than exercise only, which was sustained in the hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise at 24 weeks (Pcereals plus exercise reduced saturated fat intake more than exercise only. The hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise increased total fiber, insoluble fiber (both Pcereals plus exercise and the hypocaloric diet plus exercise. Weight-reduction strategies may be associated with reduced intake of micronutrients, such as calcium and vitamin E. However, a hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereal is effective for improving or maintaining other aspects of dietary quality during weight loss.

  7. Determination of the refractive index of insoluble organic extracts from atmospheric aerosol over the visible wavelength range using optical tweezers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Shepherd

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Optical trapping combined with Mie spectroscopy is a new technique used to record the refractive index of insoluble organic material extracted from atmospheric aerosol samples over a wide wavelength range. The refractive index of the insoluble organic extracts was shown to follow a Cauchy equation between 460 and 700 nm for organic aerosol extracts collected from urban (London and remote (Antarctica locations. Cauchy coefficients for the remote sample were for the Austral summer and gave the Cauchy coefficients of A  =  1.467 and B  =  1000 nm2 with a real refractive index of 1.489 at a wavelength of 589 nm. Cauchy coefficients for the urban samples varied with season, with extracts collected during summer having Cauchy coefficients of A  =  1.465  ±  0.005 and B  =  4625  ±  1200 nm2 with a representative real refractive index of 1.478 at a wavelength of 589 nm, whilst samples extracted during autumn had larger Cauchy coefficients of A  =  1.505 and B  =  600 nm2 with a representative real refractive index of 1.522 at a wavelength of 589 nm. The refractive index of absorbing aerosol was also recorded. The absorption Ångström exponent was determined for woodsmoke and humic acid aerosol extract. Typical values of the Cauchy coefficient for the woodsmoke aerosol extract were A  =  1.541  ±  0.03 and B  =  14 800  ±  2900 nm2, resulting in a real refractive index of 1.584  ±  0.007 at a wavelength of 589 nm and an absorption Ångström exponent of 8.0. The measured values of refractive index compare well with previous monochromatic or very small wavelength range measurements of refractive index. In general, the real component of the refractive index increases from remote to urban to woodsmoke. A one-dimensional radiative-transfer calculation of the top-of-the-atmosphere albedo was applied to model an atmosphere

  8. Effect of surfactant species and electrophoretic medium composition on the electrophoretic behavior of neutral and water-insoluble linear synthetic polymers in nonaqueous capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukai, Nao; Kitagawa, Shinya; Ohtani, Hajime

    2017-07-01

    We have recently demonstrated the separation of neutral and water-insoluble linear synthetic polymers in nonaqueous capillary zone electrophoresis (NACZE) using a cationic surfactant of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). In this study, eight ionic surfactants were investigated for the separation of four synthetic polymers (polystyrene, polymethylmethacrylates, polybutadiene, and polycarbonate); only three surfactants (CTAC, dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide, and sodium dodecylsulfate) caused their separation. The order of the interaction between the polymers and the surfactants depended on both the surfactant species and the composition of the electrophoretic medium. Their investigation revealed that the separation is majorly affected by the hydrophobic interactions between the polymers and the ionic surfactants. In addition, the electrophoretic behavior of polycarbonate suggested that electrostatic interaction also affects the selectivity of the polymers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. An alkaline one-pot reaction to synthesize luminescent Eu-BTC MOF nanorods, highly pure and water-insoluble, under room conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina-Velazquez, D. Y., E-mail: dyolotzin@correo.azc.uam.mx; Alejandre-Zuniga, B. Y.; Loera-Serna, S.; Ortiz, E. M. [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería (Mexico); Morales-Ramirez, A. de J. [CIITEC IPN, Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Mexico); Garfias-Garcia, E. [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería (Mexico); Garcia-Murillo, A. [CIITEC IPN, Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Mexico); Falcony, C. [Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Física (Mexico)

    2016-12-15

    The increasing demand for optoelectronic devices requires the development of luminescent materials with high luminescence efficiency and low energy demands, and the metalorganic frameworks (MOFs) with lanthanides ions offer great potential in this area. The metalorganic materials provide properties of flexibility, low density, low-cost methods of synthesis, and insolubility in water, which gives them an advantage over traditional phosphors. In this study, a benzenetricarboxylate ligand (BTC) with a Eu{sup 3+} MOF was synthesized, and its structural and luminescent properties were measured. The metalorganic compound was generated in a one-pot reaction from europium nitrate and trimesic acid precursors. Through characterization by X-ray diffraction powder, infrared spectroscopy, SEM structural characterization, and luminescent spectroscopy, the formation of Europium benzenetricarboxylate (Eu-BTC) MOF nanorods was tested and the calculated value was in the range of 30–60 nm. A red luminescent emission with high intensity was observed for all the procedures.

  10. Fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus (Bull. Pers. – a new source of water-insoluble (1→3-α-d-glucan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Wiater

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A water-insoluble polysaccharide (WIP was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus HE01 by an alkaline solution with the yield of 5%. Structural and compositional analyses by total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, FT-IR, FT-Raman, and 1H NMR spectroscopy as well as other instrumental techniques showed predominantly glucose linked by α-glycosidic bonds and small amounts of mannose, xylose, rhamnose, galactose, and ribose. The methylation analysis showed that (1→3-linked Glcp is the major constituent (70.8% of the polymer, while the 3,4 substituted d-Glcp represents the main branching residue of the glucan. The presence of (1→3-α-d-glucan in the hyphae of H. erinaceus was additionally confirmed by the use of specific fluorophore-labeled antibodies.

  11. Food preparation supplies predict children's family meal and home-prepared dinner consumption in low-income households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-05-01

    Frequent family meals and home food preparation are considered important for children's nutritional health and weight maintenance. This cross-sectional study tested whether these parent-driven behaviors are related to the availability of food preparation supplies in low-income urban households. Caregivers of children ages 6-13 provided information on family meal frequency, child consumption of home-prepared dinners, household food insecurity, and attitudes towards cooking. Researchers used a newly developed Food Preparation Checklist (FPC) to assess the availability of 41 food preparation supplies during a physical audit of the home environment. Caregivers and children provided anthropometric measurements and jointly reported on child dietary intake. In ordinal logistic regression models, greater home availability of food preparation supplies was associated with more frequent family meals and child consumption of home-prepared dinners. Associations were independent of household financial strain, food insecurity, caregiver attitudes toward cooking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Fewer food preparation supplies were available in households characterized by greater food insecurity, lower income, and negative caregiver attitudes towards cooking, but did not differ by child or caregiver weight status. As in prior studies, more frequent family meals and consumption of home-prepared dinners were associated with healthier child dietary intake in several areas. We conclude that food preparation supplies are often limited in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged households, and their availability is related to the frequency with which children consume family meals and home-prepared dinners. The potential role of food preparation supplies as contributors to socioeconomic disparities in child nutritional health and obesity deserves further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of dietary factors on strawberry anthocyanins oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Di; Sandhu, Amandeep; Huang, Yancui; Park, Eunyoung; Edirisinghe, Indika; Burton-Freeman, Britt M

    2017-11-15

    Strawberries are a dietary source of anthocyanins, particularly pelargonidin glycosides. Dietary anthocyanins have received increasing attention among researchers and consumers due to their health benefits. The oral bioavailability of anthocyanins is reported to be low and various dietary factors may influence their oral bioavailability further. Milk is suggested to reduce (poly)phenols' oral bioavailability. However, the effect of milk on anthocyanin oral bioavailability remains uncertain. Likewise, mixed nutrient meals may influence the oral bioavailability of anthocyanins. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of milk on the oral bioavailability and other pharmacokinetic (PK) variables of strawberry anthocyanins consumed with and without a meal. Nine healthy participants consumed a strawberry beverage prepared in milk or water with a standard meal on two occasions. On two additional occasions, the beverages were given to a subset (n = 4) of participants to determine the impact of the meal on anthocyanin PK variables, including oral bioavailability. Independent of the meal, beverages prepared in milk significantly reduced the peak plasma concentrations (C max ) of pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside (P-3-G), pelargonidin-glucuronide (PG) and pelargonidin-3-O-rutinoside (P-3-R), as well as the PG and P-3-R area under the curve (AUC) (p bioavailability of pelargonidin anthocyanins under meal conditions; however, the oral relative bioavailability of pelargonidin anthocyanins was reduced by ∼50% by milk under without meal conditions (p < 0.05). Consuming strawberry beverages made with milk and consuming those made with water with and without a meal influenced different aspects of strawberry anthocyanin PKs. The significance of this effect on clinical efficacy requires additional research.

  13. The role of dietary creatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2016-08-01

    The daily requirement of a 70-kg male for creatine is about 2 g; up to half of this may be obtained from a typical omnivorous diet, with the remainder being synthesized in the body Creatine is a carninutrient, which means that it is only available to adults via animal foodstuffs, principally skeletal muscle, or via supplements. Infants receive creatine in mother's milk or in milk-based formulas. Vegans and infants fed on soy-based formulas receive no dietary creatine. Plasma and muscle creatine levels are usually somewhat lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Human intake of creatine was probably much higher in Paleolithic times than today; some groups with extreme diets, such as Greenland and Alaskan Inuit, ingest much more than is currently typical. Creatine is synthesized from three amino acids: arginine, glycine and methionine (as S-adenosylmethionine). Humans can synthesize sufficient creatine for normal function unless they have an inborn error in a creatine-synthetic enzyme or a problem with the supply of substrate amino acids. Carnivorous animals, such as lions and wolves, ingest much larger amounts of creatine than humans would. The gastrointestinal tract and the liver are exposed to dietary creatine in higher concentrations before it is assimilated by other tissues. In this regard, our observations that creatine supplementation can prevent hepatic steatosis (Deminice et al. J Nutr 141:1799-1804, 2011) in a rodent model may be a function of the route of dietary assimilation. Creatine supplementation has also been reported to improve the intestinal barrier function of the rodent suffering from inflammatory bowel disease.

  14. Effect of an insoluble surfactant on the dynamics of a thin liquid film flowing over a non-uniformly heated substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashna; Tiwari, Naveen

    2018-05-07

    The stability analysis of a gravity-driven thin liquid film with an insoluble surfactant flowing over a surface with embedded, regularly spaced heaters is investigated. At the leading edge of a heater, the presence of a temperature gradient induces an opposing Marangoni stress at the interface leading to the formation of a capillary ridge. This ridge has been shown to be susceptible to thermocapillary (oscillating in the flow direction) and rivulet (spanwise periodic pattern) instabilities. The presence of an insoluble surfactant is shown to have a stabilizing effect on this system. The governing equations for the evolution of the film thickness and surfactant concentration are obtained within the lubrication approximation. The coupled two-dimensional base solutions for the film thickness and surfactant concentration show that there is no significant change in the height of the capillary ridge at the subsequent heaters downstream. The height of the capillary ridge is reduced by the presence of the surfactant. For very small Peclet number, the presence of multiple heaters has almost no significant effect on the film stability as compared to a single heater and similar trends are observed between the two configurations in the presence of the surfactant as for the case of a clean interface. However, for large Peclet number, the effect was observed on both types of instabilities for certain heater configurations. The Biot number is shown to have a strong effect on the stability results wherein the dominant mode of instability is altered (from rivulet to thermocapillary instability) for a passive or no surfactant case with increase in the Biot number. For an active surfactant thermocapillary instability is found to remain the dominant mode of instability for all the values of the Biot number. It is shown that increasing the number of heaters beyond a couple does not further affect the stability results.

  15. Use of versican variant V3 and versican antisense expression to engineer cultured human skin containing increased content of insoluble elastin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrilees, Mervyn J; Falk, Ben A; Zuo, Ning; Dickinson, Michelle E; May, Barnaby C H; Wight, Thomas N

    2017-01-01

    Skin substitutes for repair of dermal wounds are deficient in functional elastic fibres. We report that the content of insoluble elastin in the dermis of cultured human skin can be increased though the use of two approaches that enhance elastogenesis by dermal fibroblasts, forced expression of versican variant V3, which lacks glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, and forced expression of versican antisense to decrease levels of versican variant V1 with GAG chains. Human dermal fibroblasts transduced with V3 or anti-versican were cultured under standard conditions over a period of 4 weeks to produce dermal sheets, with growth enhanced though multiple seedings for the first 3 weeks. Human keratinocytes, cultured in supplemented media, were added to the 4-week dermal sheets and the skin layer cultured for a further week. At 5 weeks, keratinocytes were multilayered and differentiated, with desmosome junctions thoughout and keratin deposits in the upper squamous layers. The dermal layer was composed of layered fibroblasts surrounded by extracellular matrix of collagen bundles and, in control cultures, small scattered elastin deposits. Forced expression of V3 and versican antisense slowed growth, decreased versican V1 expression, increased tropoelastin expression and/or the deposition of large aggregates of insoluble elastin in the dermal layer, and increased tissue stiffness, as measured by nano-indentation. Skin sheets were also cultured on Endoform Dermal Template™, the biodegradable wound dressing made from the lamina propria of sheep foregut. Skin structure and the enhanced deposition of elastin by forced expression of V3 and anti-versican were preserved on this supportive substrate. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Rapid solubilization of insoluble phosphate by a novel environmental stress-tolerant Burkholderia vietnamiensis M6 isolated from ginseng rhizospheric soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Hyun; Lee, O-Mi; Jung, Ho-Il; Jeong, Jin-Ha; Jeon, Young-Dong; Hwang, Dae-Youn; Lee, Chung-Yeol; Son, Hong-Joo

    2010-04-01

    We isolated and characterized novel insoluble phosphate (P)-solubilizing bacteria tolerant to environmental factors like high salt, low and high pHs, and low temperature. A bacterium M6 was isolated from a ginseng rhizospheric soil and confirmed to belong to Burkholderia vietnamiensis by BIOLOG system and 16S rRNA gene analysis. The optimal cultural conditions for the solubilization of P were 2.5% (w/v) glucose, 0.015% (w/v) urea, and 0.4% (w/v) MgCl(2).6H(2)O along with initial pH 7.0 at 35 degrees C. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that B. vietnamiensis M6 produced gluconic and 2-ketogluconic acids. During the culture, the pH was reduced with increase in gluconic acid concentration and was inversely correlated with P solubilization. Insoluble P solubilization in the optimal medium was about 902 mg l(-1), which was approximately 1.6-fold higher than the yield in NBRIP medium (580 mg l(-1)). B. vietnamiensis M6 showed resistance against different environmental stresses like 10-45 degrees C, 1-5% (w/v) salt, and 2-11 pH range. The maximal concentration of soluble P produced by B. vietnamiensis M6 from Ca(3)(PO(4))(2), CaHPO(4), and hydroxyapatite was 1,039, 2,132, and 1,754 mg l(-1), respectively. However, the strain M6 produced soluble P with 20 mg l(-1) from FePO(4) after 2 days and 100 mg l(-1) from AlPO(4) after 6 days, respectively. Our results indicate that B. vietnamiensis M6 could be a potential candidate for the development of biofertilizer applicable to environmentally stressed soil.

  17. Degradation of bioabsorbable Mg-based alloys: Assessment of the effects of insoluble corrosion products and joint effects of alloying components on mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillo, Claudia A.; Alvarez, Florencia; Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, Mónica A.

    2016-01-01

    This work is focused on the processes occurring at the bioabsorbable metallic biomaterial/cell interfaces that may lead to toxicity. A critical analysis of the results obtained when degradable metal disks (pure Mg and rare earth-containing alloys (ZEK100 alloys)) are in direct contact with cell culture and those obtained with indirect methods such as the use of metal salts and extracts was made. Viability was assessed by Acridine Orange dye, neutral red and clonogenic assays. The effects of concentration of corrosion products and possible joint effects of the binary and ternary combinations of La, Zn and Mg ions, as constituents of ZEK alloys, were evaluated on a mammalian cell culture. In all cases more detrimental effects were found for pure Mg than for the alloys. Experiments with disks showed that gradual alterations in pH and in the amount of corrosion products were better tolerated by cells and resulted in higher viability than abrupt changes. In addition, viability was dependent on the distance from the source of ions. Experiments with extracts showed that the effect of insoluble degradation products was highly detrimental. Indirect tests with Zn ions revealed that harmful effects may be found at concentrations ≥ 150 μM and at ≥ 100 μM in mixtures with Mg. These mixtures lead to more deleterious effects than single ions. Results highlight the need to develop a battery of tests to evaluate the biocompatibility of bioabsorbable biomaterials. - Highlights: • A metal disk setup is better in simulating in vivo situations than extracts and salts. • The biodegradation process and cell metabolism were interdependent. • Zn (100 μM) and Mg (8.2 × 10"3 μM) mixtures are more toxic than single Zn or Mg. • Insoluble degradation products of Mg showed high negative effect on cell viability.

  18. Measurement of the Surface Dilatational Viscosity of an Insoluble Surfactant Monolayer at the Air/Water Interface Using a Pendant Drop Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Jose; Couzis, Alex; Maldarelli, Charles; Singh, Bhim S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    When a fluid interface with surfactants is at rest, the interfacial stress is isotropic (as given by the equilibrium interfacial tension), and is described by the equation of state which relates the surface tension to the surfactant surface concentration. When surfactants are subjected to shear and dilatational flows, flow induced interaction of the surfactants; can create interfacial stresses apart from the equilibrium surface tension. The simplest relationship between surface strain rate and surface stress is the Boussinesq-Scriven constitutive equation completely characterized by three coefficients: equilibrium interfacial tension, surface shear viscosity, and surface dilatational viscosity Equilibrium interfacial tension and surface shear viscosity measurements are very well established. On the other hand, surface dilatational viscosity measurements are difficult because a flow which change the surface area also changes the surfactant surface concentration creating changes in the equilibrium interfacial tension that must be also taken into account. Surface dilatational viscosity measurements of existing techniques differ by five orders of magnitude and use spatially damped surface waves and rapidly expanding bubbles. In this presentation we introduce a new technique for measuring the surface dilatational viscosity by contracting an aqueous pendant drop attached to a needle tip and having and insoluble surfactant monolayer at the air-water interface. The isotropic total tension on the surface consists of the equilibrium surface tension and the tension due to the dilation. Compression rates are undertaken slow enough so that bulk hydrodynamic stresses are small compared to the surface tension force. Under these conditions we show that the total tension is uniform along the surface and that the Young-Laplace equation governs the drop shape with the equilibrium surface tension replaced by the constant surface isotropic stress. We illustrate this technique using

  19. Cu-Zn isotope constraints on the provenance of air pollution in Central Europe: Using soluble and insoluble particles in snow and rime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Martin; Sipkova, Adela; Chrastny, Vladislav; Stepanova, Marketa; Voldrichova, Petra; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Prechova, Eva; Blaha, Vladimir; Curik, Jan; Farkas, Juraj; Erbanova, Lucie; Bohdalkova, Leona; Pasava, Jan; Mikova, Jitka; Komarek, Arnost; Krachler, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) isotope ratios can be used to fingerprint sources and dispersion pathways of pollutants in the environment. Little is known, however, about the potential of δ 65 Cu and δ 66 Zn values in liquid and solid forms of atmospheric deposition to distinguish between geogenic, industrial, local and remote sources of these potentially toxic base metals. Here we present Cu-Zn deposition fluxes at 10 mountain-top sites in the Czech Republic, a region affected by extremely high industrial emission rates 25 years ago. Additionally, we monitored isotope composition of Cu and Zn in vertical and horizontal atmospheric deposition at two sites. We compared δ 65 Cu and δ 66 Zn values in snow and rime, extracted by diluted HNO 3 and concentrated HF. Cu and Zn isotope signatures of industrial pollution sources were also determined. Cu and Zn deposition fluxes at all study sites were minute. The mean δ 65 Cu value of atmospheric deposition (-0.07‰) was higher than the mean δ 65 Cu value of pollution sources (-1.17‰). The variability in δ 65 Cu values of atmospheric deposition was lower, compared to the pollution sources. The mean δ 66 Zn value of atmospheric deposition (-0.09‰) was slightly higher than the mean δ 66 Zn value of pollution sources (-0.23‰). The variability in δ 66 Zn values of atmospheric deposition was indistinguishable from that of pollution sources. The largest isotope differences (0.35‰) were observed between the insoluble and soluble fractions of atmospheric deposition. These differences may result from different sources of Cu/Zn for each fraction. The difference in isotope composition of soluble and insoluble particles appears to be a promising tool for pollution provenance studies in Central Europe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin functionalized calcium carbonate microparticles as a potential carrier for enhancing oral delivery of water-insoluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihua; Zhu, Wufu; Lin, Qisi; Han, Jin; Jiang, Liqun; Zhang, Yanzhuo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to demonstrate that a novel hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin functionalized calcium carbonate (HP-β-CD/CC) based amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) can be used to increase the solubility and oral bioavailability of water-insoluble drugs. Irbesartan (IRB) was selected as a model compound and loaded into the nanoporous HP-β-CD/CC matrix using an immersion method. The IRB-loaded HP-β-CD/CC formulation was characterized by various analytical techniques, such as specific surface area analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Analyses with PXRD and DSC confirmed that IRB was fully converted into the amorphous form in the nanopores of HP-β-CD/CC. From the solubility and dissolution tests, it was observed that the aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of IRB-loaded HP-β-CD/CC were increased significantly compared with those of pure IRB and IRB-loaded mesoporous silica. Likewise, the IRB-loaded HP-β-CD/CC formulation exhibited better absorption compared with that of the commercially available IRB capsules in beagle dogs. The mean peak plasma concentration (C max) and the area under the mean plasma concentration-time curve (AUC[0→48]) of IRB-loaded HP-β-CD/CC were 1.56- and 1.52-fold higher than that of the commercial product, respectively. Furthermore, the IRB-loaded HP-β-CD/CC formulation exhibited excellent stability against re-crystallization. These results clearly demonstrate that HP-β-CD/CC based porous ASD is a promising formulation approach to improve the aqueous solubility and the in vivo absorption performance of a water-insoluble compound like IRB.

  1. Disintegration mediated controlled release supersaturating solid dispersion formulation of an insoluble drug: design, development, optimization, and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sanjay; Rudraraju, Varma S

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a solid dispersion based controlled release system for drug substances that are poorly soluble in water. A wax-based disintegration mediated controlled release system was designed based on the fact that an amorphous drug can crystallize out from hydrophilic matrices. For this study, cilostazol (CIL) was selected as the model drug, as it exhibits poor aqueous solubility. An amorphous solid dispersion was prepared to assist the drug to attain a supersaturated state. Povidone was used as carrier for solid dispersion (spray drying technique), hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) as wax matrix former, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) as a disintegrant. The extreme vertices mixture design (EVMD) was applied to optimize the designed and developed composition. The optimized formulation provided a dissolution pattern which was equivalent to the predicted curve, ascertaining that the optimal formulation could be accomplished with EVMD. The release profile of CIL was described by the Higuchi's model better than zero-order, first-order, and Hixson-Crowell's model, which indicated that the supersaturation state of CIL dominated to allow drug release by diffusion rather than disintegration regulated release as is generally observed by Hixson-Crowell's model. The optimized composition was evaluated for disintegration, dissolution, XRD, and stability studies. It was found that the amorphous state as well as the dissolution profile of CIL was maintained under the accelerated conditions of 40°C/75% RH for 6 months.

  2. Functional and unmodified MWNTs for delivery of the water-insoluble drug Carvedilol - A drug-loading mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuting; Wang Tianyi; Wang Jing; Jiang Tongying; Cheng Gang; Wang Siling

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop carboxyl multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and unmodified MWNTs loaded with a poorly water-soluble drug, intended to improve the drug loading capacity, dissolubility and study the drug-loading mechanism. MWNTs were modified with a carboxyl group through the acid treatment. MWNTs as well as the resulting functionalized MWNTs were investigated as scaffold for loading the model drug, Carvedilol (CAR), using three different methods (the fusion method, the incipient wetness impregnation method, and the solvent method). The effects of different pore size, specific surface area and physical state were systematically studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The functional MWNTs allowed a higher drug loading than the unmodified preparations. The methods used to load the drug had a marked effect on the drug-loading, dissolution, and physical state of the drug as well as its distribution. In addition, the solubility of the drug was increased when carried by both MWNTs and functional MWNTs, and this might help to improve the bioavailability.

  3. Physicochemical characterization and an injection formulation study of water insoluble ZCVI₄-2, a novel NO-donor anticancer compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Li; Zhang, Jianjun; Su, Feng; Gong, Zhenhua; Lai, Yisheng; Zhang, Yihua

    2012-07-01

    ZCVI(4)-2 was a novel nitric oxide-releasing glycosyl derivative of oleanolic acid that displayed strong cytotoxicity selectively against human hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. In this study, ZCVI(4)-2 was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractometry, Raman spectroscopy, hygroscopicity and stability. A high performance liquid chromatography method was also established for the quantitative determination of solubility and additional stability profile of ZCVI(4)-2. ZCVI(4)-2 was found to be an amorphous and stable solid with low solubility of less than 10 μg/mL. Based on the solubilization tests that included methods of cosolvency and micellization, the solution mixture of 5% Solutol HS-15, 5% 1, 2-propylene glycol and 5% anhydrous ethanol was determined to be the system for the preparation of the ZCVI(4)-2 early injection solution. The effect of pH, temperature, light and injectable isotonic glucose or NaCl solution on ZCVI(4)-2 injection was also investigated. Good stability was observed at all testing conditions. Under the conditions studied, the NO-releasing rate and amount of ZCVI(4)-2 from the early injection solution in rat plasma demonstrated a promising therapeutic efficacy while maintaining a good safety profile.

  4. Evaluation of the technological and sensory properties of durum wheat spaghetti enriched with different dietary fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhesh, Nisha; Fellows, Christopher M; Sissons, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of fibres, whether insoluble or soluble, in durum wheat pasta negatively impacts desirable end-use properties, especially if incorporated in significant amounts. Fibres can disrupt the starch-protein matrix of the dough during pasta preparation and can also often swell more readily with water than starch, competing with the starch for water during dough development. Similar degrees of substitution with different fibres gave markedly different impacts on firmness, stickiness, cooking loss and sensory attributes, suggesting that results obtained for one fibre cannot readily be generalized to other fibres. The in vitro starch digestibility of the pastas was significantly reduced when resistant starch, β-glucan-enriched flour, carboxymethyl cellulose or guar gum was incorporated but increased when pollard or inulin was added. In many instances, different sources of the same fibre gave dramatically different impacts on the properties of cooked durum wheat pasta. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Integrative Health NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements: What the Science Says ... Thinkstock Clinical Guidelines, Scientific Literature, Info for Patients: Hepatitis C and Dietary Supplements Dietary Supplements Milk Thistle ...

  6. Utilization of citrus crops processing by-products in the preparation of tarhana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Magala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available After processing of citrus fruits (e.g. lemon, orange, grapefruit, mandarin for juice and essential oils production, approximately 50% of the original fruit mass is left as waste material. Citrus crops processing by-products are valuable components as they contain nutrients such as pectins, saccharides, carotenoids, some vitamins, minerals, polyphenols and substances with antioxidant activity. Utilisation of these kind of side products in the recipe of various cereal product led to enhancement of final product nutritional value and better sensory attributes as well as improvement of product functional properties. In this work was studied the effect of orange and mandarin dietary fibre application at level 5 and 10% (w/w in tarhana preparation and the influence on tarhana fermentation process. Chemical analysis showed, that dietary fibre preparations reached higher concentration of ash, fat and total dietary fibre compared to wheat flour. Wheat flour exhibited higher moisture content and protein concentration than citrus dietary fibre preparations. Orange and mandarin dietary fibre preparations showed higher values of water and oil absorption capacity, swelling capacity and least gellation concentration compared to wheat flour. Application of fruit dietary fibre preparations to tarhana recipe caused a rapid decrease in pH from 4.70 - 5.02 to values 4.31 - 4.51 during fermentation process. Reducing saccharides served as an available source of energy for fermenting microbiota and their concentration decreased from 24.5 - 32.8 to 2.2 - 0.2 g/kg after 144 h incubation. Fermentation also led to lactic acid (1.67 - 2.09 g/kg and acetic acid (1.91 - 2.53 g/kg production as a consequence of present microorganisms metabolic activity. Sensory evaluation of samples showed, that higher proportion of citrus dietary fibre preparations (10% negatively affected taste, odour, consistency and sourness. Among all prepared tarhana samples with proportion of citrus

  7. Phase Transitions of Isotropic to Anisotropic Biocompatible Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems Overcoming Insoluble Benznidazole Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streck, Letícia; Sarmento, Víctor H. V.; Machado, Paula R. L.; Farias, Kleber J. S.; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus F.; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported low benznidazole (BNZ) loading in conventional emulsions due to the weak interaction of the drug with the most common oils used to produce foods or pharmaceuticals. In this study, we focused on how the type of surfactant, surfactant-to-oil ratio w/w (SOR) and oil-to-water ratio w/w (OWR) change the phase behavior of different lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS) produced by emulsion phase inversion. The surfactant mixture composed of soy phosphatidylcholine and sodium oleate (1:7, w/w, hydrophilic lipophilic balance = 16) stabilized medium chain triglyceride in water. Ten formulations with the clear aspect or less turbid dispersions (five with the SOR ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 and five with the OWR from 0.06 to 0.4) were selected from the phase behavior diagram to assess structural features and drug-loading capacity. The rise in the SOR induced the formation of distinct lipid-based drug delivery systems (nanoemulsions and liquid crystal lamellar type) that were identified using rheological measurements and cross-polarized light microscopy images. Clear dispersions of small and narrow droplet-sized liquid-like nanoemulsions, Newtonian flow-type, were produced at SOR from 0.5 to 1.5 and OWR from 0.12 to 0.4, while clear liquid or gel-like liquid crystals were produced at SOR from 1.5 to 2.5. The BNZ loading was improved according to the composition and type of LBDDS produced, suggesting possible drug location among surfactant layers. The cell viability assays proved the biocompatibility for all of the prepared nanoemulsions at SOR less than 1.5 and liquid crystals at SOR less than 2.5, demonstrating their promising features for the oral or parenteral colloidal delivery systems containing benznidazole for Chagas disease treatment. PMID:27376278

  8. Phase Transitions of Isotropic to Anisotropic Biocompatible Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems Overcoming Insoluble Benznidazole Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Streck

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported low benznidazole (BNZ loading in conventional emulsions due to the weak interaction of the drug with the most common oils used to produce foods or pharmaceuticals. In this study, we focused on how the type of surfactant, surfactant-to-oil ratio w/w (SOR and oil-to-water ratio w/w (OWR change the phase behavior of different lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS produced by emulsion phase inversion. The surfactant mixture composed of soy phosphatidylcholine and sodium oleate (1:7, w/w, hydrophilic lipophilic balance = 16 stabilized medium chain triglyceride in water. Ten formulations with the clear aspect or less turbid dispersions (five with the SOR ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 and five with the OWR from 0.06 to 0.4 were selected from the phase behavior diagram to assess structural features and drug-loading capacity. The rise in the SOR induced the formation of distinct lipid-based drug delivery systems (nanoemulsions and liquid crystal lamellar type that were identified using rheological measurements and cross-polarized light microscopy images. Clear dispersions of small and narrow droplet-sized liquid-like nanoemulsions, Newtonian flow-type, were produced at SOR from 0.5 to 1.5 and OWR from 0.12 to 0.4, while clear liquid or gel-like liquid crystals were produced at SOR from 1.5 to 2.5. The BNZ loading was improved according to the composition and type of LBDDS produced, suggesting possible drug location among surfactant layers. The cell viability assays proved the biocompatibility for all of the prepared nanoemulsions at SOR less than 1.5 and liquid crystals at SOR less than 2.5, demonstrating their promising features for the oral or parenteral colloidal delivery systems containing benznidazole for Chagas disease treatment.

  9. Dietary pattern and colonic diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursi, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    To assess the role of dietary pattern on the occurrence of colonic diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis. High-fiber diet does not prevent diverticulosis occurrence, and results about prevention/treatment of diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis are still conflicting.No association was seen between nut, corn or popcorn consumption and occurrence of diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis.It seems to be a mild association between high alcohol intake and diverticulosis occurrence, whereas alcohol dependence seems to show lower risk of in-hospital mortality due to acute diverticulitis.Higher red-meat consumption shows mild increased risk of acute diverticulitis, especially when consumed as unprocessed red meat (defined as consumption of 'beef or lamb as main dish', 'pork as main dish', 'hamburger' and 'beef, pork or lamb as a sandwich or mixed dish'); higher consumption of poultry (viz. white meat) was not associated with risk of acute diverticulitis.Finally, higher fish intake was associated with reduced risk of diverticulitis in age-adjusted model, but not after further adjustment for other potential confounders. Current literature data about the role of dietary pattern on the occurrence of colonic diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis are still too conflicting.

  10. Dietary Amelioration of Helicobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wallace, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on: (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H. pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H. pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability and cultural acceptability. This review therefore highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (e.g. honey and propolis), probiotics, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, oils, essential oils, and herbs, spices and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and pre-clinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. PMID:25799054

  11. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coomes Margerie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90 of all foods; meats 12% (11/90; and grains 11% (10/90. Sauces (6%, 5/90, sweets (4%, 4/90, and desserts (4%, 4/90 were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal.

  12. Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use a Latin name made up of the genus and species of the plant. Under this system ... form of a botanical preparation also play important roles in its safety. Teas, tinctures, and extracts have ...

  13. Dietary vitamin E affects lipid oxidation and total volatiles of irradiated raw turkey meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, D.U.; Sell, J.L.; Jeffery, M.; Jo, C.; Chen, X.; Lee, J.I.

    1997-01-01

    Breast and leg meat patties, prepared from turkeys fed diets containing 25, 200, 400 or 600 IU of dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (TA) per kg diet, were irradiated at 0 or 2.5 kGy with vacuum or loose packaging. The effects of dietary TA on storage stability and production of volatiles in irradiated raw turkey meat were determined. Dietary TA at 200 IU/kg decreased lipid oxidation and reduced total volatiles of raw turkey patties after 7-days of storage. However, the antioxidant effects of dietary TA were more notable when the patties were loosely packaged than when vacuum-packaged. Irradiation increased lipid oxidation of raw turkey meats only when loosely packaged but had limited effects on formation of total volatiles after storage at 4 degrees C for 7 days or longer

  14. Diabetes and diet : managing dietary barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friele, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports on the barriers diabetic patients experience with their diet, and the ways they cope with these barriers. A dietary barrier is a hinderance to a person's well-being, induced by being advised a diet. First inventories were made of possible dietary barriers and ways of

  15. Dietary control of equine plasma triacylglycerols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallebeek, Johanna Maria

    2002-01-01

    The study of this thesis concerns the dietary influence on lipid metabolism in horses. The main issue is the effect of dietary medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) on triacylglycerol metabolism. In certain conditions high-fat diets can be beneficial for horses. Diets rich in long-chain

  16. Usability Test of an Interactive Dietary Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Louisa Ming Yan; Chung, Joanne Wai Yee; Wong, Thomas Kwok Shing

    2009-01-01

    Dietary intake methods are used to collect one's diet habit which is essential in nutrition assessment. Food diary, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recalls are the most common dietary intake methods. However, they are not welcomed by most clients. Digital handheld devices are now readily available, and the cost of digital…

  17. Dietary fibre in foods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Devinder; Michael, Mona; Rajput, Hradesh; Patil, R T

    2012-06-01

    Dietary fibre is that part of plant material in the diet which is resistant to enzymatic digestion which includes cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectic substances, gums, mucilages and a non-carbohydrate component lignin. The diets rich in fibre such as cereals, nuts, fruits and vegetables have a positive effect on health since their consumption has been related to decreased incidence of several diseases. Dietary fibre can be used in various functional foods like bakery, drinks, beverages and meat products. Influence of different processing treatments (like extrusion-cooking, canning, grinding, boiling, frying) alters the physico- chemical properties of dietary fibre and improves their functionality. Dietary fibre can be determined by different methods, mainly by: enzymic gravimetric and enzymic-chemical methods. This paper presents the recent developments in the extraction, applications and functions of dietary fibre in different food products.

  18. Dietary nitrates, nitrites, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, Norman G

    2011-12-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO(3)), nitrite (NO(2)), and arginine can serve as sources for production of NO(x) (a diverse group of metabolites including nitric oxide, nitrosothiols, and nitroalkenes) via ultraviolet light exposure to skin, mammalian nitrate/nitrite reductases in tissues, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, respectively. NO(x) are responsible for the hypotensive, antiplatelet, and cytoprotective effects of dietary nitrates and nitrites. Current regulatory limits on nitrate intakes, based on concerns regarding potential risk of carcinogenicity and methemoglobinemia, are exceeded by normal daily intakes of single foods, such as soya milk and spinach, as well as by some recommended dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. This review includes a call for regulatory bodies to consider all available data on the beneficial physiologic roles of nitrate and nitrite in order to derive rational bases for dietary recommendations.

  19. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Pregnancy Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuyang; Zhao, Diqi; Mao, Xun; Xia, Yinyin; Baker, Philip N.; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy will affect the outcomes for the mother and the baby. Many analyses of the relationship between diet and outcome are often based on a single or a few food items or nutrients. However, foods are not consumed in isolation and dietary patterns can be used to assess the whole diet consumed. The use of dietary pattern analysis to understand nutritional intake and pregnancy outcome is becoming more and more popular. Many published studies have showed the association between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. This review examined articles about the relationship between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. As a modifiable factor, dietary patterns may be more applicable to clinical and pregnant health interventions. PMID:27338455

  20. Preparation and Heat-Treatment of DWPF Simulants With and Without Co-Precipitated Noble Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopman, David C.:Eibling, Russel E

    2005-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory is in the process of investigating factors suspected of impacting catalytic hydrogen generation in the Chemical Process Cell of the Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF. Noble metal catalyzed hydrogen generation in simulation work constrains the allowable acid addition operating window in DWPF. This constraint potentially impacts washing strategies during sludge batch preparation. It can also influence decisions related to the addition of secondary waste streams to a sludge batch. Noble metals have historically been added as trim chemicals to process simulations. The present study investigated the potential conservatism that might be present from adding the catalytic species as trim chemicals to the final sludge simulant versus co-precipitating the noble metals into the insoluble sludge solids matrix. Parallel preparations of two sludge simulants targeting the composition of Sludge Batch 3 were performed in order to evaluate the impact of the form of noble metals. Identical steps were used except that one simulant had dissolved palladium, rhodium, and ruthenium present during the precipitation of the insoluble solids. Noble metals were trimmed into the other stimulant prior to process tests. Portions of both sludge simulants were held at 97 C for about eight hours to qualitatively simulate the effects of long term storage on particle morphology and speciation. The simulants were used as feeds for Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank, SRAT, process simulations. The following conclusions were drawn from the simulant preparation work: (1) The first preparation of a waste slurry simulant with co-precipitated noble metals was successful, based on the data obtained. It appears that 99+% of the noble metals were retained in the simulant. (2) Better control of carbonate, hydroxide, and post-wash trim chemical additions is needed before the new method of simulant preparation will be as reproducible as the old method. (3) The two new

  1. Wine grape pomace as antioxidant dietary fibre for enhancing nutritional value and improving storability of yogurt and salad dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Angela; Zhao, Yanyun

    2013-05-01

    Wine grape pomace (WGP) as a source of antioxidant dietary fibre (ADF) was fortified in yogurt (Y), Italian (I) and Thousand Island (T) salad dressings. During the 3 weeks of storage at 4 °C, viscosity and pH of WGP-Y increased and decreased, respectively, but syneresis and lactic acid percentage of WGP-Y and pH of WGP-I and WGP-T were stable. Adding WGP resulted in 35-65% reduction of peroxide values in all samples. Dried whole pomace powder (WP) fortified products had dietary fibre content of 0.94-3.6% (w/w product), mainly insoluble fractions. Total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity were 958-1340 mg GAE/kg product and 710-936 mg AAE/kg product, respectively. The highest ADF was obtained in 3% WP-Y, 1% WP-I and 2% WP-T, while 1% WP-Y, 0.5% WP-I and 1% WP-T were mostly liked by consumers based on the sensory study. Study demonstrated that WGP may be used as a functional food ingredient for promoting human health and extending shelf-life of food products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sample preparation of waste water to determine metallic contaminants by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Olivos, Javier.

    1987-01-01

    Trace X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy analysis in liquid samples is preceded by sample preparation, which usually consists in the precipitation of the metallic ions and concentration over a thin cellulose filter. The samples preparation of waste water by this method is not efficient, due to the great amount of organic and insoluble matter that they contain. The purpose of this work was to determine the optimal value of pH in order to adsorbe all the insoluble matter contained in a waste water sample in the activated charcoal, so that the metallic ions could be precipitated and concentrated on a thin filter and determinated by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. A survey about the adsorption of some ions in activated charcoal in function of the pH was made for the following: Cr 3+ , Fe 3+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , Se 2+ , Hg 2+ , and Pb 2+ . It was observed that at pH 0, the ions are not adsorbed, but Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ are adsorbed in small amount; at pH 14, the ions are adsorbed, excluding Se, which is not adsorbed at any value of pH. If a waste water sample is treated at pH 0 with activated charcoal to adsorbe the organic and insoluble matter, most of the metallic ions are not adsorbed by the activated charcoal and could be precipitated with APDC (ammonium 1-pirrolidine dithio carbamate salt) and concentrated on a thin filter. The analysis of the metallic ions contained on the filter and those adsorbed in the activated charcoal by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, gave the total amount of the ions in the sample. (author)

  3. Dietary arginine and linear growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vught, Anneke J A H; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Arts, Ilja C W

    2013-01-01

    Child Intervention Study during 2001-2 (baseline), and at 3-year and 7-year follow-up, were used. Arginine intake was estimated via a 7 d precoded food diary at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Data were analysed in a multilevel structure in which children were embedded within schools. Random intercept......The amino acid arginine is a well-known growth hormone (GH) stimulator and GH is an important modulator of linear growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary arginine on growth velocity in children between 7 and 13 years of age. Data from the Copenhagen School...... and slopes were defined to estimate the association between arginine intake and growth velocity, including the following covariates: sex; age; baseline height; energy intake; puberty stage at 7-year follow-up and intervention/control group. The association between arginine intake and growth velocity...

  4. Medicines, excipients and dietary intolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Medicinal products contain not only active drugs but also other ingredients included for a variety of purposes and collectively known as excipients.(1) People who wish to avoid a specific substance because of an allergy or intolerance may ask a healthcare professional about the constituents of a medicine and whether an alternative is available. In a previous article we discussed the issues facing people who wish to avoid certain substances for religious or cultural reasons.(2) Here, we provide an overview of several dietary conditions and the pharmaceutical issues that need to be considered by healthcare professionals advising on the suitability of a medicine. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Dietary management and genetic predisposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Holbæk; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2013-01-01

    variation, and epigenetics might identify additional genetic contributions to obesity, and the use of omics data with integration of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics will identify genetic subgroups who will benefit from specific dietary advice to optimize health and prevent disease. Keywords: Diet . Mutation...... epidemically worldwide, the investigation of genetic predisposition might help to prevent and treat obesity. Predisposition to obesity includes syndromes, such as Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), severe early-onset obesity, such as mutations in the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), and common forms of obesity......, such as genetic variation in the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO). Several studies have explored gene-diet interactions in obesity, weight loss, and regain, but there is a lack of consistency in the identified interactions. This inconsistency is most probably due to a low-moderate effect size...

  6. Dietary fiber content and associated antioxidant compounds in Roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Arranz, Sara; Serrano, José; Goñi, Isabel

    2007-09-19

    The beverage of Hibiscus sabdariffa flowers is widely consumed in Mexico. Polyphenols contained in plant foods are frequently associated with dietary fiber. The aim of this work is to quantify the dietary fiber, associated polyphenols, and antioxidant capacity of the Roselle flower and the beverage traditionally prepared from it and its contribution to the Mexican diet. Roselle flower contained dietary fiber as the largest component (33.9%) and was rich in phenolic compounds (6.13%). Soluble dietary fiber was 0.66 g/L in beverage, and 66% of total extractable polyphenols contained in Roselle flower passed to the beverage and showed an antioxidant capacity of 335 micromoL trolox equivalents/100 mL beverage measured by ABTS. These data suggest that Roselle flower beverage intake in the Mexican diet may contribute around 166 and 165 mg/per serving to the intake of dietary fiber and polyphenols, respectively. The health benefits from consumption of Hibiscus beverage could be of considerable benefit to the whole population.

  7. An Exploration of Dietary Acculturation in Hispanic Males Residing in Mississippi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cuy Castellanos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to explore dietary acculturation in Hispanic males in the context of the Operant Theory of Acculturation. This was a qualitative study using grounded theory to guide methodological procedures. Semi-structured interviews, a focus group, the Acculturation-Rating Scale for Mexican-Americans-II and the Marginality Scale, and photovoice with follow-up interviews were used to explore dietary acculturation in the participant sample. Thirty-five first- and second-generation Hispanic males residing in Mississippi were recruited and categorized into one of three different bidimensional acculturation groups as determined by the Acculturation-Rating Scale for Mexican-Americans-II and the Marginality Scale. Main dietary influencing themes identified were intrapersonal and environmental dietary factors. The subthemes included values, attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and preference for the intrapersonal factors and availability; living structure; accessibility; food preparation skill; and time for the environmental factors. The factors are not mutually exclusive and show the complexity of the dietary acculturation process. This research can be used to guide future research and inform nutrition intervention development for this population.

  8. Refeeding hypertension in dietary obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernsberger, P.; Nelson, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    A novel model of nutritionally induced hypertension in the rat is described. Dietary obesity was produced by providing sweet milk in addition to regular chow, which elicited a 52% increase in caloric intake. Despite 54% greater body weight gain and 139% heavier retroperitoneal fat pads, 120 days of overfeeding failed to increase systolic pressure in the conscious state or mean arterial pressure under urethan anesthesia. In contrast, mild hypertension developed in intermittantly fasted obese animals. The first 4-day supplemented fast was initiated 4 wk after the introduction of sweet milk, when the animals were 47 g overweight relative to chow-fed controls. Thereafter, 4 days of starvation were alternated with 2 wk of refeeding for a total of 4 cycles. A rapid fall in systolic blood pressure accompanied the onset of supplemented fasting and was maintained thereafter. With refeeding, blood pressure rose precipitously, despite poststarvation anorexia. Blood pressure tended to rise slightly over the remainder of the realimentation period. After the 4th supplemented fast, hypertension was sustained during 30 days of refeeding. Cumulative caloric intake in starved-refed rats fell within 2% of that in chow-fed controls. Refeeding hypertension appeared to be due to increased sympathetic nervous activity, since (1) cardiac β-adrenergic receptors were downregulated, as indicated by a 40% decrease in the maximum binding of [ 3 H]dihydroalpranolol; and (2) the decrease in heart rate as a result of β-blockade was enhanced. Refeeding hypertension in the dietary obese rat may be a potential animal model for some forms of human obesity-related hypertension

  9. A method for preparing hydroxylamine formiate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathellier, Andre; Germain, Michel.

    1973-01-01

    This method is characterized in that an anion exchange is carried out between an aqueous solution of hydroxylamine salt, and an organic solution of a formiate of a water insoluble amine, according the following reaction: NH 2 OH, HXaq+A, HCOOHorg→A,HXorg+NH 2 OH, HCOOaq in which A is the water insoluble amine and X is the anion of the starting hydroxylamine salt. This can be applied to the nuclear fuel reprocessing methods [fr

  10. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined.

  11. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin functionalized calcium carbonate microparticles as a potential carrier for enhancing oral delivery of water-insoluble drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lihua Zhang,1 Wufu Zhu,2 Qisi Lin,1 Jin Han,1 Liqun Jiang,1 Yanzhuo Zhang1,3 1Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The objective of the present study was to demonstrate that a novel hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin functionalized calcium carbonate (HP-β-CD/CC based amorphous solid dispersion (ASD can be used to increase the solubility and oral bioavailability of water-insoluble drugs. Irbesartan (IRB was selected as a model compound and loaded into the nanoporous HP-β-CD/CC matrix using an immersion method. The IRB-loaded HP-β-CD/CC formulation was characterized by various analytical techniques, such as specific surface area analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, dynamic light scattering (DLS, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Analyses with PXRD and DSC confirmed that IRB was fully converted into the amorphous form in the nanopores of HP-β-CD/CC. From the solubility and dissolution tests, it was observed that the aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of IRB-loaded HP-β-CD/CC were increased significantly compared with those of pure IRB and IRB-loaded mesoporous silica. Likewise, the IRB-loaded HP-β-CD/CC formulation exhibited better absorption compared with that of the commercially available IRB capsules in beagle dogs. The mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax and the area under the mean plasma concentration–time curve (AUC[0→48] of IRB-loaded HP-β-CD/CC were 1.56- and 1.52-fold higher than that of the commercial product, respectively. Furthermore, the IRB-loaded HP-β-CD/CC formulation exhibited excellent stability against re-crystallization. These results clearly

  12. Effects of a dietary intervention on acute gastrointestinal side effects and other aspects of health-related quality of life: A randomized controlled trial in prostate cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, Anna; Johansson, Birgitta; Persson, Christina; Berglund, Anders; Turesson, Ingela

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To study the effect of a dietary intervention on acute gastrointestinal side effects and other aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in prostate cancer patients referred to radiotherapy. Materials and methods: A total of 130 patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: an intervention group (IG, n = 64), instructed to reduce their intake of insoluble dietary fibres and lactose, a standard care group (SC, n = 66), instructed to continue their normal diet. Gastrointestinal side effects and other aspects of HRQOL were evaluated from baseline up to 2 months after completed radiotherapy, using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25 and the study-specific Gastrointestinal Side Effects Questionnaire (GISEQ). A scale indicating adherence to dietary instructions was developed from a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), with lower scores representing better compliance. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted. Results: There was an interaction effect between randomization and time in the FFQ Scores (p < 0.001), indicating that both groups followed their assigned dietary instructions. The dietary intervention had no effect on gastrointestinal side effects or other aspects of HRQOL. During radiotherapy, the percentage of patients with bowel symptoms and bloated abdomen was lower in IG compared to SC, but the between-group differences were not statistically significant. During radiotherapy, the percentage of patients with bowel symptoms, urinary symptoms, pain, fatigue and diminished physical and role functioning increased in both groups. Conclusions: The dietary intervention had no effect on gastrointestinal side effects or other aspects of HRQOL. The tendency towards lower prevalence of bowel symptoms in IG may indicate some positive effect of the dietary intervention, but methodological refinements, clearer results and longer follow-up are needed before the value of diet change can be established with certainty.

  13. Improvement of physico-chemical properties and phenolic compounds bioavailability by concentrating dietary fiber of peach (Prunus persica) juice by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Sarahí; Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Amaya-Llano, Silvia; Rodríguez-García, Mario E; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to concentrate dietary fiber (DF) from peach (Prunus persica) juice by-product (PJBP), to improve its functional properties, and its polyphenols bioavailability. The dietary fiber concentrates (DFCs) were obtained from PJBP using water/ethanol treatments (100:0, 20:80, 50:50, 80:20, and 0:100, v/v) at 1:5 ratio (wet weight/solvent, w/v) for 5 and 20 min at 21 °C. All treatments concentrated condensed tannins, total and insoluble DF, with the highest content found with 100% H 2 O treatment. The major polyphenols of DFC were 4-O-caffeoylquinic, chlorogenic, and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acids. Water and oil retention capacity and maximum glucose diffusion rate were improved mainly with 100% H 2 O treatment. Healthy rats were fed with a standard diet supplemented with 8% of PJBP, DFC obtained with 100% H 2 O for 5 min, or DFC obtained with 20% EtOH for 5 min. Gastrointestinal digesta weight and viscosity were increased in animals supplemented with 100% H 2 O DFC. Moreover, the urinary excretion of polyphenol metabolites, mainly glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, was increased with this treatment, indicating a greater bioavailability of PJBP polyphenols, which was associated with an increased dietary fiber porosity. Water treatment could be used to potentiate PJBP functional properties and polyphenols bioavailability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Characterization of Cell Wall Components and Their Modifications during Postharvest Storage of Asparagus officinalis L.: Storage-Related Changes in Dietary Fiber Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Judith; Wagner, Steffen; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Bunzel, Mirko

    2016-01-20

    Changes in cell wall composition during storage of plant foods potentially alter the physiological effects of dietary fiber components. To investigate postharvest cell wall modifications of asparagus and their consequences in terms of insoluble dietary fiber structures, asparagus was stored at 20 and 1 °C for different periods of time. Structural analyses demonstrated postharvest changes in the polysaccharide profile, dominated by decreased portions of galactans. Increasing lignin contents correlated with compositional changes (monolignol ratios and linkage types) of the lignin polymer as demonstrated by chemical and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) methods. Depending on the storage time and temperature, syringyl units were preferentially incorporated into the lignin polymer. Furthermore, a drastic increase in the level of ester-linked phenolic monomers (i.e., p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid) and polymer cross-links (di- and triferulic acids) was detected. The attachment of p-coumaric acid to lignin was demonstrated by 2D-NMR experiments. Potential consequences of postharvest modifications on physiological effects of asparagus dietary fiber are discussed.

  15. Sensory qualities of pastry products enriched with dietary fiber and polyphenolic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolka, Patrycja; Górecka, Danuta; Szymandera-Buszka, Krystyna; Jędrusek-Golińska, Anna; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Waszkowiak, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Growing consumer demand for products with pro-health properties is forcing food manufacturers to introduce new food items onto the market, which will not only possess such health-enhancing properties but will also compete on the grounds of sensory attributes - taste, flavour, texture etc. The aim was to evaluate these sensory attributes of pastry products enhanced with biologically active compounds, such as inulin, buckwheat hull and buckwheat flour. For decreasing the energy value of the products tested (crispy cookies, muesli cookies, waffles and pancakes) some ingredients were replaced: vegetable butter or oil by inulin and wheat flour by roasted buckwheat flour and thermally processed buckwheat hull. The substances mentioned are rich sources of soluble and insoluble buckwheat fiber, and also polyphenolic substances. Dry chokeberry and mulberry leaf extract were added as a rich source of flavonoids and 1-deoxynorijimycin, respectively. These substances are recommended for people with obesity. The processing was carried out at 175°C for 15 minutes using a convection oven (Rational Combi-Steamer CCC). Pastry products with buckwheat flour, buckwheat hulls, mulberry extract, chokeberry and inulin had a lower food energy, a higher dietary fiber content and scored high on customer desirability. Pastry products which contain ingredients carrying biologically active substances are not only attractive from the sensory point of view, but also low in calories, and are thus recommendable for obesity people.

  16. Effects of dietary fermented spent coffee ground on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongjun; Rim, Jong-Su; Na, Youngjun; Lee, Sang Rak

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of fermented spent coffee ground (FSCG) on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep. Fermentation of spent coffee ground (SCG) was conducted using Lactobacillus plantrum . Fermentation was performed at moisture content of 70% and temperature of 39°C with anaerobic air tension for 48 h. Four adult rams (initial body weight = 56.8±0.4 kg) were housed in a respiration-metabolism chamber and the treatments were: i) control (Basal diet; 0% SCG or FSCG), ii) 10% level of SCG, iii) 10% level of FSCG, and iv) 20% level of FSCG in 4×4 Latin square design. Each dietary experiment period lasted for 18-d with a 14-d of adaptation period and a 4-d of sample collection period. In SCG fermentation experimental result, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) concentration of FSCG (64.5% of total N) was lower than that of non-fermented SCG (78.8% of total N). Digestibility of dry matter and organic matter was similar among treatment groups. Although crude protein (CP) digestibility of the control was greater than FSCG groups (pdigestibility and nitrogen retention than non-fermented 10% SCG group (pdigestibility, thereby increasing CP digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep. Fermentation using microorganisms in feed ingredients with low digestibility could have a positive effect on improving the quality of raw feed.

  17. Quantitative determination of vinpocetine in dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John M. T.; King, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6–5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations. PMID:27319129

  18. Dietary education must fit into everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folmann Hempler, Nana; Nicic, Sara; Ewers, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    explores perspectives on dietary diabetes education and healthy food choices of people living in Denmark who have a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2012 and December 2013 with 12 participants with type 2 diabetes who had received dietary...... that is sensitive to the attitudes, wishes, and preferences of the participants and that aims at establishing a connection to the everyday life of the participants might facilitate successful changes in dietary practices among people with a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. The findings suggest that more...

  19. Dietary standards for school catering in France: serving moderate quantities to improve dietary quality without increasing the food-related cost of meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieux, Florent; Dubois, Christophe; Allegre, Laëtitia; Mandon, Lionel; Ciantar, Laurent; Darmon, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    To assess the impact on food-related cost of meals to fulfill the new compulsory dietary standards for primary schools in France. A descriptive study assessed the relationship between the level of compliance with the standards of observed school meals and their food-related cost. An analytical study assessed the cost of series of meals published in professional journals, and complying or not with new dietary standards. The costs were based on prices actually paid for food used to prepare school meals. Food-related cost of meals. Parametric and nonparametric tests from a total of 42 and 120 series of 20 meals in the analytical and descriptive studies, respectively. The descriptive study indicated that meeting the standards was not related to cost. The analytical study showed that fulfilling the frequency guidelines increased the cost, whereas fulfilling the portion sizes criteria decreased it. Series of meals fully respecting the standards (ie, frequency and portion sizes) cost significantly less (-0.10 €/meal) than series not fulfilling them, because the standards recommend smaller portion sizes. Introducing portion sizes rules in dietary standards for school catering may help increase dietary quality without increasing the food cost of meals. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Utilization of dietary glucose in the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemany Marià

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review is focused on the fate of dietary glucose under conditions of chronically high energy (largely fat intake, evolving into the metabolic syndrome. We are adapted to carbohydrate-rich diets similar to those of our ancestors. Glucose is the main energy staple, but fats are our main energy reserves. Starvation drastically reduces glucose availability, forcing the body to shift to fatty acids as main energy substrate, sparing glucose and amino acids. We are not prepared for excess dietary energy, our main defenses being decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure, largely enhanced metabolic activity and thermogenesis. High lipid availability is a powerful factor decreasing glucose and amino acid oxidation. Present-day diets are often hyperenergetic, high on lipids, with abundant protein and limited amounts of starchy carbohydrates. Dietary lipids favor their metabolic processing, saving glucose, which additionally spares amino acids. The glucose excess elicits hyperinsulinemia, which may derive, in the end, into insulin resistance. The available systems of energy disposal could not cope with the excess of substrates, since they are geared for saving not for spendthrift, which results in an unbearable overload of the storage mechanisms. Adipose tissue is the last energy sink, it has to store the energy that cannot be used otherwise. However, adipose tissue growth also has limits, and the excess of energy induces inflammation, helped by the ineffective intervention of the immune system. However, even under this acute situation, the excess of glucose remains, favoring its final conversion to fat. The sum of inflammatory signals and deranged substrate handling induce most of the metabolic syndrome traits: insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes, liver steatosis, hyperlipidemia and their compounded combined effects. Thus, a maintained excess of energy in the diet may result in difficulties in the disposal of glucose, eliciting