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Sample records for prepared hybrid films

  1. Preparation and characterization of polyimide/silica hybrid films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming-yan; ZENG Shu-jin; DONG Tie-quan; ZHOU Sheng; FAN Yong; ZHANG Xiao-hong; LEI Qing-quan

    2006-01-01

    A kind of hybrid polyimide films was prepared by synthesizing poly( amic acid ) /Silica matrix resin through sol-gel technique and then followed by positing it on a silex glass plate and drying at high temperature.The effect of silica content on the corona-resistant property of the films was studied. The miscibility between the organic and inorganic phases and its effect on the corona-resistant property were investigated with aminopropyltriethoxysilane, which served as a coupling agent, added into the polyimide composite system. The chemical structure and the surface morphology of the films were characterized by FTIR and AFM respectively. The corona-resistant property of the films was tested by a rod-plate electrode. It proved that the corona-resistant property was enhanced with silica content. It also turned ont that the improvement of the miscibility between the two phases due to the presence of covalent force as a result of the addition of the coupling agent had, to some extent,effect on the corona-resistant property of the films. Furthermore, a theory on the corona-resistant property was put forward preliminarily.

  2. Preparation and characterization of perfluorosulfonic resin/titania hybrid transparent films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Preparation and characterization of perfluorosulfonic resin/titania organic-inorganic hybrid films were presented. The transparent hybrid films were prepared by hydrothermal treatment at low temperature of a mixed solution of tetrabutyl titanate and perfluorosulfonic resin with the help of acetylacetone. The characterization was carried out by SEM,XRD,FT-IR,UV-Vis and TGA. The results showed that the perfluorosulfonic resin/titania hybrid transparent films were composed of titania particles dispersed in the perfluorosulfonic resin matrix very well and the titania was of anatase phase. Its diameter de-creased with increasing weight ratio of titania to perfluorosulfonic resin.

  3. Preparation and characterization of perfluorosulfonic resin/titania hybrid transparent films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI JianMei; XUE MinZhao; ZHANG YongMing; LIU YanGang

    2007-01-01

    Preparation and characterization of perfluoroaulfonic resin/titaniaorganic-inorganic hybrid films were presented. The transparent hybrid films were prepared by hydrothermal treatment at low temperature of a mixed solution of tetrabutyl titanata and perfluorosulfonic resin with the help of acetylacetone. The charactarization was carried out by SEM, XRD, FT-IR, UV-Vis and TGA. The results showed that the perfiuorosulfonic resin/titania hybrid transparent films were composed of titania particles dispersed in the perfluorosulfonic resin matrix very well and the titania was of anatase phase. Its diameter decreased with increasing weight ratio of titania to perfluorosulfonic resin.

  4. Preparation and gas sensing properties of novel CdS-supramolecular organogel hybrid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Huiyun; Peng, Junxia; Liu, Kaiqiang; Li, Chen; Fang, Yu

    2008-05-01

    A novel CdS-supramolecular organogel hybrid film with unusual morphology has been fabricated by exposing a supramolecular organogel film containing Cd(Ac)2 in an H2S atmosphere at room temperature. The organogel film was prepared by spin-coating a LMOG (low-molecular weight organic gelator) gel of dmethyl sulfoxide onto a glass plate substrate. XRD, SEM, EDS, TG-DTA, UV-vis, PL (photoluminescence) spectroscopy and PL lifetime measurements were employed to characterize the film. It was shown that the organogel film had functioned as a template to control the morphology of the final hybrid film. The quantities and sizes of the CdS particles embedded in the organogel films can be easily altered by varying the initial concentration of Cd(Ac)2. Importantly, the PL of the hybrid film is sensitive to the presence of some volatile organic monoamines and diamines. The selectivity and reversibility of the sensing process were investigated.

  5. Preparation and characterization of cellulose acetate organic/inorganic hybrid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed S. Shojaie; Timothy G. Rials; Stephen S. Kelley

    1995-01-01

    A series of organic/inorganic hybrid (OIH) films were prepared using cellulose acetate (CA) as the organic component and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as the inorganic component. The chemical, morphological, and mechanical properties of these films were evaluated with a variety of analytical techniques. The results of these evaluations showed that crosslinked CA OIH...

  6. Preparation and Photochromic Properties of Hybrid Thin Films Based on Heteropolyoxometallate and Polyacrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    series of photochromic hybrid films were prepared through entrapping Dawson type tungsten heteropolyoxometallates (P2W18O626-) and molybdenum heteropolyoxometallate (P2Mo18O626-) into polyacrylamide matrix. FTIR results showed that the Dawson geometry of heteropolyoxometallates is still preserved inside the composites and strong coulombic interaction is built between heteropolyoxometallates and polyacrylamide via hydrogen bonding. Irradiated with ultraviolet light, the transparent films change from colorless to blue and show reversible photochromism.The bleaching process occurs when the films are in contact with air or O2 in the dark. The molybdenum heteropolyoxometallate hybrid film has higher photochromic efficiency and slower bleaching reaction than tungsten heteropolyoxometallate hybrid film. ESR results indicated that polyacrylamide is a hydrogen donor and the photoreduced process is in accordance with the radical mechanism.

  7. Field Emission Properties of the Graphene Double-Walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Films Prepared by Vacuum Filtration and Screen Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Jinzhuo Xu; Tao Feng; Yiwei Chen; Zhuo Sun

    2013-01-01

    The graphene double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) hybrid films were prepared by vacuum filtration and screen printing. Their electron field emission properties have been studied systematically. The electron emission properties of the hybrid films are much better than those of pure DWCNT films and pure graphene films. Comparing with the screen printed films, the vacuum filtered films have many advantages, such as lower turn-on field, higher emission current density, better uniformity, better ...

  8. Facile preparation of smooth perovskite films for efficient meso/planar hybrid structured perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Yu, Hua; Yun, Jung-Ho; Lyu, Miaoqiang; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Lianzhou

    2015-06-21

    Smooth organolead halide perovskite films for meso/planar hybrid structured perovskite solar cells were prepared by a simple compressed air blow-drying method under ambient conditions. The resultant perovskite films show high surface coverage, leading to a device power conversion efficiency of over 10% with an open circuit voltage up to 1.003 V merely using pristine poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as a hole transporter.

  9. Preparation of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films by hybrid sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tooru; Nagatomo, Takeshi; Kawasaki, Daisuke; Nishio, Mitsuhiro; Guo, Qixin; Wakahara, Akihiro; Yoshida, Akira; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2005-11-01

    In order to fabricate Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films, hybrid sputtering system with two sputter sources and two effusion cells is used. The Cu2ZnSnS4 films are fabricated by the sequential deposition of metal elements and annealing in S flux, varying the substrate temperature. The Cu2ZnSnS4 films with stoichiometric composition are obtained at the substrate temperature up to 400 °C, whereas the film composition becomes quite Zn-pool at the substrate temperature above 450 °C. The Cu2ZnSnS4 film shows p-type conductivity, and the optical absorption coefficient and the band gap of the Cu2ZnSnS4 film prepared in this experiment are suitable for fabricating a thin film solar cell.

  10. Preparation and gas sensing properties of novel CdS-supramolecular organogel hybrid films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Huiyun; Peng Junxia; Liu Kaiqiang; Li Chen; Fang Yu [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)], E-mail: yfang@snnu.edu.cn

    2008-05-21

    A novel CdS-supramolecular organogel hybrid film with unusual morphology has been fabricated by exposing a supramolecular organogel film containing Cd(Ac){sub 2} in an H{sub 2}S atmosphere at room temperature. The organogel film was prepared by spin-coating a LMOG (low-molecular weight organic gelator) gel of dmethyl sulfoxide onto a glass plate substrate. XRD, SEM, EDS, TG-DTA, UV-vis, PL (photoluminescence) spectroscopy and PL lifetime measurements were employed to characterize the film. It was shown that the organogel film had functioned as a template to control the morphology of the final hybrid film. The quantities and sizes of the CdS particles embedded in the organogel films can be easily altered by varying the initial concentration of Cd(Ac){sub 2}. Importantly, the PL of the hybrid film is sensitive to the presence of some volatile organic monoamines and diamines. The selectivity and reversibility of the sensing process were investigated.

  11. Preparation and antibacterial properties of hybrid-zirconia films with silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azocar, Ignacio, E-mail: manuel.azocar@usach.cl [Departamento de Quimica de los Materiales, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Avenida Bernardo O' Higgins 3363, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Vargas, Esteban [Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Metalurgia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH (Chile); Duran, Nicole [Departamento de Quimica de los Materiales, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Avenida Bernardo O' Higgins 3363, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Arrieta, Abel [Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH (Chile); Gonzalez, Evelyn [Departamento de Quimica de los Materiales, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Avenida Bernardo O' Higgins 3363, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Metalurgia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH (Chile); Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH (Chile); Departamento de Quimica Farmacologica y Toxicologica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad de Chile, Sergio Livingstone Polhammer 1007, Santiago (Chile); and others

    2012-11-15

    The antimicrobial effect of incorporating silver nanoparticles (AgNps) into zirconia matrix-polyether glycol was studied. AgNps of 4-6 nm in size were synthesized using the inverse micelles method, and different doses of metallic nanoparticles were incorporated into zirconia-polyether glycol mixtures during the ageing procedure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the modified hybrid film showed a homogenous distribution of 20-80 nm diameter AgNps, indicating agglomeration of these structures during film modification; such agglomerations were greater when increasing the dosage of the colloidal system. The AgNps-hybrid films showed higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria than for Gram-negative bacteria. Hybrid films prepared with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) stabilized AgNps presented enhanced antibacterial activity compared to that obtained through the addition of a high AgNO{sub 3} concentration (0.3 wt%). -- Graphical abstract: Atomic Force Micrographs, top and cross section view, showing silver nanoparticles embedded in a zirconia-polyether glycol hybrid film. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antibacterial activity of films (zirconia-polyether glycol) modified with silver nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biofilm formation is prevented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High sensibility against gram positive bacteria.

  12. Preparation, characterization and electrocatalytic properties of poly(luminol) and polyoxometalate hybrid film modified electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yu-Tsern; Lin, Kuo-Chiang; Chen, Shen-Ming [National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106 (Taiwan). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2005-10-20

    Hybrid films composed of poly(luminol) and nanometer-sized clusters of polyoxometalate, SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 4-} and PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-} have been prepared in acidic aqueous solutions. These films are stable and electrochemically active, and produced on glassy carbon, platinum, gold and transparent semiconductor tin oxide electrodes. The electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance and cyclic voltammetry were used to study in situ growth of the hybrid poly(luminol)/SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 4-} and poly(luminol)/PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-}. Both the poly(luminol)/SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 4-} and poly(luminol)/PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-} hybrid films showed four redox couples and the electrochemical properties were compared to SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 4-} and PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-}. When transferred to various acidity aqueous solutions, the four redox couples and the formal potentials of two hybride film were observed to be pH-dependent. The electrocatalytic reduction of ClO{sub 3}{sup -}, BrO{sub 3}{sup -}, IO{sub 3}{sup -}, S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2-} and NO{sub 2}{sup -}by a poly(luminol)/PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-} hybrid film in an acidic aqueous solution showed an electrocatalytic reduction activity of IO{sub 3}{sup -} > BrO{sub 3}{sup -} and ClO{sub 3}{sup -}. The electrocatalytic oxidation of dopamine and epinephrine by a poly(luminol)/PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-} hybrid film was also investigated. (author)

  13. Preparation, photophysical characterization, and modeling of LDS722/Laponite 2D-ordered hybrid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelde-Elezcano, Nerea; Duque-Redondo, Eduardo; Martínez-Martínez, Virginia; Manzano, Hegoi; López-Arbeloa, Iñigo

    2014-08-26

    A novel hybrid material with promising optical properties for nonlinear optical applications is presented, as formed by LDS 722 organic dye confined in Laponite clay. Thin films of the hybrid material with different dye loadings have been prepared. The film thickness, the dye and water content, and the clay swelling due to guest molecule incorporation have been characterized. Then, the photophysical properties of the thin films have been studied in detail using experimental methods and molecular simulation. As the dye load increases, the hybrid films present a hypsochromic shift in absorption and a bathochromic shift in emission. The former is attributed to the increasing strength of solvation of the dye donor group, while the latter is ascribed to a switch from an intramolecular to an intermolecular charge-transfer process as the dye load increases. The LDS 722 molecules are preferentially oriented in the host clay almost in parallel to the platelet surfaces, inducing macroscopic order that makes the material responsive to polarized light.

  14. Field Emission Properties of the Graphene Double-Walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Films Prepared by Vacuum Filtration and Screen Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhuo Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The graphene double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT hybrid films were prepared by vacuum filtration and screen printing. Their electron field emission properties have been studied systematically. The electron emission properties of the hybrid films are much better than those of pure DWCNT films and pure graphene films. Comparing with the screen printed films, the vacuum filtered films have many advantages, such as lower turn-on field, higher emission current density, better uniformity, better long-term stability, and stronger adhesive strength with conductive substrates. The optimized hybrid films with 20% weight ratio of graphene, which were fabricated by vacuum filtration, show the best electron emission performances with a low turn-on field of 0.50 Vμm−1 (at 1 μAcm−2 and a high field enhancement factor β of 27000.

  15. High Refractive Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Films Prepared by Low Water Sol-Gel and UV-Irradiation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yuan Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid sols (Ti–O–Si precursor were first synthesized by the sol-gel method at low addition of water, and were then employed to prepare a highly refractive hybrid optical film. This film was obtained by blending the Ti–O–Si precursor with 2-phenylphenoxyethyl acrylate (OPPEA to perform photo-polymerization by ultraviolet (UV irradiation. Results show that the film transparency of poly(Ti–O–Si precursor-co-OPPEA film is higher than that of a pure poly(Ti–O–Si precursor film, and that this poly(Ti–O–Si precursor-co-OPPEA hybrid film exhibits a high transparency of ~93.7% coupled with a high refractive index (n of 1.83 corresponding to a thickness of 2.59 μm.

  16. Recent trends in preparation and application of carbon nanotube-graphene hybrid thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Dang, Van; Dung Nguyen, Duc; Thanh Cao, Thi; Le, Phuoc Huu; Tran, Dai Lam; Phan, Ngoc Minh; Chuc Nguyen, Van

    2016-09-01

    The combination of one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and two-dimensional (2D) graphene materials to generate three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanotube-graphene hybrid thin films (CNGHTFs) has attracted great attention owing to their intriguing properties via the synergistic effects of these two materials on their electrical, optical, and electrochemical properties in comparison with their individual components. This review aims to provide a brief introduction of recent trends in preparation methodologies and some outstanding applications of CNGHTFs. It contains two main scientific subjects. The first of these is the research on preparation techniques of CNGHTFs, including reduction agent-assisted mechanical blending of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and CNTs, hybridization methods for layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of CNTs and rGO sheets, multi-step methods using combinations of a solution and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processing, one-step growth of CNGHTFs by the CVD method, and modified CVD methods via thermal deposition of carbon source on catalyst surfaces. The advantages and disadvantages of the preparation methods of CNGHTFs are presented and discussed in detail. The second scientific subject of the review is the research on some outstanding applications of CNGHTFs in various research fields, including transparent conductors, electron field emitters, field-effect transistors, biosensors and supercapacitors. In most cases, the CNGHTFs showed superior performances than those of the pristine GO/graphene or CNT materials. Therefore, the CNGHTFs exhibit as high-potential materials for various practical applications. Opportunites and challenges in the fields are also presented.

  17. PREPARATION OF POLYIMIDE-BaTiO3 HYBRID FILMS BY A DISPERSION PROCESS AND THEIR MICROSTRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-sheng Li; Yue-jin Tong; Kai Jing; Meng-xian Ding

    2001-01-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3) powders with particle sizes of 30~50 nm were prepared from barium stearate, titanium alkoxides and stearic acid by stearic acid-gel method. Dispersing the agglomerate of BaTiO3 nanoparticles into poly(amic acid) solution followed by curing led to the formation of polyimide hybrid films. The hybrid films were transparent and well distributed with BaTiO3 nanoparticles when the BaTiO3 content was less than 1 wt%. Highly loaded hybrid film containing 30 wt % BaTiO3 was tough, had a smooth surface and possessed much higher dielectric and piezoelectric constants than the parent polyimide.

  18. Layered Ni(OH)2-Co(OH)2 films prepared by electrodeposition as charge storage electrodes for hybrid supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyen; Boudard, Michel; Carmezim, M. João; Montemor, M. Fátima

    2017-01-01

    Consecutive layers of Ni(OH)2 and Co(OH)2 were electrodeposited on stainless steel current collectors for preparing charge storage electrodes of high specific capacity with potential application in hybrid supercapacitors. Different electrodes were prepared consisting on films of Ni(OH)2, Co(OH)2, Ni1/2Co1/2(OH)2 and layered films of Ni(OH)2 on Co(OH)2 and Co(OH)2 on Ni(OH)2 to highlight the advantages of the new architecture. The microscopy studies revealed the formation of nanosheets in the Co(OH)2 films and of particles agglomerates in the Ni(OH)2 films. Important morphological changes were observed in the double hydroxides films and layered films. Film growth by electrodeposition was governed by instantaneous nucleation mechanism. The new architecture composed of Ni(OH)2 on Co(OH)2 displayed a redox response characterized by the presence of two peaks in the cyclic voltammograms, arising from redox reactions of the metallic species present in the layered film. These electrodes revealed a specific capacity of 762 C g−1 at the specific current of 1 A g−1. The hybrid cell using Ni(OH)2 on Co(OH)2 as positive electrode and carbon nanofoam paper as negative electrode display specific energies of 101.3 W h g−1 and 37.8 W h g−1 at specific powers of 0.2 W g−1 and 2.45 W g−1, respectively. PMID:28051143

  19. Layered Ni(OH)2-Co(OH)2 films prepared by electrodeposition as charge storage electrodes for hybrid supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyen; Boudard, Michel; Carmezim, M João; Montemor, M Fátima

    2017-01-04

    Consecutive layers of Ni(OH)2 and Co(OH)2 were electrodeposited on stainless steel current collectors for preparing charge storage electrodes of high specific capacity with potential application in hybrid supercapacitors. Different electrodes were prepared consisting on films of Ni(OH)2, Co(OH)2, Ni1/2Co1/2(OH)2 and layered films of Ni(OH)2 on Co(OH)2 and Co(OH)2 on Ni(OH)2 to highlight the advantages of the new architecture. The microscopy studies revealed the formation of nanosheets in the Co(OH)2 films and of particles agglomerates in the Ni(OH)2 films. Important morphological changes were observed in the double hydroxides films and layered films. Film growth by electrodeposition was governed by instantaneous nucleation mechanism. The new architecture composed of Ni(OH)2 on Co(OH)2 displayed a redox response characterized by the presence of two peaks in the cyclic voltammograms, arising from redox reactions of the metallic species present in the layered film. These electrodes revealed a specific capacity of 762 C g(-1) at the specific current of 1 A g(-1). The hybrid cell using Ni(OH)2 on Co(OH)2 as positive electrode and carbon nanofoam paper as negative electrode display specific energies of 101.3 W h g(-1) and 37.8 W h g(-1) at specific powers of 0.2 W g(-1) and 2.45 W g(-1), respectively.

  20. Preparation of Poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) Modified Tungsten Oxide Hybrid Films via Sol-Gel Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Poly (ethylene axide) (PEO) modified WO3 thin films were prepared on glass substrates with special temperature.The sol-gel transition proess was investigated by using DTA-TG,SEM and XRD.The electrochemical characteristic of the films was studied by cyclic voltmmetry measurement.The results show that PEO has heavy effects on the crystallization of WO3 during structure evolution because of the interaction between PEO and WO3.It increases the crystallization temperature of the gels and thus improves the electrochemical properties and cyclic life of WO3 film as electrochromic materials.

  1. Dopamine/TiO{sub 2} hybrid thin films prepared by the liquid phase deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez-Tauste, David [Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, Edifici Cn, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: davidg@qf.uab.es; Domenech, Xavier [Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, Edifici Cn, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Domingo, Concepcion [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Ayllon, Jose A. [Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, Edifici Cn, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-04-30

    Liquid phase deposition method is applied to one-step production of a hybrid material composed by dopamine(DA) and TiO{sub 2} anatase. An optimized amount of the enediol derivative is added to a fluoride titania precursor aqueous solution in order to entrap this modifier within the growing TiO{sub 2}, yielding a DA/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite material. Uniform, well-adhered and brown-colored thin films are deposited on indium tin oxide covered glass substrate. The DA/TiO{sub 2} hybrid material has been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy. The formation of the hybrid material seems to be reasonably explained by linkage of different TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites taking advantage of both enediol and amine groups of DA.

  2. Organic-inorganic Hybrids Towards the Preparation of Nanoporous Composite Thin Films for Microelectronic Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon containing materials have traditionally been used in microelectronic fabrication. Semiconductor devices often have one or more arrays of patterned interconnect levels that serve to electrically couple the individual circuit elements forming an integrated circuit. These interconnect levels are typically separated by an insulating or dielectric film. Previously, a silicon oxide film was the most commonly used material for such dielectric films having dielectric constants(k) near 4. 0. However, as the feature size is continuously scaling down, the relatively high k of such silicon oxide films became inadequate to provide efficient electrical insulation. As such, there has been an increasing market demand for materials with even lower dielectric constant for Interlayer Dielectric (ILD) applications, yet retaining thermal and mechanical integrity. We wish to report here our investigations on the preparation of ultra-low k ILD materials using a sacrificial approach whereby organic groups are burnt out to generate low k porous ORMOSIL films. We have been able to prepare a variety of organically modified silicone resins leading to highly microporous thin films, exhibiting ultra-low k from 1.80 to 2.87, and good to high modulus, 1.5 to 5.5 Gpa. Structure property influences on porosity, dielectric constant and modulus will be discussed.

  3. Effect of the preparation procedure on the morphology of thin TiO₂ films and their device performance in small-molecule bilayer hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Eva L; Spadavecchia, Francesca; Nonomura, Kazuteru; Palmgren, Pål; Cappelletti, Giuseppe; Hagfeldt, Anders; Johansson, Erik M J; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2012-11-01

    Flat titanium dioxide films, to be used as the acceptor layer in bilayer hybrid solar cell devices, were prepared by spray-pyrolysis and by spin-casting. Both preparation methods resulted in anatase titania films with similar optical and electronic properties but considerably different film morphologies. Spray pyrolysis resulted in dense TiO₂ films grown onto and affected by the surface roughness of the underlying conducting glass substrates. The spin-casting preparation procedure resulted in nanoporous titania films. Hybrid solar cell devices with varying layer thickness of the small-molecule semiconducting dye TDCV-TPA were investigated. Devices built with spray-pyrolyzed titania substrates yielded conversion efficiencies up to 0.47%. Spin-cast titania substrates exhibited short circuits for thin dye layer thickness. For thicker dye layers the performance of these devices was up to 0.6% due to the higher interfacial area for charge separation of these nanoporous TiO₂ substrates.

  4. Preparation and Photochromic Behavior of Novel Hybrid Inorganic-Organic Thin Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A novel photochromic complex comprising of Keggin type tungstophosphate acid (PW12) and polyacrylamide (PAM) was prepared. FT-IR results showed that the Keggin geometry of PW12 was still preserved inside the composite, and a charge-transfer bridge was built between PW12 and PAM via hydrogen bond. AFM images indicated that surface topography of polymer matrix changed after adding PW12. Under UV irradiation, the film was reduced photochemically to yield a blue species, which was reversible in the present of oxygen in polymeric network.

  5. Synthesis and structural characterization of polyoxometalates incorporating with anilinium cations and facile preparation of hybrid film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, Keisuke; Srifa, Atthapon; Isikawa, Eri; Naruke, Haruo

    2010-08-01

    The self-assembly reaction of tungstate and copper(II) in the presence of aniline (ANI) and phosphoric acid led to the formation of an anilinium (ANIH +) salt of mono-substituted Keggin-type polyoxotungstophosphate (ANIH) 5[PCu(H 2O)W 11O 39](ANI)·8H 2O ( 1), while the reaction of heptamolybdate in the coexistence of copper(II), phosphoric acid and ANI yielded an ANIH + salt of Strandberg-type pentamolybdodiphosphate, (ANIH) 2[(PO 4) 2Mo 5O 15{Cu(ANI) 2(H 2O)} 2](ANI)·2H 2O ( 2). These compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray single-crystal analysis. The compound 1, crystallizing in trigonal, P3¯,a = 13.883(4), c = 10.187(3) Å, Z = 1, consists of copper mono-substituted Keggin-typed [PCu(H 2O)W 11O 39] 5- anion surrounded by six ANI molecules, of which five are protonated (ANIH +). The compound 2, crystallizing in triclinic, P1¯,a = 13.98(2), b = 14.73(1), c = 16.24(1) Å, α = 111.27(3), β = 97.42(3), γ = 99.54(4)°, Z = 2, consists of Strandberg-type pentamolybdodiphospate [(PO 4) 2Mo 5O 15] 6- anions interconnected by two Cu(ANI) 2(H 2O) linkers to form a 1D-chain structure. A potentiostatic electrolysis of 1 in aqueous solution gave rise to electropolymerization of the ANIH + cations (and ANI) and deposition with the [PCu(H 2O)W 11O 39] 5- anion on an ITO electrode, forming a nano-structured polyaniline/[PCu(H 2O)W 11O 39] 5- hybrid thin film.

  6. Preparation, characterization and electrocatalytic behavior of zinc oxide/zinchexacyanoferrate and ruthenium oxide hexacyanoferrate hybrid film-modified electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, H.-W.; Thangamuthu, R. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao East Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.-M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao East Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: smchen78@ms15.hinet.net

    2008-02-15

    Polynuclear mixed-valent hybrid films of zinc oxide/zinchexacyanoferrate and ruthenium oxide hexacyanoferrate (ZnO/ZnHCF-RuOHCF) have been deposited on electrode surfaces from H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution containing Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, RuCl{sub 3} and K{sub 3}[Fe(CN){sub 6}] by potentiodynamic cycling method. Simultaneous cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) measurements demonstrate the steady growth of hybrid film. Surface morphology of hybrid film was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) data confirm existence of zinc oxide and ruthenium oxide hexacyanoferrate (RuOHCF) in the hybrid film. The effect of type of monovalent cations on the redox behavior of hybrid film was investigated. In pure supporting electrolyte, electrochemical responses of Ru{sup II/III} redox transition occurring at negative potential region resemble with that of a surface immobilized redox couple. The electrocatalytic activity of ZnO/ZnHCF-RuOHCF hybrid film was investigated towards oxidation of epinephrine, dopamine and L-cysteine, and reduction of S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2-} and SO{sub 5}{sup 2-} as well as IO{sub 3}{sup -} using cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring disc electrode (RRDE) techniques.

  7. Preparation of Oleyl Phosphate-Modified TiO2/Poly(methyl methacrylate Hybrid Thin Films for Investigation of Their Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Fujita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs modified with oleyl phosphate were synthesized through stable Ti–O–P bonds and were utilized to prepare poly(methyl methacrylate- (PMMA- based hybrid thin films via the ex situ route for investigation of their optical properties. After surface modification of TiO2 NPs with oleyl phosphate, IR and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy showed the presence of oleyl groups. The solid-state 31P MAS NMR spectrum of the product revealed that the signal due to oleyl phosphate (OP shifted upon reaction, indicating formation of covalent Ti–O–P bonds. The modified TiO2 NPs could be homogeneously dispersed in toluene, and the median size was 16.1 nm, which is likely to be sufficient to suppress Rayleigh scattering effectively. The TEM images of TiO2/PMMA hybrid thin films also showed a homogeneous dispersion of TiO2 NPs, and they exhibited excellent optical transparency even though the TiO2 content was 20 vol%. The refractive indices of the OP-modified TiO2/PMMA hybrid thin films changed higher with increases in TiO2 volume fraction, and the hybrid thin film with 20 vol% of TiO2 showed the highest refractive index (n = 1.86.

  8. Hybrid Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of a viologen derivative and TCNQ in a mixed valence state: preparation route and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Santiago; Cea, Pilar; Lafuente, Carlos; Royo, Félix M.; López, María. C.

    2004-08-01

    Hybrid Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films containing two moieties of great chemical and electrochemical interest, namely a viologen derivative and tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) in a mixed valence state, were fabricated. To do so, positively ionized monolayers of 1,1 '-dioctadecyl 4,4 '-bipyridilium were prepared onto aqueous solutions of tetracyanoquinodimethane in a mixed valence state. Surface pressure vs. area ( π- A), surface potential vs. area (Δ V- A), and Brewster angle microscope (BAM) images were recorded and interpreted in terms of molecular interactions as well as the incorporation of the hydrophobic anions into the monolayer. After a comprehensive study, a 10 -6 M TCNQ aqueous solution was chosen as the best one to build hybrid LB films. Thus, the floating films were transferred onto solid substrates that were characterized using several techniques including ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), infrared (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) proving the incorporation of the TCNQ onto the film. These films show a good optical conductivity as well as a high degree of order and layers with a constant architecture.

  9. Structural, optical, and adsorption properties of ZnO(2)/poly(acrylic acid) hybrid thin porous films prepared by ionic strength controlled layer-by-layer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pál, Edit; Sebok, Dániel; Hornok, Viktória; Dékány, Imre

    2009-04-01

    ZnO(2)/poly(acrylic acid) sandwich structures were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly. The structure and optical behavior of the hybrid films were controlled by changing the surface charge and conformation of the poly(acrylic acid). The buildup of the films was followed by UV-vis absorption and reflection spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. It was found that the ionic strength of the polymer solution had a great influence on the film thickness which, in turn, affected the optical properties. The water vapor adsorption isotherms of the films determined by QCM showed an adsorption hysteresis characteristic of porous thin layer structures. The adsorption of water molecules inside the films changed the effective refractive index resulting in a change of the reflection properties. This phenomenon is shown to be exploited for the application of the films as optical sensors. The polarizability of water molecules in the adsorption layer was also determined. It was found that polarization of water molecules in the adsorption layer is much lower than in the liquid water when the surface coverage (Theta) is low.

  10. Preparation of electrochemically reduced graphene oxide/multi-wall carbon nanotubes hybrid film modified electrode, and its application to amperometric sensing of rutin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Uling Yang; Gang Li; Meifang Hu; Lingbo Qu

    2014-07-01

    Through a facile electrochemical method, we prepared an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO)/multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) hybrid film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and characterized it by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) The experimental results demonstrated that ERGO-MWNTs/GCE exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward rutin as evidenced by the significant enhancement of redox peak currents in comparison with a bare GCE, ERGO/GCE and MWNTs/GCE. This method has been applied for the direct determination of rutin in real samples with satisfactory results.

  11. Electrodeposition of hybrid ZnO/organic dye films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, Monica; Mari, Bernabe; Mollar, Miquel [Department de Fisica Aplicada-IDF, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    The viability of the electrodeposition as a suitable technique for preparing new porous hybrid materials has been tested in this paper. Hybrid ZnO films with two different organic dyes: Eosin-Y and Tetrasulphonated-Cu-phtalocyanine were prepared. Their physical and chemical properties as well as their dependence on the growth conditions were investigated. It is found that the type of dye has a big influence on the morphology and porosity of hybrid films. Open and connected pores are created in hybrid ZnO/Eosin-Y films while both open and closed pores coexist in hybrid ZnO/Tetrasulfonated-Cu-phthalocyanine. As one of the promising applications of hybrid materials is photovoltaic conversion of sunlight, photoelectrochemical characterization of hybrid films is also reported. Photocurrent generation owing to both contributions ZnO and Eosin-Y is observed in ZnO/Eosin-Y films but no photocurrent has been observed in ZnO/Tetrasulfonated-Cu-phthalocyanine films. SEM micrographs of hybrid ZnO films grown in aqueous bath; (Left) ZnO/Eosin-Y films grown at 70 C, -0.9 V (Right) ZnO/Ts-CuPc films grown at 70 C, -0.9 V. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Preparation and characterization of polyimide/silica/silver composite films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning LUO; Zhanpeng WU; Nanxiang MOU; Lizhong JIANG; Dezhen WU

    2008-01-01

    Polyimide/silica/silver hybrid films were pre-pared by the sol-gel method combined with in situ single-stage self-metallization technique.The structure of polyi-mide films in the thermal curing process and the influence of silica content on the migration and aggregation of silver particles to the surface of hybrid films were investigated.The hybrid films were characterized by transmission elec-tron microscopy,dynamic mechanical thermal analysis,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,ultraviolet visible spectroscopy and mechanical measurements.The results indicated that there was no degradation of the polyimide matrix after the formation of silica and silver particles.Silica acted as the nucleus for the silver particles.With increasing silica content,more and more silver particles were kept in the hybrid films instead of being migrated onto the surface of the hybrid films and the reflections of hybrid films decreased gradually.

  13. Dielectric properties of PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Acosta, M. D.

    2010-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid films were synthesized by a modified sol-gel process. PMMASiO2 films were prepared using methylmethacrylate (MMA), tetraethil-orthosilicate (TEOS) as silicon dioxide source, and 3-trimetoxi-silil-propil-methacrylate (TMSPM) as coupling agent. FTIR measurements were performed on the hybrid films to confirm the presence of PMMA-SiO2 bonding. In addition, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices were fabricated to study the dielectric constant of the films as function of frequency (1 KHz to 1 MHz). Electrical results show a weak trend of the dielectric constant of the hybrid films with MMA molar ratio. More importantly, the PMMA-SiO2 hybrid films showed a higher dielectric constant than SiO2 and PMMA layers, which is likely due to the presence of additional C-O-C bond. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.

  14. Structural properties and surface wettability of Cu-containing diamond-like carbon films prepared by a hybrid linear ion beam deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Peng; Sun, Lili; Li, Xiaowei [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Xu, Sheng [Gao Hong Coating Technology Co., Ltd, Huzhou 313000 (China); Ke, Peiling [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wang, Aiying, E-mail: aywang@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2015-06-01

    Cu-containing diamond-like carbon (Cu-DLC) films were deposited on Si/glass substrate by a hybrid ion beam deposition system. The Cu concentration (0.1–39.7 at.%) in the film was controlled by varying the sputtering current. The microstructure and composition of Cu-DLC films were investigated systematically. The surface topography, roughness and surface wettability of the films were also studied. Results indicated that with increasing the Cu concentration, the water contact angle of the films changed from 66.8° for pure carbon film to more than 104.4° for Cu-DLC films with Cu concentration larger than 24.4 at.%. In the hydrophilic region, the polar surface energy decreased from 30.54 mJ/m{sup 2} for pure carbon film to 2.48 mJ/m{sup 2} for the film with Cu 7.0 at.%. - Highlights: • Cu-containing diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited by a hybrid ion beam system. • Cu-containing DLC films exhibited a wide range of water contact angle. • The water contact angles vary with the surface energies and surface roughness.

  15. Preparation and optical and electrical evaluation of bulk SiO{sub 2} sonogel hybrid composites and vacuum thermal evaporated thin films prepared from molecular materials derived from (Fe, Co) metallic phthalocyanines and 1,8 dihydroxiantraquinone compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Vergara, Maria Elena [Coordinacion de Ingenieria Mecatronica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Anahuac Mexico Norte. Avenida Universidad Anahuac 46, Col. Lomas Anahuac, 52786 Huixquilucan, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Morales-Saavedra, Omar G. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, CCADET-UNAM, A.P. 70-186, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: omar.morales@ccadet.unam.mx; Ontiveros-Barrera, Fernando G.; Torres-Zuniga, Vicente; Ortega-Martinez, Roberto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, CCADET-UNAM, A.P. 70-186, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ortiz Rebollo, Armando [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, IIM-UNAM, A.P. 70-360, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-02-25

    Semiconducting molecular material of PcFe(CN)L1 and PcCo(CN)L1 (L1 = 1,8 dihydroxianthraquinone), PcFe(CN)L2 and PcCo(CN)L2 (L2 = double potassium salt of 1,8 dihydroxianthraquinone) have been successfully used to prepare thin film and bulk sol-gel hybrid optical materials. These samples were developed according to the vacuum thermal evaporation technique and the catalyst-free sonogel route, respectively. Thin films samples were deposited on Corning glass substrates and crystalline silicon wafers and were characterized by infrared (FTIR), Raman and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies. IR-spectroscopy and Raman studies unambiguously confirmed that the molecular material thin films exhibit the same intra-molecular bonds, which suggests that the thermal evaporation process does not alter these bonds significantly. These results show that it is possible to deposit molecular materials of PcFe(CN)L2 and PcCo(CN)L2 on Corning glass substrates and silicon wafers. From the UV-vis studies the optical band gap (E{sub g}) was evaluated. The effect of temperature on conductivity was also evaluated in these samples. Finally, the studied molecular systems dissolved at different concentrations in tetrahydrofuran (THF) were successfully embedded into a highly pure SiO{sub 2} sonogel network generated via sonochemical reactions to form several solid state, optically active sol-gel hybrid glasses. By this method, homogeneous and stable hybrid monoliths suitable for optical characterization can be produced. The linear optical properties of these amorphous bulk structures were determined by the Brewster angle method and by absorption-, Raman- and photoluminescent (PL)-spectroscopies, respectively.

  16. Amorphous silicon carbon films prepared by hybrid plasma enhanced chemical vapor/sputtering deposition system: Effects of r.f. power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Nur Maisarah Abdul, E-mail: nurmaisarahrashid@gmail.com [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ritikos, Richard; Othman, Maisara; Khanis, Noor Hamizah; Gani, Siti Meriam Ab. [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Muhamad, Muhamad Rasat [Chancellery Office, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, Saadah Abdul, E-mail: saadah@um.edu.my [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chancellery Office, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-02-01

    Silicon carbon films were deposited using a hybrid radio frequency (r.f.) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)/sputtering deposition system at different r.f. powers. This deposition system combines the advantages of r.f. PECVD and sputtering techniques for the deposition of silicon carbon films with the added advantage of eliminating the use of highly toxic silane gas in the deposition process. Silicon (Si) atoms were sputtered from a pure amorphous silicon (a-Si) target by argon (Ar) ions and carbon (C) atoms were incorporated into the film from C based growth radicals generated through the discharge of methane (CH{sub 4}) gas. The effects of r.f. powers of 60, 80, 100, 120 and 150 W applied during the deposition process on the structural and optical properties of the films were investigated. Raman spectroscopic studies showed that the silicon carbon films contain amorphous silicon carbide (SiC) and amorphous carbon (a-C) phases. The r.f. power showed significant influence on the C incorporation in the film structure. The a-C phases became more ordered in films with high C incorporation in the film structure. These films also produced high photoluminescence emission intensity at around 600 nm wavelength as a result of quantum confinement effects from the presence of sp{sup 2} C clusters embedded in the a-SiC and a-C phases in the films. - Highlights: ► Effects of radio frequency (r.f.) power on silicon carbon (SiC) films were studied. ► Hybrid plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition/sputtering technique was used. ► r.f. power influences C incorporation in the film structure. ► High C incorporation results in higher ordering of the amorphous C phase. ► These films produced high photoluminescence emission intensity.

  17. Facile Preparation of Optically Tailored Hybrid Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Fernández de Ávila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead sulfide nanoparticles (PbS NPs have been synthesized directly in poly[2-methoxy-5-(3′,7′-dimethyloctyloxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV semiconducting polymer by a simple low temperature method. Hybrid solutions with different concentrations of PbS with respect to the polymer have been prepared and characterized first in solution and then as thin film nanocomposites deposited on quartz substrates by spin coating. Quenching of photoluminescence emission is observed both in solutions and thin films when the ratio of PbS NPs increases with respect to the polymer, suggesting the occurrence of Dexter energy transfer from the polymer to the PbS NPs. Optical absorption is markedly increased for hybrid solutions compared to pure polymer. In thin nanocomposite films an enhancement of absorbance is observed with increasing PbS NPs concentration, which is more pronounced below 400 nm. The reported results could lead to the development of a method for tailoring the optical response of devices based on PbS NP-polymer nanocomposite by controlling the PbS NP concentration inside the polymer matrix.

  18. Nanostructured hybrid ZnO thin films for energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantilleke Anura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on hybrid films based on ZnO/organic dye prepared by electrodeposition using tetrasulfonated copper phthalocyanines (TS-CuPc and Eosin-Y (EoY. Both the morphology and porosity of hybrid ZnO films are highly dependent on the type of dyes used in the synthesis. High photosensitivity was observed for ZnO/EoY films, while a very weak photoresponse was obtained for ZnO/TS-CuPc films. Despite a higher absorption coefficient of TS-CuPc than EoY, in ZnO/EoY hybrid films, the excited photoelectrons between the EoY levels can be extracted through ZnO, and the porosity of ZnO/EoY can also be controlled.

  19. Facile preparation of electroactive amorphous α-ZrP/PANI hybrid film for potential-triggered adsorption of Pb{sup 2+} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Quan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Du, Xiao [Department of Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); North Japan Research Institute for Sustainable Energy (NJRISE), Hirosaki University, 2-1-3, Matsubara, Aomori 030-0813 (Japan); Ma, Xuli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Hao, Xiaogang, E-mail: tyutxghao@hotmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Guan, Guoqing [North Japan Research Institute for Sustainable Energy (NJRISE), Hirosaki University, 2-1-3, Matsubara, Aomori 030-0813 (Japan); Wang, Zhongde; Xue, Chunfeng; Zhang, Zhonglin; Zuo, Zhijun [Department of Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2015-05-30

    Highlights: • Amorphous α-ZrP/PANI film was first synthesized in aqueous solution by CV method. • The obtained hybrid film had excellent cation exchange property. • Rapid ion exchange process was controlled by the potential-triggered mechanism. • α-ZrP could provide acid micro-environment for PANI’s electroactivity. • Exfoliated α-ZrP enhanced the adsorption capability towards Pb{sup 2+} ions. - Abstract: An electroactive hybrid film composed of amorphous α-zirconium phosphate and polyaniline (α-ZrP/PANI) is controllably synthesized on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modified Au electrodes in aqueous solution by cyclic voltammetry method. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray power diffraction (XRD) analysis are applied for the evaluation of the synthesis process. It is found that the exfoliated amorphous α-ZrP nanosheets are well dispersed in PANI and the hydrolysis of α-ZrP is successfully suppressed by controlling the exfoliation temperature and adding appropriate supporting electrolyte. The insertion/release of heavy metals into/from the film is reversibly controlled by a potential-triggered mechanism. Herein, α-ZrP, a weak solid acid, can provide an acidic micro-environment for PANI to promote the electroactivity in neutral aqueous solutions. Especially, the hybrid film shows excellent potential-triggered adsorption of Pb{sup 2+} ion due to the selective complexation of Pb{sup 2+} ion with oxygen derived from P−O−H of α-ZrP. Also, it shows long-term cycle stability and rapid potential-responsive adsorption/desorption rate. This kind of novel hybrid film is expected to be a promising potential-triggered ESIX material for separation and recovery of heavy metal ions from wastewater.

  20. Hybrid functional IrO2-TiO2 thin film resistor prepared by atomic layer deposition for thermal inkjet printheads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Won-Sub KWACK; Hyoung-Seok MOON; Seong-Jun JEONG; Qi-min WANG; Se-Hun KWON

    2011-01-01

    IrO2-TiO2 thin films were prepared by atomic layer deposition using Ir(EtCp)(COD) and titanium isopropoxide (TTIP).in the IrO2-TiO2 thin films. The low temperature coefficient of resistance(TCR) values can be obtained by adopting IrO2-TiO2 composite thin films. Moreover, the change in the resistivity of lrO2-TiO2 thin films was below 10% even after O2 annealing process at 600 ℃. The step stress test results show that IrO2-TiO2 films have better characteristics than conventional TaN08 heater resistor.Therefore, IrO2-TiO2 composite thin films can be used as a heater resistor material in thermal inkjet printhead.

  1. Sol-gel-derived Hybrid Conductive Films for Electro magnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jiyuan; GUO Wenfeng; WANG Jianzhong

    2011-01-01

    The conductive nano-sized zinc particles were embedded in an insulating amorphous silica matrix, and the hybrid films were obtained by a sol-gel method. The stable hybrid sol solution was prepared by hydrolysis and condensation of Methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) with a one-step acidic catalyst process. Hybrid films were dip-coated on silicon wafer and cured at 120 ℃ for 60minutes. The structural characterization of hybrid films were investigated by means of attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraetion (XRD). The electrical properties of the films were examined with four-point probe. Hybrid films showed to be relatively dense, uniform and defect free. The conductivity of hybrid films was varied with the different contents of zinc nanoparticles and the thickness of the film. It was observed that there was the percolation threshold for the film's electrical properties.

  2. 化学还原法制备聚酰亚胺/银复合薄膜%Preparation of PI/Ag Hybrid Films by Chemical Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董云飞; 蒋里锋; 俞娟; 王晓东; 黄培

    2013-01-01

    聚酰亚胺(PI)薄膜通过碱液水解、离子交换、还原性溶液处理后,制备出具有反射性和导电性能的聚酰亚胺/银(PI/Ag)复合薄膜.采用傅立叶变换衰减全反射红外光谱(ATR/FT-IR)、X射线衍射(XRD)、扫描电镜(SEM)、紫外-可见分光光度计(UV-vis)和RTS-8型四探针测试仪等对PI/Ag复合薄膜的结构和性能进行表征,并对PI/Ag复合薄膜表面银层微结构与反射性和导电性能的关系进行了研究,探索了多种因素对复合薄膜性能的影响.结果表明,随着水解时间的延长,复合薄膜的载银量增大,所制得的PI/Ag复合薄膜表面银层厚度增加,反射率及导电性能更好.实验中当薄膜在经过KOH(2.5mol/L)水解1.5h处理,并在硝酸银溶液(0.4mol/L)中离子交换120min,且经NaBH4溶液还原约120min时,PI/Ag复合薄膜的反射率可以达到70.15%.表面方块电阻可达到1.6Ω/□.%Silver metalized polyimide films with reflectivity and conductivity were fabricated by the incorporation of silver ions in surface-modified polyimide,and subsequently by the reduction of silver ions in reducing solution.The hybrid films were characterized by ATR/FT-IR,XRD,SEM,UV-vis,the four probe tester RTS-8.The relationship between the silver layer microstructure of PI/Ag hybrid films surface and reflective and conductive properties was studied to explore effect of various factors on the properties of the composite films.Along with the increase of the hydrolysis time,the mass fraction and the surface thickness of silver of the hybrid films increase,the reflectivity and conductive performance become better.It is found that the surface reflectivity of silvered film can be detected upmost to 71.5% and surface resistance at ca.1.6 Ω/□ after treatment of the conditions,such as:KOH (2.5mol/L) treatment time of 1.5h,ion exchange time of 120min,NaBH4 (2g/L) reduction time of about 120 minutes.

  3. Flexible Transparent Electrode of Hybrid Ag-Nanowire/Reduced-Graphene-Oxide Thin Film on PET Substrate Prepared Using H2/Ar Low-Damage Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsien Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We employ H2/Ar low-damage plasma treatment (H2/Ar-LDPT to reduce graphene oxide (GO coating on a polymer substrate—polyethylene terephthalate (PET—with the assistance of atomic hydrogen (Hα at low temperature of 70 °C. Four-point probing and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy demonstrate that the conductivity and transmittance can be controlled by varying the H2/Ar flow rate, treatment time, and radio-frequency (RF power. Optical emission spectroscopy reveals that the Hα intensity depends on these processing parameters, which influence the removal of oxidative functional groups (confirmed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to yield reduced GO (rGO. To further improve the conductivity while maintaining high transmittance, we introduce silver nanowires (AgNWs between rGO and a PET substrate to obtain a hybrid rGO/AgNWs/PET with a sheet resistance of ~100 Ω/sq and 81% transmittance. In addition, the hybrid rGO/AgNWs thin film also shows high flexibility and durability and is suitable for flexible and wearable electronics applications.

  4. Electrocatalytic Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Films and Their Applications in Chemical Sensors and Biosensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ In this report, we will present the organic-inorganic hybrid molecular films prepared in our group and their applications in chemical sensors and biosensors.Many types of multi-layered films have been prepared in an alternatively assembled organic-inorganic and layer-by-layer manner. We will focus on the alternatively organized organic surfactant and metal-complex films and their conversion into electrocatalytically active films. Especially, we will demonstrate the preparation of bifunctional films for the detection of two different but correlated species, such as nitric oxide and oxygen, in biomedia.

  5. Electrocatalytic Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Films and Their Applications in Chemical Sensors and Biosensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; XiaoYuan

    2001-01-01

    In this report, we will present the organic-inorganic hybrid molecular films prepared in our group and their applications in chemical sensors and biosensors.Many types of multi-layered films have been prepared in an alternatively assembled organic-inorganic and layer-by-layer manner. We will focus on the alternatively organized organic surfactant and metal-complex films and their conversion into electrocatalytically active films. Especially, we will demonstrate the preparation of bifunctional films for the detection of two different but correlated species, such as nitric oxide and oxygen, in biomedia.  ……

  6. 纳米MgO/PI杂化薄膜的制备及其击穿特性%Preparation and Breakdown Characteristic of Nano-MgO/PI Hybrid Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范勇; 王春平; 陈昊; 杨瑞宵

    2013-01-01

      Nano-magnesia(MgO) particles were prepared by micro emulsion-hydrothermal method, and the nano-MgO doping modified polyamide acids were prepared by in-situ polymerization, then a series of na-no-MgO hybrid films with nano-MgO content of 0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% were prepared, and their breakdown characteristics were studied. The results show that the nano-MgO particles are well-distributed in the polyimide films. When the nano-MgO content is about 4%, the electrical strength attain maximum.%  采用微乳化-热液法制备了纳米氧化镁粒子,并原位聚合制得纳米氧化镁掺杂改性聚酰胺酸,制备出纳米氧化镁掺杂量分别为0%、2%、4%、6%、8%的杂化聚酰亚胺薄膜,并研究了其击穿特性。结果表明:无机纳米氧化镁粒子在聚酰亚胺基体中分布均匀,纳米氧化镁掺杂量约为4%时,电气强度出现最大值。

  7. Elliptical concave microlens arrays built in the photosensitive TiO2/ormosils hybrid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehua; Que, Wenxiu; Javed, Hafiz M. Asif; Wei, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Photosensitive TiO2/organically modified silane hybrid thin films were prepared by a low-temperature sol-gel spin-coating technique. Optical and structural properties of the hybrid films with different titanium contents were characterized by prism coupling technique, UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis. Advantages for fabrication of elliptical concave micro-lens arrays (MLAs) based on the as-prepared hybrid films were demonstrated by combining polydimethylsiloxane soft mold with a UV-cured imprint technique. Results indicate that the as-prepared hybrid films have great applicability for the fabrication of photonic components, and the fabrication technique provides a simple and cost-effective way for the fabrication of the sol-gel elliptical concave MLAs.

  8. Preparation of flat carbon support films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, RI; Oostergetel, GT; Brisson, A

    2003-01-01

    Wrinkling of carbon support films is known to limit the resolution of electron microscopy images of protein two-dimensional crystals. The origin of carbon wrinkling during preparation of the support films was investigated by reflected light microscopy. We observed that carbon films go through severa

  9. 耐电晕PI/无机纳米氧化物复合薄膜设计及性能%Preparation and corona resistant properties of nano-inorganic oxide hybrid PI films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昊; 范勇; 周宏; 杨瑞宵; 王春平; 韩笑笑

    2012-01-01

    The nano-dispersion of inorganic oxide is prepared by using the hydrothermal method and the water needed for the experiment is obtained from the process of the condensation reaction from alcohol into ether. The dispersion is composite with PI to make the inorganic nano-oxides hybrid PI films (PI/ Al2O3-SiO2 and PI/A12O3). As the sample is 25 fun in thickness, the test parameters are chosen as below; the waveform is bipolar square, wave pulse voltage is 2 500 V peak to peak, frequency is 20 kHz, and duty cycle is 50% , the test temperature is 155 X, ,the corona-resistant life of DuPont Kapton 100 CR film, PI/Al2O3-SiO2 film and PI/A12O3 films are measured respectively. The results show that the corona-resistance life of the modified nano-alumina hybrid PI films is the longest of all, which is more than 6 times as that of Kapton 100 CR films and 12 times more than that of the unmodified nano-alumina hybrid PI films. From the resulting SEM images, a conclusion can be made that the inorganic nano-composite structure of the modified nano-alumina hybrid PI films protects the PI substrate more effectively.%采用热液法制备了纳米无机氧化物分散液,其中水解所需的水由醇缩水成醚反应提供.所得的MTES改性的纳米氧化铝与聚酰亚胺复合制成杂化聚酰亚胺复合薄膜(PI/Al2O3 - SiO2),另外还制备了未改性的纳米氧化铝杂化聚酰亚胺复合薄膜(PI/Al2O3),在试样厚度均为25 μm的情况下,采用双极性脉冲方波电压、峰-峰值2500V、频率20 kHz、占空比50%、测试温度155℃的条件下,分别测试上述两种薄膜以及Kapton 100 CR薄膜的耐电晕时间,结果表明,PI/Al2O3 - SiO2薄膜的耐电晕寿命最长,是Kapton 100 CR薄膜的6倍以上,是PI/Al2O3薄膜的12倍以上.由SEM的测试结果分析表明,PI/Al2O3 - SiO2薄膜中的无机纳米复合结构可以更有效地保护PI基体,从而提高材料的耐电晕性.

  10. Electrochromic performance of hybrid tungsten oxide films with multiwalled-CNT additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chung-Kwei, E-mail: cklin@fcu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Sheng-Chung; Cheng, Chin-Hua; Chen, Chin-Yi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Chon [Department of Energy and Resources, National United University, Miaoli, Taiwan (China)

    2011-12-30

    In this study, tungsten oxide films were prepared by sol-gel technique. Various amounts of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were added during sol-gel process to obtain hybrid WO{sub 3}/MWCNT films. The original and hybrid films were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, and scanning electron microscopy analysis, whereas the electrochromic performance was evaluated by measuring changes in the optical transmittance caused by potentiostatic charge-discharge intercalation. The influence on the structure and properties of tungsten oxide film due to MWCNT addition was also investigated. The results showed that all of the films were amorphous and exhibited porous microstructure. The electrochromic performance of pristine WO{sub 3} film was improved by adding MWCNTs that served as a template for the growth of WO{sub 3} and resulted in more porous microstructure. The hybrid tungsten oxide films with 0.1 wt.% MWCNT addition exhibited the best electrochromic performance.

  11. Optical absorption and electrical transport in hybrid TiO2 and polymer nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xi-Song; Li, Zheng; Wang, Ning; Lin, Yuan-Hua; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2006-06-01

    Hybrid nanofilms of poly(2-methoxy-5-ethylhexyloxy-1,4-phenylene)vinylene (MEH-PPV) and anatase-TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared. The results showed that the optical absorption spectra and electrical transport properties of the TiO2/MEH-PPV nanocomposite films were strongly dependent on the particle size and concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles in the hybrid films. In comparison with pure TiO2 nanofilms, the hybrid TiO2/MEH-PPV films presented a shift of the absorption edge to the lower-energy region, and an obvious nonlinear current-voltage characteristic.

  12. Functional Ag porous films prepared by electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guoping; Xiao, Xiudi; Liu, Xiaofeng; Qian, Bin; Liao, Yang; Wang, Chen; Chen, Danping; Qiu, Jianrong

    2009-06-01

    Face-centered cubic Ag porous films have been prepared directly from the heat treatment of AgNO 3-doped poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) electrospun nanofibers. Using Rhodamine B (RB) as the probing molecule, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect of Ag porous films was demonstrated. The antibacterial activity of Ag porous films was also studied in this work. The propagation and biological activity of yeast cells were effectively inhibited by Ag porous films. These functional Ag porous films were expected to be applied in many fields, such as catalysis, diagnostics, sensors and antibacterial, etc.

  13. Titanium-zirconium-phosphonate hybrid film on 6061 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuanghong WANG; Lei WANG; Changsheng LIU

    2011-01-01

    Three titanium-zirconium-phosphonate hybrid films were formed on AA6061 aluminum alloy by immersing in fluorotitanic acid and fluorozirconic acid based solution containing different phosphonic acids for protective coatings of aluminium alloy. The corrosion resistance of three hybrid films as the substitute for chromate film were evaluated and compared. The neutral salt spray test was explored,the immersion test was conducted and electrochemical test was also executed. The hybrid films exhibited well-pleasing corrosion resistance and adhesion to epoxy resin paints. It was found out that the hybrid films could efficiently be a substitute for chromate based primer over aluminium alloy.

  14. Preparation and magnetization reversal of exchange bias structured thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, Christine; McCord, Jeffrey; Moench, Ingolf; Kaltofen, Rainer; Gemming, Thomas; Schaefer, Rudolf; Schultz, Ludwig [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Magnetically patterned thin films of NiFe/IrMn/Ta-NiFe/IrMnO{sub x} with laterally modulated unidirectional anisotropy were prepared by local oxidation of the antiferromagnetic IrMn layer. Varying the lateral dimensions and orientation with respect to the anisotropy modulation, the films exhibit different magnetization reversal behaviors. While stripes aligned parallel to the unidirectional anisotropy direction display a spin valve-like two step hysteresis loop, perpendicular orientation lead to a single step shifted hysteresis loop. Magnetic domain observation reveals separate switching of the stripes for the parallel alignment and simultaneous reversal for the perpendicular orientation. By decreasing the lateral dimensions, quasi-domain states have been observed. The presented magnetic data of the exchange biased-patterned films show that we did succeed in creating an alternative method for the preparation of materials with new hybrid properties.

  15. Enhanced thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride-organic hybrid films via graphene doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Airul Azha Abd [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia UKM, Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Technology Park Malaysia, Malaysia Institute of Microelectronics and System, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Umar, Akrajas Ali; Salleh, Muhamad Mat [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia UKM, Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Chen, Xiaomei [Jimei University, College of Food and Biological Engineering, Jimei, Xiamen (China); Oyama, Munetaka [Kyoto University, Graduate School of Engineering, Nishikyoku, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    The thermoelectric properties of graphene-doped bismuth telluride-PEDOT:PSS-glycerol (hybrid) films were investigated. Prior to the study, p-type and n-type hybrid films were prepared by doping the PEDOT:PSS-glycerol with the p- and n-type bismuth telluride. Graphene-doped hybrid films were prepared by adding graphene particles of concentration ranging from 0.02 to 0.1 wt% into the hybrid films. Films of graphene-doped hybrid system were then prepared on a glass substrate using a spin-coating technique. It was found that the electrical conductivity of the hybrid films increases with the increasing of the graphene-dopant concentration and optimum at 0.08 wt% for both p- and n-type films, namely 400 and 195 S/cm, respectively. Further increasing in the concentration caused a decreasing in the electrical conductivity. Analysis of the thermoelectric properties of the films obtained that the p-type film exhibited significant improvement in its thermoelectric properties, where the thermoelectric properties increased with the increasing of the doping concentration. Meanwhile, for the case of n-type film, graphene doping showed a negative effect to the thermoelectrical properties, where the thermoelectric properties decreased with the increasing of doping concentration. Seebeck coefficient (and power factor) for optimum p-type and n-type hybrid thin films, i.e., doped with 0.08 wt% of graphene, is 20 μV/K (and 160 μW m{sup -1} K{sup -2}) and 10 μV/K (and 19.5 μW m{sup -1} K{sup -2}), respectively. The obtained electrical conductivity and thermoelectric properties of graphene-doped hybrid film are interestingly several orders higher than the pristine hybrid films. A thermocouple device fabricated utilizing the p- and n-type graphene-doped hybrid films can generate an electric voltage as high as 2.2 mV under a temperature difference between the hot-side and the cold-side terminal as only low as 55 K. This is equivalent to the output power as high as 24.2 nW (for output

  16. Hybrid organic/inorganic reverse osmosis (RO) membrane for bactericidal anti-fouling. 1. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 nanoparticle self-assembled aromatic polyamide thin-film-composite (TFC) membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, S Y; Kim, S H; Kim, S S

    2001-06-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic reverse osmosis (RO) membranes composed of aromatic polyamide thin films underneath titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanosized particles have been fabricated by a self-assembly process, aiming at breakthrough of biofouling problems. First, positively charged particles of the colloidal TiO2 were synthesized by a sol-gel process, and the diameter of the resulting particles in acidic aqueous solution was estimated to be approximately 2 nm by analyzing the UV-visible absorption characteristics with a quantum mechanical model developed by Brus. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further confirmed the formation of the quantum-sized TiO2 particles (approximately 10 nm or less). The TiO2 particles appeared to exist in the crystallographic form of anatase as observed with the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern in comparison with those of commercial 100% rutile and commercial 70:30% anatase-to-rutile mixture. The hybrid thin-film-composite (TFC) aromatic polyamide membranes were prepared by self-assembly of the TiO2 nanoparticles on the polymer chains with COOH groups along the surface. They showed improved RO performance in which the water flux even increased, though slightly. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) exhibited the TiO2 nanoparticles well adsorbed onto the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrated quantitatively that a considerable amount of the adsorbed particles were tightly self-assembled at the expense of the initial loss of those that were loosely bound, and became stabilized even after exposure to the various washing and harsh RO operating conditions. The antibacterial fouling potential of the TiO2 hybrid membrane was examined and verified by measuring the viable numbers and determining the survival ratios of the Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a model bacterium, both with and without UV light illumination. The photocatalytic bactericidal efficiency was remarkably higher for the TiO2 hybrid membrane under UV

  17. Hybrid thin films derived from UV-curable acrylate-modified waterborne polyurethane and monodispersed colloidal silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid thin films containing nano-sized inorganic domains were synthesized from UV-curable acrylate-modified waterborne polyurethane (WPU-AC and monodispersed colloidal silica with coupling agent. The coupling agent, 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate (MSMA, was bonded onto colloidal silica first, and then mixed with WPU-AC to form a precursor solution. This precursor was spin coated, dried and UV-cured to generate the hybrid films. The silica content in the hybrid thin films was varied from 0 to 30 wt%. Experimental results showed the aggregation of silica particles in the hybrid films. Thus, the silica domain in the hybrid films was varied from 30 to 50 nm by the different ratios of MSMAsilica to WPU-AC. The prepared hybrid films from the crosslinked WPU-AC/MSMA-silica showed much better thermal stability and mechanical properties than pure WPU-AC.

  18. Improved Thermoelectric Performance in Flexible Tellurium Nanowires/Reduced Graphene Oxide Sandwich Structure Hybrid Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Liu, Chengyan; Miao, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyang; Peng, Ying; Chen, Yu

    2016-11-01

    With a high flexibility and an adjustable electronic structure, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is a potential candidate for flexible thermoelectric materials. Here, we report that flexible RGO/tellurium nanowires (Te NWs)/RGO sandwich structure hybrid films are prepared on glass fabrics through the drop-cast method. The addition of 20 wt.% Te NWs into a RGO matrix remarkably improves the Seebeck coefficient from 15.2 μV/K to 89.7 μV/K while maintaining relatively high electrical conductivity, thus resulting in a one order of magnitude higher power factor value compared with the Te NWs. According to the values of carrier mobility and concentration of hybrid films, the improved thermoelectric properties are presented because of the energy filtering effect on the interfaces in hybrid films. This article suggests that RGO/Te NWs/RGO hybrid films would be promising for fabricating flexible energy sources.

  19. Improved Thermoelectric Performance in Flexible Tellurium Nanowires/Reduced Graphene Oxide Sandwich Structure Hybrid Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Liu, Chengyan; Miao, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyang; Peng, Ying; Chen, Yu

    2017-05-01

    With a high flexibility and an adjustable electronic structure, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is a potential candidate for flexible thermoelectric materials. Here, we report that flexible RGO/tellurium nanowires (Te NWs)/RGO sandwich structure hybrid films are prepared on glass fabrics through the drop-cast method. The addition of 20 wt.% Te NWs into a RGO matrix remarkably improves the Seebeck coefficient from 15.2 μV/K to 89.7 μV/K while maintaining relatively high electrical conductivity, thus resulting in a one order of magnitude higher power factor value compared with the Te NWs. According to the values of carrier mobility and concentration of hybrid films, the improved thermoelectric properties are presented because of the energy filtering effect on the interfaces in hybrid films. This article suggests that RGO/Te NWs/RGO hybrid films would be promising for fabricating flexible energy sources.

  20. Hemicelluloses/montmorillonite hybrid films with improved mechanical and barrier properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ge-Gu; Qi, Xian-Ming; Li, Ming-Peng; Guan, Ying; Bian, Jing; Peng, Feng; Yao, Chun-Li; Sun, Run-Cang

    2015-11-01

    A facile and environmentally friendly method was introduced to incorporate montmorillonite (MMT) as an inorganic phase into quaternized hemicelluloses (QH) for forming hemicellulose-based films. Two fillers, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and chitin nanowhiskers (NCH), were added into the hemicelluloses/MMT hybrid matrices to prepare hybrid films, respectively. The hybrid films were nanocomposites with nacre-like structure and multifunctional characteristics including higher strength and good oxygen barrier properties via the electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions. The addition of PVA and NCH could induce changes in surface topography, and effectively enhance mechanical strength, thermal stability, transparency, and oxygen barrier properties. The tensile strengths of the composite films FPVA(0.3), FPVA(0.5), and FNCH(0.8) were 53.7, 46.3, and 50.1 MPa, respectively, which were 171%, 134%, and 153% larger than the FQH-MMT film (19.8 MPa). The tensile strength, and oxygen transmission rate of QH-MMT-PVA film were better than those of quaternized hemicelluloses/MMT films. Thus, the proper filler is very important for the strength of the hybrid film. These results provide insights into the understanding of the structural relationships of hemicellulose-based composite films in coating and packaging application for the future.

  1. Electrical properties of films of zinc oxide nanoparticles and its hybrid with reduced graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhuri, K. Priya; Bramhaiah, K.; John, Neena S., E-mail: jsneena@cnsms.res.in [Center for Nano and Soft Matter Sciences, P. B. No. 1329, Jalahalli, Bangalore-560013 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Free-standing films of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-ZnO NPs hybrid are prepared at a liquid/liquid interface. The films are characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. ZnO film consists of spherical aggregated NPs while the hybrid film contains folded sheets of rGO with embedded ZnO NPs. Electrical properties of the films and its photoresponse in presence of UV radiation are investigated using current sensing atomic force microscopy (CSAFM) at nanoscale and bulk measurements using two probe methods. Enhancement in photocurrent is observed in both cases and the current imaging reveals an inhomogeneous contribution by different ZnO grains in the film.

  2. Preparation and Properties of Polyaniline Composite Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-hua

    2002-01-01

    Polyaniline (PAn) was synthesized by chemical oxidation polymerization. The conductive polymer doped by camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) and a matrix polymer,polyamide- 66, polyamide - 1010 or polyamide- 11, were dissolved in m-cresol and the blend solution was cast in a glass and dried for preparing polyaniline composite films.Conductivity was from 10 -6 to 10 0Ω-1·cm-1 with different weight fraction of PAn-CSA. The crystallizttion of the films was studied by means of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The treatment of the composite films in different pH value solution would result in decrease of conductivity, especially in an alkaline solution.

  3. Structural and mechanical properties of Laponite-PEG hybrid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikinaka, Kazuhiro; Aizawa, Kazuto; Murakami, Yoshihiko; Osada, Yoshihito; Tokita, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Junji; Shigehara, Kiyotaka

    2012-03-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrids were obtained by the sol-gel type organic modification reaction of Laponite sidewalls with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) bearing alkoxysiloxy terminal functionality. By casting an aqueous dispersion of the hybrid, the flexible and transparent hybrid films were obtained. Regardless of the inorganic/organic component ratio, the hybrid film had the ordered structure of Laponite in-plane flat arrays. The mechanical strength of hybrid films was drastically improved by the presence of cross-linking among alkoxysilyl functionalities of PEG terminals and the absence of PEG crystallines. Hybrid films, especially those that consisted of PEG with short chain, showed good mechanical properties that originate from quasi-homogeneous dispersion of components due to anchoring of PEG terminal to Laponite sidewall and interaction of PEG to Laponite surface.

  4. Preparation of hybrid nano biocomposite κ-carrageenan/cellulose nanocrystal/nanoclay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakuwan, Siti Zarina; Ahmad, Ishak; Ramli, Nazaruddin

    2013-11-01

    Biodegradable composites film based on κ-carrageenan and nano particles as filler was prepared to study the mechanical strength of carrageenan composites. Solution casting technique was used to prepare_this biocomposite. Preparation of composite film and nano filler involve two stages, preparation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) from kenaf with alkali treatment, bleaching, and hydrolysis followed by the preparation of two types of nano composite. Tensile test was carried on the composite film based on κ-carrageenan with the variation percentage of CNC and nano clay to obtain the optimum CNC and nano clay loading. After that hybrid nano-biocomposite film based on κ-carrageenan with the variation percentage of CNC/nano clay (OMMT) according to optimum value of composite carrageenan/CNC and composite carrageenan/nano clay film was prepared. The effect of nano filler on the mechanical properties of carrageenan films was examined. κ-carrageenan biocomposite increased with the optimum at 4% CNC and nano clay composition. Additional improvement of tensile strength with hybridization of CNC and nanoclay indicated better mechanical properties.

  5. Preparation of composite electroheat carbon film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jin-tong; TU Chuan-jun; LI Yan; HU Li-min; DENG Jiu-hua

    2005-01-01

    A kind of conductive and heating unit, which can reach a high surface electroheat temperature at a low voltage, was developed in view of the traditional electroheat coating which has a low surface electroheat temperature and an insufficient heat resistance of its binder. The coating molded electroheat carbon film(CMECF) was prepared by carbonizing the coating which was prepared by adding modified resin into flake graphite and carbon fiber, coating molded onto the surface of the heat resisting matrix after dried, while the hot pressing molded electroheat thick carbon film(HPMETCF) was prepared by carbonizing the bodies whose powders were hot pressing molded directly.The surface and inner microstructure of the carbon film was characterized and analyzed by SEM and DSC/TG, while electroheat property was tested by voltage-current volume resistivity tester and electrical parameter tester. The results show that, close-packed carbon network configuration is formed within the composite electroheat carbon film film after anti-oxidizable treatment reaches a higher surface electroheat temperature than that of the existing electroheat coatings at a low voltage, and has excellent electroheat property, high thermal efficiency as well as stable physicochemical property. It is found that, at room temperature(19± 2 ℃) and 22 V for 5 min, the surface electroheat temperature of the self-produced CMECF (mfiller/mresin = 1. 8/1) reaches 112 ℃ while HPMETCF (mfiller/mresin = 3. 6/1) reaches 265 ℃.

  6. Electret Characteristics of Hybrid Films Consisting of Porous Polytetrafluoroethylene and Teflon Fluoroethylenepropylene with Corona Charging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钢进; 韩高荣; Rudi Danz; Burkhard Elling

    2002-01-01

    We have prepared hybrid films consisting of porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Teflon fluoroethylene-propylene (FEP) and we have investigated their charge dynamics of injection, transport and trapping using corona charging, isothermal and thermally stimulated surface-potential decay measurements. The results indicate that the hybrid film samples show different electret characteristics when charged through side PTFE or side FEP. The samples charged negatively through side porous PTFE show the best charge stability. Their charge dynamics differs very much from a single film. The effect of corona polarity on the electret behaviour in the hybrid film is very large. The experimental results are explained with the three structure level model of charge storage in electrets.

  7. Conjugated polymers/semiconductor nanocrystals hybrid materials--preparation, electrical transport properties and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Peter; Couderc, Elsa; De Girolamo, Julia; Pron, Adam

    2011-02-01

    This critical review discusses specific preparation and characterization methods applied to hybrid materials consisting of π-conjugated polymers (or oligomers) and semiconductor nanocrystals. These materials are of great importance in the quickly growing field of hybrid organic/inorganic electronics since they can serve as active components of photovoltaic cells, light emitting diodes, photodetectors and other devices. The electronic energy levels of the organic and inorganic components of the hybrid can be tuned individually and thin hybrid films can be processed using low cost solution based techniques. However, the interface between the hybrid components and the morphology of the hybrid directly influences the generation, separation and transport of charge carriers and those parameters are not easy to control. Therefore a large variety of different approaches for assembling the building blocks--conjugated polymers and semiconductor nanocrystals--has been developed. They range from their simple blending through various grafting procedures to methods exploiting specific non-covalent interactions between both components, induced by their tailor-made functionalization. In the first part of this review, we discuss the preparation of the building blocks (nanocrystals and polymers) and the strategies for their assembly into hybrid materials' thin films. In the second part, we focus on the charge carriers' generation and their transport within the hybrids. Finally, we summarize the performances of solar cells using conjugated polymer/semiconductor nanocrystals hybrids and give perspectives for future developments.

  8. Structure of hybrid organic-inorganic sols for the preparation of hydrothermally stable membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castricum, H.L.; Sah, A.; Geenevasen, J.A.J.; Kreiter, R.; Blank, D.H.A.; Vente, J.F.; ten Elshof, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    A procedure for the preparation of hybrid sols for the synthesis of organic-inorganic microporous materials and thin film membranes is reported. We describe silane reactivity and sol structure for acid-catalysed colloidal sols from mixtures of either tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and methyltriethox

  9. Multilevel organization in hybrid thin films for optoelectronic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Varun; Bolognesi, Alberto; Calzaferri, Gion; Botta, Chiara

    2009-10-20

    In this work we report two simple approaches to prepare hybrid thin films displaying a high concentration of zeolite crystals that could be used as active layers in optoelectronic devices. In the first approach, in order to organize nanodimensional zeolite crystals of 40 nm diameter in an electroactive environment, we chemically modify their external surface and play on the hydrophilic/hydrophobic forces. We obtain inorganic nanocrystals that self-organize in honeycomb electroluminescent polymer structures obtained by breath figure formation. The different functionalizations of the zeolite surface result in different organizations inside the cavities of the polymeric structure. The second approach involving soft-litography techniques allows one to arrange single dye-loaded zeolite L crystals of 800 nm of length by mechanical loading into the nanocavities of a conjugated polymer. Both techniques result in the formation of thin hybrid films displaying three levels of organization: organization of the dye molecules inside the zeolite nanochannels, organization of the zeolite crystals inside the polymer cavities, and micro- or nanostructuration of the polymer.

  10. Preparation of Carbon Nanotube/TiO2 Mesoporous Hybrid Photoanode with Iron Pyrite (FeS2) Thin Films Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Bayram; Turkdogan, Sunay; Astam, Aykut; Ozer, Oguz Can; Asgin, Mansur; Cebeci, Hulya; Urk, Deniz; Mucur, Selin Pravadili

    2016-05-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/TiO2 mesoporous networks can be employed as a new alternative photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). By using the MWCNT/TiO2 mesoporous as photoanodes in DSSC, we demonstrate that the MWCNT/TiO2 mesoporous photoanode is promising alternative to standard FTO/TiO2 mesoporous based DSSC due to larger specific surface area and high electrochemical activity. We also show that iron pyrite (FeS2) thin films can be used as an efficient counter electrode (CE), an alternative to the conventional high cost Pt based CE. We are able to synthesis FeS2 nanostructures utilizing a very cheap and easy hydrothermal growth route. MWCNT/TiO2 mesoporous based DSSCs with FeS2 CE achieved a high solar conversion efficiency of 7.27% under 100 mW cm‑2 (AM 1.5G 1-Sun) simulated solar irradiance which is considerably (slightly) higher than that of A-CNT/TiO2 mesoporous based DSSCs with Pt CE. Outstanding performance of the FeS2 CE makes it a very promising choice among the various CE materials used in the conventional DSSC and it is expected to be used more often to achieve higher photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies.

  11. Preparation of properties of SWNT/graphene oxide type flexible transparent conductive films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Ho; Jung, Jae Mok; Kwak, Jun Young; Jeong, Jung Hyun; Choi, Byung Chun; Lim, Kwon Taek

    2011-08-01

    Single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/graphene oxide (GO) hybrid films were prepared by a facile bar coating method on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate using a mixed solution of SWCNTs and GO. An acryl type polymer was employed as a dispersion agent to obtain SWCNT and GO suspension in ethyl alcohol. The SWCNT/GO hybrid films were highly transparent and electrically conductive, showing 80% transmittance and 1.8 x 10(3) ohm/sq surface resistance. The surface resistance of the SWCNT/GO film could be further improved to 750 ohm/sq by hydrazine vapor reduction.

  12. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY-CRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN FILM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.F. Hu; H. Shen; Z.Y. Liu; L.S. Wen

    2003-01-01

    Poly-crystalline silicon thin film has big potential of reducing the cost of solar cells.In this paper the preparation of thin film is introduced, and then the morphology of poly-crystalline thin film is discussed. On the film we developed poly-crystalline silicon thin film solar cells with efficiency up to 6. 05% without anti-reflection coating.

  13. Comparison of metallization systems for thin film hybrid microcircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, R.A.; Raut, M.K.

    1980-08-01

    Five metallization systems were evaluated for fabricating thin film hybrid microcircuits. The titanium/palladium/electroplated gold system proved superior in terms of thermocompression bondability, corrosion resistance, and solderability.

  14. Electrocatalytic behaviour of hybrid cobalt–manganese hexacyanoferrate film on glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinu Mohan, A.M., E-mail: vinumohan756@gmail.com; Rambabu, Gutru, E-mail: chinnu.ram09@gmail.com; Aswini, K.K., E-mail: aswinikk@ymail.com; Biju, V.M., E-mail: vmbiju@ymail.com

    2014-08-28

    A thin film of hybrid cobalt–manganese hexacyanoferrate (CoMnHCF), a redox mediator was electrodeposited on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode and was employed as an amperometric sensor towards L-Tryptophan (L-Trp). The hybrid film was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), scanning electron microscope–energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDAX), and electrochemical techniques. The atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis provided the stoichiometry of the hybrid film to be K{sub 1.74-y} Co{sub y} Mn{sub 0.78} [Fe(CN){sub 6}], y ≤ 0.68. The electrochemical impedance study revealed the excellent charge transfer properties of GC/CoMnHCF electrode. The voltammetric investigations demonstrated exceptional electrocatalytic properties of the hybrid film modified electrode when compared to that of bare GC, GC/CoHCF and GC/MnHCF electrodes, towards the L-Trp oxidation. The kinetic parameters such as electron transfer coefficient, the electron transfer rate constant, the diffusion coefficient and the catalytic rate constant for the electrooxidation process of L-Trp were investigated. The amperometric detection of L-Trp employing GC/CoMnHCF electrode possessed a good sensitivity of 10 × 10{sup −2} A M{sup −1} cm{sup −2} in a wide range of detection (2–200 μM) at a reduced overpotential of 680 mV. In addition, the proposed amperometric method was applied to the detection of L-Trp in commercial milk samples with reproducible results. - Highlights: • A hybrid cobalt–manganese hexacyanoferrate film was prepared. • The hybrid film possesses excellent charge transfer properties. • The hybrid film exhibits excellent electrocatalytic properties towards Tryptophan. • Tryptophan detection is possible from commercial milk samples.

  15. Structural Variations in Hybrid All-Nanoparticle Gibbsite Nanoplatelet/Cellulose Nanocrystal Multilayered Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Clélia; Barker, Robert; Watkins, Erik B; Dubreuil, Frédéric; Cranston, Emily D; Heux, Laurent; Jean, Bruno

    2017-08-15

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are promising biosourced building blocks for the production of high performance materials. In the last ten years, CNCs have been used in conjunction with polymers for the design of multilayered thin films via the layer-by-layer assembly technique. Herein, polymer chains have been replaced with positively charged inorganic gibbsite nanoplatelets (GN) to form hybrid "nanoparticle-only" composite films. A combination of atomic force microscopy and neutron reflectivity experiments was exploited to investigate the growth and structure of the films. Data show that the growth and density of GN/CNC films can be tuned over a wide range during preparation by varying the ionic strength in the CNC suspension and the film drying protocol. Specifically, thin and dense multilayered films or very thick, more porous mixed slabs, as well as intermediate internal structures, could be obtained in a predictable manner. The influence of key physicochemical parameters on the multilayer film buildup was elucidated and the film architecture was linked to the dominating interaction forces between the components. The degree of structural control over these hybrid nanoparticle-only films is much higher than that reported for CNC/polymer films, which offers new properties and potential applications as separation membranes or flame retardant coatings.

  16. Release of ceria nanoparticles grafted on hybrid organic-inorganic films for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Alessandra; Figus, Cristiana; Lasio, Barbara; Piccinini, Massimo; Malfatti, Luca; Innocenzi, Plinio

    2012-08-01

    The controlled release of nanoparticles from a hybrid organic-inorganic surface allows for developing several applications based on a slow delivery of oxygen scavengers into specific environments. We have successfully grafted ceria nanoparticles on a hybrid film surface and tested their release in a buffer solution; the tests have shown that the particles are continuously delivered within a time scale of hours. The hybrid film has been synthesized using 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane as precursor alkoxide; the synthesis has been performed in highly basic conditions to control the polycondensation reactions of both organic and inorganic networks via controlled aging of the solution. Only films prepared from aged solutions are able to graft ceria nanoparticles on their surface. The ceria nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy, the hybrid films have been analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Raman imaging has been used for the release test. The hybrid film-ceria nanoparticles system fulfils the requirements of optical transparency and stability in buffer solutions which are necessary for biomedical applications.

  17. Transparent and flexible conducting hybrid film combined with 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane-coated polymer and graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Daesung; Ko, Yong-Hun; Cho, Jumi; Adhikari, Prashanta Dhoj; Lee, Su Il; Kim, Yooseok; Song, Wooseok; Jung, Min Wook; Jang, Sung Won; Lee, Seung Youb; An, Ki-Seok; Park, Chong-Yun

    2015-12-01

    A simple approach to fabricate graphene hybrid film consisted of Graphene/3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)/polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is presented, using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for enhancement of conductivity. The SAMs of APTES was prepared on ultraviolet-ozone (UVO)-irradiated PET films via wet chemical technique. The density of APTES was saturated after UV treatment time of 1 h for PET films; the carrier density and the optical transmittance were 9.3 × 10 12/cm2 and 82% for pristine graphene and 1.16 × 1013/cm2 and 86% for graphene hybrid films, respectively, and experienced at inflection point at 30 min in UV treatment time. This behavior can be explained by surface morphology transition due to coalescence or clustering of mobile and low-molecular-weight oxidized components of PET.

  18. CO Responses of Sensors Based on Cerium Oxide Thick Films Prepared from Clustered Spherical Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Woosuck Shin; Takafumi Akamatsu; Toshio Itoh; Ichiro Matsubara; Noriya Izu

    2013-01-01

    Various types of CO sensors based on cerium oxide (ceria) have been reported recently. It has also been reported that the response speed of CO sensors fabricated from porous ceria thick films comprising nanoparticles is extremely high. However, the response value of such sensors is not suitably high. In this study, we investigated methods of improving the response values of CO sensors based on ceria and prepared gas sensors from core-shell ceria polymer hybrid nanoparticles. These hybrid nano...

  19. Thick film traps with an irregular film. Preparation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloskowski, Adam; Pettersson, Johan; Roeraade, Johan

    2004-05-07

    A new method for preparation of sorbent-based ultra-thick film traps for concentration of trace volatile components from gaseous matrices is described. The procedure is based on blowing a prepolymer (polydimethylsiloxane) through a capillary tube, forming an irregular film of stationary phase. Subsequently, the prepolymer is immobilized in a few seconds by heating to 200 degrees C. Evaluation of the performance of the new traps showed that the loss of efficiency, compared to regular smooth film traps is only on the order of 20-30%. In terms of breakthrough volume, this loss in performance is rather insignificant. The technology is extremely simple and allows a rapid and cheap production of a large number of ultra-thick film traps, even in non-specialized laboratories. The method can be applied to any type of cross-linkable stationary phase, thereby expanding the scope of sorbent-based trapping and preconcentration concept. Many applications are anticipated in trace and ultra-trace analysis in a wide range of fields, such as environmental chemistry, polymers, food and process analysis.

  20. Preparation of polysilsesquioxane-urethaneacrylate copolymer film reinforced with chitin nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifuku, Shinsuke; Ikuta, Akiko; Hosomi, Tetsuya; Kanaya, Shingo; Shervani, Zameer; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki

    2012-07-01

    Chitin nanofibers (CNFs) reinforced silsesquioxane-urethaneacrylate (SSQ-UA) copolymer films were prepared. CNFs-SSQ-UA nanocomposite films were highly transparent due to the filling of nanometer sized (10-20 nm) CNFs inside the hybrid organic-inorganic SSQ-UA copolymer. CNFs due to their crystalline structure drastically increased Young's moduli and the tensile strengths of the composite and decreased the thermal expansion. High thermal stability of polysilsesquioxane improved heat resistance of CNFs.

  1. Hybrid methyl green/cobalt-polyoxotungstate nanostructured films: Self-assembly, electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novais, Hugo C.; Fernandes, Diana M., E-mail: diana.fernandes@fc.up.pt; Freire, Cristina, E-mail: acfreire@fc.up.pt

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: Hybrid {MG/Co(PW9)2}{sub n} multilayer films were successfully prepared and exhibit W-based electrocatalytic activity towards reduction of nitrite and iodate anions. - Highlights: • Layer-by-layer hybrid films {MG/Co(PW_9)_2}{sub n} were sucessfully prepared. • UV–vis was used to monitor film build-up and showed regular stepwise film growth. • XPS confirmed sucessfull {MG/Co(PW_9)_2}{sub n} film fabrication. • Films showed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards nitrite and iodate reduction. - Abstract: Hybrid multilayer films were prepared by alternately depositing cationic dye methyl green (MG) and anionic sandwich-type polyoxometalate K{sub 10}[Co{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(PW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}] (Co(PW{sub 9}){sub 2}) via electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method. Film build-up was monitored by UV–vis spectroscopy which showed a regular stepwise growth. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data confirmed the successful fabrication of the hybrid films with MG-Co(PW{sub 9}){sub 2} composition and scanning electron microscopy images revealed a completely covered surface with a non-uniform distribution of the molecular species. Electrochemical characterization of films by cyclic voltammetry revealed two tungsten-based reduction processes in the potential range between −0.9 and −0.5 V due to W{sup VI} → W{sup V} in Co(PW{sub 9}){sub 2}. Studies with the redox probes, [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−/4−} and [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sup 3+/2+}, revealed that not only the electrostatic attractions or repulsions have effects on the kinetics of the probe reactions, but also the film thickness. Additionally, the {MG/Co(PW_9)_2}{sub n} multilayer films exhibit efficient W-based electrocatalytic activity towards reduction of nitrite and iodate.

  2. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AMINO FUNCTIONALIZED LADDER-LIKE POLYSILSESQUIOXANES AND THEIR HYBRID FILMS WITH POLYIMIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu-shuang Gao; Guo-feng Tian; Sheng-li Qi; Zhan-peng Wu; De-zhen Wu

    2013-01-01

    Ladder-like polysilsesquioxanes (LPSQs) with different amino contents have been synthesized by controlling of the dosage of Pd/C catalyst.The concentration and activity of amino groups were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.Polyimide (PI)/LPSQ hybrid films have been prepared by incorporating of the obtained LPSQs with different amino contents into PI matrix,respectively.The interfacial interactions between PI matrix and LPSQ were studied with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,meanwhile the thermal and mechanical properties of the hybrid films were studied using dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile tests.The results indicate that the functionality of LPSQ has great effects on the interfacial interactions and the properties of hybrid films.With the increase of amino content,both the interracial interactions and the cross-linking density of hybrids enhanced,which results in the decline of surface silicon concentration,increase of Young's modulus and drop of elongation at break.Excessive amino content makes the hybrid films brittle and leads to incomplete imidization.

  3. Suspended hybrid films assembled from thiol-capped gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Xin; Huang, Ming; Hao, Xiao Dong; Dong, Meng; Li, Xin Lu; Huang, Jia Mu

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we explored the formation processes of suspended hybrid thin films of thiol-capped Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) inside metal oxide tubular structures. We found that a balance between in-film interactions of the AuNPs and boundary interactions with metal oxides is a key in making these special organic-inorganic thin films. The hybrid films process many processing advantages and flexibilities, such as controllable film thickness, interfacial shape and inter-AuNPs distance, tuning of particle sizes, thiol population, chain lengths, and other new properties by introducing functional groups to thiol chains. Among their many unique features, the assembly-disassembly property may be useful for future on-off or store-release applications.

  4. Immobilization of carbon nanotubes on functionalized graphene film grown by chemical vapor deposition and characterization of the hybrid material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanta Dhoj Adhikari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the surface functionalization of graphene films grown by chemical vapor deposition and fabrication of a hybrid material combining multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene (CNT–G. Amine-terminated self-assembled monolayers were prepared on graphene by the UV-modification of oxidized groups introduced onto the film surface. Amine-termination led to effective interaction with functionalized CNTs to assemble a CNT–G hybrid through covalent bonding. Characterization clearly showed no defects of the graphene film after the immobilization reaction with CNT. In addition, the hybrid graphene material revealed a distinctive CNT–G structure and p–n type electrical properties. The introduction of functional groups on the graphene film surface and fabrication of CNT–G hybrids with the present technique could provide an efficient, novel route to device fabrication.

  5. Deposition of transparent, hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane - nanocrystalline TiO2 hybrid films on glass substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    On-uma Nimittrakoolchai

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Transparent, hydrophobic hybrid films were deposited on glass substrate from solution containing hydroxyl-terminatedpolydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and TiO2 sol by using a dip coating method. The effects of the film heat-treatment temperatureand PDMS/TiO2 component on surface properties of the hybrid films were investigated by water drop contact angle measurement,and by atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscope (SEM analyses. Surface morphology of the hybrid film changed from smooth surface containing tiny spikes to rougher surface containing large protrusions during heattreatmenttemperatures of 60 - 300°C and became smooth surface containing very fine spikes at 500°C, corresponding to a change hydrophobicity behavior from contact angle measurement. The suitable condition for preparation of hydrophobic coating from this current recipe was at the PDMS/TiO2 volume ratio of 1.00 - 2.33 and heat-treatment temperature of 60°C. All the films were transparent regardless of post heat-treatment temperature. However, the films containing higher content of PDMS were slightly more transparent.

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanofibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ning; WEI Qu-fu; LI Qi; XU Wen-zheng

    2006-01-01

    A new class of nanocomposites based on organic and inorganic species integrated at a nanoscale has obtained more attention these years. Organic-inorganic hybrids have both the advantages of organic materials, such as light weight, flexibility and good moldability, and inorganic materials, such as high strength, heat stability and chemical resistance. In this work, PVAc/TiO2 organicinorganic hybrid was prepared by sol-gel process. Electrospinning technique was used to fabricate PVAc/TiO2hybrid nanofibers. The structures and properties of the hybrid nanofibers were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM),Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) and Fouriertransform infrared (FTIR) spectra. SEM and AFM were employed to study the topography of the hybrid nanofibers.The chemical structure of the hybrid nanofibers were examined by FTIR. The DSC scansrevealed the second order transition temperature of the hybrid materials were higher than PVAc.

  7. Study on Polyimide/Silica Hybrid Films via Directly Intermingle Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin ZHAO; Bao-Lin RAO

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction In recent years, polyimide hybrid materials have received considerable attention due to the dramatic improvements over their pristine state in thermal stabilities, mechanical properties and other special features by introducing only small fraction inorganic additives[1]. Polyimide/silica hybrid materials were studied mostly by sol-gel route[2]. However the storage stability of the sol resin is a practical problem and has not researched on it so far. On the other hand, nano-sized silica has been produced on a large scale and industrialized. In this paper, polyimide/siliea hybrid films were prepared via directly intermingle method. The storage stability of the sol resin, the thermal and mechanical properties of the resulting films were investigated.

  8. Preparation and Thermal Characterization of Diamond-Like Carbon Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Su-Yuan; TANG Zhen-An; HUANG Zheng-Xing; Yu Jun; WANG Jing; LIU Gui-Chang

    2009-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are prepared on silicon substrates by microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the films have an amorphous structure and typical characteristics. The topographies of the films are presented by AFM images. Effective thermal conductivities of the films are measured using a nanosecond pulsed photothermal reflectance method. The results show that thermal conductivity is dominated by the microstructure of the films.

  9. Polythiophene-gold nanoparticle hybrid systems: Langmuir-Blodgett assembly of nanostructured films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Sundaramurthy; Yu, Liew Ting; Srinivasan, M. P.

    2013-03-01

    of polythiophenes with the substrate. For the first time, an ex situ approach has been adopted to incorporate AuNPs into LB films without affecting the film morphology and uniformity. The incorporation of AuNPs into the polythiophene matrix, aided by the affinity of sulphur for gold, was strongly dependent on the molecular arrangement of the matrix, which in turn depended on the composition of the matrix. The hybrid polythiophene films exhibited enhanced conductivity and can be applied in sensors, photovoltaics and memory devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental section discussing substrate preparation, LB film deposition, AuNP preparation and incorporation into the films. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr33385j

  10. Study on Ag mesh/conductive oxide hybrid transparent electrode for film heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Namyong; Kim, Kyohyeok; Heo, Jinhee; Yi, Insook; Chung, Ilsub

    2014-07-01

    Ag mesh-indium tin oxide (ITO) hybrid transparent conductive films were fabricated and evaluated for use in film heaters. PS monolayer templates were prepared using highly mono-dispersed PS spheres (11.2 μm) obtained by a filtering process with micro-sieves. At first, three Ag meshes with different sheet resistances (20, 100, and 300 Ω sq-1) and transmittances (70, 73, and 76%) were evaluated for film heaters in terms of voltage and long-term stability. Subsequently, in an effort to obtain better transmittance, Ag mesh-ITO hybrid heaters were fabricated utilizing finite ITO depositions. At the optimised ITO thickness (15 nm), the sheet resistance and the transmittance were 300 Ω sq-1 and 88%, respectively, which indicates that this material is a good potential candidate for an efficient defroster in vehicles.

  11. Semitransparent ZnO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) based hybrid inorganic/organic heterojunction thin film diodes prepared by combined radio-frequency magnetron-sputtering and electrodeposition techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Moreno, Jorge; Navarrete-Astorga, Elena; Martin, Francisco [Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al CSIC), Departamentos de Fisica Aplicada and Ing. Quimica, Universidad de Malaga, E29071 Malaga (Spain); Schrebler, Ricardo [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Ramos-Barrado, Jose R. [Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al CSIC), Departamentos de Fisica Aplicada and Ing. Quimica, Universidad de Malaga, E29071 Malaga (Spain); Dalchiele, Enrique A., E-mail: dalchiel@fing.edu.uy [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Herrera y Reissig 565, C.C. 30, 11000 Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2012-12-15

    n-ZnO/p-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) semitransparent inorganic-organic hybrid vertical heterojunction thin film diodes have been fabricated with PEDOT and ZnO thin films grown by electrodeposition and radio-frequency magnetron-sputtering respectively, onto a tin doped indium oxide coated glass substrate. The diode exhibited an optical transmission of {approx} 40% to {approx} 50% in the visible region between 450 and 700 nm. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the heterojunction show good rectifying diode characteristics, with a ratio of forward current to the reverse current as high as 35 in the range - 4 V to + 4 V. The I-V characteristic was examined in the framework of the thermionic emission model. The ideality factor and barrier height were obtained as 4.0 and 0.88 eV respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semitransparent inorganic-organic heterojunction thin film diodes investigated Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer n-ZnO/p-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythipohene) used for the heterojunction Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diodes exhibited an optical transmission of {approx} 40%-{approx} 50% in the visible region Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heterojunction current-voltage features show good rectifying diode characteristics Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A forward to reverse current ratio as high as 35 (- 4 V to + 4 V range) was attained.

  12. Preparation and Evaluation of Stomatitis Film Using Xyloglucan Containing Loperamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Yayoi; Sasatsu, Masanaho; Mizutani, Ayako; Hirose, Kaoru; Hanawa, Takehisa; Onishi, Hiraku

    2016-06-01

    Stomatitis induced by radiation therapy or cancer chemotherapy is a factor in sleep disorders and/or eating disorders, markedly decreasing patient quality of life. In recent years, disintegrating oral films that are easy to handle have been developed; therefore, we focused on the formulation of these films. We prepared an adhesive film for the oral cavity using xyloglucan (Xylo), which is a water-soluble macromolecule. We used loperamide, which has been reported to relieve pain caused by stomatitis effectively, as a model drug in this study. Films were prepared from Xylo solutions (3% (w/w)) and hypromellose (HPMC) solutions (1% (w/w)). Xylo and HPMC solutions were mixed at ratios of 1 : 1, 2 : 1, or 3 : 1 for each film, and films 2×2 cm weighing 3 g were prepared and dried at 37°C for 24 h. Physicochemical properties such as strength, adhesiveness, disintegration behavior, and dissolution of loperamide from films were evaluated. Films prepared from Xylo solution alone had sufficient strength and mucosal adhesion. On the other hand, films prepared from a mixture of Xylo and HPMC were inferior to those made from Xylo, but showed sufficient strength and mucosal adhesion and were flexible and easy to handle. The films prepared in this study are useful as adhesion films in the oral cavity.

  13. Preparation of PAA/AM/MMT Hybrid by Intercalation Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Over the last few years, Montmorillonite (MMT) was widely used as a special inorganic material for preparing Polymer/MMT nanocompsites. MMT is a clay imineral consisting of stacked silicate sheets whose thickness is about 10A. Through intercalation a large number of polymer-clay nanocomposites have been prepared such as Nylon-clay hybrid [1], PS-clay hybrid [2], Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-clay hybrid [3], etc. In this article, the synthesis and properties of Poly (acrylic acid/acrylamide)/MMT hybrid (PAAAM/MMT) were studied. X-ray diffraction and Transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the hybrid material. DSC has been used to study its property. Results showed that the intercalating reagents have entered the space of MMT's layers and enlarged them. At the same time, the MMT dispersed homogeneously in acrylic acid and acrylamide monomers that allow MMT to disperse in PAAAM matrix in the monolayer form.

  14. TiN films fabricated by reactive gas pulse sputtering: A hybrid design of multilayered and compositionally graded structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jijun; Zhang, Feifei; Wan, Qiang; Lu, Chenyang; Peng, Mingjing; Liao, Jiali; Yang, Yuanyou; Wang, Lumin; Liu, Ning

    2016-12-01

    Reactive gas pulse (RGP) sputtering approach was used to prepare TiN thin films through periodically changing the N2/Ar gas flow ratio. The obtained RGPsbnd TiN film possessed a hybrid architecture containing compositionally graded and multilayered structures, composed of hcp Ti-phase and fcc TiN-phase sublayers. Meanwhile, the RGP-TiN film exhibited a composition-oscillation along the film thickness direction, where the Ti-phase sublayer had a compositional gradient and the TiN-phase retained a constant stoichiometric ratio of Ti:N ≈ 1. The film modulation ratio λ (the thicknesses ratio of the Ti and TiN-phase sublayer) can be effectively tuned by controlling the undulation behavior of the N2 partial flow rate. Detailed analysis showed that this hybrid structure originated from a periodic transition of the film growth mode during the reactive sputtering process.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of polymer-silica hybrid latexes and sol-gel-derived films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petcu, Cristian; Purcar, Violeta; Ianchiş, Raluca; Spătaru, Cătălin-Ilie; Ghiurea, Marius; Nicolae, Cristian Andi; Stroescu, Hermine; Atanase, Leonard-Ionuţ; Frone, Adriana Nicoleta; Trică, Bogdan; Donescu, Dan

    2016-12-01

    Sol-gel derived organic-inorganic hybrid systems were obtained by applying alkaline-catalyzed co-hydrolysis and copolycondensation reactions of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), methyltriethoxysilane (MTES), isobutyltriethoxysilane (IBTES), diethoxydimethylsilane (DMDES), and vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES), respectively, into a polymer latex functionalized with vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES). The properties of the latex hybrid materials were analyzed by FTIR, water contact angle, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), TEM and AFM analysis, respectively. FT-IR spectra confirmed that the chemical structures of the sol-gel derived organic-inorganic materials are changed as function of inorganic precursor and Sisbnd Osbnd Si networks are formed during the co-hydrolysis and copolycondensation reactions. The water contact angle on the sol-gel latex film containing TEOS + VTES increased to 135° ± 2 compared to 65° ± 5 for the blank latex, due VTES incorporation into latex material. TGA curves of hybrid sample modifies against neat polymer, the thermal stability being influenced by the presence of the inorganic partner. ESEM analysis showed that the latex hybrid films prepared with different inorganic precursors were formed and the Si-based polymers were distributed on the surface of the dried sol-gel hybrid films. TEM and AFM photos revealed that the latex emulsion morphology was modified due to the VTES incorporation into system.

  16. 有机无机杂化丙烯酸乳液的制备及涂膜性质研究%Preparation of Organic and Inorganic Hybrid Acrylic Emulsion and Properties of Its Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 黄伟

    2011-01-01

    为了制备一种疏水抗覆冰涂料,采用种子半连续乳液聚合法,通过添加乙烯基三乙氧基硅烷(A-151)和纳米二氧化硅粉末,分别合成了纯丙乳液、硅丙乳液和纳米二氧化硅/硅丙复合乳液,并将乳液涂覆在铝片表面,室温干燥成膜.利用红外光谱、粒度分析、扫描电镜等测试手段对3种乳液及其涂膜性能进行表征.结果表明:添加A-151可以使涂膜交联度提高到95%,吸水率降低到5%;添加纳米二氧化硅,可提高乳液涂膜的热分解温度,使乳液粒径大小分布均匀.此方法中,A-151和纳米二氧化硅改性的乳液涂膜疏水作用有限,仅使接触角增加到约30°.%A hydrophobic anti -icing coating was prepared with pure acrylic emulsion, silicon -acrylate emulsion and nano - silica/silicone - acrylate composite emulsion respectively, which were prepared by the semi - continuous emulsion polymerization process, with addition of vinyl triethoxye silane (A - 151) and nauosilica powder. Films were prepared these emulsion applied on the surface of aluminum sheet separately and dried at room temperature. The structure of these three kind of emulsions and films were charactered by FT-IR, particle size analysis and SEM. The results showed that addition of A - 151 can increase the crosslinking degree of film to 95% , while the water absorbability reduced to 5%. The thermal decomposition temperatures of these films went higher by using nano - silica. Nano - silica was also helpful for the uniform distribution of diameter of emulsions' particles. The contact angle of the films of silicone - acrylate emulsion and nano - silica/silicone - acrylate composite emulsion was increased slightly to 30°.

  17. Chitosan–silver oxide nanocomposite film: Preparation and antimicrobial activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shipra Tripathi; G K Mehrotra; P K Dutta

    2011-02-01

    The chitosan–silver oxide encapsulated nanocomposite film was prepared by solution casting method. The prepared film was characterized by FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal studies, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The elemental composition of the film was studied by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The antibacterial activity of the composite film against pathogenic bacteria viz. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was measured by agar diffusion method. Our observations suggest that chitosan as biomaterial based nanocomposite film containing silver oxide has an excellent antibacterial ability for food packaging applications.

  18. CO responses of sensors based on cerium oxide thick films prepared from clustered spherical nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izu, Noriya; Matsubara, Ichiro; Itoh, Toshio; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Shin, Woosuck

    2013-03-08

    Various types of CO sensors based on cerium oxide (ceria) have been reported recently. It has also been reported that the response speed of CO sensors fabricated from porous ceria thick films comprising nanoparticles is extremely high. However, the response value of such sensors is not suitably high. In this study, we investigated methods of improving the response values of CO sensors based on ceria and prepared gas sensors from core-shell ceria polymer hybrid nanoparticles. These hybrid nanoparticles have been reported to have a unique structure: The core consists of a cluster of ceria crystallites several nanometers in size. We compared the characteristics of the sensors based on thick films prepared from core-shell nanoparticles with those of sensors based on thick films prepared from conventionally used precipitated nanoparticles. The sensors prepared from the core-shell nanoparticles exhibited a resistance that was ten times greater than that of the sensors prepared from the precipitated nanoparticles. The response values of the gas sensors based on the core-shell nanoparticles also was higher than that of the sensors based on the precipitated nanoparticles. Finally, improvements in sensor response were also noticed after the addition of Au nanoparticles to the thick films used to fabricate the two types of sensors.

  19. Growth Mechanism and Morphology of ZnO/eosin-Y Hybrid Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAR(I) Bernabé; SINGH Krishan-Chander; MOLLAR Miguel; MOYA Mónica; RANA Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Thin hybrid films of ZnO/eosin-Y were prepared by electrodeposition at-0.8 and -0.9 V in aqueous and non-aqueous baths at temperatures ranging from 40 to 90 ℃ with dye concentrations of 100 and 400 μmol· L-1.The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX),and absorption spectroscopy.The films prepared in a non-aqueous bath were non-porous and did not adsorb dye molecules on their surface.However,the films grown in aqueous media were porous in nature and adsorbed dye during the deposition of ZnO.Preferential growth of the film along the (002) face was observed,and the highest crystallinity was achieved when the film was deposited at 60 ℃.The maximum absorption was achieved for the films grown at 60 to 70 ℃,a deposition potential of-0.9 V,and a dye concentration of 100 μmol· L-1.

  20. Preparation and characterization of osmium hexacyanoferrate films and their electrocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.-M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao East Road, Taipei, Taiwan 106 (China)]. E-mail: smchen78@ms15.hinet.net; Liao, C.-J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao East Road, Taipei, Taiwan 106 (China)

    2004-11-15

    Osmium hexacyanoferrate films have been prepared using repeated cyclic voltammetry, and the deposition process and the films' electrocatalytic properties in electrolytes containing various cations have been investigated. The cyclic voltammograms recorded the deposition of osmium hexacyanoferrate films directly from the mixing of Os{sup 3+} and Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-} ions from solutions containing various cations. An electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance, cyclic voltammetry, and UV-visible spectroscopy were used to study the growth mechanism of the osmium hexacyanoferrate films. The osmium hexacyanoferrate films showed a single redox couple, and the redox reactions included 'electron transfer' and 'proton transfer' with a formal potential that demonstrates a proton effect in acidic solutions up to a 12 M aqueous HCl solution. The electrochemical and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance results indicate that the redox process was confined to the immobilized osmium hexacyanoferrate film. The electrocatalytic reduction of dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and SO{sub 5}{sup 2-} by the osmium hexacyanoferrate films was performed. The preparation and electrochemical properties of co-deposited osmium(III) hexacyanoferrate and copper(II) hexacyanoferrate films were determined, and their two redox couples showed formal potentials that demonstrated a proton effect and an alkaline cation effect, respectively. Electrocatalytic reactions on the hybrid films were also investigated.

  1. Super-hydrophobic film prepared on zinc as corrosion barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Peng [Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Shandong Province, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Naihai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Zhang Dun, E-mail: Zhangdun@qdio.ac.c [Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Shandong Province, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Naihai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Qiu Ri [Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Shandong Province, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Naihai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 (Jia) Yuquan Road, Beijing 100039 (China); Hou Baorong [Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Shandong Province, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Naihai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Super-hydrophobic film was prepared on zinc surface. {yields} The air trapped in film can dramatically improve the anti-corrosion property. {yields} The air trapped behaves as dielectric for a pure parallel plate capacitor. {yields} The air enhances the contribution of film to the anti-corrosion property. {yields} Without the help of air, the film itself can only present feeble inhibition effect. - Abstract: Potentiostatic electrolysis was carried out to prepare super-hydrophobic film on the surface of metallic zinc. The resultant film was examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electrochemical measurements, and contact angle test. The super-hydrophobic property of the film results from the air trapped among the sheets of zinc tetradecanoate. This air behaves as a dielectric for a pure parallel plate capacitor, thereby inhibiting electron transfer between the electrolyte and the substrate. The air can also enhance the contribution of the film itself to protection performance.

  2. Structural and optical study of spin-coated camphorsulfonic acid-doped polyaniline/titanium-di-oxide nanoparticles hybrid thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethalakshmi, D.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Balasundaraprabhu, R.

    2015-06-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) doped with Camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) has been prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization and blend with titanium-di-oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel method to form CSA-doped PANI/TiO2 hybrid thin films. The properties of as-deposited and heat-treated (100 °C) hybrid thin films having different PANI:TiO2 weight ratios (1:0.5, 1:1, and 1:2) have been compared. FTIR study indicated that chemical bonding between CSA-doped PANI and TiO2 has been formed. XRD studies reveal that the as-deposited hybrid thin films are of amorphous nature and heat-treatment of such films initiates crystallization. SEM study shows that as-deposited hybrid films are rough; increase in TiO2 ratio and heat-treatment increased the roughness due to coalescing and agglomeration. UV-visible absorbance of hybrid films shows its characteristic peak in the visible region along with a peak in UV range and its intensity increased with TiO2 ratio and heat-treatment due to agglomeration of TiO2 particles. Photoluminescence spectra revealed that emission occurs in visible region (495 nm) for as-deposited hybrid thin film and this emission increased with TiO2 ratio and heat-treatment of hybrid films.

  3. Study of bagasse/tapioca starch film preparation and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyang; Wei, Xiaoyi; Chang, Gang; Fu, Tiaokun; Cui, Lihong; Li, Jihua

    2017-06-01

    Bagasse/tapioca starch films (BT) were prepared with various contents of bagasse (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt% based on tapioca starch), and the effect of bagasse concentration was studied by the performance of the BT films. Then, the BT films characteristics were analyzed using the instruments about ultraviolet spectrophotometer (US), SEM, TGA and XRD. The dispersion of the bagasse became better with bagasse concentration increasing, the intermolecular hydrogen bonding became stronger while the transparency values of the films decreased.

  4. Silk fibroin/pullulan blend films: Preparation and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivananda, C. S.; Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Madhukumar, R.; Sarojini, B. K.; Somashekhar, R.; Asha, S.; Sangappa, Y.

    2016-05-01

    In this work silk fibroin/pullulan blend films have been prepared by solution casting method. The blend films were examined for structural, and thermal properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimatric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The XRD results indicate that with the introduction of pullulan, the interaction between SF and pullulan in the blend films induced the conformation transition of SF films and amorphous phase increases with increasing pullulan ratio. The thermal properties of the blend films were improved significantly in the blend films.

  5. Silk fibroin/pullulan blend films: Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shivananda, C. S.; Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Madhukumar, R.; Asha, S. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri – 574 199 (India); Sarojini, B. K. [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore –574 199 (India); Somashekhar, R. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore – 570 006 (India); Sangappa, Y., E-mail: syhalabhavi@yahoo.co.in [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri – 574 199 (India); School of Material Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2016-05-23

    In this work silk fibroin/pullulan blend films have been prepared by solution casting method. The blend films were examined for structural, and thermal properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimatric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The XRD results indicate that with the introduction of pullulan, the interaction between SF and pullulan in the blend films induced the conformation transition of SF films and amorphous phase increases with increasing pullulan ratio. The thermal properties of the blend films were improved significantly in the blend films.

  6. Spectroscopic, morphological and electrochromic characterization of layer-by-layer hybrid films of polyaniline and hexaniobate nanoscrolls

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Claudio H. B.; Galiote, Nelson A.; Huguenin,Fritz; Teixeira-Neto, Erico; Constantino, Vera R. L.; Marcia L. A. Temperini

    2012-01-01

    The combination of semiconducting oxides and polyaniline in the nanoscale range may result in hybrid materials having enhanced properties, such as electrochromism and charge capacity. This paper reports the spectroscopic, morphological and electrochromic characterization of hybrid films made up of hexaniobate one-dimensional (1D) nanoscrolls and polyaniline prepared by the layer-by-layer assembly technique (LbL). Secondary electron imaging and backscattered electron imaging techniques perform...

  7. Preparation and characterization of inorganic-organic trilayer core-shell polysilsesquioxane/polyacrylate/polydimethylsiloxane hybrid latex particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ruiqin; Qiu, Teng; Han, Feng; He, Lifan; Li, Xiaoyu

    2012-07-01

    The inorganic-organic trilayer core-shell polysilsesquioxane/polyacrylate/polydimethylsiloxane hybrid latex particles have been successfully prepared via seeded emulsion polymerization of acrylate monomers and octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) gradually, using functional polymethacryloxypropylsilsesquioxane (PSQ) latex particles with reactive methacryloxypropyl groups synthesized by the hydrolysis and polycondensation of (3-methacryloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane in the presence of mixed emulsifiers as seeds. The FTIR spectra show that acrylate monomers and D4 are effectively involved in the emulsion copolymerization and formed the polydimethylsiloxane-containing hybrid latex particles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) confirm that the resultant hybrid latex particles have evident trilayer core-shell structure and a narrow size distribution. XPS analysis also indicates that polysilsesquioxane/polyacrylate/polydimethylsiloxane hybrid latex particles have been successfully prepared and PDMS is rich in the surface of the hybrid latex film. Additionally, compared with the hybrid latex film without PDMS, the hybrid latex film containing PDMS shows higher hydrophobicity (water contact angle) and lower water absorption.

  8. Preparation and characterization of inorganic-organic trilayer core-shell polysilsesquioxane/polyacrylate/polydimethylsiloxane hybrid latex particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai Ruiqin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composite, Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Qiu Teng, E-mail: qiuteng@mail.buct.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composite, Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Han Feng; He Lifan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composite, Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Li Xiaoyu, E-mail: lixy@mail.buct.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composite, Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2012-07-15

    The inorganic-organic trilayer core-shell polysilsesquioxane/polyacrylate/polydimethylsiloxane hybrid latex particles have been successfully prepared via seeded emulsion polymerization of acrylate monomers and octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D{sub 4}) gradually, using functional polymethacryloxypropylsilsesquioxane (PSQ) latex particles with reactive methacryloxypropyl groups synthesized by the hydrolysis and polycondensation of (3-methacryloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane in the presence of mixed emulsifiers as seeds. The FTIR spectra show that acrylate monomers and D{sub 4} are effectively involved in the emulsion copolymerization and formed the polydimethylsiloxane-containing hybrid latex particles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) confirm that the resultant hybrid latex particles have evident trilayer core-shell structure and a narrow size distribution. XPS analysis also indicates that polysilsesquioxane/polyacrylate/polydimethylsiloxane hybrid latex particles have been successfully prepared and PDMS is rich in the surface of the hybrid latex film. Additionally, compared with the hybrid latex film without PDMS, the hybrid latex film containing PDMS shows higher hydrophobicity (water contact angle) and lower water absorption.

  9. Nano-SiO2表面处理及原位聚合法制备PI/Nano-SiO2杂化膜%Surface Modification of Nano-SiO2 and Preparation of PI/Nano-SiO2 Hybrid Films by In-Situ Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱亚辉; 许馨文; 陈汉森; 左晓兵

    2011-01-01

    对Nano-SiO2进行两次表面处理,然后进行原位聚合制备聚酰胺酸/Nano-SiO2悬浮液,涂膜并热亚胺化得到PI/Nano-SiO2杂化膜.对Nano-SiO2的表面处理效果进行评价,对聚酰胺酸/Nano-SiO2悬浮液的稳定性、PI/Nano-SiO2杂化膜的性能进行测试.结果表明:Nano-SiO2的二次表面处理均为化学键合;聚酰胺酸/Nano-SiO2悬浮液稳定时间达到60 d,并获得了性能优异的PI/Nano-SiO2杂化膜.%Nano-SiO2 was surface treated twice, then polyamide acid/nano-SiO2 suspension was prepared using in-situ polymerization, finally, the thermal imidization was used to get PI/nano-SiO2 hybrid films. The effect of surface treated modification of nano-SiO2 was evaluated. The stability of polyamide acid/nano-SiO2 suspension and the performance of PI/nano-SiO2 hybrid films were investigated. The results showed: all the twice surface modifications of nano-SiO2 were chemical bond; The stabilization time of polyamide acid/nano-SiO2 suspension reached to 60 days and the PI/nano-SiO2 hybrid films with excellent performances were acquired.

  10. Preparation and Study of Dielectric Property of Polyimide Films Hybrided with Nano Silica-alumina Oxide%纳米硅/铝氧化物杂化聚酰亚胺薄膜的制备与电性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁凤芝; 陈磊; 陈昊; 范勇

    2011-01-01

    A nano-alumina sol was synthesized by hydrothermal process and a silica sol was prepared by sol-gel method, then they were doped into polyamic acid matrix. A series of inorganic nano-hybrid polyimide films were prepared by adjusting the molar ratio of nano-silicon/ aluminum oxides whose total content is 24%. The structure and properties of the films were characterized by SEM and measured by corona discharge measuring equipment and breakdown strength measuring system respectively. The results show that inorganic nano particles are well dispersed in the polyimide matrix when a little amount of silica sol is doped; the corona-resistant time of hybrid films is much longer than that of pure film and when the molar ratio of nano-silicon/ aluminum oxides is 1:13, the corona-resistant time reaches up to 62.15h; When increasing the doping amount of silica sol, the breakdown strength of the doped films first decreases and then increases, but is lower than that of the undoped film.%采用水热法制备纳米氧化铝溶胶,溶胶-凝胶法制备氧化硅溶胶,并将两者掺杂到聚酰亚胺(PI)基体中.实验中固定无机物掺杂总量为24%,通过调整纳米硅/铝氧化物的摩尔比,制备出一系列的无机纳米杂化聚酰亚胺薄膜.利用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、耐电晕测试装置、耐击穿测试装置对薄膜进行了表征与测试.结果表明:硅溶胶掺杂量较小时,纳米粒子能较好地分散在聚酰亚胺基体中;杂化薄膜的耐电晕时间比纯膜有较大幅度提高,硅/铝摩尔比为1:13时,耐电晕时间达到62.15 h;随着硅溶胶掺杂量的增加,杂化薄膜的击穿强度先减小后增大,但均比纯膜的低.

  11. Preparation of zeolite-A/chitosan hybrid composites and their bioactivities and antimicrobial activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Liang; Gong, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Zeng, Changfeng [College of Mechanic and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Zhang, Lixiong, E-mail: lixiongzhang@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Zeolite-A/chitosan hybrid composites with zeolite contents of 20–55 wt.% were prepared by in situ transformation of silica/chitosan mixtures in a sodium aluminate alkaline solution through impregnation–gelation–hydrothermal synthesis. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and mercury penetration porosimetry. Their in vitro bioactivities were examined using as-synthesized and Ca{sup 2+}-exchanged hybrid composites in simulated body fluid (SBF) for hydroxyapatite (HAP) growth. Their antimicrobial activities for Escherichia coli (E. coli) in trypticase soy broth (TSB) were evaluated using Ag{sup +}-exchanged hybrid composites. The zeolite-A/chitosan hybrid composites could be prepared as various shapes, including cylinders, plates and thin films. They possessed macropores with pore sizes ranging from 100 to 300 μm and showed compressive mechanical strength as high as 3.2 MPa when the zeolite content was 35 wt.%. Fast growth on the Ca{sup 2+}-exchanged hybrid composites was observed with the highest weight gain of 51.4% in 30 days. The 35 wt.% Ag{sup +}-exchanged hybrid composite showed the highest antimicrobial activity, which could reduce the 9 × 10{sup 6} CFU mL{sup −1}E. coli concentration to zero within 4 h of incubation time with the Ag{sup +}-exchanged hybrid composite amount of 0.4 g L{sup −1}. The bioactivity and antimicrobial activity could be combined by ion-exchanging the composites first with Ca{sup 2+} and then with Ag{sup +}. These zeolite-A/chitosan hybrid composites have potential applications on tissue engineering and antimicrobial food packaging. - Graphical abstract: Zeolite A/chitosan hybrid composites were prepared by in situ transformation of precursors in the chitosan matrix, which possess macroporous structures and exhibit superior bioactivity and antimicrobial activity and potential biomedical

  12. Hybrid Thin Films Based Upon Polyoxometalates-Polymer Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Na; Jing, Benxin; Zhu, Yingxi

    2014-03-01

    Block copolymers (BCPs) and polyoxometalates (POMs) have been used individually as building blocks for design and synthesis of novel functional materials. POM nanoclusters, the assemblies of transition metal oxides with well-defined atomic coordination structure, have been recently explored as novel nanomaterials... for catalysis, semiconductors, and even anti-cancer treatment due to their unique chemical, optical and electrical characteristics. We have explored the blending of inorganic POM nanocluster with BCPs into hierarchaically structured inorganic-organic hybrid nanocomposites. Using polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) thin films as the template, we have observed that the spatial organization of BCP thin films is modified by molybdenum based POM nanocluster to form 2D in-plane hexagonal ordered or 3D ordered network of POM-BCP assemblies, depending on the concentration ratio of POM to PS-b-PEO. The dielectric properties of such hybrid thin films can be enhanced by embedded POMs but show a strong dependence on the supramolecular structures of POM-polymer complexes. The assembly of nanoclusters in BCP-templated thin films could pave a new path to design new hybrid nanocomposites with uniquely combined functionality and material properties.

  13. Shape changing thin films powered by DNA hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Tae Soup; Estephan, Zaki G.; Qian, Zhaoxia; Prosser, Jacob H.; Lee, Su Yeon; Chenoweth, David M.; Lee, Daeyeon; Park, So-Jung; Crocker, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Active materials that respond to physical and chemical stimuli can be used to build dynamic micromachines that lie at the interface between biological systems and engineered devices. In principle, the specific hybridization of DNA can be used to form a library of independent, chemically driven actuators for use in such microrobotic applications and could lead to device capabilities that are not possible with polymer- or metal-layer-based approaches. Here, we report shape changing films that are powered by DNA strand exchange reactions with two different domains that can respond to distinct chemical signals. The films are formed from DNA-grafted gold nanoparticles using a layer-by-layer deposition process. Films consisting of an active and a passive layer show rapid, reversible curling in response to stimulus DNA strands added to solution. Films consisting of two independently addressable active layers display a complex suite of repeatable transformations, involving eight mechanochemical states and incorporating self-righting behaviour.

  14. Applications of HTSC films in hybrid optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuna, Davor

    1992-03-01

    An overview is given of potential applications of high-Tc superconductors (HTSC) in the context of hybrid optoelectronic technology. The main requirements are described for the in situ growth of epitaxial YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (YBCO) films on SrTiO3 and discuss the properties of YBCO layers grown on Si and GaAs substrates with intermediate, conducting indium-tin-oxide buffer layers. The performances of the microbridge and the meander type of HTSC bolometer are compared, and several concepts are discussed that may become relevant for future hybrid optoelectronic technology.

  15. Preparation and properties of antimony thin film anode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Shufa; CAO Gaoshao; ZHAO Xinbing

    2004-01-01

    Metallic antimony thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition. Electrochemical properties of the thin film as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated and compared with those of antimony powder. It was found that both magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition are easily controllable processes to deposit antimony films with fiat charge/discharge potential plateaus. The electrochemical performances of antimony thin films, especially those prepared with magnetron sputtering, are better than those of antimony powder. The reversible capacities of the magnetron sputtered antimony thin film are above 400 mA h g-1 in the first 15 cycles.

  16. Synthesis and electrical characterization of low-temperature thermal-cured epoxy resin/functionalized silica hybrid-thin films for application as gate dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Moonkyong, E-mail: nmk@keri.re.kr [HVDC Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); System on Chip Chemical Process Research Center, Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young Taec [Creative and Fundamental Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Cheol [HVDC Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Dong [Creative and Fundamental Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-31

    Thermal-cured hybrid materials were synthesized from homogenous hybrid sols of epoxy resins and organoalkoxysilane-functionalized silica. The chemical structures of raw materials and obtained hybrid materials were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal resistance of the hybrids was enhanced by hybridization. The interaction between epoxy matrix and the silica particles, which caused hydrogen bonding and van der Waals force was strengthened by organoalkoxysilane. The degradation temperature of the hybrids was improved by approximately 30 °C over that of the parent epoxy material. The hybrid materials were formed into uniformly coated thin films of about 50 nm-thick using a spin coater. An optimum mixing ratio was used to form smooth-surfaced hybrid films. The electrical property of the hybrid film was characterized, and the leakage current was found to be well below 10{sup −6} A cm{sup −2}. - Highlights: • Preparation of thermal-curable hybrid materials using epoxy resin and silica. • The thermal stability was enhanced through hybridization. • The insulation property of hybrid film was investigated as gate dielectrics.

  17. Novel negative tone photodefinable low dielectric constant hybrid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, Thomas J.; Weigel, Scott J.; Kretz, Chris P.

    2005-05-01

    Multifunctional films have the potential to reduce the number of processing steps to prepare various complex electronic devices and thereby reduce the cost of manufacturing the device and increase the throughput of the process. By combining low dielectric thin film and photoresist technologies into one material, such an advantage could be provided to electronics device markets. Air Products and Chemicals has discovered negative tone photodefinable films having dielectric constant values less than 3.0 that are developable in water and/or aqueous TMAH solutions. The low dielectric films produced via a novel reaction pathway involving the use of photoacid generators (PAGs) provides a versatile link to various feature sizes depending on the choice of radiation source and PAG used. Specific examples of film properties and processing latitude will be presented for these developmental materials.

  18. In-situ spectroscopy and nanoscale electronics in superconductor-topological insulator hybrid devices: a combined thin film growth and quantum transport study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngabonziza, Prosper

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation, we presented a combined thin film growth and quantum transport study on superconductor topological insulator hybrid devices. Understanding of the electronic properties of topological insulators (TIs), their preparation in high quality thin film form and their interaction with o

  19. Electrochemical co-deposition of conductive polymer-silica hybrid thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh, Moran; Liu, Liang; Mandler, Daniel

    2013-07-14

    Conductive polymers, such as polypyrrole (ppy), have been the subject of numerous studies due to their promising applications in organic solar cells, flexible electronics, electrochromic devices, super capacitors, etc. Yet, their application is still limited as a result of poor processability. Silica has been reported to improve the mechanical strength and adhesion of conductive polymer films. In this work, we propose a controllable electrochemical approach for preparing ppy-silica hybrid thin films from a solution containing both pyrrole and silane monomers. It is known that pyrrole can be electropolymerised using anodic potentials, while silica can be electrodeposited under cathodic potentials. Thus, we studied the formation of ppy-silica hybrid thin films on a stainless steel surface by applying alternating potentials, i.e. cathodic followed by anodic pulses (denoted C + A) or anodic followed by cathodic pulses (denoted A + C). We show that by controlling the deposition potential and time for the cathodic and anodic pulses, the film thickness and composition can be manipulated well as analysed using profilometry and EDX. The element depth profile of the films was characterized using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). In essence, for the C + A process, pyrrole diffuses through the cathodically electrodeposited wet silica gel layer and undergoes anodic polymerisation on the substrate, while for the A + C process, silane can be electrodeposited both on top of the anodically electrodeposited conductive ppy films as well as on the stainless steel through the pinholes in the ppy film. This offers a simple approach for tuning the structure of conductive polymer-sol-gel composite films.

  20. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Probe Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolomeo, Doron; Stanyon, Roscoe R; Rocchi, Mariano

    2017-01-01

    The public human genome sequencing project utilized a hierarchical approach. A large number of BAC/PAC clones, with an insert size approximate from 50 kb to 300 kb, were identified and finely mapped with respect to the Sequence Tagged Site (STS) physical map and with respect to each other. A "golden path" of BACs, covering the entire human genome, was then selected and each clone was fully sequenced. The large number of remaining BACs was not fully sequenced, but the availability of the end sequence (~800-1000 bp) at each end allowed them to be very precisely mapped on the human genome.The search for copy number variations of the human genome used several strategies. One of these approaches took advantage of the fact that fosmid clones, contrary to BAC/PAC clones, have a fixed insert size (~40 kb) (Kidd et al., Nature 453: 56-64, 2008). In this context, the ends of ~7 million fosmid clones were sequenced, and therefore it was possible to precisely map these clones on the human genome.In summary, a large number of genomic clones (GC) are available for FISH experiments. They usually yield bright FISH signals and are extremely precious for molecular cytogenetics, and in particular cancer cytogenetics. The already-labeled probes available commercially are usually based on a combination of such GCs. The present chapter summarizes the protocols for extracting, labeling, and hybridization onto slides of DNA obtained from GC.

  1. Preparation of Modified Films with Protein from Grouper Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Valdivia-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A protein concentrate (PC was obtained from Grouper fish skin and it was used to prepare films with different amounts of sorbitol and glycerol as plasticizers. The best performing films regarding resistance were then modified with various concentrations of CaCl2, CaSO4 (calcium salts, and glucono-δ-lactone (GDL with the purpose of improving their mechanical and barrier properties. These films were characterized by determining their mechanical properties and permeability to water vapor and oxygen. Formulations with 5% (w/v protein and 75% sorbitol and 4% (w/v protein with a mixture of 15% glycerol and 15% sorbitol produced adequate films. Calcium salts and GDL increased the tensile fracture stress but reduced the fracture strain and decreased water vapor permeability compared with control films. The films prepared represent an attractive alternative for being used as food packaging materials.

  2. Preparation of Modified Films with Protein from Grouper Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecante, A.; Granados-Navarrete, S.; Martínez-García, C.

    2016-01-01

    A protein concentrate (PC) was obtained from Grouper fish skin and it was used to prepare films with different amounts of sorbitol and glycerol as plasticizers. The best performing films regarding resistance were then modified with various concentrations of CaCl2, CaSO4 (calcium salts), and glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) with the purpose of improving their mechanical and barrier properties. These films were characterized by determining their mechanical properties and permeability to water vapor and oxygen. Formulations with 5% (w/v) protein and 75% sorbitol and 4% (w/v) protein with a mixture of 15% glycerol and 15% sorbitol produced adequate films. Calcium salts and GDL increased the tensile fracture stress but reduced the fracture strain and decreased water vapor permeability compared with control films. The films prepared represent an attractive alternative for being used as food packaging materials. PMID:27597950

  3. PI/AlO(OH)-SiO2纳米杂化薄膜的制备及热性能、电性能分析%Preparation of polyimide/AlO(OH)-SiO2 nano hybrid film and analysis on its thermal properties and electrical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵斯梅

    2015-01-01

    以聚酰亚胺作为高聚物反应基体,通过正硅酸乙酯(TEOS)和异丙醇铝的水解缩合反应,使之和聚酰胺酸发生溶胶-凝胶反应,从而制备出不同比例AlO(OH)-SiO2的聚酰亚胺杂化薄膜。利用原子力显微镜、热失重分析、介电谱和击穿试验对其表观形貌和热性能、电性能进行表征和测试,考察结构与性能之间的关系。%Using polyimide as the matrix resin, polyimide hybrid film with various proportion of AlO(OH)- SiO2 was prepared through the sol- gel reaction of polyimide after the hydrolysis condensation reac⁃tion of traethoxysilane (TEOS) and heteropropyl- aluminium. The surface morphology, thermal property and electrical property of the film were characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM), thermal weight loss and dielectric spectroscope and break down test, and the relationship between the structures and properties of the films were investigated.

  4. Preparation and characterization of gelatin/cerium(Ⅲ) film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄崇军; 黄雅钦; 田娜; 童元建; 殷瑞贤

    2010-01-01

    A novel gelatin film with antibacterial activity was prepared by electrostatic crosslinking using cerium (Ⅲ) nitrate hexahydrate as the crosslinking agent. The structure and properties of the films were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectra, tensile tests, thermogravimetric analysis, static drop contact angle and disc diffusion method. The results showed that cross-linking could not only improve the thermal and mechanical properties and lower the hydrophilic property of the films, but also make...

  5. Preparation of Electrically Conductive Polystyrene/Carbon Nanofiber Nanocomposite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Luyi; O'Reilly, Jonathan Y.; Tien, Chi-Wei; Sue, Hung-Jue

    2008-01-01

    A simple and effective approach to prepare conductive polystyrene/carbon nanofiber (PS/CNF) nanocomposite films via a solution dispersion method is presented. Inexpensive CNF, which has a structure similar to multi-walled carbon nanotubes, is chosen as a nanofiller in this experiment to achieve conductivity in PS films. A good dispersion is…

  6. Preparation and evaluation of buccal bioadhesive films containing clotrimazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Jain, S; Muthu, M S; Tiwari, S; Tilak, R

    2008-01-01

    Buccal bioadhesive films, releasing topical drugs in the oral cavity at a slow and predetermined rate, provide distinct advantages over traditional dosage forms. The aim of present study was to prepare and evaluate buccal bioadhesive films of clotrimazole for oral candidiasis. The film was designed to release the drug at a concentration above the minimum inhibitory concentration for a prolonged period of time so as to reduce the frequency of administration of the available conventional dosage forms. The different proportions of sodium carboxymethylcellulose and carbopol 974P (CP 974P) were used for the preparation of films. Carbopol was used to incorporate the desired bioadhesiveness in the films. The films were prepared by solvent casting method and evaluated for bioadhesion, in vitro drug release and effectiveness against Candida albicans. In vitro drug release from the film was determined using a modified Franz diffusion cell while bioadhesiveness was evaluated with a modified two-arm balance using rabbit intestinal mucosa as a model tissue. Films containing 5% CP 974P of the total polymer were found to be the best with moderate swelling along with favorable bioadhesion force, residence time and in vitro drug release. The microbiological studies revealed that drug released from the film could inhibit the growth of C. albicans for 6 h. The drug release mechanism was found to follow non-Fickian diffusion.

  7. Electrodeposition of inorganic/organic hybrid thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Tsukasa [Center of Innovative Photovoltaic Systems, Gifu University (Japan); Environmental and Renewable Energy Systems Division, Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University (Japan); Zhang, Jingbo; Komatsu, Daisuke; Sawatani, Seiichi; Minoura, Hideki [Environmental and Renewable Energy Systems Division, Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University (Japan); Pauporte, Thierry; Lincot, Daniel [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et Chimie Analytique, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris 11 rue P. et M. Curie, 75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Oekermann, Torsten [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie, Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Schlettwein, Derck [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Tada, Hirokazu [Institute for Molecular Science, Higashiyama (Japan); Woehrle, Dieter [Institut fuer Organische und Makromolekulare Chemie, Universitaet Bremen (Germany); Funabiki, Kazumasa; Matsui, Masaki [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University (Japan); Miura, Hidetoshi [Chemicrea Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, Hisao [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology Takayama-cho 8916-5, Ikoma (Japan)

    2009-01-09

    Electrodeposition of inorganic compound thin films in the presence of certain organic molecules results in self-assembly of various hybrid thin films with new properties. Examples of new discoveries by the authors are reviewed, taking cathodic formation of a ZnO/dye hybrid as the leading example. Hybridization of eosinY leads to the formation of highly oriented porous crystalline ZnO as the consequence of dye loading. The hybrid formation is a highly complicated process involving complex chemistry of many molecular and ionic constituents. However, electrochemical analyses of the relevant phenomena indicate the possibility of reaching a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism, giving us the chance to further develop them into industrial technologies. The porous crystals are ideal for photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. As the process also permits the use of non-heat-resistant substrates, the technology can be applied for the development of colorful and light-weight plastic solar cells. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Hybrid chitosan–Pluronic F-127 films with BaTiO{sub 3}:Co nanoparticles: Synthesis and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, S., E-mail: sfuentes@ucn.cl [Departamento de Ciencias Farmacéuticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Católica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile); Dubo, J. [Departamento de Ciencias Farmacéuticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Católica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Barraza, N. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Católica del Norte, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); González, R. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Departamento de Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad Católica del Norte, Antofagasta (Chile); Veloso, E. [Dirección de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-03-01

    In this study, magnetic BaTiO{sub 3}:Co (BT:Co) nanoparticles prepared using a combined sol–gel–hydrothermal technique were dispersed in a chitosan/Pluronic F-127 solution (QO/Pl) to obtain a nanocomposite hybrid films. Nanoparticles and hybrid films were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM). Experimental results indicated that the BT:Co nanoparticles were encapsulated in the QO/Pl hybrid films and that the magnetic properties of the QO/Pl/BT:Co nanocomposites are similar to the naked BT:Co nanoparticles. Results indicate that Co doping produces an enhancement in the ferromagnetic behavior of the BT nanoparticle. The coating restricts this enhancement only to low-fields, leaving the diamagnetic behavior of BT at high-fields. Magnetically stable sizes (PSD) were obtained at 3% Co doping for both naked nanoparticles and hybrid films. These show an increased magnetic memory capacity and a softer magnetic hardness with respect to non-doped BT nanoparticles. - Highlights: • We described the synthesis of magnetic BaTiO{sub 3}:Co dispersed in chitosan (QO)/Pluronic F-127 (Pl) solution by sonication to obtain nanocomposite hybrid films. • We describe the physical and magnetic properties of BaTiO{sub 3}:Co nanoparticles and QO/Pl/BT:Co hybrid films. • The magnetic properties are defines by the presence of magnetic domains. These magnetic domains are close related with the amount of Co in the host lattice. • The prepared phases could be considered as multifunctional materials, with magnetic and ferri-electrical properties, with potential uses in the design of devices.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Polymeric PVDF/PDDA Ultrathin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Ye; Yadong Jiang; Yong Wang; Zhiming Wu; Guangzhong Xie

    2006-01-01

    A new method for the production of nanoscaled polymeric multilayer films of ferroelectric PVDF is presented. The ultrathin multilayer films of poly diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) have been prepared on fuzed quartz substrate by the layer-by-layer self-assembly (LbL-SA) method. The PDDA/PVDF multilayer films with the thickness of 30 nm to 150 nm have been characterized by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and infrared spectra (IR).The QCM reveals that the alternant ultrathin films of PVDF and PDDA are well order assembled. The electric property of the ultrathin PDDA/PVDF multilayer films at room temperature is investigated. Experimental results show that property of ultrathin films differed from that of the thick films.

  10. Preparation of PAA/AM/MMT Hybrid by Intercalation Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; YunPu

    2001-01-01

    Over the last few years, Montmorillonite (MMT) was widely used as a special inorganic material for preparing Polymer/MMT nanocompsites. MMT is a clay imineral consisting of stacked silicate sheets whose thickness is about 10A. Through intercalation a large number of polymer-clay nanocomposites have been prepared such as Nylon-clay hybrid [1], PS-clay hybrid [2], Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-clay hybrid [3], etc.  In this article, the synthesis and properties of Poly (acrylic acid/acrylamide)/MMT hybrid (PAAAM/MMT) were studied. X-ray diffraction and Transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the hybrid material. DSC has been used to study its property. Results showed that the intercalating reagents have entered the space of MMT's layers and enlarged them. At the same time, the MMT dispersed homogeneously in acrylic acid and acrylamide monomers that allow MMT to disperse in PAAAM matrix in the monolayer form.  ……

  11. Novel transparent and flexible nanocomposite film prepared from chrysotile nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kun, E-mail: kliu@csu.edu.cn [School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhu, Binnan; Feng, Qiming [School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Duan, Tao [Joint Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology and Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, chrysotile nanofibres, obtained from physicochemical dispersion of natural chrysotile, were used to prepare nanofibre sheets by vacuum filtration. As-prepared sheets were then impregnated by UV-curable resin and cured by ultraviolet light to fabricate the flexible and transparent nanocomposite films. Observed from SEM, the transparent films showed a smooth surface and a typical sandwich structure in cross section, viz. nanofibre sheet filled with resin was sandwiched by two layers of resin. XRD patterns indicated the amorphous nature of cured resin and characteristic crystallographic structure of chrysotile in nanocomposite films. Though the nanofibre sheets were white in colour, and nanofibre contents in nanocomposites were as much as 43.4 wt%, the nanocomposite films displayed an excellent optical transparency with about 85% light transmittance in the visible light range. Tensile tests showed that the addition of nanofibres resulted in a great improvement in mechanical strength of the nanocomposite films; with the increase of nanofibre contents, the modulus and tensile strength of nanocomposite films increased gradually. - Graphical abstract: Photos show the experimental phenomenon. The white nanofibre sheets can be written or printed like paper, and it's very interested that the handwriting is clearly visible from the front and back of the transparent films prepared from nanofibre sheets by vacuum impregnation and UV curing. This phenomenon can be attributed to the increase of transparency of film, which results from the replacement of air interstices in nanofibre sheet by resin with higher refractive index. Visible light can pass easily through the transparent film without obvious loss, but can be apparently adsorbed and scattered by ink particles that adhered to nanofibres and embedded in resin. - Highlights: • A flexible and transparent film is prepared from chrysotile nanofibres. • The nanofibre sheet is sandwiched by two

  12. Research Update: Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP thin films and solar cells by vapor phase reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Shen Shen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid progress in deposition techniques for hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP thin films, this new class of photovoltaic (PV technology has achieved material quality and power conversion efficiency comparable to those established technologies. Among the various techniques for HOIP thin films preparation, vapor based deposition technique is considered as a promising alternative process to substitute solution spin-coating method for large-area or scale-up preparation. This technique provides some unique benefits for high-quality perovskite crystallization, which are discussed in this research update.

  13. Research Update: Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) thin films and solar cells by vapor phase reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Po-Shen; Chiang, Yu-Hsien; Li, Ming-Hsien; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Chen, Peter

    2016-09-01

    With the rapid progress in deposition techniques for hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) thin films, this new class of photovoltaic (PV) technology has achieved material quality and power conversion efficiency comparable to those established technologies. Among the various techniques for HOIP thin films preparation, vapor based deposition technique is considered as a promising alternative process to substitute solution spin-coating method for large-area or scale-up preparation. This technique provides some unique benefits for high-quality perovskite crystallization, which are discussed in this research update.

  14. Cross-linkage effect of cellulose/laponite hybrids in aqueous dispersions and solid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zaiwu; Fan, Qingrui; Dai, Xiaonan; Zhao, Chao; Lv, Aijie; Zhang, Jingjing; Xu, Guiying; Qin, Menghua

    2014-02-15

    Homogenous cellulose/laponite aqueous dispersions and composite films were respectively prepared from the pre-cooling NaOH/urea aqueous systems. Rheological measurements of aqueous dispersions demonstrated a sol-to-gel transition triggered by loading of laponite, reflecting a cross-linkage effect of cellulose/laponite hybrids. Similarly, based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations, as well as mechanical and thermal measurements, the cross-linkage effect of cellulose/laponite hybrids was also found in solid films, which played an important role in improving the tensile strength (σb) of composite films. For instance, the σb exhibited a largest enhancement up to 75.7% at a critical laponite content of 0.100 wt%, indicating that the property of composite film was closely related with the dispersion and interaction state of laponite, i.e. its content in cellulose matrix. These results were expected to provide significant information for fabrication and utility of cellulose-based materials.

  15. Barium titanate thick films prepared by screen printing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana M. Vijatović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The barium titanate (BaTiO3 thick films were prepared by screen printing technique using powders obtained by soft chemical route, modified Pechini process. Three different barium titanate powders were prepared: i pure, ii doped with lanthanum and iii doped with antimony. Pastes for screen printing were prepared using previously obtained powders. The thick films were deposited onto Al2O3 substrates and fired at 850°C together with electrode material (silver/palladium in the moving belt furnace in the air atmosphere. Measurements of thickness and roughness of barium titanate thick films were performed. The electrical properties of thick films such as dielectric constant, dielectric losses, Curie temperature, hysteresis loop were reported. The influence of different factors on electrical properties values was analyzed.

  16. Preparation, Characterization and Properties of Graphene-silver Sulphide Hybrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guang-yi; WEI Zhi-yong; LIANG Ce; WANG De-jin; LIANG Ji-cai; ZHANG Wan-xi

    2012-01-01

    A facile and efficient strategy was reported for the preparation of graphene nanosheets-Ag2S hybrid by a simple hydrothermal process.First,Ag2S particles deposited on the surface of graphene oxide(GO) sheet.GO was then reduced by hydrazine hydrate to graphcne.The results of X-ray diffraction(XRD) and Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) demonstrated the efficient reduction of GO to graphene.Transmission electron microscopy(TEM) image of the sample reveals the morphology of the architecture of graphene-Ag2S hybrid.Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy(UV-Vis) and photoluminescence(PL) measurement were further employed to study the optical properties of the obtained nanocomposite.This work can be extended to design other graphene-based hybrid nanomaterials,and the as-grown architectures may hold promise for many applications.

  17. ZnO thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoutsouva, M.G. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780 Athens (Greece); Panagopoulos, C.N., E-mail: chpanag@metal.ntua.gr [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780 Athens (Greece); Papadimitriou, D. [National Technical University of Athens, Department of Physics, GR-15780 Athens (Greece); Fasaki, I.; Kompitsas, M. [Theor. and Phys./Chem. Institute, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 48 Vas. Konstantinou Ave., 11635 Athens (Greece)

    2011-04-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on soda lime glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in an oxygen-reactive atmosphere. The structural, optical, and electrical properties of the as-prepared thin films were studied in dependence of substrate temperature and oxygen pressure. High quality polycrystalline ZnO films with hexagonal wurtzite structure were deposited at substrate temperatures of 100 and 300 deg. C. The RMS roughness of the deposited oxide films was found to be in the range 2-9 nm and was only slightly dependent on substrate temperature and oxygen pressure. Electrical measurements indicated a decrease of film resistivity with the increase of substrate temperature and the decrease of oxygen pressure. The ZnO films exhibited high transmittance of 90% and their energy band gap and thickness were in the range 3.26-3.30 eV and 256-627 nm, respectively.

  18. Preparation of hybrid biomaterials for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Conceição Costa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering has evolved from the use of biomaterials for bone substitution that fulfill the clinical demands of biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-immunogeneity, structural strength and porosity. Porous scaffolds have been developed in many forms and materials, but few reached the need of adequate physical, biological and mechanical properties. In the present paper we report the preparation of hybrid porous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/bioactive glass through the sol-gel route, using partially and fully hydrolyzed polyvinyl alcohol, and perform structural characterization. Hybrids containing PVA and bioactive glass with composition 58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5 were synthesized by foaming a mixture of polymer solution and bioactive glass sol-gel precursor solution. Sol-gel solution was prepared from mixing tetraethoxysilane (TEOS, triethylphosphate (TEP, and calcium chloride as chemical precursors. The hybrid composites obtained after aging and drying at low temperature were chemically and morphologically characterized through infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The degree of hydrolysis of PVA, concentration of PVA solution and different PVA-bioglass composition ratios affect the synthesis procedure. Synthesis parameters must be very well combined in order to allow foaming and gelation. The hybrid scaffolds obtained exhibited macroporous structure with pore size varying from 50 to 600 µm.

  19. Preparation and Property of the Water Absorbent Hybrid Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Water absorption material has been attracted much more attention for its wide use in soil and water conservation, agriculture, etc. But this material will actually apply in agriculture, soil and water conservation only when it is cheap enough. Pulp fiber and starch to prepare high absorbing-water resin is a good method for decreasing the cost [1,2]. However, it still has a long way to turn it into reality. Now the montmorillonite is widely used in preparing nanocomposites [3]. But used it in preparing absorbing-water resin has little report. In this article the water absorption hybrid resin has been prepared by one step intercalation polymerization method. In the process of intercalation the partly neutralization acrylic acid and urea have been used as intercalating reagent. Beside that, the urea also has been used as cross-linking agent.

  20. Preparation and Property of the Water Absorbent Hybrid Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; YunPu

    2001-01-01

    Water absorption material has been attracted much more attention for its wide use in soil and water conservation, agriculture, etc. But this material will actually apply in agriculture, soil and water conservation only when it is cheap enough. Pulp fiber and starch to prepare high absorbing-water resin is a good method for decreasing the cost [1,2]. However, it still has a long way to turn it into reality.  Now the montmorillonite is widely used in preparing nanocomposites [3]. But used it in preparing absorbing-water resin has little report. In this article the water absorption hybrid resin has been prepared by one step intercalation polymerization method. In the process of intercalation the partly neutralization acrylic acid and urea have been used as intercalating reagent. Beside that, the urea also has been used as cross-linking agent.   ……

  1. Zeolite-loaded poly(dimethylsiloxane) hybrid films for highly efficient thin-film microextraction of organic volatiles in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Ansai, Toshihiro; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2017-01-15

    ZSM-5 zeolite-loaded poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) hybrid thin films were demonstrated for efficient thin-film microextraction (TFME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for analyzing organic volatiles in water. The extraction efficiency for a series of aliphatic alcohols and two aromatic compounds was significantly improved owing to the presence of ZSM-5 zeolites. The extraction efficiency of the hybrid films was increased in proportion to the content of ZSM-5 in the PDMS film, with 20wt% of ZSM-5 showing the best results. The 20wt% ZSM-5/PDMS hybrid film exhibited higher volatile organic content extraction compared with the single-component PDMS film or PDMS hybrid films containing other types of zeolite (e.g., SAPO-34). Limits of detection and limits of quantitation for individual analytes were in the range of 0.0034-0.049ppb and of 0.010-0.15 ppb, respectively. The effects of experimental parameters such as extraction time and temperature were optimized, and the molecular dispersion of the zeolites in/on the hybrid film matrix was confirmed with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, the optimized hybrid film was preliminarily tested for the analysis of organic volatiles contained in commercially available soft drinks.

  2. Highly Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity of Layer-by-Layer Assembled Nanofibrillated Cellulose/Graphene Nanosheets Hybrid Films for Thermal Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Na; Jiao, Dejin; Cui, Siqi; Hou, Xingshuang; Ding, Peng; Shi, Liyi

    2017-01-25

    An anisotropic thermally conductive film with tailorable microstructures and macroproperties is fabricated using a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of graphene oxide (GO) and nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) on a flexible NFC substrate driven by hydrogen bonding interactions, followed by chemical reduction process. The resulting NFC/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) hybrid film reveals an orderly hierarchical structure in which the RGO nanosheets exhibit a high degree of orientation along the in-plane direction. The assembly cycles dramatically increase the in-plane thermal conductivity (λX) of the hybrid film to 12.6 W·m(-1)·K(-1), while the cross-plane thermal conductivity (λZ) shows a lower value of 0.042 W·m(-1)·K(-1) in the hybrid film with 40 assembly cycles. The thermal conductivity anisotropy reaches up to λX/λZ = 279, which is substantially larger than that of similar polymeric nanocomposites, indicating that the LbL assembly on a flexible NFC substrate is an efficient technique for the preparation of polymeric nanocomposites with improved heat conducting property. Moreover, the layered hybrid film composed of 1D NFC and 2D RGO exhibits synergetic mechnical properties with outstanding flexibility and a high tensile strength (107 MPa). The combination of anisotropic thermal conductivity and superior mechanical performance may facilitate the applications in thermal management.

  3. PMMA–SiO{sub 2} hybrid films as gate dielectric for ZnO based thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Acosta, M.D. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, Querétaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico); Quevedo-López, M.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States); Ramírez-Bon, R., E-mail: rrbon@qro.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, Querétaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico)

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we report a low temperature sol–gel deposition process of PMMA–SiO{sub 2} hybrid films, with variable dielectric properties depending on the composition of the precursor solution, for applications to gate dielectric layers in field-effect thin film transistors (FE-TFT). The hybrid layers were processed by a modified sol–gel route using as precursors Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and Methyl methacrylate (MMA), and 3-(Trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSPM) as the coupling agent. Three types of hybrid films were processed with molar ratios of the precursors in the initial solution 1.0: 0.25, 0.50, 0.75: 1.0 for TEOS: TMSPM: MMA, respectively. The hybrid films were deposited by spin coating of the hybrid precursor solutions onto p-type Si (100) substrates and heat-treated at 90 °C for 24 h. The chemical bonding in the hybrid films was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to confirm their hybrid nature. The refractive index of the hybrid films as a function of the TMSPM coupling agent concentration, were determined from a simultaneous analysis of optical reflectance and spectroscopic ellipsometry experimental data. The PMMA–SiO{sub 2} hybrid films were studied as dielectric films using metal-insulator-metal structures. Capacitance–Voltage (C–V) and current–voltage (I–V) electrical methods were used to extract the dielectric properties of the different hybrid layers. The three types of hybrid films were tested as gate dielectric layers in thin film transistors with structure ZnO/PMMA–SiO{sub 2}/p-Si with a common bottom gate and patterned Al source/drain contacts, with different channel lengths. We analyzed the output electrical responses of the ZnO-based TFTs to determine their performance parameters as a function of channel length and hybrid gate dielectric layer. - Highlights: • PMMA–SiO{sub 2} hybrid films as dielectric material synthesized by sol–gel process at low temperature. • PMMA–SiO{sub 2

  4. Actuation Behavior of Polylactic Acid Fiber Films Prepared by Electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobeshima, Taiki; Ishii, Yuya; Sakai, Heisuke; Uemura, Sei; Yoshida, Manabu

    2016-04-01

    A poly-DL-lactide (PLA) fiber film was prepared using the electrospinning method. This film consisted of randomly oriented PLA nanofibers. Consequently, it had sponge-like structure and was quite soft compared to PLA films prepared by spin coating. The average diameter of the fibers and the density of the film were 730 nm and 20%, respectively. By applying a voltage, the PLA film was subjected to electric-field-induced strain: expansion and compression in the thickness direction. When a voltage of -200 V was applied to the film, its thickness shrank from 13.5 µm to 10.0 µm (a 26% reduction). Electric-field-induced strain can occur via two different mechanisms: The first is electrostrictive behavior. That. is, in a highly electric field region, a change of film thickness occurs (compression only) from the electrostatic force between electrodes. The second mechanism is piezoelectric-like behavior that occurs in racemic PLA, wherein a PLA nanofiber is expanded and compressed by applying positive and negative voltage. Such piezoelectric-like behavior was not observed in spin-coated PLA films.

  5. CdS/CdSe Co-sensitized Solar Cells Based on Hierarchically Structured SnO2/TiO2 Hybrid Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zeng; Wei, Chaochao; Li, Shengjun; Diao, Chunli; Li, Wei; Kong, Wenping; Zhang, Zhenlong; Zhang, Weifeng

    2016-06-01

    SnO2 nanosheet-structured films were prepared on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate using ZnO nanosheet as template. The as-prepared SnO2 nanosheets contained plenty of nano-voids and were generally vertical to the substrate. TiO2 nanoparticles were homogeneously deposited into the intervals between the SnO2 nanosheets to prepare a hierarchically structured SnO2/TiO2 hybrid film. The hybrid films were co-sensitized with CdS and CdSe quantum dots. The sensitized solar cells assembled with the SnO2/TiO2 hybrid film showed much higher photoelectricity conversion efficiency than the cells assembled with pure TiO2 films. The lifetime of photoinduced electron was also investigated through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, which showed that the SnO2/TiO2 hybrid film electrode is as long as the TiO2 film electrode.

  6. CdS/CdSe Co-sensitized Solar Cells Based on Hierarchically Structured SnO2/TiO2 Hybrid Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zeng; Wei, Chaochao; Li, Shengjun; Diao, Chunli; Li, Wei; Kong, Wenping; Zhang, Zhenlong; Zhang, Weifeng

    2016-12-01

    SnO2 nanosheet-structured films were prepared on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate using ZnO nanosheet as template. The as-prepared SnO2 nanosheets contained plenty of nano-voids and were generally vertical to the substrate. TiO2 nanoparticles were homogeneously deposited into the intervals between the SnO2 nanosheets to prepare a hierarchically structured SnO2/TiO2 hybrid film. The hybrid films were co-sensitized with CdS and CdSe quantum dots. The sensitized solar cells assembled with the SnO2/TiO2 hybrid film showed much higher photoelectricity conversion efficiency than the cells assembled with pure TiO2 films. The lifetime of photoinduced electron was also investigated through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, which showed that the SnO2/TiO2 hybrid film electrode is as long as the TiO2 film electrode.

  7. Hybrid enabled thin film metrology using XPS and optical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaid, Alok; Iddawela, Givantha; Mahendrakar, Sridhar; Lenahan, Michael; Hossain, Mainul; Timoney, Padraig; Bello, Abner F.; Bozdog, Cornel; Pois, Heath; Lee, Wei Ti; Klare, Mark; Kwan, Michael; Kang, Byung Cheol; Isbester, Paul; Sendelbach, Matthew; Yellai, Naren; Dasari, Prasad; Larson, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Complexity of process steps integration and material systems for next-generation technology nodes is reaching unprecedented levels, the appetite for higher sampling rates is on the rise, while the process window continues to shrink. Current thickness metrology specifications reach as low as 0.1A for total error budget - breathing new life into an old paradigm with lower visibility for past few metrology nodes: accuracy. Furthermore, for advance nodes there is growing demand to measure film thickness and composition on devices/product instead of surrogate planar simpler pads. Here we extend our earlier work in Hybrid Metrology to the combination of X-Ray based reference technologies (high performance) with optical high volume manufacturing (HVM) workhorse metrology (high throughput). Our stated goal is: put more "eyes" on the wafer (higher sampling) and enable move to films on pattern structure (control what matters). Examples of 1X front-end applications are used to setup and validate the benefits.

  8. Synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid azobenzene materials for the preparation of nanofibers by electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bućko, Aleksandra; Zielińska, Sonia; Ortyl, Ewelina; Larkowska, Maria; Barille, Regis

    2014-12-01

    The new photochromic hybrid materials containing different mole fractions of highly photoactive 4-[(E)-[4-[ethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]phenyl]azo]-N-(4-methylpyrimidin-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide (SMERe) were prepared by a low temperature sol-gel process. The guest-host systems with triethoxyphenylsilane matrix were obtained. These materials were used to form thin transparent films by a spin-coating technique. Then the ability of thin hybrid films to reversible trans-cis photoisomerization under illumination was investigated using ellipsometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The reversible changes of refractive index of the films under illumination were in the range of 0.005-0.056. The maximum absorption of these materials was located at 462-486 nm. Moreover, the organic-inorganic azobenzene materials were used to form nanofibers by electrospinning using various parameters of the process. The microstructure of electrospun fibers depended on sols properties (e.g. concentration and viscosity of the sols) and process conditions (e.g. the applied voltage, temperature or type of the collector) at ambient conditions. The morphology of obtained nanofibers was analyzed by an optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In most instances, the beadless fibers were obtained. The wettability of the surface of electrospun fibers deposited on glass substrates was investigated.

  9. Preparation of Hard Coating Films with High Refractive Index from Titania Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam Woo; Ahn, Chi Yong; Song, Ki Chang [Konyang University, 121 Daehak-ro, Nonsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The titania (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles with a diameter 2-3 nm were synthesized by controlling hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in acid solution. Organic-inorganic hybrid coating solutions were prepared by reacting the titania nanoparticles with 3-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) by the sol-gel method. The hard coating films with high refractive index were obtained by curing thermally at 120 .deg. C after spin-coating the coating solutions on the polycarbonate (PC) sheets. The coating films showed high optical transparency of 90% in the visible range and exhibited a pencil hardness of 2H. Also, the refractive index at 633 nm wavelength of coating films enhanced from 1.502 to 1.584 as the weight content of titania nanoparticles in the coating solutions increased from 4% to 25%.

  10. Structure of silicon oxide films prepared by vacuum deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yoshio; Kaito, Chihiro; Nishio, Kenzo; Naiki, Toshio

    1985-05-01

    The structure of thin silicon oxide films 5 nm in thickness, which were prepared by electron beam evaporation of SiO 2 glass onto a NaCl substrate, has been examined by high resolution electron microscopy and diffraction. Although the films which were prepared with substrate temperatures ranging from room up to 400°C gave rise to amorphous haloes, lattice fringes in areas 1-2 nm in extent were, however, seen in the micrographs. It is shown that the film is composed of α-quartz micro-crystallites. Crystals of α-cristobalite with sizes of several tens of nanometers appeared at a substrate temperature of 500°C. At a substrate temperature of 600°C, β-cristobalite crystals with sizes of several tens of nanometers appeared. The structural changes due to the substrate temperature were attributed to incorporation of sodium atoms from the substrate into the SiO 2 film.

  11. Silicon nanowires in polymer nanocomposites for photovoltaic hybrid thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Dkhil, S., E-mail: sadok.bendekhil@gmail.com [Laboratoire Physique des Materiaux, Structures et Proprietes Groupe Physique des Composants et Dispositifs Nanometriques, 7021 Jarzouna, Bizerte (Tunisia); Ingenierie des Materiaux Polymeres, IMP, UMR CNRS 5223, Universite Claude Bernard - Lyon 1, 15, boulevard Latarjet, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Bourguiga, R. [Laboratoire Physique des Materiaux, Structures et Proprietes Groupe Physique des Composants et Dispositifs Nanometriques, 7021 Jarzouna, Bizerte (Tunisia); Davenas, J. [Ingenierie des Materiaux Polymeres, IMP, UMR CNRS 5223, Universite Claude Bernard - Lyon 1, 15, boulevard Latarjet, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Cornu, D. [Institut Europeen des Membranes, UMR CNRS 5635, Ecole Nationale superieure de Chimie, Universite de Montpellier, 1919 route de Mende, F34000 Montpellier (France)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid solar cells based on blends of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) and silicon nanowires have been fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have investigated the charge transfer between PVK and SiNWs by the way of the quenching of the PVK photoluminescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relation between the morphology of the composite thin films and the charge transfer between SiNWs and PVK has been examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have investigated the effects of SiNWs concentration on the photovoltaic characteristics leading to the optimization of a critical SiNWs concentration. - Abstract: Hybrid thin films combining the high optical absorption of a semiconducting polymer film and the electronic properties of silicon fillers have been investigated in the perspective of the development of low cost solar cells. Bulk heterojunction photovoltaic materials based on blends of a semiconductor polymer poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) as electron donor and silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as electron acceptor have been studied. Composite PVK/SiNWs films were cast from a common solvent mixture. UV-visible spectrometry and photoluminescence of the composites have been studied as a function of the SiNWs concentration. Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) shows the existence of a critical SiNWs concentration of about 10 wt % for PL quenching corresponding to the most efficient charge pair separation. The photovoltaic (PV) effect has been studied under illumination. The optimum open-circuit voltage V{sub oc} and short-circuit current density J{sub sc} are obtained for 10 wt % SiNWs whereas a degradation of these parameters is observed at higher SiNWs concentrations. These results are correlated to the formation of aggregates in the composite leading to recombination of the photogenerated charge pairs competing with the dissociation mechanism.

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan-Agarose Composite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhang; Hong, Pengzhi; Liao, Mingneng; Kong, Songzhi; Huang, Na; Ou, Chunyan; Li, Sidong

    2016-09-30

    Nowadays, there is a growing interest to develop biodegradable functional composite materials for food packaging and biomedicine applications from renewable sources. Some composite films were prepared by the casting method using chitosan (CS) and agarose (AG) in different mass ratios. The composite films were analyzed for physical-chemical-mechanical properties including tensile strength (TS), elongation-at-break (EB), water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), swelling ratio, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and morphology observations. The antibacterial properties of the composite films were also evaluated. The obtained results reveal that an addition of AG in varied proportions to a CS solution leads to an enhancement of the composite film's tensile strength, elongation-at-break, and water vapor transmission rate. The composite film with an agarose mass concentration of 60% was of the highest water uptake capacity. These improvements can be explained by the chemical structures of the new composite films, which contain hydrogen bonding interactions between the chitosan and agarose as shown by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis and the micro-pore structures as observed with optical microscopes and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The antibacterial results demonstrated that the films with agarose mass concentrations ranging from 0% to 60% possessed antibacterial properties. These results indicate that these composite films, especially the composite film with an agarose mass concentration of 60%, exhibit excellent potential to be used in food packaging and biomedical materials.

  13. Preparation and gaseous photocatalytic activity of smooth potassium dititanate film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinghua QIAN; Yuyan HU; Gaofei WEN; Xin FENG; Xiaohua LU

    2008-01-01

    A new smooth potassium dititanate film was prepared by sol-gel method and characterized by thermo-gravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),X-ray diffraction (XRD),atomic force microscopy (AFM),UV-Visible diffuse reflectance and Raman spectro-scopy.The gaseous photocatalytic activity of smooth K2Ti2O5 films was studied using contact angle analysis from the photocatalytic decomposition of octadecyltri-chlo-rosilane (OTS) based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed on K2Ti2O5 films.The photocurrent res-ponse of the film was determined by an electrochemical method.It was shown that the films were smooth,compact,and transparent when formed on glass.Compared with TiO2 film,the K2Ti2O5 film showed wide absorption in the ultraviolet and visible region.It was found that the monolayers on K2Ti2O5 decomposed much faster than those on TiO2 under UV irradiation of 254 nm in air.The film also exhibited a stronger photoresponse and a more stable anodic photocurrent.The K2Ti2O5 film effi-ciently decomposes the alkylsiloxane monolayers under UV irradiation in air and it was found to be a good photo-catalyst for gaseous organic pollutant treatment.

  14. Platinum-Iridium Alloy Films Prepared by MOCVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yan; CHEN Li; CAI Hongzhong; ZHENG Xu; YANG Xiya; HU Changyi

    2012-01-01

    Platinum-Iridium alloy films were prepared by MOCVD on Mo substrate using metal-acetylacetonate precursors.Effects of deposition conditions on composition,microstructure and mechanical properties were determined.In these experimental conditions,the purities of films are high and more than 99.0%.The films are homogeneous and monophase solid solution of Pt and Ir.Weight percentage of platinum are much higher than iridium in the alloy.Lattice constant of the alloy changes with the platinum composition.Iridium composition showing an up-down-up trend at the precursor temperature of 190~230℃ and the deposition temperature at 400~550℃.The hardness of Pt-Ir alloys prepared by MOCVD is three times more than the alloys prepared by casting.

  15. Conjugated Polymer Chains Confined in Vertical Nanocylinders of a Block-Copolymer Film: Preparation, Characterization, and Optoelectronic Function

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Ban Xuan

    2013-01-15

    Hybrid materials composed of phase-separated block copolymer films and conjugated polymers of the phenylenevinylene family (PPV) are prepared. The PPV chains are embedded in vertical cylinders of nanometer diameter in the block-copolymer films. The cylinders span continuously the whole film thickness of 70 nm. Incorporation of the PPV chains into the one-dimensional cylinders leads to modified photoluminescence spectra and to large absorption anisotropy. The hybrid films show electroluminescence from the PPV chains in a simple light-emitting device at minute doping concentrations, and also exhibit a factor of 19 increase in electron transport efficiency along the single PPV chains. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Electrochemical preparation of polypyrrole conducting films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Filkusová*

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic voltammetry has been used to investigate the electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole on the surface of a paraffin impregnated graphite electrode (PIGE. Effect of pH and concentration of the electrolyte solution on the electrochemical deposition of polypyrrole (PPy was studied. The structure of the deposited layers was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Well–adhering black PPy films were obtained.

  17. Preparation, properties and applications of wheat gluten edible films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. TANADA-PALMU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Edible films from wheat gluten were prepared with various amounts of glycerol as a plasticizer. Water vapor permeability, oxygen permeability, tensile strength and percentage elongation at break at different water activities ( aw were measured. Films with low amounts of glycerol had lower water vapor and oxygen permeabilities, higher tensile strength and lower elongation at break. Wheat gluten coatings reduced weight loss during two weeks of storage for cherry tomatoes and sharon fruits compared to uncoated controls. A bilayer film of wheat gluten and beeswax significantly lowered weight loss from coated cheese cubes compared to single layer coating of wheat gluten.;

  18. Preparation and characterization of Zn Se thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Ganchev, M; Stratieva, N; Gremenok, V; Zaretskaya, E; Goncharova, O

    2003-01-01

    Chemical bath deposition technique for preparation of ZnSe thin films is presented. The influence of bath temperature and duration of deposition on film growth and quality has been studied. The effect of post-deposition annealing in different ambient is also discussed. It has been determined that heat treatment removes the oxygen-containing phase from the as-deposited films and improves crystallinity. The optical and electric properties of the deposits show their potential for an alternative buffer layer in chalcopyrite-based solar cells.

  19. Environmentally compatible solder materials for thick film hybrid assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, F.M.; Vianco, P.T.; Rejent, J.A.; Hernandez, C.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials and Process Sciences Center

    1997-02-01

    New soldering materials and processes have been developed over the last several years to address a variety of environmental issues. One of the primary efforts by the electronics industry has involved the development of alternative solders to replace the traditional lead-containing alloys. Sandia National Laboratories is developing such alternative solder materials for printed circuit board and hybrid microcircuit (HMC) applications. This paper describes the work associated with low residue, lead-free soldering of thick film HMC`s. The response of the different materials to wetting, aging, and mechanical test conditions was investigated. Hybrid test vehicles were designed and fabricated with a variety of chip capacitors and leadless ceramic chip carriers to conduct thermal, electrical continuity, and mechanical evaluations of prototype joints. Microstructural development along the solder and thick film interface, after isothermal solid state aging over a range of elevated temperatures and times, was quantified using microanalytical techniques. Flux residues on soldered samples were stressed (temperature-humidity aged) to identify potential corrosion problems. Mechanical tests also supported the development of a solder joint lifetime prediction model. Progress of this effort is summarized.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan—Agarose Composite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a growing interest to develop biodegradable functional composite materials for food packaging and biomedicine applications from renewable sources. Some composite films were prepared by the casting method using chitosan (CS and agarose (AG in different mass ratios. The composite films were analyzed for physical-chemical-mechanical properties including tensile strength (TS, elongation-at-break (EB, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR, swelling ratio, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and morphology observations. The antibacterial properties of the composite films were also evaluated. The obtained results reveal that an addition of AG in varied proportions to a CS solution leads to an enhancement of the composite film’s tensile strength, elongation-at-break, and water vapor transmission rate. The composite film with an agarose mass concentration of 60% was of the highest water uptake capacity. These improvements can be explained by the chemical structures of the new composite films, which contain hydrogen bonding interactions between the chitosan and agarose as shown by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis and the micro-pore structures as observed with optical microscopes and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The antibacterial results demonstrated that the films with agarose mass concentrations ranging from 0% to 60% possessed antibacterial properties. These results indicate that these composite films, especially the composite film with an agarose mass concentration of 60%, exhibit excellent potential to be used in food packaging and biomedical materials.

  1. /dopamine films prepared by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde-Aguilar, G.; Prado-Prone, G.; Vergara-Aragón, P.; Garcia-Macedo, J.; Santiago, Patricia; Rendón, Luis

    2014-09-01

    Dopamine was encapsulated into nanoporous amorphous TiO2 matrix by sol-gel method under atmospheric conditions. A second sample was obtained by the addition of the crown-ether 15C5 in this previous sample. Thin films were spin-coated on glass wafers. No heat treatment was employed in both films. All films were characterized using infrared spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction, optical absorption and scanning electronic microscopy. Despite the films prepared with 15C5 were no calcined, a partial crystallization was identified. Anatase and rutile nanoparticles with sizes of 4-5 nm were obtained. Photoconductivity technique was used to determine the charge transport mechanism on these films. Experimental data were fitted with straight lines at darkness and under illumination wavelengths at 320, 400, and 515 nm. It indicates an ohmic behavior. Photovoltaic and photoconductivity parameters were determined from the current density vs. the applied-electrical-field results. Amorphous film has bigger photovoltaic and photoconductive parameters than the partially crystalline film. Results observed in the present investigation prove that the nanoporous TiO2 matrix can protect the dopamine inhibiting its chemical instability. This fact modifies the optical, physical and electrical properties of the film, and is intensified when 15C5 is added.

  2. Preparation and magnetic properties of Co-P thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haicheng Wang; Zhongmei Du; Lijin Wang; Guanghua Yu; Fengwu Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic Co-P thin films were prepared by eleetroless deposition. The experiment results show that the film thickness has a significant influence on the coercivity. While the film thickness varied from 300 nm to 5 μm, the coercivity dropped sharply from 45.36 to 22.28 kA/m. As the film thickness increased further, the coercivity varied slowly. When the thickness of the film was 300 nm, the deposited film could realize the coercivity as high as 45.36 kA/m, and the remanent magnetization as high as 800 kA/m .The Co-P films were deposited on the surface of magnetic drums of encoders, whose diameter was 40 mm, and then 512 magnetic poles were recorded, meaning that the magnetizing pitch was 0.245 mm. The testing results indicate that the output signals are perfect, the output waveforms are steady and the pulses account is integral. Compared with the γ-Fe2O3 coating, the Co-P thin film is suitable to be the magnetic recording media for the high resolution magnetic rotary encoder.

  3. Preparation and photochromic behavior of crosslinked polymer thin films containing polyoxometalates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jie; Liu Yan; Xiong Deqi [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China); Feng Wei [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China)], E-mail: weifeng@newmail.dlmu.edu.cn; Cai Weimin [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China)

    2008-03-31

    A series of reversible photochromic nanocomposite films were prepared by entrapping phosphotungstic acid (PWA) and molybdenumphsophoric acid (PMoA) into P(VP-BVA), which was a crosslinked polymer based on N-vinylpyrrolidone (VP) and bisvinyl-A (BVA). The microstructure, photochromic behavior and mechanism of the films were studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectra (UV-vis) and electron resonance spectra (ESR). The TEM image showed that the polyoxometalates particles had regular microstructure with narrow size distribution (average diameter of 30 nm) in hybrid films. FT-IR results showed that the Keggin geometry of polyoxometalates (POM) was still preserved inside the composites and strong coulombic interaction between POM and crosslinked polymer matrix was built. Irradiated with ultraviolet light, the transparent films changed from colorless to blue and showed reversible photochromism. Oxygen plays an important role during the bleaching process. PMoA/P(VP-BVA) film had higher photochromic efficiency and slower bleaching reaction than PWA/P(VP-BVA) film. The characteristic signals of W (V) or Mo (V) in ESR spectra indicated that electron transfer occurred between the organic substrates and heteropolyanions under UV irradiation, which induced heteropolyanions to heteropolybules with simultaneous oxidation of the organic substrates.

  4. Hybrid chitosan-Pluronic F-127 films with BaTiO3:Co nanoparticles: Synthesis and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, S.; Dubo, J.; Barraza, N.; González, R.; Veloso, E.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, magnetic BaTiO3:Co (BT:Co) nanoparticles prepared using a combined sol-gel-hydrothermal technique were dispersed in a chitosan/Pluronic F-127 solution (QO/Pl) to obtain a nanocomposite hybrid films. Nanoparticles and hybrid films were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM). Experimental results indicated that the BT:Co nanoparticles were encapsulated in the QO/Pl hybrid films and that the magnetic properties of the QO/Pl/BT:Co nanocomposites are similar to the naked BT:Co nanoparticles. Results indicate that Co doping produces an enhancement in the ferromagnetic behavior of the BT nanoparticle. The coating restricts this enhancement only to low-fields, leaving the diamagnetic behavior of BT at high-fields. Magnetically stable sizes (PSD) were obtained at 3% Co doping for both naked nanoparticles and hybrid films. These show an increased magnetic memory capacity and a softer magnetic hardness with respect to non-doped BT nanoparticles.

  5. Sol-gel preparation of silica and titania thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoř, Tomáš; Václavík, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Thin films of silicon dioxide (SiO2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) for application in precision optics prepared via the solgel route are being investigated in this paper. The sol-gel process presents a low cost approach, which is capable of tailoring thin films of various materials in optical grade quality. Both SiO2 and TiO2 are materials well known for their application in the field of anti-reflective and also highly reflective optical coatings. For precision optics purposes, thickness control and high quality of such coatings are of utmost importance. In this work, thin films were deposited on microscope glass slides substrates using the dip-coating technique from a solution based on alkoxide precursors of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and titanium isopropoxide (TIP) for SiO2 and TiO2, respectively. As-deposited films were studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry to determine their thickness and refractive index. Using a semi-empirical equation, a relationship between the coating speed and the heat-treated film thickness was described for both SiO2 and TiO2 thin films. This allows us to control the final heat-treated thin film thickness by simply adjusting the coating speed. Furthermore, films' surface was studied using the white-light interferometry. As-prepared films exhibited low surface roughness with the area roughness parameter Sq being on average of 0.799 nm and 0.33 nm for SiO2 and TiO2, respectively.

  6. 2D Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Thin Films for Flexible UV-Visible Photodetectors

    KAUST Repository

    Velusamy, Dhinesh Babu

    2017-02-13

    Flexible 2D inorganic MoS and organic g-CN hybrid thin film photodetectors with tunable composition and photodetection properties are developed using simple solution processing. The hybrid films fabricated on paper substrate show broadband photodetection suitable for both UV and visible light with good responsivity, detectivity, and reliable and rapid photoswitching characteristics comparable to monolayer devices. This excellent performance is retained even after the films are severely deformed at a bending radius of ≈2 mm for hundreds of cycles. The detailed charge transfer and separation processes at the interface between the 2D materials in the hybrid films are confirmed by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy with broadband capability.

  7. Preparation of biaxially oriented TlCu-1234 thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, N A; Tateai, F; Kojima, T; Ishida, K; Terada, N; Ihara, H

    1999-01-01

    The single phase of TlCu-1234 superconductor thin films is prepared for the first time by the amorphous phase epitaxy (APE) method, which is thallium treatment of sputtered amorphous phase at 900 degrees C for 1 h. The amorphous $9 phase is prepared by sputtering from the stoichiometric target composition CuBa/sub 2/Ca/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/O/sub 12-y/. The films on the SrTiO/sub 3/ substrate are aligned biaxially after the thallium treatment. Highly reproducible $9 TlCu-1234 films are prepared by this method. The XRD reflected a predominant single phase with the c-axis lattice constant of 18.74 AA. This lattice constant value is in between that of Cu-1234 (17.99 AA) and Tl-1234 (19.11 AA) . The $9 pole figure measurements of (103) reflection of the films showed a-axis-oriented crystals with Delta phi =0.8 degrees . The composition of the films after energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurements is Tl/sub 0.8/Cu/sub 0.2/Ba/sub $9 2/Ca/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/O /sub 12-y/. From the resistivity measurements, the T/sub c/ is 113 K...

  8. Preparation and Characterization of PZT films Fabricated on Si Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ying

    2006-01-01

    Lead zirconium titanate (PZT) films (Zr/Ti=45:55)with a high dielectric constant are prepared successfully on the low-resistance Si substrate in sol-gel dip-coating process with PT film used as the buffer layer.The dielectric and ferroelectric properties of the films as well as the relationship between crystallization and preparing condition are studied.It is shown that the PZT ferroelectric thin films with a (110) preferred orientation and a well-crystallized perovskite structure could be obtained after annealing at 800℃ for 15 min.The particle size of the sample is about 14-25 nm.The P-E hysteresis loops are measured by means of the Sawyer-Tower test system with a compensation resistor at room temperature.The remanent polarization (Pr) and coercive electric field (Ec) of the measured PZT thin films are 47.7 μC/cm2 and 18 kV/cm,respectively.The relative dielectric constant εr and the dissipation factor tgδ of the PZT thin films were measured with an LCR meter and were found to be 158 and 0.04-0.005,respectively.

  9. Electrochemical preparation of hematite nanostructured films for solar hydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebadzadeh T.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical water splitting is a clean and promising technique for using a renewable source of energy, i.e., solar energy, to produce hydrogen. In this work electrochemical formation of iron oxyhydroxide and its conversion to hematite (α- Fe2O3 through thermal treatment have been studied. Oxyhydroxide iron compounds have been prepared onto SnO2/F covered glass substrate by potential cycling with two different potential sweep rate values; then calcined at 520 °C in air to obtain α-Fe2O3 nanostrutured films for their implementation as photoanode in a photoelectrochemical cell. X-ray diffraction analysis allowed finding that iron oxides films have nanocrystalline character. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that films have nanostructured morphology. The obtained results are discussed considering the influence of potential sweep rate employed during the preparation of iron oxyhydroxide film on optical, structural and morphological properties of hematite nanostructured films. Results show that films have acceptable characteristics as photoanode in a photoelectrochemical cell for hydrogen generation from water.

  10. Corrosion resistance of siloxane–poly(methyl methacrylate) hybrid films modified with acetic acid on tin plate substrates: Influence of tetraethoxysilane addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunst, S.R.; Cardoso, H.R.P. [LAPEC, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Oliveira, C.T. [ICET, University Feevale, RS-239, 2755 Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Santana, J.A.; Sarmento, V.H.V. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Sergipe – UFS, Av. Vereador Olímpio Grande s/n, Centro, Itabaiana, SE (Brazil); Muller, I.L. [LAPEC, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Malfatti, C.F., E-mail: celia.malfatti@ufrgs.br [LAPEC, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, Avenida Bento Gonçalves, 9500 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Siloxane–PMMA film was produced by dip-coating on tin plate substrate. • It was evaluated the influence of (TEOS) addition on siloxane–PMMA hybrid films. • Siloxane–PMMA films without TEOS presented a regular coverage and lowest roughness. • The TEOS addition decrease the corrosion resistance of siloxane–PMMA films. • Siloxane–PMMA without TEOS presented is higher durability in the film wear test. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to study the corrosion resistance of hybrid films. Tin plate was coated with a siloxane–poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) hybrid film prepared by sol–gel route with covalent bonds between the organic (PMMA) and inorganic (siloxane) phases obtained by hydrolysis and polycondensation of 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl) methacrylate (TMSM) and polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as a thermic initiator. Hydrolysis reactions were catalyzed by acetic acid solution avoiding the use of chlorine or stronger acids in the film preparation. The effect of the addition of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) on the protective properties of the film was evaluated. The hydrophobicity of the film was determined by contact angle measurements, and the morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry. The local nanostructure was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The electrochemical behavior of the films was assessed by open circuit potential monitoring, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in a 0.05 M NaCl solution. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by tribology. The results highlighted that the siloxane–PMMA hybrid films modified with acetic acid are promising anti-corrosive coatings that acts as an efficient diffusion barrier, protecting tin plates against corrosion. However, the coating properties were affected by the TEOS addition, which contributed for the thickness increase

  11. Texture control and growth mechanism of WSe2 film prepared by rapid selenization of W film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongchao; Gao, Di; Li, Kun; Pang, Mengde; Xie, Senlin; Liu, Rutie; Zou, Jianpeng

    2017-02-01

    The tungsten diselenide (WSe2) films with different orientation present unique properties suitable for specific applications, such as WSe2 with a C-axis⊥substrate for optoelectronics and WSe2 with a C-axis // substrate for electrocatalysts. Orientation control of WSe2 is essential for realizing the practical applications. In this letter, a WSe2 film has been prepared via rapid selenization of a magnetron-sputtered tungsten (W) film. The influence of the magnetron-sputtered W film on WSe2 film growth was studied systematically. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the morphology, microstructure and phase composition of the W and WSe2 films. The substrate temperature has a significant effect on the W film phase composition, but little effect on the WSe2 film orientation. The WSe2 orientation can be controlled by changing the W film microstructure. A dense W film that is deposited at low pressure is conducive to the formation of WSe2 with a C-axis⊥substrate, whereas a porous W film deposited at high pressure favors the formation of WSe2 with a C-axis // substrate. A growth model for the WSe2 film with different texture has been proposed based on the experimental results. The direction of selenium (Se) vapor diffusion differs at the top and side surfaces. This is a key factor for the preparation of anisotropic WSe2 films. Highly oriented WSe2 films with a C-axis⊥substrate grow from the dense W film deposited at low pressure because Se vapor can only diffuse into the W film from the top surface where it is converted into selenide. Highly oriented WSe2 with a C-axis // substrate can be achieved for the porous W film that is deposited at high pressure because the nanopores provide a fast transmission tunnel for Se vapor diffusion. These findings will contribute to the controlled fabrication of WSe2 film and provide a theoretical basis for its application.

  12. Preparation and characterization of polymer-clay nanocomposite films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Polymer/clay nanocomposite films were prepared by means of electrodeposition of aqueous suspension including cathodic electrophoretic acrylic resin (CEAR) and Na+-montmorillonite (NMMT). Studies of XRD,SEM and TEM indicated well-dispersed NMMT platelets in the films prepared. The ideal dispersity achieved was thought to be the result of aqueous compatibility between CEAR molecules and NMMT platelets and the result of the water-involved process as well. The modulus and strength of the polymer/clay nanocomposite coatings tested by tensile testing and nano-indentation were effectively improved compared to those of the virgin CEAR film. In addition,the adhesion strength,flexibility and water-resistance represented by Chinese national standard (GB) kept the best grades.

  13. Preparation of DNA films for studies under vacuum conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smialek, M. A.; Balog, Richard; Jones, N. C.;

    2010-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine the optimum conditions required for the preparation of uniform films of supercoiled plasmid DNA to be used in irradiation experiments under high vacuum conditions. Investigations reveal that significant damage to the DNA molecules occurs due to the evacua...

  14. Preparation and properties of cellulose nanocrystals reinforced collagen composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weichang; Guo, Rui; Lan, Yong; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Yuanming

    2014-04-01

    Collagen films have been widely used in the field of biomedical engineering. However, the poor mechanical properties of collagen have limited its application. Here, rod-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were fabricated and used to reinforce collagen films. A series of collagen/CNCs films were prepared by collagen solution with CNCs suspensions homogeneously dispersed at CNCs: collagen weight ratios of 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10. The morphology of the resulting films was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the enhancement of the thermomechanical properties of the collagen/CNCs composites were demonstrated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and mechanical testing. Among the CNCs contents used, a loading of 7 wt % led to the maximum mechanical properties for the collagen/CNCs composite films. In addition, in vitro cell culture studies revealed that the CNCs have no negative effect on the cell morphology, viability, and proliferation and possess good biocompatibility. We conclude that the incorporation of CNCs is a simple and promising way to reinforce collagen films without impairing biocompatibility. This study demonstrates that the composite films show good potential for use in the field of skin tissue engineering.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of polymer/nanoclay hybrid ultrathin multilayer film by spin self-assembly method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho-Chul; Lee, Tae-Woo; Kim, Tae-Ho; Park, O.Ok

    2004-06-30

    We have prepared ultrathin multilayer nanostructural films by a layer-by-layer spin self-assembly method using poly (p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV)/layered silicate and characterized them by contact angle measurement, surface dying technique, UV/Vis spectroscopy, photoluminescent (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray reflectivity (XRR), and model-fitting. The hybrid ultrathin multilayer film was stepwisely deposited using the electrostatic forces between the cationic PPV precursor and the negatively charged surface of layered silicate, and finally thermally converted to (PPV/Laponite RD){sub n} film. The surface coverage of the PPV precursor onto layered silicate and vice versa could be clearly observed using the contact angle measurement and surface dying technique. The continuous increase of UV/Vis absorbance and PL intensity of the films with each bilayer demonstrated the regular and reproducible deposition of this system, and the Kiessig fringes and Bragg peaks in XRR spectra indicated the well-ordered internal structure.

  16. Preparation of Ionic Silsesquioxanes with Regular Structures and Their Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Kaneko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with our recent studies on the preparation of ionic silsesquioxanes (SQs with regular structures. Cationic ladder-like polySQs (PSQs with hexagonally stacked structures were successfully prepared by the sol-gel reactions of amino group-containing organotrialkoxysilanes in strong acid aqueous solutions. Self-organization of an ion pair (a salt prepared from the amino group in the organotrialkoxysilane and an acid is the key factor for the formation of such regular structures of the PSQs. It is also reported that the control of the conformational structure of the PSQs was performed by the introduction of the chiral moieties. In addition, we investigated the correlation between the of acid-catalysts and the structures of SQs prepared by the hydrolytic condensation of amino group-containing organotrialkoxysilane, that is, the use of the superacid aqueous solution resulted in the formation of cage-like octaSQ, while the ladder-like PSQs with hexagonally stacked structures were formed from the strong acid aqueous solutions under the same reaction conditions. Furthermore, anion-exchange behaviors of the cationic ladder-like PSQ were investigated with various organic and inorganic compounds, such as anionic surfactants, a polymer, and layered clay minerals, to obtain the functional hybrid materials.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of K-Carrageenan/Nanosilica Biocomposite Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh R. Rane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to improve the performance properties of K-carrageenan (K-CRG by utilizing nanosilica (NSI as the reinforcing agent. The composite films were prepared by solution casting method. NSI was added up to 1.5% in the K-CRG matrix. The prepared films were characterized for mechanical (tensile strength, tensile modulus, and elongation at break, thermal (differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, barrier (water vapour transmission rate, morphological (scanning electron microscopy, contact angle, and crystallinity properties. Tensile strength, tensile modulus, and crystallinity were found to have increased by 13.8, 15, and 48% whereas water vapour transmission rate was found to have decreased by 48% for 0.5% NSI loaded K-CRG composite films. NSI was found to have formed aggregates for concentrations above 0.5% as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Melting temperature, enthalpy of melting, and degradation temperature of K-CRG increased with increase in concentration of NSI in K-CRG. Contact angle also increased with increase in concentration of NSI in K-CRG, indicating the decrease in hydrophilicity of the films improving its water resistance properties. This knowledge of the composite film could make beneficial contributions to the food and pharmaceutical packaging applications.

  18. Preparation and Characteristics of Biodegradable Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposite Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Woo [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Biodegradable polyurethane (PU)/clay nanocomposite films were prepared via extrusion compounding process followed by casting film process. Organically modified montmorillonite (denoted as C30B) with a large amount of hydroxyl groups on its surface was used for the formation of strong bonding with PU resin. From both XRD analysis and TEM observations, the intercalated and exfoliated structure, and dispersion state of silicate platelets in the compounded nanocomposite films were confirmed. In addition, the rheological and tensile properties, optical transparency, oxygen permeability of the prepared nanocomposites were investigated as a function of added nanoclay content, and moreover based on these results, the correlation between the morphology and the resulting properties of the nanocomposites could be presented. The inclusion of nanoclays at appropriate content resulted in remarkable improvement in the nanocomposite performance including tensile modulus, elongation, transparency, and oxygen barrier property, however at excess amount of nanoclays, reduction or very slight increase was observed due to poor dispersion. The biodegradability of the prepared nanocomposite film was evaluated by examining the deterioration in the barrier and tensile properties during degradation period under compost.

  19. A Hybrid Reduction Procedure for Preparing Flexible Transparent Graphene Films with Improved Electrical Properties%柔性透明石墨烯膜制备及导电性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金成勋; 李丹丹; 余愿; 徐涛; 钱俊; 只金芳

    2012-01-01

    本文通过液相化学还原和热还原联合作用制备了柔性透明导电石墨烯膜.阳极氧化铝(AAO)模板在制备过程中既作为抽滤的滤网,又作为热还原处理时支撑石墨烯膜的衬底,制成的柔性透明石墨烯膜对波长为540-840nm的可见光透光率为80%,面电阻为850Ω/平方,这与化学气相沉积法制备的石墨烯膜(280-770Ω/平方)相近,而低于溶液法制备的石墨烯膜(通常是103-104Ω/平方).%A novel procedure for producing flexible transparent conductive Graphene films was reported. The synthetic procedure includes a solution-processed chemical reduction and an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane filter-assisted for thermal reduction. Final flexible transparent graphene films produced by this method exhibited the sheet resistance less than 850 O/square with 80% transmittance under visible-light irradiation (wavelengths: 540-840 ran), This sheet resistance value is close to that of the graphene films obtained from CVD method (280Ω70 O/square), and is much lower than that of the graphene films obtained from solution process (usually, in 103 Ω04O/square).

  20. Preparation and characterization of DNA films induced by UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masanori; Kato, Kozue; Nomizu, Motoyoshi; Sakairi, Nobuo; Ohkawa, Kousaku; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Norio

    2002-03-15

    Large amounts of DNA-enriched materials, such as salmon milts and shellfish gonads, are discarded as industrial waste. We have been able to convert the discarded DNA to a useful material by preparing novel DNA films by UV irradiation. When DNA films were irradiated with UV light, the molecular weight of DNA was greatly increased. The reaction was inhibited by addition of the radical scavenger galvinoxyl suggesting that the DNA polymerization with UV irradiation proceeded by a radical reaction. Although this UV-irradiated DNA film was water-insoluble and resistant to hydrolysis by nuclease, the structure of the DNA film in water was similar to non-irradiated DNA and maintained B-form structure. In addition, the UV-irradiated DNA film could effectively accumulate and condense harmful DNA-intercalating compounds, such as ethidium bromide and acridine orange, from diluted aqueous solutions. The binding constant and exclusion number of ethidium bromide for UV-irradiated DNA were determined to be 6.8 +/- 0.3 x 10(4) M(-1) and 1.6 +/- 0.2, respectively; these values are consisted with reported results for non-irradiated DNA. The UV-irradiated DNA films have potential uses as a biomaterial filter for the removal of harmful DNA intercalating compounds.

  1. Thin Film Solar Cells: Organic, Inorganic and Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankovich, John

    2004-01-01

    Thin film solar cells are an important developing resource for hundreds of applications including space travel. In addition to being more cost effective than traditional single crystal silicon cells, thin film multi-crystaline cells are plastic and light weight. The plasticity of the cells allows for whole solar panels to be rolled out from reams. Organic layers are being investigated in order to increase the efficiency of the cells to create an organic / inorganic hybrid cell. The main focus of the group is a thin film inorganic cell made with the absorber CuInS2. So far the group has been successful in creating the layer from a single-source precursor. They also use a unique method of film deposition called chemical vapor deposition for this. The general makeup of the cell is a molybdenum back contact with the CuInS2 layer, then CdS, ZnO and aluminum top contacts. While working cells have been produced, the efficiency so far has been low. Along with quantum dot fabrication the side project of this that is currently being studied is adding a polymer layer to increase efficiency. The polymer that we are using is P3OT (Poly(3-octylthiopene-2,5-diyll), retroregular). Before (and if) it is added to the cell, it must be understood in itself. To do this simple diodes are being constructed to begin to look at its behavior. The P3OT is spin coated onto indium tin oxide and silver or aluminum contacts are added. This method is being studied in order to find the optimal thickness of the layer as well as other important considerations that may later affect the composition of the finished solar cell. Because the sun is the most abundant renewable, energy source that we have, it is important to learn how to harness that energy and begin to move away from our other depleted non-renewable energy sources. While traditional silicon cells currently create electricity at relatively high efficiencies, they have drawbacks such as weight and rigidness that make them unattractive

  2. The Effects of Coupling Agents on the Properties of Polyimide/Nano-Al2O3 Three-Layer Hybrid Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhu Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PI/nano-Al2O3 hybrid films were prepared by ultrasonic-mechanical method. Before addition, nano-Al2O3 particles were firstly modified with different coupling agents. The micromorphology, thermal stability, mechanical properties, and electric breakdown strength of hybrid films were characterized and investigated. Results indicated that nano-Al2O3 particles were homogeneously dispersed in the PI matrix by the addition of coupling agents. The thermal stability and mechanical properties of PI/nano-Al2O3 composite films with KH550 were the best. The tensile strength and elongation at break of PI composite film were 119.1 MPa and 19.1%, which were 14.2% and 78.5% higher than unmodified PI composite film, respectively.

  3. Top-down and bottom-up approaches to transparent, flexible and luminescent nitrogen-doped carbon nanodot-clay hybrid films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimos, Konstantinos; Arcudi, Francesca; Kouloumpis, Antonios; Koutselas, Ioannis B.; Rudolf, Petra; Prato, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Two easy approaches are successfully employed for the preparation of nitrogen-doped carbon nanodot (NCND)-clay hybrids (bulk solids and thin films). Fluorescent and small NCNDs are intercalated within the interlayer space of LAPONITE (R) clay with a simple ion exchange reaction in bulk or embedded

  4. Preparation of silane-WO{sub 3} film through sol-gel method and characterization of photochromism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Zhongkuan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, Guangdong (China)], E-mail: luozhongkuan@126.com; Yang Jianjun [Xinyi Glass Holdings Limited, Shenzhen 518115, Guangdong (China); Cai Honghua; Li Haiyang; Ren Xiangzhong; Liu Jianhong; Liang Xun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, Guangdong (China)

    2008-06-30

    The sol of silane and WO{sub 3} was prepared from tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and methacryloxy-propyl-trimethoxy silane (KH570) with a novel route as described in previous work, and the aqueous WO{sub 3} solution was prepared from ammonium tungstate. These two sols were mixed by stirring for about 1 hour with a certain ratio. Through sol-gel method, the transparent hybrids coating of organic silane and tungsten oxide was prepared by spraying or dipping on the glass substrates, and then were heat-treated at a certain temperature. The photochromic properties were investigated. AFM was used to investigate the surface structure of the prepared coatings. The crystalline phase was studied through X-ray diffraction. UV lights with different wavelengths were used to get the coloration of the film. The results show that silane-WO{sub 3} film exhibits better photo-chromic properties under UV light irradiation.

  5. Erosion effects of atomic oxygen on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-polyimide hybrid films in low earth orbit space environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duo, Shuwang; Song, Mimi; Liu, Tingzhi; Hu, Changyuan; Li, Meishuan

    2013-02-01

    A novel polyimide (PI) hybrid nanocomposite containing polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) had been prepared by copolymerization of trisilanolphenyl-POSS, 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA), and pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA). The AO resistance of these PI/POSS hybrid films was tested in the ground-based AO simulation facility. Exposed and unexposed surfaces were characterized by SEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. SEM images showed that the surface of the 20 wt% PI/POSS became much less rough than that of the pristine polyimide. Mass measurements of the samples showed that the erosion yield of the PI/POSS (20 wt.%) hybrid film was 1.2 x 10(-25) cm3/atom, and reduced to 4% of the polyimide film. The XPS data indicated that the carbon content of the near-surface region was decreased from 60.1 to 13.2 at% after AO exposure. The oxygen and silicon concentrations in the near-surface region increased to 1.96 after AO exposure. The nanometer-sized structure of POSS, with its large surface area, had led AO-irradiated samples to form a SiO2 passivation layer, which protected the underlying polymer from further AO attack. The incorporation of POSS into the polyimide could dramatically improve the AO resistance of polyimide films in low earth orbit environment.

  6. Nanostructured films of inorganic-organic hybrid materials for application in photovoltaics; Nanostrukturierte Filme aus anorganisch-organischen Hybridmaterialien fuer die Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlich, Jan

    2009-06-25

    Nanostructured thin films of crystalline TiO{sub 2} for applications in photovoltaics were studied. The fabrication of the thin films is based on a hybrid approach. The anorganic metal oxide prepared via a sol-gel synthesis is structurated by the template properties of the applied organic block-copolymer. Via the film epitaxy by means of centrifugal coating first hybrid films (polymer-nanocomposite films) were fabricated, which were changed by calcination into crystalline TiO{sub 2} films with taylored morphology. The successful development of novel preparation approaches to the adaption to consisting conditions in the application field of photovoltaics contains a route to the fine-tuning of the morphology as well as the fabrication of hierarchical morphologies in different configurations. The structural study of the single nanostructurated TiO{sub 2} films up to the functional multilayer arrangement as photovoltaic demonstration cell was performed with conventionally imaging methods, as for instance scanning force microscopy and electron microscopy as well as the special small-angle X-ray scattering method under rigid incident angle (GISAXS). [German] Es wurden nanostrukturierte duenne Filme aus kristallinem TiO{sub 2} fuer Anwendungen in der Photovoltaik untersucht. Die Herstellung der duennen Filme basiert auf einem Hybridansatz. Das ueber eine Sol-Gel-Synthese bereitgestellte anorganische Metalloxid wird durch die Template-Eigenschaften des eingesetzten organischen Block-Copolymers strukturiert. Ueber die Filmaufbringung mittels Schleuderbeschichtung wurden zunaechst Hybridfilme (Polymer-Nanokompositfilme) hergestellt, die durch Kalzinierung in kristalline TiO{sub 2}-Filme mit massgeschneiderter Morphologie umgewandelt werden. Die erfolgreiche Entwicklung von neuartigen Praeparationsansaetzen zur Adaption an bestehende Gegebenheiten im Anwendungsgebiet der Photovoltaik beinhaltet eine Route zur Feineinstellung der Morphologie sowie die Herstellung von

  7. Direct Electrochemistry of Cytochrome c on EDTA-ZrO2 Organic-inorganic Hybrid Film Modified Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静娟; 彭影; 刘守清; 陈洪渊

    2004-01-01

    A composite film of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)-ZrO2 organic-inorganic hybrid was prepared based on the chelation between Zr(Ⅳ) and EDTA. The direct electrochemical behavior of cytochrome c (cyt. c) at the hybrid film modified glassy carbon electrodes was investigated. The immobilized EDTA can promote the redox of heme in horse heart cyt. c which gives rise to a pair of reversible redox peaks with a formal potential of 40 mV (vs. SCE). The peak current increased linearly with the increase of cyt. c concentration in the range of 1.6 × 10-6_the electron transfer of cyt. c. The impediment capability of metal ions depends on their coordination capability with EDTA and their valence number.

  8. Dendritic Ni(Cu)-polypyrrole hybrid films for a pseudo-capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bit Na; Chun, Woo Won; Qian, Aniu; Lee, So Jeong; Chung, Chan-Hwa

    2015-11-01

    Dendritic Ni(Cu)-polypyrrole hybrid films are fabricated for a pseudo-capacitor in a unique morphology using two simple methods: electro-deposition and electrochemical de-alloying. Three-dimensional structures of porous dendrites are prepared by electro-deposition within the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) at a high cathodic potential; the high-surface-area structure provides sufficient redox reactions between the electrodes and the electrolyte. The dependence of the active-layer thickness on the super-capacitor performance is also investigated, and the 60 μm-thick Ni(Cu)PPy hybrid electrode presents the highest performance of 659.52 F g-1 at the scan rate of 5 mV s-1. In the thicker layers, the specific capacitance became smaller due to the diffusion limitation of the ions in an electrolyte. The polypyrrole-hybridization on the porous dendritic Ni(Cu) electrode provides superior specific capacitance and excellent cycling stability due to the improvement in electric conductivity by the addition of conducting polypyrrole in the matrices of the dendritic nano-porous Ni(Cu) layer and the synergistic effect of composite materials.

  9. Preparation and characterisation of compositionally graded SmCo films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Andre; Gomez, Gabriel; Givord, Dominique; Bonfim, Marlio; Dempsey, Nora M.

    2017-05-01

    A compositionally graded SmCo film has been prepared by magnetron sputtering using a Co target partially covered by a Sm foil. The film was deposited onto a 100 mm thermally oxidised Si substrate and then annealed ex-situ. The SmCo film has been used as a test sample to validate an in-house developed scanning MOKE (Magneto-Optic Kerr effect) system incorporating a pulsed magnetic field source capable of producing fields as high as 10 T. A 2D array of hysteresis loops was measured across the entire wafer. The evolution in coercivity measured along a selected 1D strip of the sample is correlated with changes in composition and crystallographic structures measured using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The high field Scanning MOKE system holds much potential for optimizing the extrinsic properties of known hard magnetic phases as well as in the search for new hard magnetic phases.

  10. Anisotropic Magnetoresistance of Cobalt Films Prepared by Thermal Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuttanun PANSONG

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt films on silicon substrates were prepared by thermal evaporation. By evaporating 0.05 g of cobalt for 80-240 s, a thickness from 21.1 to 67.7 nm was obtained with a deposition rate about 0.26-0.32 nm per second. The 29 nm-thick cobalt film exhibited magnetoresistance (MR ranging from -0.0793% (field perpendicular to the current to +0.0134% (field parallel to the current with saturation in a 220 mT magnetic field. This MR was attributed to anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR since changing the angle between the field and the current (θ gave rise to a change in the electrical resistance (Rθ. The results agreed with the theory since the plot between Rθ and cos2θ could be linearly fitted. AMR was not observed in non-ferromagnetic gold films whose resistance was insensitive to the angle between the current and magnetic field.

  11. Novel flavonolignan hybrid antioxidants: From enzymatic preparation to molecular rationalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavříková, Eva; Křen, Vladimír; Jezova-Kalachova, Lubica; Biler, Michal; Chantemargue, Benjamin; Pyszková, Michaela; Riva, Sergio; Kuzma, Marek; Valentová, Kateřina; Ulrichová, Jitka; Vrba, Jiří; Trouillas, Patrick; Vacek, Jan

    2017-02-15

    A series of antioxidants was designed and synthesized based on conjugation of the hepatoprotective flavonolignan silybin with l-ascorbic acid, trolox alcohol or tyrosol via a C12 aliphatic linker. These hybrid molecules were prepared from 12-vinyl dodecanedioate-23-O-silybin using the enzymatic regioselective acylation procedure with Novozym 435 (lipase B) or with lipase PS. Voltammetric analyses showed that the silybin-ascorbic acid conjugate exhibited excellent electron donating ability, in comparison to the other conjugates. Free radical scavenging, antioxidant activities and cytoprotective action were evaluated. The silybin-ascorbic acid hybrid exhibited the best activities (IC50 = 30.2 μM) in terms of lipid peroxidation inhibition. The promising protective action of the conjugate against lipid peroxidation can be attributed to modulated electron transfer abilities of both the silybin and ascorbate moieties, but also to the hydrophobic C12 linker facilitating membrane insertion. This was supported experimentally and theoretically by density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) calculations. The results presented here can be used in the further development of novel multipotent antioxidants and cytoprotective agents, in particular for substances acting at an aqueous/lipid interface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Corrosion resistance of siloxane-poly(methyl methacrylate) hybrid films modified with acetic acid on tin plate substrates: Influence of tetraethoxysilane addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, S. R.; Cardoso, H. R. P.; Oliveira, C. T.; Santana, J. A.; Sarmento, V. H. V.; Muller, I. L.; Malfatti, C. F.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the corrosion resistance of hybrid films. Tin plate was coated with a siloxane-poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) hybrid film prepared by sol-gel route with covalent bonds between the organic (PMMA) and inorganic (siloxane) phases obtained by hydrolysis and polycondensation of 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl) methacrylate (TMSM) and polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as a thermic initiator. Hydrolysis reactions were catalyzed by acetic acid solution avoiding the use of chlorine or stronger acids in the film preparation. The effect of the addition of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) on the protective properties of the film was evaluated. The hydrophobicity of the film was determined by contact angle measurements, and the morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry. The local nanostructure was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The electrochemical behavior of the films was assessed by open circuit potential monitoring, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in a 0.05 M NaCl solution. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by tribology. The results highlighted that the siloxane-PMMA hybrid films modified with acetic acid are promising anti-corrosive coatings that acts as an efficient diffusion barrier, protecting tin plates against corrosion. However, the coating properties were affected by the TEOS addition, which contributed for the thickness increase and irregular surface coverage.

  13. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF CHITOSAN/LIGNIN COMPOSITE FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Chen; Chang-yu Tang; Nan-ying Ning; Chao-yu Wang; Qiang Fu; Qin Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradable composite films based on chitosan and lignin with various composition were prepared via the solution-casting technique.FT-IR results indicate the existence of hydrogen bonding between chitosan and lignin,and SEM images show that lignin could be well dispersed in chitosan when the content of lignin is below 20 wt% due to the strong interfacial interaction.As a result of strong interaction and good dispersion,the tensile strength,storage modulus,thermal degradation temperature and glass transition temperature of chitosan have been largely improved by adding lignin.Our work provides a simple and cheap way to prepare fully biodegradable chitosan/lignin composites,which could be used as packaging films or wound dressings.

  14. Preparation and Properties of Cereal-Metal Complex Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Various kinds of biodegradable polymer materials have been researched[1]. In our previous papers,cereals such as wheat,buckwheat,glutinous rice and nonglutinous rice were polycondenced with citric acid and polysilicic acid to prepare copolymer films respectively[2,3].These copolymer fims have relatively good mechanical properties but the water proofness is not so good.Recently,some cereals such as wheat,glutinous rice,nonglutinous rice,kaoliang,millet and maize were reacted with copper chlorid...

  15. Investigation of MgF2 optical thin films with ultralow refractive indices prepared from autoclaved sols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Tsuyoshi; Ishizawa, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Akira

    2008-05-01

    We have successfully developed a process to form high quality MgF(2) thin films with ultralow refractive indices from autoclaved sols prepared from magnesium acetate and hydrofluoric acid. And we have confirmed that our porous MgF(2) coatings have not only high transmittance in the UV region but also high uniformity of film thickness. They can be uniformly formed on phiv 300 mm substrates as a single coating and as a hybrid coating with sublayers formed by physical vapor deposition. They are expected to be applied to various optics that need high transmittance in the UV region.

  16. Doped Titanium Dioxide Films Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juguang Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 was intensively researched especially for photocatalystic applications. The nitrogen-doped TiO2 films prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD method were reviewed, and some recent new experimental results were also presented in this paper. A new optical transmission method for evaluating the photocatalystic activity was presented. The main results are (1 PLD method is versatile for preparing oxide material or complex component films with excellent controllability and high reproducibility. (2 Anatase nitrogen-doped TiO2 films were prepared at room temperature, 200°C, and 400°C by PLD method using novel ceramic target of mixture of TiN and TiO2. UV/Vis spectra, AFM, Raman spectra, and photocatalystic activity for decomposition of methyl orange (MO tests showed that visible light response was improved at higher temperature. (3 The automatic, continuous optical transmission autorecorder method is suitable for detecting the photodecomposition dynamic process of organic compound.

  17. Preparation of insoluble fibroin films and its tensile property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Qiang; CAO Chuanbao; ZHAI Huazhang; ZHU Hesun

    2004-01-01

    Silk fibroin is becoming a promising biomaterial because of its excellent biocompatibility. However, the regenerated fibroin is usually soluble in water and its mechanical properties should be improved. Although many methods, such as adding other polymers or treating with methanol, can ameliorate the mechanical properties and insolubility, the biocompatibility of fibroin is usually damaged in these processes. In this article, it is first reported that the insoluble fibroin films are directly prepared without methanol treatment. According to the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD), the amount of β-sheet conformation increased with the increasing of concentration. When fibroin films are dried from 15 wt% at 60℃, the films become insoluble in water. More importantly, The tensile strength and elongation of the insoluble fibroin films dried from 15% solution at 60℃ reached 15.9 MPa and 49.4% respectively in the wet state, which is distinctly superior to the fibroin films treated with methanol.

  18. Effect of Perovskite Film Preparation on Performance of Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxian Pei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the perovskite solar cells (PSCs, the performance of the PSCs has become the focus of the research by improving the crystallization and morphology of the perovskite absorption layer. In this thesis, based on the structure of mesoporous perovskite solar cells (MPSCs, we designed the experiments to improve the photovoltaic performance of the PSCs by improved processing technique, which mainly includes the following two aspects. Before spin-coating PbI2 solution, we control the substrate temperature to modify the crystal quality and morphology of perovskite films. On the other hand, before annealing, we keep PbI2 films for the different drying time at room temperature to optimize films morphology. In our trials, it was found that the substrate temperature is more important in determining the photovoltaic performance than drying time. These results indicate that the crystallization and morphology of perovskite films affect the absorption intensity and obviously influence the short circuit current density of MPSCs. Utilizing films prepared by mentioning two methods, MPSCs with maximum power conversion efficiency of over 4% were fabricated for the active area of 0.5 × 0.5 cm2.

  19. Preparation and properties of evaporated CdTe films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bube, R. H.; Fahrenbruch, A. L.; Chien, K. F.

    1987-07-01

    Previous work on evaporated CdTe films for photovoltaics showed no clear path to successful p-type doping of CdTe during deposition. Post-deposition annealing of the films in various ambients thus was examined as a means of doping. Anneals were done in Te, Cd, P, and As vapors and in vacuum, air and Ar, all of which showed large effects on series resistance and diode parameters. With As, series resistance values of In/p-CdTe/graphite structures decreased markedly. This decrease was due to a decrease in grain boundary and/or back contact barrier height, and thus was due to large increases in mobility; the carrier density was not altered substantially. Although the series-resistance decreases were substantial, the diode characteristics became worse. The decreases were not observed when CdS/CdTe cells were fabricated on Te vapor-annealed films. Preparation of ZnO films by reactive evaporation yielded promising results. Deposition of p-ZnTe films by hot-wall vapor evaporation, using conventional techniques, yielded acceptable specimens.

  20. Rain Erosion Behavior of Silicon Dioxide Films Prepared on Sapphire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping FENG; Zhengtang LIU; Wenting LIU

    2005-01-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) films were prepared on sapphire (α-Al2O3) by radio frequency magnetron reactive sputtering in order to in crease both transmission and rain erosion resistant performance of infrared domes of sapphire. Composition and structure of SiO2 films were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD),respectively. The transmittance of uncoated and coated sapphire was measured using a Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) spectrometer. Rain erosion tests of the uncoated and coated sapphire were performed at 211 m/s impact velocity with an exposure time ranging from 1 to 8 min on a whirling arm rig. Results show that the deposited films can greatly increase the transmission of sapphire in mid-wave IR. After rain erosion test, decreases in normalized transmission were less than 1% for designed SiO2 films and the SiO2 coating was strongly bonded to the sapphire substrate. In addition, sapphires coated with SiO2 films had a higher transmittance than uncoated ones after rain erosion.

  1. Highly transparent and flexible bio-based polyimide/TiO2 and ZrO2 hybrid films with tunable refractive index, Abbe number, and memory properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tzu-Tien; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Tateyama, Seiji; Kaneko, Tatsuo; Liou, Guey-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    The novel bio-based polyimide (4ATA-PI) and the corresponding PI hybrids of TiO2 or ZrO2 with excellent optical properties and thermal stability have been prepared successfully. The highly transparent 4ATA-PI containing carboxylic acid groups in the backbone could provide reaction sites for organic-inorganic bonding to obtain homogeneous hybrid films. These PI hybrid films showed a tunable refractive index (1.60-1.81 for 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 1.60-1.80 for 4ATA-PI/ZrO2), and the 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films revealed a higher optical transparency and Abbe's number than those of the 4ATA-PI/TiO2 system due to a larger band gap of ZrO2. By introducing TiO2 and ZrO2 as the electron acceptor into the 4ATA-PI system, the hybrid materials have a lower LUMO energy level which could facilitate and stabilize the charge transfer complex. Therefore, memory devices derived from these PI hybrid films exhibited tunable memory properties from DRAM, SRAM, to WORM with a different TiO2 or ZrO2 content from 0 wt% to 50 wt% with a high ON/OFF ratio (108). In addition, the different energy levels of TiO2 and ZrO2 revealed specifically unique memory characteristics, implying the potential application of the prepared 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films in highly transparent memory devices.The novel bio-based polyimide (4ATA-PI) and the corresponding PI hybrids of TiO2 or ZrO2 with excellent optical properties and thermal stability have been prepared successfully. The highly transparent 4ATA-PI containing carboxylic acid groups in the backbone could provide reaction sites for organic-inorganic bonding to obtain homogeneous hybrid films. These PI hybrid films showed a tunable refractive index (1.60-1.81 for 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 1.60-1.80 for 4ATA-PI/ZrO2), and the 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films revealed a higher optical transparency and Abbe's number than those of the 4ATA-PI/TiO2 system due to a larger band gap of ZrO2. By introducing TiO2 and ZrO2 as the electron acceptor into the 4ATA-PI system

  2. An experimental study of nonlinear behaviour of capacitance in graphene/carbon nanotube hybrid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsawafi, Suaad; Wang, Xiao; Jin, Jie; Song, Mo

    2016-06-01

    Graphene (G) and graphene oxide (GO)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) hybrid films were fabricated as high performance electrode materials by a simple water solution casting method with different contents of single-wall CNT (SWCNT), multi wall CNT (MWCNT) and multi wall CNT with hydroxyl group (MWCNT-OH). The films with MWCNTs showed a layered, interconnected and well entangled structure at nano-scale. With increasing CNT contents, the capacitance of the G/MWCNT and GO/MWCNT films raised almost linearly and their resistance reduced. G/SWCNT and GO/SWCNT films did not form layered structures leading to a very low capacitance. Nonlinear behaviour of the capacitance with voltage has been observed in the G/MWCNT and GO/MWCNT hybrid films. The length and thickness of the hybrid film have significant influences on the capacitance. The capacitance and conductivity increase with increasing the thickness and decrease with increasing the length of the hybrid films. For the application of graphene/CNT hybrid films as electrodes, these characters could be taken into account.

  3. Hybrid organotin and tin oxide-based thin films processed from alkynylorganotins: synthesis, characterization, and gas sensing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Laetitia; Brötz, Joachim; Fuess, Hartmut; Gurlo, Aleksander; Riedel, Ralf; Toupance, Thierry

    2014-10-08

    Hydrolysis-condensation of bis(triprop-1-ynylstannyl)butylene led to nanostructured bridged polystannoxane films yielding tin dioxide thin layers upon UV-treatment or annealing in air. According to Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data, the films were composed of a network of aggregated "pseudo-particles", as calcination at 600 °C is required to form cassiterite nanocrystalline SnO2 particles. In the presence of reductive gases such as H2 and CO, these films gave rise to highly sensitive, reversible, and reproducible responses. The best selectivity toward H2 was reached at 150 °C with the hybrid thin films that do not show any response to CO at 20-200 °C. On the other hand, the SnO2 films prepared at 600 °C are more sensitive to H2 than to CO with best operating temperature in the 300-350 °C range. This organometallic approach provides an entirely new class of gas-sensing materials based on a class II organic-inorganic hybrid layer, along with a new way to include organic functionality in gas sensing metal oxides.

  4. Nanoscale Hybrid Langmuir-Blodgett Films Based on Cerium-Substituted Heteropolymolybdate and Polyquinoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峥; 柳士忠; 杜祖亮; 胡振纲; 张洪杰

    2003-01-01

    Nanoscale hybrid organic/inorganic Langmuir-Blodgett films of cerium-substituted heteropolymolybdates(Ce-HPMo) and π-conjugated macromolecule poly(1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethyl)quinoline(PQ) were obtained with auxiliary film-forming material stearic acid(SA) or octadecylamine(ODA). The surface pressure-area isotherms illuminate the formation of the hybrid LB films of PQ/ODA/Ce-HPMo and P Q/SA/Ce-HPMo. The different film-forming mechanism was discussed when the different auxiliary film-forming materials were used in the system. The absorption spectra indicate that the molecules of PQ and Ce-HPMo are incorporated into the LB films. Tapping-mode AFM image reveals a granular surface texture of nanosized Ce-substituted heteropolymolybdate. STM image shows that the conductivity is greatly improved after Ce-substituted heteropolymolybdates are incorporated in the films.

  5. Purple-bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers and quantum-dot hybrid-assemblies in lecithin liposomes and thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashev, Eugeny P; Knox, Petr P; Gorokhov, Vladimir V; Grishanova, Nadezda P; Seifullina, Nuranija Kh; Krikunova, Maria; Lokstein, Heiko; Paschenko, Vladimir Z

    2016-11-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) absorb ultraviolet and long-wavelength visible light energy much more efficiently than natural bacterial light-harvesting proteins and can transfer the excitation energy to photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs). Inclusion of RCs combined with QDs as antennae into liposomes opens new opportunities for using such hybrid systems as a basis for artificial energy-transforming devices that potentially can operate with greater efficiency and stability than devices based only on biological components or inorganic components alone. RCs from Rhodobacter sphaeroides and QDs (CdSe/ZnS with hydrophilic covering) were embedded in lecithin liposomes by extrusion of a solution of multilayer lipid vesicles through a polycarbonate membrane or by dialysis of lipids and proteins dispersed with excess detergent. The efficiency of RC and QD interaction within the liposomes was estimated using fluorescence excitation spectra of the photoactive bacteriochlorophyll of the RCs and by measuring the fluorescence decay kinetics of the QDs. The functional activity of the RCs in hybrid complexes was fully maintained, and their stability was even increased. The efficiency of energy transfer between QDs and RCs and conditions of long-term stability of function of such hybrid complexes in film preparations were investigated as well. It was found that dry films containing RCs and QDs, maintained at atmospheric humidity, are capable of maintaining their functional activity for at least some months as judged by measurements of their spectral characteristics, efficiency of energy transfer from QDs to RCs and RC electron transport activity. Addition of trehalose to the films increases the stability further, especially for films maintained at low humidity. These stable hybrid film structures are promising for further studies towards developing new phototransformation devices for biotechnological applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Horizontally-connected ZnO-graphene hybrid films for multifunctional devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yi Rang [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong Post Office Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Semiconductor Physics Research Center (SPRC), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Wooseok; Lee, Young Bum; Kim, Seong Ku; Han, Jin Kyu; Myung, Sung; Lee, Sun Sook; An, Ki-Seok [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong Post Office Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Chel-Jong [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Semiconductor Physics Research Center (SPRC), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jongsun, E-mail: jslim@krict.re.kr [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong Post Office Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • We designed horizontally-connected ZnO and graphene hybrid nanofilms with improved flexibility for multifunctional nanodevices including high performance TFTs. • The photocurrent on-off ratio, response time, and recovery time of the hybrid photodetectors were estimated to be 10{sup 2}, 34 s, and 27 s, respectively. The photocurrent from the hybrid photodetector decreased only by two-fold, whereas a significant decrease in photocurrent by two orders of magnitude was observed from the ZnO thin film based photodetectors after 10{sup 5} cycles of 5-mm radius bending. • The hybrid thin film transistors exhibited unipolar n-channel transistor behavior with electron mobility of 68.7 cm{sup 2}/V s and on-off ratio of 10{sup 7}. - Abstract: Here we designed horizontally-connected ZnO thin films and graphene in order to combine advantages of ZnO thin films, which are high on/off ratio and photo responsivity, and the superior mobility and sensitivity of graphene for applications in thin film transistors (TFTs) and flexible photodetectors. To synthesize the ZnO/graphene hybrid films, a 70-nm-thick ZnO thin film with a uniformly flat surface deposited by the atomic layer deposition process was horizontally connected with highly crystalline monolayer graphene grown by thermal chemical vapor deposition. The photocurrent on-off ratio, response time, and recovery time of the hybrid photodetectors were estimated to be 10{sup 2}, 34 s, and 27 s, respectively. The photocurrent from the hybrid photodetector decreased only by two-fold, whereas a significant decrease in photocurrent by two orders of magnitude was observed from the ZnO thin film based photodetectors after 10{sup 5} cycles of 5-mm radius bending. The hybrid TFT exhibited unipolar n-channel transistor behavior with electron mobility of 68.7 cm{sup 2}/V s and on-off ratio of 10{sup 7}.

  7. Pure crystal orientation and anisotropic charge transport in large-area hybrid perovskite films.

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, N; Li, F; Turedi, B; Sinatra, L; Sarmah, SP; Parida,, B.; Saidaminov, MI; Murali, B; Burlakov, VM; Goriely, Alain; Mohammed, OF; Wu, T; Bakr, OM

    2016-01-01

    Controlling crystal orientations and macroscopic morphology is vital to develop the electronic properties of hybrid perovskites. Here we show that a large-area, orientationally pure crystalline (OPC) methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) hybrid perovskite film can be fabricated using a thermal-gradient-assisted directional crystallization method that relies on the sharp liquid-to-solid transition of MAPbI3 from ionic liquid solution. We find that the OPC films spontaneously form periodic microa...

  8. Pure crystal orientation and anisotropic charge transport in large-area hybrid perovskite films

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Namchul; LI Feng; Turedi, Bekir; Sinatra, Lutfan; Sarmah, Smritakshi P.; Parida, Manas R.; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Murali, Banavoth; Burlakov, Victor M.; Goriely, Alain; Mohammed, Omar F; Wu, Tom; Bakr, Osman M.

    2016-01-01

    Controlling crystal orientations and macroscopic morphology is vital to develop the electronic properties of hybrid perovskites. Here we show that a large-area, orientationally pure crystalline (OPC) methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) hybrid perovskite film can be fabricated using a thermal-gradient-assisted directional crystallization method that relies on the sharp liquid-to-solid transition of MAPbI3 from ionic liquid solution. We find that the OPC films spontaneously form periodic microa...

  9. Hybrid Luminescent Films Obtained by Covalent Anchoring Terbium Complex to Silica-based Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    New monomer N-(4-carboxyphenyl)-NL-(propyltriethoxysilyl)urea (1) which acts as both a ligand for Tb3+ ion and a sol-gel precursor has been synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, and MS. Hybrid luminescent thin films consisting of organoterbium covalently bonded to a silica-based network have been obtained in situ via a sol-gel approach. Strong line emission of Tb3+ ion was observed from the hybrid luminescent films under UV excitation.

  10. Electrochemical Properties of Poly(ethylene oxide)(PEO) Doped TiO2-PEO Films Prepared by Sol-gel Dip Coating Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    PEO modified TiO2-PEO organic-inorganic hybrid thin films were prepared via sol-gel dipping process on glass substrate pre-coated with ITO. The preparation parameters were studied. Electrochemical and optical properties of the films were characterized by cyclic voltammetric response and visible transmittance. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determined the crystalline structure of the gel. The results show the sols added with PEO have acceptable stable periods for practical use. The PEO modified optical transitivity of the hybrid films has heavy effects on the crystallization of TiO2 during structural evolution because of the interaction between PEO and TiO2. PEO- TiO2 films have better electrochemical activity than the TiO2 equivalent behaved as higher Li+ insertion/extraction current density and cyclic reversibility.

  11. Degradation of Pollutant and Antibacterial Activity of Waterborne Polyurethane/Doped TiO2 Nanoparticle Hybrid Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Shan; DENG Fengxia; XU Shanwen; LIU Peng; MIN Xinmin; MA Fang

    2015-01-01

    The waterborne polyurethane/doped TiO2 nanoparticle hybrid films were prepared. Nd, I doped TiO2 was prepared with a 50 nm particle sizefi rstly. The hybridfi lm was prepared by mixing doped TiO2 with waterborne polyurethane, followed by heat treatment. The presence and nanometric distribution of doped TiO2 nanoparticles in prepared membranes is evident according to SEM images. The photocatalytic activities of doped TiO2 were signifi cantly enhanced compared with pure TiO2 powders. After the hybridfi lm fabrication, the photocatalytic activities were almost the same as the pure catalysts withkMB of 0.046. In the antibacterial testing, the hybridfi lms can inhibitE. coli growth. A signifi cant decrease in membranefl uidity and increase of permeability ofE. coli were observed.

  12. Preparation of organic thin-film field effect transistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The organic thin-film field effect transistor was prepared through vacuum deposition by using teflon as di-electric material. Indium-tin-oxide acted as the source and drain electrodes. Copper phthalocyanine and teflon were used as the semiconductor layer and dielectric layer, respectively. The gate electrode was made of Ag. The channel length between the source and drain was 50 μm. After preparing the source and drain electrodes by lithography, the copper phthalocyanine layer, teflon layer and Ag layerwere prepared by vacuum deposition sequentially. The field effect electron mobility of the device reached 1.1×10ˉ6 cm2/(V@s), and the on/off current ratio reached 500.

  13. Hybrid layer thickness and morphology: Influence of cavity preparation with air abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceleiro, Marcos Oliveira; de Mello, Jose Benedicto; Porto, Celso Luis de Angelis; Dias, Katia Regina Hostilio Cervantes; de Miranda, Mauro Sayao

    2011-01-01

    Dentinal surfaces prepared with air abrasion have considerably different characteristics from those prepared with conventional instruments. Different hybrid layer morphology and thickness occur, which can result in differences in the quality of restorations placed on dentinal surfaces prepared with a diamond bur compared to surfaces prepared using air abrasion. The objective of this study was to compare the hybrid layer thickness and morphology formed utilizing Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus (SBMP) on dentin prepared with a diamond bur in a high-speed handpiece and on dentin prepared using air abrasion. Flat dentin surfaces obtained from five human teeth were prepared using each method, then treated with the dentin adhesive system according to manufacturer's instructions. After a layer of composite was applied, specimens were sectioned, flattened, polished, and prepared for scanning electron microscopy. Ten different measurements of hybrid layer thickness were obtained along the bonded surface in each specimen. SBMP produced a 3.43 ± 0.75 µm hybrid layer in dentin prepared with diamond bur. This hybrid layer was regular and found consistently. In the air abrasion group, SBMP produced a 4.94 ± 1.28 µm hybrid layer, which was regular and found consistently. Statistical ANOVA (P = 0.05) indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the groups. These data indicate that the air abrasion, within the parameters used in this study, provides a thick hybrid layer formation.

  14. Facile fabrication of transparent, broadband photoresponse, self-cleaning multifunctional graphene-TiO2 hybrid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiayi; Cao, Yang; He, Junhui

    2014-04-15

    We reported a novel approach to fabricate graphene-TiO2 hybrid films by combination of the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly and the surface sol-gel (SSG) process. The reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets and films were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible absorbance spectroscopy, contact angle/interface system, and four-point probe. It was found that the graphene-TiO2 hybrid film showed enhanced photoresponse performance compared with RGO thin film and TiO2 thin film. The photoresponse properties of hybrid films could be manipulated by variation of the cycle numbers of RGO LbL assembly and titanium precursor SSG process. Photoinduced superhydrophility of the hybrid film was shown under broadband light illumination. The obtained transparent, superhydrophilic and conductive graphene-TiO2 hybrid film showed excellent photoresponse, antifogging, and antistatic behaviors.

  15. Highly transparent and flexible bio-based polyimide/TiO2 and ZrO2 hybrid films with tunable refractive index, Abbe number, and memory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tzu-Tien; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Tateyama, Seiji; Kaneko, Tatsuo; Liou, Guey-Sheng

    2016-07-07

    The novel bio-based polyimide (4ATA-PI) and the corresponding PI hybrids of TiO2 or ZrO2 with excellent optical properties and thermal stability have been prepared successfully. The highly transparent 4ATA-PI containing carboxylic acid groups in the backbone could provide reaction sites for organic-inorganic bonding to obtain homogeneous hybrid films. These PI hybrid films showed a tunable refractive index (1.60-1.81 for 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 1.60-1.80 for 4ATA-PI/ZrO2), and the 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films revealed a higher optical transparency and Abbe's number than those of the 4ATA-PI/TiO2 system due to a larger band gap of ZrO2. By introducing TiO2 and ZrO2 as the electron acceptor into the 4ATA-PI system, the hybrid materials have a lower LUMO energy level which could facilitate and stabilize the charge transfer complex. Therefore, memory devices derived from these PI hybrid films exhibited tunable memory properties from DRAM, SRAM, to WORM with a different TiO2 or ZrO2 content from 0 wt% to 50 wt% with a high ON/OFF ratio (10(8)). In addition, the different energy levels of TiO2 and ZrO2 revealed specifically unique memory characteristics, implying the potential application of the prepared 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films in highly transparent memory devices.

  16. Preparation and properties of thin films treatise on materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, K N

    1982-01-01

    Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 24: Preparation and Properties of Thin Films covers the progress made in the preparation of thin films and the corresponding study of their properties. The book discusses the preparation and property correlations in thin film; the variation of microstructure of thin films; and the molecular beam epitaxy of superlattices in thin film. The text also describes the epitaxial growth of silicon structures (thermal-, laser-, and electron-beam-induced); the characterization of grain boundaries in bicrystalline thin films; and the mechanical properti

  17. Tailor-made oxide architectures attained by molecularly permeable metal-oxide organic hybrid thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debabrata; Taffa, Dereje Hailu; Ishchuk, Sergey; Hazut, Ori; Cohen, Hagai; Toker, Gil; Asscher, Micha; Yerushalmi, Roie

    2014-08-21

    Tailor-made metal oxide (MO) thin films with controlled compositions, electronic structures, and architectures are obtained via molecular layer deposition (MLD) and solution treatment. Step-wise formation of permeable hybrid films by MLD followed by chemical modification in solution benefits from the versatility of gas phase reactivity on surfaces while maintaining flexibility which is more common at the liquid phase.

  18. In-Situ Composition and Luminescence of Europium and Terbium Coordination Polymers/PEMA Hybrid Thick Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Bing; WANG Qianming

    2005-01-01

    Europium and terbium coordination polymers of pyridine- 3-carboxylic acid were in-situ composed with ethyl methacrylate ( EMA ). With the polymerization of EMA monomer and the formation of europium and terbium coordination polymers of pyridine- 3-carboxylic acid, the transparent hybrid thick films composed of [Eu( NIC)3 ]n ( [ Tb( NIC)3 ]n ) and poly ethyl methacrylate ( PEMA ) have been prepared. The luminescence properties and energy transfer of these polymeric composites were studied with absorption spectra, fluorescent excitation and emission spectra in detail. All the hybrid thick films composed of terbium coordination polymer show the characteristic strong green emission of terbium ions, which implies the same energy transfer mechanism as the pure complex and the hybrid composite film is a suitable substrate for the luminescence of terbium ions. In the range of composing concentration of luminescent species (0.01,0.025,0.05,0.1 mmol/15 mL EMA ) , emission intensities increase with the increasing of corresponding composing concentration and the concentration quenching effect does not take place.

  19. Electrocatalytic reaction of hydrogen peroxide and NADH based on poly(neutral red) and FAD hybrid film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuo Chiang; Lin, Yu Ching; Chen, Shen Ming

    2012-01-07

    A simple method to immobilize poly(neutral red) (PNR) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) hybrid film (PNR/FAD) by cyclic voltammetry is proposed. The PNR/FAD hybrid film can be easily prepared on an electrode surface involving electropolymerization of neutral red (NR) monomers and the electrostatic interaction between the positively charged PNR and the negatively charged FAD. It exhibits electroactive, stable, surface-confined, pH-dependent, nano-sized, and compatible properties. It provides good electrocatalytic properties to various species. It shows a sensitivity of 5.4 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) and 21.5 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) for hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) with the linear range of 0.1 μM-39 mM and 5 × 10(-5) to 2.5 × 10(-4) M, respectively. It shows another linear range of 48.8-355.5 mM with the sensitivity of 12.3 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) for H(2)O(2). In particular, the PNR/FAD hybrid film has potential to replace some hemoproteins to be a cathode of biofuel cells and provide the biosensing system for glucose and ethanol.

  20. [Preparation and spectroscopic properties of terbium polypropenic acid film].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-gui; Wu, Hong-ying; Weng, Shi-fu; Wu, Jin-guang

    2002-12-01

    The bonding-type rare earth polymers-polypropenic-acid terbium film was prepared through the bonding way. Three-dimension fluorescence spectra showed that the optimum excitation wavelength was 306 nm, the strongest emission wavelength was 544 nm. The terbium polypropenic-acid film showed the characteristic Tb3+ emission when excited at 306 nm due to 5D4-7FJ transition (J = 6, 5, 4 and 3). The emission maximum at 544 nm was ascribed to 5D4-7F5 transition of Tb3+ and presented strong green emission. The luminescent properties of Tb3+ were not affected by polymerism of propenic-acid and the transparency of polypropenic-acid in visible light region was not affected by the dopping Tb3+. The fluorescence properties and spectroscopic properties of the terbium polypropenic-acid were investigated by excitation spectrum, emission spectrum, IR, far-IR, and Raman spectrum.

  1. Nanocrystalline silicon films prepared by laser-induced crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅广生; 于威; 李社强; 侯海虹; 彭英才; 韩理

    2003-01-01

    The excimer laser-induced crystallization technique has been used to investigate the preparation of nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) from amorphous silicon (α-Si) thin films on silicon or glass substrates. The α-Si films without hydrogen grown by pulsed-laser deposition are chosen as precursor to avoid the problem of hydrogen effluence during annealing.Analyses have been performed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission-electron microscopy. Experimental results show that silicon nanocrystals can be formed through laser annealing. The growth characters of nc-Si are strongly dependent on the laser energy density. It is shown that the volume of the molten silicon predominates essentially the grain size of nc-Si, and the surface tension of the crystallized silicon is responsible for the mechanism of nc-Si growth.

  2. Facile fabrication of boron nitride nanosheets-amorphous carbon hybrid film for optoelectronic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Shanhong

    2015-01-01

    A novel boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs)-amorphous carbon (a-C) hybrid film has been deposited successfully on silicon substrates by simultaneous electrochemical deposition, and showed a good integrity of this B-C-N composite film by the interfacial bonding. This synthesis can potentially provide the facile control of the B-C-N composite film for the potential optoelectronic devices. This journal is

  3. Nanostructure Study of TiO2 Films Prepared by Dip Coating Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The microstructure properties of the sol-gel derived TiO2 films were studied by the atomic force microscopy (AFM).The films were prepared by dip coating process. The optical properties of the films were explained on the basis ofthe microstructure of the films.

  4. Epitaxial ternary nitride thin films prepared by a chemical solution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hongmei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feldmann, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Haiyan [TEXAS A& M; Bi, Zhenxing [TEXAS A& M

    2008-01-01

    It is indispensable to use thin films for many technological applications. This is the first report of epitaxial growth of ternary nitride AMN2 films. Epitaxial tetragonal SrTiN2 films have been successfully prepared by a chemical solution approach, polymer-assisted deposition. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of the films are also investigated.

  5. Highly Luminescent Hybrid SiO2-Coated CdTe Quantum Dots Retained Initial Photoluminescence Efficiency in Sol-Gel SiO2 Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongsheng; Xing, Yugui; Wu, Qinan; Yang, Ping

    2015-02-01

    A highly luminescent silica film was fabricated using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APS) through a controlled sol-gel reaction. The pre-hydrolysis of TEOS and APS which resulted in the mixture of TEOS and APS in a molecular level is a key for the formation of homogenous films. The aminopropyl groups in APS play an important role for obtaining homogeneous film with high photoluminescence (PL). Red-emitting hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe nano-crystals (NCs) were fabricated by a two-step synthesis including a thin SiO2 coating via a sol-gel process and a subsequent refluxing using green-emitting CdTe NCs. The hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe NCs were embedded in a functional SiO2 film via a two-step process including adding the NCs in SiO2 sol with a high viscosity and almost without ethanol and a subsequent spinning coating. The hybrid SiO2-coated CdTe NCs retained their initial PL efficiency (54%) in the film. Being encapsulated with the hybrid NCs in the film, no change on the absorption and PL spectra of red-emitting CdTe NCs (632 nm) was observed. This indicates the hybrid NCs is stable enough during preparation. This phenomenon is ascribed to the controlled sol-gel process and a hybrid SiO2 shell on CdTe NCs. Because these films exhibited high PL efficiency and stability, they will be utilizable for potential applications in many fields.

  6. Highly sensitive electrochemical impedance spectroscopic detection of DNA hybridization based on Au(nano)-CNT/PAN(nano) films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Na; Yang, Tao; Jiang, Chen; Du, Meng; Jiao, Kui

    2009-01-15

    A polyaniline nanofibers (PAN(nano))/carbon paste electrode (CPE) was prepared via dopping PAN(nano) in the carbon paste. The nanogold (Au(nano)) and carbon nanotubes (CNT) composite nanoparticles were bound on the surface of the PAN(nano)/CPE. The immobilization and hybridization of the DNA probe on the Au(nano)-CNT/PAN(nano) films were investigated with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) using methylene blue (MB) as indicator, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) as redox probe. The voltammetric peak currents of MB increased dramatically owing to the immobilization of the probe DNA on the Au(nano)-CNT/PAN(nano) films, and then decreased obviously owing to the hybridization of the DNA probe with the complementary single-stranded DNA (cDNA). The electron transfer resistance (R(et)) of the electrode surface increased after the immobilization of the probe DNA on the Au(nano)-CNT/PAN(nano) films and rose further after the hybridization of the probe DNA. The remarkable difference between the R(et) value at the DNA-immobilized electrode and that at the hybridized electrode could be used for the label-free EIS detection of the target DNA. The loading of the DNA probe on Au(nano)-CNT/PAN(nano) films was greatly enhanced and the sensitivity for the target DNA detection was markedly improved. The sequence-specific DNA of phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of nopaline synthase (NOS) gene from transgenically modified beans were determined with this label-free EIS DNA detection method. The dynamic range for detecting the PAT gene sequence was from 1.0 x 10(-12)mol/L to 1.0 x 10(-6)mol/L with a detection limit of 5.6 x 10(-13)mol/L.

  7. Preparation of hybrid scaffold from fibrin and biodegradable polymer fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokugo, Akishige; Takamoto, Tomoaki; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2006-01-01

    A biodegradable hybrid scaffold was prepared from fibrin and poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) fiber. Mixed fibrinogen and thrombin solution homogeneously dispersed in the presence of various amounts (0, 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0mg) of PGA fiber was freeze-dried to obtain fibrin sponges with or without PGA fiber incorporation. By scanning electron microscopy observation, the fibrin sponges had an interconnected pore structure, irrespective of the amount of PGA fiber incorporated. PGA fiber incorporation enabled the fibrin sponges to significantly enhance their compression strength. In vitro cell culture studies revealed that the number of L929 fibroblasts initially attached was significantly larger for any fibrin sponge with PGA fiber incorporation than for the fibrin sponge without PGA fiber. The shrinkage of sponges after cell seeding was suppressed by fiber incorporation. It is possible that the shrinkage suppression of sponges maintains their intraspace, resulting in the superior cell attachment of a sponge with PGA fiber incorporation. After subcutaneous implantation into the backs of mice, the residual volume of a fibrin sponge with PGA fiber incorporation was significant compared with that of a fibrin sponge without PGA fiber. Larger number of cells infiltrated deep inside the fibrin sponges with PGA fiber incorporation implanted subcutaneously. It is concluded that the fibrin sponge reinforced by fiber incorporation is a promising three-dimensional scaffold of cells for tissue engineering.

  8. Unusual dynamic dewetting behavior of smooth perfluorinated hybrid films: potential advantages over conventional textured and liquid-infused perfluorinated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Chihiro; Masheder, Benjamin; Cheng, Dalton F; Hozumi, Atsushi

    2013-10-08

    From a viewpoint of reducing the burden on the environment and human health, an alternative method for preparing liquid-repellent surfaces without relying on the long perfluorocarbons (C((X-1)/2)F(X), X ≥ 17) has been strongly demanded lately. In this study, we have successfully demonstrated that dynamic dewettability toward various probe liquids (polar and nonpolar liquids with high or low surface tension) can be tuned by not only controlling surface chemistries (surface energies) but also the physical (solid-like or liquid-like) nature of the surface. We prepared smooth and transparent organic-inorganic hybrid films exhibiting unusual dynamic dewetting behavior toward various probe liquids using a simple sol-gel reaction based on the co-hydrolysis and co-condensation of a mixture including a range of perfluoroalkylsilanes (FASX, C((X-1)/2)F(X)CH2CH2Si(OR)3, where X = 3, 9, 13, and 17) and tetramethoxysilane (Si(OCH3)4, TMOS). Dynamic contact angle (CA) and substrate tilt angle (TA) measurements confirmed that our FASX-hybrid films exhibited excellent dynamic dewetting properties and were mostly independent of the length of perfluoroalkyl (Rf) groups. For example, 10 μL droplets of ultralow surface tension liquids (e.g., diethyl ether (γ = 16.26 dyn/cm) and n-pentane (γ = 15.51 dyn/cm)) could move easily on our FAS9-, FAS13-, and FAS17-hybrid film surfaces at low substrate TAs (dynamic dewetting behavior appeared only when TMOS molecules were added to the precursor solutions; we assume this is due to co-condensed TMOS-derived silica species working as spacers between the neighboring Rf chains, enabling them to rotate freely and in doing so provide a surface with liquid-like properties. This led to the distinguished dynamic dewettability of our hybrid films, regardless of the small static CAs. Our FASX-hybrid films also displayed excellent chemical and physical durability against thermal stress (~250 °C), high-temperature (150 °C) oil vapor, and various

  9. Preparation and properties of CuInS{sub 2} thin film prepared from electroplated precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onuma, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Kenji; Ichikawa, Sumihiro; Suzuki, Yasunari; Fukasawa, Ryo; Matono, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kenji; Nakazawa, Masao; Takei, Koji [Core Technology Research Laboratory, Shinko Electric Industries Co., Ltd., 80 Oshimada, Nagano 381-2287 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    Thin CuInS{sub 2} films were prepared by sulfurization of Cu/In bi-layers. First, the precursor layer was electroplated onto the treated surface of Mo-coated glass. Observation of the cross-section prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) etching revealed that the void-free film was initially formed on the top surface of the precursor layer and continued to grow until the advancing front of the film reached the Mo layer. The nucleation of voids near the bottom of the CuInS{sub 2} film followed. To determine whether the condition of the Cu/In alloy influences the CuInS{sub 2} quality we investigated the Cu/In alloy state using FIB. We found that the annealed precursor of low Cu/In ratio (1.2) has several voids in the mid position in the layer compared with Cu-rich precursor (1.6). The cross-sectional view of the Cu-rich absorber layer is uniform compared with the low copper absorber layer. Thin film solar cells were fabricated using the CuInS{sub 2} film (Cu/In ratio: 1.2) as an optical absorber layer. It was found that the optimization of a sulfurization period is important in order to improve the cell efficiency. We have not yet obtained good results with high Cu-rich absorber because of a blister problem. This blister was found before sulfurization. So, we are going to solve this blister problem before sulfurization.

  10. Improved performances of AlN/polyimide hybrid film and its application in redistribution layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Ding, Guifu; Luo, Jiangbo; Lu, Wen; Zhao, Xiaolin; Cheng, Ping; Wang, Yanlei

    2016-09-01

    The AlN/polyimide (PI) hybrid film was studied as the dielectric layer in the redistribution layer (RDL) in this work. The incorporation of the AlN into the PI matrix was achieved by mechanical ball-milling process. The spin-coating process was used to fabricate the AlN/PI hybrid film, which is compatible with micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology for fabricating RDL. The AlN/PI hybrid film was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of the AlN content on the thermal stability, thermal expansion coefficient, hardness and water adsorption of the AlN/PI hybrid film was studied. The results indicated that the addition of AlN nanoparticles improved the thermal stability and hardness, but decreased the thermal expansion coefficient and water absorption of the pure PI film. As an example of its typical application, the AlN/PI hybrid film with 8 wt.% AlN was patterned using micromachining technology and used as the dielectric layer in RDL successfully.

  11. Nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond and multi-layer-graphene-like hybrid carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Yonhua; Yeh, Shoupu; Fang, Wei Cheng; Chu, Yuehchieh

    2014-03-01

    Nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) and multi-layer-graphene-like hybrid carbon films have been synthesized by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) on oxidized silicon which is pre-seeded with diamond nanoparticles. MPECVD of N-UNCD on nanodiamond seeds produces a base layer, from which carbon structures nucleate and grow perpendicularly to form standing carbon platelets. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering measurements reveal that these carbon platelets are comprised of ultrananocrystalline diamond embedded in multilayer-graphene-like carbon structures. The hybrid carbon films are of low electrical resistivity. UNCD grains in the N-UNCD base layer and the hybrid carbon platelets serve as high-density diamond nuclei for the deposition of an electrically insulating UNCD film on it. Biocompatible carbon-based heaters made of low-resistivity hybrid carbon heaters encapsulated by insulating UNCD for possible electrosurgical applications have been demonstrated.

  12. Hybrid Thin Film Organosilica Sol-Gel Coatings To Support Neuronal Growth and Limit Astrocyte Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capeletti, Larissa Brentano; Cardoso, Mateus Borba; Dos Santos, João Henrique Zimnoch; He, Wei

    2016-10-07

    Thin films of silica prepared by a sol-gel process are becoming a feasible coating option for surface modification of implantable neural sensors without imposing adverse effects on the devices' electrical properties. In order to advance the application of such silica-based coatings in the context of neural interfacing, the characteristics of silica sol-gel are further tailored to gain active control of interactions between cells and the coating materials. By incorporating various readily available organotrialkoxysilanes carrying distinct organic functional groups during the sol-gel process, a library of hybrid organosilica coatings is developed and investigated. In vitro neural cultures using PC12 cells and primary cortical neurons both reveal that, among these different types of hybrid organosilica, the introduction of aminopropyl groups drastically transforms the silica into robust neural permissive substrate, supporting neuron adhesion and neurite outgrowth. Moreover, when this organosilica is cultured with astrocytes, a key type of glial cells responsible for glial scar response toward neural implants, such cell growth promoting effect is not observed. These findings highlight the potential of organo-group-bearing silica sol-gel to function as advanced coating materials to selectively modulate cell response and promote neural integration with implantable sensing devices.

  13. Hybrid Graphene and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Enhanced Phase-Change Heat Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Han; Yun, Hyung Duk; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Bang, In Cheol

    2016-02-10

    Nucleate boiling is an effective heat transfer method in power generation systems and cooling devices. In this letter, hybrid graphene/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), graphene, and SWCNT films deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces were fabricated to investigate the enhancement of nucleate boiling phenomena described by the critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient. The graphene films were grown on Cu foils and transferred to ITO surfaces. Furthermore, SWCNTs were deposited on the graphene layer to fabricate hybrid graphene/SWCNT films. We determined that the hybrid graphene/SWCNT film deposited on an ITO surface is the most effective heat transfer surface in pool boiling because of the interconnected network of carbon structures.

  14. Photocatalytic ability of TiO2 porous film prepared by modified spray pyrolysis deposition technique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SUGIYAMA, Osamu; OKUYA, Masayuki; KANEKO, Shoji

    2009-01-01

    In a spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) technique, deposition of film material and formation of surface structure are simultaneously occur, therefore, it is suitable for the preparation of microstructure-controlled thin films...

  15. Fabrication of Nonsintered Alumina-Resin Hybrid Films by Inkjet-Printing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hun Woo; Kim, Jihoon; Kim, Hyo-tae; Yoon, Youngjoon; Lee, Sung-nam; Hwang, Haejin; Kim, Jonghee

    2010-07-01

    We used the inkjet printing to fabricate alumina-resin hybrid films without a high temperature sintering process. Single- and co-solvent ink systems showing different evaporation behaviors were formulated in order to understand their impacts on the inkjet-printing of the alumina dots, lines, and films. The packing densities of the inkjet-printed alumina films from both ink systems were around 60% which is higher than the value obtained by other conventional methods. Since the high temperature sintering process was avoided, the polymer-resin was infiltrated through the inkjet-printed alumina films by the same inkjet printing as a binder. The microstructures of these hybrid films were investigated in order to confirm if the microvoids in the films were filled with the resin. The dielectric properties of these hybrid films such as relative permittivity and Q-value were measured in order to assess if these hybrid materials is applicable to three-dimensional (3D) system integration as ceramic package substrates.

  16. Preparation of Lead-free Thick-film Resistor Pastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Hui; LI Shihong; LIU Jisong; CHEN Liqiao; YING Xingang; WANG Ke

    2012-01-01

    The preparation of lead-free thick-film resistors are reported:using RuO2 and ruthenates as conductive particles,glass powders composed of B2O3,SiO2,CaO and Al2O3 as insulating phase,adding organic matter which mainly consists of ethyl cellulose and terpineol to form printable pastes.Resistors were fabricated and sintered by conventional screen-printing on 96%Al2O3 substrates,and then sintering in a belt furnace.X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron scanning microscopy (SEM) have been used to characterize the conductive particles.The resistors exhibit good retiring stability and low temperature coefficient of resistance.Sheet resistance spans from about 80 Ω/□ to 600 Ω/□.The resistors prepared are qualified for common use.

  17. Biomolecular hybrid material and process for preparing same and uses for same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA

    2010-11-23

    Disclosed is a composition and method for fabricating novel hybrid materials comprised of, e.g., carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and crosslinked enzyme clusters (CECs). In one method, enzyme-CNT hybrids are prepared by precipitation of enzymes which are subsequently crosslinked, yielding crosslinked enzyme clusters (CECs) on the surface of the CNTs. The CEC-enzyme-CNT hybrids exhibit high activity per unit area or mass as well as improved enzyme stability and longevity over hybrid materials known in the art. The CECs in the disclosed materials permit multilayer biocatalytic coatings to be applied to surfaces providing hybrid materials suitable for use in, e.g., biocatalytic applications and devices as described herein.

  18. Fabrication of molecular hybrid films of gold nanoparticle and polythiophene by covalent assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaramurthy, Jayaraman, E-mail: jsu2@np.edu.sg [Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block E5, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117576 (Singapore); Environmental & Water Technology Centre of Innovation, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, 599489 (Singapore); Dharmarajan, Rajarathnam [CERAR, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Srinivasan, M.P., E-mail: chesmp@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block E5, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117576 (Singapore)

    2015-08-31

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of molecular hybrid films comprising gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) incorporated in covalently assembled, substituted polythiophene (poly(3-(2-bromoethoxy)ethoxymethylthiophene-2,5-diyl (PBrEEMT))) films by different surface chemistry routes. AuNPs are incorporated in the immobilized polythiophene matrix due to its affinity for amine and sulfur. The amount of AuNPs present depends on the nature of the incorporation, the extent of film coverage and interaction of thiophene and amine groups. PBrEEMT films functionalized with amine rich polyallylamine immobilize greater numbers of AuNPs due to more extensive gold–amine interactions. Covalent binding between AuNP and PBrEEMT films was accomplished by using pre-functionalised AuNPs (4-aminothiophenol functionalized AuNPs). Atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to study the morphology and chemical constituents of assembled films. These approaches will pave the way for developing facile methods for nanoparticle incorporation and will also facilitate direct interaction of nanoparticles with the conducting polymer matrix and enhance the electrical properties of the films. - Highlights: • Covalent molecular assembly enabled the fabrication of molecular hybrid films. • Monomeric and polymeric species were employed as intermediate linkers. • Adopted approaches facilitated the direct interaction of gold nanoparticle in films. • The amount of nanoparticle incorporation depended on the extent of film coverage.

  19. Sheet resistances of composite films prepared from chemically-reduced graphite oxides and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Weontae; Kim, Daehan; Jeong, Euh Duck; Bae, Jong-Seong

    2013-12-01

    Graphite oxides (GOs) were spray-coated on a glass substrate to prepare the GO film, and the film was soaked in a HI aqueous solution to make a chemically-reduced GO (rGO) film. The rGOs were successfully prepared by using a chemical reduction of as-made GOs, but their surfaces were seriously damaged during the chemical treatments. The Sheet resistances of rGO and rGO/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) films were characterized as functions of the film's thickness and the number of MWNTs added to the rGO films.

  20. MgB{sub 2} thin films by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, X.X. [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)]|[Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)]. E-mail: xxx4@psu.edu; Pogrebnyakov, A.V. [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)]|[Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Xu, S.Y.; Chen, K.; Cui, Y.; Maertz, E.C. [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zhuang, C.G. [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)]|[Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Qi [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lamborn, D.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Redwing, J.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)]|[Department of Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Liu, Z.K.; Soukiassian, A.; Schlom, D.G.; Weng, X.J.; Dickey, E.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Chen, Y.B.; Tian, W.; Pan, X.Q. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Cybart, S.A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dynes, R.C. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) has been the most effective technique for depositing MgB{sub 2} thin films. It generates high magnesium vapor pressures and provides a clean environment for the growth of high purity MgB{sub 2} films. The epitaxial pure MgB{sub 2} films grown by HPCVD show higher-than-bulk T {sub c} due to tensile strain in the films. The HPCVD films are the cleanest MgB{sub 2} materials reported, allowing basic research, such as on magnetoresistance, that reveals the two-band nature of MgB{sub 2}. The carbon-alloyed HPCVD films demonstrate record-high H {sub c2} values promising for high magnetic field applications. The HPCVD films and multilayers have enabled the fabrication of high quality MgB{sub 2} Josephson junctions.

  1. Hybrid thin-film solar cells comprising mesoporous titanium dioxide and conjugated polymers; Hybride Duennschicht-Solarzellen aus mesoporoesem Titandioxid und konjugierten Polymeren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schattauer, Sylvia

    2010-12-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to study the active components and their interactions in so called organic hybrid solar cells. These consist of a thin inorganic titanium dioxide layer, combined with a polymer layer. In general, the efficiency of these hybrid solar cells is determined by the light absorption in the donor polymer, the dissociation of excitons at the heterojunction between TiO{sub 2} and polymer, as well as the generation and extraction of free charge carriers. To optimize the solar cells, the physical interactions between the materials are modified and the influences of various preparation parameters are systematically investigated. Among others, important findings regarding the optimal use of materials and preparation conditions as well as detailed investigations of fundamental factors such as film morphology and polymer infiltration are presented in more detail. First, a variety of titanium dioxide layer were produced, from which a selection for use in hybrid solar cells was made. The obtained films show differences in surface structure, film morphology and crystallinity, depending on the way how the TiO{sub 2} layer has been prepared. All these properties of the TiO{sub 2} films may strongly affect the performance of the hybrid solar cells, by influencing e.g. the exciton diffusion length, the efficiency of exciton dissociation at the hybrid interface, and the carrier transport properties. Detailed investigations were made for mesoporous TiO{sub 2} layer following a new nanoparticle synthesis route, which allows to produce crystalline particles during the synthesis. As donor component, conjugated polymers, either derivatives of cyclohexylamino-poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) or a thiophene are used. The preparation routine also includes a thermal treatment of the TiO{sub 2} layers, revealing a temperature-dependent change in morphology, but not of the crystal structure. The effects on the solar cell properties have been documented and

  2. Photoelectrochemical Cell of Hybrid Regioregular POLY(3-HEXYLTHIOPHENE-2,5-DIYL) and Molybdenum Disulfide Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmola, Fatmaelzahraa M.; Ram, Manoj K.; Takshi, Arash; Stafanakos, Elias; Kumar, Ashok; Goswami, D. Yogi

    The photoelectrochemical cell attracts attention worldwide due to conversion of optical energy into electricity, production of hydrogen through water splitting and use in photodetector and photo-sensor applications. We have been working on the photochemical cell based on regioregular polyhexylthiophenes hybrid-structured films for photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic applications. This paper discusses the hybrid film studies on regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) with 2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) for photoelectrochemical cell. The hybrid P3HT/MoS2 films deposited over indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass plate or n-type silicon substrates were characterized using FTIR, UV/vis, electrochemical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The optical measurements showed a higher absorption magnitude with low reflection properties of P3HT/MoS2 hybrid films revealing a superior photocurrent compared to both P3HT and MoS2 films. The P3HT/MoS2 hybrid-based photoelectrochemical cell yielded a short-circuit current (Isc) of 183.16μAṡcm-2, open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.92V, fill factor (FF) of 25% and power conversion efficiency (η) of 0.18% under the light intensity of 242Wṡm-2. The estimated power conversion efficiency and fill factor are comparable to organic-based photovoltaic devices.

  3. Design of a superhydrophobic and superoleophilic film using cured fluoropolymer@silica hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Pi, Pihui; Yang, Zhuo-ru; Lu, Zhong; Chen, Rong

    2016-12-01

    Recently, considerable efforts have been made on superhydrophobic-superoleophilic filter to satisfy the requirements of the applications to oil/water separation. In this work, we obtained a superhydrophobic and superoleophilic film by coating cured fluoropolymer@silica hybrid on stainless steel mesh. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) were used to determine the chemical composition and thermal stability of the sample. The effect of silica nanoparticles (NPs) concentration on the surface property of the hybrid film was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle analyzer. The results indicate that silica NPs not only enhance the thermal stability, but also strengthen the hydrophobicity and oleophilicity of the film. When 20 wt% silica NPs was added into the thermosetting fluoropolymer, the hybrid film shows both superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity owing to the large surface roughness factor (RMS) and porous structure. Moreover, the hybrid film could be used to separate water from different oils effectively. When the pore size of the mesh is less than 300 μm, the oil/water separation efficiency of the film reaches above 99%, which shows a great potential application to dehydrate fuel oils.

  4. Enhanced dielectric performance in polymer composite films with carbon nanotube-reduced graphene oxide hybrid filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Young; Kim, TaeYoung; Suk, Ji Won; Chou, Harry; Jang, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Jong Ho; Kholmanov, Iskandar N; Akinwande, Deji; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2014-08-27

    The electrical conductivity and the specific surface area of conductive fillers in conductor-insulator composite films can drastically improve the dielectric performance of those films through changing their polarization density by interfacial polarization. We have made a polymer composite film with a hybrid conductive filler material made of carbon nanotubes grown onto reduced graphene oxide platelets (rG-O/CNT). We report the effect of the rG-O/CNT hybrid filler on the dielectric performance of the composite film. The composite film had a dielectric constant of 32 with a dielectric loss of 0.051 at 0.062 wt% rG-O/CNT filler and 100 Hz, while the neat polymer film gave a dielectric constant of 15 with a dielectric loss of 0.036. This is attributed to the increased electrical conductivity and specific surface area of the rG-O/CNT hybrid filler, which results in an increase in interfacial polarization density between the hybrid filler and the polymer.

  5. Controllable preparation of nanosized TiO2 thin film and relationship between structure of film and its photocatalytic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; Gang; (魏刚); ZHANG; Yuanjing; (张元晶); XIONG; Rongchun; (熊蓉春)

    2003-01-01

    TiO2 nano-crystalline film and fixed bed photocatalytic reactor were prepared by the sol-gel process using tetrabutylorthotitanate as a precursor and glass tube as the substrate. XRD, AFM, SEM and thickness analysis results indicate that the preparation of nano-crystalline film can be controlled by optimizing experiment process. Under the optimized process, the phase of TiO2 in film is anatase, and the grain size is 3-4 nm. The size of particles, which is about 20-80 nm, can be controlled. The thickness of monolayer film is in nanometer grade. The thickness and particles size in films growing on nanometer film can also be controlled in nanometer grade. As a result, the crack of film can be effectively avoided. Rhodamine B degradation results using UV-Vis spectrophotometer show that the activity of nano-crystalline film in the photocatalytic reactor has a good relation with the diameter of TiO2 particles, that is, the film shows high activity when the size is 20-30 nm and greatly reduced when the size is above 60 nm. The activity of film does not decrease with the increase of film thickness, and this result indicates that nano-crystalline film has no ill influence on the transmissivity of ultraviolet light.

  6. Preparing Students for Success in Hybrid Learning Environments with Academic Resource Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Daniel; Dickinson, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes institutional and andragogical best practices for preparing students to succeed in hybrid courses through the programming of academic resource centers, offers information on how to create peer support systems for students, and outlines some of the common pitfalls for students encountering a hybrid course for the first time.

  7. Thin-film preparation by back-surface irradiation pulsed laser deposition using metal powder targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Ohshima, Tamiko; Yagyu, Yoshihito; Ihara, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Makiko; Suda, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Several kinds of functional thin films were deposited using a new thin-film preparation method named the back-surface irradiation pulsed laser deposition (BIPLD) method. In this BIPLD method, powder targets were used as the film source placed on a transparent target holder, and then a visible-wavelength pulsed laser was irradiated from the holder side to the substrate. Using this new method, titanium oxide and boron nitride thin films were deposited on the silicon substrate. Surface scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images suggest that all of the thin films were deposited on the substrate with some large droplets irrespective of the kind of target used. The deposition rate of the films prepared by using this method was calculated from film thickness and deposition time to be much lower than that of the films prepared by conventional PLD. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement results suggest that rutile and anatase TiO2 crystal peaks were formed for the films prepared using the TiO2 rutile powder target. Crystal peaks of hexagonal boron nitride were observed for the films prepared using the boron nitride powder target. The crystallinity of the prepared films was changed by annealing after deposition.

  8. Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of hybrid amphiphiles with a polyoxometalate headgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Le; Wang, Yong-Liang; Miao, Wen-Ke; Hu, Min-Biao; Tang, Jing; Yu, Wei; Hou, Zhan-Yao; Zheng, Ping; Wang, Wei

    2013-06-04

    A hybrid was at first synthesized by a postfunctionalization of an aminomethane trisalkoxo-functionalized Anderson-type polyoxometalate (POM) encapsulated by three tetrabutylammonium ions using a 3,5-bis(tetradecyloxy)benzoic acid by amidation. Then the three TBA(+) counter cations were programmatically replaced by protons (H(+)) following a molecule-to-amphiphile conversion. In this way one hybrid and three POM-containing hybrid amphiphiles (PCHAs) were acquired by adjusting the number (n) of TBA(+) ions and number (3 - n) of H(+) ions (n = 3, 2, 1, and 0). These compounds can be spread onto a water surface to form a Langmuir monolayer film at the air-water interface. Surface pressure-molecular area measurements exhibit the TBA(+) (H(+)) number playing an important role in the forming ability and stability of Langmuir monolayer films. Also, the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique has been used to transfer the monolayer film onto solid supports to fabricate solid multilayer films. It was found that the PCHA with three H(+) ions had the best Langmuir film-forming ability and thus formed stable LB films with a two-dimensional ordered structure. Our findings are instructive in fabricating and using solid films of the amphiphiles with POM headgroups.

  9. Preparation and characterisation of novel thick sol-gel titania film photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Andrew; Elliott, Nicholas; Hill, George; Fallis, David; Durrant, James R; Willis, Richard L

    2003-05-01

    The preparation and characterization of thick (9 microns), clear, mechanically robust and photocatalytically active films of nanocrystalline anatase titania are described. XRD and SEM analysis show the films comprise 13 nm particles of anatase TiO2. Thin (54 nm) films of the 'paste' TiO2, along with sol-gel titania films made by a more traditional route are also prepared and characterised. All titania films mediate the photocatalytic destruction of stearic acid with a quantum yield of 0.0016 +/- 0.0003, using either 365 nm (i.e. BLB) or 254 nm (germicidal) light. P25 TiO2 films also appear to mediate the same process with a similar formal quantum efficiency. Of all the films tested, the thick paste TiO2 films are the most ideally suited for use with near UV light, for reasons which are discussed. All the titania films tested exhibit photoinduced superhydrophilicity.

  10. Hard X-rays for processing hybrid organic-inorganic thick films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Carboni, Davide; Pinna, Alessandra; Marmiroli, Benedetta; Malfatti, Luca; Innocenzi, Plinio

    2016-01-01

    Hard X-rays, deriving from a synchrotron light source, have been used as an effective tool for processing hybrid organic-inorganic films and thick coatings up to several micrometres. These coatings could be directly modified, in terms of composition and properties, by controlled exposure to X-rays. The physico-chemical properties of the coatings, such as hardness, refractive index and fluorescence, can be properly tuned using the interaction of hard X-rays with the sol-gel hybrid films. The changes in the microstructure have been correlated especially with the modification of the optical and the mechanical properties. A relationship between the degradation rate of the organic groups and the rise of fluorescence from the hybrid material has been observed; nanoindentation analysis of the coatings as a function of the X-ray doses has shown a not linear dependence between thickness and film hardness.

  11. Pure Cubic-Phase Hybrid Iodobismuthates AgBi2 I7 for Thin-Film Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghoon; Yang, Zhenyu; Jain, Ankit; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Liu, Min; Quan, Li Na; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Comin, Riccardo; Fan, James Z; Sargent, Edward H

    2016-08-08

    Bismuth-based hybrid perovskites are candidates for lead-free and air-stable photovoltaics, but poor surface morphologies and a high band-gap energy have previously limited these hybrid perovskites. A new materials processing strategy to produce enhanced bismuth-based thin-film photovoltaic absorbers by incorporation of monovalent silver cations into iodobismuthates is presented. Solution-processed AgBi2 I7 thin films are prepared by spin-coating silver and bismuth precursors dissolved in n-butylamine and annealing under an N2 atmosphere. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the pure cubic structure (Fd3m) with lattice parameters of a=b=c=12.223 Å. The resultant AgBi2 I7 thin films exhibit dense and pinhole-free surface morphologies with grains ranging in size from 200-800 nm and a low band gap of 1.87 eV suitable for photovoltaic applications. Initial studies produce solar power conversion efficiencies of 1.22 % and excellent stability over at least 10 days under ambient conditions.

  12. Nonwettable Thin Films from Hybrid Polymer Brushes can be Hydrophilic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-30

    2006 Hybrid brushes composed of two liquid polymers, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and a highly branched ethoxylated polyethylenimine (EPEI), were...liquid polymers, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and a highly branched ethoxylated polyethylenimine (EPEI; Figure 1). We demonstrate here that hybrid... ethoxylated (highly branched, symmetrical polymer; about 80% of the primary and secondary amines are ethoxylated ), 37% solution in water (EPEI Mw

  13. Preparation and characterization of functional silica hybrid magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digigow, Reinaldo G.; Dechézelles, Jean-François; Dietsch, Hervé; Geissbühler, Isabelle; Vanhecke, Dimitri; Geers, Christoph; Hirt, Ann M.; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Petri-Fink, Alke

    2014-08-01

    We report on the synthesis and characterization of functional silica hybrid magnetic nanoparticles (SHMNPs). The co-condensation of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in presence of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) leads to hybrid magnetic silica particles that are surface-functionalized with primary amino groups. In this work, a comprehensive synthetic study is carried out and completed by a detailed characterization of hybrid particles' size and morphology, surface properties, and magnetic responses using different techniques. Depending on the mass ratio of SPIONs and the two silanes (TEOS and APTES), we were able to adjust the number of surface amino groups and tune the magnetic properties of the superparamagnetic hybrid particles.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of InAs/Si Composite Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lin; LI Guang-Hai; ZHENG Mao-Jun; ZHANG Li-De

    2000-01-01

    Composite thin films consisting of nanosized InAs particles embedded in amorphous Si matrices were prepared by radio frequency co-sputtering of InAs and Si. X-ray diffraction spectra show that the particle size of InAs increases with the increasing annealing temperature, while the particle sizes of In and As reach their maximum values at the temperature of 200℃, and decrease with the further increase of the annealing temperature. In and As can not exist in the 500℃ sample due to the sublimation of In and As and the reaction In+As→InAs. The composition of the film in different levels was analyzed. We found that only in the deep level, the mole contents of As and In conform to the stoichiometric ratio and the oxidation occurs only a few nanometers from the surface. We believe that the scarcity of In and As near the surface is due to the sublimation of In and the oxide of As.

  15. Optical and electrical properties of electrochemically deposited polyaniline/CeO2 hybrid nanocomposite film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anees A. Ansari; M. A. M. Khan; M. Naziruddin Khan; Salman A. Alrokayan; M. Alhoshan; M. S. Alsalhi

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the optical and electrical properties of electrochemically deposited polyaniline (PANI)/cerium oxide (CeO2) hybrid nano-composite film onto indium-fin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate. UV-visible spectroscopy and I-V characteristic were performed to study the optical and electrical parameters of the electrochemically deposited film. The film exhibited a strong absorption below 400 nm (3.10 eV) with a well defined absorbance peak at around 285 nm (4.35 eV). The estimated band gap of the CeO2 sample was 3.44 eV, higher than bulk CeO2 powder (Eg = 3.19 eV) due to the quantum confinement effect. Optical and electrochemical characteristics indicated that the electrical properties of PANI/CeO2 hybrid nanocomposite film are dominated by PANI doping.

  16. Flexible field emission of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes/reduced graphene hybrid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duck Hyun; Lee, Jin Ah; Lee, Won Jong; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2011-01-03

    The outstanding flexible field emission properties of carbon hybrid films made of vertically aligned N-doped carbon nanotubes grown on mechanically compliant reduced graphene films are demonstrated. The bottom-reduced graphene film substrate enables the conformal coating of the hybrid film on flexible device geometry and ensures robust mechanical and electrical contact even in a highly deformed state. The field emission properties are precisely examined in terms of the control of the bending radius, the N-doping level, and the length or wall-number of the carbon nanotubes and analyzed with electric field simulations. This high-performance flexible carbon field emitter is potentially useful for diverse, flexible field emission devices.

  17. Structure and Magnetic Properties of Fe-N Films Prepared by Dual Ion Beam Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸葛兰剑; 吴雪梅; 汤乃云; 叶春兰; 姚伟国

    2001-01-01

    Fe-N films were prepared on Si substrate by dual ion beam sputtering (DIBS). It is of the films were investigated by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The structure of the films is insensitive to the ratios of N2/Ar in main ion source(MIS), and is mainly influenced by the substrate temperature (Ts).``

  18. Preparation and characterization of silk/silica hybrid biomaterials by sol-gel crosslinking process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Aiqin, E-mail: aiqinhou@dhu.edu.c [National Engineering Research Center for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Donghua University, 3H, 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China); Chen Huawei [National Engineering Research Center for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Donghua University, 3H, 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2010-03-15

    The silk/silica hybrid biomaterials are synthesized by sol-gel crosslinking process. The chemical and morphological structures of silk/silica hybrids are investigated with micro-FT-IR spectra, X-ray diffraction, SEM, AFM, and DSC. The results show that the crosslinking reactions among inorganic nano-particles, fibroin and 2,4,6-tri[(2-epihydrin-3-bimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-EBAC) take place during sol-gel process. The silk/silica hybrids form new molecular structures containing not only organic fibroin but also inorganic nano-silica particles. The inorganic particles are bounded to the fibroin through covalent bonds. The silk/silica hybrids can form excellent film with very even nanometer particles. The thermal properties of organic/inorganic hybrid are improved.

  19. Facile approach to prepare Pt decorated SWNT/graphene hybrid catalytic ink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayavan, Sundar, E-mail: sundarmayavan@cecri.res.in [Centre for Innovation in Energy Research, CSIR–Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Mandalam, Aditya; Balasubramanian, M. [Centre for Innovation in Energy Research, CSIR–Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006, Tamil Nadu (India); Sim, Jun-Bo [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sung-Min, E-mail: sungmin@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Pt NPs were in situ synthesized onto CNT–graphene support in aqueous solution. • The as-prepared material was used directly as a catalyst ink without further treatment. • Catalyst ink is active toward methanol oxidation. • This approach realizes both scalable and greener production of hybrid catalysts. - Abstract: Platinum nanoparticles were in situ synthesized onto hybrid support involving graphene and single walled carbon nanotube in aqueous solution. We investigate the reduction of graphene oxide, and platinum nanoparticle functionalization on hybrid support by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The as-prepared platinum on hybrid support was used directly as a catalyst ink without further treatment and is active toward methanol oxidation. This work realizes both scalable and greener production of highly efficient hybrid catalysts, and would be valuable for practical applications of graphene based fuel cell catalysts.

  20. Hybrid Perovskite Thin-Film Photovoltaics: In Situ Diagnostics and Importance of the Precursor Solvate Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Rahim; Sheikh, Arif D; Abdelsamie, Maged; Hu, Hanlin; Yu, Liyang; Zhao, Kui; Kim, Taesoo; Tall, Omar El; Li, Ruipeng; Smilgies, Detlef-M; Amassian, Aram

    2017-01-01

    Solution-processed hybrid perovskite semiconductors attract a great deal of attention, but little is known about their formation process. The one-step spin-coating process of perovskites is investigated in situ, revealing that thin-film formation is mediated by solid-state precursor solvates and their nature. The stability of these intermediate phases directly impacts the quality and reproducibility of thermally converted perovskite films and their photovoltaic performance.

  1. Hybrid Perovskite Thin-Film Photovoltaics: In Situ Diagnostics and Importance of the Precursor Solvate Phases

    KAUST Repository

    Munir, Rahim

    2016-11-07

    Solution-processed hybrid perovskite semiconductors attract a great deal of attention, but little is known about their formation process. The one-step spin-coating process of perovskites is investigated in situ, revealing that thin-film formation is mediated by solid-state precursor solvates and their nature. The stability of these intermediate phases directly impacts the quality and reproducibility of thermally converted perovskite films and their photovoltaic performance.

  2. Facile room temperature deposition of gold nanoparticle-ionic liquid hybrid film on silica substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, S.; Reddy, D. Harikishore Kumar; Sankar, G.; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2017-01-01

    This work presents facile synthesis of gold nanoparticle (Au NP)-ionic liquid hybrid film of synthesis, and even coating on Si (111) substrate. XRD, XPS, and XAS spectral data confirm the presence of Au(0) while EXAFS data indicated the presence of small particles or incomplete surface species. Cross-sectional analysis using FE-SEM and edge length measurement using AFM showed that the film thickness is ca 10 nm.

  3. Preparation and properties of plasma-polymerized thiophene (PPT) conducting films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadhir, R.K. (Westinghouse Science and Tech. Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Schoch, K.F. Jr. (Westinghouse Science and Tech. Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

    1993-01-15

    This paper presents, for the first time, conducting films of polythiophene prepared by plasma-polymerization. In this technique, ionized argon is the initiating species for the polymerization of thiophene in a region away from the high RF flux-density. These films displayed a conductivity of 1.8 x 10[sup -4] S cm[sup -1] after doping with iodine. The surface morphology of the films deposited away from the high RF flux-density region showed topology similar to the films prepared by electrochemical methods. The films deposited near the high RF flux-density region showed a platelet structure. (orig.)

  4. Composition, XRD and morphology study of laser prepared LiNbO3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, M.; Havránek, V.; Remsa, J.; Kocourek, T.; Vincze, A.; Bruncko, J.; Studnička, V.; Rubešová, K.

    2013-03-01

    LiNbO3 films were deposited by PLD from LiNbO3 crystalline or from three different stoichiometric or Li-enriched LiNbO3 targets. Polycrystalline films were prepared on SiO2/Si or sapphire substrates at temperatures T S ˜650-750 °C. Main attention was paid to the influence of targets preparation and the deposition conditions on films composition, morphology and crystallinity. The thin-film morphology was determined by SEM microscopy. The composition was measured by SIMS, RBS, PIXE and PIGE methods. Highly oriented, smooth and stoichiometric LiNbO3 films were synthesized.

  5. Preparation and characterization of collagen/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) blend film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cuicui; Zhang, Min; Li, Guoying

    2015-03-30

    This study aimed to prepare and characterize the collagen/HPMC blend film (1/1). Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were used to investigate the thermal properties of the film. Both thermal decomposition temperature and denaturation temperature of the blend film were higher than those of the collagen film due to the intermolecular hydrogen bonding interaction between collagen and HPMC, which was demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Additionally, the morphologies, mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of films were examined. The blend film exhibited a more homogeneous and compact structure compared with that of the collagen film, as observed from scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The tensile strength, ultimate elongation and hydrophilicity of the blend film were superior to those of the pure collagen film. Furthermore, the introduction of polyethylene glycol 1500 had almost no influence on the thermal properties of the blend film but obviously improved its stretch-ability and smoothness.

  6. Superhydrophilicity-assisted preparation of transparent and visible light activated N-doped titania film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing Chi; Wellia, Diana V; Amal, Rose; Liao, Dai Wei; Loo, Say Chye Joachim; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2010-07-01

    A novel and environmental friendly method was developed to prepare transparent, uniform, crack-free and visible light activated nitrogen doped (N-doped) titania thin films without the use of organic Ti precursors and organic solvents. The N-doped titania films were prepared from heating aqueous peroxotitanate thin films deposited uniformly on superhydrophilic uncoated glass substrates. The pure glass substrates were superhydrophilic after being heated at 500 degrees C for 1 h. Nitrogen concentrations in the titania films were adjusted by changing the amount of ammonia solution. The optimal photocatalytic activity of the N-doped titania films was about 14 times higher than that of a commercial self-cleaning glass under the same visible light illumination. The current reported preparative technique is generally applicable for the preparation of other thin films.

  7. Superhydrophilicity-assisted preparation of transparent and visible light activated N-doped titania film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing Chi; Wellia, Diana V.; Amal, Rose; Liao, Dai Wei; Loo, Say Chye Joachim; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2010-07-01

    A novel and environmental friendly method was developed to prepare transparent, uniform, crack-free and visible light activated nitrogen doped (N-doped) titania thin films without the use of organic Ti precursors and organic solvents. The N-doped titania films were prepared from heating aqueous peroxotitanate thin films deposited uniformly on superhydrophilic uncoated glass substrates. The pure glass substrates were superhydrophilic after being heated at 500 °C for 1 h. Nitrogen concentrations in the titania films were adjusted by changing the amount of ammonia solution. The optimal photocatalytic activity of the N-doped titania films was about 14 times higher than that of a commercial self-cleaning glass under the same visible light illumination. The current reported preparative technique is generally applicable for the preparation of other thin films.

  8. Preparation of a hydrophobic polythiophene film to improve protein adsorption and proliferation of PC 12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da-Feng; Wang, Hua-Jie; Fu, Jian-Xi; Wang, Wei; Jia, Xue-Shun; Wang, Jin-Ye

    2008-12-25

    High quality films of polythiophene with different alkyl side chains were successfully synthesized by a novel method in the presence of sodium dodecylbenzenesulonate (SDBS) under N2 atmosphere on the PTFE (polytetrafluorethylene) substrate. The as-prepared films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), conductivity measurement, and water contact angle measurement. The morphologies of the films were homogeneous with micro-/nanostructures, and their conductivities were high enough for biomedical applications. Hydrophobicity of the films could be adjusted easily by inducing alkyl side chains with different length, which could control protein adsorption in succession. Hydrophobic polythiophene film with a long alkyl side chain had a higher ability of protein adsorption and PC 12 cell proliferation. The biocompatibility study of the synthesized films in vitro proved that the synthesized films were not cytotoxic to two cell lines used and could support cell attachment and proliferation well. Polythiophenes films prepared by in-situ deposition will be good candidates for biomedical applications.

  9. Tuning of Ag-SPR band position in refractive index controlled inorganic-organic hybrid SiO2-PEO-TiO2 films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samar Kumar Medda; Moumita Mitra; Goutam De

    2008-11-01

    Inorganic (silica-titania)-organic (polyethylene oxide) hybrid films with variable refractive index (RI) values were synthesized and Ag nanoparticles were generated in situ inside such hybrid films to develop coloured coatings specially on plastic substrates. The hybrid films and the corresponding Agincorporated films were prepared from sols derived from a mixture of silicon tetraethoxide (STE), 3-(glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPTMS), titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and silver nitrate following a sol-gel dip-coating method and cured at low temperature (90°C), followed by UV treatment with an energy equivalent to 5.3 ± 0.1 J cm-2. The equivalent SiO2: SiO1.5(CH2)3OCH2CH(CH2)O : TiO2: Ag molar ratios (nominal) of the final cured films are varied in the ranges (67.9-0) : 29.1 : (0-67.9) : 3. The refractive index values of the cured hybrid films were found to be increased systematically from 1.475 to 1.710 with increasing Ti-component. The Ag-SPR peak, in case of silica-polyethylene oxide host (RI = 1.475), observed at 419 nm, gradually red-shifted to 497 nm upon increasing the Ticomponent (equivalent TiO2 content 67.9 mol%; RI = 1.710) of the film. As a consequence, a systematic change of Ag-SPR position yielded yellow, yellowish-orange, orange, brownish-orange and orangish-brown coloured coatings.

  10. Preparation and properties of GaN films on Si(111) substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莺歌; 马洪磊; 郝晓涛; 马瑾; 薛成山; 庄惠照

    2003-01-01

    High-quality gallium nitride (GaN) films were prepared on Si(111) substrates by sputtering post-annealing-reaction technique. XRD, XPS, and SEM measurement results indicate that polycrystalline GaN with hexagonal structure was successfully prepared. Intense room- temperature photoluminescence that peaked at 354 nm of the films is observed. The bandgap of these films has a blueshift with respect to bulk GaN.

  11. Architectured morphologies of chemically prepared NiO/MWCNTs nanohybrid thin films for high performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gund, Girish S; Dubal, Deepak P; Shinde, Sujata S; Lokhande, Chandrakant D

    2014-03-12

    The preparation of nanostructured metal oxide decorated on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanohybrid films through simple, scalable, additive-free, binderless, and cost-effective route has fascinated significant attention not only in fundamental research areas but also its commercial applications, in order to reduce the growing environmental pollution and the cost of electrode fabrication. Here, we report the fabrication of highly flexible electrode with NiO/MWCNTs nanohybrid thin films directly on stainless steel substrate using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The impact of ratio of adsorption and reaction cycles on structural, surface areas and electrochemical properties of NiO/MWCNTs nanohybrids was investigated. X-ray diffraction measurements confirm the hybridization and face centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure of NiO in NiO/MWCNTs nanohybrids. In addition, these nanohybrids exhibit excellent surface properties such as uniform surface morphology, good surface area, pore volume, and uniform pore size distribution. The electrochemical tests demonstrate the highest specific capacitance of 1727 F g(-1) at 5 mA cm(-2) of current density with 91% capacitance retention after 2000 cycles. In addition, the Ragone plot confirms the better power and energy densities for all NiO/MWCNTs nanohybrids. The attractive electrochemical capacitive activity revealed by NiO/MWCNTs nanohybrid electrode proposes that it is an auspicious respondent for future energy storage application.

  12. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of porogens for the preparation of ultralow-dielectric-constant films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toney, Michael F

    2003-06-20

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction of a CO{sub 2}-soluble poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) porogen from poly(methylsilsesquioxane) (PMSSQ) cured to temperatures adequate to initiate matrix condensation, but still below the decomposition temperature of the porogen is demonstrated to produce nanoporous, ultralow dielectric constant thin films. Both closed and open cell porous structures were prepared simply by varying the porogen load in the organic/inorganic hybrid films. The porogen loads investigated in the present work ranged from 25-55 wt.%. Structural characterization of the samples conducted using transmission electron microscope (TEM), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirms the successful extraction of the porogen from the PMSSQ matrix at relatively low temperatures ({le} 200 C). The standard thermal decomposition process is performed at much higher temperatures (typically in the range of 400 C-450 C). The values of dielectric constants and refractive indices measured are in good agreement with the structural properties of these samples.

  13. The preparation, processing and properties of thin and thick films for microelectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, B. G.; Greene, L. H.; Barboux, P.; Tarascon, J. M.; Venkatesan, T.

    High-Tc thin and thick films of YBa2Cu2O(7-y) and thick films based on the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu and Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu systems were prepared and their properties investigated. It was found that YB2Cu3O(7-y) thin films prepared at temperatures up to 400 C, have amorphous structures, and those prepared in the 400-650 C region exhibit polyphase microstructure, due to the rapid crystallization kinetics of the competing phases. Methods for bipassing the 'forbidden' temperature region are described. Preparation of YBa2Cu2O(7-y) thick films was achieved via an aqueous sol-gel technique. Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu- and Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-based thick films were prepared via the decomposition of glycerol-based solutions containing nitrates of the elements.

  14. Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiban, L; Hartmann, L; Fiore, A; Djurado, D; Chandezon, F; Reiss, P; Legrand, J-F; Doyle, S; Brinkmann, M; Ersen, O

    2012-11-21

    Highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid thin films made of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and colloidal CdSe nanocrystals are prepared by a zone melting method using epitaxial growth on 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene oriented crystals. The structure of the films has been analyzed by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation, electron diffraction and 3D electron tomography to afford a multi-scale structural and morphological description of the highly structured hybrid films. A quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volumes based on electron tomography is used to establish a 3D map of the distribution of the CdSe nanocrystals in the bulk of the films. In particular, the influence of the P3HT-CdSe ratio on the 3D structure of the hybrid layers has been analyzed. In all cases, a bi-layer structure was observed. It is made of a first layer of pure oriented semi-crystalline P3HT grown epitaxially on the TCB substrate and a second P3HT layer containing CdSe nanocrystals uniformly distributed in the amorphous interlamellar zones of the polymer. The thickness of the P3HT layer containing CdSe nanoparticles increases gradually with increasing content of NCs in the films. A growth model is proposed to explain this original transversal organization of CdSe NCs in the oriented matrix of P3HT.

  15. Organic/Inorganic Nano-hybrids with High Dielectric Constant for Organic Thin Film Transistor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang-Yen; Jiang, Ai-Hua; Lee, Wen-Ya

    2016-11-01

    The organic material soluble polyimide (PI) and organic-inorganic hybrid PI-barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticle dielectric materials (IBX, where X is the concentration of BaTiO3 nanoparticles in a PI matrix) were successfully synthesized through a sol-gel process. The effects of various BaTiO3 contents on the hybrid film performance and performance optimization were investigated. Furthermore, pentacene-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) with PI-BaTiO3/polymethylmethacrylate or cyclic olefin copolymer (COC)-modified gate dielectrics were fabricated and examined. The hybrid materials showed effective dispersion of BaTiO3 nanoparticles in the PI matrix and favorable thermal properties. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the BaTiO3 nanoparticles had a perovskite structure. The hybrid films exhibited high formability and planarity. The IBX hybrid dielectric films exhibited tunable insulating properties such as the dielectric constant value and capacitance in ranges of 4.0-8.6 and 9.2-17.5 nF cm-2, respectively. Adding the modified layer caused the decrease of dielectric constant values and capacitances. The modified dielectric layer without cross-linking displayed a hydrophobic surface. The electrical characteristics of the pentacene-based OTFTs were enhanced after the surface modification. The optimal condition for the dielectric layer was 10 wt% hybrid film with the COC-modified layer; moreover, the device exhibited a threshold voltage of 0.12 V, field-effect mobility of 4.32 × 10-1 cm2 V-1 s-1, and on/off current of 8.4 × 107.

  16. SEM evaluation of the hybrid layer after cavity preparation with Er:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barceleiro, Marcos Oliveira; Dias, Kátia Regina Hostílio Cervantes; Sales, Helena Xavier; Silva, Bárbara Carvalho; Barceleiro, Cristiane Gomes

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the thickness of the hybrid layer formed using Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus, Single Bond 2, Prime & Bond 2.1 and Xeno III on a dentin surface prepared with a diamond bur in a high speed handpiece or prepared with an Er:YAG laser used with two parameters of pulse energy (200 and 400 mJ) and two parameters of frequency (4 and 6 Hz). Flat dentin surfaces obtained from 20 human third molars were treated with the two methods and were then prepared with the dentin adhesive systems according to the manufacturers' instructions. After a layer of composite was applied, the specimens were sectioned, flattened, polished and prepared for Scanning Electronic Microscopy observation. Five different measurements of the hybrid layer thickness were obtained along the bonded surface in each specimen. The results were statistically analyzed using Analysis of Variance and Student-Newman-Keuls tests (p cavity preparation method, four groups were formed: Group I (diamond bur) > Group II (Laser 200 mJ/4 Hz) = Group III (Laser 200 mJ/6 Hz) > Group IV (Laser 400 mJ/4 Hz) > Group V (Laser 400 mJ/6 Hz). When comparing the dentin adhesive systems, there were no statistically significant differences. These results showed that the four tested dentin adhesive systems produced a 2.90 +/- 1.71 microm hybrid layer in dentin prepared with a diamond bur. This hybrid layer was regular and routinely found. In the laser groups, the dentin adhesive systems produced hybrid layers ranging from 0.41 +/- 1.00 microm to 2.06 +/- 2.49 microm, which were very irregular and not routinely found. It was also concluded that the Er:YAG laser, with the parameters used in this experiment, has a negative influence on the formation of a hybrid layer and cavity preparation methods influence formation of the hybrid layer.

  17. Characterisation of Pb thin films prepared by the nanosecond pulsed laser deposition technique for photocathode application

    OpenAIRE

    Lorusso, Antonella; Gontad, F.; Broitman, Esteban; Chiadroni, E.; Perrone, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Pb thin films were prepared by the nanosecond pulsed laser deposition technique on Si (100) and polycrystalline Nb substrates for photocathode application. As the photoemission performances of a cathode are strongly affected by its surface characteristics, the Pb films were grown at different substrate temperatures with the aim of modifying the morphology and structure of thin films. An evident morphological modification in the deposited films with the formation of spherical grains at higher ...

  18. Preparation and adsorption properties of nano magnetite chitosan films for heavy metal ions from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasheen, M.R., E-mail: ragaei24@link.net [Water Pollution Research Department, Environmental Research Division, National Research Centre, 33-El Buhoth St., Dokki, Cairo, 12311 (Egypt); El-Sherif, Iman Y., E-mail: iman57us@yahoo.com [Water Pollution Research Department, Environmental Research Division, National Research Centre, 33-El Buhoth St., Dokki, Cairo, 12311 (Egypt); Tawfik, Magda E., E-mail: magdaemileta@yahoo.com [Polymers and Pigments Department, National Research Centre, 33-El Buhoth St., Dokki, Cairo, 12311 (Egypt); El-Wakeel, S.T., E-mail: shaimaa_tw@yahoo.com [Water Pollution Research Department, Environmental Research Division, National Research Centre, 33-El Buhoth St., Dokki, Cairo, 12311 (Egypt); El-Shahat, M.F., E-mail: elshahatmf@hotmail.com [Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Khalifa El-Maamon St., Abbasiya Sq., 11566, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Nano magnetite–chitosan films were prepared by casting method. • The efficiency of the prepared films for removing heavy metals was investigated. • The adsorption mechanism was studied using different isotherm and kinetic models. • Films reuse and metals recovery were studied. - Abstract: Nano magnetite chitosan (NMag–CS) film was prepared and characterized with different analytical methods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the formation of a pure magnetite structure and NMag–CS nanocomposite. TEM image of the film, revealed the uniform dispersion of magnetite nanoparticles inside chitosan matrix. The adsorption properties of the prepared film for copper, lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel metal ions were evaluated. Different factors affecting the uptake behavior by the composite films such as time, initial pH and film dose were investigated. The adsorption equilibrium attained using 2 g/L of the film after 120 min of reaction. The equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich models. The adsorption kinetics followed the mechanism of the pseudo-second-order equation for all metals. The metals regenerated from films with an efficiency greater than 95% using 0.1 M ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) and films were successfully reused for adsorption.

  19. MgB2 ultrathin films fabricated by hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition and ion milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Narendra; Wolak, Matthäus A.; Tan, Teng; Lee, Namhoon; Lang, Andrew C.; Taheri, Mitra; Cunnane, Dan; Karasik, Boris. S.; Xi, X. X.

    2016-08-01

    In this letter, we report on the structural and transport measurements of ultrathin MgB2 films grown by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition followed by low incident angle Ar ion milling. The ultrathin films as thin as 1.8 nm, or 6 unit cells, exhibit excellent superconducting properties such as high critical temperature (Tc) and high critical current density (Jc). The results show the great potential of these ultrathin films for superconducting devices and present a possibility to explore superconductivity in MgB2 at the 2D limit.

  20. MgB2 ultrathin films fabricated by hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition and ion milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Acharya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we report on the structural and transport measurements of ultrathin MgB2 films grown by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition followed by low incident angle Ar ion milling. The ultrathin films as thin as 1.8 nm, or 6 unit cells, exhibit excellent superconducting properties such as high critical temperature (Tc and high critical current density (Jc. The results show the great potential of these ultrathin films for superconducting devices and present a possibility to explore superconductivity in MgB2 at the 2D limit.

  1. Preparation of mesoporous silica thin films by photocalcination method and their adsorption abilities for various proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Katsuya; Nakamura, Hitomi; Yamauchi, Yoshihiro; Nakanishi, Kazuma; Tomita, Masahiro

    2014-07-01

    Mesoporous silica (MPS) thin film biosensor platforms were established. MPS thin films were prepared from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) via using sol-gel and spin-coating methods using a poly-(ethylene oxide)-block-poly-(propylene oxide)-block-poly-(ethylene oxide) triblock polymer, such as P123 ((EO)20(PO)70(EO)20) or F127 ((EO)106(PO)70(EO)106), as the structure-directing agent. The MPS thin film prepared using P123 as the mesoporous template and treated via vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation to remove the triblock copolymer had a more uniform pore array than that of the corresponding film prepared via thermal treatment. Protein adsorption and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on the synthesized MPS thin films were also investigated. VUV-irradiated MPS thin films adsorbed a smaller quantity of protein A than the thermally treated films; however, the human immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding efficiency was higher on the former. In addition, protein A-IgG specific binding on MPS thin films was achieved without using a blocking reagent; i.e., nonspecific adsorption was inhibited by the uniform pore arrays of the films. Furthermore, VUV-irradiated MPS thin films exhibited high sensitivity for ELISA testing, and cytochrome c adsorbed on the MPS thin films exhibited high catalytic activity and recyclability. These results suggest that MPS thin films are attractive platforms for the development of novel biosensors.

  2. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of graphene/polymer hybrid thin films as supercapacitors: Physical-chemical interfacial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sanju, E-mail: sanju.gupta@wku.edu; Price, Carson [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Blvd., Bowling Green, KY 42101-3576 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Hybrid electrode comprising an electric double-layer capacitor of graphene nanosheets and a pseudocapacitor of the electrically conducting polymers namely, polyaniline; PAni and polypyrrole; PPy are constructed that exhibited synergistic effect with excellent electrochemical performance as thin film supercapacitors for alternative energy. The hybrid supercapacitors were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly based on controlled electrochemical polymerization followed by reduction of graphene oxide electrochemically producing ErGO, for establishing intimate electronic contact through nanoscale architecture and chemical stability, producing a single bilayer of (PAni/ErGO){sub 1}, (PPy/ErGO){sub 1}, (PAni/GO){sub 1} and (PPy/GO){sub 1}. The rationale design is to create thin films that possess interconnected graphene nanosheets (GNS) with polymer nanostructures forming well-defined tailored interfaces allowing sufficient surface adsorption and faster ion transport due to short diffusion distances. We investigated their electrochemical properties and performance in terms of gravimetric specific capacitance, C{sub s}, from cyclic voltammograms. The LbL-assembled bilayer films exhibited an excellent C{sub s} of ≥350 F g{sup −1} as compared with constituents (∼70 F g{sup −1}) at discharge current density of 0.3 A g{sup −1} that outperformed many other hybrid supercapacitors. To gain deeper insights into the physical-chemical interfacial processes occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interface that govern their operation, we have used scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) technique in feedback and probe approach modes. We present our findings from viewpoint of reinforcing the role played by heterogeneous electrode surface composed of nanoscale graphene sheets (conducting) and conducting polymers (semiconducting) backbone with ordered polymer chains via higher/lower probe current distribution maps. Also targeted is SECM imaging that allowed to determine

  3. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of graphene/polymer hybrid thin films as supercapacitors: Physical-chemical interfacial processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanju Gupta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electrode comprising an electric double-layer capacitor of graphene nanosheets and a pseudocapacitor of the electrically conducting polymers namely, polyaniline; PAni and polypyrrole; PPy are constructed that exhibited synergistic effect with excellent electrochemical performance as thin film supercapacitors for alternative energy. The hybrid supercapacitors were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL assembly based on controlled electrochemical polymerization followed by reduction of graphene oxide electrochemically producing ErGO, for establishing intimate electronic contact through nanoscale architecture and chemical stability, producing a single bilayer of (PAni/ErGO1, (PPy/ErGO1, (PAni/GO1 and (PPy/GO1. The rationale design is to create thin films that possess interconnected graphene nanosheets (GNS with polymer nanostructures forming well-defined tailored interfaces allowing sufficient surface adsorption and faster ion transport due to short diffusion distances. We investigated their electrochemical properties and performance in terms of gravimetric specific capacitance, Cs, from cyclic voltammograms. The LbL-assembled bilayer films exhibited an excellent Cs of ≥350 F g−1 as compared with constituents (∼70 F g−1 at discharge current density of 0.3 A g−1 that outperformed many other hybrid supercapacitors. To gain deeper insights into the physical-chemical interfacial processes occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interface that govern their operation, we have used scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM technique in feedback and probe approach modes. We present our findings from viewpoint of reinforcing the role played by heterogeneous electrode surface composed of nanoscale graphene sheets (conducting and conducting polymers (semiconducting backbone with ordered polymer chains via higher/lower probe current distribution maps. Also targeted is SECM imaging that allowed to determine electrochemical (reactivity of surface ion

  4. Sporocidic properties of poly(vinyl alcohol)/silver nanoparticles/TEOS thin hybrid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencheva, Daniela; Bryaskova, Rayna; Lad, Umesh; Kale, Girish M; Kantardjiev, T

    2012-06-01

    The sporocidic activity of hybrid materials based on PVA/AgNps/TEOS thin films has been investigated. Deep Agar Method has been applied to study the sporocidic properties of these hybrid materials with different silver concentrations. This method has been used because of the lack of standard methods for testing the sporocidic activity in such materials and due to the specific characteristics of bacterial spore. Clear and pronounced presence of sporocidic activity of the hybrid materials towards spores of control strains Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 has been established. The use of chromatographic paper disks impregnated with PVA/AgNps/TEOS showed the advantages in testing the biological properties of the hybrid material in comparison to the disks obtained by directly cutting the PVA/AgNps/TEOS films. The highest sporocidic activity, although with small deviation of 0.5-1.0 mm, was established at the PVA/AgNps/TEOS hybrid films with concentration of silver precursor 9.2 mg/mL and 18.3 mg/mL. The experiments were performed with the aim to reveal the opportunities for a practical application of the material.

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Keratin Blended Films using Biopolymers for Drug Controlled Release Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansaya Thonpho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Keratin solution was separately blended with collagen, gelatin, sericin and starch for films preparation. All the blended films had smooth surfaces without phase separation, except the keratin/starch blend film. The native keratin film showed small particles embedded in all the film surfaces that resulted in them being rough. The structure of the native keratin film changed from beta-sheet to random coil at high blend ratio of other substances. This result increased the dissolution of the films especially the keratin/starch blend. The results relate directly to the decreased thermal stability of this film. However, the changes in structure did not affect the chlorhexidine release pattern. It is possible that the interaction between the drug and blending substances, and the substances to water molecules are the main factor influencing the drug release pattern from the films.

  6. Preparation and Properties of Silver Nanowire-Based Transparent Conductive Composite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ji-Li; Zhang, Hua-Yu; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanowire-based transparent conductive composite films with different structures were successfully prepared using various methods, including liquid polyol, magnetron sputtering and spin coating. The experimental results revealed that the optical transmittance of all different structural composite films decreased slightly (1-3%) compared to pure films. However, the electrical conductivity of all composite films had a great improvement. Under the condition that the optical transmittance was greater than 78% over the wavelength range of 400-800 nm, the AgNW/PVA/AgNW film became a conductor, while the AZO/AgNW/AZO film and the ITO/AgNW/ITO film showed 88.9% and 94% reductions, respectively, for the sheet resistance compared with pure films. In addition, applying a suitable mechanical pressure can improve the conductivity of AgNW-based composite films.

  7. Photothermally Activated Pyroelectric Polymer Films for Harvesting of Solar Heat with a Hybrid Energy Cell Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Teahoon; Na, Jongbeom; Kim, Byeonggwan; Kim, Younghoon; Shin, Haijin; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2015-12-22

    Photothermal effects in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)s (PEDOTs) were explored for pyroelectric conversion. A poled ferroelectric film was coated on both sides with PEDOT via solution casting polymerization of EDOT, to give highly conductive and effective photothermal thin films of PEDOT. The PEDOT films not only provided heat source upon light exposure but worked as electrodes for the output energy from the pyroelectric layer in an energy harvester hybridized with a thermoelectric layer. Compared to a bare thermoelectric system under NIR irradiation, the photothermal-pyro-thermoelectric device showed more than 6 times higher thermoelectric output with the additional pyroelectric output. The photothermally driven pyroelectric harvesting film provided a very fast electric output with a high voltage output (Vout) of 15 V. The pyroelectric effect was significant due to the transparent and high photothermal PEDOT film, which could also work as an electrode. A hybrid energy harvester was assembled to enhance photoconversion efficiency (PCE) of a solar cell with a thermoelectric device operated by the photothermally generated heat. The PCE was increased more than 20% under sunlight irradiation (AM 1.5G) utilizing the transmitted light through the photovoltaic cell as a heat source that was converted into pyroelectric and thermoelectric output simultaneously from the high photothermal PEDOT electrodes. Overall, this work provides a dynamic and static hybrid energy cell to harvest solar energy in full spectral range and thermal energy, to allow solar powered switching of an electrochromic display.

  8. Plasmon hybridization in silver nanoislands as semishell arrays coupled to a thin metallic film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaroof, Abbas; Nygaard, Jens Vinge; Sutherland, Duncan S

    2011-01-01

    interactions for such a nanosystem exhibits two pronounced resonances and interpret the coupling in terms of Fano resonances. The higher energy resonance is identified as a symmetric hybridization mode between localized plasmon resonances in the island semishell array and surface plasmon polaritons...... in the metal film and while the lower energy resonance is identified as a corresponding anti-symmetric hybridization mode. Increasing the size of the particle arrays enhances and red shifts the resonances. We show that adding a dielectric spacer between the semishell island array and the metal film results...... in a red shifting of the resonances and introduce an additional high energy spectral peak. The effect of the spacer layer is interpreted as a reduced hybridization and the generation of additional localized surface plasmon resonances....

  9. Gas Sensitivity of Poly (3, 4-ethylene dioxythiophene) Prepared by a Modified LB Film Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Huajing; JIANG Yadong; XU Jianhua; YANG Yajie

    2011-01-01

    An arachidic acid/poly (3, 4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (AA/PEDOT) multilayer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film was prepared by a modified LB film method. The theories were utilized to explain the effects between HCl molecule and LB film. The gas sensitivity mechanism of poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) muitilayer film can be explained by the charge transfer between p system of PEDOT and oxidization HCl system. The gas sensitivity of PEDOT LB film deposited interdigital electrode to HCl was tested. The results showed that film thickness, treating temperature,deposition speed had different influence on film gas sensitivity. The AA/PEDOT film deposited device exhibited nonlinear behavior to HCl gas at lower concentration (20-60 ppm) and linear response behavior at higher gas concentration was observed. The time of the compound LB film of the AA/PEDOT responding to the 30 ppm HCl gas is about 20 seconds, which is far quicker than the time of the film to the PEDOT- PRESS film(about 80 seconds). It is not higher film press to better film. When the film press attains 45 mNs/m, the sensitivity of the AA/PEDOT film on the contrary descends.

  10. Deoxyribonucleic acid-based hybrid thin films for potential application as high energy density capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Donna M.; Venkat, Narayanan; Ouchen, Fahima; Singh, Kristi M.; Smith, Steven R.; Grabowski, Christopher A.; Terry Murray, P.; Grote, James G.

    2014-03-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) based hybrid films incorporating sol-gel-derived ceramics have shown strong promise as insulating dielectrics for high voltage capacitor applications. Our studies of DNA-CTMA (cetyltrimethylammonium) complex/sol-gel ceramic hybrid thin film devices have demonstrated reproducibility and stability in temperature- and frequency-dependent dielectric properties with dielectric constant k ˜ 5.0 (1 kHz), as well as reliability in DC voltage breakdown measurements, attaining values consistently in the range of 300-350 V/μm. The electrical/dielectric characteristics of DNA-CTMA films with sol-gel-derived ceramics were examined to determine the critical energy storage parameters such as voltage breakdown and dielectric constant.

  11. Structural and Optoelectrical Properties of ZnTe Thin Films Prepared by E-Beam Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Rehana; Saleemi, Farhat; Riaz, Madeeha; Nassem, Shahzad

    2016-10-01

    ZnTe thin films have been prepared by an electron-beam evaporation technique on glass substrates, changing the accelerating voltage and the substrate temperature at accelerating voltage of 2 kV. Structural analysis showed that all the films had cubic structure with preferential orientation along (111) direction, though (220) and (311) orientations were also present. The (111) peak intensity increased with increasing film thickness. The crystallite size increased with increasing film thickness. Conductivity measurements showed that the films were p-type. Films prepared at accelerating voltage of 2 kV exhibited minimum resistivity. Optical characterization indicated that both absorbing and transparent thin films can be achieved by using different deposition conditions. The optical bandgap value was found to vary with substrate temperature.

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-Structured SiO2 Thin Films on Carbon Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Chun XIONG; Dong Zhou YAN; Gang WEI

    2003-01-01

    Nano-structured SiO2 thin films were prepared on the surface of carbon steel for the first time by LPD. The compositions of the films were analyzed by XPS, and the surface morphology of the thin films were observed by AFM. The thin films were constituted by compact particles of SiO2, and there was no Fe in the films. In the process of film forming, the SiO2 colloid particles were deposited or absorbed directly onto the surface of carbon steel substrates that were activated by acid solution containing inhibitor, and corrosion of the substrates was avoided. The nano-structured SiO2 thin films that were prepared had excellent protective efficiency to the carbon steel.

  13. Surface properties of latex film and solvent-borne film resulted from fluorinated acrylate copolymers prepared by emulsion polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The fluorinated acrylate copolymer, poly (BMA-co-DFHMA, was prepared by emulsion polymerization using a preemulsified monomer addition process. The FTIR and 1H –NMR were used to characterize the copolymer structure. The contact angle of water on the solvent-borne film increased dramatically and reached an equilibrium value (103° when the PDFHMA content in the copolymer was only 0.97 mol%. However, the contact of water on the latex film increased slowly, and reached the equilibrium value of 99° until the fluorinated component content was as highly as 9 mol%. A similar result was observed for the oil contact angle on the two types of films. XPS results showed that when the F/C ratio on film surfaces reached equilibrium, the required content of fluorinated component in the copolymer for the solvent-borne film was much lower than that for the latex film.

  14. Photoactive composite films prepared from mixtures of polystyrene microgel dispersions and poly(3-hexylthiophene) solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu; Cui, Zhengxing; Edmondson, Steve; Hodson, Nigel; Zhou, Mi; Yan, Junfeng; O'Brien, Paul; Saunders, Brian R

    2015-11-14

    Whilst polystyrene microgels belong to the oldest family of microgel particles, their behaviours when deposited onto substrates or prepared as composites have received little attention. Because polystyrene microgels are solvent-swellable, and inherently colloidally stable, they are well suited to form composites with conjugated polymers. Here, we investigate the morphology and light absorption properties of spin coated composite films prepared from mixed dispersions of polystyrene microgels and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) for the first time. We compare the morphologies of the composite films to spin coated microgel films. The films were studied using optical microscopy, SEM, AFM, wide-angle X-ray diffraction and UV-visible spectroscopy. The films contained flattened microgel particles with an aspect ratio of ∼10. Microgel islands containing hexagonally close packed particles were evident for both the pure microgel and microgel/P3HT composite films. The latter were electrically conducting. The composite film morphology was dependent on the microgel and P3HT concentration used for film preparation and a morphology phase diagram was constructed. The P3HT phase acted as an electrically conducting cement and increased the robustness of the films to solvent washing. The composite films were photoactive due to the P3HT component. The absorbance for the films was tuneable and increased linearly with both microgel and P3HT concentration. The results of the study should apply to other organic swellable microgel/conjugated polymer combinations and may lead to new colloidal composites for future optoelectronic applications.

  15. One-step inkjet printing of tungsten oxide-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulphonate hybrid film and its applications in electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thi-Thuy-Nga, E-mail: thuysnga@gmail.com; Chan, Chih-Yu; He, Ju-Liang

    2016-03-31

    Hybrid film comprised tungsten oxide and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulphonate (WO{sub 3}–PEDOT:PSS) was developed by applying one-step inkjet printing from an office inkjet printer. The WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized from commercial crystalline WO{sub 3} powder through a wet ball-milling process, which is a simple, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective method of using water as a green solvent and low-energy milling. The WO{sub 3}–PEDOT:PSS inkjet ink was prepared by dispersing the as-milled WO{sub 3} and PEDOT:PSS in n-propanol and deionized water. The inkjet-printed WO{sub 3}–PEDOT:PSS thin films show marked improvements of cathodic electrochromism over WO{sub 3} films: the transmittance change of 20% at 550 nm (visible region) and 35% at 900 nm (infrared region) along with the response time of 5.67/0.30 s in their colored/bleached state, and the electrochromic coloration efficiency of 27.86 cm{sup 2}/C at 550 nm and 69.64 cm{sup 2}/C at 900 nm. - Highlights: • WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by milling commercial crystalline WO{sub 3}. • Wet ball-milling was carried out by using water as a green solvent and low energy. • WO{sub 3}–PEDOT:PSS hybrid ink was simply prepared by adding n-propanol and DI water. • WO{sub 3}–PEDOT:PSS hybrid films were inkjet-printed via an office inkjet printer. • WO{sub 3}–PEDOT:PSS films show better electrochromic performances than WO{sub 3} films.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Hydrogel Electrolyte Using Alkaline Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanobu Chiku

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid hydrogel electrolytes were prepared by mixing hydrotalcite, cross-linked potassium poly(acrylate and 6 M KOH solution. The organic-inorganic hybrid hydrogel electrolytes had high ionic conductivity (0.456–0.540 S cm−1 at 30 °C. Moreover, the mechanical strength of the hydrogel electrolytes was high enough to form a 2–3 mm thick freestanding membrane because of the reinforcement with hydrotalcite.

  17. Preparation and properties of a POSS-containing organic-inorganic hybrid crosslinked polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan Nie; Gang Li; Yang Li; Hong Yao Xu

    2009-01-01

    A novel POSS-containing organic-inorganic hybrid crosslinked polymer was prepared by hydrosilylation reaction of octahydridosilsesquioxane (T8H8) with 4,4'-bis(4-allyloxybenzoyloxy)phenyl (diene A). Its structure and property was character-ized by FTIR, 29Si NMR, TGA and ellipsometer, respectively. The results show that the hybrid polymer possesses high thermal stability and low dielectric constant of 1.97 at optical frequencies.

  18. Preparation and characterization of UV-cured hybrid polyvinyl alcohol nanofiber membranes by electrospinning

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the possibility of preparing polyvinyl alcoholic (PVA) organic-inorganic hybrid nanofiber membranes by electrospinning with UV irradiation. To this end, PVA, PVA/SiO2 organic-inorganic hybrid obtained with Geniosil® XL 33 as a SiO2 source, and imidazole-functionalized mesoporous PVA/SiO2/N=N nanofiber membranes were synthesized. These membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric-differen...

  19. Preparation of cuxinygazsen precursor films and powders by electroless deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Batchelor, Wendi Kay; Wiesner, Holm; Ramanathan, Kannan; Noufi, Rommel

    1999-01-01

    A method for electroless deposition of Cu.sub.x In.sub.y Ga.sub.z Se.sub.n (x=0-2, y=0-2, z=0-2, n=0-3) precursor films and powders onto a metallic substrate comprising: preparing an aqueous bath solution of compounds selected from the group consisting of: I) a copper compound, a selenium compound, an indium compound and gallium compound; II) a copper compound, a selenium compound and an indium compound; III) a selenium compound, and indium compound and a gallium compound; IV) a selenium compound and a indium compound; and V) a copper compound and selenium compound; each compound being present in sufficient quantity to react with each other to produce Cu.sub.x In.sub.y Ga.sub.z Se.sub.n (x=0-2, y=0-2, z=0-2, n=0-3); adjusting the pH of the aqueous bath solution to an acidic value by the addition of a dilute acid; and initiating an electroless reaction with an oxidizing counterelectrode for a sufficient time to cause a deposit of Cu.sub.x In.sub.y Ga.sub.z Se.sub.n (x=0-2, y=0-2, z=0-2, n=0-3) from the aqueous bath solution onto a metallic substrate.

  20. Photocatalytic activity of porous TiO2 films prepared by anodic oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; TAO Jie; WANG Tao; WANG Ling

    2007-01-01

    Anatase titanium dioxide is an active photocatalyst, however, it is difficult to be immobilized on the substrate.The crystalline TiO2 porous film was prepared directly on the surface of pure titanium by anodic oxidation. The film was then used for photocatalysis via the methyl orange degradation method. The effects of anodization voltage, pH value, TiO2 film area and degradation time on the photocatalyst were investigated respectively by UV-visible spectrum. It was indicated that the TiO2 film prepared by anodic oxidation at 140 V had the best photocatalysis capability and the degradation of methyl orange was accelerated with acid addition.

  1. Multifunctional alumina/titania hybrid blocking layer modified nanocrystalline titania films as efficient photoanodes in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlei; Yu, Zhenhua; Bu, Chenghao; Liu, Pei; Bai, Sihang; Liu, Chang; Kondamareddy, Kiran Kumar; Sun, Weiwei; Zhan, Kan; Zhang, Kun; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2015-05-01

    A facile way of fabricating efficient blocking layer on mesoporous TiO2 film of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is demonstrated here for the first time. Al2O3 and TiO2 are combined together to form a blocking layer. A simple spin coating technique is employed which is a versatile and low-cost method over the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Multifunctional alumina/titania (Al2O3/TiO2) hybrid overlayer is prepared on traditional TiO2 nanocrystalline thin film surface, through sequential deposition of AlCl3·6H2O and TiCl4 precursor solutions followed by sintering at 500 °C for 30 min. Al2O3 effectively plays its role in retarding interfacial recombination of electrons and improving open circuit potential (Voc), while the tiny TiO2 clusters synthesized from TiCl4 treatment act as electron transporting channels to facilitate electron diffusion which leads to enhanced photocurrent (Jsc). Compared to the device without blocking layer, the DSSCs assembled with Al2O3/TiO2 hybrid blocking layer showed improvement in Jsc (from 13.09 mA/cm2 to 16.90 mA/cm2) as well as in Voc (from 0.72 V to 0.73 V) resulting a much better conversion efficiency of 8.60%.

  2. Preparation of silica thin films by novel wet process and study of their optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sang-Hyeok; Kim, Nam-Jin; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hwang, Cha-Won; Yoon, Duck-Ki; Ryu, Bong-Ki

    2012-02-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) thin films have gained considerable attention because of their various industrial applications. For example, SiO2 thin films are used in superhydrophilic self-cleaning surface glass, UV protection films, anti-reflection coatings, and insulating materials. Recently, many processes such as vacuum evaporation, sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and spin coating have been widely applied to prepare thin films of functionally graded materials. However, these processes suffer from several engineering problems. For example, a special apparatus is required for the deposition of films, and conventional wet processes are not suitable for coating the surfaces of substrates with a large surface area and complex morphology. In this study, we investigated the film morphology and optical properties of SiO2 films prepared by a novel technique, namely, liquid phase deposition (LPD). Images of the SiO2 films were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in order to study the surface morphology of these films: these images indicate that films deposited with different reaction times were uniform and dense and were composed of pure silica. Optical properties such as refractive index and transmittance were estimated by UV-vis spectroscopy and ellipsometry. SiO2 films with porous structures at the nanometer scale (100-250 nm) were successfully produced by LPD. The deposited film had excellent transmittance in the visible wavelength region.

  3. Preparation of mesoporous silica thin films by photocalcination method and their adsorption abilities for various proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Katsuya, E-mail: katsuya-kato@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Nakamura, Hitomi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Yamauchi, Yoshihiro; Nakanishi, Kazuma; Tomita, Masahiro [Department of Chemistry for Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie 514-8570 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Mesoporous silica (MPS) thin film biosensor platforms were established. MPS thin films were prepared from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) via using sol–gel and spin-coating methods using a poly-(ethylene oxide)-block-poly-(propylene oxide)-block-poly-(ethylene oxide) triblock polymer, such as P123 ((EO){sub 20}(PO){sub 70}(EO){sub 20}) or F127 ((EO){sub 106}(PO){sub 70}(EO){sub 106}), as the structure-directing agent. The MPS thin film prepared using P123 as the mesoporous template and treated via vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation to remove the triblock copolymer had a more uniform pore array than that of the corresponding film prepared via thermal treatment. Protein adsorption and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on the synthesized MPS thin films were also investigated. VUV-irradiated MPS thin films adsorbed a smaller quantity of protein A than the thermally treated films; however, the human immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding efficiency was higher on the former. In addition, protein A–IgG specific binding on MPS thin films was achieved without using a blocking reagent; i.e., nonspecific adsorption was inhibited by the uniform pore arrays of the films. Furthermore, VUV-irradiated MPS thin films exhibited high sensitivity for ELISA testing, and cytochrome c adsorbed on the MPS thin films exhibited high catalytic activity and recyclability. These results suggest that MPS thin films are attractive platforms for the development of novel biosensors. - Highlights: • VUV-treated MPS thin films with removed polymer had uniform pore. • VUV-treated MPS thin films exhibited high sensitivity by ELISA. • Cytochrome c showed the catalytic activity and recyclability on synthesized films.

  4. Preparation and applications of hybrid organic-inorganic monoliths: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-06-01

    This review presents an overview of the properties of hybrid organic-inorganic monolithic materials and summarizes the recent developments in the preparation and applications of these hybrid monolithic materials. Hybrid monolithic materials with porosities, surface functionalities, and fast dynamic transport have developed rapidly, and have been used in a wide range of applications owing to the low cost, good stability, and excellent performance. Basically, these materials can be divided into two major types according to the chemical composition: hybrid silica-based monolith (HSM) and hybrid polymer-based monolith (HPM). Compared to the HPM, HSM monolith has been attracting most wide attentions, and it is commonly synthesized by the sol-gel process. The conventional preparation procedures of two type's hybrid organic-inorganic monoliths are addressed. Applications of hybrid organic-inorganic monoliths in optical devices, capillary microextraction (CME), capillary electrochromatography (CEC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and chiral separation are also reviewed. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Ordered and disordered evolution of the pore mesostructure in hybrid silica anti-reflective films obtained by one-pot self-assembly method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazzal, Mohamed N., E-mail: g_nawfel@yahoo.fr; Debecker, Damien P.; Gaigneaux, Eric M.

    2016-07-29

    Hybrid mesoporous silica films were prepared in acid-catalysed medium using a one-pot self-assembly method. A gradual content of methyl groups was introduced into the inorganic framework by co-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate and methyltriethoxysilane. To better understand how the ordered and disordered transition occurs in mesoporous hybrid organosilica sytem as function of the MTES molar ratio in the starting solution, textural, chemical and optical properties of the films were studied by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), grazing-incident small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), transmission Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and UV–visible spectroscopy. Increasing the loading of the incorporated organic groups (up to 40% in the starting solution) led simultaneously to a disorganization of the pore mesostructure and a reduction in the pore diameter. Concomitantly, a disordered domain of the silica rings in the walls was observed, which created bond strains in the silica wall contributing also to the disorganization of the pore mesostructure. Furthermore, an optimal MTES content was identified in order to obtain antireflection coatings, exhibiting low reflection in the visible range. - Highlights: • Mesoporous hybrid silica films where prepared by one-pot co-condensation of MTES and TEOS. • Ordered and disordered mesostructures were studied as function as variable MTES molar ratio. • A rearrangement of the silica cyclic species occurred as the molar ratio of MTES increases. • Transmittance of the silica coatings is affected by the MTES molar ratio.

  6. CEMS study on diluted magneto titanium oxide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, K.; Inaba, K.; Iio, S.; Hitosugi, T.; Hasegawa, T.; Hirose, Y.; Homonnay, Z.

    6% 57Fe doped titanium oxide films, prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on sapphire substrate at 650° under various vacuum conditions, were characterized mainly by conversion electron Mössbauer spectrometry (CEMS). Two magnetic sextets with hyperfine fields 33 and 29 T, and one doublet were observed in the CEMS spectra of Ti02 films prepared under P02=10-6 and 10-8 torr, which showed ferromagnetism at room temperature, whereas only the doublet of paramagnetic Fe3+ species was observed for the film prepared under P02=10-1 torr.

  7. Preparation and structural properties of thin carbon films by very-high-frequency magnetron sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明伟; 叶超; 王响英; 何一松; 郭佳敏; 杨培芳

    2016-01-01

    Growth and structural properties of thin a-C films prepared by the 60 MHz very-high-frequency (VHF) magnetron sputtering were investigated. The energy and flux of ions impinging the substrate were also analyzed. It is found that the thin a-C films prepared by the 60 MHz sputtering have a lower growth rate, a smooth surface, and more sp3 contents. These features are related to the higher ion energy and the lower ions flux onto the substrate. Therefore, the 60 MHz VHF sputtering is more suitable for the preparation of thin a-C film with more sp3 contents.

  8. Chitosan-nanosilica hybrid materials: Preparation and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podust, T.V., E-mail: tania_list@yahoo.com [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, 17 General Naumov Street, Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine); Kulik, T.V., E-mail: tanyakulyk@i.ua [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, 17 General Naumov Street, Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine); Palyanytsya, B.B.; Gun’ko, V.M. [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, 17 General Naumov Street, Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine); Tóth, A. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Material Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Mikhalovska, L. [School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Menyhárd, A. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Material Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Institute of Materials Science and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); László, K. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Material Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Hybrid chitosan-nanosilica materials were synthesized using an adsorption modification method. • The chitosan adsorption capacity is higher on the silica/titania and silica/alumina than on the fumed silica. • Nanosilicas undergo structural and textural alterations due to modification by chitosan. • The more severe chitosan thermodestruction occurs on the silica/titania and silica/alumina surfaces than on the plain silica surface. - Abstract: The research focuses on the synthesis of novel organic–inorganic hybrid materials based on polysaccharide chitosan and nanosilicas (SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}). The chitosan modified nanooxides were obtained by the equilibrium adsorption method. The chitosan adsorption capacities of silica/titania and silica/alumina are higher than of the plain silica due to the additional active sites present on the surfaces of the mixed oxides. The hybrid materials were characterized by low-temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) and temperature-programmed desorption with mass spectrometry control (TPD MS) methods. The chitosan treatment only modestly influences the surface area S{sub BET} of the nanooxides but the rearrangement of the secondary and tertiary structures (aggregates and agglomerates) results in an enhancement of the mesoporosity and affects the size of the aggregates. The more severe thermodestruction of the polysaccharide desorbing from the modified mixed silicas indicates a stronger interaction between the chitosan and the mixed oxides compared to the silanol groups of the plain silica surface.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of HPMC/PVP Blend Films Plasticized with Sorbitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Somashekarappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this present work is to investigate the effect of plasticizers like Sorbitol on microstructural and mechanical properties of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC and Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP blend films. The pure blend and plasticized blend films were prepared by solution casting method and investigated using wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS method. WAXS analysis confirms that the plasticizers can enter into macromolecular blend structure and destroy the crystallinity of the films. FTIR spectra show that there are a shift and decrease in the intensity of the peaks confirming the interaction of plasticizer with the blend. Mechanical properties like tensile strength and Young’s Modulus decrease up to 0.6% of Sorbitol content in the films. Percentage of elongation at break increases suggesting that the plasticized films are more flexible than pure blend films. These films are suitable to be used as environmental friendly and biodegradable packaging films.

  10. Optical properties and residual stress in Nb-Si composite films prepared by magnetron cosputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chien-Jen; Porter, Glen Andrew; Jaing, Cheng-Chung; Tsai, Fang-Ming

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates Nb-Si metal composite films with various proportions of niobium in comparison to pure Nb films. Films were prepared by two-target RF-DC magnetron cosputtering deposition. The optical properties and residual stress were analyzed. A composition of Nb(0.74)Si(0.26) was chosen toward the design and fabrication of solar absorbing coatings having a high absorption in a broad wavelength range, a low residual stress, and suitable optical constants. The layer thicknesses and absorption characteristics of the Nb-Si composite films adhere more closely to the design than other coatings made of dielectric film materials.

  11. Tribological Properties of DLC Film Prepared by C + Ion Beam-assisted Deposition (IBAD)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    C + ion beam-assisted deposition was utilized to prepare deposit diamond-like carbon (DLC) film.With the help of a series of experiments such as Raman spectroscopy, FT- IR spectroscopy, AFM and nanoindentation, the DLC film has been recognized as hydrogenated DLC film and its tribological properties have been evaluated.The ball-on-disc testing results show that the hardness and the tribological properties of the DLC film produced by C + ion beam-assisted deposition are improved significandy.DLC film produced by C+ ion beam-assisted deposition is positive to have a prosperous tribological application in the near future.

  12. Preparation and Photocatalytic Property of Porous TiO2 Film with Net-like Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Rong-guo; YAO Jian-xi; LAI Xiao-yong; MAO Dan; XING Chao-jian; WANG Dan

    2009-01-01

    By the UV-curing method, a porous TiO2 film with net-like framework has been prepared. The characte-rization results of the porous TiO2 film by means of SEM, TEM, XRD, and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis show that the net-like framework of the porous TiO2 film is composed of TiO2 nanoparticles, forming three dimensional porous structure. The porous TiO2 film exhibits higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue(MB) dye compared with the conventional dense TiO2 film.

  13. Biologic effect of a hybrid preparation of human chorionic gonadotropin in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemberg, E

    1982-01-01

    Alpha and beta-hCG subunits were recombined generating a hybrid hCG preparation (AB1ER-CR-2XY) which met the required specifications of a pharmaceutical product. The biologic activity contained in each vial of AB1ER-CR-2XY was equivalent to 10 000IU of hCG-IS. This preparation was given as a single dose of 10 000IU by the i.m. route to four female subjects presenting unexplained infertility. The hCG hybrid was demonstrated to effect gonadal stimulation in humans.

  14. Thin films and assemblies of photosensitive membrane proteins and colloidal nanocrystals for engineering of hybrid materials with advanced properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Sergei Yu; Solovyeva, Daria O; Nabiev, Igor

    2012-11-15

    The development and study of nano-bio hybrid materials engineered from membrane proteins (the key functional elements of various biomembranes) and nanoheterostructures (inorganic colloidal nanoparticles, transparent electrodes, and films) is a rapidly growing field at the interface of materials and life sciences. The mainspring of the development of bioinspired materials and devices is the fact that biological evolution has solved many problems similar to those that humans are attempting to solve in the field of light-harvesting and energy-transferring inorganic compounds. Along this way, bioelectronics and biophotonics have shown considerable promise. A number of proteins have been explored in terms of bioelectronic device applications, but bacteriorhodopsin (bR, a photosensitive membrane protein from purple membranes of the bacterium Halobacterium salinarum) and bacterial photosynthetic reaction centres have received the most attention. The energy harvesting in plants has a maximum efficiency of 5%, whereas bR, in the absence of a specific light-harvesting system, allows bacteria to utilize only 0.1-0.5% of the solar light. Recent nano-bioengineering approaches employing colloidal semiconductor and metal nanoparticles conjugated with biosystems permit the enhancement of the light-harvesting capacity of photosensitive proteins, thus providing a strong impetus to protein-based device optimisation. Fabrication of ultrathin and highly oriented films from biological membranes and photosensitive proteins is the key task for prospective bioelectronic and biophotonic applications. In this review, the main advances in techniques of preparation of such films are analyzed. Comparison of the techniques for obtaining thin films leads to the conclusion that the homogeneity and orientation of biomembrane fragments or proteins in these films depend on the method of their fabrication and increase in the following order: electrophoretic sedimentation advances in the techniques of

  15. Nacre-like hybrid films: Structure, properties, and the effect of relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Mohammed T; Hunger, Philipp M; Kalidindi, Surya R; Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2015-03-01

    Functional materials often are hybrids composed of biopolymers and mineral constituents. The arrangement and interactions of the constituents frequently lead to hierarchical structures with exceptional mechanical properties and multifunctionality. In this study, hybrid thin films with a nacre-like brick-and-mortar microstructure were fabricated in a straightforward and reproducible manner through manual shear casting using the biopolymer chitosan as the matrix material (mortar) and alumina platelets as the reinforcing particles (bricks). The ratio of inorganic to organic content was varied from 0% to 15% and the relative humidities from 36% to 75% to determine their effects on the mechanical properties. It was found that increasing the volume fraction of alumina from 0% to 15% results in a twofold increase in the modulus of the film, but decreases the tensile strength by up to 30%, when the volume fraction of alumina is higher than 5%. Additionally, this study quantifies and illustrates the critical role of the relative humidity on the mechanical properties of the hybrid film. Increasing the relative humidity from 36% to 75% decreases the modulus and strength by about 45% and triples the strain at failure. These results suggest that complex hybrid materials can be manufactured and tailor made for specific applications or environmental conditions.

  16. Influence of process parameters on the preparation of pharmaceutical films by electrostatic powder deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Leena Kumari; LaFountaine, Justin S; Keen, Justin M; Williams, Robert O; McGinity, James W

    2016-12-30

    Electrostatic powder deposition (ESPD) has been developed as a solvent-free method to prepare pharmaceutical films. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of process parameters during (1) electrostatic powder deposition, (2) curing, and (3) removal of the film from the substrate on the properties of the film. Polyethylene oxide (PEO) was used as the model polymer and stainless steel 316 as the substrate. Deposition efficiency (i.e. deposited weight) was measured with varying charging voltage, gun tip to substrate distance, and environmental humidity. Scanning electron microscopy was utilized to assess film formation, and adhesive and mechanical strength of films were measured with varying cure temperature and time. Adhesive strength was measured for films prepared on substrates of varying surface roughness. When deposition was performed at low humidity conditions, 25%RH, process parameters did not significantly affect deposition behavior. At 40%RH, increasing deposition efficiency with decreasing gun tip to substrate distance and increasing voltage (up to 60kV) was observed. Complete film formation was seen by 30min at 80°C, compared to lower curing temperatures and times. All films were readily removed from the substrates. The results show the ESPD process can be modified to produce films with good mechanical properties (e.g. tensile strength>0.06MPa), suggesting it is a promising dry powder process for preparing pharmaceutical films.

  17. Effect of humidity on microstructure and properties of YBCO film prepared by TFA-MOD method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lianhong; LI Tao; GU Hongwei

    2009-01-01

    Epitaxial YBCO superconducting films were deposited on the single crystal LaAlO3. (001) substrate by metal organic deposition method. All YBCO films were fired at 820 ℃ in humidity range of 2.6%-19.7% atmosphere. Microstructure of YBCO thin films was ana-lyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Superconducting properties of YBCO films were measured by four-probe method. XRD results showed that the second phase (such as BaF2)and a-axis-oriented grains existed in the films prepared at 2.6% humidity condition; a-axis-oriented grains increased in the film prepared at higher than 4.2% humidity condition; almost pure c-axias-oriented grains existed in the films fired at 4.2% humidity condition. Morphologies of the YBCO films showed that all films had a smooth and crack-free surface. YBCO film prepared at 4.2% humidity condition showed Jc value of 3.3 MA/cm2 at 77 K in self-field.

  18. Characterization of AZO and Ag based films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Dagang [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Jiang, Shouxiang, E-mail: kinor.j@polyu.edu.hk [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Zhao, Hongmei [Department of Prosthodontics, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao (China); Shang, Songmin; Chen, Zhuoming [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Highly infrared reflective AZO and Ag based films were prepared. • Ag showed better crystallization on AZO film than on glass substrate. • Infrared reflection rate was inversely proportional to the film sheet resistance. • Film with infrared reflection of 97% in FIR region was acquired. - Abstract: Ag, AZO/Ag, Ag/AZO and AZO/Ag/AZO films were prepared on glass substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technology. The prepared films were systematically investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), UV–visible spectrophotometer, a four-point probe system and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The results indicated that Ag inner layer starts forming a continuous film at the thickness of 10 nm and Ag layer presents superior crystallization on AZO substrate than that on glass substrate. The continuous Ag inner layer film provided the highest average visible transmittance of 85.4% (AZO/Ag/AZO). The lowest sheet resistance of 3.21 Ω/sq and the highest infrared reflection rate of 97% in FIR region can be obtained on AZO/Ag (15 nm)/AZO film. The high infrared reflection property of the AZO/Ag/AZO coating makes it a promising candidate for solar control films.

  19. Reactively sputtered titanium carbide thin films: Preparation and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizenberg, M.; Murarka, S. P.

    1983-06-01

    The low resistivity and refractory nature of titanium carbide makes it potentially useful as a diffusion barrier in thin film metallization schemes. In the present investigation, deposition and properties of thin titanium carbide films have been investigated. The films were deposited by reactive radio frequency sputtering in methane-argon mixtures on a variety of substrates. The effects of methane to argon ratio, total sputtering pressure, and power on the film deposition rate, composition and properties were determined. There were interactive effects of these parameters on the composition and properties of these films. Resistivity increased with carbon content; for Ti/C≥1 it was ˜200 μΩ cm. Stress that was compressive was maximum in the nearly stoichiometric TiC film. Grain size was small in all films, especially so in carbon rich films. All stoichiometric titanium carbide films were resistant to HF solutions. Films with TiC/≥1 dissolved easily in ethylene dinitrilo tetra acetric acid (EDTA) solution.

  20. Tuning Structure and Properties of Graded Triblock Terpolymer-Based Mesoporous and Hybrid Films

    KAUST Repository

    Phillip, William A.

    2011-07-13

    Despite considerable efforts toward fabricating ordered, water-permeable, mesoporous films from block copolymers, fine control over pore dimensions, structural characteristics, and mechanical behavior of graded structures remains a major challenge. To this end, we describe the fabrication and performance characteristics of graded mesoporous and hybrid films derived from the newly synthesized triblock terpolymer, poly(isoprene-b-styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine). A unique morphology, unachievable in diblock copolymer systems, with enhanced mechanical integrity is evidenced. The film structure comprises a thin selective layer containing vertically aligned and nearly monodisperse mesopores at a density of more than 1014 per m2 above a graded macroporous layer. Hybridization via homopolymer blending enables tuning of pore size within the range of 16 to 30 nm. Solvent flow and solute separation experiments demonstrate that the terpolymer films have permeabilities comparable to commercial membranes, are stimuli-responsive, and contain pores with a nearly monodisperse diameter. These results suggest that moving to multiblock polymers and their hybrids may open new paths to produce high-performance graded membranes for filtration, separations, nanofluidics, catalysis, and drug delivery. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  1. Chitosan-nanosilica hybrid materials: Preparation and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podust, T. V.; Kulik, T. V.; Palyanytsya, B. B.; Gun'ko, V. M.; Tóth, A.; Mikhalovska, L.; Menyhárd, A.; László, K.

    2014-11-01

    The research focuses on the synthesis of novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on polysaccharide chitosan and nanosilicas (SiO2, TiO2/SiO2 and Al2O3/SiO2). The chitosan modified nanooxides were obtained by the equilibrium adsorption method. The chitosan adsorption capacities of silica/titania and silica/alumina are higher than of the plain silica due to the additional active sites present on the surfaces of the mixed oxides. The hybrid materials were characterized by low-temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) and temperature-programmed desorption with mass spectrometry control (TPD MS) methods. The chitosan treatment only modestly influences the surface area SBET of the nanooxides but the rearrangement of the secondary and tertiary structures (aggregates and agglomerates) results in an enhancement of the mesoporosity and affects the size of the aggregates. The more severe thermodestruction of the polysaccharide desorbing from the modified mixed silicas indicates a stronger interaction between the chitosan and the mixed oxides compared to the silanol groups of the plain silica surface.

  2. Bonelike/PLGA hybrid materials for bone regeneration : preparation route and physicochemical characterisation

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Joaquim M.; Miyazaki, T; Lopes, M A; Ohtsuki, C.; Santos,J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Bonelike R /PLGA hybrid materials have been developed using γ -MPS as silane-coupling agent between the inorganic and organic phases for controlled drug delivery applications. Silanization showed to be more effective when cyclohexane was used as a non-polar solvent (nP method) due to a chemical interaction between Bonelike R and the silane film, while by using a 95/5 (V/V) methanol/water as a polar solvent (P method), a much thinner film was achieved. Functional groups of PL...

  3. Layer-by-layer self-assembled mesoporous PEDOT-PSS and carbon black hybrid films for platinum free dye-sensitized-solar-cell counter electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Koji; Shiratori, Seimei [School of Integrated Design Engineering, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2011-05-13

    A thin film of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT-PSS), which is an alternative cathodic catalyst for Pt in dye-sensitized solar cells, was prepared using the layer-by-layer self-assembly method (LbL). The film is highly adhesive to the substrate and has a controllable thickness. Therefore, the PEDOT-PSS film prepared using LbL is expected have high performance and durability as a counter electrode. Moreover, when carbon black was added to the PEDOT-PSS solution, highly mesoporous PEDOT-PSS and carbon black hybrid films were obtained. These films showed high cathodic activity. In this study, we investigated the change in morphology in the obtained film with increasing carbon black content, and the influence of the porosity and thickness on the performance of the cells. In this study, a Pt-free counter electrode with performance similar to that of Pt-based counter electrodes was successfully fabricated. The achieved efficiency of 4.71% was only a factor of 8% lower than that of the cell using conventional thermally deposited Pt on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass counter electrodes.

  4. Layer-by-layer self-assembled mesoporous PEDOT-PSS and carbon black hybrid films for platinum free dye-sensitized-solar-cell counter electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Koji; Shiratori, Seimei

    2011-05-13

    A thin film of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT-PSS), which is an alternative cathodic catalyst for Pt in dye-sensitized solar cells, was prepared using the layer-by-layer self-assembly method (LbL). The film is highly adhesive to the substrate and has a controllable thickness. Therefore, the PEDOT-PSS film prepared using LbL is expected have high performance and durability as a counter electrode. Moreover, when carbon black was added to the PEDOT-PSS solution, highly mesoporous PEDOT-PSS and carbon black hybrid films were obtained. These films showed high cathodic activity. In this study, we investigated the change in morphology in the obtained film with increasing carbon black content, and the influence of the porosity and thickness on the performance of the cells. In this study, a Pt-free counter electrode with performance similar to that of Pt-based counter electrodes was successfully fabricated. The achieved efficiency of 4.71% was only a factor of 8% lower than that of the cell using conventional thermally deposited Pt on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass counter electrodes.

  5. Deleuzean hybridity in the films of Leone and Argento

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Keith Hennessey

    2013-01-01

    In this comparatively brief chapter I begin by introducing my central research proposition. I then introduce my corpus of films and establish their significance both in their own right and as somewhat representative examples of a broader area of cinema. Following this I introduce my corpus of theory. Throughout, I seek to position my research within its wider context, identifying precedents for the approach I will take, alongside the originality of the thesis as a whole. My cen...

  6. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Films Grown Using Molecular Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    discussed below for the MLD of the alucone based on TMA and glycerol . Alternatively, a heterobifunctional precursor, such as ethanolamine, HO- CH2...amine-terminated surface functional groups to reform carboxylic groups through a ring-opening reaction in reaction C given by Eqn. 5. The three-step...small amount of cross-linking in the MLD film. These problems with the TMA + EG MLD system led to the recent exploration of the TMA + glycerol system

  7. Deleuzean hybridity in the films of Leone and Argento

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Keith Hennessey

    2013-01-01

    In this comparatively brief chapter I begin by introducing my central research proposition. I then introduce my corpus of films and establish their significance both in their own right and as somewhat representative examples of a broader area of cinema. Following this I introduce my corpus of theory. Throughout, I seek to position my research within its wider context, identifying precedents for the approach I will take, alongside the originality of the thesis as a whole. My cen...

  8. Continuous Preparation of Copper/Carbon Nanotube Composite Films and Application in Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao Gang; Le Wu, Min; Wang, Xiao Xia; Zhong, Xin Hua; Zhao, Ke; Wang, Jian Nong

    2016-02-08

    Realizing the continuous and large scale preparation of particle/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites with enhanced functionalities, and broad applications in energy conversion, harvesting, and storage systems, remains as a big challenge. Here, we report a scalable strategy to continuously prepare particle/CNT composite films in which particles are confined by CNT films. This is achieved by the continuous condensation and deposition of a cylindrical assembly of CNTs on a paper strip and the in situ incorporation of particles during the layer-by-layer deposition process. A Cu/CNT composite film is prepared as an example; such a film exhibits very high power conversion efficiency when it is used as a counter electrode in a solar cell, compared with previous materials under otherwise identical conditions. The proposed method can be extended to other CNT-based composite films with excellent functionalities for wide applications.

  9. Preparation and characterization of silk fibroin/HPMC blend film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, G. Rajesha [Department of Physics, Govt. First Grade College Hiriadka, Udupi - 576113 (India); Kumar, R. Madhu; Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Asha, S.; Sangappa, E-mail: syhalabhavi@yahoo.co.in [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore - 574199 (India)

    2015-06-24

    In this work, the structural and mechanical stability of silk fibroin/Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (SF-HPMC) blend films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The results indicate that with the introduction of HPMC, the interactions between SF and HPMC results in improved crystallite size and increase in mechanical properties. The blend film obtained is more flexible compared to pure SF film.

  10. Synthesis and Structure of PEDOT Prepared through a Modified LB Film Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Hua-Jing; JIANG Ya-Dong; XU Jian-Hua; YANG Ya-Jie

    2011-01-01

    Adopting LB film method, an arachidic acid (AA)/PEDOT multilayer LB film and polymerized EDOT monomers in hydrophilic group of LB were chosen to prepare the arachidic acid (AA)/PEDOT multilayer LB film. UV-Vis, FT-IR and XPS analyses implied that EDOT was effectively polymerized in film, and thus PEDOT conducting polymer was produced. Analyses of XRR and SIMS indicated that the film had a well-arranged lamella structure, and further research showed that polymerization of EDOT in AA film destroyed the orderliness of the original LB film. This phenomenon could be related to the destructive effect of polymerization on the layered structure. We used four-point probe and semiconductor instrument to study the conductivity property of the film, and observed that the conductivity of AA/PEDOT film had sudden changes with the changes of processing time in an effective conduction network, which was caused by "permeability" in conducting channel of multilayer film. The test results also indicated that the conductivity of AA/PEDOT film was obviously better than that of spin-coating PEDOT/PSS or ODA-SA/PEDOT-PSS film due to the higher π structure of PEDOT structure and ordered film structure.

  11. Electrochromic behavior of NiO film prepared by e-beam evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Sahu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The NiO thin films were prepared by the electron beam evaporation method using synthesized sintered targets. As-prepared films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV–VIS spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The thicker films were found to exhibit a well-defined structure and a well-developed crystallite size with greater transmittance modulation and durability. The as-deposited thinner films of 170 nm showed a faster response time during electrochromic cycles with a coloration efficiency of 53.1 C/cm2 than the thicker ones. However, the thicker films showed no enhanced electrochromic properties such as a larger intercalated charge than the thinner ones. The electrochromic properties of the thinner films became deteriorated after 800 cycling tests.

  12. Facile Preparation and Characterization of Poly (3-hexylthiophene)/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Thermoelectric Composite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Y.; Shen, S. Z.; Yang, W. D.; Chen, S.; Qin, Z.; Cai, K. F.; Casey, P. S.

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports a novel, cost-effective, scalable, and simple method for preparing poly(3-hexylthiophene)/multiwalled carbon nanotube (P3HT/MWCNT) nanocomposite films. The P3HT/MWCNT films were prepared by oxidative polymerization of 3-hexylthiophene in chloroform solution containing dispersed MWCNT. The phase composition and microstructure of the composite films were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The composite films were smooth, dense, and uniform. The thermoelectric properties of the composite films were measured at room temperature. The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the films with MWCNT content of 5 wt.% were ~1.3 × 10-3 S/cm and 131.0 μV/K, respectively.

  13. Preparation of ITO transparent conductive film by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-hua; REN Dong-yan

    2006-01-01

    The ITO transparent conductive films were prepared on substrate of quartz glass by sol-gel method. The raw materials were nitrate indium, acetylacetone and the dopant of anhydrous chloride (SnCl4). The process from gel to crystalline film and the microstructure of the films were investigated by DTA-TG, XRD and SEM. The influence of preparation processes on the electricity performance of the films was also studied by four-probe apparatus. The results show that the crystallization process of ITO xerogel completes when the heat treatment temperature reaches 600 ℃. The ITO films possesses on vesicular structures accumulated by spherical particles, and both heat treatment temperature and cooling rate have important effects on the resistivity ofITO films.

  14. Self-assembled hybrid films of phosphotungstic acid and aminoalkoxysilanes on SiO{sub 2}/Si surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Adriano L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 780, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Marques, Lygia A.; Eberlin, Marcos N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Instituto de Quimica, Laboratorio Thomson de Espectrometria de Massas, 13083-970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Nascente, Pedro A.P. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, 13565-905, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Herrmann, Paulo S.P. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Embrapa Instrumentacao Agropecuaria, Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegocio, 13560-970, P.O.Box 741, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Leite, Fabio L. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Campus de Sorocaba, P. O. Box 3031, 18052-780, Sorocaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rodrigues-Filho, Ubirajara P., E-mail: uprf@iqsc.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 780, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-02-29

    The present paper describes the influence of the chemical structure of two aminoalkoxysilanes: 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) and N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyl)-ethylenediamine (TSPEN) on the morphology of thin layer hybrid films with phosphotungstic acid (HPW), a Keggin heteropolyanion. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses indicated that both silane films showed protonated amine species interacting with the heteropolyanion by electrostatic forces as well as the presence of secondary carbamate anions. The hybrid films have different surface morphology according to atomic force microscopy analyses. The hybrid film with TSPEN forms flatter surfaces than the hybrid film with APTS. This effect is ascribed to higher flexibility and chelating ability of the TSPEN on adsorbed molecules. Ultrasonication effect on surface morphology of the hybrid film with APTS plays a fundamental role on surface roughness delivering enough energy to promote surface diffusion of the HPW heteropolyanions. This diffusion results in agglomerate formation, which corroborates with the assumption of electrostatic bonding between the HPW heteropolyanions and the protonated amine surface. These hybrid films could be used for electrochemical sensor design or to build photochromic and electrochromic multilayers. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of phosphotungstate-aminosilylated surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dependence of the surface roughness on the aminosilane structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphotungstic acid chelation by N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyl)-ethylenediamine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasonic promotion of clustering of phosphotungstic acid.

  15. Si/Nanocrystalline Diamond Film Heterojunction Diodes Preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With electron assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition technology, nanocrystalline diamond films were deposited on polished n-(100)Si wafer surface. The deposited films were characterized and observed by Raman spectrum, X-ray diffraction, semiconductor characterization system and Hall effective measurement system. The results show that with EA-HFCVD, not only an undoped nanocrystalline diamond films with high-conductivity (p-type semiconducting) but also a p-n heterojunction diode between the nanocrystalline diamond films and n-Si substrate is fabricated successfully. The p-n heterojunction has smaller forward resistance and bigger positive resistance. The p-n junction effective is evident.

  16. Modelling of an ultra-thin silicatene/silicon-carbide hybrid film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlexer, Philomena; Pacchioni, Gianfranco

    2016-09-01

    Recently, a well-ordered silicatene/silicon-carbide hybrid thin-film supported on Ru(0 0 0 1) has been reported (2015 Surf. Sci. 632 9-13). The thin-film consist of a monolayer of corner sharing (SiO4)-tetrahedra on top of a (Si2C3) monolayer supported on the Ru(0 0 0 1) surface. This silicatene/silicon-carbide hybrid system may exhibit interesting properties for nano-technological applications and represents another example of a 2D material. We explore the physical and chemical properties of the silicatene/silicon-carbide thin-film using DFT and compare the vibrational spectra with existing experimental data. The characteristics of the silicatene/silicon-carbide hybrid system are compared with those of the bilayer-silicatene (pure SiO2 film). We found large differences in the adsorption modes of the two thin-films on the Ru(0 0 0 1) support. Whereas the bilayer-silicatene physisorbs on the Ru(0 0 0 1) surface, the silicatene/silicon-carbide layer binds via chemisorption. The chemical properties of the two thin-films were probed by adsorption of H atoms at various positions, as well as by Al-doping and the formation of hydroxyl groups (Al-OH). These results show that despite the similar structure of the top layer and the identical metal support (Ru), the mixed silicatene/silicon-carbide system behaves quite differently from the pure silica two-layer counterpart.

  17. Preparation of an imogolite/poly(acrylic acid) hybrid gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoik; Ryu, Jungju; Kim, Donghyun; Joo, Yongho; Lee, Sang Uck; Sohn, Daewon

    2013-09-15

    Many efforts in the field of hydrogels have been focused toward increasing the mechanical strength of the gel using inorganic materials. In this study, we synthesized a hydrogel that has excellent mechanical properties using surface-modified inorganic nanofibers composed of imogolite (Al2SiO3(OH)4), which is a hydrated aluminum silicate that has a hollow tube structure. Gamma ray radiation generates peroxide radicals on the nanofibers (imogolite), resulting in an additive free hybrid hydrogel. Structural optimization was carried out by changing the composition of imogolite and poly(acrylic acid). Chemical bonding between the nanofiber and the polymer was simulated by a cluster model and characterized by wide area Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that imogolite embedded in a polymer matrix can align along the direction of an elongational force, as confirmed by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS).

  18. On hydrophilicity improvement of the porous anodic alumina film by hybrid nano/micro structuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weichao; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Kaige; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xuewen; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Chen; Bai, Jintao

    2017-09-01

    In both, laboratory and industry, tremendous attention is paid to discover an effective technique to produce uniform, controllable and (super) hydrophilic surfaces over large areas that are useful in a wide range of applications. In this investigation, by combing porous anodic alumina (PAA) film with nano-structures and microarray of aluminum, the hydrophilicity of hybrid nano-micro structure has been significantly improved. It is found some factors can affect the hydrophilicity of film, such as the size and aspect ratio of microarray, the thickness of nano-PAA film etc. Comparing with pure nano-PAA films and microarray, the hybrid nano-micro structure can provide uniform surface with significantly better hydrophilicity. The improvement can be up to 84%. Also, this technique exhibits good stability and repeatability for industrial production. By optimizing the thickness of nano-PAA film and aspect ratio of micro-structures, super-hydrophilicity can be reached. This study has obvious prospect in the fields of chemical industry, biomedical engineering and lab-on-a-chip applications.

  19. Pure crystal orientation and anisotropic charge transport in large-area hybrid perovskite films

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul

    2016-11-10

    Controlling crystal orientations and macroscopic morphology is vital to develop the electronic properties of hybrid perovskites. Here we show that a large-area, orientationally pure crystalline (OPC) methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) hybrid perovskite film can be fabricated using a thermal-gradient-assisted directional crystallization method that relies on the sharp liquid-to-solid transition of MAPbI3 from ionic liquid solution. We find that the OPC films spontaneously form periodic microarrays that are distinguishable from general polycrystalline perovskite materials in terms of their crystal orientation, film morphology and electronic properties. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the film is strongly oriented in the (112) and (200) planes parallel to the substrate. This film is structurally confined by directional crystal growth, inducing intense anisotropy in charge transport. In addition, the low trap-state density (7.9 × 1013 cm−3) leads to strong amplified stimulated emission. This ability to control crystal orientation and morphology could be widely adopted in optoelectronic devices.

  20. Elaboration of ammonia gas sensors based on electrodeposited polypyrrole--cobalt phthalocyanine hybrid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patois, Tilia; Sanchez, Jean-Baptiste; Berger, Franck; Fievet, Patrick; Segut, Olivier; Moutarlier, Virginie; Bouvet, Marcel; Lakard, Boris

    2013-12-15

    The electrochemical incorporation of a sulfonated cobalt phthalocyanine (sCoPc) in conducting polypyrrole (PPy) was done, in the presence or absence of LiClO4, in order to use the resulting hybrid material for the sensing of ammonia. After electrochemical deposition, the morphological features and structural properties of polypyrrole/phthalocyanine hybrid films were investigated and compared to those of polypyrrole films. A gas sensor consisting in platinum microelectrodes arrays was fabricated using silicon microtechnologies, and the polypyrrole and polypyrrole/phthalocyanine films were electrochemically deposited on the platinum microelectrodes arrays of this gas sensor. When exposed to ammonia, polymer-based gas sensors exhibited a decrease in conductance due to the electron exchange between ammonia and sensitive polymer-based layer. The characteristics of the gas sensors (response time, response amplitude, reversibility) were studied for ammonia concentrations varying from 1 ppm to 100 ppm. Polypyrrole/phthalocyanine films exhibited a high sensitivity and low detection limit to ammonia as well as a fast and reproducible response at room temperature. The response to ammonia exposition of polypyrrole films was found to be strongly enhanced thanks to the incorporation of the phthalocyanine in the polypyrrole matrix. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. MAPLE-based method to obtain biodegradable hybrid polymeric thin films with embedded antitumoral agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, Valentina; Florian, Paula E; Sima, Livia E; Rusen, Laurentiu; Constantinescu, Catalin; Evans, Robert W; Dinescu, Maria; Roseanu, Anca

    2014-02-01

    In this work, antitumor compounds, lactoferrin [recombinant iron-free (Apo-rLf)], cisplatin (Cis) or their combination were embedded within a biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer thin film, by a modified approach of a laser-based technique, matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). The structural and morphological properties of the deposited hybrid films were analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The in vitro effect on the cells' morphology and proliferation of murine melanoma B16-F10 cells was investigated and correlated with the films' surface chemistry and topography. Biological assays revealed decreased viability and proliferation, lower adherence, and morphological modifications in the case of melanoma cells cultured on both Apo-rLf and Cis thin films. The antitumor effect was enhanced by deposition of Apo-rLf with Cis within the same film. The unique capability of the new approach, based on MAPLE, to embed antitumor active factors within a biodegradable matrix for obtaining novel biodegradable hybrid platform with increased antitumor efficiency has been demonstrated.

  2. Pure crystal orientation and anisotropic charge transport in large-area hybrid perovskite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Namchul; Li, Feng; Turedi, Bekir; Sinatra, Lutfan; Sarmah, Smritakshi P.; Parida, Manas R.; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Murali, Banavoth; Burlakov, Victor M.; Goriely, Alain; Mohammed, Omar F.; Wu, Tom; Bakr, Osman M.

    2016-11-01

    Controlling crystal orientations and macroscopic morphology is vital to develop the electronic properties of hybrid perovskites. Here we show that a large-area, orientationally pure crystalline (OPC) methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) hybrid perovskite film can be fabricated using a thermal-gradient-assisted directional crystallization method that relies on the sharp liquid-to-solid transition of MAPbI3 from ionic liquid solution. We find that the OPC films spontaneously form periodic microarrays that are distinguishable from general polycrystalline perovskite materials in terms of their crystal orientation, film morphology and electronic properties. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the film is strongly oriented in the (112) and (200) planes parallel to the substrate. This film is structurally confined by directional crystal growth, inducing intense anisotropy in charge transport. In addition, the low trap-state density (7.9 × 1013 cm-3) leads to strong amplified stimulated emission. This ability to control crystal orientation and morphology could be widely adopted in optoelectronic devices.

  3. Polythiophene-gold nanoparticle hybrid systems: Langmuir-Blodgett assembly of nanostructured films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Sundaramurthy; Yu, Liew Ting; Srinivasan, M P

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a simple method of synthesizing nanoscale polythiophene-gold nanoparticle (AuNP) hybrid systems assembled by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. Regio-regular poly(3-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxymethyl)thiophene-2,5-diyl (PMEEMT) and poly(3-dodecylthiophene) (PDDT) were employed as the polymeric constituents. The presence of PDDT improved the amphiphilicity of PMEEMT by addressing the phase separation that occurred due to convective hydrodynamic instability on the substrate. 4 layer stacks of 90% and 99% PMEEMT films exhibited uniform film structure with a significant reduction in phase separation. A detailed mechanism for minimization of the surface effect has been proposed based on the interaction of polythiophenes with the substrate. For the first time, an ex situ approach has been adopted to incorporate AuNPs into LB films without affecting the film morphology and uniformity. The incorporation of AuNPs into the polythiophene matrix, aided by the affinity of sulphur for gold, was strongly dependent on the molecular arrangement of the matrix, which in turn depended on the composition of the matrix. The hybrid polythiophene films exhibited enhanced conductivity and can be applied in sensors, photovoltaics and memory devices.

  4. Physical and Degradable Properties of Mulching Films Prepared from Natural Fibers and Biodegradable Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhijian Tan; Yongjian Yi; Hongying Wang; Wanlai Zhou; Yuanru Yang; Chaoyun Wang

    2016-01-01

    The use of plastic film in agriculture has the serious drawback of producing vast quantities of waste. In this work, films were prepared from natural fibers and biodegradable polymers as potential substitutes for the conventional non-biodegradable plastic film used as mulching material in agricultural production. The physical properties (e.g., mechanical properties, heat preservation, water permeability, and photopermeability) and degradation characteristics (evaluated by micro-organic cultur...

  5. THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF CHITOSAN/PPLYETHYLENE GLYCOL/SILICA TERNARY HYBRID ORGANIC-NORGANIC FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Song; Rui Xue; Ling-hao He; Ying Liu; Qiao-ling Xiao

    2008-01-01

    The ternary hybrid films consisting of chitosan(CS),polyethylene glycol(PEG)and nano-sized silica which was surface-modified by amino groups(RNSA)were prepared.The structures of the blend membranes were characterized by attenuation total reflection-infrared spectroscopy(ATR-IR),X-ray diffraction(XRD),optical microscopy(OM)and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).The results showed that the addition of silica affected not only the distribution and crystallinity of PEG on the sample surface.but also the phase coarseness and the crystalline structure of chitosan in the blend system.Moreover,PEG changed the crystalline structure of chitosan.Upon annealing(at 100℃ for 1 h),the blends would show the altered crystalline structure of chitosan,the reinforced phase coarseness.as well as the decreased miscibility and interaction between chitosan and PEG.

  6. Development of novel biocompatible hybrid nanocomposites based on polyurethane-silica prepared by sol gel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashti, Ali; Yahyaei, Hossein; Firoozi, Saman; Ramezani, Sara; Rahiminejad, Ali; Karimi, Roya; Farzaneh, Khadijeh; Mohseni, Mohsen; Ghanbari, Hossein

    2016-12-01

    Due to high biocompatibility, polyurethane has found many applications, particularly in development of biomedical devices. A new nanocomposite based on thermoset polyurethane and silica nanoparticles was synthesized using sol-gel method. Sol-gel process was fulfilled in two acidic and basic conditions by using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and trimethoxyisocyanatesilane as precursors. The hybrid films characterized for mechanical and surface properties using tensile strength, contact angle, ATR-FTIR and scanning electron microscopy. Biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the hybrids were assessed using standard MTT, LDH and TUNEL assays. The results revealed that incorporation of silica nanoparticles was significantly improved tensile strength and mechanical properties of the hybrids. Based on the contact angle results, silica nanoparticles increased hydrophilicity of the hybrids. Biocompatibility by using human lung epithelial cell line (MRC-5) demonstrated that the hybrids were significantly less cytotoxic compared to pristine polymer as tested by MTT and LDH assays. TUNEL assay revealed no signs of apoptosis in all tested samples. The results of this study demonstrated that incorporation of silica nanoparticles into polyurethane lead to the enhancement of biocompatibility, indicating that these hybrids could potentially be used in biomedical field in particular as a new coating for medical implants.

  7. Facile preparation of hybrid core-shell nanorods for photothermal and radiation combined therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yaoyao; Li, Erdong; Cheng, Xiaju; Zhu, Jing; Lu, Shuanglong; Ge, Cuicui; Gu, Hongwei; Pan, Yue

    2016-02-01

    The hybrid platinum@iron oxide core-shell nanorods with high biocompatibility were synthesized and applied for combined therapy. These hybrid nanorods exhibit a good photothermal effect on cancer cells upon irradiation with a NIR laser. Furthermore, due to the presence of a high atomic number element (platinum core), the hybrid nanorods show a synergistic effect between photothermal and radiation therapy. Therefore, the as-prepared core-shell nanorods could play an important role in facilitating synergistic therapy between photothermal and radiation therapy to achieve better therapeutic efficacy.The hybrid platinum@iron oxide core-shell nanorods with high biocompatibility were synthesized and applied for combined therapy. These hybrid nanorods exhibit a good photothermal effect on cancer cells upon irradiation with a NIR laser. Furthermore, due to the presence of a high atomic number element (platinum core), the hybrid nanorods show a synergistic effect between photothermal and radiation therapy. Therefore, the as-prepared core-shell nanorods could play an important role in facilitating synergistic therapy between photothermal and radiation therapy to achieve better therapeutic efficacy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of general experimental procedures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09102k

  8. Antibacterial continuous nanofibrous hybrid yarn through in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barani, Hossein, E-mail: barani@birjand.ac.ir

    2014-10-01

    Nanofibrous hybrid yarns of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) with the antibacterial activity were prepared that contains 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 wt.% of silver nanoparticles according to the PVA polymer content. This was performed by electrospinning using distilled water and 2, 2, 2-trifluoroethanol as a solvent for PVA and PLLA respectively, and sodium borohydride was used as a reducing agent. The scanning electron microscope observation confirmed the formation of AgNPs into the PVA nanofiber structure, and they were uniform, bead free, cylindrical and smooth. The diameter of hybrid yarns and their nanofiber component was decreased as the silver nitrate concentration in electrospinning solutions was increased. The differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that the silver nanoparticles can form interactions with polymer chains and decrease the melting enthalpy. The mechanical analysis showed a lower stress and strain at break of the AgNP-loaded nanofibrous hybrid yarns than the unloaded hybrid yarn. However, there wasn't a statistically significant difference between the strain at break of electrospun nanofibrous hybrid yarns. Moreover, the bactericidal efficiency of all loaded samples was over 99.99%. - Highlights: • Nanofibrous hybrid yarns of PVA/PLLA with antibacterial activity were prepared. • The diameter of nanofibers was decreased as the AgNP concentration was increased. • AgNPs make interactions with amorphous phase of polymer and increase the Tg. • All loaded samples presented a good bactericidal and bacteriostatic efficiency.

  9. Ferromagnetism carried by highly delocalized hybrid states in Sc-doped ZnO thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Benali Kanoun, Mohammed

    2012-05-29

    We present first-principles results for Sc-doped ZnOthin films. Neighboring Sc atoms in the surface and/or subsurface layers are found to be coupled ferromagnetically, where only two of the possible configurations induce spin polarization. In the first configuration, the polarization is carried by the Sc d states as expected for transition metaldoping. However, there is a second configuration which is energetically favorable. It is governed by polarized hybrid states of the Zns, O p, and Sc d orbitals. Such highly delocalized states can be an important ingredient for understanding the magnetism of dopedZnOthin films.

  10. Quality by design approach for optimizing the formulation and physical properties of extemporaneously prepared orodispersible films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J. Caroline; Dohmen, Willem M. C.; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Breitkreutz, Joerg; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Woerdenbag, Herman J.

    2015-01-01

    The quality by design (QbD) approach was applied for optimizing the formulation of extemporaneously prepared orodispersible films (ODFs) using Design-Expert Software. The starting formulation was based on earlier experiments and contained the film forming agents hypromellose and carbomer 974P and th

  11. Disinfection studies on TiO2 thin films prepared by a sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambala, Venkata Subba Rao; Naidu, Ravi

    2009-02-01

    Transparent anatase TiO2 nanometer thin films were prepared by dip-coating on soda-lime glass plates via the sol-gel method. The un-calcined and the calcined films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM, Nano-indentation (hardness and Young's modulus), UV-vis spectrometry, thickness and hydrophilicity (contact angle measurements). The photocatalytic activity of the thin films was evaluated by performing disinfection studies on the Gram-negative microorganisms like Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus Aureus, a Gram-positive organism. The photocatalytic activity for both groups of organisms was studied in saline and nutrient broth. The leakage of potassium from the bacteria was observed parallel to cell viability. The activity of the sol-gel prepared TiO2 thin films were compared under UV lamps and natural day light (ND) lamps with Degussa P-25 TiO2 thin films prepared on soda-lime glass using a polymer support and the commercial self-cleaning glass (SC). The sol-gel prepared thin films which were annealed at 450 degrees C, show highest photocatalytic activity, the slowest conversion rate from hydrophilic to a hydrophobic state, light-induced hydrophilicity, and also higher disinfection activities compared to P-25 films and commercial self-cleaning glass. The films also show excellent activities when continuously reused for more than a month.

  12. Preparation and Haemocompatibility of Regular Array Microporous PLGA Films on Stainless Steel Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Regular array microporous films from poly ( L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) ( PLGA ) were prepared on stainless steel substrates utilizing the condensation of water droplets on polymer solutions. The size of the pores and regularity can be controlled by atmospheric humidity and concentration of polymer solution. The microporons films have strong hydrophobicity and good haemocompatibility.

  13. Highly conductive free standing polypyrrole films prepared by freezing interfacial polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guijin; Huang, Liyan; Wang, Huiliang

    2012-08-25

    Highly conductive free standing polypyrrole (PPy) films were prepared by a novel freezing interfacial polymerization method. The films exhibit metallic luster and electrical conductivity up to 2000 S cm(-1). By characterizing with SEM, FTIR, Raman and XRD, the high conductivity is attributed to the smooth surface, higher conjugation length and more ordered molecular structure of PPy.

  14. Cell proliferation on modified DLC thin films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Adrian; Manakhov, Anton; Polčák, Josef; Ondračka, Pavel; Buršíková, Vilma; Zajíčková, Renata; Medalová, Jiřina; Zajíčková, Lenka

    2015-06-12

    Recently, diamondlike carbon (DLC) thin films have gained interest for biological applications, such as hip and dental prostheses or heart valves and coronary stents, thanks to their high strength and stability. However, the biocompatibility of the DLC is still questionable due to its low wettability and possible mechanical failure (delamination). In this work, DLC:N:O and DLC: SiOx thin films were comparatively investigated with respect to cell proliferation. Thin DLC films with an addition of N, O, and Si were prepared by plasma enhanced CVD from mixtures of methane, hydrogen, and hexamethyldisiloxane. The films were optically characterized by infrared spectroscopy and ellipsometry in UV-visible spectrum. The thickness and the optical properties were obtained from the ellipsometric measurements. Atomic composition of the films was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy combined with elastic recoil detection analysis and by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The mechanical properties of the films were studied by depth sensing indentation technique. The number of cells that proliferate on the surface of the prepared DLC films and on control culture dishes were compared and correlated with the properties of as-deposited and aged films. The authors found that the level of cell proliferation on the coated dishes was high, comparable to the untreated (control) samples. The prepared DLC films were stable and no decrease of the biocompatibility was observed for the samples aged at ambient conditions.

  15. Studies on tin oxide films prepared by electron beam evaporation and spray pyrolysis methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K S Shamala; L C S Murthy; K Narasimha Rao

    2004-06-01

    Transparent conducting tin oxide thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation and spray pyrolysis methods. Structural, optical and electrical properties were studied under different preparation conditions like substrate temperature, solution flow rate and rate of deposition. Resistivity of undoped evaporated films varied from 2.65 × 10-2 -cm to 3.57 × 10-3 -cm in the temperature range 150–200°C. For undoped spray pyrolyzed films, the resistivity was observed to be in the range 1.2 × 10-1 to 1.69 × 10-2 -cm in the temperature range 250–370°C. Hall effect measurements indicated that the mobility as well as carrier concentration of evaporated films were greater than that of spray deposited films. The lowest resistivity for antimony doped tin oxide film was found to be 7.74 × 10-4 -cm, which was deposited at 350°C with 0.26 g of SbCl3 and 4 g of SnCl4 (SbCl3/SnCl4 = 0.065). Evaporated films were found to be amorphous in the temperature range up to 200°C, whereas spray pyrolyzed films prepared at substrate temperature of 300–370°C were polycrystalline. The morphology of tin oxide films was studied using SEM.

  16. Strontium-Doped Lanthanum Manganite Films Prepared by Magnetic Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menon, Mohan; Larsen, Casper; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm

    2009-01-01

    Deposition of La0.85Sr0.15MnO3 (LSM) films from suspensions using a magnetic field was found to be a cheap and quick technique. Ninety weight percent of the particles present in the suspensions were deposited within the first minute of the deposition, and the thickness of the film varied linearly...

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Neutral and Oxidized Polypyrrole Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-31

    oxidation of the pyrrole was obtained from cyclic voltametry in a two-compartment electrochemical cell. If TBAP was used as the electrolyte salt in both...bronze color; thin transparent films are grey. The room temperature electrical conductivity of the films is -50 ohm ŕ cmŕ. Cyclic voltammetry showed that

  18. Characterization of Plasma Polymerized Hexamethyldisiloxane Films Prepared by Arc Discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazauskas, A.; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Grigaliunas, V.; Jucius, D; Guobiene, A.; Prosycevas, I.; Narmontas, P.

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we present a simple method for fabricating plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane films (pp-HMDSO) possessing superhydrophobic characteristics via arc discharge. The pp-HMDSO films were deposited on a soda–lime–silica float glass using HMDSO monomer vapor as a precursor. A detailed surface

  19. Novel organic–inorganic amorphous photoactive hybrid films with rare earth (Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}) covalently embedded into silicon–oxygen network via sol–gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiang; Sheng, Ye; Zheng, Keyan; Qin, Xuming; Ma, Pingchuan; Zou, Haifeng, E-mail: haifengzou0431@gmail.com

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The hybrids are prepared through the hydrolysis and condensation process. • The hybrids are amorphous and heat stabilized. • The hybrids containing Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} show the typical red and green emissions. - Abstract: Novel organic–inorganic hybrid amorphous thin films were synthesized by linking lanthanide (Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}) complexes through 3,4-bis(3-(triethoxysilyl)propylcarbamoyloxy)benzoic acid using sol–gel method. These inorganic–organic hybrids were characterized in detail by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, wide angle X-ray diffraction, themogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscope, and fluorescence spectra. The above research results indicate that the hybrids possess high thermal-stability, amorphous structure features and especially favorable luminescent performances, such as long luminescent decay lifetime, high quantum yield etc.

  20. Low-temperature preparation of anatase thin films on tantalum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scott E; Burgoon, Matthew W P; Wang, Qi; White, J M

    2006-07-18

    Titanium dioxide thin films were grown on oxidized Ta surfaces using a cyclic layer-by-layer wet chemistry method: successive-ionic-layer-adsorption-and-reaction (SILAR). Film thicknesses varied monotonically and approximately linearly with the number of cycles. As-grown (AG) films were amorphous and rougher (16.2 nm root-mean-square (rms)) than the Ta substrate (10.2 nm rms). After hydrothermal annealing (AN) at a remarkably low temperature of 393 K, the films exhibited anatase crystallites (10 nm dimensions) and reduced roughness (11.8 nm rms). The atomic composition of both AG and AN films was consistent with that of TiO2 containing no more than 4 atom % carbon. A small Si impurity (<1 atom %) was eliminated by using polypropylene beakers and sample holders in the SILAR steps.

  1. Optical properties of rubrene thin film prepared by thermal evaporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 邓金祥; 孔乐; 崔敏; 陈仁刚; 张紫佳

    2015-01-01

    Rubrene thin films are deposited on quartz substrates and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) films by the thermal evapo-ration technique. The optical properties of rubrene thin film are investigated in a spectral range of 190 nm–1600 nm. The analysis of the absorption coefficient (α) reveals direct allowed transition with a corresponding energy of 2.24 eV. The photoluminescence (PL) peak of the rubrene thin film is observed to be at 563 nm (2.21 eV). With the use of Ag NPs which are fabricated by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering on the quartz, the PL intensity is 8.5 times that of as-deposited rubrene thin film. It is attributed to the fact that the surface plasmon enhances the photoluminescence.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Self-Assembled Manganese Dioxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Cem Pang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of manganese dioxide (MnO2 were prepared by self-assembly of MnO2 nanoparticles directly unto nickel-coated poly(ethylene terephthalate flexible films using the newly developed horizontal submersion process. The thickness of deposited thin films was controllable by the deposition duration. This horizontal submersion deposition process for thin-film deposition is relatively easy, simple, and cost effective. Effects of deposition duration and calcination temperatures on the microstructure and electrochemical properties of self-assembled MnO2 thin films were investigated. Optimized MnO2 thin films exhibited high charge capacity, good cycling reversibility, and stability in a mild aqueous electrolyte and are thus promising electrode materials for the fabrication of thin-film electrochemical capacitors.

  3. Properties of TiO2 Thin Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With rapid progressive application of TiO2 thin films, magnetron sputtering becomes a very interesting method to prepare such multi-functional thin films. This paper focuses on influences of various deposition processes and deposition rate on the structures and properties of TiO2 thin films. Anatase, rutile or amorphous TiO2 films with various crystalline structures and different photocatalytic, optical and electrical properties can be produced by varying sputtering gases, substrate temperature, annealing process, deposition rate and the characteristics of magnetron sputtering. This may in turn affect the functions of TiO2 films in many applications. Furthermore, TiO2-based composites films can overcome many limitations and improve the properties of TiO2 films.

  4. Surface and Electrical Properties of NiCr Thin Films Prepared by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jicheng; TIAN Li; YAN Jianwu

    2008-01-01

    Several batches of NiCr alloy thin films with different thickness were prepared in a multi-targets magnetron sputtering apparatus by changing sputtering time while keeping sputtering target power of Ni and Cr fixed. Then the as-deposited films were characterized by energy-dispersive X-Ray spectrometer (EDX),Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and four-point probe (FPP) to measure surface grain size, roughness and sheet resistance. The film thickness was measured by Alpha-Step IQ Profilers. The thickness dependence of surface roughness, lateral grain size and resistivity was also studied. The experimental results show that the grain size increases with film thickness and the surface roughness reaches the order of nanometer at all film thickness. The as-deposited film resistivity decreases with film thickness.

  5. Preparation, characterisation, engine performance and emission characteristics of coconut oil based hybrid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pranil J.; Singh, Anirudh [Division of Physics, School of Engineering and Physics, Faculty of Science, Technology and Environment, University of the South Pacific, 325 Fletcher Road, Suva (Fiji); Khurma, Jagjit [Division of Chemistry, School of Biological, Chemical and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Technology and Environment, University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji)

    2010-09-15

    In this study, hybrid fuels consisting of coconut oil, aqueous ethanol and a surfactant (butan-1-ol) were prepared and tested as a fuel in a direct injection diesel engine. After determining fuel properties such as the density, viscosity and gross calorific values of these fuels, they were used to run a diesel engine. The engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with that of diesel. The experimental results show that the efficiency of the hybrid fuels is comparable to that of diesel. As the viscosity of the hybrid fuels decreased and approached that of diesel, the efficiency increased progressively towards that of diesel. The exhaust emissions were lower than those for diesel, except carbon monoxide emissions, which increased. Hence, it is concluded that these hybrid fuels can be used successfully as an alternative fuel in diesel engines without any modifications. Their completely renewable nature ensures that they are environmentally friendly with regard to their emissions characteristics. (author)

  6. Preparation of stable food-grade double emulsions with a hybrid premix membrane emulsification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisinaite, Viktorija; Juraite, Dovile; Schroën, Karin; Leskauskaite, Daiva

    2016-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate that food-grade double emulsions can be successfully prepared using a hybrid premix emulsification system. A coarse emulsion containing beetroot juice as inner water phase, sunflower oil as oil phase and 0.5% or 1.0% whey protein isolate solution as outer water phase

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Hybrid Luminescence Mesoporous MCM-48 Doped with Eu( Ⅲ ) Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Qingguo; Li Huanrong; Peng Chunyun; Zhang Hongjie; Boutinaud P; Franville A C; Mahiou R

    2004-01-01

    The preparation of hybrid mesoporous MCM-48 grafted by vinyl group via post-grafting process was reported and studied by X-ray diffraction, BET and 29Si solid MAS NMR.An organic β-diketonate Europium complex the corresponding luminescence property was characterized.

  8. Metal nanoparticle deposited inorganic nanostructure hybrids, uses thereof and processes for their preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenne, Reshef; Tsverin, Yulia; Burghaus, Uwe; Komarneni, Mallikharjuna Rao

    2016-01-26

    This invention relates to a hybrid component comprising at least one nanoparticle of inorganic layered compound (in the form of fullerene-like structure or nanotube), and at least one metal nanoparticle, uses thereof as a catalyst, (e.g. photocatalysis) and processes for its preparation.

  9. Solvent-Assisted Gel Printing for Micropatterning Thin Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Beomjin; Hwang, Ihn; Cho, Sung Hwan; Kim, Eui Hyuk; Cha, Soonyoung; Lee, Jinseong; Kang, Han Sol; Cho, Suk Man; Choi, Hyunyong; Park, Cheolmin

    2016-09-27

    While tremendous efforts have been made for developing thin perovskite films suitable for a variety of potential photoelectric applications such as solar cells, field-effect transistors, and photodetectors, only a few works focus on the micropatterning of a perovskite film which is one of the most critical issues for large area and uniform microarrays of perovskite-based devices. Here we demonstrate a simple but robust method of micropatterning a thin perovskite film with controlled crystalline structure which guarantees to preserve its intrinsic photoelectric properties. A variety of micropatterns of a perovskite film are fabricated by either microimprinting or transfer-printing a thin spin-coated precursor film in soft-gel state with a topographically prepatterned elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) mold, followed by thermal treatment for complete conversion of the precursor film to a perovskite one. The key materials development of our solvent-assisted gel printing is to prepare a thin precursor film with a high-boiling temperature solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide. The residual solvent in the precursor gel film makes the film moldable upon microprinting with a patterned PDMS mold, leading to various perovskite micropatterns in resolution of a few micrometers over a large area. Our nondestructive micropatterning process does not harm the intrinsic photoelectric properties of a perovskite film, which allows for realizing arrays of parallel-type photodetectors containing micropatterns of a perovskite film with reliable photoconduction performance. The facile transfer of a micropatterned soft-gel precursor film on other substrates including mechanically flexible plastics can further broaden its applications to flexible photoelectric systems.

  10. Polyhydroxyalkanoate-based natural synthetic hybrid copolymer films: A small-angle neutron scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, L. John R.; Knott, Robert; Sanguanchaipaiwong, Vorapat; Holden, Peter J.

    2006-11-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates have attracted attention as biodegradable alternatives to conventional thermoplastics and as biomaterials. Through modification of their biosynthesis using Pseudomonas oleovorans, we have manipulated the material properties of these biopolyesters and produced a natural-synthetic hybrid copolymer of polyhydroxyoctanoate- block-diethylene glycol (PHO- b-DEG). A mixture of PHO and PHO-DEG were solvent cast from analytical grade chloroform and analysed using small-angle neutron scattering. A scattering pattern, easily distinguished above the background, was displayed by the films with a diffraction ring at q∼0.12 Å -1. This narrow ring of intensity is suggestive of a highly ordered system. Analysis of the diffraction pattern supported this concept and showed a d-spacing of approximately 50 Å. In addition, conformation of the hybrid polymer chains can be manipulated to support their self-assembly into ordered microporous films.

  11. Polyhydroxyalkanoate-based natural-synthetic hybrid copolymer films: A small-angle neutron scattering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, L. John R. [Bio/polymer Research Group and Centre for Advanced Macromolecular Design, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW2052 (Australia)]. E-mail: J.Foster@unsw.edu.au; Knott, Robert [Bragg Institute, Institute for Nuclear Geophysiology, Australian Nucelar Science and Technology Organisation, Menai NSW2234 (Australia); Sanguanchaipaiwong, Vorapat [Bio/polymer Research Group and Centre for Advanced Macromolecular Design, School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW2052 (Australia); Holden, Peter J. [Institute for Nuclear Geophysiology, Australian Nucelar Science and Technology Organisation, Menai NSW2234 (Australia)

    2006-11-15

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates have attracted attention as biodegradable alternatives to conventional thermoplastics and as biomaterials. Through modification of their biosynthesis using Pseudomonas oleovorans, we have manipulated the material properties of these biopolyesters and produced a natural-synthetic hybrid copolymer of polyhydroxyoctanoate-block-diethylene glycol (PHO-b-DEG). A mixture of PHO and PHO-DEG were solvent cast from analytical grade chloroform and analysed using small-angle neutron scattering. A scattering pattern, easily distinguished above the background, was displayed by the films with a diffraction ring at q{approx}0.12 A{sup -1}. This narrow ring of intensity is suggestive of a highly ordered system. Analysis of the diffraction pattern supported this concept and showed a d-spacing of approximately 50 A. In addition, conformation of the hybrid polymer chains can be manipulated to support their self-assembly into ordered microporous films.

  12. Physical and Degradable Properties of Mulching Films Prepared from Natural Fibers and Biodegradable Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Tan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of plastic film in agriculture has the serious drawback of producing vast quantities of waste. In this work, films were prepared from natural fibers and biodegradable polymers as potential substitutes for the conventional non-biodegradable plastic film used as mulching material in agricultural production. The physical properties (e.g., mechanical properties, heat preservation, water permeability, and photopermeability and degradation characteristics (evaluated by micro-organic culture testing and soil burial testing of the films were studied in both laboratory and field tests. The experimental results indicated that these fiber/polymer films exhibited favorable physical properties that were sufficient for use in mulching film applications. Moreover, the degradation degree of the three tested films decreased in the following order: fiber/starch (ST film > fiber/poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA film > fiber/polyacrylate (PA film. The fiber/starch and fiber/PVA films were made from completely biodegradable materials and demonstrated the potential to substitute non-biodegradable films.

  13. Preparation of transparent TiO2 nanocrystalline film for UV sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Yao; GAO Wanghe

    2006-01-01

    The nanocrystalline TiO2 film electrodes were prepared by sol-gel method at different calcining temperatures, which had characteristics of different film thickness, uniform transparency, as well as high photoelectric and mechanical stability. Photoelectric measurements show that calcining temperature and film thickness could remarkably influence the photoelectric properties of the electrodes. The film calcined at 450℃ is anatase phase with high crystallinity and strong photoelectric activity, and shows the largest photocurrent. When the temperature is lower than 450℃, the film has weaker crystallinity because of a large number of defects in the film,and this is not favorable for the transport of the photogenerated carriers. And at a temperature higher than 450℃, the photocurrent of the electrode is decreased due to anatase-rutile phase transition in the film. The increase in film thickness is favorable to the enhancement of ultraviolet light (UV) absorption amount, which would improve the photoelectric activity of the film. But, excessive thickness will increase the recombination rate of the electron-hole pairs, and result in a reduction in electrode's photoelectric activity. In addition, the response sensitivity and stability of the photocurrent produced in the electrode are related to bias potential. At a potential of 0.4 V, the electrode shows a saturated photocurrent of 30.8 μA and a response time of ~1 s, suggesting that the prepared TiO2 film electrode can be used for making UV sensors.

  14. Effect of probiotic preparation for chemical composition of meat cocks different combinations of hybrid chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Haščík

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment were verified the application of probiotic preparation through a water supply for feeding of cock’s hybrids Ross 308, Hubbard JV and Cobb 500 in the chemical composition of the most valuable parts of the carcass. Probiotic was based on the strain Lactobacillus fermentum with containing of 1.109 cfu.g−1 and potentially components of maltodextrin and oligofructose in 1% concentration. Length of feeding period was 42 days. Cocks were fed an ad libitum with the same starter mixture HYD-01 to 21th day and from 22nd to 42nd day of feeding with mixture HYD-02 in powdery form. The average of protein content of breast muscle was highest in Hubbard JV hybrid (23.93 g.100 g−1, lower in Cobb 500 hybrid (23.90 g.100 g−1 and lowest in Ross 308 hybrid (23.73 g.100 g−1, without significant differences (P ≥ 0.05 between hybrids and hybrids groups. Effect of probiotics had increased the protein content (P ≥ 0.05 in breast muscle of Ross 308 and Cobb 500 cocks and at the Hubbard JV only lower doses application during the feeding. The average of fat content in 100 g of breast muscle was lowest in Cobb 500 hybrid (1.09 g, higher in Hubbard JV hybrid (1.28 g and highest in Ross 308 hybrid (1.35 g. Effect of probiotic to reduce fat content in breast muscle of cocks was at Ross 308 hybrid (1.33 and 1.23 g.100 g−1, Cobb 500 hybrid (0.98 and 1.02 g.100 g−1 and in second experimental group at Hubbard JV hybrid (1.03 g.100 g−1 statistically significant (P ≥ 0.05 in compared with control group, but significantly (P ≤ 0.05 between hybrids Cobb 500 and Hubbard JV in the first test groups. The average of energy value in 100 g of breast muscle was highest in Hubbard JV hybrid (449.24 kJ, lower in Ross 308 hybrid (448.40 kJ and lowest in Cobb 500 hybrid (441.45 kJ, without significant differences (P ≥ 0.05 between hybrids and hybrids groups. The average of protein content of the femur was highest in Ross 308 hybrid (18.56 g.100

  15. Synthesis and modification of mesoporous silica and the preparation of molecular sieve thin films via pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Decio Heringer

    2001-07-01

    Hexagonal mesoporous DAM-1 (Dallas Amorphous Material-1) was prepared using Vitamin E TPGS as the structure-directing agent. Depending upon the temperature and gel composition, highly ordered and hydrothermally stable DAM-1 with various morphologies could be achieved including spheres, gyroids, discoid, hexagonal plates and rods. This synthesis was modified to prepare hybrid organic-inorganic amine and thiol bifunctionalized DAM-1 by direct co-condensation under acidic conditions. Patterned DAM-1 thin films were prepared on patterned transparencies utilizing pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and line patterning techniques. DAM-1 laser ablation onto the patterned substrate followed by hydrothermal treatment resulted in a densely packed film. Removal of the patterned lines by sonication revealed patterned DAM-1 films. Thin films of zeolite type X were also prepared using the PLD technique. Laser ablation of zeolite X onto TiN-coated silicon wafers followed by a hydrothermal treatment resulted in partially oriented, crystalline membranes. Hydrothermal treatment of PLD films on stainless steel mesh produced a coated wire mesh with a 3-mum thick zeolite X film. A novel strategy for imprinting mesoporous SBA-15 that combines a triblock copolymer template and a chiral ruthenium complex is reported. A chiral PEO helix was formed by the chiral ruthenium complex interaction with the block copolymer during the synthesis of SBA-15. Upon removal of the chiral ruthenium complex, a stereospecfic cavity was created. Preliminary results indicated stereoselective absorption of Delta or Λ-Ru(phen)3 2+ isomer from a racemic mixture could be achieved depending on the chirality of the PEO chain. Practicum Two. The industrial practicum report describes the process development unit (PDU) 3-pentenenitrile (3PN) refining operation. This distillation works was operated to refine crude 3PN product, which contained 3PN, 2-methyl-3-butenenitrile (2M3BN), and other byproducts. This report also

  16. Resonant photothermal laser processing of hybrid gold/titania nanoparticle films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schade, Lina; Franzka, Steffen; Dzialkowski, Kevin [Fakultät für Chemie, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Hardt, Sebastian; Wiggers, Hartmut [Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Institut für Verbrennung und Gasdynamik, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); Reichenberger, Sven [Fakultät für Chemie, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Institut für Lacke und Oberflächenchemie, Hochschule Niederrhein, 47798 Krefeld (Germany); Wagener, Philipp [Fakultät für Chemie, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Hartmann, Nils, E-mail: nils.hartmann@uni-due.de [Fakultät für Chemie, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photothermal processing of TiO{sub 2} and hybrid Au/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles using continuous-wave lasers is demonstrated. • Processing of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles at 355 nm results in a transition from anatase to rutile. • Decoration of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with Au nanoparticles results in an increased absorbance in the visible range. • Hybrid Au/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles can be processed at 355 nm and 532 nm in a large laser parameter window. • Processing of hybrid Au/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles at 532 nm can be carried out at low laser powers and short laser pulse lengths. - Abstract: Photothermal processing of thin anatase TiO{sub 2} and hybrid Au/anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle films on glass supports is investigated using continuous-wave microfocused lasers at λ = 355 nm and λ = 532 nm. UV/Vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are used for characterization. Processing of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle films is feasible at λ = 355 nm only. In contrast, the addition of Au nanoparticles enhances the overall absorbance of the material in the visible range and enables processing at both wavelengths, i.e. at λ = 355 nm and λ = 532 nm. Generally, laser heating induces a transition from anatase to rutile. The modification degree increases with increasing laser power and laser irradiation time. Resonant laser processing of hybrid Au/TiO{sub 2}-mesoporous films provide promising perspectives in various applications, e.g. in photovoltaics, where embedded nanoparticulate Au could be exploited to enhance light trapping.

  17. Raman spectroscopy of chalcogenide thin films prepared by PLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erazu, M.; Rocca, J. [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos, INTECIN, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires - CONICET, Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fontana, M., E-mail: merazu@fi.uba.a [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos, INTECIN, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires - CONICET, Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Urena, A.; Arcondo, B. [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos, INTECIN, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires - CONICET, Paseo Colon 850, 1063 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pradel, A. [ICG, UMR 5253 CNRS UM 2 ENSCM UM1 equipe PMDP CC3, Universite Montpellier 2, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2010-04-16

    Chalcogenide glasses have many technological applications as a result of their particular optical and electrical properties. Ge-Se and Ag-Ge-Se systems were recently studied and tested as new materials for building non-volatile memories. Following these ideas, thin films of Ge-Se and Ag-Ge-Se were deposited using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Ag was sputtered over binary films (for a composition between 0.05 and 0.25 Ag atomic fraction) and photo-diffused afterwards. Thus, three kinds of samples were analyzed by means of Raman spectroscopy, in order to provide information on the short- and medium-range order: PLD binary films before Ag doping, after Ag doping and PLD ternary films. Before Ag doping, binary films exhibited Ge-Se corner-sharing tetrahedra modes at 190 cm{sup -1}, low scattering from edge-sharing tetrahedra at 210 cm{sup -1}, and Se chains at 260 cm{sup -1} (stretching mode). However, after the diffusion process was complete, we observed an intensity reduction of bands centered at 210 cm{sup -1} and 260 cm{sup -1}. The spectra of the photo-diffused films were similar to those of films deposited using a ternary target. Relaxation effects in binary glasses were also analyzed. Results were compared with those of other authors.

  18. Preparation of iron cobaltite thin films by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Trong, H. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, 118, Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); CNRS, Institut Carnot Cirimat, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Ho Chi Minh City University of Science, Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh City, 227 Nguyen Van Cu Q 5, 750000 Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Bui, T.M.A. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, 118, Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); CNRS, Institut Carnot Cirimat, F-31062 Toulouse (France); University of Transport and Communications, Lang Thuong, Dong Da, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Presmanes, L., E-mail: presmane@chimie.ups-tlse.fr [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, 118, Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); CNRS, Institut Carnot Cirimat, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Barnabé, A.; Pasquet, I.; Bonningue, C.; Tailhades, Ph. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, Institut Carnot CIRIMAT, 118, Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); CNRS, Institut Carnot Cirimat, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

    2015-08-31

    Iron cobaltite thin films with spinel structure have been elaborated by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering from a Co{sub 1.75}Fe{sub 1.25}O{sub 4} target. Influence of argon pressure on structure, microstructure and physical properties of films has been examined. Iron–cobalt oxide thin films essentially consist of one spinel phase when deposited at low pressure (0.5 and 1.0 Pa). At high pressure (2.0 Pa), the global stoichiometry of the film is changed which results in the precipitation of a mixed monoxide of cobalt and iron beside the spinel phase. This in-situ reduction due to an oxygen loss occurring mainly at high deposition pressure has been revealed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Microstructural evolution of thin film with argon pressure has been shown by microscopic observations (AFM and SEM). The evolution of magnetic and electrical properties, versus argon pressure, has been also studied by SQUID and 4 point probe measurements. - Highlights: • Co{sub 1.75}Fe{sub 1.25}O{sub 4} phase is obtained at room temperature without any annealing. • This phase is a ferrimagnetic semiconductor with a coercive field of 32 kOe at 5 K. • Oxygen content of the thin film is related to the argon pressure during sputtering. • Monoxide phase grows into the film at high argon pressure. • Magnetic coupling effect reveals nanoscale impurities at low argon pressure.

  19. Preparation and characterization of sponge film made from feathers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaoqian [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Cao, Zhangjun [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Meihua [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Gao, Pin, E-mail: gaopin@mail.dhu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Feather wastes generated from poultry farms will pose a problem for disposal, but they are sustainable resources of keratin. Reduction is one of the commonly used methods to obtain soluble keratin from feather. However, the residues generated during feather reduction reaction were rarely investigated. In this study, the residues were transformed into a porous and flexible sponge film by freeze-drying without pretreatment or addition of cross-linking agents. Glycerol was used to alter the physical and chemical characteristics of the sponge film. The film was characterized with a fiber strong stretch instrument, a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, an elemental analyzer, a differential scanning calorimeter and an automatic air permeability apparatus. Tensile strength and melting point of the sponge film with the optimum glycerol content were 6.2 MPa and 170 °C respectively. Due to air permeability of 368 mm/s, the film can potentially be used in medicine, biology, textile, environmental technology, and so on. It is ecologically friendly and will produce additional benefits from the renewable materials. The film was utilized as adsorbents to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions and as a filtering material for air pollution. Its maximum Cr(VI) uptake capacity was about 148.8 mg/g and the removal rate of PM{sub 10} was 98.3%. - Graphical abstract: The reduction residues were made into a smooth, elastic, porous and flexible sponge film through freeze drying, no pretreatment and no cross-linking agent added. - Highlights: • The residue from feather waste reduction was turned into a sponge film. • A glycerol content of 5% produced a sponge with the optimum characteristics. • The sponge was uniform, stable up to 160 °C, and had an air permeability of 368 mm/s. • Feather-derived sponge film has potential applications in medicine and technology.

  20. Hybrid Solar Cell with TiO2 Film: BBOT Polymer and Copper Phthalocyanine as Sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptadip Saha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell was fabricated using Titanium dioxide (TiO2: 2,5-bis(5-tert-butyl-2-benzoxazolyl thiophene (BBOT film and Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc as a sensitizer. BBOT was used in photodetector in other reported research works, but as per best of our knowledge, it was not implemented in solar cells till date. The blend of TiO2: BBOT blend was used to fabricate the film on ITO-coated glass and further a thin layer of CuPc was coated on the film. This was acted as photoanode and another ITO coated glass with a platinum coating was used as a counter electrode (cathode. An optimal blend of acetonitrile (solvent (50-100%, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium iodide (10-25%, iodine (2.5-10% and lithium iodide, pyridine derivative and thiocyanate was used as electrolytes in the hybrid solar cell. The different structural, optical and electrical characteristics were measured. The Hybrid solar cell showed a maximum conversion efficiency of 6.51%.

  1. Comparison of physicomechanical properties of films prepared from organic solutions and aqueous dispersion of Eudragit RL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Afrasiabi Garekani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Mechanical properties of films prepared from aqueous dispersion and organic solutions of Eudragit RL were assessed and the effects of plasticizer type, concentration and curing were examined. Methods: Films were prepared from aqueous dispersion and solutions of Eudragit RL (isopropyl alcohol-water 9:1 containing 0, 10 or 20% (based on polymer weight of PEG 400 or Triethyl Citrate (TEC as plasticizer using casting method. Samples of films were stored in oven at 60ºC for 24 hrs (Cured. The stress-strain curve was obtained for each film using material testing machine and tensile strength, elastic modulus, %elongation and work of failure were calculated. Results and major conclusion: The films with no plasticizer showed different mechanical properties depending on the vehicle used. Addition of 10% or 20% of plasticizer decreased the tensile strength and elastic modulus and increased %elongation and work of failure for all films. The effect of PEG400 on mechanical properties of Eudragit RL films was more pronounced. The differences in mechanical properties of the films due to vehicle decreased by addition of plasticizer and increase in its concentration. Curing process weakened the mechanical properties of the films with no plasticizer and for films with 10% plasticizer no considerable difference in mechanical properties was observed before and after curing. For those with 20% plasticizer only films prepared from aqueous dispersion showed remarkable difference in mechanical properties before and after curing. Results of this study suggest that the mechanical properties of the Eudragit RL films were affected by the vehicle, type of plasticizer and its concentration in the coating liquid.

  2. Comparison of barium titanate thin films prepared by inkjet printing and spin coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vukmirović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, barium titanate films were prepared by different deposition techniques (spin coating, office Epson inkjet printer and commercial Dimatix inkjet printer. As inkjet technique requires special rheological properties of inks the first part of the study deals with the preparation of inks, whereas the second part examines and compares structural characteristics of the deposited films. Inks were synthesized by sol-gel method and parameters such as viscosity, particle size and surface tension were measured. Deposited films were examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy, XRD analysis and Raman spectroscopy. The findings consider advantages and disadvantages of the particular deposition techniques.

  3. Flexible room-temperature formaldehyde sensors based on rGO film and rGo/MoS2 hybrid film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian; Wang, Jing; Xie, Dan; Xu, Jianlong; Xia, Yi; Li, Weiwei; Xiang, Lan; Li, Zhemin; Xu, Shiwei; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2017-08-01

    Gas sensors based on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films and rGO/MoS2 hybrid films were fabricated on polyethylene naphthalate substrates by a simple self-assembly method, which yielded flexible devices for detection of formaldehyde (HCHO) at room temperature. The sensing test results indicated that the rGO and rGO/MoS2 sensors were highly sensitive and fully recoverable to a ppm-level of HCHO. The bending and fatigue test results revealed that the sensors were also mechanically robust, durable and effective for long-term use. The rGO/MoS2 sensors showed higher sensitivities than rGO sensors, which was attributed to the enhanced HCHO adsorption and electron transfer mediated by MoS2. Furthermore, two kinds of MoS2 nanosheets were prepared by either hydrothermal synthesis or chemical exfoliation and were compared for their detection of HCHO, which revealed that the hydrothermally produced MoS2 nanosheets with rich defects led to enhanced sensitivity of the rGO/MoS2 sensors. Moreover, these fabricated flexible sensors can be applied for the HCHO detection in food packaging.

  4. Extraordinarily high conductivity of flexible adhesive films by hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed Ajmal, C.; Mol Menamparambath, Mini; Ryeol Choi, Hyouk; Baik, Seunghyun

    2016-06-01

    Highly conductive flexible adhesive (CFA) film was developed using micro-sized silver flakes (primary fillers), hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires (secondary fillers) and nitrile butadiene rubber. The hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires were synthesized by decorating silver nanowires with silver nanoparticle clusters using bifunctional cysteamine as a linker. The dispersion in ethanol was excellent for several months. Silver nanowires constructed electrical networks between the micro-scale silver flakes. The low-temperature surface sintering of silver nanoparticles enabled effective joining of silver nanowires to silver flakes. The hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires provided a greater maximum conductivity (54 390 S cm-1) than pure silver nanowires, pure multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes decorated with silver nanoparticles in nitrile butadiene rubber matrix. The resistance change was smallest upon bending when the hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires were employed. The adhesion of the film on polyethylene terephthalate substrate was excellent. Light emitting diodes were successfully wired to the CFA circuit patterned by the screen printing method for application demonstration.

  5. Polymer/Carbon-Based Hybrid Aerogels: Preparation, Properties and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeng Zuo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aerogels are synthetic porous materials derived from sol-gel materials in which the liquid component has been replaced with gas to leave intact solid nanostructures without pore collapse. Recently, aerogels based on natural or synthetic polymers, called polymer or organic aerogels, have been widely explored due to their porous structures and unique properties, such as high specific surface area, low density, low thermal conductivity and dielectric constant. This paper gives a comprehensive review about the most recent progresses in preparation, structures and properties of polymer and their derived carbon-based aerogels, as well as their potential applications in various fields including energy storage, adsorption, thermal insulation and flame retardancy. To facilitate further research and development, the technical challenges are discussed, and several future research directions are also suggested in this review.

  6. Synthesis and Properties of ZnO/Al Thin Films Prepared by Dip-Coating Process

    OpenAIRE

    Juhņeviča, I; Mašonkina, M; Mežinskis, G; Gabrene, A

    2015-01-01

    In this work sol–gel dip-coating technique was used to synthesize ZnO and ZnO/Al films. The influence of annealing regime and dopant concentration on the structural properties of ZnO and aluminum doped ZnO (ZnO/Al) films was investigated. The surface morphology and crystallinity of ZnO films were determined using atomic force microscopy and Xray diffraction, respectively. The experimental results show that ZnO and ZnO/Al films prepared using “shock” conditions have smo...

  7. Study of photoconductivity in Ni doped CdS thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patidar, Manju Mishra, E-mail: manjumishra.iuc@gmail.com; Gangrade, Mohan; Nath, R.; Ganesan, V. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandawa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Ajay, Akhil [Physics Department, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Wala, Arwa Dewas [Holkar Science College, Indore - 452001 (India); N, Kiran [Physics Department, University of Mysore, Mysore-570005 (India); Panda, Richa [AITR, Bhopal-462044 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Ni-doped cadmium sulphide [Cd{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}S, (x=0, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.20)] thin films were investigated for photoconductive properties. The films were prepared by spray Pyrolysis technique (SPT). AFM and two probe resistivity measurements were carried out to analyze the morphological and electrical properties of the films. AFM shows the note worthy changes in the morphology where the nanorod structures in CdS is changed into nano particles with the Ni doping. The presence of persistence photo current is demonstrated and extensive photoconductivity analysis has been studied on these films.

  8. Preparation of self-sustained film by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹冰; 朱从善

    1999-01-01

    Large size self-sustained film with considerable thickness ranging from 30 to 500 μm was prepared with sol-gel method by using dimethyldiethoxysilane/tetraethoxysilane composite alkoxide as precursor. The film exhibits good plasticity as well. Various factors that may influence the film properties were investigated. IR and AFM techniques were adopted to study the film structure and surface morphology. Gas chromatogram/mass spectrum technique was also adopted to characterize the network structure of the material through identification of different polymers formed during hydrolysis and condensation course.

  9. Electrochemical preparation of La-Co-Fe alloy films in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁定胜; 黄开胜; 刘冠昆; 童叶翔; 沙励嫦

    2001-01-01

    Potentiostatic and pulse electrolysis techniques were used to prepare La-Co-Fe alloy films using ethylenediamine (EN) as complexant. Surfaces of alloy films obtained by these two techniques are smooth, adhesive, compact and metallic luster. The contents of La in alloy films obtained by potentiostatic electrolysis technique are in the range of 13.23%~47.67%. The contents of La in alloy films deposited by pulse electrolysis technique are in the range of 10.67%~16.29%.

  10. Preparation and characterization of ZnTe thin films by SILAR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, S.S. [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sungdong-Ku, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Mane, R.S. [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sungdong-Ku, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Pathan, H.M. [Eco-Nano Research Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 131, Chongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Shaikh, A.V. [AKI' s Poona College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Pune (India); Joo, Oh-Shim [Eco-Nano Research Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 131, Chongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sung-Hwan [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sungdong-Ku, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: shhan@hanyang.ac.kr

    2007-02-28

    Nanocrystalline zinc telluride (ZnTe) thin films were prepared by using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method from aqueous solutions of zinc sulfate and sodium telluride. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and optical absorption measurement techniques. The synthesized ZnTe thin films were nanocrystalline with densely aggregated particles in nanometer scale and were free from the voids or cracks. The optical band gap energy of the film was found to be thickness dependent. The elemental chemical compositional stoichiometric analysis revealed good Zn:Te elemental ratio of 53:47.

  11. Preparation and characterization of ZnTe thin films by SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, S. S.; Mane, R. S.; Pathan, H. M.; Shaikh, A. V.; Joo, Oh-Shim; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2007-02-01

    Nanocrystalline zinc telluride (ZnTe) thin films were prepared by using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method from aqueous solutions of zinc sulfate and sodium telluride. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and optical absorption measurement techniques. The synthesized ZnTe thin films were nanocrystalline with densely aggregated particles in nanometer scale and were free from the voids or cracks. The optical band gap energy of the film was found to be thickness dependent. The elemental chemical compositional stoichiometric analysis revealed good Zn:Te elemental ratio of 53:47.

  12. Thin Films with Low Zn Content Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caijuan Tian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical bath deposition (CBD was used for the growth of thin films with low Zn content. The influence of preparation conditions, such as pH, temperature, and concentration, on film properties was investigated. The chemical growth mechanism of thin films was analyzed, and optimized growth conditions for the thin films were established. The fill factor and short-circuit current were improved while was used to replace CdS as the window layer in CdTe solar cells.

  13. Studies on preparation and characterization of indium doped zinc oxide films by chemical spray deposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Benny Joseph; P K Manoj; V K Vaidyan

    2005-08-01

    The preparation of indium doped zinc oxide films is discussed. Variation of structural, electrical and optical properties of the films with zinc acetate concentration and indium concentration in the solution are investigated. XRD studies have shown a change in preferential orientation from (002) to (101) crystal plane with increase in indium dopant concentration. Films deposited at optimum conditions have a low resistivity of 1.33 × 10-4 m with 94% transmittance at 550 nm. SEM studies have shown smooth polycrystalline morphology of the films. Figure of merit is evaluated from electrical resistivity and transmittance data.

  14. Preparation of a Novel Coal Gangue-Polyacrylamide Hybrid Flocculant and Its Flocculation Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangao Quan; Huiyun Wang

    2014-01-01

    A novel flocculant based on hybrid coal gangue-polyacrylamide (HCGPAM) has been prepared by using modified coal gangue and polyacrylamide. Factors related to the preparation such as reaction time, temperature, concentration of the polymer monomer and ratio of initiators are investigated. The product is characterized by infrared spectra (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), aswell as viscometry. The flocculating tests on oilfield drilling wastewater show that the removal efficiency is 85.5% and the light transmittance is 53.6%. The results indicate that the coal gangue could be used for the preparation of inorganic-organic hybrid flocculant and the removal efficiency is much higher than that of commercial polyacrylamide (PAM) or PAM/ coal gangue blend.

  15. Pharmaceutical films made from the waste material from the preparation of propolis extracts: development and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Alcântara Sica de Toledo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract This study investigated the development and characterized the physicochemical properties of films obtained from by-products (BP from the preparation of propolis extracts. Films were produced in the presence and absence of a polymeric adjuvant (gelatin or ethylcellulose and propylene glycol by a solvent casting method. Density, surface topography by scanning electron microscopy, mechanical properties (folding endurance, tensile strength and percentage elongation, water vapour permeability (WVP, moisture uptake capacity, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were determined. The films were a transparent, light greenish-yellow colour, with a uniform surface, and were flexible and easy to handle. The thickness and density of the preparations indicated that the compounds were homogeneously dispersed throughout the film. Mechanical properties were influenced by the film composition; films containing gelatin were more resistant to stress, while those containing ethylcellulose were more flexible. Increasing the adjuvant concentration decreased the elasticity and the rupture resistance, but increased the moisture uptake capacity and WVP of the formulations. BP was thermally stable as were the films. FTIR tests suggested interactions between BP and the adjuvants. This work could contribute to the utilization of BP to prepare films for food and pharmaceutical uses

  16. Preparation of BiFeO3 thin films by pulsed laser deposition method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guan-jun; CHENG Jin-rong; CHEN Rui; YU Sheng-wen; MENG Zhong-yan

    2006-01-01

    BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films were prepared on Pt(111)/TiO2/SiO2/Si(100) substrates by the pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) technique at a low temperature of 450℃. The XRD results indicate that the BFO thin films are of perovskite structure with the presence of small amount of second phases. The oxygen pressures have great effect on the crystalline structures and dielectric properties of BFO thin films. The dielectric constant of the BFO thin films decreases with increasing oxygen pressures,achieving 186,171 and 160 at the frequency of 104 Hz for the oxygen pressures of 0.666,1.333 and 13.332 Pa,respectively. The BFO thin films prepared at the oxygen pressure of 0.666 Pa reveal a saturated hysteresis loop with the remanent polarization of 7.5 μC/cm2 and the coercive field of 176 kV/cm.

  17. PLD prepared nanostructured Pt-CeO2 thin films containing ionic platinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorokhta, M.; Khalakhan, I.; Matolínová, I.; Nováková, J.; Haviar, S.; Lančok, J.; Novotný, M.; Yoshikawa, H.; Matolín, V.

    2017-02-01

    The composition of nanostructured Pt-CeO2 films on graphite substrates prepared by pulsed laser deposition has been investigated by means of hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The influence of morphology of the graphite substrates was investigated with respect to the relative concentrations of ionic and metallic Pt species in the films. It was found that the degree of Pt2+ enrichment is directly related to the surface morphology of graphite substrates. In particular, the deposition of Pt-CeO2 films on rough graphite substrate etched in oxygen plasma yielded nanostructured Pt-CeO2 catalyst films with high surface area and high Pt2+/Pt0 ratio. The presented results demonstrate that PLD is a suitable method for the preparation of thin Pt-CeO2 catalyst films for fuel cell applications.

  18. Composition, XRD and morphology study of laser prepared LiNbO{sub 3} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelinek, M.; Remsa, J.; Kocourek, T. [Institute of Physics ASCR v.v.i., Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Sitna, Kladno (Czech Republic); Havranek, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR, Rez near Prague (Czech Republic); Vincze, A.; Bruncko, J. [International Laser Centre, Bratislava 4 (Slovakia); Studnicka, V. [Institute of Physics ASCR v.v.i., Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Rubesova, K. [Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2013-03-15

    LiNbO{sub 3} films were deposited by PLD from LiNbO{sub 3} crystalline or from three different stoichiometric or Li-enriched LiNbO{sub 3} targets. Polycrystalline films were prepared on SiO{sub 2}/Si or sapphire substrates at temperatures T{sub S} {proportional_to}650-750 C. Main attention was paid to the influence of targets preparation and the deposition conditions on films composition, morphology and crystallinity. The thin-film morphology was determined by SEM microscopy. The composition was measured by SIMS, RBS, PIXE and PIGE methods. Highly oriented, smooth and stoichiometric LiNbO{sub 3} films were synthesized. (orig.)

  19. Preparation of Nano-Graphite Films and Field Emission Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yong-Mei; ZHANG Bing-Lin; YAO Ning; LU Zhan-Ling; ZHANG Xin-Yue

    2004-01-01

    @@ Nano-graphite films have been deposited on n-Si substrates by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition. The surface morphology and microstructure of the films were tested by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. In the field emission measurement, a turn-on field of 0. 5 V/μm and a high emission-site density of 105/cm2 on a tested emission area of (34 × 35 mm2) have been obtained.

  20. Hemocompatibility and biocompatibility of antibacterial biomimetic hybrid films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coll Ferrer, M. Carme [Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Eckmann, Uriel N. [Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Composto, Russell J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Eckmann, David M., E-mail: eckmanndm@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    In previous work, we developed novel antibacterial hybrid coatings based on dextran containing dispersed Ag NPs (∼ 5 nm, DEX-Ag) aimed to offer dual protection against two of the most common complications associated with implant surgery, infections and rejection of the implant. However, their blood-material interactions are unknown. In this study, we assess the hemocompatibility and biocompatibility of DEX-Ag using fresh blood and two cell lines of the immune system, monocytes (THP-1 cells) and macrophages (PMA-stimulated THP-1 cells). Glass, polyurethane (PU) and bare dextran (DEX) were used as reference surfaces. PU, DEX and DEX-Ag exhibited non-hemolytic properties. Relative to glass (100%), platelet attachment on PU, DEX and DEX-Ag was 15%, 10% and 34%, respectively. Further, we assessed cell morphology and viability, pro-inflammatory cytokines expression (TNF-α and IL-1β), pro-inflammatory eicosanoid expression (Prostaglandin E{sub 2}, PGE{sub 2}) and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS, superoxide and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) following incubation of the cells with the surfaces. The morphology and cell viability of THP-1 cells were not affected by DEX-Ag whereas DEX-Ag minimized spreading of PMA-stimulated THP-1 cells and caused a reduction in cell viability (16% relative to other surfaces). Although DEX-Ag slightly enhanced release of ROS, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines remained minimal with similar levels of PGE{sub 2}, as compared to the other surfaces studied. These results highlight low toxicity of DEX-Ag and hold promise for future applications in vivo. - Highlights: • We examined specific blood-contact reactions of dextran doped with Ag NPs coatings. • Biocompatibility was assessed with THP-1 cells and PMA-stimulated THP-1 cells. • Glass, polyurethane and dextran were used as reference surfaces. • Hybrid coatings exhibited non-hemolytic properties. • Low toxicity, inflammatory response and ROS suggest potential for in vivo use.

  1. A New Method for Preparing Superconducting MgB2 Films from Diborane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿生; 傅兴华; 张正平; 杨健

    2002-01-01

    We report on a new preparation method for magnesium diboride (MgB2) films by chemical vapour deposition(CVD) from diborane (B2H6). It is a two-step ex situ approach, with the precursor boron films grown by CVD from B2H6 at 460°C, followed by a post-annealing process in magnesium (Mg) vapour at 830°C. The prepared MgB2 thin films on Al2O3 polycrystalline substrates have an onset transition temperature of 35K and a zeroresistance temperature of about 24K. Well-crystallized MgB2 grains have clearly been observed in the SEM images and confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis. The advantages of the proposed method are the feasibility to prepare large-area superconducting films and the compatibility with semiconductor technology.

  2. High- T_c superconducting thin film/GaAs MESFET hybrid microwave oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金飚兵; 康琳; 伍瑞新; 张健羽; 程其恒; 吴培亨; 经东; 焦刚; 邵凯; 蒋明明; 张家宗; 孙敏松; 王蕴仪; 周岳亮; 吕惠宾; 许世发; 何萌; 王小平; 杨秉川; 卢剑; 张其邵

    1997-01-01

    A high- Tc superconducting (HTSC) thin film/GaAs MESFET hybrid microwave oscillator operated at 10 6 GHz has been designed, fabricated and characterized. Microstrip line structures were used throughout the circuit with superconducting thin film YBaiCuiO7 8(YBCO) as the conductor material. The YBCO thin films were deposited on 15 mm×10 mm×0. 5 mm LaAlO3 substrates. The oscillator was common-source, series feedback type using a GaAs-MESFET (NE72084) as the active device and a superconducting microstrip resonator as the frequency stabilizing element. By improving the unloaded quality factor Q0 of the superconducting microstrip resonator and adjusting the coupling coefficient between the resonator and the gate of the MESFET, the phase noise of the oscillator was decreased At 77 K, the phase noise of the oscillator at 10 kHz offset from carrier was - 87 dBc/Hz.

  3. Preparation and evaluation of thin-film sodium tungsten bronzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, H. E.; Fielder, W. L.; Singer, J.; Fordyce, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Thin films of sodium tungsten bronze (NaxWO3) were investigated as reversible sodium ion electrodes for solid electrolytes. The films were made by electron beam evaporation of the three phases, W metal, Na2WO4, and WO3, followed by sintering. The substrates were sodium beta alumina disks and glass slides. X-ray diffraction analyses of the films showed that sintering in dry nitrogen with prior exposure to air lead to mixed phases. Sintering in vacuum with no air exposure produced tetragonal I bronze with a nominal composition of Na0.31WO3, single phase within the limits of X-ray diffraction detectability. The films were uniform and adherent on sodium beta alumina substrates. The ac and dc conductivities of the beta alumina were measured with the sodium tungsten bronze films as electrodes. These experiments indicated that the tetragonal I bronze electrodes were not completely reversible. This may have resulted from sodium ion blocking within the bronze film or at the bronze beta alumina interface. Methods for attempting to make more completely reversible electrodes are suggested.

  4. Methods for preparing colloidal nanocrystal-based thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Fafarman, Aaron T.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Koh, Weon-kyu; Kim, David K.; Oh, Soong Ju; Lai, Yuming; Hong, Sung-Hoon; Saudari, Sangameshwar Rao; Murray, Christopher B.

    2016-05-10

    Methods of exchanging ligands to form colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) with chalcogenocyanate (xCN)-based ligands and apparatuses using the same are disclosed. The ligands may be exchanged by assembling NCs into a thin film and immersing the thin film in a solution containing xCN-based ligands. The ligands may also be exchanged by mixing a xCN-based solution with a dispersion of NCs, flocculating the mixture, centrifuging the mixture, discarding the supernatant, adding a solvent to the pellet, and dispersing the solvent and pellet to form dispersed NCs with exchanged xCN-ligands. The NCs with xCN-based ligands may be used to form thin film devices and/or other electronic, optoelectronic, and photonic devices. Devices comprising nanocrystal-based thin films and methods for forming such devices are also disclosed. These devices may be constructed by depositing NCs on to a substrate to form an NC thin film and then doping the thin film by evaporation and thermal diffusion.

  5. High-mobility ultrathin semiconducting films prepared by spin coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, David B; Kosbar, Laura L; Murray, Conal E; Copel, Matthew; Afzali, Ali

    2004-03-18

    The ability to deposit and tailor reliable semiconducting films (with a particular recent emphasis on ultrathin systems) is indispensable for contemporary solid-state electronics. The search for thin-film semiconductors that provide simultaneously high carrier mobility and convenient solution-based deposition is also an important research direction, with the resulting expectations of new technologies (such as flexible or wearable computers, large-area high-resolution displays and electronic paper) and lower-cost device fabrication. Here we demonstrate a technique for spin coating ultrathin (approximately 50 A), crystalline and continuous metal chalcogenide films, based on the low-temperature decomposition of highly soluble hydrazinium precursors. We fabricate thin-film field-effect transistors (TFTs) based on semiconducting SnS(2-x)Se(x) films, which exhibit n-type transport, large current densities (>10(5) A cm(-2)) and mobilities greater than 10 cm2 V(-1) s(-1)--an order of magnitude higher than previously reported values for spin-coated semiconductors. The spin-coating technique is expected to be applicable to a range of metal chalcogenides, particularly those based on main group metals, as well as for the fabrication of a variety of thin-film-based devices (for example, solar cells, thermoelectrics and memory devices).

  6. Comparative study of photoinduced wettability conversion between [PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 3−}/brookite and [SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 4−}/brookite hybrid films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruethiarenun, Kunchaya; Isobe, Toshihiro; Matsushita, Sachiko [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramic Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Ye, Jinhua [Environmental Remediation Materials Unit, Environment and Energy Materials Division, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Nakajima, Akira, E-mail: anakajim@ceram.titech.ac.jp [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramic Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    Two tungsten-based Keggin-type heteropolyacids (PW{sub 12}: ([PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 3−}) and SiW{sub 12}: ([SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 4−})) were hybridized with brookite-type TiO{sub 2}. Then photocatalytic decomposition activity, photoinduced hydrophilicity, and sustainability of the hydrophilicity in the dark were evaluated using gaseous 2-propanol (IPA) decomposition and sessile drop method. The obtained films were transparent in the visible wavelength range. Both hybrid films exhibited higher photocatalytic decomposition activity and had higher photoinduced hydrophilicizing rates than pure brookite films under UV illumination. The PW{sub 12}/TiO{sub 2} film exhibited better photocatalytic performance than the SiW{sub 12}/TiO{sub 2} film did. Atmosphere dependence, XPS analysis, and electrochemical experiments indicated the cause of these two films' different levels of sustainability of hydrophilicity to be differences in their electron storage capability. Results show that the electron scavenger capability and reoxidation efficiency of the heteropolyacid are key factors affecting the overall performance of wettability conversion of this hybrid film system before and after UV illumination. - Highlights: • Transparent PW{sub 12}/brookite(TTP) and SiW{sub 12}/brookite(TTS) films were prepared. • Both films exhibited better photocatalytic performance than pure brookite film. • The TTP film exhibited more sustainable hydrophilicity than the TTS film did. • Reoxidation efficiency of HPAs is a key factor for wettability conversion.

  7. Preparation and characterisation of fluconazole vaginal films for the treatment of vaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the present study was to develop and evaluate vaginal films with essential in vitro studies. Films were developed using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose as a polymer and formulations were coded. The developed films were evaluated with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, drug content, viscosity, surface pH, thickness, mechanical characterisation and in vitro drug release study. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results confirmed that there is no chemical interaction between drug and stabilisers/excipients. The batch variation was not more than 5% for average thickness and weight of the films. The drug content for the prepared formulation was in the range of 72.32±0.18% to 94.48±0.54%. Viscosity of the formulations increased with the increase in concentration of polymer. Mechanical characterisation revealed that tensile strength and percentage elongation of the films improved as there is increase in degree of substitution of the polymer, but the values of modulus decreased which confirmed that all the prepared films are soft in nature. The in vitro study indicated that 1 and 2% concentrations of polymer are the least concentrations to control the release of drug whereas the 4% concentration of polymer is a good and more effective concentration to control the release. Only one prepared formulation released the drug by following anomalous transport whereas other film formulations released the fluconazole by following Fickian diffusion mechanism. Prepared vaginal films may be an important alternative for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis, because these prepared films suggest the benefits of controlled release of fluconazole at the site of absorption.

  8. Preparation of CoP films by ultrasonic electroless deposition at low initial temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yundan Yu; Zhenlun Song; Hongliang Ge; Guoying Wei

    2014-01-01

    Electroless deposition technology has been considered as a kind of common ways to obtain cobalt alloy films. However, in order to get cobalt alloy films, high temperature (353 K) is necessary during the electroless deposition process which will increase costs and energy consumption. Ultrasonic was introduced during electroless plating process to obtain cobalt alloy films at lower initial temperature. It was found that the cobalt thin films could be prepared at lower initial temperature (323 K) with the introduction of ultrasonic. Therefore, different powers of ultrasonic were applied during the electroless deposition process to prepare CoP thin films on copper substrates from an alkaline bath in this investigation. The effects of different powers of ultrasonic on deposition rate, surface morphology, anticorrosion performance and magnetic property of films were studied. It was found that the deposition rate increased gradually with the rise in ultrasonic powers due to cavitation phenomenon. All the CoP films presented the typical spherical nodular structures with the impact of ultrasonic. Smaller and regular shaped structures could be observed when the films were deposited with higher power of ultrasonic which contributed directly to enhancement of anticorrosion performance. Saturation magnetization and coercivity of thin films increased gradually with the rise in ultrasonic powers during the electroless deposition process due to the higher amounts of cobalt.

  9. CdS thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Garcia Guillen, G.; Aguilar Martinez, J.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • CdS thin films by conventional CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • Improved dark conductivity and good photocurrent response for the LACBD CdS. - Abstract: In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of CdS thin films by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD). CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing cadmium chloride, triethanolamine, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea under various deposition conditions. The thin films were deposited by in situ irradiation of the bath using a continuous laser of wavelength 532 nm, varying the power density. The thin films obtained during deposition of 10, 20 and 30 min were analyzed. The changes in morphology, structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the CdS thin films due to in situ irradiation of the bath were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The thin films obtained by LACBD were nanocrystalline, photoconductive and presented interesting morphologies. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain nanocrystalline CdS thin films having good optoelectronic properties.

  10. The Electrochemical Characteristics of Hybrid Capacitor Prepared by Chemical Activation of NaOH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeong Eun; Bae, Ga Yeong; Yang, Jeong Min; Lee, Jong Dae [Chungbuk National Univ., Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Active carbons with high specific surface area and micro pore structure were prepared from the coconut shell char using the chemical activation method of NaOH. The preparation process has been optimized through the analysis of experimental variables such as activating chemical agents to char ratio and the flow rate of gas during carbonization. The active carbons with the surface area (2,481m{sup 2}/g) and mean pore size (2.32 nm) were obtained by chemical activation with NaOH. The electrochemical performances of hybrid capacitor were investigated using LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCoO{sub 2} as the positive electrode and prepared active carbon as the negative electrode. The electrochemical behaviors of hybrid capacitor using organic electrolytes (LiPF{sub 6}, TEABF{sub 4}) were characterized by constant current charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry, cycle and leakage tests. The hybrid capacitor using LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/AC electrodes had better capacitance than other hybrid systems and was able to deliver a specific energy as high as 131 Wh/kg at a specific power of 1,448 W/kg.

  11. Studies of thin films of Ti- Zr -V as non-evaporable getter films prepared by RF sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Jagannath,; Sharma, R. K.; Gadkari, S. C.; Muthe, K. P.; Mukundhan, R.; Gupta, S. K. [Technical Physics Division, BARC Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2013-02-05

    Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) films of the Ti-Zr-V prepared on stainless steel substrates by Radio Frequency sputtering. To observe its getter behavior at the lowest activation temperature, the sample is heated continuously at different temperatures (100 Degree-Sign C, 150 Degree-Sign C, 200 Degree-Sign C and 250 Degree-Sign C) for 2 hours. The changes of the surface chemical composition at different temperaturesare analyzed by using XPS and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) techniques. The volume elemental composition of the film has been measured by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The in-situ XPS measurements of the activated getter films show the disappearance of the superficial oxide layer through the variation in the oxygen stoichiometry during thermal activation. Results of these studies show that the deposited films of Ti-Zr-V could be used as NEG to produce extreme high vacuum.

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Novel Electrospinnable PBT/POSS Hybrid Systems Starting from c-PBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Gardella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel hybrid systems based on poly(butyleneterephthalate (PBT and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS have been prepared by applying the ring-opening polymerization of cyclic poly(butyleneterephthalate oligomers. Two types of POSS have been used: one characterized by hydroxyl functionalities (named POSS-OH and another without specific reactive groups (named oib-POSS. It was demonstrated that POSS-OH acts as an initiator for the polymerization reaction, leading to the direct insertion of the silsesquioxane into the polymer backbone. Among the possible applications of the PBT/POSS hybrid system, the possibility to obtain nanofibers has been assessed in this work.

  13. White-light emission of polyvinyl alcohol/ZnO hybrid nanofibers prepared by electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, X. M.; Shao, C. L.; Liu, Y. C.

    2005-09-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol/ZnO (PVA/ZnO) hybrid nanofibers were prepared by the electrospinning technique. The structural and spectral information of the nanofibers was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, resonant Raman, and photoluminescence (PL). The results indicate that ZnO were successfully embedded in the one-dimensional hybrid fibers via chemical interactions between ZnO and PVA. PL results show the PVA/ZnO nanofibers have an intense white-light emission, which originates from the simultaneous emission of three bands covering from the UV to visible range. A possible PL mechanism was proposed accordingly.

  14. Preparation of Magnetic Hybrid Microspheres with Well-Defined Yolk-Shell Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile and efficient route was reported to prepare a kind of yolk-shell magnetic hybrid microspheres by suspension polymerization and calcinations method. The morphology, structure, and composition of the magnetic microspheres were characterized by FTIR, XRD, TEM, SEM, and TGA analysis. The vibrating-sample magnetometry (VSM results clearly showed that the magnetic particles were superparamagnetic with saturation magnetization of 32.82 emu/g which makes the microcomposites easily controlled by an external magnetic field. The results revealed that the magnetic hybrid microspheres might have important applications in magnetic bioseparation and drug delivery.

  15. Sol-gel Process in Preparation of Organic-inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macan, J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid materials are a sort of nanostructured material in which the organic and inorganic phases are mixed at molecular level. The inorganic phase in hybrid materials is formed by the sol-gel process, which consists of reactions of hydrolysis and condensation of metal (usually silicon alkoxides. Flexibility of sol-gel process enables creation of hybrid materials with varying organic and inorganic phases in different ratios, and consequently fine-tuning of their properties. In order to obtain true hybrid materials, contact between the phases should be at molecular level, so phase separation between thermodynamically incompatible organic and inorganic phases has to be prevented. Phase interaction can be improved by formation of hydrogen or covalent bonds between them during preparation of hybrid materials. Covalent bond can be introduced by organically modified silicon alkoxides containing a reactive organic group (substituent capable of reacting with the organic phase. In order to obtain hybrid materials with desired structures, a detailed knowledge of hydrolysis and condensation mechanism is necessary. The choice of catalyst, whether acid or base, has the most significant influence on the structure of the inorganic phase. Other important parameters are alkoxide concentration, water: alkoxide ratio, type of alkoxide groups, solvent used, temperature, purity of chemicals used, etc. Hydrolysis and condensation of organically modified silicon alkoxides are additionally influenced by nature and size of the organic supstituent.

  16. Surface properties of diamond-like carbon films prepared by CVD and PVD methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Dong-Ping; Liu Yan-Hong; Chen Bao-Xiang

    2006-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been deposited using three different techniques: (a) electron cyclotron resonance-plasma source ion implantation, (b) low-pressure dielectric barrier discharge, (c) filtered-pulsed cathodic arc discharge. The surface and mechanical properties of these films are compared using atomic force microscopebased tests. The experimental results show that hydrogenated DLC films are covered with soft surface layers enriched with hydrogen and sp3 hybridized carbon while the soft surface layers of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films have graphite-like structure. The formation of soft surface layers can be associated with the surface diffusion and growth induced by the low-energy deposition process. For typical CVD methods, the atomic hydrogen in the plasmas can contribute to the formation of hydrogen and sp3 hybridized carbon enriched surface layers. The high-energy ion implantation causes the rearrangement of atoms beneath the surface layer and leads to an increase in film density. The ta-C films can be deposited using the medium energy carbon ions in the highly-ionized plasma.

  17. Preparation and characterization of biodegradable active PLA film for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, L.; Scarfato, P.; Avallone, E.; Galdi, M. R.; Incarnato, L.

    2014-05-01

    In this work we report on the preparation and characterization of a biodegradable active PLA film (aPLA), intended for food packaging applications. The film was obtained by cast extrusion blending a commercial PLA matrix with an active system, developed in our laboratory and based on PLA microparticles containing a-tocopherol (aTCP) as natural antioxidant agent. In order to optimize the film composition and processing, the active microparticles were preliminarily characterized with the aim to evaluate their morphology (size and shape), thermal resistance and a-tocopherol content. The aPLA film, produced with a 5wt% of aTCP, was characterized in terms of performance and activity. The experimental results demonstrated that the aPLA film has mechanical, thermal, barrier and optical properties adequate for packaging applications and shows oxygen scavenging activity and prolonged exhaustion lag time, compared to pure PLA films.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Polyvinylidene Fluoride/Graphene Superhydrophobic Fibrous Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Moradi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A new strategy to induce superhydrophobicity via introducing hierarchical structure into the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF film was explored in this study. For this purpose nanofibrous composite films were prepared by electrospinning of PVDF and PVDF/graphene blend solution as the main precursors to produce a net-like structure. Various spectroscopy and microscopy methods in combination with crystallographic and wettability tests were used to evaluate the characteristics of the synthesized films. Mechanical properties have been studied using a universal stress-strain test. The results show that the properties of the PVDF nanofibrous film are improved by compositing with graphene. The incorporation of graphene flakes into the fibrous polymer matrix changes the morphology, enhances the surface roughness, and improves the hydrophobicity by inducing a morphological hierarchy. Superhydrophobicity with the water contact angle of about 160° can be achieved for the PVDF/graphene electrospun nanocomposite film in comparison to PVDF pristine film.

  19. Preparation of TiO2 Thin Film and Its Antibacterial Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei-guo; CHEN An-min; ZHANG Qiang

    2004-01-01

    TiO2 nanometer thin films with photocatalytic antibacterial activity were prepared by the sol-gelmethod on fused quartz and soda lime glass precoated with a SiO2 layer. The thin films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ( XPS ), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X- ray diffraction ( XRD ). Theresults show that sodium and calcium diffusion into nascent TiO2 film is effectively retarded by the SiO2 layer pre-coated on the soda lime glass. The antibacterial activity of the films was determined. The crystalline of TiO2 nano-meter thin film has important effects on the antibacterial activity of the film.

  20. Preparation and Properties of Ag-TiO2 Thin Films on Glass Substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Ag-TiO2 thin films were prepared on glasses.The morphology and structure of Ag-TiO2 films were investigated by XRD, SEM and FT-IR.The photocatalytic and hydrophilic properties of Ag-TiO2 thin films were also evaluated by examining photocatalytic degradation dichlorophos under sunlight illumination and the change of contact angle respectively.The research results show that the Ag-TiO2 thin film is mainly composed of 20-100nm Ag and TiO2 particles.The Ag-TiO2 thin films possess a super-hydrophilic ability and higher photocatalytic activity than that of pure TiO2 thin film.

  1. Effect of Soft-annealing on the Properties of CIGSe Thin Films Prepared from Solution Precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Shijoon; Park, Misun; Kim, Daehwan; Kang, Jinkyu [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Solution-based deposition of CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) thin films is well known non-vacuum process for the fabrication of CIGSe solar cells. However, due to the usage of organic chemicals in the preparation of CIG precursor solutions, the crystallization of the polycrystalline CIGSe and the performance of CIGSe thin film solar cells were significantly affected by the carbon residues from the organic chemicals. In this work, we have tried to eliminate the carbon residues in the CIG precursor thin films efficiently by using soft-annealing process. By adjusting soft-annealing temperature, it is possible to control the amount of carbon residues in CIG precursor thin films. The reduction of the carbon residues in CIG precursors by high temperature soft-annealing improves the grain size and morphology of polycrystalline CIGSe thin films, which are also closely related with the electrical properties of CIGSe thin film solar cells.

  2. Preparation and characterization of nanostructured CuO thin films for photoelectrochemical splitting of water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Diwakar Chauhan; V R Satsangi; Sahab Dass; Rohit Shrivastav

    2006-12-01

    Nanostructured copper oxide thin films (CuO) were prepared on conducting glass support (SnO2: F overlayer) via sol–gel starting from colloidal solution of copper (II) acetate in ethanol. Films were obtained by dip coating under room conditions (temperature, 25–32°C) and were subsequently sintered in air at different temperatures (400–650°C). The evolution of oxide coatings under thermal treatment was studied by glancing incidence X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Average particle size, resistivity and band gap energy were also determined. Photoelectrochemical properties of thin films and their suitability for splitting of water were investigated. Study suggests that thin films of CuO sintered at lower temperatures (≈ 400°C) are better for photoconversion than thick films or the films sintered at much higher temperatures. Plausible explanations have been provided.

  3. Preparation and characterization of GaN films grown on Ga-diffused Si(111) substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhencui; CAO Wentian; WEI Qinqin; WANG Shuyun; XUE Chengshan; SUN Haibo

    2005-01-01

    Hexagonal GaN films were prepared by nitriding Ga2O3 films with flowing ammonia. Ga2O3 films were deposited on Ga-diffused Si (111) substrates by radio frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering. This paper have investigated the change of structural properties of GaN films nitrided in NH3 atmosphere at the temperatures of 850, 900, and 950℃ for 15min and nitrided at the temperature of 900℃ for 10, 15, and 20 min, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to analyze the structure, surface morphology and composition of synthesized samples. The results reveal that the as-grown films are polycrystalline GaN with hexagonal wurtzite structure and GaN films with the highest crystal quality can be obtained when nitrided at 900℃ for 15 min.

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan/Agar Blended Films: Part 2. Thermal, Mechanical, and Surface Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esam A. Elhefian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan/agar (CS/AG films were prepared by blending different proportions of chitosan and agar (considering chitosan as the major component in solution forms. The thermal stability of the blended films was studied using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. It was revealed that chitosan and agar form a compatible blend. Studying the mechanical properties of the films showed a decrease in the tensile strength and elongation at break with increasing agar content. Blending of agar with chitosan at all proportions was found to form hydrogel films with enhanced swelling compared to the pure chitosan one. Static water contact angle measurements confirmed the increasing affinity of the blended films towards water suggesting that blending of agar with chitosan improves the wettability of the obtained films.

  5. Dielectric dilatometry on thin Teflon-PTFE films prepared by pulsed-laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwoediauer, Reinhard; Bauer-Gogonea, Simona; Bauer, Stefan; Heitz, J.; Arenholz, Enno; Baeuerle, Dieter

    1999-12-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon PTFE) films were grown by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD). Films prepared by ablation from press-sintered targets are found to be highly crystalline, with spherulite sizes adjustable over more than one order in magnitude by suitable thermal annealing. As revealed by dielectric dilatometry, PLD-PTFE films show characteristics remarkably similar to those of conventional PTFE, i.e. the same structural first-order phase transitions. Dielectric losses are low and indicate no tendency to film oxidation. PLD-PTFE films additionally show an excellent charge-stability, comparable and even superior to commercially available Teflon-PTFE foils. PLD-PTFE enlarges the family of Teflon materials and may thus become interesting for potential miniaturized electret devices. Furthermore, dielectric dilatometry provides an elegant means for the determination of the coefficient of thermal expansion in thin nonpolar films.

  6. Characteristics of W Doped Nanocrystalline Carbon Films Prepared by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Seob; Park, Chul Min; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Moon

    2016-05-01

    Nanocrystalline tungsten doped carbon (WC) films were prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering. Tungsten was used as the doping material in carbon thin films with the aim of application as a contact strip in an electric railway. The structural, physical, and electrical properties of the fabricated WC films with various DC bias voltages were investigated. The films had a uniform and smooth surface. Hardness and frication characteristics of the films were improved, and the resistivity and sheet resistance decreased with increasing negative DC bias voltage. These results are associated with the nanocrystalline WC phase and sp(2) clusters in carbon networks increased by ion bombardment enhanced with increasing DC bias voltage. Consequently, the increase of sp(2) clusters containing WC nanocrystalline in the carbon films is attributed to the improvement in the physical and electrical properties.

  7. Oxygen Evolution Assisted Fabrication of Highly Loaded Carbon Nanotube/MnO2 Hybrid Films for High-Performance Flexible Pseudosupercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongyuan; Zeng, Sha; Chen, Minghai; Zhang, Yongyi; Zheng, Lianxi; Li, Qingwen

    2016-04-01

    To date, it has been a great challenge to design high-performance flexible energy storage devices for sufficient loading of redox species in the electrode assemblies, with well-maintained mechanical robustness and enhanced electron/ionic transport during charge/discharge cycles. An electrochemical activation strategy is demonstrated for the facile regeneration of carbon nanotube (CNT) film prepared via floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition strategy into a flexible, robust, and highly conductive hydrogel-like film, which is promising as electrode matrix for efficient loading of redox species and the fabrication of high-performance flexible pseudosupercapacitors. The strong and conductive CNT films can be effectively expanded and activated by electrochemical anodic oxygen evolution reaction, presenting greatly enhanced internal space and surface wettability with well-maintained strength, flexibility, and conductivity. The as-formed hydrogel-like film is quite favorable for electrochemical deposition of manganese dioxide (MnO2 ) with loading mass up to 93 wt% and electrode capacitance kept around 300 F g(-1) (areal capacitance of 1.2 F cm(-2) ). This hybrid film was further used to assemble a flexible symmetric pseudosupercapacitor without using any other current collectors and conductive additives. The assembled flexible supercapacitors exhibited good rate performance, with the areal capacitance of more than 300 mF cm(-2) , much superior to other reported MnO2 based flexible thin-film supercapacitors. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Carbon nanotubes/holey graphene hybrid film as binder-free electrode for flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lingjuan; Gu, Yuanzi; Gao, Yihong; Ma, Zhanying; Fan, Guang

    2017-05-15

    The practical application of graphene (GR) has still been hindered because of its unsatisfied physical and chemical properties resulting from the irreversible agglomerates. Preparation of GR-based materials with designed porosities is essential for its practical application. In this work, a facile and scalable method is developed to synthesize carbon nanotubes/holey graphene (CNT/HGR) flexible film using functional CNT and HGR as precursors. Owing to the existence of the small amount CNT, the CNT-5/HGR flexible film with a 3D conductive interpenetrated architecture exhibit significantly improved ion diffusion rate compared to that of the HGR. Moreover, CNT-5/HGR flexible film can be used as binder-free supercapacitor electrodes with ultrahigh specific capacitances of 268Fg(-1), excellent rate capabilities, and superior cycling stabilities. CNT-5/HGR flexible film could be used to fabricate high-performance flexible supercapacitors electrodes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Preparation and characterization of DC sputtered molybdenum thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Hady B. Kashyout

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum (Mo thin films have been deposited on soda-lime glass substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering system. Their electrical resistivity, and their morphological, structural and adhesive properties have been examined with respect to the deposition power, deposition time and substrate temperature. The electrical resistivity of the Mo films could be reduced by increasing any of the above parameters. Within the range of the investigated deposition parameters, the films showed a mono-crystalline nature with a preferred orientation along the (1 1 0 plane. The Mo films adhesion to the soda-lime glass could be improved by increasing the substrate temperature. At a deposition power of 200 W, deposition time of 20 min and substrate temperature of 450 °C, Mo thin film exhibiting mono-crystalline structure with thickness equal to 450 nm and electrical resistivity equal to 1.85 × 10−4 Ω cm was obtained.

  10. SnO{sub 2} films: In-situ template-sacrificial growth and photovoltaic property based on SnO{sub 2}/poly(3-hexyl-thiophene) for hybrid solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yange, E-mail: zhangygzhang@163.com [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Energy Storage and Conversion Materials of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Li, Pinjiang [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Energy Storage and Conversion Materials of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Xu, Xiaoyun [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Energy Storage and Conversion Materials of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Wang, Min [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Energy Storage and Conversion Materials of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); College of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Shen, Jinfeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Zhang, Fujuan; Zheng, Zhi [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Energy Storage and Conversion Materials of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals/thin films were fabricated on ITO glass substrate from preformed SnS thin film as sacrificial template. • The SnO{sub 2} film and SnO{sub 2}/P3HT was characterized by several techniques. • The new hybrid solar cell device was based on the hybrid thin film of SnO{sub 2} NCs and P3HT composites. - Abstract: we described a facile in-situ wet chemical method to prepare SnO{sub 2} thin film on ITO glass substrate from preformed SnS thin film as sacrificial template. The chemical conversion process of SnS to SnO{sub 2} was studied. The SnO{sub 2} film and SnO{sub 2}/P3HT was characterized by several techniques, such as powder X-ray diffract meter (XRD), Raman spectrometer, scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and UV–vis spectrophotometer in detail. The new SnO{sub 2}/P3HT hybrid solar cell device showed an open-circuit voltage of 0.185 V, a short-circuit current density of 0.366 mA/cm{sup 2} and a fill factor of 0.247, corresponding to a power conversion efficiency of 0.0167%.

  11. Preparation of supramolecular hydrogel-enzyme hybrids exhibiting biomolecule-responsive gel degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemitsu, Hajime; Fujisaku, Takahiro; Onogi, Shoji; Yoshii, Tatsuyuki; Ikeda, Masato; Hamachi, Itaru

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogelators are small, self-assembling molecules that form supramolecular nanofiber networks that exhibit unique dynamic properties. Development of supramolecular hydrogels that degrade in response to various biomolecules could potentially be used for applications in areas such as drug delivery and diagnostics. Here we provide a synthetic procedure for preparing redox-responsive supramolecular hydrogelators that are used to create hydrogels that degrade in response to oxidizing or reducing conditions. The synthesis takes ∼2-4 d, and it can potentially be carried out in parallel to prepare multiple hydrogelator candidates. This described solid-phase peptide synthesis protocol can be used to produce previously described hydrogelators or to construct a focused molecular library to efficiently discover and optimize new hydrogelators. In addition, we describe the preparation of redox-responsive supramolecular hydrogel-enzyme hybrids that are created by mixing aqueous solutions of hydrogelators and enzymes, which requires 2 h for completion. The resultant supramolecular hydrogel-enzyme hybrids exhibit gel degradation in response to various biomolecules, and can be rationally designed by connecting the chemical reactions of the hydrogelators with enzymatic reactions. Gel degradation in response to biomolecules as triggers occurs within a few hours. We also describe the preparation of hydrogel-enzyme hybrids arrayed on flat glass slides, enabling high-throughput analysis of biomolecules such as glucose, uric acid, lactate and so on by gel degradation, which is detectable by the naked eye. The protocol requires ∼6 h to prepare the hydrogel-enzyme hybrid array and to complete the biomolecule assay.

  12. Preparation and investigation of bulk and thin film samples of strontium ferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Poorbafrani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available   In this article, bulk and thin film samples of strontium ferrite have been studied. Due to the high electrical resistivity in strontium ferrite, energy loss due to eddy currents reduces and because of this, it can be used in high frequency magnetic circuits. On the other hand, strontium ferrite has attracted much attention as a permanent magnet. At first, we study the preparation process of bulk samples of strontium ferrite by a solid state reaction technique. In preparation of samples, to optimize the magnetic properties, we have used the stoichiometry factor (n = Fe2O3 / SrO of 5.25. In addition, we have used additives such as CaO and SiO2 to control grain growth. The samples have been prepared in two series: Isotropic and Anisotropic. For preparation of anisotropic samples, the magnetic field of 1T has been used for orientation of the grains during the press. Then, X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, EDAX analysis and Magnetometer, was used for analyzing and comparing of structural and magnetic properties of isotropic and anisotropic samples. The results indicate that, due to the applied magnetic field, the structural and Magnetic properties of anisotropic samples improved efficiently because of the orientation of the grains during the press. In the next stage, we used bulk samples to prepare strontium ferrite thin films by Pulsed Laser Deposition technique (PLD. The Si (111 substrate has been used to prepare the thin films. Then we have studied the microstructure of thin films by X-ray diffraction, SEM and EDAX analysis. These studies on different samples show that for the preparation of crystalline phase of strontium ferrite thin films, the substrate temperature must be higher than 800˚C. The optimum conditions for preparation of strontium, ferrite thin films have been achieved on the substrate temperature of 840˚C and oxygen pressure of 75 mtorr.

  13. High index of refraction films for dielectric mirrors prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brusasco, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    A wide variety of metal oxides with high index of refraction can be prepared by Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition. We present some recent optical and laser damage results on oxide films prepared by MOCVD which could be used in a multilayer structure for highly reflecting (HR) dielectric mirror applications. The method of preparation affects both optical properties and laser damage threshold. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. GaAs Films Prepared by RF-Magnetron Sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.H. Ouyang; D.L. Rode; T. Zulkifli; B. Abraham-Shrauner; N. Lewis; M.R. Freeman

    2001-08-01

    The authors reported on the optical absorption, adhesion, and microstructure of RF-magnetron sputtered films of hydrogenated amorphous and microcrystalline GaAs films for the 1 to 25 {micro}m infrared wavelength rate. Sputtering parameters which were varied include sputtering power, temperature and pressure, and hydrogen sputtering-gas concentration. TEM results show a sharp transition from purely amorphous GaAs to a mixture of microcrystalline GaAs in an amorphous matrix at 34 {+-} 2 C. By optimizing the sputtering parameters, the optical absorption coefficient can be decreased below 100 cm{sup -1} for wavelengths greater than about 1.25 {micro}m. These results represent the lowest reported values of optical absorption for sputtered films of GaAs directly measured by spectrophotometry for the near-infrared wavelength region.

  15. Standard Operating Procedure for the Preparation of Lead-Containing Paint Films and Lead-in-Paint Diagnostic Test Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the preparation of stand-alone, lead paint films, prepared according to the old paint recipes. Further, this SOP describes the use of these paint films for the preparation of simulated old paints on a variety of substrates. Substrates used included wood, stee...

  16. Preparation and characterization of highly photosensitive ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez González, Antonio E.; Nair, P. K.

    1996-07-01

    Highly photosensitive ZnO films were prepared by the chemical technique Successive Ion Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR). The films posses high optical transmittance (>90%) in the VIS and IR ranges. The cristallinity, orientation of the crystallites and surface morphology undergo changes with annealing. The optical transmittance and reflectance measurements indicated changes in the position of the optical absorption edge: shifting from 353 nm to 366 nm when annealed at 450 °C for 2 hours. The films are highly photosensitive, offering photocurrent to dark current ratio of 105, in as prepared films under 900 Wm-2 illumination from a solar simulator. Annealing in oxygen, hydrogen and vacuum improved the dark conductivity and the photoconductivity of the films. This effect is related to the modification of the defect statistics of the films and involves cation interstitials and anion vacancies. The studies indicate that the ZnO films prepared by the SILAR process may be used, with appropriated postdeposition treatments, for specific applications.

  17. Preparation of conductive PDDA/(PEDOT:PSS) multilayer thin film: influence of polyelectrolyte solution composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurin, F E; Buron, C C; Martin, N; Filiâtre, C

    2014-10-01

    Self-assembled multilayer films made of PEDOT:PSS poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) and PDDA poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) were prepared using layer-by-layer method. In order to modify the growth regime of the multilayer, to fabricate an electrical conductive film and to control its thickness, the effects of pH, type of electrolyte, ionic strength and polyelectrolyte concentration were investigated. Optical reflectometry measurements show that the pH of the solutions has no effect on the film growth while the adsorbed amount increases more rapidly when BaCl2 is used instead of NaCl as electrolyte. An increase in the ionic strength (with NaCl) induces a change in the growth regime from a linear to an exponential one at low polyelectrolyte concentration. As UV-vis measurements indicate, no decomplexation of PEDOT was recorded after film preparation. With polyelectrolyte concentration below 1 g L(-1), no conductive films were obtained even if 50 bilayers were deposited. A conductive film was prepared with a polyelectrolyte concentration of 1 g L(-1) and the measured conductivity was 0.3 S m(-1). A slight increase in conductivity was recorded when BaCl2 was used probably due to a modification of the film structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Research on the polycrystalline CdS thin films prepared by close-spaced sublimation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Yu; Xia, Geng-Pei; Zheng, Jia-Gui; Feng, Liang-Huan; Cai, Ya-Ping

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, the factors of influence on the deposition rate of CdS films prepared by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) were first studied systematically, and it was found from the experiments that the deposition rate increased with the raised temperature of sublimation source, while decreased with the raised substrate temperature and the deposition pressure. The structure, morphology and light transmittance of the prepared samples were tested subsequently, and the results show: (1) The CdS films deposited under different oxygen partial pressure all present predominating growth lattice orientation (103), and further more the films will be strengthened after annealed under CdCl2 atmosphere. (2) The AFM images of CdS show that the films are compact and uniform in grain diameter, and the grain size becomes larger with the increased substrate temperature. Along with it, the film roughness was also augmented. (3) The transmittance in the shortwave region of visible light through the CdS films would be enhanced when its thickness is reduced, and that will help improve the shortwave spectral response of CdTe solar cells. Finally, the prepared CdS films were employed to fabricate CdTe solar cells, which have achieved a conversion efficiency of 10.29%, and thus the feasibility of CSS process in the manufacture of CdTe solar cells was validated primarily.

  19. Effect of annealing on phase transition in poly(vinylidene fluoride) films prepared using polar solvent

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Satapathy; Santosh Pawar; P K Gupta; K B R Varma

    2011-07-01

    The -phase poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films are usually prepared using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent, regardless of preparation temperature. Here we report the crystallization of both and -phase PVDF films by varying preparation temperature using DMSO solvent. The -phase PVDF films were annealed at 70, 90, 110, 130 and 160°C for five hours. The changes in the phase contents in the PVDF at different annealing conditions have been described. When thin films were annealed at 90°C for 5 h, maximum percentage of -phase appears in PVDF thin films. The -phase PVDF films completely converted to -phase when they were annealed at 160°C for 5 h. From X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Raman studies, it is confirmed that the PVDF thin films, cast from solution and annealed at 90°C for 5 h, have maximum percentage of -phase. The -phase PVDF shows a remnant polarization of 4.9 C/cm2 at 1400 kV/cm at 1 Hz.

  20. Ferroelectric-Like Properties of Amorphous Metal Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuhuan

    1995-01-01

    Advances in the field of both optical and electrical integrated circuit devices require new thin film materials. Ferroelectric materials have attractive properties such as hysteresis behavior, pyroelectricity, piezoelectricity and nonlinear optical properties. Many ferroelectric thin films have been successfully prepared from metal organic compounds via sol-gel processing. Thus far, research has concentrated upon polycrystalline or epitaxial ferroelectric films. For amorphous ferroelectric thin films, preliminary experimental results in our laboratory indicated that these amorphous films possessed good ferroelectric -like properties. The purpose of this research is (1) to fabricate amorphous metal oxide thin films by the sol-gel technique, (2) to determine whether these amorphous metal oxide thin films have ferroelectric-like properties and (3) to propose a theoretical model ("ferrons model") to explain the ferroelectric-like properties of amorphous thin films, which deals with a structure of permanent dipoles of "partially ordered clusters" (ferrons) in the amorphous films. The theoretical model is based on our experimental results of thin films of two amorphous materials (barium titanite and lead zirconate titanate). This research may provide a new functional material which could be useful for producing integrated electronic and electrooptic devices.

  1. Characterization of sol-gel-prepared Ti02 thin film for O2 sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashbar, Massood Z.; Ghantasala, Muralihar K.; Wlodarski, Wojtek

    1997-11-01

    This paper presents the results of our investigation on deposition and characterization of sol-gel prepared TiO2 thin films for oxygen sensing applications. The properties of pure TiO2 thin films are compared with those doped with niobium oxide and 1%pt. These films are characterized using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study their chemical composition, structure and surface morphology respectively. Both kinds of the films are stoichiometric. Pure TiO2 as well as doped films were amorphous as deposited. Pure TiO2 films after annealing to 450 degrees Celsius and above showed the formation of anatase phase, while the doped films still predominantly amorphous, barely showing the onset of crystallinity. Pure films after annealing to 600 degrees Celsius appear to have become granular and porous. Doping with niobium oxide and Pt resulted in modification of film microstructure also. As a result of doping, the gas sensitivity of the films is increased from 8 to 24 and operating temperature decreased from 320 degrees Celsius to 190 degrees Celsius.

  2. Characterisation of Pb thin films prepared by the nanosecond pulsed laser deposition technique for photocathode application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorusso, A., E-mail: antonella.lorusso@le.infn.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi” and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Università del Salento, Lecce 73100 (Italy); Gontad, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi” and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Università del Salento, Lecce 73100 (Italy); Broitman, E. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping SE-581 83 (Sweden); Chiadroni, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati 00044 (Italy); Perrone, A. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi” and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Università del Salento, Lecce 73100 (Italy)

    2015-03-31

    Pb thin films were prepared by the nanosecond pulsed laser deposition technique on Si (100) and polycrystalline Nb substrates for photocathode application. As the photoemission performances of a cathode are strongly affected by its surface characteristics, the Pb films were grown at different substrate temperatures with the aim of modifying the morphology and structure of thin films. An evident morphological modification in the deposited films with the formation of spherical grains at higher temperatures has been observed. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that a preferred orientation of Pb (111) normal to the substrate was achieved at 30 °C while the Pb (200) plane became strongly pronounced with the increase in the substrate temperature. Finally, a Pb thin film deposited on Nb substrate at 30 °C and tested as the photocathode showed interesting results for the application of such a device in superconducting radio frequency guns. - Highlights: • Pb thin films obtained by the nanosecond pulsed laser deposition technique at different substrate temperature. • The substrate temperature modifies the morphology and structure of Pb films. • Pb thin film was deposited at room temperature for photocathode application. • The Pb thin film photocathode was tested and the quantum efficiency of the device improved after laser cleaning treatment of the film surface.

  3. Preparation and Performance of Rare Earths Chemical Conversion Film on Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Golden yellow cerium conversion film was obtained on magnesium alloys surface by immersion method and the preparation parameters were established. The influence of different process parameters on the surface morphology and performance of the conversion film were analyzed by means of SEM and electrochemical method. Formation dynamics about cerium conversion film on magnesium alloy in solution containing cerium salt and the anti-corrosion behavior of the conversion film in 3.5% NaCl solution were studied by electrochemical method respectively. The results shows that the conversion film is more compact at room temperature when concentration of cerium sulfate is 10 g·L-1 in the solution; the open circuit potential of the magnesium sample moves up to positive direction about 100 mV, the surface of conversion film becomes even and lustrous, and the adhesion intensity of conversion film increases when adding aluminum nitrate into the solution containing cerium salt. The pH value of the solution and immersion time of the sample in the solution also affect the surface morphology and anti-corrosion property of the conversion film. After covered by rare earths conversion film, the anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy is obviously improved. Rare earth conversion film has self-repairing capability in corrosion medium.

  4. Preparation of UV curing crosslinked polyviologen film and its photochromic and electrochromic performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li-ping; Ding, Guo-jing; Wang, Yue-chuan; Yang, Yu-lin

    2011-11-01

    Polyether urethane diacrylate matrix (PEUDA) and acrylate-functional viologen (ACV2+) were successfully synthesized and characterized in detail by FTIR and 1H NMR spectra, respectively. Subsequently, they were used to prepare UV curing crosslinked polyviologen film in combination with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), trimethylolpropane ethoxylate triacrylate (TMPTA) and diphenyl (2, 4, 6-trimethylbenzoyl) phosphine oxide (TPO). UV curing approach confined the polyviologen film on ITO electrode, which imparted the film excellent adhesion ability to ITO glass, good solvent resistance, excellent chemical stability, excellent optical and electrochemical properties. The crosslinked PACV2+ film exhibited excellent photochromic and electrochromic performances. After UV illumination for 60 s, the crosslinked PACV2+ film can swiftly change its color from pale yellow to deep blue, while the optical transmission of crosslinked PACV2+ film at 610 nm did not change significantly and still retained about 63.6% after 30 cycles. Simultaneously, the cyclic voltammetry experiment showed the PACV2+ film can undergo repeatable electrochemical redox reactions with good reversibility beyond the 10th scan. Furthermore, the electrochromic device composed of the PACV2+ film and gel electrolyte film can undergo reversible color change in response to the external voltages of -2.0 V and 2.0 V, respectively, while the contrast of EC device at 610 nm did not change significantly and still retained about 39.5% after 10 cycles. This UV curing approach to preparing viologen-functional film offers a method to preparing large-scale photo- and electrochromic device, which is relatively simple, high productivity, energy saving, and environmental protection.

  5. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of old G-banded and mounted chromosome preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, A M; Pandis, N; Bomme, L;

    1997-01-01

    , that the amount of added probe is increased approximately 2.5 times, and that the amplification of signals is performed twice. The applicability of the method, which allows double painting with two differently labeled probes using two differently fluorescing colors, was tested on 11 cases involving different......An improved method for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) investigation of old, previously G-banded, mounted chromosome preparations with chromosome specific painting probes and centromere-specific probes is described. Before hybridization, the slides are incubated in xylene until...... the coverslips detach spontaneously; any mechanical manipulation will jeopardize the results. The success of chromosome painting is improved by excluding the regular RNase treatment step prior to hybridization. Additional changes compared with standard FISH protocols are that the 2 x SSC step is omitted...

  6. Properties and characterization of bionanocomposite films prepared with various biopolymers and ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-06-15

    This study was aimed to develop biopolymer based antimicrobial films for active food packaging and to reduce environmental pollution caused by accumulation of synthetic packaging. The ZnO NPs were incorporated as antimicrobials into different biopolymers such as agar, carrageenan and CMC. Solvent casting method was performed to prepare active nanocomposite films. Methods such as FE-SEM, FT-IR and XRD were used to characterize resulting films. Physical, mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties were also examined. Remarkable surface morphological differences were observed between control and nanocomposite films. The crystallinity of ZnO was confirmed by XRD analysis. The addition of ZnO NPs increased color, UV barrier, moisture content, hydrophobicity, elongation and thermal stability of the films, while decreased WVP, tensile strength and elastic modulus. ZnO NPs impregnated films inhibited growth of L. monocytogenes and E. coli. So these newly prepared nanocomposite films can be used as active packaging film to extend shelf-life of food.

  7. Film properties of alumina passivation layer for silicon solar cells prepared by spin-coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Ryosuke, E-mail: rwatanabe@st.seikei.ac.jp; Kawashima, Mizuho; Saito, Yoji

    2015-09-01

    We prepared alumina passivation films deposited by a sol-gel wet process for silicon substrates. Aluminum acetylacetonate was used as a precursor, and the solution was spin-coated onto silicon substrates. Calcination temperature dependence of the passivation quality of the films was evaluated mainly by measuring effective lifetime using a photo conductance decay technique and capacitance–voltage measurements. Also, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were carried out to evaluate film properties. A large amount of negative fixed charge density (Q{sub f} = − 3.1 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}) exists in the films calcined at 300 °C. On the other hand, a long effective lifetime of 400 μs was obtained for the sample calcined at 600 °C, and the passivation films had a large amount of positive fixed charge density (Q{sub f} = 3.6 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}) with a low interface state density. - Highlights: • Alumina passivation films for silicon solar cells were prepared by spin-coating. • Electronic properties and the quality of passivation films were investigated. • Carrier lifetime was enhanced for the samples that were calcined above 400 °C. • The films calcined at 300 °C have high amount of negative fixed charge.

  8. New crosslinked cast films based on poly(vinyl alcohol: Preparation and physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Birck

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a green route to prepare insoluble poly(vinyl alcohol (PVOH cast films with potential application as antimicrobial packaging. First PVOH films were cast from different aqueous solutions and analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA to determine their physical properties under two storage conditions. In order to obtain insoluble films, PVOH was then crosslinked by citric acid (CTR as confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR analyses. The crosslinking reaction parameters (curing time, crosslinker content were studied by comparing the characteristics of PVOH/CTR films, such as free COOH content and glass transition temperature (Tg value, as well as the impact of the crosslinking reaction on mechanical properties. It was found that for 40 and 10 wt% CTR contents, 120 and 40 min of crosslinking times were necessary to bind all CTR respectively. Brittle films were obtained for 40 wt% CTR whereas 10 wt% CTR content led to ductile films. Finally, films containing hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD, chosen as a potential vector of antimicrobial agent, were prepared. The obtained results show that the incorporation of HPβCD in the PVOH matrix does not mainly influence the physical and mechanical properties of the films.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Silver Liquid Thin Films for Magnetic Fluid Deformable Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianchao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver liquid thin film, formed by silver nanoparticles stacking and spreading on the surface of the liquid, is one of the important parts of magnetic fluid deformable mirror. First, silver nanoparticles were prepared by liquid phase chemical reduction method using sodium citrate as reducing agent and stabilizer and silver nitrate as precursor. Characterization of silver nanoparticles was studied using X-ray diffractometer, UV-vis spectrophotometer, and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The results showed that silver nanoparticles are spherical and have a good monodispersity. Additionally, the effect of the reaction conditions on the particle size of silver is obvious. And then silver liquid thin films were prepared by oil-water two-phase interface technology using as-synthesized silver nanoparticles. Properties of the film were investigated using different technology. The results showed that the film has good reflectivity and the particle size has a great influence on the reflectivity of the films. SEM photos showed that the liquid film is composed of multilayer silver nanoparticles. In addition, stability of the film was studied. The results showed that after being stored for 8 days under natural conditions, the gloss and reflectivity of the film start to decrease.

  10. Preparation and Grafting Functionalization of Self-Assembled Chitin Nanofiber Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Kadokawa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chitin is a representative biomass resource comparable to cellulose. Although considerable efforts have been devoted to extend novel applications to chitin, lack of solubility in water and common organic solvents causes difficulties in improving its processability and functionality. Ionic liquids have paid much attention as solvents for polysaccharides. However, little has been reported regarding the dissolution of chitin with ionic liquids. The author found that an ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (AMIMBr, dissolved chitin in concentrations up to ~4.8 wt % and the higher contents of chitin with AMIMBr gave ion gels. When the ion gel was soaked in methanol for the regeneration of chitin, followed by sonication, a chitin nanofiber dispersion was obtained. Filtration of the dispersion was subsequently carried out to give a chitin nanofiber film. A chitin nanofiber/poly(vinyl alcohol composite film was also obtained by co-regeneration approach. Chitin nanofiber-graft-synthetic polymer composite films were successfully prepared by surface-initiated graft polymerization technique. For example, the preparation of chitin nanofiber-graft-biodegradable polyester composite film was achieved by surface-initiated graft polymerization from the chitin nanofiber film. The similar procedure also gave chitin nanofiber-graft-polypeptide composite film. The surface-initiated graft atom transfer radical polymerization was conducted from a chitin macroinitiator film derived from the chitin nanofiber film.

  11. Oromucosal film preparations: points to consider for patient centricity and manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampe, Raphael; Visser, J Carolina; Frijlink, Henderik W; Breitkreutz, Jörg; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Preis, Maren

    2016-01-01

    According to the European Pharmacopoeia, oromucosal films comprise mucoadhesive buccal films and orodispersible films. Both oral dosage forms receive considerable interest in the recent years as commercially available pharmaceutical products and as small scale personalized extemporaneous preparations. In this review, technological issues such as viscosity of the casting liquid, mechanical properties of the film, upscaling and the stability of the casting solution and produced films will be discussed. Furthermore, patient-related problems like appearance, mucosal irritation, taste, drug load, safety and biopharmaceutics are described. Current knowledge and directions for solutions are summarized. The viscosity of the casting solution is a key factor for producing suitable films. This parameter is amongst others dependent on the polymer and active pharmaceutical ingredient, and the further excipients that are used. For optimal patient compliance, an acceptable taste and palatability are desirable. Safe and inert excipients should be used and appropriate packaging should be provided to produced films. Absorption through the oral mucosa will vary for each active compound, formulation and patient, which gives rise to pharmacokinetic questions. Finally, the European Pharmacopoeia needs to specify methods, requirement and definitions for oromucosal film preparations based on bio-relevant data.

  12. Preparing hydrophobic nanocellulose-silica film by a facile one-pot method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Duy; Kongparakul, Suwadee; Samart, Chanatip; Phanthong, Patchiya; Karnjanakom, Surachai; Abudula, Abuliti; Guan, Guoqing

    2016-11-20

    Hydrophobic nanocellulose-silica film was successfully prepared by a facile one-pot method using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and dodecyl triethoxylsilane (DTES). Morphological characterization of the hydrophobic nanocellulose-silica (NC-SiO2-DTES) film showed well self-assembled DTES modified silica spherical nanoparticles with the particle sizes in the range of 88-126nm over the nanocellulose film. The hydrophobicity of the NC-SiO2-DTES film was achieved owing to the improvement of roughness of the nanocellulose film by coating dodecyl- terminated silica nanoparticles. An increase in DTES loading amount and reaction time increased the hydrophobicity of the film, and the optimum condition for NC-SiO2-DTES film preparation was achieved at DTES/TEOS molar ratio of 2.0 for 8h reaction time. Besides, the NC-SiO2-DTES film performed superoleophilic property with octane and hexadecane contact angles of 0°. It also showed an excellent hydrophobic property over all pH values ranged from 1 to 14.

  13. Multilayer design of hybrid phosphor film for application in LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Tuğrul; Köseoğlu, Devrim; Demir, Mustafa M.

    2016-10-01

    Crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite coatings containing luminescent micrometer-sized yellow Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ (YAG:Ce3+) particles were prepared by spraying for potential applications in solid-state lighting. Blue light was down converted by phosphor particles to produce white light, yet poor color properties of YAG:Ce3+ stemmed from a deficiency of red. When nitride-based red phosphor was simply blended into the system, the electrostatic interaction of negatively charged YAG:Ce3+ and positively charged red phosphor particles caused remarkable clustering and heterogeneity in particle dispersion. Consequently, the light is dominantly blue and shifted to cold white. In other case, phosphor particles were sprayed onto the diffused polycarbonate substrate in stacked layers. Coatings with >80% inorganic content by mass with a thickness of 60 μm were subjected to thermal crosslinking, which the presence of the phosphor particles obstructed, presumably due to the hindrance of large phosphor particles in the diffusion of PDMS precursors. The coating of YAG:Ce3+ first followed by red phosphor in stacked layers produced better light output and color properties than the coating obtained by spraying the mixture at once. Monte Carlo simulation validated the hypothesis.

  14. Organic - Inorganic Hybrids made from Polymerizable Precursors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uricanu, V.I.; Donescu, D.; Banu, A.G.; Serban, S.; Olteanu, M.; Dudau, M.

    2004-01-01

    Organic–inorganic hybrid films were prepared based on a recipe using organoalkoxysilanes’ ability to create an inorganic network combined with polymer network formation via radical polymerization of the organic groups. The starting mixtures included different triethoxysilanes (RTES), where the

  15. Optimization of AZO films prepared on flexible substrates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C C Hu; T W Lu; C Y Chou; J T Wang; H H Huang; C Y Hsu

    2014-10-01

    Transparent conductive Al2O3-doped zinc oxide (in AZO, Al2O3 content is ∼ 2 wt%) thin films are deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, using radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering. The Taguchi method with an 9 (34) orthogonal array, a signal-to-noise ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the performance characteristics of the coating operations. Using grey relational analysis, the optimization of these deposition process parameters for AZO thin films with multiple characteristics was performed. The electrical resistivity of AZO/PET films is reduced from 2.6 × 10-2 to 5.5 × 10-3 -cm and the visible range transmittance is > 83%, using the grey relational analysis. ANOVA results for the grey relational grade indicate that rf power and working pressure are the two most influential factors. The effect of the rf power (in the range from 30 to 70 W) and the argon working pressure (in the range from 0.90 to 1.1 Pa) on the morphology and optoelectronic performance of AZO films are also investigated. An analysis of the influence of the dominant parameters in the optimal design region is helpful for adjustment of the coating parameters.

  16. Active vibration control of hybrid smart structures featuring piezoelectric films and electrorheological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Park, Yong-Kun; Cheong, ChaeCheon

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents a proof-of-concept investigation on an active vibration control of a hybrid smart structure (HSS) consisting of a piezoelectric film actuator (PFA) and an electro- rheological fluid actuator (ERFA). Firstly, an HSS beam is constructed by inserting a starch- based electro-rheological fluid into a hollow composite beam and perfectly bonding two piezoelectric films on the upper and lower surfaces of the structure as an actuator and as a sensor, respectively. As for the PFA, a neuro-sliding mode controller (NSC) incorporating neural networks with the concept of sliding mode control is formulated. On the other hand, the control scheme for the ERFA is developed as a function of excitation frequencies on the basis of field-dependent frequency responses. An experimental implementation for the PFA and ERFA is then established to perform an active vibration control of the HSS in the transient and forced vibrations. Both the increment of damping ratios and the suppression of tip deflections are evaluated in order to demonstrate control effectiveness of the PFA, the ERFA, and the hybrid actuation. The experimental results exhibit a superior ability of the hybrid actuation system to tailor elastodynamic responses of the HSS rather than a single class of actuation system alone.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of New Geopolymer-Epoxy Resin Hybrid Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cioffi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and characterization of metakaolin-based geopolymer mortars containing an organic epoxy resin are presented here for the first time. The specimens have been prepared by means of an innovative in situ co-reticulation process, in mild conditions, of commercial epoxy based organic resins and geopolymeric slurry. In this way, geopolymer based hybrid mortars characterized by a different content of normalized sand (up to 66% in weight and by a homogeneous dispersion of the organic resin have been obtained. Once hardened, these new materials show improved compressive strength and toughness in respect to both the neat geopolymer and the hybrid pastes since the organic polymer provides a more cohesive microstructure, with a reduced amount of microcracks. The microstructural characterization allows to point out the presence of an Interfacial Transition Zone similar to that observed in cement based mortars and concretes. A correlation between microstructural features and mechanical properties has been studied too.

  18. Biotemplated preparation of CdS nanoparticles/bacterial cellulose hybrid nanofibers for photocatalysis application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiazhi; Yu, Junwei; Fan, Jun; Sun, Dongping; Tang, Weihua; Yang, Xuejie

    2011-05-15

    In this work, we describe a novel facile and effective strategy to prepare micrometer-long hybrid nanofibers by deposition of CdS nanoparticles onto the substrate of hydrated bacterial cellulose nanofibers (BCF). Hexagonal phase CdS nanocrystals were achieved via a simple hydrothermal reaction between CdCl(2) and thiourea at relatively low temperature. The prepared pristine BCF and the CdS/BCF hybrid nanofibers were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV-vis absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results reveal that the CdS nanoparticles were homogeneously deposited on the BCF surface and stabilized via coordination effect. The CdS/BCF hybrid nanofibers demonstrated high-efficiency photocatalysis with 82% methyl orange (MO) degradation after 90 min irradiation and good recyclability. The results indicate that the CdS/BCF hybrid nanofibers are promising candidate as robust visible light responsive photocatalysts.

  19. Preparation of collagen/hydroxyapatite/alendronate hybrid hydrogels as potential scaffolds for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; He, Zhiwei; Han, Fengxuan; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Chen, Liang; Li, Bin

    2016-07-01

    Development of biomimetic scaffolds represents a promising direction in bone tissue engineering. In this study, we designed a two-step process to prepare a type of biomimetic hybrid hydrogels that were composed of collagen, hydroxyapatite (HAP) and alendronate (ALN), an anti-osteoporosis drug. First, water-soluble ALN-conjugated HAP (HAP-ALN) containing 4.0wt.% of ALN was synthesized by treating HAP particles with ALN. Hydrogels were then formed from HAP-ALN conjugate and collagen under physiological conditions using genipin (GNP) as the crosslinker. Depending on the ALN/collagen molar ratio and GNP concentration, the gelation time of hydrogels ranged from 5 to 37min. Notably, these hybrid hydrogels exhibited markedly improved mechanical property (storage modulus G'=38-187kPa), higher gel contents, and lower swelling ratios compared to the hydrogels prepared from collagen alone under similar conditions. Moreover, they showed tunable degradation behaviors against collagenase. The collagen/HAP-ALN hybrid hydrogels supported the adhesion and growth of murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells well. Such tough yet enzymatically degradable hybrid hydrogels hold potential as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

  20. Resonant photothermal laser processing of hybrid gold/titania nanoparticle films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Lina; Franzka, Steffen; Dzialkowski, Kevin; Hardt, Sebastian; Wiggers, Hartmut; Reichenberger, Sven; Wagener, Philipp; Hartmann, Nils

    2015-05-01

    Photothermal processing of thin anatase TiO2 and hybrid Au/anatase TiO2 nanoparticle films on glass supports is investigated using continuous-wave microfocused lasers at λ = 355 nm and λ = 532 nm. UV/Vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are used for characterization. Processing of TiO2 nanoparticle films is feasible at λ = 355 nm only. In contrast, the addition of Au nanoparticles enhances the overall absorbance of the material in the visible range and enables processing at both wavelengths, i.e. at λ = 355 nm and λ = 532 nm. Generally, laser heating induces a transition from anatase to rutile. The modification degree increases with increasing laser power and laser irradiation time. Resonant laser processing of hybrid Au/TiO2-mesoporous films provide promising perspectives in various applications, e.g. in photovoltaics, where embedded nanoparticulate Au could be exploited to enhance light trapping.

  1. One-step preparation of organometal/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hybrid microspheres and their electromagnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Junji; Zhan Yingqing; Yang Xulin; Meng Fanbin; Ma Zhen; Zhao Rui; Zhong Jiachun; Zhang Jiandong [Research Branch of Functional Materials, Institute of Microelectronic and Solid State Electronic, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Liu Xiaobo, E-mail: liuxb@uestc.edu.cn [Research Branch of Functional Materials, Institute of Microelectronic and Solid State Electronic, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Novel organometal/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hybrid microspheres were prepared from bisphthalonitrile-benzoxine resin containing ferrocene (FPNBZ) and FeCl{sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O via a one-step solvent-thermal method. The phase structure, composition and morphology of as-prepared hybrid microspheres were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed that crystallinity, dispersity and size of hybrid microspheres can be controlled by altering the reaction parameters. Density measurement showed that the density is decreased with increasing FPNBZ concentration in the hybrid materials. Electromagnetic properties of the FPNBZ/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hybrid microspheres were measured at 2-18 GHz. The electromagnetic measurement indicated that the resonance peaks of complex permittivity, complex permeability, dielectric loss and magnetic loss were shifted to the high frequencies, with the increasing amount of FPNBZ. The as-prepared hybrid materials are believed to have broad applications both in microwave absorption materials in a wide frequency range and in biomedical fields. - Highlights: > The as-prepared hybrid microspheres showed high resistivity, good thermal stability and low density. > Morphology, size, magnetism and electromagnetic properties of hybrid microspheres can illicit by altering the reaction parameters. > Hybrids is alleged to have wide applications both in microwave absorption materials in a wide frequency range and in biomedical fields.

  2. Surface textured molybdenum doped zinc oxide thin films prepared for thin film solar cells using pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.C., E-mail: ielinyc@cc.ncue.edu.tw; Wang, B.L.; Yen, W.T.; Shen, C.H.

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of etching on the electrical properties, transmittance, and scattering of visible light in molybdenum doped zinc oxide, ZnO:Mo (MZO) thin films prepared by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering. We used two different etching solutions - KOH and HCl - to alter the surface texture of the MZO thin film so that it could trap light. The experimental results showed that an MZO film with a minimum resistivity of about 8.9 x 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm and visible light transitivity of greater than 80% can be obtained without heating at a Mo content of 1.77 wt.%, sputtering power of 100 W, working pressure of 0.4 Pa, pulsed frequency of 10 kHz, and film thickness of 500 nm. To consider the effect of resistivity and optical diffuse transmittance, we performed etching of an 800 nm thick MZO thin film with 0.5 wt.% HCl for 3-6 s at 300 K. Consequently, we obtained a resistivity of 1.74-2.75 x 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm, total transmittance at visible light of 67%-73%, diffuse transmittance at visible light of 25.1%-28.4%, haze value of 0.34-0.42, and thin film surface crater diameters of 220-350 nm.

  3. Preparation of stable aqueous solution of keratins, and physiochemical and biodegradational properties of films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, K; Yamauchi, A; Kusunoki, T; Kohda, A; Konishi, Y

    1996-08-01

    A stable aqueous solution of reduced keratins was prepared by extracting the proteins from wool (Corriedale) with a mixture of urea, mercaptanol, surfactant, and water at 40-60 degrees C. Sodium dodecyl sulfate was especially effective as a surfactant, not only in promoting extraction but also in stabilizing the aqueous protein solution. The proteins had the following constants: MW, 52,000-69,000 daltons; cysteine content, 8-9 mol%; pl about 6.7. A clear film was readily prepared from a keratin solution containing glycerol. The film was insoluble in water and organic solvents including dimethyl sulfoxide. The keratin film was permeable to glucose, urea, and sodium chloride. The keratin film was degraded in vitro (by trypsin) and in vivo (by subcutaneous embedding in mice).

  4. Studies on Preparation of Co-Bi Alloy Films by Electrodeposition From Nonaqueous Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gao-ren; TONG Ye-xiang; LIU Guan-kun

    2003-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry and potentiostatic electrolysis were used to investigate the preparation of Co-Bi alloy films in a LiClO4-DMSO system. The experimental results indicate that the Co-Bi alloy films containing 14.35%-29.77% Co can be prepared via potentionstatic electrolysis on Cu substrates, at deposition potential -1.10--1.65 V(vs. SCE) and by controlling the system composition and deposition condition. They are uniform gray films with a metallic luster and they are adhered firmly to the Cu substrate. The films were analyzed by EDS, SEM and XRD. After heat treatment of crystallization at 275 ℃ for 1 h, the alloy phase of Co-Bi can be confirmed via the XRD pattern.

  5. Continuous Preparation of Carbon Nanotube Film and Its Applications in Fuel and Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao Gang; Huang, Xin Xin; Wang, Xiao Xia; Zhong, Xin Hua; Meng, Xin Xin; Wang, Jian Nong

    2016-03-01

    So far, simultaneously realizing the continuous, controllable, and scalable preparation of carbon nanotube (CNT) film has remained a big challenge. Here, we report a scalable approach to continuously prepare CNT film with good control of film size and thickness. This is achieved through the layer-by-layer condensation and deposition of a cylindrical CNT assembly that is continuously produced from a floating catalyst CVD reactor on a paper strip. The promising applications of such a film are demonstrated by directly using it as an effective protecting layer for the Pt/C catalyst in proton exchange membrane fuel cells and as an efficient counter electrode material in quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells.

  6. Preparation of porous titanium oxide films onto indium tin oxide for application in organic photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Andreia G. [Laboratorio de Dispositivos Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Mattos, Luana L.; Spada, Edna R.; Serpa, Rafael B.; Campos, Cristiani S. [Laboratorio de Sistemas Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Grova, Isabel R.; Ackcelrud, Leni [Laboratorio de Polimeros Paulo Scarpa, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Reis, Francoise T.; Sartorelli, Maria L. [Laboratorio de Sistemas Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Roman, Lucimara S., E-mail: lsroman@fisica.ufpr.br [Laboratorio de Dispositivos Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)

    2012-05-01

    In this work, porous ordered TiO{sub 2} films were prepared through sol gel route by using a monolayer of polystyrene spheres as template on indium-tin oxide/glass substrate. These films were characterized by SEM, AFM, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis absorbance and XRD. The UV-vis absorbance spectrum show a pseudo band gap (PBG) with maxima at 460 nm arising from the light scattering and partial or total suppression of the photon density of states, this PBG can be controlled by the size of the pore. We also propose the use of this porous film as electron acceptor electrode in organic photovoltaic cells; we show that devices prepared with porous titania displayed higher efficiencies than devices using compact titania films as electrode. Such behaviour was observed in both bilayer and bulk heterojunction devices.

  7. Preparation of transparent conductive ZnO:Tb films and their photoluminescence properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Ze-Bo; Tan Yong-Sheng; Liu Xue-Qin; Yang Ying-Hu; Wang Yin-Yue

    2004-01-01

    Tb-doped Zinc oxide (ZnO:Tb) films were prepared by RF reactive magnetron sputtering of a Zn target withsome Tb-chips attached. The results show that the appropriate Tb ions incorporated into ZnO films can improve the structural and electrical properties of ZnO films. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements show that the characteristic emission lines correspond to the intra-4fn-shell transitions in Tbs+ ions at room temperature. Under the optimal conditions, the ZnO:Tb films were prepared with the lowest resistivity (ρ) of 9.34 × 10-4Ωcm, transmittance over 80% at the visible region and the strong blue emission.

  8. Electrochemical preparation of Er-Co-Bi thin film in organic bath by cyclic electrodeposition method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李高仁; 童叶翔; 刘冠昆

    2004-01-01

    Cyclic electrodeposition was used to investigate the preparation of Er-Co-Bi alloy thin film in DMSO system. Experimental results indicate that Er-Co-Bi alloy thin film containing 14.83 %- 32.65 % Er is prepared from 0. 1 mol/L ErCl3 +0. 1 mol/L CoCl2 + 0.1 mol/L Bi(NO3 )3 + 0.1 mol/L LiCl+DMSO system by cyclic electrodeposition on Cu substrate. The optimum cyclic potential of electrodeposition is that upper potential is within a potential range from -0.50 V to -1.00 V and lower potential is within a potential range from -2.00 V to -2.60 V.The surface of alloy thin film observed by scanning electron microscope is black, adhesive and has metallic luster.The film is amorphous proved by the X-ray diffractometry.

  9. Characteristics of zinc oxide nanorod array/titanium oxide film heterojunction prepared by aqueous solution deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Kwei; Hong, Min-Hsuan; Li, Bo-Wei

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of a ZnO nanorod array/TiO2 film heterojunction were investigated. A TiO2 film was prepared on glass by aqueous solution deposition with precursors of ammonium hexafluorotitanate and boric acid at 40 °C. Then, a ZnO seed layer was prepared on a TiO2 film/glass substrate by RF sputtering. A vertically oriented ZnO nanorod array was grown on a ZnO seed layer/TiO2 film/glass substrate by aqueous solution deposition with precursors of zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) at 70 °C. After thermal annealing in N2O ambient at 300 °C, this heterojunction used as an oxygen gas sensor shows much better rise time, decay time, and on/off current ratio than as-grown and annealed ZnO nanorods.

  10. Totally embedded hybrid thin films of carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires as flat homogenous flexible transparent conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Suresh Kumar Raman; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yilei; Sk, Md Moniruzzaman; Prakoso, Ari Bimo; Rusli; Chan-Park, Mary B.

    2016-12-01

    There is a great need for viable alternatives to today’s transparent conductive film using largely indium tin oxide. We report the fabrication of a new type of flexible transparent conductive film using silver nanowires (AgNW) and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) networks which are fully embedded in a UV curable resin substrate. The hybrid SWCNTs-AgNWs film is relatively flat so that the RMS roughness of the top surface of the film is 3 nm. Addition of SWCNTs networks make the film resistance uniform; without SWCNTs, sheet resistance of the surface composed of just AgNWs in resin varies from 20 Ω/sq to 107 Ω/sq. With addition of SWCNTs embedded in the resin, sheet resistance of the hybrid film is 29 ± 5 Ω/sq and uniform across the 47 mm diameter film discs; further, the optimized film has 85% transparency. Our lamination-transfer UV process doesn’t need solvent for sacrificial substrate removal and leads to good mechanical interlocking of the nano-material networks. Additionally, electrochemical study of the film for supercapacitors application showed an impressive 10 times higher current in cyclic voltammograms compared to the control without SWCNTs. Our fabrication method is simple, cost effective and enables the large-scale fabrication of flat and flexible transparent conductive films.

  11. Nanometric hybrid films of xanthan and magnetite; Filmes hibridos nanometricos de xantana e magnetita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (NMM) were synthesized by co-characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and potentiometric titration. Xanthan thin films and NMM were deposited alternately onto Si wafers. The attachment of first xanthan layer onto Si wafer was obtained in the presence of Ca{sup 2+} 1 mM and at pH 10. Under these conditions calcium ions interact electrostatically with both silanol groups and xanthan carboxylate groups, yielding stable xanthan (1.5 {+-} 0.5) nm thick films. The deposition of NMM was forced by applying a magnetic field set under the sample. The following bilayers were formed by 'layer-by-layer' electrostatic process and magnetic field action. The bilayers formation was monitored by the variation in the ellipsometric angles values, {Delta} e {psi}, and atomic force microscopy. (author)

  12. Solution processed SiN{sub x}C{sub y}O{sub z} thin films thermally transformed from silicon oxide/melamine hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jaehun [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300, Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Fujihara, Kan [KANEKA Corporation, 5-1-1 Torikai-Nishi, Settsu, Osaka 566-007 (Japan); Pu, Lyongsun [KANEKA Corporation, 5-1-1 Torikai-Nishi, Settsu, Osaka 566-007 (Japan); School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University 300, Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Ji-Beom [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University 300, Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Young; Cho, Sung M.; Lee, Youngkwan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-dong, Jangan Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Woo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyonggi University, 94-6 yiui-dong Yeongton-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 443-760 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Taeseon, E-mail: Taeseon.Hwang@unlv.edu [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300, Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Nam, Jae-Do, E-mail: jdnam@skku.edu [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300, Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, 300, Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-31

    In this study, a solution-processable precursor of melamine and silicon oxide, was prepared and thermally converted into inorganic thin films of SiN{sub x}C{sub y}O{sub z}. Using tetra-ethoxysilane and hydroxyl-methyl-melamine, a transparent coating with a high loading content of silica of up to 50% was achieved through the hydrolysis/condensation reactions, which provided a transmittance of 85.1% (thickness of 1.5 ± 0.2 μm) and hard coating grade of 4H pencil test. When the silica/melamine coating was further heat-treated up to 900 °C in an inert environment, the organic melamine was converted into an inorganic compound composed of Si, N, C, and O atoms in the form of SiN{sub x}C{sub y}O{sub z}. The relative compositions of films varied with the heat-treatment temperature, e.g., providing SiN{sub 0.03}C{sub 0.59}O{sub 1.87} for the thin film heat-treated at 700 °C. The resulting inorganic thin films were mechanically strong and optically shiny with a low root mean square of roughness (< 1.0 nm) giving dielectric constants varying from 2.75 to 1.82 with heat treatment temperature that could be used as low-k materials in commercialized optoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • A solution-processable dielectric layer was fabricated through sol–gel process. • A fabricated hybrid film has an excellent optical transmittance and hardness. • The hybrid film was converted into an inorganic compound in the form of SiN{sub x}C{sub y}O{sub z}. • The dielectric constant of heat-treated specimen was measured lower than 2.0.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Polyvinylidene Fluoride/Graphene Superhydrophobic Fibrous Films

    OpenAIRE

    Rasoul Moradi; Javad Karimi-Sabet; Mojtaba Shariaty-Niassar; Mohammad A. Koochaki

    2015-01-01

    A new strategy to induce superhydrophobicity via introducing hierarchical structure into the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film was explored in this study. For this purpose nanofibrous composite films were prepared by electrospinning of PVDF and PVDF/graphene blend solution as the main precursors to produce a net-like structure. Various spectroscopy and microscopy methods in combination with crystallographic and wettability tests were used to evaluate the characteristics of the synthesized f...

  14. Preparation and Properties of Functional Graphene/Thermoplastic Polyurethane Composite Film

    OpenAIRE

    ZHENG Hui-dong; OU Zhong-xing; ZHENG Yu-ying; XIAO Dong-sheng; CAO Ning-ning

    2016-01-01

    The modified graphene oxide(DD-GO) was reacted by the Didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) and graphene oxide,and then reduced via L-ascorbic acid to obtain functional graphene(DD-RGO). Functional graphene (DD-RGO)/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composite films were prepared by solution on the coating machine. The morphology and properties of DD-RGO/TPU composite films were investigated by FTIR, XRD, FE-SEM, oxygen transmission rate tester and high resistance meter. The results show tha...

  15. Iron Oxide Films Prepared by Rapid Thermal Processing for Solar Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickman, B.; da Silva Fanta, Alice Bastos; Burrows, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    considerably. Herein, we present hematite thin films fabricated via one-step oxidation of Fe by rapid thermal processing (RTP). In particular, we investigate the effect of oxidation temperature on the PEC properties of hematite. Films prepared at 750 °C show the highest activity towards water oxidation......, potentially also on nanostructured electrodes, where retaining high surface area is crucial to maximize performance....

  16. Amorphous Indium Selenide Thin Films Prepared by RF Sputtering: Thickness-Induced Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Myoung Yoo; Park, Yong Seob; Kim, Nam-Hoon

    2016-05-01

    The influence of indium composition, controlled by changing the film thickness, on the optical and electrical properties of amorphous indium selenide thin films was studied for the application of these materials as Cd-free buffer layers in CI(G)S solar cells. Indium selenide thin films were prepared using RF magnetron sputtering method. The indium composition of the amorphous indium selenide thin films was varied from 94.56 to 49.72 at% by increasing the film thickness from 30 to 70 nm. With a decrease in film thickness, the optical transmittance increased from 87.63% to 96.03% and Eg decreased from 3.048 to 2.875 eV. Carrier concentration and resistivity showed excellent values of ≥1015 cm(-3) and ≤ 10(4) Ω x cm, respectively. The conductivity type of the amorphous indium selenide thin films could be controlled by changing the film-thickness-induced amount of In. These results indicate the possibility of tuning the properties of amorphous indium selenide thin films by changing their composition for use as an alternate buffer layer material in CI(G)S solar cells.

  17. [Preparation and spectral characterization of CdS(y)Te(1-y) thin films].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Feng, Liang-Huan; Wu, Li-Li; Zhang, Jing-Quan; Li, Bing; Lei, Zhi; Cai, Ya-Ping; Zheng, Jia-Gui; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Dong-Min

    2008-03-01

    CdS(y)Te(1-y) (0 thin films were prepared on glass substrates by co-evaporation of powders of CdTe and CdS. For the characterization of the structure and composition of the CdS(y)Te(1-y) thin films the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used. The results indicate that the values of sulfur content y detected and controlled by the quartz wafer detector show good agreement with the EDS results. The films were found to be cubic for x or = 0.3. The 20-50 nm of grain sizes for CdS(y)Te(1-y) thin films were calculated using a method of XRD analysis. Finally, the optical properties of CdS(y)Te(1-y) thin films were characterized by UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy alone. According to a method from Swanepoel, together with the first-order Sellmeier model, the thickness, of d-535 nm, energy gap of E(g)-1.41 eV, absorption coefficient, alpha(lambda) and refractive index, n(lambda) of CdS(0.22) Te(0.78) thin films were determined from the transmittance at normal incidence of light in the wavelength range 300-2 500 nm. The results also indicate that the CdS(y)Te(1-y) thin films with any composition (0 thin films can be implemented for other semiconductor thin films.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose/Polycarbophil Mucoadhesive Blend Films Using a Mixture Design Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraisit, Pakorn; Limmatvapirat, Sontaya; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Luangtana-Anan, Manee

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to prepare the hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)/polycarbophil (PC) mucoadhesive blend film and to investigate the main and interaction effect of HPMC and PC mixtures on the physicochemical and mechanical properties of blend films using a simplex lattice mixture design approach. The cubic and quadratic models were selected to analyze mucoadhesive properties in terms of work of adhesion and maximum detachment force, respectively. It was shown that HPMC/PC blend film had higher mucoadhesive properties than pure HPMC film. The suitable models for analyzing swelling index of blend films at various times were assessed. The puncture strength, % elongation and hydrophilicity of films were also examined. The pure HPMC film displayed more homogeneous and smoother structures compared with the blend film, as observed by scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding between HPMC and PC was detected using Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. Therefore, the blend film shows high potential for use as a buccal delivery system.

  19. Preparation and Properties of Doped Lanthanum Gallate Film on a Ni/SDC Porous Anode Support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A 65.8-μm dense doped lanthanum gallate La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.85Mg0.15O2.825 (LSGM)film was prepared on a porous Ni/SDC(samarium doped ceria, Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9) anode support by colloid suspension deposition with incomplete crystallization LSGM powder as a starting material. The phase composition and micromorphology of the LSGM film were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical properties of the LSGM film and the performances of the LSGM film solid oxide fuel cell were also analyzed. The results show that both the dense LSGM film on the porous anode support, and the required phase composition of the LSGM film were obtained simultaneously by sintering at 1400℃ for 6 h. The adhesion between the LSGM film and the porous anode support is very strong. The electrical conductivities of the LSGM film on the porous anode support are 0. 113 and 0. 173 S/cm at 800and 850 ℃, respectively. The maximum output power density of the LSGM film cell is 177 mW/cm2 at 700 ℃.

  20. Fabrication and Characteristics of ZnO/OAD-InN/PbPc Hybrid Solar Cells Prepared by Oblique-Angle Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chien Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, lead phthalocyanine (PbPc and ZnO/InN inorganic semiconductor films prepared by oblique-angle deposition (OAD were layered to form heterojunction organic/inorganic hybrid photovoltaic solar cells. Among the available organic materials, phthalocyanines, particularly the non-planar ones such as PbPc, are notable for their absorption in the visible and near infrared regions. The organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells fabricated on ZnO/OAD-InN/PbPc showed short-circuit current density (JSC, open-circuit voltage (VOC, and power conversion efficiencies (η of 1.2 mA/cm2, 0.6 V and 0.144%, respectively.

  1. Fabrication and characteristics of ZnO/OAD-InN/PbPc hybrid solar cells prepared by oblique-angle deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Chiang; Chen, Lung-Chien

    2012-08-08

    In this work, lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) and ZnO/InN inorganic semiconductor films prepared by oblique-angle deposition (OAD) were layered to form heterojunction organic/inorganic hybrid photovoltaic solar cells. Among the available organic materials, phthalocyanines, particularly the non-planar ones such as PbPc, are notable for their absorption in the visible and near infrared regions. The organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells fabricated on ZnO/OAD-InN/PbPc showed short-circuit current density (J(SC)), open-circuit voltage (V(OC)), and power conversion efficiencies (η) of 1.2 mA/cm², 0.6 V and 0.144%, respectively.

  2. Simple way for preparation of ZnO films by surfactant mediated spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stambolova, Irina; Blaskov, Vladimir; Shipochka, Maria [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, BAS, Acad. G. Bonchev St., bl.11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Vassilev, Sasho [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, BAS, Acad. G. Bonchev St., bl.10, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Petkova, Vilma [Institute of Mineralogy and Crystallography ' Acad. Ivan Kostov' , BAS, Acad. G. Bonchev St., bl.107, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Loukanov, Alexandre, E-mail: alexandre_loukanov@abv.bg [Laboratory of Engineering NanoBiotechnology, Department of Engineering Geoecology, University of Mining and Geology ' St. Ivan Rilski' , Sofia 1700 (Bulgaria)

    2012-08-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO was prepared by surfactant mediated spray pyrolysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The film surface morphology can be enhanced by PVA addition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PVA improves significant the photocatalytic activity of ZnO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The zinc acetate precursor is preferred for film preparation than nitrate one. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline porous ZnO films are deposited onto alumina foil substrates by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) modified spray pyrolysis. Water and ethanol-water mixture were used for preparation of the sols. The effect of polyvinyl alcohol on the morphological and photocatalytical properties of ZnO films was studied. It was found that the polyvinyl alcohol plays important role in formation of porous films structure with ganglia like morphology. Relatively compact granular morphology was observed for the ZnO samples, grown without organic surfactant. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed the formation of phase-pure ZnO thin films. The FTIR spectra and DTA-TG analyses of the precursor mixtures: Zn(CH{sub 3}COOH){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}0 with PVA revealed that ZnO is formed before the final decomposition of the polymer at 350 Degree-Sign C. It was observed that both: the acetate precursor and the organic surfactant could enhance significantly the photocatalytic properties of the ZnO films. The films obtained from sols, containing PVA showed better photocatalytic decolorization of Malachite Green dye, than the films, deposited from unmodified sols.

  3. The influence of precursor films on CIGS films prepared by ion beam sputtering deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Fan, Ping; Liang, Guangxing; Zheng, Zhuanghao; Zhang, Dongping; Chen, Chaoming

    2013-12-01

    The CuInGa(CIG) precursor films were grown by ion beam sputtering continuously CuGa/CuIn and CuIn/CuGa, and then selenized CIG to fabricate CIGS absorber films on molybdenum substrates . They were annealed in the same vacuum chamber and under the same temperature (500°C). The CIGS thin films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to study the microstructures, composition, surface morphology, electrical properties, respectively. The results showed that the CIGS thin films appeared smooth and compact with a sequence of Mo/CuGa/CuIn/Se, which were mainly of chalcopyrite structure. The CIGS thin films got the strongest diffraction peak intensity and were with good crystalline quality.

  4. Electrochromic NiO thin films prepared by spin coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özütok, F.; Demiri, S.; Özbek, E.

    2017-02-01

    Recently, smart windows are very important because they are often being used in smart buildings and car glasses (windows). At this point, producing effective electrochromic materials is so necessary. In this study, we produced NiO thin films by using spin coating technique on In-doped SnO2 (ITO) substrate. Nickel proportions of these nickel oxide (NiO) films are 3, 5 and 7 %. Nickel acetate tetrahydrate is the initial solution and solvents are ethylene gl ycol and n-hexzane. Structural properties and surface images are investigated by using x-ray diffactometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) device, respectively. In addition, electrochemical behavior is investigated by cyclic voltammetry. A correlation between surface morphology and electrochromic performance was observed as well.

  5. Preparation and characterization of tungsten diselenide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouzet, J.; Bernede, J.C. (Lab. de Physique des Materiaux pour l' Electronique, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, 44 - Nantes (France)); Khellil, A. (Lab. de Micro-Optoelectronique, Univ. d' Oran-Es-Senia (Algeria)); Essaidi, H.; Benhida, S. (Lab. de Physique des Materiaux pour l' Electronique, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, 44 - Nantes (France))

    1992-02-28

    WSe{sub 2} layers synthesized by annealing tungsten foils and r.f.-sputtered tungsten thin films under selenium pressure have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), optical absorption and electrical resistance measurements. It has been found that stoichiometric layers are obtained after appropriate processing at a temperature lower than the glass melting temperature. The films crystallize in the hexagonal structure. The crystallites develop preferentially along the c axis. The binding energies deduced from the XPS lines were found to be in good agreement with those of the reference powder. The electrical resistance is governed by hopping conduction in the low temperature range (80-250 K) and by grain-boundary-scattering mechanisms at higher temperature. (orig.).

  6. Preparation and characterization of crystalline titania film on polyimide substrate by SILAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yaping; Wu, Yiyong; Sun, Chengyue; Huo, Mingxue

    2014-10-01

    Crystalline titania films were prepared on the flexible polyimide (Kapton) substrates using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique modified with mixed organic amine template agents at room temperature. The titania film with the organic amine template agents presents orderly stacked morphology with cross linked V-shaped strips, and it composes of mainly anatase and minor rutile phases with N doping. Structural and morphology analysis indicates that there includes two parallel deposition growth processes: One is adsorption of the template agents and reaction with Ti4+ ions on the constraint region; and the other is a normal SILAR process of including the adsorption of Ti4+ ions and reaction with hydroxyl groups. The organic amine templates and their specific adsorption induce and direct the crystallization of the titania films. Crystal structure of the titania film was confirmed by its excellent photo catalytic property of the films, detected by the degradation test of MB.

  7. Preparation and study of thickness dependent electrical characteristics of zinc sulfide thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A U Ubale; D K Kulkarni

    2005-02-01

    Zinc sulfide thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition. The various deposition parameters such as volume of sulfide ion source, pH of bath, deposition time, temperature etc are optimized. Thin films of ZnS with different thicknesses of 76–332 nm were prepared by changing the deposition time from 6–20 h at 30°C temperature. The effect of film thickness on structural and electrical properties was studied. The electrical resistivity was decreased from 1.83 × 105 -cm to 0.363 × 105 -cm as film thickness decreased from 332 nm to 76 nm. The structural and activation energy studies support this decrease in the resistivity due to improvement in crystallinity of the films which would increase the charge carrier mobility and decrease in defect levels with increase in the thickness.

  8. Electrical properties of chemically prepared nonstoichiometric CuIn(S,Se)2 thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R H Bari; L A Patil; A Soni; G S Okram

    2007-04-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of copper indium sulphoselenide [CuIn(S,Se)2] were deposited on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition technique. The deposition parameters such as pH, temperature and time were optimized. A set of films having different elemental compositions was prepared by varying Cu/In ratio from 1.87–12.15. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The chemical composition of the CuIn(S,Se)2 was found to be nonstoichiometric. The d.c. conductivities of the films were studied below and near room temperature. The thermo-electric power of the films was also measured and type of semiconductivity was ascertained.

  9. Preparation, Growth Mechanisms and Characterizations of ZnSe Films via the Solvothermal Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Huan-yong; JIE Wan-qi; ZHAO Hai-tao

    2006-01-01

    With diethylamine as a solvent, ZnSe films were formed on the Si substrate directly from zinc and selenium through the modified solvothermal method. The effects of holding temperature, deposition time and substrate surface treatment on the quality and morphologies of the ZnSe films were investigated. The growth mechanism of ZnSe films was proved to be a layer-nucleation growth process, which was tied in with the Stranski-Krastanov (SK) model. ZnSe films were identified by the X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), the scanning electron microscope (SEM), the X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and the photoluminescence (PL) techniques. The results indicate that the modified solvothermal method with diethylamine as a solvent is suitable to prepare high quality ZnSe films.

  10. Preparation and Structural Characterization of Superionic Conductor RbAg4I5 Crystalline Grain Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Sun, Hong-San; Sun, Jia-Lin; Tian, Guang-Yan; Xing, Zhi; Guo, Ji-Hua

    2003-05-01

    Superionic conductor RbAg4I5 crystalline grain films were prepared by vacuum thermal evaporation on NaCl crystalline substrates. The surface morphology, microstructure and the electronic energy states of the films were examined by atomic force microscopy, transmission-electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that the obtained RbAg4I5 layer has an epitaxial film of perfect crystalline structure, and the unit cell of crystalline grain RbAg4I5 films belongs to cubic crystal system. The principal x-ray diffraction peaks at d = 3.7447 and 1.8733 Å are related to the structure of ternary compound RbAg4I5 films.

  11. New process for preparing complex-shaped dielectric film similar to Mylar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, R. R.; Kraynik, A. M.

    1982-02-01

    A new thermoforming/heat-treatment process yields complex-shaped dielectric film having electrical and shrinkage properties similar to those of flat Mylar film. This similarity should extend to other physical properties because the new process is directly analogous to the process used to prepare Mylar. Commercially available poly(ethylene terephthalate) film is formed into a cavity at approx. 110 C and then heat treated at approx. 180 C. A laboratory-scale forming apparatus has produced cylindrically shaped films having depth/diameter ratio approx. 1, a tapered wall-section, and variation in wall thickness of 3X. Evaluation of other forming methods suggest that the production rate and thickness uniformity can be improved with existing technology. Thermal shrinkage at 150 C, 1 kHz dielectric constant from -55 to +70 C, leakage current at 1 kV, and breakdown voltage have been measured for both the complex-shaped film and Mylar.

  12. Preparation and characterization of nanostructured ZnO thin films for photoelectrochemical splitting of water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monika Gupta; Vidhika Sharma; Jaya Shrivastava; Anjana Solanki; A P Singh; V R Satsangi; S Dass; Rohit Shrivastav

    2009-02-01

    Nanostructured zinc oxide thin films (ZnO) were prepared on conducting glass support (SnO2: F overlayer) via sol–gel starting from colloidal solution of zinc acetate 2-hydrate in ethanol and 2-methoxy ethanol. Films were obtained by spin coating at 1500 rpm under room conditions (temperature, 28–35°C) and were subsequently sintered in air at three different temperatures (400, 500 and 600°C). The evolution of oxide coatings under thermal treatment was studied by glancing incidence X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Average particle size, resistivity and bandgap energy were also determined. Photoelectrochemical properties of thin films and their suitability for splitting of water were investigated. Study suggests that thin films of ZnO, sintered at 600°C are better for photoconversion than the films sintered at 400 or 500°C. Plausible explanations have been provided.

  13. The Preparation and Characterization of Amorphous SiCN Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Radio Frequency plasma enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (RF CVD) using N2, SiH4 and C2H4 as the reaction sources was used to prepare amorphous ternary SixCyNz thin films. The chemical states of the C, Si and N atoms in the films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The refractive index n, extinction coefficient k and optical band gap Eopt of the thin films were investigated by UV-visible spectrophotometer and spectroscopic ellipsometer.The results show that a complex chemical bonding network rather than a simple mixture of Si3N4,SiC,CNx and a-C etc. , may exist in the ternary thin films. The n's of the films are within the range of 1.90-2. 4