WorldWideScience

Sample records for prepared foods plants

  1. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements...... evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines for causality assessment. Data were obtained for 66 plants that are common ingredients of plant food supplements; of the 492 papers selected, 402 (81.7%) dealt with adverse effects directly associated with the botanical and 89 (18.1%) concerned......) the number of severe clinical reactions was very limited, but some fatal cases have been described. Data presented in this review were assessed for quality in order to make the results maximally useful for clinicians in identifying or excluding deleterious effects of botanicals....

  2. Notes on sample preparation of food: food of plant and animal origins, and daily meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilgeist, M.

    1992-01-01

    The procedure of food sample preparation to determine their specific radioactivity, analogous to chemical residue analysis, is laid down in the relevant sets of regulations. Several procedural steps of sample preparation of single food and composite food are dealt with. The sample size necessary for gamma spectroscopy and Sr-89/Sr-90 analysis, and the incineration step to enrich radionuclides are explained. Finally, enrichment by freeze drying of the high-volatile radionuclide I-131 is considered. (orig.) [de

  3. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations: a systematic review with critical evaluation of causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Lüde, Saskia; De Souza Nascimento, Elizabeth; Dos Santos, Ariana; Colombo, Francesca; Frigerio, Gianfranco; Nørby, Karin; Plumb, Jenny; Finglas, Paul; Restani, Patrizia

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements/botanicals and conventional drugs or nutrients. PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase were searched from database inception to June 2014, using the terms 'adverse effect/s', 'poisoning/s', 'plant food supplement/s', 'misidentification/s' and 'interaction/s' in combination with the relevant plant name. All papers were critically evaluated according to the World Health Organization Guidelines for causality assessment. Data were obtained for 66 plants that are common ingredients of plant food supplements; of the 492 papers selected, 402 (81.7%) dealt with adverse effects directly associated with the botanical and 89 (18.1%) concerned interactions with conventional drugs. Only one case was associated with misidentification. Adverse effects were reported for 39 of the 66 botanical substances searched. Of the total references, 86.6% were associated with 14 plants, including Glycine max/soybean (19.3%), Glycyrrhiza glabra/liquorice (12.2%), Camellia sinensis/green tea ( 8.7%) and Ginkgo biloba/gingko (8.5%). Considering the length of time examined and the number of plants included in the review, it is remarkable that: (i) the adverse effects due to botanical ingredients were relatively infrequent, if assessed for causality; and (ii) the number of severe clinical reactions was very limited, but some fatal cases have been described. Data presented in this review were assessed for quality in order to make the results maximally useful for clinicians in identifying or excluding deleterious effects of botanicals. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  5. Performance of Food Safety Management Systems in Poultry Meat Preparation Processing Plants in Relation to Campylobacter spp. Contamination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampers, I.; Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.; Dumoulin, F.H.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    A diagnostic instrument comprising a combined assessment of core control and assurance activities and a microbial assessment instrument were used to measure the performance of current food safety management systems (FSMSs) of two poultry meat preparation companies. The high risk status of the

  6. Performance of food safety management systems in poultry meat preparation processing plants in relation to Campylobacter spp. contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampers, Imca; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Luning, Pieternel A; Marcelis, Willem J; Dumoulin, Ann; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-08-01

    A diagnostic instrument comprising a combined assessment of core control and assurance activities and a microbial assessment instrument were used to measure the performance of current food safety management systems (FSMSs) of two poultry meat preparation companies. The high risk status of the company's contextual factors, i.e., starting from raw materials (poultry carcasses) with possible high numbers and prevalence of pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., requires advanced core control and assurance activities in the FSMS to guarantee food safety. The level of the core FSMS activities differed between the companies, and this difference was reflected in overall microbial quality (mesophilic aerobic count), presence of hygiene indicators (Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), and contamination with pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter spp. The food safety output expressed as a microbial safety profile was related to the variability in the prevalence and contamination levels of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat preparations found in a Belgian nationwide study. Although a poultry meat processing company could have an advanced FSMS in place and a good microbial profile (i.e., lower prevalence of pathogens, lower microbial numbers, and less variability in microbial contamination), these positive factors might not guarantee pathogen-free products. Contamination could be attributed to the inability to apply effective interventions to reduce or eliminate pathogens in the production chain of (raw) poultry meat preparations.

  7. Food Preparation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    Dewatering Equipment . . . Dispensers • • • • • Egg -Processing Equipment . . . . . . . Fillers • • • • • • • • • • . . . . . Food-Forming Equipment...miscellaneous unit operations to be con· ducted in the CFPF. Such operations include opening and draining of cans:, egg breaking, nut chopping, and...Jitney (with load scale) • Silent cutter • Dicer • Chunker • Loaf former • Patty former • Meatball former • Salisbury steak former • Walk-in

  8. Food Safety When Preparing Holiday Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Health Current: Remember Food Safety when Preparing Holiday Meals Services and Programs Regulation & Licensure Vital Records ... food safety is especially important as they prepare holiday meals. Many holiday dinners include meat and poultry, ...

  9. Wild food plants of Remote Oceania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will C. McClatchey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural societies partly depend upon wild foods. Relationships between an agricultural society and its wild foods can be explored by examining how the society responds through colonization of new lands that have not been previously inhabited. The oldest clear example of this phenomenon took place about 5000 years ago in the tropical Western Pacific at the “boundary” interface between Near and Remote Oceania. An inventory of wild and domesticated food plants used by people living along “the remote side of ” that interface has been prepared from the literature. This was then assessed for the roles of plants at the time of original colonization of Remote Oceania. The majority of species are wild foods, and most of these are used as leafy vegetables and fruits. The wild food plants mostly serve as supplements to domesticated species, although there are a few that can be used as substitutes for traditional staples.

  10. MRI of plants and foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van As, Henk; van Duynhoven, John

    2013-04-01

    The importance and prospects for MRI as applied to intact plants and to foods are presented in view of one of humanity's most pressing concerns, the sustainable and healthy feeding of a worldwide increasing population. Intact plants and foods have in common that their functionality is determined by complex multiple length scale architectures. Intact plants have an additional level of complexity since they are living systems which critically depend on transport and signalling processes between and within tissues and organs. The combination of recent cutting-edge technical advances and integration of MRI accessible parameters has the perspective to contribute to breakthroughs in understanding complex regulatory plant performance mechanisms. In food science and technology MRI allows for quantitative multi-length scale structural assessment of food systems, non-invasive monitoring of heat and mass transport during shelf-life and processing, and for a unique view on food properties under shear. These MRI applications are powerful enablers of rationally (re)designed food formulations and processes. Limitations and bottlenecks of the present plant and food MRI methods are mainly related to short T2 values and susceptibility artefacts originating from small air spaces in tissues/materials. We envisage cross-fertilisation of solutions to overcome these hurdles in MRI applications in plants and foods. For both application areas we witness a development where MRI is moving from highly specialised equipment to mobile and downscaled versions to be used by a broad user base in the field, greenhouse, food laboratory or factory.

  11. Safety assessment of plant food supplements (PFS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den S.J.P.L.; Serra-Majem, L.; Coppens, P.; Rietjens, I.

    2011-01-01

    Botanicals and botanical preparations, including plant food supplements (PFS), are widely used in Western diets. The growing use of PFS is accompanied by an increasing concern because the safety of these PFS is not generally assessed before they enter the market. Regulatory bodies have become more

  12. Short inventory of EU legislation on plant toxins in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, de M.; Noordam, M.Y.; Mol, H.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Plant toxins, secondary metabolites that are not essential for the survival of the organism itself but are toxic to human health, are produced by many plants. Plant toxins can be present as inherent metabolites in daily foods such as potatoes, herbs and spices or in herbal preparations. Plant

  13. Formation of trans fats during food preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Oman; Aladedunye, Felix A

    2012-01-01

    An investigation was completed to determine how typical cooking procedures used in food preparation, such as baking and stir-frying, affect trans fats formation. Canola oil was used as the main fat ingredient. Zucchini cake and gingersnap cookies were baked at 180o C and 200o C, while stir-fried chicken was prepared at 200o C and 275o C. The lipids from the food were extracted following the Folch procedure, and analyzed for trans fatty acids according to ISO official method 15304. Minimal changes were observed in the amount of trans fats during baking. Application of extreme temperatures during baking, which caused carbonization of the outer layer of products, yielded an insignificant increase in the amount of trans isomers. As with baking, stir-frying did not result in significant isomerization of the fatty acids, even when the oil was heated to 275o C and smoking heavily before the food was placed in it. Irrespective of the cooking procedure, linolenic acid was the most prone to isomerization with the highest amount of trans isomers formation. Baking and stir-frying at normal and/or extreme temperatures do not significantly affect the amounts of trans fats. Likewise, heating oil to the smoking point during stir-frying may decrease the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids because of oxidative degradation.

  14. Food synergies for improving bioavailability of micronutrients from plant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, K Madhavan; Augustine, Little Flower

    2018-01-01

    Plant foods are endowed with micronutrients but an understanding of bioavailability is essential in countries primarily dependent on plant based foods. Bioavailability depends majorly on food synergies. This review examines the nature of certain food synergies and methods to screen and establish it as a strategy to control micronutrient deficiency in the populations. Strong evidence on the synergistic effect of inclusion of vitamin C rich fruits and non-vegetarian foods in enhancing the bioavailability of iron has been demonstrated. Fat is found to be synergistic for vitamin A absorption. Red wine and protein have been explored for zinc absorption and effect of fat has been studied for vitamin D. Methods for screening of bioavailability, and biomarkers to demonstrate the synergistic effects of foods are required. Translation of food synergy as a strategy requires adaptation to the context and popularization of intelligent food synergies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stonefish "Okoze" envenomation during food preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ryo; Suzuki, Masaru; Hori, Shingo; Aikawa, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    Stonefish is a dangerous and venomous fish commonly found in the shallow waters of the Pacific region. Its envenomation is reported worldwide with increasing frequency. Although envenomation usually occurs in those engaged in marine sports, chefs may suffer envenomation during cutting stonefish, which is eaten either sliced raw, boiled, or deep-fried by Japanese. Since many people cook and eat Japanese food, it is important to know that cutting a stonefish for cooking carries the risk of envenomation. However, most primary and emergency physicians have not encountered cases of envenomation during food preparation. Here we describe a case of envenomation occurring while cooking. The patient was a healthy 33-year-old man working as a chef in a Japanese restaurant. He was presented to an academic emergency department after suddenly developing severe pain in his right fourth finger while cutting a stonefish. The finger was reddish, swollen, and tender. The pain reduce d after immersing his hand in hot water, and disappeared within 18 h without any complication. In this report, we describe the history of stonefish envenomation and provide a brief review of the literature related to this form of envenomation.

  16. Preparation of food supplements from oilseed cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, L; Appaiah, Prakruthi; Prasanth Kumar, P K; Gopala Krishna, A G

    2015-05-01

    Oilseed cakes have been in use for feed preparation. Being rich in proteins, antioxidants, fibers, vitamins and minerals, oilseed cakes have been considered ideal for food supplementation. These oilseed cakes can be processed and made more palatable and edible by suitable treatments and then incorporated as food supplements for human consumption. Rice bran pellets (RBP), stabilized rice bran (SRB), coconut cake (CC) and sesame cake (SC) were taken up for the study. These were mixed with distilled water and cooked in such a way to separate the cooked solid residue and liquid extract followed by freeze drying to get two products from each. The raw, cooked dried residue and extract were analyzed for various parameters such as moisture (0.9-27.4 %), fat (2.1-16.1 %), ash (3.3-9.0 %), minerals (2.6-633.2 mg/100 g), total dietary fiber (23.2-58.2 %), crude fiber (2.7-10.5 %), protein (3.2-34.0 %), and the fat further analyzed for fatty acid composition, oryzanol (138-258 mg/100 g) and lignan (99-113 mg/100 g) contents and also evaluated sensory evaluation. Nutritional composition of products as affected by cooking was studied. The cooked products (residue and extract) showed changes in nutrients content and composition from that of the starting cakes and raw materials, but retained more nutrients in cooked residue than in the extract. The sensory evaluation of cooked residue and extract showed overall higher acceptability by the panelists than the starting cakes and raw materials. On the basis of these findings it can be concluded that these cooked residue and extract products are highly valuable for food supplementation than the raw ones.

  17. 30 CFR 827.12 - Coal preparation plants: Performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal preparation plants: Performance standards...-COAL PREPARATION PLANTS NOT LOCATED WITHIN THE PERMIT AREA OF A MINE § 827.12 Coal preparation plants..., modification, reclamation, and removal activities at coal preparation plants shall comply with the following...

  18. Evaluation of research methods to study domestic food preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongoni, R.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Steenbekkers, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Domestic preparation practices influence the sensory properties and nutritional composition of food products. Information on the variability in actual domestic preparation practices is needed to assess the influence of applied conditions on the sensory and nutritional quality of food. The

  19. The MELISSA food data base: space food preparation and process optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creuly, Catherine; Poughon, Laurent; Pons, A.; Farges, Berangere; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    Life Support Systems have to deal with air, water and food requirement for a crew, waste management and also to the crew's habitability and safety constraints. Food can be provided from stocks (open loops) or produced during the space flight or on an extraterrestrial base (what implies usually a closed loop system). Finally it is admitted that only biological processes can fulfil the food requirement of life support system. Today, only a strictly vegetarian source range is considered, and this is limited to a very small number of crops compared to the variety available on Earth. Despite these constraints, a successful diet should have enough variety in terms of ingredients and recipes and sufficiently high acceptability in terms of acceptance ratings for individual dishes to remain interesting and palatable over a several months period and an adequate level of nutrients commensurate with the space nutritional requirements. In addition to the nutritional aspects, others parameters have to be considered for the pertinent selection of the dishes as energy consumption (for food production and transformation), quantity of generated waste, preparation time, food processes. This work concerns a global approach called MELISSA Food Database to facilitate the cre-ation and the management of these menus associated to the nutritional, mass, energy and time constraints. The MELISSA Food Database is composed of a database (MySQL based) con-taining multiple information among others crew composition, menu, dishes, recipes, plant and nutritional data and of a web interface (PHP based) to interactively access the database and manage its content. In its current version a crew is defined and a 10 days menu scenario can be created using dishes that could be cooked from a set of limited fresh plant assumed to be produced in the life support system. The nutritional covering, waste produced, mass, time and energy requirements are calculated allowing evaluation of the menu scenario and its

  20. Food irradiation combined with refrigeration in food industrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseau, P.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation and refrigeration are both physical treatments used for food preservation. The complementarity of their effects on food is the best reason for their combination. Irradiation is essentially used for disinfestation and refrigeration to protect food against non microbial degradations. Refrigeration and irradiation could be combined for shelf life extension of fresh fruits and vegetables or reduction of microflora in animal products, without loss of quality. Freezing must be combined with ionizing treatments if high doses are necessary as it is the case with destruction of pathogens in meat or food sterilization. Some examples of combination of refrigeration and irradiation are routinely applied in some industrial plants in France but it is expected that more and more combined treatments will be used thanks to research

  1. Safety of vendor-prepared foods: evaluation of 10 processing mobile food vendors in Manhattan.

    OpenAIRE

    Burt, Bryan M.; Volel, Caroline; Finkel, Madelon

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Unsanitary food handling is a major public health hazard. There are over 4,100 mobile food vendors operating in New York City, and of these, approximately forty percent are processing vendors--mobile food units on which potentially hazardous food products are handled, prepared, or processed. This pilot study assesses the food handling practices of 10 processing mobile food vendors operating in a 38-block area of midtown Manhattan (New York City) from 43rd Street to 62nd Street bet...

  2. Perceived motivators to home food preparation: focus group findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sheila A; Walter, Janelle; Soliah, LuAnn; Phifer, Janna T

    2014-10-01

    Family meals are positively associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and numerous nutrients, promoting good eating habits and disease prevention. Families benefiting from home-cooked meals are more likely to consume smaller portions and fewer calories, less fat, less salt, and less sugar. Some Western cultures have lost confidence in preparing meals and tend to rely on foods prepared outside the home. The ability of young adults to prepare foods at home may be impaired. The purpose of our study is to identify motivators and, consequently, barriers to preparing foods at home vs purchasing preprepared foods from a deli or eating in a restaurant. Focus groups of college students (n=239) from two universities were asked questions about motivators to preparing meals at home in two subsequent sessions. The primary motivators among the students were that they desired to save money; had a model in food preparation; were familiar with cooking techniques; and had enough time to shop, cook, and clean up after meals. Food and nutrition practitioners have opportunities to promote cost-effective, simple, and time-saving home food preparation techniques as healthful habits. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Methods of preparation of Swazi traditional fermented foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protus Simatende

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Umcombotsi, emahewu, buganu, and emasi were the fermented foods commonly prepared at a household level in the Hhohho region, Swaziland. The main ingredient used for preparing umcombotsi and emahewu was maize meal. Unmilled sorghum malt was also added during preparation of umcombotsi. However, typically no malt was added during the preparation of emahewu. Buganu and emasi also play an important role in the diet and socioeconomic activities of the population in Swaziland.

  4. Medicinal efficacy of plants utilized as temple food in traditional Korean Buddhism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Song, Mi-Jang; Potter, Daniel

    2006-03-08

    We investigated the medicinal efficacies of plants used as food in 27 Korean Buddhist temples from 1997 to 2002. We studied 161 species of plants belonging to 135 genera in 65 families. Twenty-one plant parts were utilized as food in 42 different preparations. Approximately 82% of the plants studied had medicinal effects, with a wide range of efficacies (126 types). Of the medicinal plants, 52% were used for digestive problems, circulatory illnesses, and respiratory diseases. These results demonstrate that a high proportion of the food consumed in Korean temples is medicinal, and is used for a wide variety of diseases.

  5. Planting seeds for the future of food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broun, Pierre; Cakmak, Ismail; Condon, Liam; Fedoroff, Nina; Gonzalez‐Valero, Juan; Graham, Ian; Lewis, Josette; Moloney, Maurice; Oniang'o, Ruth K; Sanginga, Nteranya; Shewry, Peter; Roulin, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The health and wellbeing of future generations will depend on humankind's ability to deliver sufficient nutritious food to a world population in excess of 9 billion. Feeding this many people by 2050 will require science‐based solutions that address sustainable agricultural productivity and enable healthful dietary patterns in a more globally equitable way. This topic was the focus of a multi‐disciplinary international conference hosted by Nestlé in June 2015, and provides the inspiration for the present article. The conference brought together a diverse range of expertise and organisations from the developing and industrialised world, all with a common interest in safeguarding the future of food. This article provides a snapshot of three of the recurring topics that were discussed during this conference: soil health, plant science and the future of farming practice. Crop plants and their cultivation are the fundamental building blocks for a food secure world. Whether these are grown for food or feed for livestock, they are the foundation of food and nutrient security. Many of the challenges for the future of food will be faced where the crops are grown: on the farm. Farmers need to plant the right crops and create the right conditions to maximise productivity (yield) and quality (e.g. nutritional content), whilst maintaining the environment, and earning a living. New advances in science and technology can provide the tools and know‐how that will, together with a more entrepreneurial approach, help farmers to meet the inexorable demand for the sustainable production of nutritious foods for future generations. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26619956

  6. PUTTING PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY TO WORK FOR FOOD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant biotechnology is safely bringing valuable new benefits to farmers around the world, including those in developing countries where the needs for food, nutrition and overall development may be greatest. >From the current base of experience, it is reasonable to expect even greater benefits in the future, provided that ...

  7. Undesired Plant-Derived Components in Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusemund, Birgit; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Abraham, Klaus; Cartus, Alexander; Schrenk, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Among the various chemical compounds, the class of natural plant-derived substances in the modern food chain is generating increasing concern. Adverse effects encountered may be various and pose risks of acute, subchronic, or chronic toxicity. The underlying mechanisms of toxicity may be

  8. Food Preparation. I: Food Facts for Home. II: Facts about Foodservice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter and Gamble Educational Services, Cincinnati, OH.

    This package is intended for use in home economics classes focusing on nutrition and food preparation and service. The teaching guide is divided into two parts. The first centers on selected first-time facts on nutrition, meal planning, and basic food preparation skills. It includes modules on nutrition, meal management, initial steps in food…

  9. Food Preparation and Service: Cluster Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Michigan Univ., Mount Pleasant.

    This teacher's guide is one of a series of publications focusing on the occupational preparation of persons with special education needs. The material was developed and tested by cooperating teachers over a period of three years. Task analysis information is presented using occupational descriptions from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles,…

  10. Detection of regulated herbs and plants in plant food supplements and traditional medicines using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Djiogo, C A Sokeng; Bothy, J L; Courselle, P

    2017-08-05

    The identification of a specific toxic or regulated plant in herbal preparations or plant food supplements is a real challenge, since they are often powdered, mixed with other herbal or synthetic powders and compressed into tablets or capsules. The classical identification approaches based on micro- and macroscopy are therefore not possible anymore. In this paper infrared spectroscopy, combined with attenuated total reflectance was evaluated for the screening of plant based preparations for nine specific plants (five regulated and four common plants for herbal supplements). IR and NIR spectra were recorded for a series of self-made triturations of the targeted plants. After pretreatment of the spectral data chemometric classification techniques were applied to both data sets (IR and NIR) separately and the combination of both. The results show that the screening of herbal preparations or plant food supplements for specific plants, using infrared spectroscopy, is feasible. The best model was obtained with the Mid-IR data, using SIMCA as modelling technique. During validation of the model, using an external test set, 21 of 25 were correctly classified and six of the nine targeted plants showed no misclassifications for the selected test set. For the other three a success rate of 50% was obtained. Mid-IR combined with SIMCA can therefore be applied as a first step in the screening of unknown samples, before applying more sophisticated fingerprint approaches or identification tests described in several national and international pharmacopoeia. As a proof of concept five real suspicious samples were successfully screened for the targeted regulated plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of consumer food preparation on acrylamide formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lauren S; Al-Taher, Fadwa

    2005-01-01

    Acrylamide is formed in high-carbohydrate foods during high temperature processes such as frying, baking, roasting and extrusion. Although acrylamide is known to form during industrial processing of food, high levels of the chemical have been found in home-cooked foods, mainly potato- and grain-based products. This chapter will focus on the effects of cooking conditions (e.g. time/temperature) on acrylamide formation in consumer-prepared foods, the use of surface color (browning) as an indicator of acrylamide levels in some foods, and methods for reducing acrylamide levels in home-prepared foods. As with commercially processed foods, acrylamide levels in home-prepared foods tend to increase with cooking time and temperature. In experiments conducted at the NCFST, we found that acrylamide levels in cooked food depended greatly on the cooking conditions and the degree of "doneness", as measured by the level of surface browning. For example, French fries fried at 150-190 degrees C for up to 10 min had acrylamide levels of 55 to 2130 microg/kg (wet weight), with the highest levels in the most processed (highest frying times/temperatures) and the most highly browned fries. Similarly, more acrylamide was formed in "dark" toasted bread slices (43.7-610.7 microg/kg wet weight), than "light" (8.27-217.5 microg/kg) or "medium" (10.9-213.7 microg/kg) toasted slices. Analysis of the surface color by colorimetry indicated that some components of surface color ("a" and "L" values) correlated highly with acrylamide levels. This indicates that the degree of surface browning could be used as an indicator of acrylamide formation during cooking. Soaking raw potato slices in water before frying was effective at reducing acrylamide levels in French fries. Additional studies are needed to develop practical methods for reducing acrylamide formation in home-prepared foods without changing the acceptability of these foods.

  12. Food plant toxicants and safety: risk assessment and regulation of inherent toxicants in plant foods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, A.J.; Alink, G.M.; Speijers, G.J.A.; Alexander, J.; Bouwmeister, P.J.; Brandt, van den P.A.; Ciere, S.; Gry, J.; Herrman, J.; Kuiper, H.A.; Mortby, E.; Renwickn, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    The ADI as a tool for risk management and regulation of food additives and pesticide residues is not readily applicable to inherent food plant toxicants: The margin between actual intake and potentially toxic levels is often small; application of the default uncertainty factors used to derive ADI

  13. Complexity of food preparation and food security status in low-income young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Stringer, Bernadette; Haines, Ted

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore whether preparing more complex meals was associated with higher food security status. This mixed-methods, community-based study involved the use of semistructured interviews to examine the cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal. Fifty participants aged 18 to 35 were recruited at 10 locations in five low-income neighbourhoods. Food security status was the main outcome measure and the main exposure variable, "complex food preparation," combined the preparation of three specific food types (soups, sauces, and baked goods) using basic ingredients. Low-income women preparing a variety of meals using basic ingredients at least three times a week were more than twice as likely to be food secure as were women preparing more complex meals less frequently. Women who prepared more complex meals more frequently had higher food security. Whether this means that preparing more complex foods results in greater food security remains unclear, as this was an exploratory study.

  14. Slice&Dice: Recognizing Food Preparation Activities Using Embedded Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Cuong; Olivier, Patrick

    Within the context of an endeavor to provide situated support for people with cognitive impairments in the kitchen, we developed and evaluated classifiers for recognizing 11 actions involved in food preparation. Data was collected from 20 lay subjects using four specially designed kitchen utensils incorporating embedded 3-axis accelerometers. Subjects were asked to prepare a mixed salad in our laboratory-based instrumented kitchen environment. Video of each subject's food preparation activities were independently annotated by three different coders. Several classifiers were trained and tested using these features. With an overall accuracy of 82.9% our investigation demonstrated that a broad set of food preparation actions can be reliably recognized using sensors embedded in kitchen utensils.

  15. Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.; Mohamed, D. A.

    2012-07-01

    Adjuvant arthritis is an animal model that closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis in humans. It is a successful working model used to study new anti-inflammatory agents. In previous studies (animal and clinical) we have shown that evening primrose oil, fish oil and the methanol extract of date fruits and fenugreek seeds have anti-inflammatory activity and that the methanol extract of dates has an antioxidant effect. Based on these studies, the aim of the present study was to prepare 7 functional foods containing such bioactive fractions separately or in combination and to evaluate them in adjuvant arthritis in rats, study the stability of bioactive ingredients and evaluate their sensory properties. The studied biochemical parameters were erythrocyte sedimentation rate, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and plasma copper, zinc and interlukin 2. Nutritional parameters, including body weight gain, food intake and food efficiency ratio were monitored during the feeding of the functional foods. The bioactive ingredients assessed were total phenolic contents and fatty acids. The results showed improvement in the biochemical parameters, body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of arthritic rats fed on the functional foods with different degrees. All the prepared functional foods were sensory accepted. The active ingredients showed stability during storage. In conclusion, all the tested functional foods showed promising antiinflammatory activity and were determined to be acceptable through sensory evaluation which means that their potential beneficial use as dietary supplements in rheumatoid arthritis patients may be recommended. (Author) 42 refs.

  16. Social disparities in food preparation behaviours: a DEDIPAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méjean, Caroline; Si Hassen, Wendy; Gojard, Séverine; Ducrot, Pauline; Lampuré, Aurélie; Brug, Hans; Lien, Nanna; Nicolaou, Mary; Holdsworth, Michelle; Terragni, Laura; Hercberg, Serge; Castetbon, Katia

    2017-09-20

    The specific role of major socio-economic indicators in influencing food preparation behaviours could reveal distinct socio-economic patterns, thus enabling mechanisms to be understood that contribute to social inequalities in health. This study investigated whether there was an independent association of each socio-economic indicator (education, occupation, income) with food preparation behaviours. A total of 62,373 adults participating in the web-based NutriNet-Santé cohort study were included in our cross-sectional analyses. Cooking skills, preparation from scratch and kitchen equipment were assessed using a 0-10-point score; frequency of meal preparation, enjoyment of cooking and willingness to cook better/more frequently were categorical variables. Independent associations between socio-economic factors (education, income and occupation) and food preparation behaviours were assessed using analysis of covariance and logistic regression models stratified by sex. The models simultaneously included the three socio-economic indicators, adjusting for age, household composition and whether or not they were the main cook in the household. Participants with the lowest education, the lowest income group and female manual and office workers spent more time preparing food daily than participants with the highest education, those with the highest income and managerial staff (P cooks than those with the highest education level (Women: OR = 3.36 (1.69;6.69); Men: OR = 1.83 (1.07;3.16)) while female manual and office workers and the never-employed were less likely to be non-cooks (OR = 0.52 (0.28;0.97); OR = 0.30 (0.11;0.77)). Female manual and office workers had lower scores of preparation from scratch and were less likely to want to cook more frequently than managerial staff (P cooking meal daily (OR = 0.68 (0.45;0.86)) than those with the highest income. Lowest socio-economic groups, particularly women, spend more time preparing food than high socioeconomic

  17. Food plant toxicants and safety - Risk assessment and regulation of inherent toxicants in plant foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essers, A.J.A.; Alink, G.M.; Speijers, G.J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The ADI as a tool for risk management and regulation of food additives and pesticide residues is not readily applicable to inherent food plant toxicants: The margin between actual intake and potentially toxic levels is often small; application of the default uncertainty factors used to derive ADI...... values, particularly when extrapolating from animal data, would prohibit the utilisation of the food, which may have an overall beneficial health effect. Levels of inherent toxicants are difficult to control; their complete removal is not always wanted, due to their function for the plant or for human...... health. The health impact of the inherent toxicant is often modified by factors in the food, e.g. the bioavailability from the matrix and interaction with other inherent constituents. Risk-benefit analysis should be made for different consumption scenarios, without the use of uncertainty factors. Crucial...

  18. Social disparities in food preparation behaviours: a DEDIPAC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Méjean, C.; Si Hassen, W.; Gojard, S.; Ducrot, P.; Lampuré, A.; Brug, H.; Lien, N.; Nicolaou, M.; Holdsworth, M.; Terragni, L.; Hercberg, S.; Castetbon, K.

    2017-01-01

    Background The specific role of major socio-economic indicators in influencing food preparation behaviours could reveal distinct socio-economic patterns, thus enabling mechanisms to be understood that contribute to social inequalities in health. This study investigated whether there was an

  19. Social disparities in food preparation behaviours: a DEDIPAC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Méjean, Caroline; Si Hassen, Wendy; Gojard, Séverine; Ducrot, Pauline; Lampuré, Aurélie; Brug, Hans; Lien, Nanna; Nicolaou, Mary; Holdsworth, Michelle; Terragni, Laura; Hercberg, Serge; Castetbon, Katia

    2017-01-01

    Background: The specific role of major socio-economic indicators in influencing food preparation behaviours could reveal distinct socio-economic patterns, thus enabling mechanisms to be understood that contribute to social inequalities in health. This study investigated whether there was an

  20. Community Living Skills Guide: Cooking/Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickovich, Marti; Kreps, Alice Roelofs

    One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Cooking/Food Preparation. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized…

  1. [Risk assessment for food preparation, cooking and service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottica, Danilo; Grignani, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The restaurant and food preparation, cooking and distribution sector includes hotels, restaurants, catering, fast food, ecc. The restaurant and food preparation, cooking and distribution sector form a significant part of the Italian economy; they provide employment for a large number of people, both direct employees as well as part-time and contract staff. In this sector there are many hazards that can lead to a broad range of injuries and/or diseases to the workers. For the safety these hazards principally are slick floors, open flames, high temperature cooking surfaces, steam, knives and other cutting instruments and machineries. For the health: cleaning and disinfecting chemicals substances, cooking fumes and vapors, biological agents, heavy loads handling, thermal comfort, ecc. The paper presents an overview of the hazards in the sector and then make a focus on chemical risks identification and assessment to evaluate the workers' exposure (by skin adsorption and inhalation).

  2. Plant-based raw material: Improved food quality for better nutrition via plant genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der I.M.; Bovy, A.G.; Bosch, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Plants form the basis of the human food chain. Characteristics of plants are therefore crucial to the quantity and quality of human food. In this review, it is discussed how technological developments in the area of plant genomics and plant genetics help to mobilise the potential of plants to

  3. Use of Whey and Whey Preparations in the Food Industry – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Królczyk Jolanta B.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The interest in whey and whey preparations has considerably increased in recent years. Whey and whey preparations are the so-called “forgotten treasure” and, because of their unique properties, they have been “rediscovered” and have been increasingly frequently and successfully used by various production plants in the food industry. They have also been eagerly purchased by consumers who are aware of the role of whey preparations in adequate human nutrition. For many years, there has been a tendency in the food processing industry to use substitutes of ingredients in recipes of many products. This situation can be observed in the case of foods with reduced fat and sugar, or products for lacto-ovo-vegetarians. Whey - and more specifically, its preparations - can also be used as a substitute. According to many literature sources, its use can have a positive impact not only on the consumers’ health but also on the finances of many companies, by reducing the costs of raw materials, and thus production costs. This review paper presents selected uses of whey and whey preparations in the food industry. The uses of whey discussed include: meat and meat products, reduced-fat products, yoghurts and ice creams, cheeses, bakery products, confectionery and pastry products, infant formulas, and whey drinks.

  4. Safety of vendor-prepared foods: evaluation of 10 processing mobile food vendors in Manhattan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Bryan M; Volel, Caroline; Finkel, Madelon

    2003-01-01

    Unsanitary food handling is a major public health hazard. There are over 4,100 mobile food vendors operating in New York City, and of these, approximately forty percent are processing vendors--mobile food units on which potentially hazardous food products are handled, prepared, or processed. This pilot study assesses the food handling practices of 10 processing mobile food vendors operating in a 38-block area of midtown Manhattan (New York City) from 43rd Street to 62nd Street between Madison and Sixth Avenues, and compares them to regulations stipulated in the New York City Health Code. Ten processing mobile food vendors located in midtown Manhattan were observed for a period of 20 minutes each. Unsanitary food handling practices, food storage at potentially unsafe temperatures, and food contamination with uncooked meat or poultry were recorded. Over half of all vendors (67%) were found to contact served foods with bare hands. Four vendors were observed vending with visibly dirty hands or gloves and no vendor once washed his or her hands or changed gloves in the 20-minute observation period. Seven vendors had previously cooked meat products stored at unsafe temperatures on non-heating or non-cooking portions of the vendor cart for the duration of the observation. Four vendors were observed to contaminate served foods with uncooked meat or poultry. Each of these actions violates the New York City Code of Health and potentially jeopardizes the safety of these vendor-prepared foods. More stringent adherence to food safety regulations should be promoted by the New York City Department of Health.

  5. Radiotracer studies of fungicide residues in food plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    Agricultural fungicides are chemicals used on seeds, crops and in soils throughout the growing season. Fungicide treatments may lead to various levels of chemical residues in food commodities. Primary emphasis has been placed on ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs), an important group of agrofungicides used in preparations for spraying or dusting major crops such as apples, pears, broccoli, cabbages, egg plants, cauliflower, grapes, lettuce, peppers, celery, cucumbers and tomatoes. Treatments with EBDCs result in terminal residues containing ethylenthiourea (ETU). This is a toxicologically significant decomposition product which has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to indications of its potential goitrogenic and carcinogenic properties. In recognition of the need for a coordinated examination of ETU levels in food, particularly under tropical conditions, the program of radiotracer techniques as a tool for studying fungicide residue problems on food was initiated in 1984. In current studies, three EBDCs, maneb, zineb and mancozeb from different manufacturers in different countries were analysed. This report describes the model protocols (Annexes I, II and III) as they were set up for determination of residues in commodities and soil, using radiotracer and conventional chromatographic techniques . In the 16 papers presented in this report C 14 -labelled EBDCs are determined in plants, vegetables, and soils, before and after cooking, as a function of time and of other agricultural parameters. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Documentation and Nutritional profile of some selected food plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Documentation and Nutritional profile of some selected food plants of Otwal and Ngai sun counties Oyam District, Northern Uganda. ... However, it should be noted that there is a general decline in the consumption of wild plants, despite the apparent high nutritional values. The conservation of wild food plants is not taking ...

  7. Food interactions with sustained-release theophylline preparations. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, J H

    1989-03-01

    Currently, theophylline is being used predominantly as sustained-release capsules or tablets. In the mid-seventies the first preparations for use with a dosage interval of 12 hours (twice-daily preparations) were introduced. Since 1983, theophylline preparations that can be given with an interval of 24 hours (once-daily preparations) have become available. The release of theophylline from some of these products can be influenced (either increased or decreased) by concomitant intake of food. With some preparations the composition of the meal (especially the fat content) has an influence on the degree of effect. The consequence may be an effect on the rate of absorption or on the amount absorbed, or both simultaneously. This could result in an unexpected shift of the plasma theophylline concentration. Such a shift is therapeutically undesirable, because theophylline has a fairly narrow therapeutic range. A review is given of those food interactions with the sustained-release theophylline preparations, both twice-daily and once-daily products, that are currently on the world market. Special attention is paid to the specific (bio)pharmaceutical characteristics of the different products, and to the influence of the composition and timing of the meals. For each preparation the effect of food on the following pharmacokinetic parameters is discussed: area under the plasma concentration-time curve, peak plasma drug concentration and time to reach this peak. Where possible, the results for both adults and children are discussed. There are indications that children are more susceptible to food-effects than adults. The regulatory aspects are mentioned briefly. Clinically important effects of food have been observed with the following twice-daily products: 'Theo-Dur Sprinkle', 'Theolair SR' (= 'Nuelin SR') and 'Theograd'. Pronounced effects could have an even greater impact with once-daily preparations, as the total daily dose will be given at a single time. A particularly

  8. Are Famine Food Plants Also Ethnomedicinal Plants? An Ethnomedicinal Appraisal of Famine Food Plants of Two Districts of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardous Mohammad Safiul Azam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants have served as sources of food and medicines for human beings since their advent. During famines or conditions of food scarcity, people throughout the world depend on unconventional plant items to satiate their hunger and meet their nutritional needs. Malnourished people often suffer from various diseases, much more than people eating a balanced diet. We are hypothesizing that the unconventional food plants that people eat during times of scarcity of their normal diet are also medicinal plants and thus can play a role in satiating hunger, meeting nutritional needs, and serving therapeutic purposes. Towards testing our hypothesis, surveys were carried out among the low income people of four villages in Lalmonirhat and Nilphamari districts of Bangladesh. People and particularly the low income people of these two districts suffer each year from a seasonal famine known as Monga. Over 200 informants from 167 households in the villages were interviewed with the help of a semistructured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. The informants mentioned a total of 34 plant species that they consumed during Monga. Published literature shows that all the species consumed had ethnomedicinal uses. It is concluded that famine food plants also serve as ethnomedicinal plants.

  9. Are Famine Food Plants Also Ethnomedicinal Plants? An Ethnomedicinal Appraisal of Famine Food Plants of Two Districts of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Fardous Mohammad Safiul; Biswas, Anup; Mannan, Abdul; Afsana, Nusrat Anik; Jahan, Rownak

    2014-01-01

    Plants have served as sources of food and medicines for human beings since their advent. During famines or conditions of food scarcity, people throughout the world depend on unconventional plant items to satiate their hunger and meet their nutritional needs. Malnourished people often suffer from various diseases, much more than people eating a balanced diet. We are hypothesizing that the unconventional food plants that people eat during times of scarcity of their normal diet are also medicinal plants and thus can play a role in satiating hunger, meeting nutritional needs, and serving therapeutic purposes. Towards testing our hypothesis, surveys were carried out among the low income people of four villages in Lalmonirhat and Nilphamari districts of Bangladesh. People and particularly the low income people of these two districts suffer each year from a seasonal famine known as Monga. Over 200 informants from 167 households in the villages were interviewed with the help of a semistructured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. The informants mentioned a total of 34 plant species that they consumed during Monga. Published literature shows that all the species consumed had ethnomedicinal uses. It is concluded that famine food plants also serve as ethnomedicinal plants. PMID:24701245

  10. Food preparation in colonial America. A Bicentennial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, M

    1976-07-01

    Both regional and national influences have pervaded America's culinary arts from colonial times until the present. In the South, for instance, indigenous foods, such as sweet potatoes--as well as an abundance of fruits and fowl--were commonly served. In the North, maple sirup was a New England product, as was codfish. Throughout the colonies, corn was easily grown and became a staple. Immigrants from the Old World brought their recipes to meld or adapt to conditions they met here. Recounted also is the unfolding of an American cuisine, especially in the southern colonies as it evolved from European food preparation practices. Cooking was done in great fireplaces, with equipment designed to fit. Meat was generally boiled or stewed in pots hung in the fireplace, although it might be slow-roasted on a hand-turned spit. Hot breads, the hallmark of southern cooking, date from colonial days. In the Noth, the Dutch farmer's wife developed real skill in using flour from home-grown wheat and rye, creating pancakes, waffles, doughnuts, crullers, and so on. After the first hard winter, food in New England became more plentiful. Boston brown bread was made from corn, wheat, or rye and probably sweetened with maple sirup. Imports of coffee, tea, and spices from the Orient and fruit from the tropics were later added to the cuisine. Colonial Americans understood well the art of food preparation and appreciated the taste of well prepared, well seasoned dishes.

  11. Adolescents’ Food Choice and the Place of Plant-Based Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensaff, Hannah; Coan, Susan; Sahota, Pinki; Braybrook, Debbie; Akter, Humaira; McLeod, Helen

    2015-01-01

    A diet dominated by plant foods, with limited amounts of refined processed foods and animal products conveys substantial health benefits. This study sought to explore adolescents’ attitudes and perceptions towards plant-based foods. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with adolescents (age 14–15 years) (n = 29) attending an inner city school in Yorkshire, UK. Using a grounded theory methodology, data analysis provided four main categories and related concepts revolving around adolescents’ perspectives on plant-based foods: food choice parameters; perceived drivers and benefits of plant-based foods; environmental food cues; barriers to plant-based food choice. In the emergent grounded theory, a clear disconnect between plant-based foods and the parameters that adolescents use to make food choices, is highlighted. Further, key barriers to adolescents adopting a plant-based diet are differentiated and considered with respect to practice and policy. The analysis offers a framework to remodel and re-present plant-based foods. In this way, it is proposed that a closer connection is possible, with consequent shifts in adolescents’ dietary behaviour towards a more plant-based diet and associated health benefits. PMID:26066012

  12. Preparation of plant and system design description documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This standard prescribes the purpose, scope, organization, and content of plant design requirements (PDR) documents and system design descriptions (SDDs), to provide a unified approach to their preparation and use by a project as the principal means to establish the plant design requirements and to establish, describe, and control the individual system designs from conception and throughout the lifetime of the plant. The Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor (LWR) Requirements Document should be considered for LWR plants

  13. Food allergens of plant origin - their molecular and evolutionary relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, E. N. C.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Shewry, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    Along with other forms of allergic disease, food allergies appear to be on the increase, with childhood allergies to foods such as peanuts being of particular concern. Around 7-10 foods are responsible for the majority of allergies, including several of plant origin, notably peanut. Allergies...... are usually triggered by the protein components in a food, which are also known as allergens. However, not all the proteins in an allergenic food like peanut are allergens. Why should this be? This question has been addressed by an EU-funded inter-disciplinary network of clinicians, food chemists and plant...

  14. Involving children in meal preparation. Effects on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Ferrage, Aurore; Rytz, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The question of how to promote healthy eating habits in children is relevant because most children do not meet the recommended vegetable intake. Involving children in food preparation could be an opportunity to develop healthy eating behaviors and to increase vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of children's involvement in meal preparation on their food and vegetable intake. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 47 children aged 6 to 10 years. In condition 1 (n = 25), children prepared a lunch meal (pasta, breaded chicken, cauliflower, and salad) with the assistance of a parent. In condition 2 (n = 22), the meal was prepared by the parent alone. Independent samples t-tests were conducted to compare intake in the "child cooks" and "parent cooks" conditions. Children in the child cooks condition ate significantly more salad 41.7 g (76.1%), more chicken 21.8 g (27.0%), and more calories 84.6 kcal (24.4%) than children in the parent cooks condition. Between before cooking and directly after cooking the meal, children in the child cooks condition reported significantly increased feelings of valence (feeling positive) and dominance (feeling in control). This study confirms that involving children in meal preparation can increase vegetable intake. Because of the potential effect on energy intake, parents need to be made aware of appropriate portion sizes for their children. Taking this into account, encouraging parents to involve their children in the preparation of healthy and balanced meals could be a valuable intervention strategy to improve the diets and vegetable intake of children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Coal Preparation and Processing Plants New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NSPS regulation for coal preparation and processing plants by reading the rule summary, the rule history, the code of federal regulation text, the federal register, and additional docket documents

  16. Wild plants spark revival in traditional foods | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... Newly trained in commercial food preparation and marketing, the nutritional ambassadors are popularizing these widely available foods. The research, which ... Small-scale agriculture plays an essential role in reducing poverty and improving food security for rural and urban people. IDRC Digital Library

  17. Safety issues of botanicals and botanical preparations in functional foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroes, R.; Walker, R.

    2004-01-01

    Although botanicals have played a role in the marketing of health products for ages, there is an increased interest today due to their perceived health benefits. Not only do consumers increasingly take charge of their health, but the scientific information and understanding of the beneficial health effects of bioactive substances in food, functional foods and food supplements have improved. Increasing use of these products has also led to concerns about their actual safety. Recorded cases of intoxications have triggered such concerns. The safety assessment of these substances is complicated by, amongst others, the variability of composition. Furthermore, consumption of such functional products is expected to produce physiological effects, which may lead to low margins of safety as the margin between exposure of such products and the safe level of intake are likely to be small. The safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations in food and food supplement should at least involve: - the characterisation and quality of the material, its quality control; - the intended use and consequent exposure; - history of use and exposure; - product comparison(s); - toxicological information gathering; - Risk characterisation/safety assessment; As a guidance tool, a decision tree approach is proposed to assist in determining the extent of data requirements based on the nature of the such product. This guidance tool in safety assessment was developed by an expert group of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), European Branch, and is currently in press. In this paper a summarised version of this tool is presented

  18. The prevalence of plant food allergies: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidmeer, Laurian; Goldhahn, Klaus; Rona, Roberto J.; Gislason, David; Madsen, Charlotte; Summers, Colin; Sodergren, Eva; Dahlstrom, Jorgen; Lindner, Titia; Sigurdardottir, Sigurveig T.; McBride, Doreen; Keil, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty regarding the prevalence of allergies to plant food. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of allergies to plant food according to the different subjective and objective assessment methods. METHODS: Our systematic search of population-based studies (since 1990) in the

  19. Roan antelope ( Hippotragus equinus desmarest1804) food plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The habitat changes in Borgu sector of Kainji lake National Park affects the food plants and feeding habits of roan antelope. The changes which are usually seasonal variation in climate and the effect of uncontrolled bush burning by poachers. The objectives of the study were to determine the food plants and feeding habits ...

  20. Some wild growing plants in traditional foods of Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olim K. Khojimatov

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The collected data represents less than 10% of the plants which are used as a food in Uzbekistan. Analysis of the indigenous plants revealed a number of them which are also used in traditional food in China, Russia, Korea, India, and other countries.

  1. The Contribution of food plants to the growth, development and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Contribution of food plants to the growth, development and fecundity of Zonocerus variegatus (L) ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The performance of the variegated grasshopper, Zonocerus variegatus (L) fed on different food plants namely cassava (Manihot esculenta), pawpaw (Carica papaya) and acalypha ...

  2. Antioxidant capacity of some plants foods and beverages consumed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today plant foods and beverages are receiving more scientific attention because of their potential to curb the effect of free radicals in the human system. The present study reports on the antioxidant potentials of some plants foods and beverages consumed in the Eastern Region of Nigeria. The study made use of the ferric ...

  3. Nutritional contribution of plant foods to human diet in evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnorr, Stephanie Laurel

    2016-01-01

    Diets and food are indisputably core facets of human society. The great apes still rely on plants to supply most of their nutritional needs. Humans, however consume a diet that is nearly unrecognizable from that of early hominin and human ancestors. While the virtues of plant foods are widely

  4. Risk management and risk assessment of novel plant foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ib; Søborg, Inge; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted

    2008-01-01

    and definitions to be used in determining novelty of a plant food and also propose a safety assessment approach for novel plant food with no or limited documented history of safe consumption. A 2-step management procedure is recommended for a smooth introduction of fruits and vegetables; first to establish...

  5. Domestic food practices: A study of food management behaviors and the role of food preparation planning in reducing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Simona; Grappi, Silvia; Bagozzi, Richard P; Barone, Ada Maria

    2018-02-01

    Recent research has started to show the key role of daily food provision practices in affecting household food waste. Building on and extending these previous contributions, the objective of this paper is to investigate how individuals' everyday practices regarding food (e.g., shopping, cooking, eating, etc.) lead to food waste, and how policy makers and the food industry can implement effective strategies to influence such practices and ultimately help consumers reduce food waste. The research performs three Studies; a critical incident qualitative study (Study 1; N = 514) and a quantitative, survey-based study (Study 2; N = 456) to identify and examine relevant food management behaviors associated with domestic waste. Lastly, findings from a field experiment (Study 3; N = 210) suggest that a specific educational intervention, directed at increasing consumers' perceived skills related to food preparation planning behaviors, reduces domestic food waste. Implications of the research for policy makers and the food industry are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions: A qualitative interview study with photo-elicitation

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Susanna; White, Martin; Wrieden, Wendy; Brown, Heather; Stead, Martine; Adams, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Food-related choices have an important impact on health. Food preparation methods may be linked to diet and health benefits. However, the factors influencing people's food choices, and how they are shaped by food preparation experiences, are still not fully understood. We aimed to study home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions amongst adults in North East England. A matrix was used to purposively sample participants with diverse socio-demographic characteristics. Participa...

  7. Food allergens of plant origin : their molecular and evolutionary relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, E.N.C.; Madsen, C.; Shewry, P.R.; Wichers, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Along with other forms of allergic disease, food allergies appear to be on the increase, with childhood allergies to foods such as peanuts being of particular concern. Around 7¿10 foods are responsible for the majority of allergies, including several of plant origin, notably peanut. Allergies are

  8. Food adulteration analysis without laboratory prepared or determined reference food adulterant values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, John H; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Moira, Marianna; Tsafaras, Ilias; Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Mousdis, George A

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative analysis of food adulterants is an important health and economic issue that needs to be fast and simple. Spectroscopy has significantly reduced analysis time. However, still needed are preparations of analyte calibration samples matrix matched to prediction samples which can be laborious and costly. Reported in this paper is the application of a newly developed pure component Tikhonov regularization (PCTR) process that does not require laboratory prepared or reference analysis methods, and hence, is a greener calibration method. The PCTR method requires an analyte pure component spectrum and non-analyte spectra. As a food analysis example, synchronous fluorescence spectra of extra virgin olive oil samples adulterated with sunflower oil is used. Results are shown to be better than those obtained using ridge regression with reference calibration samples. The flexibility of PCTR allows including reference samples and is generic for use with other instrumental methods and food products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Iron contents of Malawian foods when prepared in iron cooking pots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen Geerligs, P. D.; Brabin, B. J.; Hart, D. J.; Fairweather-Tait, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the iron content of Malawian foods prepared in iron pots and to examine the effects of continuous cooking time and added oil on the iron content of the food prepared. Foods prepared, which included a staple (Nsima), relish vegetables, and beans, had an

  10. Preparation and practice for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xuesong; Lu Tiezhong

    2015-01-01

    The operational preparation of the nuclear power plant is an important work in nuclear power plant production preparation. Due to the construction period of nuclear power plant from starting construction to production is as long as five years, the professional requirements of nuclear power operation are very strict, and the requirements for nuclear safety are also extremely high. Especially after the Fukushima accident, higher requirements for the safe operation of nuclear power plant are posed by competent authorities of the national level, regulatory authorities and each nuclear power groups. Based on the characteristics of the construction phase of nuclear power plant and in combination with engineering practice, this paper expounds the system established in the field of nuclear power plant operation and generally analyses the related management innovation. (authors)

  11. Food preparation supplies predict children's family meal and home-prepared dinner consumption in low-income households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-05-01

    Frequent family meals and home food preparation are considered important for children's nutritional health and weight maintenance. This cross-sectional study tested whether these parent-driven behaviors are related to the availability of food preparation supplies in low-income urban households. Caregivers of children ages 6-13 provided information on family meal frequency, child consumption of home-prepared dinners, household food insecurity, and attitudes towards cooking. Researchers used a newly developed Food Preparation Checklist (FPC) to assess the availability of 41 food preparation supplies during a physical audit of the home environment. Caregivers and children provided anthropometric measurements and jointly reported on child dietary intake. In ordinal logistic regression models, greater home availability of food preparation supplies was associated with more frequent family meals and child consumption of home-prepared dinners. Associations were independent of household financial strain, food insecurity, caregiver attitudes toward cooking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Fewer food preparation supplies were available in households characterized by greater food insecurity, lower income, and negative caregiver attitudes towards cooking, but did not differ by child or caregiver weight status. As in prior studies, more frequent family meals and consumption of home-prepared dinners were associated with healthier child dietary intake in several areas. We conclude that food preparation supplies are often limited in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged households, and their availability is related to the frequency with which children consume family meals and home-prepared dinners. The potential role of food preparation supplies as contributors to socioeconomic disparities in child nutritional health and obesity deserves further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Food Plants of 19 butterflies species (Lepidoptera from Loreto, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Vásquez Bardales

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the food plants utilized by 19 species of butterflies from Allpahuayo-Mishana Research Center and the Community of San Rafael, Loreto, Peru. We report 23 plant species and one hybrid of angiosperms used by the butterflies. Larval host plants were 21 species and five were adult nectar sources. Two species were both host plant and nectar source: Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora edulis Sims. The most frequently used plant families were Solanaceae, Passifloraceae, Fabaceae and Aristolochiaceae.

  13. Hunting, Food Preparation, and Consumption of Rodents in Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Suwannarong

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 villages of Khamkeuth District in Bolikhamxay Province in the Lao PDR during March to May 2013. The study aimed to determine the characteristics associated with rodent consumption and related behaviors among different ethnic groups, ages, and genders. Five-hundred-eighty-four (584 males and females from 18-50 years of age participated in this study. Half of them were Hmong (292, 50% while 152 respondents were Lao-Tai (26% or other ethnic groups (140, 24%. Most of the respondents (79.5% had farming as their main occupation. Prevalences of the studied outcomes were high: 39.9 for hunting or capturing rodents in the previous year, 77.7% for preparing rodents as food, and 86.3% for rodent consumption. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that likelihood of these types of rodent contact was more consistently associated with behavioral factors (gathering things from the forest and elsewhere, cultivation-related activities, and taking measures to prevent rodent-borne disease than with socio-demographic, environmental, or cultural factors. The strongest associations were observed for gathering things; these associations were consistently positive and statistically significant. Although this study did not directly assess rodent-borne zoonosis risk, we believe that study findings raise concern that such risk may be substantial in the study area and other similar areas. Further epidemiological studies on the association between rodent-borne disease infection and rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption are recommended. Moreover, further studies are needed on the association between these potential exposure factors (i.e., rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption and rodent-borne infections, especially among ethnic groups like the Hmong in Lao PDR and those in neighboring countries with similar socio-demographic, environmental, behavioral and cultural contexts.

  14. Ethnobotany of food plants in the high river Ter valley (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula): non-crop food vascular plants and crop food plants with medicinal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigat, Montse; Bonet, Maria Àngels; Garcia, Sònia; Garnatje, Teresa; Vallès, Joan

    2009-01-01

    The present study reports a part of the findings of an ethnobotanical research project conducted in the Catalan region of the high river Ter valley (Iberian Peninsula), concerning the use of wild vascular plants as food and the medicinal uses of both wild and cultivated food plants. We have detected 100 species which are or have been consumed in this region, 83 of which are treated here (the remaining are the cultivated food plants without additional medicinal uses). Some of them, such as Achillea ptarmica subsp. pyrenaica, Convolvulus arvensis, Leontodon hispidus, Molopospermum peloponnesiacum and Taraxacum dissectum, have not been previously reported, or have only very rarely been cited or indicated as plant foods in very restricted geographical areas. Several of these edible wild plants have a therapeutic use attributed to them by local people, making them a kind of functional food. They are usually eaten raw, dressed in salads or cooked; the elaboration of products from these species such as liquors or marmalades is a common practice in the region. The consumption of these resources is still fairly alive in popular practice, as is the existence of homegardens, where many of these plants are cultivated for private consumption.

  15. Formation of Plant Sterol Oxidation Products in Foods during Baking and Cooking Using Margarine without and with Added Plant Sterol Esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.; Knol, D.; Menéndez-Carreño, M.; Blom, W.A.M.; Matthee, J.; Janssen, H.G.; Trautwein, E.A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant sterols (PS) in foods are subject to thermal oxidation to form PS oxidation products (POP). This study measured POP contents of 19 foods prepared by typical household baking and cooking methods using margarines without (control) and with 7.5% added PS (as 12.5% PS-esters, PS-margarine). Median

  16. Food Consumption Patterns and Micronutrient Density of Complementary Foods Consumed by Infants Fed Commercially Prepared Baby Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Kathleen C; Bailey, Regan Lucas; Deming, Denise M; O'Neill, Lynda; Carr, B Thomas; Lesniauskas, Ruta; Johnson, Wendy

    2018-03-01

    Nutrition is critically important in the first 1000 days, and while most American babies are fed commercial baby foods, there is little or no evidence from nationally representative data to understand the implications of such consumption. We used 24-hour dietary recall data for 505 infants from The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study to describe food consumption patterns and micronutrient density of complementary foods consumed by infants fed commercially prepared baby food fruit, vegetables, and dinners and compared with those eaten by nonconsumers of these products. Results show that consumers were significantly more likely to report eating all vegetables (excluding white potatoes, 71% vs 51%), deep yellow vegetables (42% vs 18%), and fruits (79% vs 65%) and were less likely to report eating white potatoes (10% vs 24%), dark green vegetables (4% vs 20%), and sweets (23% vs 47%) than were nonconsumers. Nutrient density of the complementary foods of consumers was greater for fiber, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and magnesium, but lower in sodium and vitamin D. We conclude that infants fed commercially prepared baby foods were more likely to eat vegetables and fruits, and their diets were higher in several micronutrients. These findings provide important insights on complementary feeding and are useful to support the development of evidence-based infant-feeding guidelines.

  17. Food Consumption Patterns and Micronutrient Density of Complementary Foods Consumed by Infants Fed Commercially Prepared Baby Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Kathleen C.; Bailey, Regan Lucas; Deming, Denise M.; O’Neill, Lynda; Carr, B. Thomas; Lesniauskas, Ruta; Johnson, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Nutrition is critically important in the first 1000 days, and while most American babies are fed commercial baby foods, there is little or no evidence from nationally representative data to understand the implications of such consumption. We used 24-hour dietary recall data for 505 infants from The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study to describe food consumption patterns and micronutrient density of complementary foods consumed by infants fed commercially prepared baby food fruit, vegetables, and dinners and compared with those eaten by nonconsumers of these products. Results show that consumers were significantly more likely to report eating all vegetables (excluding white potatoes, 71% vs 51%), deep yellow vegetables (42% vs 18%), and fruits (79% vs 65%) and were less likely to report eating white potatoes (10% vs 24%), dark green vegetables (4% vs 20%), and sweets (23% vs 47%) than were nonconsumers. Nutrient density of the complementary foods of consumers was greater for fiber, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and magnesium, but lower in sodium and vitamin D. We conclude that infants fed commercially prepared baby foods were more likely to eat vegetables and fruits, and their diets were higher in several micronutrients. These findings provide important insights on complementary feeding and are useful to support the development of evidence-based infant-feeding guidelines. PMID:29706668

  18. Carbon plants nutrition and global food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of carbon nutrition on agricultural productivity, a physiological-process-based crop simulation model, driven by the 1961-1990 monthly climate data from global FAO dataset, was developed and applied to four crops (wheat, maize, rice and soybean -WMRS) which account for 64% of the global caloric consumption of humans. Five different temperatures and CO2 scenarios (current; glacial; pre-industrial; future_1 with 560 ppmv for CO2 and +2 °C for temperature; and future_2 with 800 ppmv for CO2 and +4 °C) were investigated. The relative values of WMRS global productions for past and future scenarios were, respectively, 49% of the present-day scenario for glacial, 82% for pre-industrial, 115% for future_1 and 124% for future_2. A sensitive growth of productivity of future scenarios (respectively to 117% and 134%) was observed if the northward shift of crops was allowed, and a strong increase was obtained without water limitation (from 151% to 157% for the five scenarios) and without biotic and abiotic stresses (from 30% to 40% for WMRS subject to the current scenario). Furthermore since the beginning of the Green Revolution (roughly happened between the '30s and the '50s of the twentieth century) production losses due to sub-optimal levels of CO2 and to biotic and abiotic stresses have been masked by the strong technological innovation trend still ongoing, which, in the last century, led to a strong increase in the global crop production (+400%-600%). These results show the crucial relevance of the future choices of research and development in agriculture (genetics, land reclamation, irrigation, plant protection, and so on) to ensure global food security.

  19. The impact of plant biotechnology on food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Eliot M; Burks, A Wesley

    2011-04-01

    Concerns about food allergy and its societal growth are intertwined with the growing advances in plant biotechnology. The knowledge of plant genes and protein structures provides the key foundation to understanding biochemical processes that produce food allergy. Biotechnology offers the prospect of producing low-allergen or allergen null plants that could mitigate the allergic response. Modified low-IgE binding variants of allergens could be used as a vaccine to build immunotolerance in sensitive individuals. The potential to introduce new allergens into the food supply by biotechnology products is a regulatory concern. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvant arthritis is an animal model that closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis in humans. It is a successful working model used to study new anti-inflammatory agents. In previous studies (animal and clinical we have shown that evening primrose oil, fish oil and the methanol extract of date fruits and fenugreek seeds have anti-inflammatory activity and that the methanol extract of dates has an antioxidant effect. Based on these studies, the aim of the present study was to prepare 7 functional foods containing such bioactive fractions separately or in combination and to evaluate them in adjuvant arthritis in rats, study the stability of bioactive ingredients and evaluate their sensory properties. The studied biochemical parameters were erythrocyte sedimentation rate, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and plasma copper, zinc and interlukin 2. Nutritional parameters, including body weight gain, food intake and food efficiency ratio were monitored during the feeding of the functional foods. The bioactive ingredients assessed were total phenolic contents and fatty acids. The results showed improvement in the biochemical parameters, body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of arthritic rats fed on the functional foods with different degrees. All the prepared functional foods were sensory accepted. The active ingredients showed stability during storage. In conclusion, all the tested functional foods showed promising antiinflammatory activity and were determined to be acceptable through sensory evaluation which means that their potential beneficial use as dietary supplements in rheumatoid arthritis patients may be recommended.

    La artritis adyuvante es un modelo utilizado en animales y se caracteriza por ser muy parecida a la artritis reumatoide en humanos. Se trata de un modelo de trabajo utilizado con éxito para estudiar nuevos agentes anti-inflamatorios. En estudios previos (animales y clínica hemos demostrado que

  1. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups. PMID:24803097

  2. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Watanabe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups.

  3. Synergistic effects of ethanolic plant extract mixtures against food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QFB ALE

    2014-01-29

    Jan 29, 2014 ... Plant extracts are an important part in agroecology, as they benefit environment in combating ... to public health and a major concern for infection control ..... extracts of Syzygium aromaticum and Allium sativum against food.

  4. 30 CFR 827.13 - Coal preparation plants: Interim performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal preparation plants: Interim performance...-COAL PREPARATION PLANTS NOT LOCATED WITHIN THE PERMIT AREA OF A MINE § 827.13 Coal preparation plants: Interim performance standards. (a) Persons operating or who have operated coal preparation plants after...

  5. 78 FR 55727 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-0928] Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food Additive... guidance for industry (GFI 221) entitled ``Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

  6. 78 FR 74154 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-0928] Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food Additive... for industry (GFI 221) entitled ``Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food...

  7. Preparing School Personnel to Assist Students with Life-Threatening Food Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Genevieve H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge of and preparation for life-threatening food allergies will enable school personnel to better respond to students who have severe allergic reactions. Given the high incidence of food-related anaphylaxis in public places, teachers and school personnel should be aware of and prepared to handle severe food allergy reactions. (SM)

  8. Consumption of plant food supplements in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, Suzanne M F; Buurma-Rethans, Elly J M; Beukers, Marja H; Jansen-van der Vliet, Martine; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Sprong, R Corinne

    2018-01-01

    The use of food supplements containing herbs or other botanical ingredients (plant food supplements, PFS) is on the rise. In some cases, PFS can contain compounds that are toxic and may pose a health risk. To assess the potential health risks, information on the consumption of PFS is required,

  9. Microbial characteristics of food preparations in Benevento province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Ricci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary study was to determine the microbiological quality of pastry products and gastronomic preparations served in food service establishments in Benevento province, Southern Italy. A total of 125 samples were collected from food service establishments. Parameters investigated were: aerobic plate counts (APCs, total Coliform bacteria counts, beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia (E. coli counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts, coagulase-positive Staphylococci counts, isolation of Salmonella spp., Bacillus (B. cereus counts, and isolation of Listeria (L. monocytogenes. The microbiological quality was good, with absence of the pathogens L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. and extremely rare presence of E. coli. The fresh pastry and the uncooked gastronomy products were the most contaminated groups; also, cooked cold-served gastronomy products were susceptible to microbiological risk, as a result of the inadequate reheating and the interruption of the warm chain. On the contrary, dried pastry and cooked warm-served gastronomy products showed an excellent hygienic profile. In fact, the amount of compliant samples was 74.4%.

  10. Plant biotechnology for food security and bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jihong Liu; Zhang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    This year is a special year for plant biotechnology. It was 30 years ago, on January 18 1983, one of the most important dates in the history of plant biotechnology, that three independent groups described Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation at the Miami Winter Symposium, leading to the production of normal, fertile transgenic plants (Bevan et al. in Nature 304:184-187, 1983; Fraley et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:4803-4807, 1983; Herrera-Estrella et al. in EMBO J 2:987-995, 1983; Vasil in Plant Cell Rep 27:1432-1440, 2008). Since then, plant biotechnology has rapidly advanced into a useful and valuable tool and has made a significant impact on crop production, development of a biotech industry and the bio-based economy worldwide.

  11. Antioxidant properties of Mediterranean food plant extracts: geographical differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, S; Schmitt-Schillig, S; Müller, W E; Eckert, G P

    2005-03-01

    Locally grown, wild food plants seasonally contribute a considerable portion of the daily diet in certain Mediterranean areas and it has been suggested that the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet on human health partly originate from the antioxidant effect of flavonoid-rich food plants. The nutrient content of most wild plants is higher than that of cultivated ones and may vary depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. Accordingly, three local Mediterranean plant foods (i.e. Cichorium intybus, Sonchus oleraceus, Papaver rhoeas) were collected in Greece (Crete), southern Italy, and southern Spain in order to assess possible differences in their in vitro antioxidant potential. The biological assays revealed diverse intra-plant specific antioxidant effects for the tested extracts ranging from no activity to almost complete protection. Furthermore, substantial differences in the polyphenol content were found for the nutritionally used part of the same plant originating from different locations. However, no clear correlations between the polyphenol content and the extracts' antioxidant activities were found. Taken together, the data suggest that certain local Mediterranean plant foods possess promising antioxidant activity and that the observed biological effects are possibly influenced by the geographically-dependent environmental conditions prevailing during plant growth.

  12. Plants for water recycling, oxygen regeneration and food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    During long-duration space missions that require recycling and regeneration of life support materials the major human wastes to be converted to usable forms are CO2, hygiene water, urine and feces. A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) relies on the air revitalization, water purification and food production capabilities of higher plants to rejuvenate human wastes and replenish the life support materials. The key processes in such a system are photosynthesis, whereby green plants utilize light energy to produce food and oxygen while removing CO2 from the atmosphere, and transpiration, the evaporation of water from the plant. CELSS research has emphasized the food production capacity and efforts to minimize the area/volume of higher plants required to satisfy all human life support needs. Plants are a dynamic system capable of being manipulated to favour the supply of individual products as desired. The size and energy required for a CELSS that provides virtually all human needs are determined by the food production capacity. Growing conditions maximizing food production do not maximize transpiration of water; conditions favoring transpiration and scaling to recycle only water significantly reduces the area, volume, and energy inputs per person. Likewise, system size can be adjusted to satisfy the air regeneration needs. Requirements of a waste management system supplying inputs to maintain maximum plant productivity are clear. The ability of plants to play an active role in waste processing and the consequence in terms of degraded plant performance are not well characterized. Plant-based life support systems represent the only potential for self sufficiency and food production in an extra-terrestrial habitat.

  13. The use of Stationary Phase Optimized Selectivity Liquid Chromatography for the development of herbal fingerprints to detect targeted plants in plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Djiogo, C A Sokeng; Kamugisha, A; Courselle, P

    2017-08-01

    The consumption of plant food supplements is increasing steadily and more and more, these products are bought through internet. Often the products sold through internet are not registered or declared with a national authority, meaning that no or minimal quality control is performed and that they could contain herbs or plants that are regulated. Stationary Phase Optimized Selectivity Liquid Chromatography (SOS-LC) was evaluated for the development of specific fingerprints, to be used for the detection of targeted plants in plant food supplements. Three commonly used plants in plant food supplements and two regulated plants were used to develop fingerprints with SOS-LC. It was shown that for all plants specific fingerprints could be obtained, allowing the detection of these targeted plants in triturations with different herbal matrices as well as in real samples of suspicious supplements seized by the authorities. For three of the five plants a more specific fingerprint was obtained, compared to the ones developed on traditional columns described in literature. It could therefore be concluded that the combination of segments of different types of stationary phases, as used in SOS-LC, has the potential of becoming a valuable tool in the quality control and the identification of crude herbal or plant material and in the detection of regulated plants in plant food supplements or other herbal preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Defending the Military Food Supply Acquisition, Preparation, and Protection of Food at U.S. Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    former KGB official, with polonium - 210 in 2006.25 However, a number of factors make radiological contamination of food unlikely. First, it is...Defense University September 2009 Defending the Military Food Supply Acquisition, Preparation, and Protection of Food at U.S. Military...DATE SEP 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defending the Military Food Supply Acquisition

  15. The pilot plant for electron beam food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Stachowicz, W.

    1993-01-01

    The investigations on food irradiation began in Poland in the end of 50-ties. Till the end of 70-ties the research activity on food irradiation was rather of the random nature and the objectives involved the fundamental research areas of food science. After the JECFI recommended in 1980 the general approval of foods treated with the doses of ionizing radiation up to 10 kG as unconditionally wholesome, the interest on practical application of food irradiation was gained in Poland. In 1986 the governmental bodies decided to recognize the possibilities of practical application of radiation techniques in agriculture, and the Central Research and Development Project No 10.13. ''Radiation Techniques in Agriculture'' was initiated for the period of 5 years. The project in the part that refers to food irradiations involved 3 major objectives: - radiation preservation of food; - radiation hygienization of animal feed; - Pilot plants for food irradiation. The most liable project of the programme was the construction of experimental plant for electron beam food irradiation, intended to be the national center for future testing and implementary works in this field. (orig.)

  16. Time spent on home food preparation and indicators of healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-12-01

    The amount of time spent on food preparation and cooking may have implications for diet quality and health. However, little is known about how food-related time use relates to food consumption and spending, either at restaurants or for food consumed at home. To quantitatively assess the associations among the amount of time habitually spent on food preparation and patterns of self-reported food consumption, food spending, and frequency of restaurant use. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,319 adults in a population-based survey conducted in 2008-2009. The sample was stratified into those who spent 2 hours/day on food preparation and cleanup. Descriptive statistics and multivariable regression models examined differences between time-use groups. Analyses were conducted in 2011-2013. Individuals who spent the least amount of time on food preparation tended to be working adults who placed a high priority on convenience. Greater amount of time spent on home food preparation was associated with indicators of higher diet quality, including significantly more frequent intake of vegetables, salads, fruits, and fruit juices. Spending food preparation was associated with significantly more money spent on food away from home and more frequent use of fast food restaurants compared to those who spent more time on food preparation. The findings indicate that time might be an essential ingredient in the production of healthier eating habits among adults. Further research should investigate the determinants of spending time on food preparation. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in food production plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available L. monocytogenes has been established in different plants for the production of food, including dairy plants, abattoirs, plants for the processing of fish, as well as those for the production of ready-to-eat (RTE food and this fact is being considered as the primary mechanism of food contamination with this bacteria. There is also the factor of numerous and diverse contaminated production equipment, because it has certain parts that are inaccessible for the necessary cleaning and disinfection. The temperature, position, as well as the material of the work surface are also linked to the contamination of plants with this bacteria. Investigations carried out so far have helped toward the better understanding of the manner and time of contamination of food items in the course of the production process, but there are still unresolved problems, including most certainly the biggest one - the adherence of bacteria and the creation of a biofilm, when the bacteria is in that condition more resistant to so-called stress factors which are usually used in the food industry for the purpose of decontamination of the surfaces with which foods come into contact. The control of L. monocytogenes in food production plants is possible primarily by using an integrated programme, compatible with the systems Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP and Good Hygiene Practice (GHP, necessary in the production of food that is safe for the consumer. Essentially, the control measures that can contribute to reducing the incidence of findings of L.monocytogenes in the finished product, as well as the reducing of the level of contamination with this bacteria are linked, on the one hand, with hygiene procedures in the production process, and, on the other, with the applied technological procedures.

  18. Plant science meets food science: genetic effects of glucosinolate degradation during food processing in Brassica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennig, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background

    Phytochemicals in plant-based foods have been linked to a reduced incidence and progression of diseases. Glucosinolates (GLs) are phytochemicals that are typical for Brassicaand other Cruciferousplants, such as cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts,

  19. Preparation for and building of V-1 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smatlak, S.; Spirko, M.

    1981-01-01

    Some findings and problems encountered during the construction of the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice are discussed from the point of view of the investor, mainly problems associated with project preparation and relations between suppliers and the customer. The progress of construction is described and the dates are shown of the main stages of construction and tests. The construction proceeded according to a net diagram and was controlled by the construction management and a coordination group headed by the investor. An international start-up commission was established for the start-up stage. The fields are outlined of the participation and co-operation of Soviet organizations during project preparation, supplies, assembly, start-up, and fuel supplies for the V-1 nuclear power plant. (B.S.)

  20. Quantifying parental preferences for interventions designed to improve home food preparation and home food environments during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virudachalam, Senbagam; Chung, Paul J; Faerber, Jennifer A; Pian, Timothy M; Thomas, Karen; Feudtner, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Though preparing healthy food at home is a critical health promotion habit, few interventions have aimed to improve parental cooking skills and behaviors. We sought to understand parents' preferences and priorities regarding interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments during early childhood. We administered a discrete choice experiment using maximum difference scaling. Eighty English-speaking parents of healthy 1-4 year-old children rated the relative importance of potential attributes of interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments. We performed latent class analysis to identify subgroups of parents with similar preferences and tested for differences between the subgroups. Participants were mostly white or black 21-45 year-old women whose prevalence of overweight/obesity mirrored the general population. Latent class analysis revealed three distinct groups of parental preferences for intervention content: a healthy cooking group, focused on nutrition and cooking healthier food; a child persuasion group, focused on convincing toddlers to eat home-cooked food; and a creative cooking group, focused on cooking without recipes, meal planning, and time-saving strategies. Younger, lower income, 1-parent households comprised the healthy cooking group, while older, higher income, 2-parent households comprised the creative cooking group (p cooked dinner regularly, unlike the other two groups (p food preparation practices. Such interventions are important for creating healthier home food environments and preventing obesity starting from early childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Consumption and expenditure on food prepared away from home among Mexican adults in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent A Langellier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe food expenditure and consumption of foods prepared away from home among Mexican adults. Materials and methods. Data were from 45 241 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006, a nationally-representative, cross-sectional survey of Mexican households. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between location of residence, educational attainment, socioeconomic status and the following: 1 expenditure on all food and at restaurants, and 2 frequency of consumption of comida corrida or restaurant food and street food. Results. Food expenditure and consumption of food prepared away from home were positively associated with socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and urban vs. rural residence (p menor que 0.001 for all relationships in bivariate analyses. Conclusions. Consumption of food prepared outside home may be an important part of the diet among urban Mexican adults and those with high socioeconomic status and educational attainment.

  2. Consumption and expenditure on food prepared away from home among Mexican adults in 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langellier, Brent A

    2015-01-01

    To describe food expenditure and consumption of foods prepared away from home among Mexican adults. Data were from 45 241 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006, a nationally-representative, cross-sectional survey of Mexican households. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between location of residence, educational attainment, socioeconomic status and the following: 1) expenditure on all food and at restaurants, and 2) frequency of consumption of 'comida corrida' or restaurant food and street food. Food expenditure and consumption of food prepared away from home were positively associated with socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and urban vs. rural residence (pConsumption of food prepared outside home may be an important part of the diet among urban Mexican adults and those with high socioeconomic status and educational attainment.

  3. Assessment of heterogeneity in types of vegetables served by main household food preparers and food decision influencers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sunghwan; Kanetkar, Vinay; Brauer, Paula

    2015-10-01

    While vegetables are often studied as one food group, global measures may mask variation in the types and forms of vegetables preferred by different individuals. To explore preferences for and perceptions of vegetables, we assessed main food preparers based on their preparation of eight specific vegetables and mushrooms. An online self-report survey. Ontario, Canada. Measures included perceived benefits and obstacles of vegetables, convenience orientation and variety seeking in meal preparation. Of the 4517 randomly selected consumers who received the invitation, 1013 responded to the survey (22·4 % response). Data from the main food preparers were analysed (n 756). Latent profile analysis indicated three segments of food preparers. More open to new recipes, the 'crucifer lover' segment (13 %) prepared and consumed substantially more Brussels sprouts, broccoli and asparagus than the other segments. Although similar to the 'average consumer' segment (54 %) in many ways, the 'frozen vegetable user' segment (33 %) used significantly more frozen vegetables than the other segments due to higher prioritization of time and convenience in meal preparation and stronger 'healthy=not tasty' perception. Perception of specific vegetables on taste, healthiness, ease of preparation and cost varied significantly across the three consumer segments. Crucifer lovers also differed with respect to shopping and cooking habits compared with the frozen vegetable users. The substantial heterogeneity in the types of vegetables consumed and perceptions across the three consumer segments has implications for the development of new approaches to promoting these foods.

  4. [Safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöting, A; Schauzu, M

    2010-06-01

    The placing of genetically modified plants and derived food on the market falls under Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003. According to this regulation, applicants need to perform a safety assessment according to the Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. This article gives an overview of the underlying legislation as well as the strategy and scientific criteria for the safety assessment, which should generally be based on the concept of substantial equivalence and carried out in relation to an unmodified conventional counterpart. Besides the intended genetic modification, potential unintended changes also have to be assessed with regard to potential adverse effects for the consumer. All genetically modified plants and derived food products, which have been evaluated by EFSA so far, were considered to be as safe as products derived from the respective conventional plants.

  5. The Use of Plant Antimicrobial Compounds for Food Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Tana; Matthews, Karl K.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne disease is a global issue with significant impact on human health. With the growing consumer demand for natural preservatives to replace chemical compounds, plant antimicrobial compounds must be thoroughly investigated for their potential to serve as biopreservatives. This review paper will focus on the plant-derived products as antimicrobial agents for use in food preservation and to control foodborne pathogens in foods. Structure, modes of action, stability, and resistance to these plant compounds will be discussed as well as their application in food industries and possible technologies by which they can be delivered. Benefits as well as challenges, such as the need for further research for implementation and governmental regulation, will be highlighted. PMID:26539472

  6. Preparation of plant-specific NDA reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Beetle, T.; Kuhn, E.; Terrey, D.; Turel, S.; Busca, G.; Guardini, S.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of having suitable and well characterized non-destructive assay (NDA) reference materials for the verification activities of the safeguards control authorities is stressed. The Euratom Inspectorate and the IAEA have initiated an extensive programme for the procurement and preparation of Joint Euratom/IAEA safeguards NDA reference materials with the active participation of the Ispra Establishment of the Euratom Joint Research Centre. The different type and nature of materials, condition of measurements, and plant characteristics and provisions had to be taken into account for plant-specific NDA reference materials. The preparation of each reference material was planned case by case and specific criteria such as limitations in different facilities, measurement capabilities, conditions, product availability and population variability are being ascertained. A procurement scheme was prepared describing step-by-step procedures detailing responsibilities, measurement conditions, destructive analysis schemes, desired characteristics and methods of data evaluation. This paper describes the principles and procedures carried out for the preparation of a reference MOX pin, low enriched uranium reference rods, low enriched uranium reference drums, reference MTR assemblies, and THTR reference pebbles. The scheme for each characterization technique is presented. (author)

  7. Food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs of primary food preparers in families with young children. A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meysenburg, Rebecca; Albrecht, Julie A; Litchfield, Ruth; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K

    2014-02-01

    Food preparers in families with young children are responsible for safe food preparation and handling to prevent foodborne illness. To explore the food safety perceptions, beliefs, and practices of primary food preparers in families with children 10 years of age and younger, a mixed methods convergent parallel design and constructs of the Health Belief Model were used. A random sampling of 72 primary food handlers (36.2±8.6 years of age, 88% female) within young families in urban and rural areas of two Midwestern states completed a knowledge survey and participated in ten focus groups. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for codes and common themes. Forty-four percent scored less than the average knowledge score of 73%. Participants believe children are susceptible to foodborne illness but perceive its severity to be low with gastrointestinal discomfort as the primary outcome. Using safe food handling practices and avoiding inconveniences were benefits of preventing foodborne illness. Childcare duties, time and knowledge were barriers to practicing food safety. Confidence in preventing foodborne illness was high, especially when personal control over food handling is present. The low knowledge scores and reported practices revealed a false sense of confidence despite parental concern to protect their child from harm. Food safety messages that emphasize the susceptibility and severity of foodborne illness in children are needed to reach this audience for adoption of safe food handling practices. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. OUTLINE FOR OCCUPATIONAL HOME ECONOMICS COURSE IN COMMERCIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FOOD PREPARATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Home Economics Service.

    THE EXPERIMENTAL OUTLINE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN PLANNING A TWO-SEMESTER COURSE TO PREPARE 11TH AND 12TH GRADE STUDENTS FOR ENTRY LEVEL COMMERCIAL FOOD PREPARATION JOBS SUCH AS FOOD SERVICE WORKERS, COOK HELPERS, CATERER HELPERS, SALAD MAKERS, BAKER HELPERS, SHORT ORDER COOKS, AND TRAY LINE WORKERS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY VOCATIONAL HOME ECONOMICS…

  9. Bid Preparation and Evaluation for Nuclear Power Plant Project Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Idris Taib, Mohd Khairulezwan Abdul Manan and Nur Farizan Amadzun

    2011-01-01

    Bid preparation and evaluation is one of the main activities in Nuclear Power Plant Project management. International Atomic Energy Agency guide and Korean experience was studied for Malaysian requirement in realization of first Nuclear Power Plant. Several aspects shall be taken into consideration such as political scenario, financial capabilities, sitting, human resource, technologies, fuel supplies and decommissioning for long term exceeded hundred years. Bidding process and activities is proposed for our country requirement. The main activities included but unlimited to Bid Invitation Specification, Bid Evaluation Process, Technical Evaluation, Economic Bid Evaluation and Contracting. On the end of day, Malaysia need safe and reliable Nuclear Power Plant. Malaysian Economic Transformation Programme also get benefit from spin-off localization products and services as well as Technology Transfer Programme. (author)

  10. Innovative plant protection means prepared natural raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Lomtadze

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Were developed new compositions preparation against pests and diseases of plant: Insekto-acaricide “Antipest”, Fungicide “Antifungal”, a drug against of overwintering pests “Proinsekt” and nutritious preparation “Si-humate”.The effectiveness of trial oil-emulsion preparation “Proinsect” was assessed by the spread of pests - San Jose scale (Diaspidiotus perniciosus and mountain ash bentwing (Leucoptera scitella Costa on treated trees. According to field testing, the efficiency of preparation “Proinsect” exceeds the effectiveness of one of the best imported oily preparation “Sipcomol”, which was selected as a reference.Joint content in composition of synthetic pyretroids with turpentine oil, supposedly synergism takes place (turpentines cause prolonged action of synthetic pyrethroid. In working solutions, obtained from turpentine oil containing composition concentration of pyretroid is low, but it is enough during the whole period of pest development cycle. According to the comparative field testing of “Antipest” and imported preparations, against for fruits pests their efficiency is at almost one level, despite the low content (by 30–40% of pyrethroid (cypermethrin in “Antipest”.The developed phosphate preparation “Antifungal” is a little bit less effective compared to Bordeaux mixture. If well take into account significant decrease of intensity of disease spread and development after the action of phosphate preparation, also very low toxicity zinc hydro- and dihydrophosphates compared to the blue vitriol (Copper(II sulfate, the developed fungicide preparation can be successfully used instead of traditional Bordeaux mixture and in particular against the peach leaf curl.According to the results of field trials, effect, of developed silicon containing humic nutrient composition -“Si-humate” on experimental 2-year-old seedlings apples and peach is on the average 15–17% better than the control ones in

  11. Recursion to food plants by free-ranging Bornean elephant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan English

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant recovery rates after herbivory are thought to be a key factor driving recursion by herbivores to sites and plants to optimise resource-use but have not been investigated as an explanation for recursion in large herbivores. We investigated the relationship between plant recovery and recursion by elephants (Elephas maximus borneensis in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, Sabah. We identified 182 recently eaten food plants, from 30 species, along 14 × 50 m transects and measured their recovery growth each month over nine months or until they were re-browsed by elephants. The monthly growth in leaf and branch or shoot length for each plant was used to calculate the time required (months for each species to recover to its pre-eaten length. Elephant returned to all but two transects with 10 eaten plants, a further 26 plants died leaving 146 plants that could be re-eaten. Recursion occurred to 58% of all plants and 12 of the 30 species. Seventy-seven percent of the re-eaten plants were grasses. Recovery times to all plants varied from two to twenty months depending on the species. Recursion to all grasses coincided with plant recovery whereas recursion to most browsed plants occurred four to twelve months before they had recovered to their previous length. The small sample size of many browsed plants that received recursion and uneven plant species distribution across transects limits our ability to generalise for most browsed species but a prominent pattern in plant-scale recursion did emerge. Plant recovery time was a good predictor of time to recursion but varied as a function of growth form (grass, ginger, palm, liana and woody and differences between sites. Time to plant recursion coincided with plant recovery time for the elephant’s preferred food, grasses, and perhaps also gingers, but not the other browsed species. Elephants are bulk feeders so it is likely that they time their returns to bulk feed on these grass species when

  12. Recursion to food plants by free-ranging Bornean elephant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Megan; Gillespie, Graeme; Goossens, Benoit; Ismail, Sulaiman; Ancrenaz, Marc; Linklater, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Plant recovery rates after herbivory are thought to be a key factor driving recursion by herbivores to sites and plants to optimise resource-use but have not been investigated as an explanation for recursion in large herbivores. We investigated the relationship between plant recovery and recursion by elephants (Elephas maximus borneensis) in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, Sabah. We identified 182 recently eaten food plants, from 30 species, along 14 × 50 m transects and measured their recovery growth each month over nine months or until they were re-browsed by elephants. The monthly growth in leaf and branch or shoot length for each plant was used to calculate the time required (months) for each species to recover to its pre-eaten length. Elephant returned to all but two transects with 10 eaten plants, a further 26 plants died leaving 146 plants that could be re-eaten. Recursion occurred to 58% of all plants and 12 of the 30 species. Seventy-seven percent of the re-eaten plants were grasses. Recovery times to all plants varied from two to twenty months depending on the species. Recursion to all grasses coincided with plant recovery whereas recursion to most browsed plants occurred four to twelve months before they had recovered to their previous length. The small sample size of many browsed plants that received recursion and uneven plant species distribution across transects limits our ability to generalise for most browsed species but a prominent pattern in plant-scale recursion did emerge. Plant recovery time was a good predictor of time to recursion but varied as a function of growth form (grass, ginger, palm, liana and woody) and differences between sites. Time to plant recursion coincided with plant recovery time for the elephant's preferred food, grasses, and perhaps also gingers, but not the other browsed species. Elephants are bulk feeders so it is likely that they time their returns to bulk feed on these grass species when quantities have

  13. Speaking of food: connecting basic and applied plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Briana L; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Miller, Allison J

    2014-10-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) predicts that food production must rise 70% over the next 40 years to meet the demands of a growing population that is expected to reach nine billion by the year 2050. Many facets of basic plant science promoted by the Botanical Society of America are important for agriculture; however, more explicit connections are needed to bridge the gap between basic and applied plant research. This special issue, Speaking of Food: Connecting Basic and Applied Plant Science, was conceived to showcase productive overlaps of basic and applied research to address the challenges posed by feeding billions of people and to stimulate more research, fresh connections, and new paradigms. Contributions to this special issue thus illustrate some interactive areas of study in plant science-historical and modern plant-human interaction, crop and weed origins and evolution, and the effects of natural and artificial selection on crops and their wild relatives. These papers provide examples of how research integrating the basic and applied aspects of plant science benefits the pursuit of knowledge and the translation of that knowledge into actions toward sustainable production of crops and conservation of diversity in a changing climate. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  14. Home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions: A qualitative interview study with photo-elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Martin; Wrieden, Wendy; Brown, Heather; Stead, Martine; Adams, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Food-related choices have an important impact on health. Food preparation methods may be linked to diet and health benefits. However, the factors influencing people’s food choices, and how they are shaped by food preparation experiences, are still not fully understood. We aimed to study home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions amongst adults in North East England. A matrix was used to purposively sample participants with diverse socio-demographic characteristics. Participants developed photographic food diaries that were used as prompts during semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using the Framework Method. Interviews were conducted with 18 adults (five men and 13 women), aged approximately 20 to 80 years, to reach data saturation. Participants’ practices varied widely, from reliance on pre-prepared foods, to preparing complex meals entirely from basic ingredients. Key themes emerged regarding the cook (identity), the task (process of cooking), and the context (situational drivers). Resources, in terms of time, money and facilities, were also underpinning influences on food preparation. Participants’ practices were determined by both personal motivations to cook, and the influence of others, and generally reflected compromises between varied competing demands and challenges in life. Most people appeared to be overall content with their food preparation behaviour, though ideally aspired to cook more frequently, using basic ingredients. This often seemed to be driven by social desirability. Home food preparation is complex, with heterogeneous practices, experiences and perceptions both between individuals and within the same individual over time, according to shifting priorities and circumstances. Generalisability of these findings may be limited by the regional participant sample; however the results support and build upon previous research. Focussing interventions on life transition points at which priorities and circumstances

  15. Home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions: A qualitative interview study with photo-elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Susanna; White, Martin; Wrieden, Wendy; Brown, Heather; Stead, Martine; Adams, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Food-related choices have an important impact on health. Food preparation methods may be linked to diet and health benefits. However, the factors influencing people's food choices, and how they are shaped by food preparation experiences, are still not fully understood. We aimed to study home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions amongst adults in North East England. A matrix was used to purposively sample participants with diverse socio-demographic characteristics. Participants developed photographic food diaries that were used as prompts during semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using the Framework Method. Interviews were conducted with 18 adults (five men and 13 women), aged approximately 20 to 80 years, to reach data saturation. Participants' practices varied widely, from reliance on pre-prepared foods, to preparing complex meals entirely from basic ingredients. Key themes emerged regarding the cook (identity), the task (process of cooking), and the context (situational drivers). Resources, in terms of time, money and facilities, were also underpinning influences on food preparation. Participants' practices were determined by both personal motivations to cook, and the influence of others, and generally reflected compromises between varied competing demands and challenges in life. Most people appeared to be overall content with their food preparation behaviour, though ideally aspired to cook more frequently, using basic ingredients. This often seemed to be driven by social desirability. Home food preparation is complex, with heterogeneous practices, experiences and perceptions both between individuals and within the same individual over time, according to shifting priorities and circumstances. Generalisability of these findings may be limited by the regional participant sample; however the results support and build upon previous research. Focussing interventions on life transition points at which priorities and circumstances change

  16. Home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions: A qualitative interview study with photo-elicitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Mills

    Full Text Available Food-related choices have an important impact on health. Food preparation methods may be linked to diet and health benefits. However, the factors influencing people's food choices, and how they are shaped by food preparation experiences, are still not fully understood. We aimed to study home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions amongst adults in North East England. A matrix was used to purposively sample participants with diverse socio-demographic characteristics. Participants developed photographic food diaries that were used as prompts during semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using the Framework Method. Interviews were conducted with 18 adults (five men and 13 women, aged approximately 20 to 80 years, to reach data saturation. Participants' practices varied widely, from reliance on pre-prepared foods, to preparing complex meals entirely from basic ingredients. Key themes emerged regarding the cook (identity, the task (process of cooking, and the context (situational drivers. Resources, in terms of time, money and facilities, were also underpinning influences on food preparation. Participants' practices were determined by both personal motivations to cook, and the influence of others, and generally reflected compromises between varied competing demands and challenges in life. Most people appeared to be overall content with their food preparation behaviour, though ideally aspired to cook more frequently, using basic ingredients. This often seemed to be driven by social desirability. Home food preparation is complex, with heterogeneous practices, experiences and perceptions both between individuals and within the same individual over time, according to shifting priorities and circumstances. Generalisability of these findings may be limited by the regional participant sample; however the results support and build upon previous research. Focussing interventions on life transition points at which priorities and

  17. Preparing suitable climate scenario data to assess impacts on local food safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, C.; Hofstra, N.; Leemans, R.

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of climate change impacts on food safety requires food safety assessment with different past and future climate scenario data to compare current and future conditions. This study presents a tool to prepare climate and climate change data for local food safety scenario analysis and

  18. Food and its preparation conditions in hotels in Accra, Ghana: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although a lot of work has been done on the safety of street foods in most developing countries, not much has been done with regards to the hotel industry. A pilot study to investigate food and its preparation conditions in ten selected hotels in Accra, the capital of Ghana with respect to food safety was therefore initiated in ...

  19. Effects of home-based food preparation practices on the micronutrient content of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severi, S; Bedogni, G; Zoboli, G P; Manzieri, A M; Poli, M; Gatti, G; Battistini, N

    1998-08-01

    We studied the effects of cooking on the vitamin and mineral content of vegetables (vegetable soup, cauliflower), meat (beefsteak) and fish (sole) and those of cutting (fruit salad) and squeezing (orange juice) on the vitamin content of fruits. In cooked dishes, vitamin retention ranged between 0 (folic acid, all dishes) and 94% (retinol, sole) and mineral retention between 63 (copper, cauliflower) and 96% (iron, vegetable soup). In orange juice, ascorbic acid appeared to be protected from oxidation for at least 12 h as compared with fruit salad. Our study shows that preparation of foods with techniques available at home may be responsible for losses of vitamins and minerals. Further studies are needed to ascertain the effects of these losses on nutritional status.

  20. A comparative study on the aphrodisiac activity of food plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Any substance that increases erectile function, sexual performance and enjoyment is considered an aphrodisiac. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of food plants Mondia whitei, Chenopodium album, Cucurbita pepo and Sclerocarya birrea extracts at a fixed dose of 200mg/kg body weight on ...

  1. Alternative food promotes broad mite control on chilli pepper plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, M.V.A.; Venzon, M.; de S. Bittencourt, M.C.; Rodríguez-Cruz, F.A.; Pallini, A.; Janssen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Many omnivorous arthropods are important natural enemies because they can feed on plant-provided pollen and several prey species, and thus persist in crops even in the absence of the target pest. Hence, populations of these predators can be established in a crop by providing alternative food, thus

  2. Indigenous African foods plants: vehicles of disease or sources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determines the mycological quality of traditional leafy vegetables, commonly referred to as morogo, and investigates the folate content of such crops, as well as the antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potential of indigenous rooibos tea and other traditional food and medicinal plants. Results showed that a ...

  3. The composition and regeneration status of wild food plants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition and regeneration status of wild food plants in Chenene Miombo woodland, Dodoma rural district, Tanzania. VE Tairo. Abstract. No Abstract. Discovery and Innovation Vol. 19 (1&2) 2007: pp. 107-121. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  4. An Ethnomedicinal Survey of Medicinal Plants Used as Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal plants serve as food supplements and provide essential nutrients to the body in addition to their use as prophylactic and curative measures for some diseases. We conducted a survey among the traditional healers of the Chakma tribe, which is the largest tribe in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region in the southeast ...

  5. The management plan preparation activities nuclear power plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utomo

    2011-01-01

    A feasibility Study that has been updated show that two nuclear power units with each unit of power up to 1000 MWe can represent decently an economical alternative energy supply. It added that the available time schedule was quite tight so that the preparation for the development must be starting first. This paper will discuss the preparation of plans of the first nuclear power plant which includes program activities, the structure of contracts, schedules of activities and funding. From the information obtained to date that in addition to a candidate site that is ready to be built in Muria peninsula is still required another potential alternative site besides to search other complete data information. This site investigation activities completed within the time schedule was passed ''critical path'', so that these activities should be carried out intensively and obey the time. This paper describes the steps that need to be prepared to welcome the first nuclear power plant, after reviewing the various input above and apply the reality in Indonesia as the initial conditions. (author)

  6. Chemometrics and chromatographic fingerprints to classify plant food supplements according to the content of regulated plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Sokeng Djiogo, C A; Courselle, P

    2017-09-05

    Plant food supplements are gaining popularity, resulting in a broader spectrum of available products and an increased consumption. Next to the problem of adulteration of these products with synthetic drugs the presence of regulated or toxic plants is an important issue, especially when the products are purchased from irregular sources. This paper focusses on this problem by using specific chromatographic fingerprints for five targeted plants and chemometric classification techniques in order to extract the important information from the fingerprints and determine the presence of the targeted plants in plant food supplements in an objective way. Two approaches were followed: (1) a multiclass model, (2) 2-class model for each of the targeted plants separately. For both approaches good classification models were obtained, especially when using SIMCA and PLS-DA. For each model, misclassification rates for the external test set of maximum one sample could be obtained. The models were applied to five real samples resulting in the identification of the correct plants, confirmed by mass spectrometry. Therefore chromatographic fingerprinting combined with chemometric modelling can be considered interesting to make a more objective decision on whether a regulated plant is present in a plant food supplement or not, especially when no mass spectrometry equipment is available. The results suggest also that the use of a battery of 2-class models to screen for several plants is the approach to be preferred. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Problems in modernization of automation systems at coal preparation plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshlyaev, L. P.; Lyakhovets, M. V.; Venger, K. G.; Leontiev, I. A.; Makarov, G. V.; Salamatin, A. S.

    2018-05-01

    The factors influencing the process of modernization (reconstruction) of the automation systems at coal preparation plants are described. Problems such as heterogeneity of existing and developed systems, planning of reconstruction of a technological complex without taking into account modernization of automated systems, commissioning without stopping the existing technological complex, as well as problems of conducting procurement procedures are discussed. The option of stage-by-stage start-up and adjustment works in the conditions of modernization of systems without long stops of the process equipment is offered.

  8. Malaysian Preparation for Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Idris Taib; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Kamarudin Sulaiman; Izhar Abu Hussin

    2011-01-01

    Instrumentation and Control System is required in Nuclear Power Plant for their safe and effective operation. The system is combination and integrated from detectors, actuators, analog system as well as digital system. Current design of system definitely follows of electronic as well as computer technology, with strictly follow regulation and guideline from local regulator as well as International Atomic Energy Agency. Commercial Off-The-Shelf products are extensively used with specific nucleonic instrumentation. Malaysian experiences depend on Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI Instrumentation and Control, Power Plant Instrumentation and Control as well as Process Control System. However Malaysians have capabilities to upgrade themself from Electronics, Computers, Electrical and Mechanical based. Proposal is presented for Malaysian preparation. (author)

  9. Risk assessment for pyrrolizidine alkaloids detected in (herbal) teas and plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Mulder, Patrick P J; Louisse, Jochem; Peijnenburg, Ad; Wesseling, Sebas; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2017-06-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are plant metabolites present in some botanical preparations, with especially 1,2-unsaturated PAs being of concern because they are genotoxic carcinogens. This study presents an overview of tumour data on PAs and points of departure (PODs) derived from them, corroborating that the BMDL 10 for lasiocarpine represents a conservative POD for risk assessment. A risk assessment using this BMDL 10 and mean levels of PAs reported in literature for (herbal) teas, indicates that consumption of one cup of tea a day would result in MOE values lower than 10 000 for several types of (herbal) teas, indicating a priority for risk management for these products A refined risk assessment using interim relative potency (REP) factors showed that based on the mean PA levels, 7(54%) of 13 types of (herbal) teas and 1 (14%) of 7 types of plant food supplements (PFS) resulted in MOE values lower than 10 000, indicating a priority for risk management also for these products in particular. This includes both preparations containing PA-producing and non-PA-producing plants. Our study provides insight in the current state-of-the art and limitations in the risk assessment of PA-containing food products, especially (herbal) teas and PFS, indicating that PAs in food presents a field of interest for current and future risk management. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interrelationships of food safety and plant pathology: the life cycle of human pathogens on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Jeri D; Schroeder, Brenda K

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial food-borne pathogens use plants as vectors between animal hosts, all the while following the life cycle script of plant-associated bacteria. Similar to phytobacteria, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and cross-domain pathogens have a foothold in agricultural production areas. The commonality of environmental contamination translates to contact with plants. Because of the chronic absence of kill steps against human pathogens for fresh produce, arrival on plants leads to persistence and the risk of human illness. Significant research progress is revealing mechanisms used by human pathogens to colonize plants and important biological interactions between and among bacteria in planta. These findings articulate the difficulty of eliminating or reducing the pathogen from plants. The plant itself may be an untapped key to clean produce. This review highlights the life of human pathogens outside an animal host, focusing on the role of plants, and illustrates areas that are ripe for future investigation.

  11. The challenge of increasing vitamin C content in plant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2012-09-01

    The term "vitamin" is used to define a number of organic compounds that have to be obtained from different foods because the organism itself cannot synthesize them in the quantities needed to sustain life. Vitamin C is the common name for L-ascorbic acid. In humans, the principal role of this molecule is to scavenge reactive oxygen species, due to its antioxidant capacity, and to serve as cofactor for many enzymes. A deficiency of L-ascorbic acid is traditionally linked to human diseases such as scurvy. Plant foods are the principal source of L-ascorbic acid for humans. There is a high variability of L-ascorbic acid content in the various plant organs that are used for human consumption. This diversity is related to the specific functions played by L-ascorbic acid in the different plant tissues. The net content of L-ascorbic acid in plants is determined through a balance of the activities of different biosynthetic, recycling, and catabolic pathways. Here we review the importance of L-ascorbic acid for human health, the current knowledge on its metabolism and function in plants, and the efforts that have already been made by genetic modification to improve its content in plant organs used for human food. We provide a current and forward looking perspective of how plant science can contribute to improving the L-ascorbic acid content in crop species using gene transformation, quantitative trait loci and association mapping-based approaches. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. THE USE OF PLANTS TO PROTECT PLANTS AND FOOD AGAINST FUNGAL PATHOGENS: A REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuping, D S S; Eloff, J N

    2017-01-01

    Plant fungal pathogens play a crucial role in the profitability, quality and quantity of plant production. These phytopathogens are persistent in avoiding plant defences causing diseases and quality losses around the world that amount to billions of US dollars annually. To control the scourge of plant fungal diseases, farmers have used fungicides to manage the damage of plant pathogenic fungi. Drawbacks such as development of resistance and environmental toxicity associated with these chemicals have motivated researchers and cultivators to investigate other possibilities. Several databases were accessed to determine work done on protecting plants against plant fungal pathogens with plant extracts using search terms "plant fungal pathogen", "plant extracts" and "phytopathogens". Proposals are made on the best extractants and bioassay techniques to be used. In addition to chemical fungicides, biological agents have been used to deal with plant fungal diseases. There are many examples where plant extracts or plant derived compounds have been used as commercial deterrents of fungi on a large scale in agricultural and horticultural setups. One advantage of this approach is that plant extracts usually contain more than one antifungal compound. Consequently the development of resistance of pathogens may be lower if the different compounds affect a different metabolic process. Plants cultivated using plants extracts may also be marketed as organically produced. Many papers have been published on effective antimicrobial compounds present in plant extracts focusing on applications in human health. More research is required to develop suitable, sustainable, effective, cheaper botanical products that can be used to help overcome the scourge of plant fungal diseases. Scientists who have worked only on using plants to control human and animal fungal pathogens should consider the advantages of focusing on plant fungal pathogens. This approach could not only potentially increase

  13. Fracture toughness of mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei) food plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgart-Berry, Alison

    2004-04-01

    Mountain gorillas, the largest extant primates, subsist almost entirely on plant matter. Moreover, their diet includes a substantial amount of structural material, such as bark and stems, which other primates tend to avoid. Accordingly, the robust masticatory apparatus of gorillas may be adaptive to this presumably tough diet; however, quantitative information on this subject is lacking. In this study the fracture toughness of mountain gorilla foods was examined for the first time. Samples of 44 food plants from Bwindi-Impenetrable National Park (BINP) and Mgahinga Gorilla National Park (MGNP) were tested. These parks are inhabited by two gorilla populations that regarded by some as being distinct at the subspecific taxonomic level. Although food toughness did not differ between the two populations, both diets contained tough items. Tree barks were the toughest food items (varying from 0.23 to 8.2 kJ/m2), followed by shrub barks, pith, and stems. The toughness of leaves and fruit was negligible compared to that of bark. The toughness of bamboo was low in comparison to the toughest food items. Accordingly, the prominent toughness of bark, pith, and stems may be key factors in the evolution of orofacial robusticity in mountain gorillas. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. The potential of genetically enhanced plants to address food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Paul; Twyman, Richard M

    2004-06-01

    Food insecurity is one of the most important social issues faced today, with 840 million individuals enduring chronic hunger and three billion individuals suffering from nutrient deficiencies. Most of these individuals are poverty stricken and live in developing countries. Strategies to address food insecurity must aim to increase agricultural productivity in the developing world in order to tackle poverty, and must provide long-term improvements in crop yields to keep up with demand as the world's population grows. Genetically enhanced plants provide one route to sustainable higher yields, either by increasing the intrinsic yield capability of crop plants or by protecting them from biotic and abiotic constraints. The present paper discusses a range of transgenic approaches that could increase agricultural productivity if applied on a large scale, including the introduction of genes that confer resistance to pests and diseases, or tolerance of harsh environments, and genes that help to lift the intrinsic yield capacity by increasing metabolic flux towards storage carbohydrates, proteins and oils. The paper also explores how the nutritional value of plants can be improved by genetic engineering. Transgenic plants, as a component of integrated strategies to relieve poverty and deliver sustainable agriculture to subsistence farmers in developing countries, could have a significant impact on food security now and in the future.

  15. Reducing preparation time of locally manufactured baby food at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Food Technology in Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 3 (1999) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Preparation and Fluorescent Analysis of Plant Metaphase Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzacher, Trude

    2016-01-01

    Good preparations are essential for informative analysis of both somatic and meiotic chromosomes, cytogenetics, and cell divisions. Fluorescent chromosome staining allows even small chromosomes to be visualized and counted, showing their morphology. Aneuploidies and polyploidies can be established for species, populations, or individuals while changes occurring in breeding lines during hybridization or tissue culture and transformation protocols can be assessed. The process of division can be followed during mitosis and meiosis including pairing and chiasma distribution, as well as DNA organization and structure during the evolution of chromosomes can be studied. This chapter presents protocols for pretreatment and fixation of material, including tips of how to grow plants to get good and healthy meristem with many divisions. The chromosome preparation technique is described using proteolytic enzymes, but acids can be used instead. Chromosome slide preparations are suitable for fluorochrome staining for fast screening (described in the chapter) or fluorescent in situ hybridization (see Schwarzacher and Heslop-Harrison, In situ hybridization. BIOS Scientific Publishers, Oxford, 2000).

  17. Development of a method for controlling salt and sodium use during meal preparation for food services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Barbosa Frantz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study developed a method for controlling the amount of salt and sodium during food preparation, Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation for food services based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points principles. METHODS: The method was conceived and perfected during a study case in a commercial food service located in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Data were collected from technical cards, recipes and measurements during food preparation. The preparations were monitored and compared with criteria about the use of salt and sodium found in the literature. Critical control points were identified and corrective measures were proposed. RESULTS: The result was a method consisting of 9 stages: (1 determination of the sodium content in the ingredients; (2 and 3 analysis of menu planning and sodium content; (4 follow-up of food preparation; (5 estimate of the amount of sodium used in the preparations; (6 and 7 selection and following of the preparations with average- and high-sodium content; (8 definition of the critical points and establishment of corrective actions for the use of salt and sodium; and (9 creation of recommendations for the use of salt and sodium. CONCLUSION: The Controlling Salt and Sodium use During Meal Preparation may contribute to global discussions regarding the reduction of salt and sodium intakes and collaborate for the supply of nutritionally and sensorially appropriate meals with respect to salt and sodium content. It may also help to prevent non-communicable chronic diseases.

  18. The Role of Adolescents From a Low Socioeconomic Background in Household Food Preparation: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Tashara M; Aasand, Taylor A; Vickers, Zata; Reicks, Marla

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand adolescents' from low-income households perceptions of their involvement in home food preparation, reasons underlying the extent to which they were involved, and positive and negative consequences associated with their involvement. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 19 adolescents (13-18 years). Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim. Themes were identified using grounded theory and the constant comparative method. Eight adolescents described cooking as a primary responsibility due to adult work and family schedules, age, gender, and/or cultural expectations. They were typically preparing food for themselves and their family without assistance, and making decisions about what was prepared. They identified positive and negative consequences including enjoyment and satisfaction, as well as stress and less time for other activities. Eleven adolescents mostly assisted the primary food preparer, with little input in deciding what was prepared. They identified benefits such as enjoyment and family interaction. Foods prepared by many adolescents tended to be quick and easy to prepare foods. Future studies should investigate the relationship between adultified cooking responsibilities, diet quality, and health. Also, cooking education for adolescents needs to address how to prepare a healthy family meal on a budget.

  19. Plant foods and plant-based diets: protective against childhood obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, P K

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this article is to review the epidemiologic literature examining the role of plant foods and plant-based diets in the prevention of childhood obesity. Available data suggest a protective effect of ready-to-eat cereal on risk of obesity, although prospective studies are still needed. Studies on fruit and vegetables; grains other than cereal; high-protein foods, including beans, legumes, and soy; fiber; and plant-based dietary patterns are inconsistent or generally null. The evidence base is limited, and most studies are fraught with methodologic limitations, including cross-sectional design, inadequate adjustment for potential confounders, and lack of consideration of reporting errors, stage of growth, and genetic influences. Well-designed prospective studies are needed. The lack of evidence showing an association between plant-based diets and childhood obesity does not mean that such diets should not be encouraged. Plant foods are highlighted in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and children do not meet the current recommendations for most plant foods. Although the advice to consume a plant-based, low-energy-dense diet is sound, ethical questions arise concerning the relatively high price of these diets in the United States and the way in which such diets are perceived in other parts of the world. Reducing the burden of childhood obesity, eliminating health disparities, and preventing the further spread of the disease around the globe will require not only policy interventions to ensure that plant foods are affordable and accessible to children of all income levels but also awareness of sociocultural norms that affect consumption.

  20. Who's cooking? Time spent preparing food by gender, income and household composition

    OpenAIRE

    Mancino, Lisa; Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    We use the American Time Use Survey data and multivariate analysis to explore how time allocated to food preparation differs across income groups, household composition (number of adults and presence of children), and employment status of adults in the household.

  1. Who Has Time To Cook? How Family Resources Influence Food Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Mancino, Lisa; Newman, Constance

    2007-01-01

    Households participating in the Food Stamp Program are increasingly headed by a single parent or two working parents. As this trend continues, more low-income households may find it difficult to allocate the time needed to prepare meals that fit within a limited budget and meet dietary requirements. Using Tobit analysis of the 2003-04 American Time Use Survey (ATUS), this study finds that household time resources significantly affect how much time is allocated to preparing food. In fact, work...

  2. Wild food plants traditionally consumed in the area of Bologna (Emilia Romagna region, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansanelli, Sabrina; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2014-09-25

    This research was performed in an area belonging to the province of the city of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy). The purpose of the present survey was to record the local knowledge concerning traditional uses of wild food plants and related practices, such as gathering, processing, cooking, therapeutic uses, with the aim of preserving an important part of the local cultural heritage. Thirty-nine people still retaining Traditional Local Knowledge (TLK) were interviewed between March-April 2012 and September-October 2013 by means of open and semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews. For each plant species mentioned, we recorded the botanical family, the English common name, the Italian common and/or folk names, the parts of the plant used, the culinary preparation, and the medicinal usage. The relative frequency of citation index (RFC), a tool that measures the local cultural importance of a plant species, was also included. The folk plants mentioned by the respondents belonged to 33 botanical families, of which the Rosaceae (14 plants) and the Asteraceae (9 plants) were the most representative. The species with the highest RFC index (0.77) were Crepis vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Thuill) Thell and Taraxacum officinale Weber. Eleven folk plants were indicated as having therapeutic effects. T. officinale Weber, C. vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Thuill) Thell and Sonchus spp., which are used as food, were reported to be depurative, blood cleaning, refreshing, diuretic and laxative. The most commonly used species was Urtica spp, which was also the most frequently cited for medicinal uses. The present survey documented the wild food plant traditional knowledge of an area belonging to the province of the city of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy). The general perception obtained is that on one side the TLK related to wild food plants has strongly been eroded, mainly due to immigration and urbanization phenomena, whereas on the other side

  3. POSSIBLE HEALTH RISKS IN SUBJECTS WITH DOMINANT PLANT FOOD CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Kudlackova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In two groups of apparently healthy non obese non smoking women aged 20 30 years 79 vegetarians 39 lacto ovo vegetarians plant food, dairy products, eggs, 40 semi-vegetarians as lacto ovo vegetarians with addition of white meat and fish consumption and 81 non vegetarians control group on traditional mixed diet were analyzed the dietary questionnaires of food-frequency and measured the blood concentrations of vitamins B9, C, carotene, B12, D and concentrations of iron. Young women in both groups had similar values of body mass index, concentrations of vitamin C, vitamin B9 and -carotene. In vegetarian vs. non-vegetarian group was found the significantly increased daily intake of fiber, whole grain products, pulses, seeds and nuts. These finding suggest that both nutritional groups had the similar nutritional regimen from view of fruit and vegetables and different from view of other key vegetarian food commodities. Vitamin B12, vitamin D and long-chain n-3 fatty acids are not contained in plant food. Bioavailability of iron from food can be lower in presence of phytic acid from whole grain products and pulses and fiber pulses, seeds, nuts, whole grains. In group of lacto ovo vegetarians narrow range of animal food consumption vs. non vegetarian or semi vegetarian groups were found the significantly reduced concentrations of vitamin B12, vitamin D and iron with a greater incidence of deficient values 49 per cent vs. 13 and 15 per cent for vitamin B12, 67 vs. 46 and 50 for vitamin D, 44 vs. 20 and 30 for iron. Long chain n 3 fatty acid intake eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic in lacto ovo vegetarian group was significantly reduced and very low no fish consumption in comparison to non vegetarians and semi vegetarians. Intake of these acids in semi vegetarians vs. non vegetarians was non significantly increased. The substrate for long chain n 3 fatty acid biosynthesis linolenic acid was significantly more consumed in vegetarian groups

  4. Distribution system of prepared foods; Chorizumi shokuhin no ryutsu shisutemu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, J.

    1999-09-05

    Chains such as supermarket, convenience store, and delicatessen store are rapidly expanding business. Only of thing and value thing which is only novel enjoyably also consumer needs these cooked family restaurant food service industry menu be. The following would be expected: Goods and menu of surely coming to the hand in result of being safer and result of dealing with the diversification of the flavor, the case in which it is necessary. Recently, it came to the distribution reform of the cooked food remarkably and drastically reducing the distribution cost as the result. (NEDO)

  5. Determinants of Non-Home-Prepared Food Consumption in Two Low-Income Areas in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't H.; Hartog, den A.P.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Mwangi, A.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Street foods are an important source of nutrients for poor urban residents. This study aimed to identify determinants of the proportion of daily energy provided by non-home-prepared foods. METHODS: A survey was conducted in a slum and a low- to middle-income area of Nairobi. The survey

  6. Food processing strategies to enhance phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and bioavailability in plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Agustí, Albert; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Elez-Martínez, Pedro

    2017-06-13

    Phenolic compounds are important constituents of plant-based foods, as their presence is related to protective effects on health. To exert their biological activity, phenolic compounds must be released from the matrix during digestion in an absorbable form (bioaccessible) and finally absorbed and transferred to the bloodstream (bioavailable). Chemical structure and matrix interactions are some food-related factors that hamper phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and bioavailability, and that can be counteracted by food processing. It has been shown that food processing can induce chemical or physical modifications in food that enhance phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and bioavailability. These changes include: (i) chemical modifications into more bioaccessible and bioavailable forms; (ii) cleavage of covalent or hydrogen bonds or hydrophobic forces that attach phenolic compounds to matrix macromolecules; (iii) damaging microstructural barriers such as cell walls that impede the release from the matrix; and (iv) create microstructures that protect phenolic compounds until they are absorbed. Indeed, food processing can produce degradation of phenolic compounds, however, it is possible to counteract it by modulating the operating conditions in favor of increased bioaccessibility and bioavailability. This review compiles the current knowledge on the effects of processing on phenolic compounds bioaccessibility or bioavailability, while suggesting new guidelines in the search of optimal processing conditions as a step forward towards the design of healthier foods.

  7. Technological aspects of preparing affordable fermented complementary foods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Ngoddy, P.O.

    1997-01-01

    The requirements and manufacturing procedure of complementary (weaning) foods is discussed. Nutritional requirements for infants (aged 6-12 months) include approx. 3 MJ energy and 14 g digestible protein per litre, of a semi-liquid porridge. Microbiological safety is enhanced by biological

  8. The pilot plant for electron beam food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Kosmal, W.; Malec-Czechowska, K.; Maciszewski, W.

    1992-01-01

    In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in INCT. The pilot plant has been constructed inside an old fort what decreases significantly the cost of the investment. The pilot plants is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (10 MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). This allows both laboratory and full technological scale testing of the elaborated process to be conducted. The industrial unit is being equipped with e-/X conversion target, for high density products irradiation. On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for permanent treatment of spices, garlic, onions and temporary permissions for mushrooms, and potatoes. Dosimetric methods have been elaborated for the routine use at the plant. In the INCT laboratory methods for the control of e-/X treated food have been established. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  9. The pilot plant for electron beam food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdal, W.; Walis, L.; Chmielewski, A. G.

    1993-07-01

    In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in INCT. The pilot plant has been constructed inside an old fort what decreases significantly the cost of the investment. The pilot plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (10 MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). This allows both laboratory and full technological scale testing of the elaborated process to be conducted. The industrial unit is being equipped with e-/X conversion target, for high density products irradiation. On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for permanent treatment of spices, garlic, onions and temporary permissions for mushrooms, and potatoes. Dosimetric methods have been elaborated for the routine use at the plant. In the INCT laboratory methods for the control of e-/X treated food have been established.

  10. Food preparation patterns in German family households. An econometric approach with time budget data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möser, Anke

    2010-08-01

    In Germany, the rising importance of out-of-home consumption, increasing usage of convenience products and decreasing knowledge of younger individuals how to prepare traditional dishes can be seen as obvious indicators for shifting patterns in food preparation. In this paper, econometric analyses are used to shed more light on the factors which may influence the time spent on food preparation in two-parent family households with children. Two time budget surveys, carried out 1991/92 and 2001/02 through the German National Statistical Office, provide the necessary data. Time budget data analyses reveal that over the last ten years the time spent on food preparation in Germany has decreased. The results point out that time resources of a household, for example gainful employment of the parents, significantly affect the amount of time spent on food preparation. The analysis confirms further that there is a more equal allocation of time spent on cooking, baking or laying the table between women and men in the last ten years. Due to changing attitudes and conceivably adaption of economic conditions, differences in time devoted to food preparation seem to have vanished between Eastern and Western Germany. Greater time spent on eating out in Germany as well as decreasing time spent on food preparation at home reveal that the food provisioning of families is no longer a primarily private task of the households themselves but needs more public attention and institutional offers and help. Among other points, the possibility of addressing mothers' lack of time as well as growing "food illiteracy" of children and young adults are discussed. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Resveratrol biosynthesis: plant metabolic engineering for nutritional improvement of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Ingrosso, Ilaria; Paradiso, Annalisa; De Gara, Laura; Santino, Angelo

    2012-09-01

    The plant polyphenol trans-resveratrol (3, 5, 4'-trihydroxystilbene) mainly found in grape, peanut and other few plants, displays a wide range of biological effects. Numerous in vitro studies have described various biological effects of resveratrol. In order to provide more information regarding absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability of resveratrol, various research approaches have been performed, including in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models. In recent years, the induction of resveratrol synthesis in plants which normally do not accumulate such polyphenol, has been successfully achieved by molecular engineering. In this context, the ectopic production of resveratrol has been reported to have positive effects both on plant resistance to biotic stress and the enhancement of the nutritional value of several widely consumed fruits and vegetables. The metabolic engineering of plants offers the opportunity to change the content of specific phytonutrients in plant - derived foods. This review focuses on the latest findings regarding on resveratrol bioproduction and its effects on the prevention of the major pathological conditions in man.

  12. Use of new ceramic linings in coal preparation plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorchenko, V.E.; Rudenko, V.A.; Bondarev, A.Ya.

    1984-01-01

    This article evaluates several materials used as liners in coal preparation equipment. The evaluations concentrate on liners used under conditions of intensive temperature fluctuations, e.g. liners of coal chutes for coal transport from coal dryers. Two aspects of wear are analyzed: abrasion by friction and effects of temperature fluctuations. Abrasive wear is tested using magnetite suspension with a density of 400 g/l. Tests show that abrasive wear of liners on an alumina basis is 3 times lower than abrasive wear of high quality steel, from 13 to 24 times lower than that of iron and from 6 to 8 times lower than that of steels used in coal preparation plants. Effects of temperature fluctuations from 20 to 840 C on abrasive wear of liners of steels, iron, slag glass ceramics, mullite-corundum material and corundum is shown in a table. The test show that mullite-corundum material on the basis of alumina is characterized by a high resistance to abrasive wear after 30 cycles of temperature increase from 20 to 840 C and decrease to 20 C. Using mullite-corundum as liners of equipment and installations operating under conditions of temperature fluctuations is recommended.

  13. Molecularly imprinted polymers for sample preparation and biosensing in food analysis: Progress and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashley, Jon; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Kant, Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are biomimetics which can selectively bind to analytes of interest. One of the most interesting areas where MIPs have shown the biggest potential is food analysis. MIPs have found use as sorbents in sample preparation attributed to the high selectivity and high...... the imprinting methods which are applicable for imprinting food templates, summarize the recent progress in using MIPs for preparing and analysing food samples, and discuss the current limitations in the commercialisation of MIPs technology. Finally, future perspectives will be given....

  14. Preparation of Natural Zeolite for Air Dehumidification in Food Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Djaeni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drying with air dehumidification with solid adsorbent improves the quality of food product as well as energy efficiency. The natural zeolite is one of adsorbent having potential to adsorb the water.  Normally, the material was activated to open the pore, remove the organic impurities, and increase Si/Al rate. Hence, it can enhance the adsorbing capacity. This research studied the activation of natural zeolite mined from Klaten, Indonesia as air dehumidification for food drying. Two different methods were used involving activation by heat and NaOH introduction.  As indicators, the porosity and water loaded were evaluated. Results showed both methods improved the adsorbing capacity significantly. With NaOH, the adsorbing capacity was higher. The simple test in onion and corn drying showed the presence of activated natural zeolite can speed up water evaporation positively. This performance was also comparable with Zeolite 3A

  15. Perceived health properties of wild and cultivated food plants in local and popular traditions of Italy: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarrera, P M; Savo, V

    2013-04-19

    Many wild and cultivated plants are rich in mineral elements and bioactive compounds and are consumed for health purposes. Studies have demonstrated the curative properties of many of these food plants. In this paper, we discuss the properties of several plants with potential health benefits that have previously received little attention. This review provides an overview and critical discussion of food plants perceived by informants (emic view) as healthy or used as 'food medicine' in Italy. Pharmacological activity of these plants is explored, based upon published scientific research (etic view). Preparation methods, taste perception, toxicity and various potentialities of some food plants are also discussed. The present review includes literature available from 1877 to 2012. The information was collected from books, scientific papers, and abstracts that reported any plants used as food medicine in Italy. The perceived health properties were analyzed in the framework of recent international phytochemical and phytopharmacological literature. A total of 67 edible wild plants and 18 cultivated vegetables, distributed into 20 families, were reported by informants (in literature). Several plants were highly cited (e.g., Taraxacum officinale Webb., Crepis vesicaria L., Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L.). The most frequent health properties attributed to edible plants by the informants were: laxative (22 species), diuretic (15), digestive (11), galactagogue (8), antitussive (cough) (8), hypotensive (7), tonic (7), sedative (7), hypoglycemic (6). Some edible plants are promising for their potential health properties, such as Crepis vesicaria L., Sanguisorba minor Scop. and Sonchus oleraceus L. Several wild species were perceived by informants to maintain health but have never been studied from a phytochemical or pharmacological point of view: e.g., Asparagus albus L., Crepis leontodontoides All., Hyoseris radiata L. subsp. radiata, Phyteuma spicatum L. Copyright © 2013

  16. Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.; Mohamed, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    Adjuvant arthritis is an animal model that closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis in humans. It is a successful working model used to study new anti-inflammatory agents. In previous studies (animal and clinical) we have shown that evening primrose oil, fish oil and the methanol extract of date fruits and fenugreek seeds have anti-inflammatory activity and that the methanol extract of dates has an antioxidant effect. Based on these studies, the aim of the present study was to prepare 7 functio...

  17. Phylogenetic composition of host plant communities drives plant-herbivore food web structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volf, Martin; Pyszko, Petr; Abe, Tomokazu; Libra, Martin; Kotásková, Nela; Šigut, Martin; Kumar, Rajesh; Kaman, Ondřej; Butterill, Philip T; Šipoš, Jan; Abe, Haruka; Fukushima, Hiroaki; Drozd, Pavel; Kamata, Naoto; Murakami, Masashi; Novotny, Vojtech

    2017-05-01

    Insects tend to feed on related hosts. The phylogenetic composition of host plant communities thus plays a prominent role in determining insect specialization, food web structure, and diversity. Previous studies showed a high preference of insect herbivores for congeneric and confamilial hosts suggesting that some levels of host plant relationships may play more prominent role that others. We aim to quantify the effects of host phylogeny on the structure of quantitative plant-herbivore food webs. Further, we identify specific patterns in three insect guilds with different life histories and discuss the role of host plant phylogeny in maintaining their diversity. We studied herbivore assemblages in three temperate forests in Japan and the Czech Republic. Sampling from a canopy crane, a cherry picker and felled trees allowed a complete census of plant-herbivore interactions within three 0·1 ha plots for leaf chewing larvae, miners, and gallers. We analyzed the effects of host phylogeny by comparing the observed food webs with randomized models of host selection. Larval leaf chewers exhibited high generality at all three sites, whereas gallers and miners were almost exclusively monophagous. Leaf chewer generality dropped rapidly when older host lineages (5-80 myr) were collated into a single lineage but only decreased slightly when the most closely related congeneric hosts were collated. This shows that leaf chewer generality has been maintained by feeding on confamilial hosts while only a few herbivores were shared between more distant plant lineages and, surprisingly, between some congeneric hosts. In contrast, miner and galler generality was maintained mainly by the terminal nodes of the host phylogeny and dropped immediately after collating congeneric hosts into single lineages. We show that not all levels of host plant phylogeny are equal in their effect on structuring plant-herbivore food webs. In the case of generalist guilds, it is the phylogeny of deeper

  18. Family Food Preparation and Its Effects on Adolescent Dietary Quality and Eating Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; MacLehose, Richard F; Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe parent and adolescent involvement in food preparation for the family and to examine whether adolescents' food preparation involvement was related to their dietary quality (e.g., fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and various common nutrients) and eating patterns (e.g., frequency of breakfast, family meals, fast food intake). Data from two linked population-based studies, Eating and Activity in Teens 2010 and Families and Eating and Activity among Teens were used in cross-sectional analyses. Mothers (n = 1,875), stepmothers (n = 18), fathers (n = 977), stepfathers (n = 105), and adolescents (n = 2,108) from socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse households participated in the study. Adolescents completed food frequency questionnaires and surveys in school. Parents individually completed surveys by mail or phone. Linear regression was used to estimate differences in adolescent dietary quality and eating patterns between those who do and do not engage in meal preparation. Parent and adolescent report of "usually preparing food for the family" was related to several sociodemographic characteristics, including race/ethnicity (minority populations), parent education (college or higher), parent employment status (part time or stay-at-home caregiver), household size (≤3 children), and adolescent gender (female). Adolescent involvement in food preparation for the family was significantly associated with several markers of better dietary quality and better eating patterns. In contrast, parent involvement in food preparation for the family was unrelated to adolescent dietary intake. Results suggest that involving adolescents in food preparation for the family is related to better adolescent dietary quality and eating patterns. Public health interventions and health care providers may want to encourage adolescents to help with food preparation for the family. Additionally, adolescents

  19. Sample preparation and EFTEM of Meat Samples for Nanoparticle Analysis in Food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lari, L; Dudkiewicz, A

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles are used in industry for personal care products and the preparation of food. In the latter application, their functions include the prevention of microbes' growth, increase of the foods nutritional value and sensory quality. EU regulations require a risk assessment of the nanoparticles used in foods and food contact materials before the products can reach the market. However, availability of validated analytical methodologies for detection and characterisation of the nanoparticles in food hampers appropriate risk assessment. As part of a research on the evaluation of the methods for screening and quantification of Ag nanoparticles in meat we have tested a new TEM sample preparation alternative to resin embedding and cryo-sectioning. Energy filtered TEM analysis was applied to evaluate thickness and the uniformity of thin meat layers acquired at increasing input of the sample demonstrating that the protocols used ensured good stability under the electron beam, reliable sample concentration and reproducibility

  20. Sample preparation and EFTEM of Meat Samples for Nanoparticle Analysis in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, L.; Dudkiewicz, A.

    2014-06-01

    Nanoparticles are used in industry for personal care products and the preparation of food. In the latter application, their functions include the prevention of microbes' growth, increase of the foods nutritional value and sensory quality. EU regulations require a risk assessment of the nanoparticles used in foods and food contact materials before the products can reach the market. However, availability of validated analytical methodologies for detection and characterisation of the nanoparticles in food hampers appropriate risk assessment. As part of a research on the evaluation of the methods for screening and quantification of Ag nanoparticles in meat we have tested a new TEM sample preparation alternative to resin embedding and cryo-sectioning. Energy filtered TEM analysis was applied to evaluate thickness and the uniformity of thin meat layers acquired at increasing input of the sample demonstrating that the protocols used ensured good stability under the electron beam, reliable sample concentration and reproducibility.

  1. Protein preparations in the development of media fragrances in technology of food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Tolpigina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigated the sorption properties of plant and animal proteins, common on the Russian market. Installed the recommended dosage of the preparations of animal protein and vegetable origin, as well as the biological value.

  2. Protein preparations in the development of media fragrances in technology of food products

    OpenAIRE

    I. N. Tolpigina; I. E. Martemianova; L. V. Antipova; I. V. Polenov

    2013-01-01

    Investigated the sorption properties of plant and animal proteins, common on the Russian market. Installed the recommended dosage of the preparations of animal protein and vegetable origin, as well as the biological value.

  3. Preparation for commissioning of nuclear plant with reference to British Nuclear Fuels Plc fuel handling plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamber, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The new Fuel Handling Plant at British Nuclear Fuels Sellafield is part of a Pound 550M complex which provides facilities for the receipt, storage and mechanical preparation of both Magnox and A.G.R. fuel. The plant is very large and complex with considerable use of computer based process control systems, providing for physical and nuclear safety. The preparation of such plant for active commissioning necessitates a great many physical checks and technical evaluations in support of its safety case. This paper describes arrangements for plant commissioning checks, against the regulatory framework and explains the physical preparations necessary for their timely accomplishment. (author)

  4. Preparation for commissioning of nuclear plant with reference to British Nuclear Fuels Plc fuel handling plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamber, D.

    1987-01-01

    The new Fuel Handing Plant at British Nuclear Fuels Sellafield is part of a Pound 550M complex which provides facilities for the receipt, storage and mechanical preparation of both magnox and A.G.R. fuel. The plant is very large and complex with considerable use of computer based process control systems, providing for physical and nuclear safety. The preparation of such plant for ''active'' commissioning necessitates a great many physical checks and technical evaluations in support of its safety case. This paper describes arrangements for plant commissioning checks, against the regulatory framework and explains the physical preparations necessary for their timely accomplishment. (author)

  5. Utility of eButton images for identifying food preparation behaviors and meal-related tasks in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, Margaret; Patterson, Monika; Jia, Wenyan; Sun, Mingui; Baranowski, Tom

    2018-02-24

    Food preparation skills may encourage healthy eating. Traditional assessment of child food preparation employs self- or parent proxy-reporting methods, which are prone to error. The eButton is a wearable all-day camera that has promise as an objective, passive method for measuring child food preparation practices. This paper explores the feasibility of the eButton to reliably capture home food preparation behaviors and practices in a sample of pre- and early adolescents (ages 9 to 13). This is a secondary analysis of two eButton pilot projects evaluating the dietary intake of pre- and early adolescents in or around Houston, Texas. Food preparation behaviors were coded into seven major categories including: browsing, altering food/adding seasoning, food media, meal related tasks, prep work, cooking and observing. Inter-coder reliability was measured using Cohen's kappa and percent agreement. Analysis was completed on data for 31 participants. The most common activity was browsing in the pantry or fridge. Few participants demonstrated any food preparation work beyond unwrapping of food packages and combining two or more ingredients; actual cutting or measuring of foods were rare. Although previous research suggests children who "help" prepare meals may obtain some dietary benefit, accurate assessment tools of food preparation behavior are lacking. The eButton offers a feasible approach to food preparation behavior measurement among pre- and early adolescents. Follow up research exploring the validity of this method in a larger sample, and comparisons between cooking behavior and dietary intake are needed.

  6. Characteristics of Prepared Food Sources in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Baltimore City

    OpenAIRE

    LEE, SEUNG HEE; ROWAN, MEGAN T.; POWELL, LISA M.; NEWMAN, SARA; KLASSEN, ANN CARROLL; FRICK, KEVIN D.; ANDERSON, JENNIFER; GITTELSOHN, JOEL

    2010-01-01

    The food environment is associated with obesity risk and diet-related chronic diseases. Despite extensive research conducted on retail food stores, little is known about prepared food sources (PFSs). We conducted an observational assessment of all PFSs (N = 92) in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore. The most common PFSs were carry-outs, which had the lowest availability of healthy food choices. Only a small proportion of these carry-outs offered healthy sides, whole wheat bread, or entrée ...

  7. Food science meets plant science: A case study on improved nutritional quality by breeding for glucosinolate retention during food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennig, K.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Dekker, M.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional quality of vegetables is affected by several steps in the food chain. Up to now the effects of these different steps are mostly studied separately. We propose the cooperation between plant breeding and food technology by using food technological parameters as breeding traits to identify

  8. Preparation of antioxidant enzymatic hydrolysates from honeybee-collected pollen using plant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Margarita D; Tchorbanov, Bozhidar P

    2011-01-09

    Enzymatic hydrolysates of honeybee-collected pollen were prepared using food-grade proteinase and aminopeptidases entirely of plant origin. Bromelain from pineapple stem was applied (8 mAU/g substrate) in the first hydrolysis stage. Aminopeptidase (0.05 U/g substrate) and proline iminopeptidase (0.03 U/g substrate) from cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), and aminopeptidase (0.2 U/g substrate) from chick-pea cotyledons (Cicer arietinum L.) were involved in the additional hydrolysis of the peptide mixtures. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), total phenolic contents, and protein contents of these hydrolysates were as follows: DH (about 20-28%), total phenolics (15.3-27.2 μg/mg sample powder), and proteins (162.7-242.8 μg/mg sample powder), respectively. The hydrolysates possessed high antiradical scavenging activity determined with DPPH (42-46% inhibition). The prepared hydrolysates of bee-collected flower pollen may be regarded as effective natural and functional dietary food supplements due to their remarkable content of polyphenol substances and significant radical-scavenging capacity with special regard to their nutritional-physiological implications.

  9. Preparation of Antioxidant Enzymatic Hydrolysates from Honeybee-Collected Pollen Using Plant Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita D. Marinova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic hydrolysates of honeybee-collected pollen were prepared using food-grade proteinase and aminopeptidases entirely of plant origin. Bromelain from pineapple stem was applied (8 mAU/g substrate in the first hydrolysis stage. Aminopeptidase (0.05 U/g substrate and proline iminopeptidase (0.03 U/g substrate from cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, and aminopeptidase (0.2 U/g substrate from chick-pea cotyledons (Cicer arietinum L. were involved in the additional hydrolysis of the peptide mixtures. The degree of hydrolysis (DH, total phenolic contents, and protein contents of these hydrolysates were as follows: DH (about 20–28%, total phenolics (15.3–27.2 μg/mg sample powder, and proteins (162.7–242.8 μg/mg sample powder, respectively. The hydrolysates possessed high antiradical scavenging activity determined with DPPH (42–46% inhibition. The prepared hydrolysates of bee-collected flower pollen may be regarded as effective natural and functional dietary food supplements due to their remarkable content of polyphenol substances and significant radical-scavenging capacity with special regard to their nutritional-physiological implications.

  10. Plant Atrium System for Food Production in NASA's Deep Space Habitat Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Simpson, Morgan; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Newsham, Gerald; Stutte, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for future human exploration missions to space, NASA evaluates habitat concepts to assess integration issues, power requirements, crew operations, technology, and system performance. The concept of a Food Production System utilizes fresh foods, such as vegetables and small fruits, harvested on a continuous basis, to improve the crew's diet and quality of life. The system would need to fit conveniently into the habitat and not interfere with other components or operations. To test this concept, a plant growing "atrium" was designed to surround the lift between the lower and upper modules of the Deep Space Habitat and deployed at NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) test site in 2011 and at NASA Johnson Space Center in 2012. With this approach, no-utilized volume provided an area for vegetable growth. For the 2011 test, mizuna, lettuce, basil, radish and sweetpotato plants were grown in trays using commercially available red I blue LED light fixtures. Seedlings were transplanted into the atrium and cared for by the. crew. Plants were then harvested two weeks later following completion of the test. In 2012, mizuna, lettuce, and radish plants were grown similarly but under flat panel banks of white LEDs. In 2012, the crew went through plant harvesting, including sanitizing tlie leafy greens and radishes, which were then consumed. Each test demonstrated successful production of vegetables within a functional hab module. The round red I blue LEDs for the 2011 test lighting cast a purple light in the hab, and were less uniformly distributed over the plant trays. The white LED panels provided broad spectrum light with more uniform distribution. Post-test questionnaires showed that the crew enjoyed tending and consuming the plants and that the white LED light in 2012 provided welcome extra light for the main HAB AREA.

  11. What do we know about plant food allergens?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenkins, J. A.; Sancho, A. I.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2005-01-01

    databases has allowed their classification into families. This has shown that plant food allergens fall into four main families, with the prolamin superfamily (including the 2S albumins, nonspecific lipid transfer proteins and cc-amylase inhibitors) predominating, followed by the family of allergens related...... to the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, and the cupin superfamily, including the I IS and 7S seed storage globulins. Future studies will be required to allow us to begin understand what it is about these protein families - whether it be their abundance, stability or some as yet unidentified factor...... - that is predisposing certain family members to becoming allergens....

  12. Alternative Food Preservation Techniques, New Technology in Food Preparation and Appropriateness of Food Supply for the Permanently Manned Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Alternative food preservation techniques are defined as unique processes and combinations of currently used processes for food preservation. Food preservation is the extension of the useful shelf-life of normally perishable foods (from harvest to final consumption) by controlling micro-organisms, enzymes, chemical changes, changes in sensory characteristics and the prevention of subsequent recontamination. The resulting products must comply with all applicable food manufacturing practice regulations and be safe. Most of the foods currently used in both space and military feeding are stabilized either by dehydration or the use of a terminal sterilization process. Other available options would be formulation to reduce water activity, the refrigeration and freezing of perishable foods, chemical addition, and physical treatment (ionizing or nonionizing radiation or mechanical action). These alternatives are considered and proposals made.

  13. Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs of individual plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bezemer, T M; Fountain, M T; Barea, J M

    2010-01-01

    food webs were influenced both by the species identity of the plant individual and the surrounding plant community. Unexpectedly, plant identity had the strongest effects on decomposing soil organisms, widely believed to be generalist feeders. In contrast, quantitative food web modeling showed...... that the composition of the plant community influenced nitrogen mineralization under individual plants, but that plant species identity did not affect nitrogen or carbon mineralization or food web stability. Hence, the composition and structure of entire soil food webs vary at the scale of individual plants...... and are strongly influenced by the species identity of the plant. However, the ecosystem functions these food webs provide are determined by the identity of the entire plant community....

  14. Thermodynamic analysis applied to a food-processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, J C; Chandratilleke, T T

    1987-01-01

    Two production lines of a multi-product, food-processing plant are selected for energy auditing and analysis. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the first-law and second-law efficiencies are 81.5% and 26.1% for the instant-noodles line and 23.6% and 7.9% for the malt-beverage line. These efficiency values are dictated primarily by the major energy-consuming sub-processes of each production line. Improvements in both first-law and second-law efficiencies are possible for the plants if the use of steam for heating is replaced by gaseous or liquid fuels, the steam ejectors for creating vacuum are replaced by a mechanical pump, and employing the cooler surroundings to assist in the cooling process.

  15. Food shopping, sensory determinants of food choice and meal preparation by visually impaired people. Obstacles and expectations in daily food experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyra, Eliza; Żakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Śniegocka, Katarzyna; Piotrowska, Anna

    2017-06-01

    The number of visually impaired and blind people is rising worldwide due to ageing of the global population, but research regarding the impact of visual impairment on the ability of a person to choose food and to prepare meals is scarce. The aim of this study was threefold: to investigate factors determining the choices of food products in people with various levels of impaired vision; to identify obstacles they face while purchasing food, preparing meals and eating out; and to determine what would help them in the areas of food shopping and meal preparation. The data was collected from 250 blind and visually impaired subjects, recruited with the support of the National Association of the Blind. The study revealed that majority of the visually impaired make food purchases at a supermarket or local grocery and they tend to favour shopping for food via the Internet. Direct sale channels like farmers markets were rarely used by the visually impaired. The most frequently mentioned factors that facilitated their food shopping decisions were the assistance of salespersons, product labelling in Braille, scanners that enable the reading of labels and a permanent place for products on the shop shelves. Meal preparation, particularly peeling, slicing and frying, posed many challenges to the visually impaired. More than half of the respondents ate meals outside the home, mainly with family or friends. The helpfulness of the staff and a menu in Braille were crucial for them to have a positive dining out experience. The results of the study provide valuable insights into the food choices and eating experiences of visually impaired people, and also suggest some practical implications to improve their independence and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors influencing food preparation behaviours: findings from focus groups with Mexican-American mothers in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Dunton, Genevieve F; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore food preparation behaviours, attitudes, meal planning and shopping among Mexican-American mothers. Data were collected through four focus groups with mothers of Mexican origin/ancestry who considered themselves to be the primary food preparer. Topics included food preparation behaviours and influencers (culture, family, attitudes, barriers, meal planning and shopping). Data were analysed using a qualitative grounded theory approach. All focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded for themes. Data were collected in southern California, USA in 2013. Of the sample of twenty-one Mexican-American mothers, thirteen were born outside the USA and the mean household size was five members. Participants reported that food was often prepared using traditional staples and food preparation behaviours were learned from maternal family members. Participants also suggested that health was influenced by foods eaten and how they were prepared. Salient factors influencing food preparation behaviours included culture and tradition, maternal family members' food preparation behaviours, food preparation self-efficacy and attitudes towards healthy eating. Time and busy schedules were cited as barriers. Future interventions should consider utilizing family-based approaches and teaching culturally relevant food preparation skills, especially to youth, while reinforcing more healthful dietary practices.

  17. Utility of eButton images for identifying food preparation behaviors and meal-related tasks in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food preparation skills may encourage healthy eating. Traditional assessment of child food preparation employs self- or parent proxy-reporting methods, which are prone to error. The eButton is a wearable all-day camera that has promise as an objective, passive method for measuring child food prepara...

  18. Strategies to increase Vitamin C in plants: from plant defence perspective to food biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria eLocato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C participates in several physiological processes, among others, immune stimulation, synthesis of collagen, hormones, neurotransmitters and iron absorption. Severe deficiency leads to scurvy, whereas a limited vitamin C intake causes general symptoms, such as increased susceptibility to infections, fatigue, insomnia and weight loss. Surprisingly vitamin C deficiencies are spread in both developing and developed countries, with the latter actually trying to overcome this lack through dietary supplements and food fortification. Therefore new strategies aimed to increase vitamin C in food plants would be of interest to improve human health. Interestingly, plants are not only living bioreactors for vitamin C production in optimal growing conditions, but also they can increase their vitamin C content as consequence of stress conditions. An overview of the different approaches aimed at increasing vitamin C level in plant food is given. They include genotype selection by classical breeding, bio-engineering and changes of the agronomic conditions, on the basis of the emerging concepts that plant can enhance vitamin C synthesis as part of defence responses.

  19. Strategies to increase vitamin C in plants: from plant defense perspective to food biofortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locato, Vittoria; Cimini, Sara; Gara, Laura De

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C participates in several physiological processes, among others, immune stimulation, synthesis of collagen, hormones, neurotransmitters, and iron absorption. Severe deficiency leads to scurvy, whereas a limited vitamin C intake causes general symptoms, such as increased susceptibility to infections, fatigue, insomnia, and weight loss. Surprisingly vitamin C deficiencies are spread in both developing and developed countries, with the latter actually trying to overcome this lack through dietary supplements and food fortification. Therefore new strategies aimed to increase vitamin C in food plants would be of interest to improve human health. Interestingly, plants are not only living bioreactors for vitamin C production in optimal growing conditions, but also they can increase their vitamin C content as consequence of stress conditions. An overview of the different approaches aimed at increasing vitamin C level in plant food is given. They include genotype selection by "classical" breeding, bio-engineering and changes of the agronomic conditions, on the basis of the emerging concepts that plant can enhance vitamin C synthesis as part of defense responses.

  20. First investigation on ultrasound-assisted preparation of food products: sensory and physicochemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingret, Daniella; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Canselier, Jean-Paul; Chemat, Farid

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison between manufactured food products using conventional and ultrasound-assisted procedures. Three different foam-type products, chocolate Genoise, basic sponge cake, and chocolate mousse were prepared using both methods with subsequent evaluation of the samples using both sensory and physicochemical methods. Ultrasound-assisted preparations were considered superior according to the sensory analysis, and physicochemical data confirmed this finding. This approach of applying an emerging piece of equipment, with potential industrial application to assist food preparation, consists of a new technique that could be of great interest for the development of not only other food products created by molecular gastronomy but also for practical work carried out by students.

  1. Energy efficient cooking systems, food-preparation facilities, and human diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newborough, M.

    1987-07-01

    The opportunities for saving energy, which are available to those working within the final link of the UK food system, i.e. at, or in relation to, the points of consumption are identified. Substantial prospective savings exist, because relatively little attention has, as yet, been given to energy-thrift in food-preparation facilities. Within the food-service industry, cooking systems are characterised by high thermal capacities, excessive external surface temperatures and poorly-designed control systems. Catering staff, who use such appliances, are rarely trained to use energy wisely when preparing foods, and kitchens tend to be designed without sufficient regard to energy-thrift. Similar problems prevail in domestic kitchens. However, manufacturers still provide household appliances, which are unnecessarily energy-profligate. (author).

  2. Consumption and expenditure on food prepared away from home among Mexican adults in 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Brent A Langellier

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe food expenditure and consumption of foods prepared away from home among Mexican adults. Materials and methods. Data were from 45 241 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006, a nationally-representative, cross-sectional survey of Mexican households. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between location of residence, educational attainment, socioeconomic status and the foll...

  3. Molecularly imprinted polymers for sample preparation and biosensing in food analysis: Progress and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Jon; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Kant, Krishna; Chidambara, Vinayaka Aaydha; Wolff, Anders; Bang, Dang Duong; Sun, Yi

    2017-05-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are biomimetics which can selectively bind to analytes of interest. One of the most interesting areas where MIPs have shown the biggest potential is food analysis. MIPs have found use as sorbents in sample preparation attributed to the high selectivity and high loading capacity. MIPs have been intensively employed in classical solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction. More recently, MIPs have been combined with magnetic bead extraction, which greatly simplifies sample handling procedures. Studies have consistently shown that MIPs can effectively minimize complex food matrix effects, and improve recoveries and detection limits. In addition to sample preparation, MIPs have also been viewed as promising alternatives to bio-receptors due to the inherent molecular recognition abilities and the high stability in harsh chemical and physical conditions. MIPs have been utilized as receptors in biosensing platforms such as electrochemical, optical and mass biosensors to detect various analytes in food. In this review, we will discuss the current state-of-the-art of MIP synthesis and applications in the context of food analysis. We will highlight the imprinting methods which are applicable for imprinting food templates, summarize the recent progress in using MIPs for preparing and analysing food samples, and discuss the current limitations in the commercialisation of MIPs technology. Finally, future perspectives will be given. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Recent trends in sorption-based sample preparation and liquid chromatography techniques for food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V Soares Maciel, Edvaldo; de Toffoli, Ana Lúcia; Lanças, Fernando Mauro

    2018-04-20

    The accelerated rising of the world's population increased the consumption of food, thus demanding more rigors in the control of residue and contaminants in food-based products marketed for human consumption. In view of the complexity of most food matrices, including fruits, vegetables, different types of meat, beverages, among others, a sample preparation step is important to provide more reliable results when combined with HPLC separations. An adequate sample preparation step before the chromatographic analysis is mandatory in obtaining higher precision and accuracy in order to improve the extraction of the target analytes, one of the priorities in analytical chemistry. The recent discovery of new materials such as ionic liquids, graphene-derived materials, molecularly imprinted polymers, restricted access media, magnetic nanoparticles, and carbonaceous nanomaterials, provided high sensitivity and selectivity results in an extensive variety of applications. These materials, as well as their several possible combinations, have been demonstrated to be highly appropriate for the extraction of different analytes in complex samples such as food products. The main characteristics and application of these new materials in food analysis will be presented and discussed in this paper. Another topic discussed in this review covers the main advantages and limitations of sample preparation microtechniques, as well as their off-line and on-line combination with HPLC for food analysis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Ethnobotanical survey of wild food plants traditionally collected and consumed in the Middle Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansanelli, Sabrina; Ferri, Maura; Salinitro, Mirko; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2017-09-06

    This research was carried out in a scarcely populated area of the Middle Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy). The aim of the study was to record local knowledge on the traditional uses of wild food plants, as well as to collect information regarding the practices (gathering, processing and cooking) and the medicinal uses related to these plants. Fifty-eight people still possessing traditional local knowledge (TLK), 74% women and 26% men, were interviewed between May-August 2012 and January 2013, using open and semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews. For each described plant species, the botanical family, the Italian common and folk names, the plant parts used, the culinary preparation and, when present, the medicinal use, were recorded and the relative frequency of citation index (RFC) was determined. The 52 plant species mentioned by the respondents belong to 23 botanical families, with Asteraceae (12 plants) and Rosaceae (7 plants) being most frequently cited. The species with the highest RFC index is Cichorium intybus L. (0.95), followed by Sonchus spp. (S. oleraceus L., S. asper L. and S. arvensis L.) (0.76). The plant parts preferably used are leaves (22 plants), fruits (12) and stems (7). Only six wild plants were indicated as having both food use and therapeutic effect. The survey conducted on the traditional use of wild food plants in the Middle Agri Valley revealed that this cultural heritage is only partially retained by the population. Over the last few decades, this knowledge has been in fact quickly disappearing along with the people and, even in the rural context of the study area, is less and less handed down to younger generations. Nevertheless, data also revealed that the use of wild plants is recently being revaluated in a way closely related to local habits and traditions.

  6. Wild food plants used by people living with HIV/AIDS in Nakisunga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ' health, nutrition and food security. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other opportunistic infections calls for research into natural products to find solutions to this pandemic. This involves exploration of the readily available wild food plant ...

  7. Characteristics of prepared food sources in low-income neighborhoods of Baltimore City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hee; Rowan, Megan T; Powell, Lisa M; Newman, Sara; Klassen, Ann Carroll; Frick, Kevin D; Anderson, Jennifer; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The food environment is associated with obesity risk and diet-related chronic diseases. Despite extensive research conducted on retail food stores, little is known about prepared food sources(PFSs). We conducted an observational assessment of all PFSs(N = 92) in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore. The most common PFSs were carry-outs, which had the lowest availability of healthy food choices. Only a small proportion of these carry-outs offered healthy sides, whole wheat bread, or entrée salads (21.4%, 7.1%, and 33.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that carry-out-specific interventions are necessary to increase healthy food availability in low-income urban neighborhoods.

  8. Sample Preparation for Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Plant Tissues: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yonghui; Li, Bin; Malitsky, Sergey; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Kaftan, Filip; Svatoš, Aleš; Franceschi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a mass spectrometry based molecular ion imaging technique. It provides the means for ascertaining the spatial distribution of a large variety of analytes directly on tissue sample surfaces without any labeling or staining agents. These advantages make it an attractive molecular histology tool in medical, pharmaceutical, and biological research. Likewise, MSI has started gaining popularity in plant sciences; yet, information regarding sample preparation methods for plant tissues is still limited. Sample preparation is a crucial step that is directly associated with the quality and authenticity of the imaging results, it therefore demands in-depth studies based on the characteristics of plant samples. In this review, a sample preparation pipeline is discussed in detail and illustrated through selected practical examples. In particular, special concerns regarding sample preparation for plant imaging are critically evaluated. Finally, the applications of MSI techniques in plants are reviewed according to different classes of plant metabolites.

  9. Sample Preparation for Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Plant Tissues: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yonghui; Li, Bin; Malitsky, Sergey; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Kaftan, Filip; Svatoš, Aleš; Franceschi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a mass spectrometry based molecular ion imaging technique. It provides the means for ascertaining the spatial distribution of a large variety of analytes directly on tissue sample surfaces without any labeling or staining agents. These advantages make it an attractive molecular histology tool in medical, pharmaceutical, and biological research. Likewise, MSI has started gaining popularity in plant sciences; yet, information regarding sample preparation methods for plant tissues is still limited. Sample preparation is a crucial step that is directly associated with the quality and authenticity of the imaging results, it therefore demands in-depth studies based on the characteristics of plant samples. In this review, a sample preparation pipeline is discussed in detail and illustrated through selected practical examples. In particular, special concerns regarding sample preparation for plant imaging are critically evaluated. Finally, the applications of MSI techniques in plants are reviewed according to different classes of plant metabolites. PMID:26904042

  10. Natural Antioxidants in Foods and Medicinal Plants: Extraction, Assessment and Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Ya; Meng, Xiao; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Natural antioxidants are widely distributed in food and medicinal plants. These natural antioxidants, especially polyphenols and carotenoids, exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerosis and anticancer. The effective extraction and proper assessment of antioxidants from food and medicinal plants are crucial to explore the potential antioxidant sources and promote the application in functional foods, pharmaceuticals and food additive...

  11. Food Preparation and Service. An Introductory Course for Food Services Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, Elaine L.

    Intended for use in a comprehensive senior high school, this curriculum guide for an introductory laboratory course focuses on the development of abilities, attitudes, and personal qualities which would lead to job success at the entry level in the food service industry, including in the areas of cooking, waitressing, supermarkets, and similar…

  12. Natural Antioxidants in Foods and Medicinal Plants: Extraction, Assessment and Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Ya; Meng, Xiao; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-05

    Natural antioxidants are widely distributed in food and medicinal plants. These natural antioxidants, especially polyphenols and carotenoids, exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerosis and anticancer. The effective extraction and proper assessment of antioxidants from food and medicinal plants are crucial to explore the potential antioxidant sources and promote the application in functional foods, pharmaceuticals and food additives. The present paper provides comprehensive information on the green extraction technologies of natural antioxidants, assessment of antioxidant activity at chemical and cellular based levels and their main resources from food and medicinal plants.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF METHODS OF DNA EXTRACTION FROM PLANT ORIGIN OBJECTS AND FOODS BASED ON THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Dyshlyuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the last decades modern and highly efficient methods of determining the quality and safety of food products, based on the application of the latest scientific achievements were developed in the world. A special place is given to the methods based on achievements of molecular biology and genetics. At the present stage of development in the field of assessing the quality of raw materials and processed food products much attention is given to highly accurate, sensitive and specific research methods, the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR occupying a leading place among them. PCR is a sophisticated method that simulates the natural DNA replication and allows to detect a single specific DNA molecule in the presence of millions of other molecules. The key point in the preparation of material for PCR is the extraction of nucleic acids. The low content of DNA in plant material and the high concentration of secondary metabolites complicate the process of extraction. The key solution to this problem is highly effective method of extraction, which allows to obtain the DNA of adequate quality and purity. Comparative analysis of methods for the extraction of nucleic acids from fruit raw materials and products based on them was carried out in the study. General analysis of the experimental data allowed us to determine the most efficient method for DNA extracting. In the comparative analysis it was found out that to extract DNA from plant raw materials and food products prepared on their basis it is the most suitable to use "Sorb-GMO-A" reactants kit (set. The approach described gives us a brilliant opportunity to obtain deoxyribonucleic acid proper quality and purity.

  14. Food Preparation: An Instructional Package with Adaptations for Visually Impaired Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Glinda B.; And Others

    This instructional package, developed for the home economics teacher of mainstreamed visually impaired students, provides food preparation lesson plans appropriate for the junior high level. First, teacher guidelines are given, including characteristics of the visually impaired, orienting such students to the classroom, orienting class members to…

  15. Career Preparation Program Curriculum Guide for: Hospitality/Tourism Industry (Food Services).

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria. Curriculum Development Branch.

    This curriculum outline provides secondary and postsecondary instructors with detailed information on student learning outcomes for completion of the food services program requirements in the hospitality/tourism industry. A program overview discusses the aims of education; secondary school philosophy; and career preparation programs and their…

  16. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Cifelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387 were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i plant-based foods; (ii protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy; and (iii milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i and (ii had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2–18 years and adults (≥19 years, the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that

  17. Guidance for the safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations for use in food and food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilter, B; Andersson, C; Anton, R; Constable, A; Kleiner, J; O'Brien, J; Renwick, A G; Korver, O; Smit, F; Walker, R

    2003-12-01

    There is a growing interest by both consumers and industry for the development of food products with 'functional' properties, or health benefits. These products may take the form of dietary supplements or of foods. The health benefits are given by particular ingredients, and in many cases these are derived from botanicals. The variety of plants providing these functions is large, ranging from staple food sources such as cereals, fruits and vegetables, to herbals as used in traditional medicine. The food or ingredient conferring health properties may consist of the plants themselves, extracts thereof, or more purified components. The scientific literature is abundant with articles not only on the beneficial properties, but also on possible adverse health effects of plants and their components. The present report discusses the data required to determine the safe use of these types of ingredients, and provides advice on the development of risk assessment strategies consistent with due diligence under existing food regulations. Product specifications, composition and characterisation of standardised and authentic materials, documented history of use and comparison to existing products (taking into account the effect of industrial processing), description of the intended use and consequent exposure are highlighted as key background information on which to base a risk evaluation. The extent of experimental investigation required, such as in vitro, animal, and/or human studies, depends on the adequacy of this information. A decision tree is presented as an aid to determine the extent of data requirements based on product comparison. The ultimate safety in use depends on the establishment of an adequate safety margin between expected exposure and identified potential hazards. Health hazards may arise from inherent toxicities or contaminants of the plant materials, including the mechanism of the intended beneficial effect. A lower safety margin may therefore be expected

  18. Food Safety in the Domestic Environment: An Interdisciplinary Investigation of Microbial Hazards During Food Preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Jong, de A.E.I.; Asselt, van E.D.; Jonge, de R.; Frewer, L.J.; Nauta, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    It has been established that, to a considerable extent, the domestic hygiene practices adopted by consumers can result in a greater or lesser microbial load in prepared meals. In the research presented here, an interdisciplinary study is reported in which interviews, observations of consumers

  19. Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs of individual plants: plant species and community effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, T.M.; Fountain, T.; Barea, J.M.; Christensen, S.; Dekker, S.C.; Duyts, H.; Hal, van R.; Harvey, J.A.; Hedlund, K.; Maraun, M.; Mikola, J.; Mladenov, A.G.; Robin, C.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Scheu, H.; Setälä, S.; šmilauer, P.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Soils are extremely rich in biodiversity, and soil organisms play pivotal roles in supporting terrestrial life, but the role that individual plants and plant communities play in influencing the diversity and functioning of soil food webs remains highly debated. Plants, as primary producers and

  20. Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs beneath individual plants: plant species and community effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, T.M.; Fountain, M.T.; Barea, J.M.; Christensen, S.; Dekker, S.C.; Duyts, H.; van Hal, R.; Harvey, J.A.; Hedlund, K.; Maraun, M.; Mikola, J.; Mladenov, A.G.; Robin, C.; de Ruiter, P.C.; Scheu, S.; Setälä, H.; Milauer, P.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Soils are extremely rich in biodiversity, and soil organisms play pivotal roles in supporting terrestrial life, but the role that individual plants and plant communities play in influencing the diversity and functioning of soil food webs remains highly debated. Plants, as primary producers and

  1. Consumption of plant food supplements in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurissen, Suzanne M F; Buurma-Rethans, Elly J M; Beukers, Marja H; Jansen-van der Vliet, Martine; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Sprong, R Corinne

    2018-01-24

    The use of food supplements containing herbs or other botanical ingredients (plant food supplements, PFS) is on the rise. In some cases, PFS can contain compounds that are toxic and may pose a health risk. To assess the potential health risks, information on the consumption of PFS is required, however, this was lacking for the Netherlands. In the current study, the consumption of PFS was investigated for several subgroups in the Dutch population, including children. Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Surveys were used to get a first impression on the consumption of PFS. To obtain more detailed information, a specific PFS consumption survey was performed using online questionnaires. First, a screening survey was performed among a representative sample of 75 100 adults and children of the Dutch population, followed by a main survey among 739 selected PFS users in eight different age and gender subgroups. The prevalence of PFS users in the Dutch population was approximately 10% for men, 17% for women and 13% for children. A wide variety of PFS was used, with around 600 different PFS reported, containing 345 different botanicals. The most frequently used botanicals were echinacea (Echinacea purpurea), ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), ginseng (Panax ginseng) and algae (such as species belonging to the genus Spirulina or Chlorella). Because PFS are widely used in the Dutch population, it is important to evaluate the potential risks associated with PFS consumption in the Netherlands, including potential herb-drug interactions. The data collected in this study are of great value to assess these risks.

  2. Data-driven Methods for the Study of Food Perception, Preparation, Consumption, and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole G. Mouritsen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of food consumption, in the broadest sense, intersects with a wide range of academic disciplines. The perception of food involves molecular biology, chemistry, soft-matter physics, neuroscience, psychology, physiology, and even machine learning. Our choices and preparation of food are of interest to anthropologists, social scientists, historians, philosophers, and linguists. The advent of information technology has enabled the accumulation and analysis of large amounts of food-related data, from the interactions of biomolecules and the chemical properties of aroma compounds to online recipes and food-related social media postings. In this perspective article, we outline several areas in which the availability and analysis of data can inform us about general principles that may underlie the perception of food and the diversity of culinary practice. One of these areas is the study of umami taste through a combination of chemical analysis and quantitative sensory evaluation for a wide range of fermented products. Another is the mapping of global culinary diversity by mining online recipes and the analysis of culinary habits recorded by individuals on social media. A third area is the study of the properties of flavor compounds and the application of these insights in the context of high-end gastronomy. These examples illustrate that large-scale data analysis is already transforming our understanding of food perception and consumption, and that it is likely to fundamentally influence our food choices and habits in the future.

  3. A new dietary model to study colorectal carcinogenesis: experimental design, food preparation, and experimental findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, P; Liberman, V; Lubin, F; Angel, S; Owen, R; Trostler, N; Shkolnik, T; Kritchevsky, D

    1996-01-01

    Experimental dietary studies of human colorectal carcinogenesis are usually based on the AIN-76A diet, which is dissimilar to human food in source, preparation, and content. The aims of this study were to examine the feasibility of preparing and feeding rats the diet of a specific human population at risk for colorectal neoplasia and to determine whether changes in the colonic morphology and metabolic contents would differ from those resulting from a standard rat diet. The mean daily food intake composition of a previously evaluated adenoma patient case-control study was used for the "human adenoma" (HA) experimental diet. Foods were prepared as for usual human consumption and processed by dehydration to the physical characteristics of an animal diet. Sixty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized and fed ad libitum the HA or the AIN-76A diet. Every eight weeks, eight rats from each group were sacrificed, and the colons and contents were examined. Analysis of the prepared food showed no significant deleterious changes; food intake and weight gain were similar in both groups. Compared with the controls, the colonic contents of rats fed the HA diet contained significantly less calcium, concentrations of neutral sterols, total lipids, and cholic and deoxycholic acids were increased, and there were no colonic histological changes other than significant epithelial hyperproliferation. This initial study demonstrated that the HA diet can be successfully processed for feeding to experimental animals and is acceptable and adequate for growth but induces significant metabolic and hyperproliferative changes in the rat colon. This dietary model may be useful for studies of human food, narrowing the gap between animal experimentation and human nutritional research.

  4. Survival and growth of restored Piedmont riparian forests as affected by site preparation, planting stock, and planting aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelsea M. Curtis; W. Michael Aust; John R. Seiler; Brian D. Strahm

    2015-01-01

    Forest mitigation sites may have poor survival and growth of planted trees due to poor drainage, compacted soils, and lack of microtopography. The effects of five replications of five forestry mechanical site preparation techniques (Flat, Rip, Bed, Pit, and Mound), four regeneration sources (Direct seed, Bare root, Tubelings, and Gallon), and three planting aids (None...

  5. Engineering Specification Guidelines for Wetland Plant Establishment and Subgrade Preparation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunne, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    ... seeding methods, tiring of planting in conjunction with seasonal variations, hydrological considerations such as tidal cycle, water level and rainfall patterns, equipment access and type, protection...

  6. Information on plant foods in eBASIS: what is in a correct botanical scientific name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted; Sørensen, Marten

    2010-01-01

    Information Resource (EuroFIR)-NETTOX Plant List (2007) presents scientific and vernacular names in 15 European languages for around 325 major European plant/mushroom foods and also for different parts of these foods. This list and its predecessor, the NETTOX List of Food Plants, have been used by national...... food authorities and within the European Union for consideration of plants and mushrooms that have been used to a significant degree up to 1997 and are therefore not covered by the novel food regulation (European Parliament and Council of the European Union, 1997). The species and the plant part...... studied are insufficiently characterised in many scientific papers. This paper informs about the naming of plants and mushrooms as an aid for scientists who are not botanists or mycologists themselves. Knowledge on scientific names used, including synonyms, may also be important for finding all relevant...

  7. Improved sample preparation for CE-LIF analysis of plant N-glycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, Bieke; Santens, Francis; Weterings, Koen; Van Damme, Els J M; Callewaert, Nico

    2011-12-01

    In view of glycomics studies in plants, it is important to have sensitive tools that allow one to analyze and characterize the N-glycans present on plant proteins in different species. Earlier methods combined plant-based sample preparations with CE-LIF N-glycan analysis but suffered from background contaminations, often resulting in non-reproducible results. This publication describes a reproducible and sensitive protocol for the preparation and analysis of plant N-glycans, based on a combination of the 'in-gel release method' and N-glycan analysis on a multicapillary DNA sequencer. Our protocol makes it possible to analyze plant N-glycans starting from low amounts of plant material with highly reproducible results. The developed protocol was validated for different plant species and plant cells. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. 19 CFR 147.23 - Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 147.23 Section 147.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... Laws § 147.23 Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (a) Plant... the plant quarantine regulations. (b) Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The entry of food products...

  9. The associations among family meal frequency, food preparation frequency, self-efficacy for cooking, and food preparation techniques in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Kirby, Ashley R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe family dinner frequency (FDF) by food preparation frequency (prep), self-efficacy for cooking (SE), and food preparation techniques (techniques) among a small sample in southwestern Ontario, Canada. A cross-sectional survey was administered under the supervision of the research team. After-school programs, sports programs, and 1 elementary school. The sample included 145 participants (41% boys, 59% girls) in grades 4-8. Demographics, prep, SE, techniques, FDF, and family meal attitudes and behaviors. Exploratory 1-way ANOVA and chi-square analyses were used. An ordinal regression analysis was used to determine the associations between FDF with descriptor variables (sex, grade, and ethnicity) and prep, SE, techniques, FDF, and family meal attitudes and behaviors (P < .05). Approximately 59% reported family dinners on 6 or 7 days per week. Half of participants were involved with prep 1-6 times per week. Mean SE was 25.3 (scale 1-32), and girls performed more techniques than boys (P = .02). Participants with greater SE (odds ratio = 1.15) and higher family meal attitudes and behaviors (odds ratio = 1.15) were more likely to have a higher FDF. Future health promotion strategies for family meals should aim at increasing children's and adolescents' SE. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparison of the wild food plant use knowledge of ethnic minorities in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve, Yunnan, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbani Abdolbaset

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wild food plants (WFPs contribute to the nutrition, economy and even cultural identity of people in many parts of the world. Different factors determine the preference and use of WFPs such as abundance, availability, cultural preference, economic conditions, shortage periods or unsecure food production systems. Understanding these factors and knowing the patterns of selection, use and cultural significance and value of wild food plants for local communities is helpful in setting priorities for conservation and/or domestication of these plants. Thus in this study knowledge of wild food plant use among four groups namely Dai, Lahu, Hani and Mountain Han in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve ((NRWNNR, Xishuangbanna were documented and analyzed to find the similarity and difference among their plant use. Methods Data on wild food plant use was collected through freelisting and semi-structured interviews and participatory field collection and direct observation. Botanical plant sample specimens were collected, prepared, dried and identified. Results A total of 173 species and subspecies from 64 families and one species of lichen (Ramalina sp. are used as WFP. There were differences on the saliency of wild food plant species among four ethnic groups. Consensus analysis revealed that knowledge of wild food plant use for each ethnic group differs from others with some variation in each group. Among informant attributes only age was related with the knowledge of wild food plant use, whereas no significant relationship was found between gender and age*gender and informants knowledge of wild food plant use. Conclusion Wild food plants are still used extensively by local people in the NRWNNR, some of them on a daily base. This diversity of wild food plants provide important source of nutrients for the local communities which much of their caloric intake comes from one or few crops. The results also show the role of ethnicity

  11. A comparison of the wild food plant use knowledge of ethnic minorities in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve, Yunnan, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Abdolbaset; Langenberger, Gerhard; Sauerborn, Joachim

    2012-05-05

    Wild food plants (WFPs) contribute to the nutrition, economy and even cultural identity of people in many parts of the world. Different factors determine the preference and use of WFPs such as abundance, availability, cultural preference, economic conditions, shortage periods or unsecure food production systems. Understanding these factors and knowing the patterns of selection, use and cultural significance and value of wild food plants for local communities is helpful in setting priorities for conservation and/or domestication of these plants. Thus in this study knowledge of wild food plant use among four groups namely Dai, Lahu, Hani and Mountain Han in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve ((NRWNNR), Xishuangbanna were documented and analyzed to find the similarity and difference among their plant use. Data on wild food plant use was collected through freelisting and semi-structured interviews and participatory field collection and direct observation. Botanical plant sample specimens were collected, prepared, dried and identified. A total of 173 species and subspecies from 64 families and one species of lichen (Ramalina sp.) are used as WFP. There were differences on the saliency of wild food plant species among four ethnic groups. Consensus analysis revealed that knowledge of wild food plant use for each ethnic group differs from others with some variation in each group. Among informant attributes only age was related with the knowledge of wild food plant use, whereas no significant relationship was found between gender and age*gender and informants knowledge of wild food plant use. Wild food plants are still used extensively by local people in the NRWNNR, some of them on a daily base. This diversity of wild food plants provide important source of nutrients for the local communities which much of their caloric intake comes from one or few crops. The results also show the role of ethnicity on the preference and use of wild food plants. There is a big

  12. IgE mediated food allergy in Korean children: focused on plant food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Young

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy (FA) is a worldwide problem, with increasing prevalence in many countries, and it poses a clearly increasing health problem in Korea. In Korea, as a part of International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC), a series of nation-wide population studies for prevalence of allergic disease in children were carried out, with the Korean version of ISAAC in 1995, 2000, and 2010. From the survey, the twelve-month prevalence of FA showed no significant differences from 1995 to 2000 in both age groups (6-12 years-old, 6.5% in 1995 and 5.7% in 2000; 12-15 year-olds, 7.4% in 1995 and 8.6% in 2000). The mean lifetime prevalence of FA which had ever been diagnosed by medical doctor was 4.7% in 6-12 year-olds and 5.1% in 12-15 year-olds respectively in 2000. In Korean children, the major causes of FA are almost same as in other countries, although the order prevalence may vary, a prime example of which being that peanut and tree nut allergies are not prevalent, as in western countries. Both pediatric emergency department (ED) visits and deaths relating to food induced anaphylaxis have also increased in western countries. From a study which based on data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (KHIRA) from 2001 to 2007, the incidence of anaphylaxis under the age of 19 was 0.7-1 per 100,000 person-year, and foods (24.9%) were the most commonly identified cause of childhood anaphylaxis. In another epidemiologic study, involving 78889 patients aged 0-18 years who visited the EDs of 9 hospitals during June 2008 to Mar 2009, the incidence of food related anaphylaxis was 4.56 per 10,000 pediatric ED visits. From these studies, common causes of food related anaphylaxis were seafood, buckwheat, cow's milk, fruits, peanut and tree nuts. Although systematic epidemiologic studies have not reported on the matter, recently, plant foods related allergy has increased in Korean children. Among 804 children with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis

  13. Work measurement for estimating food preparation time of a bioregenerative diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabi, Ammar; Hunter, Jean; Jackson, Peter; Segal, Michele; Spies, Rupert; Wang, Carolyn; Lau, Christina; Ong, Christopher; Alexander, Conor; Raskob, Evan; hide

    2003-01-01

    During space missions, such as the prospective Mars mission, crew labor time is a strictly limited resource. The diet for such a mission (based on crops grown in a bioregenerative life support system) will require astronauts to prepare their meals essentially from raw ingredients. Time spent on food processing and preparation is time lost for other purposes. Recipe design and diet planning for a space mission should therefore incorporate the time required to prepare the recipes as a critical factor. In this study, videotape analysis of an experienced chef was used to develop a database of recipe preparation time. The measurements were highly consistent among different measurement teams. Data analysis revealed a wide variation between the active times of different recipes, underscoring the need for optimization of diet planning. Potential uses of the database developed in this study are discussed and illustrated in this work.

  14. Energy-efficient cooking systems, food-preparation facilities, and human diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newborough, M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis aims at identifying the opportunities for saving energy, which are available to those working within the final link of the UK food system (i.e., at, or in relation to, the points of consumption). Substantial prospective savings exist, because relatively little attention has, as yet, been given to energy-thrift in food-preparation facilities. Within the food-service industry, cooking systems are characterized by high thermal capacities, excessive external surface temperatures and poorly-designed control systems. Catering staff, who use such appliances, are rarely trained to use energy wisely when preparing foods, and kitchens (and their associated dining facilities) tend to be designed without sufficient regard to energy-thrift. Similar problems prevail in domestic kitchens, but to a lesser extent because the cooks there usually pay (or contribute towards) the fuel bills. However, manufacturers still provide household appliances, which are unnecessarily energy-profligate. Furthermore most people have insufficient knowledge of the nutritional suitabilities and the primary-energy costs of their diets. Thus a major educational need exists, which must be satisfied if industrialized food systems are to become more energy efficient.

  15. Ethnobotanical investigation of 'wild' food plants used by rice farmers in Kalasin, Northeast Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz Garcia, G.S.; Price, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Wild food plants are a critical component in the subsistence system of rice farmers in Northeast Thailand. One of the important characteristics of wild plant foods among farming households is that the main collection locations are increasingly from anthropogenic ecosystems such as

  16. A survey of wild plant species for food use in Sicily (Italy) - results of a 3-year study in four Regional Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Mario; Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Leto, Claudio; Virga, Giuseppe; Bonsangue, Giuseppe; Cammalleri, Ignazio; Gennaro, Maria Cristina; La Bella, Salvatore

    2016-02-09

    This paper illustrates the results of a study carried out in four Regional Parks of Sicily (Italy), concerning traditional knowledge on food use of wild plant species. The main aims of the paper were: (i) to verify which wild plant species are used for food purpose in the local culture based on information provided by elderly inhabitants (ii) to verify the presence of wild plant species which have not been cited for food use in previous studies in the Mediterranean area (iii) to determine how many of the most frequently cited wild plant species are cultivated by the local population in the four Sicilian Parks. Semi-structured interviews were carried out in the local communities of the four Regional Parks between 2007 and 2010. A total of 802 people over the age of 60 were interviewed. Cultural Importance Index was used to evaluate the level of importance given to any wild plant species as a food in the local culture. The level of appreciation of the wild plant species and the possible effects of wild plants on human health were also investigated. Local communities currently use a total number of 119 wild species for food purposes. Asteraceae and Brassicaceae were the most represented botanical families. In each of the four Sicilian Parks, Cichorium intybus L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. obtained the highest Cultural Importance Index values. Sixty-four species were indicated as also having medicinal properties. Leaves and other aerial plant parts were the parts most-used for the preparation of traditional recipes. The research shows that the level of traditional knowledge on the food uses of wild plant species in the study area is poor. The food uses of plants which are most likely to survive over time are those at the interface of food and medicine. Further agronomic studies are needed for a number of species with a view to introducing them as a crop into non-intensive agricultural systems.

  17. Natural antioxidant activity of commonly consumed plant foods in India: effect of domestic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramulu, D; Reddy, C V K; Chauhan, Anitha; Balakrishna, N; Raghunath, M

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemicals protect against oxidative stress which in turn helps in maintaining the balance between oxidants and antioxidants. In recent times natural antioxidants are gaining considerable interest among nutritionists, food manufacturers, and consumers because of their perceived safety, potential therapeutic value, and long shelf life. Plant foods are known to protect against degenerative diseases and ageing due to their antioxidant activity (AOA) attributed to their high polyphenolic content (PC). Data on AOA and PC of Indian plant foods is scanty. Therefore we have determined the antioxidant activity in 107 commonly consumed Indian plant foods and assessed their relation to their PC. Antioxidant activity is presented as the range of values for each of the food groups. The foods studied had good amounts of PC and AOA although they belonged to different food groups. Interestingly, significant correlation was observed between AOA (DPPH and FRAP) and PC in most of the foods, corroborating the literature that polyphenols are potent antioxidants and that they may be important contributors to the AOA of the plant foods. We have also observed that common domestic methods of processing may not affect the PC and AOA of the foods studied in general. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first results of the kind in commonly consumed Indian plant foods.

  18. Guidelines for preparing specifications for nuclear power plants (NCIG-04): Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    This document provides guidance for preparing technical requirements used in procurement and installation specifications. It is a compilation of recommend practices for writing specifications to preserve the best guidance coming out of recent years experience from construction of nuclear plants. It is intended to: Establish good practices for the content of specifications used for nuclear power plants; Be applicable to a wide range of specifications used for initial construction of plants and modifications to existing plants, including equipment replacement; and Provide guidance to specification preparers and reviewers

  19. The preparation of soy-bean foods for use in rural communities of the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, T

    1998-08-01

    Since the beginning of 1970, there has been a great breakthrough in the popularization of soy-bean-based food in Nigeria and in many parts of the developing world, especially for use in the prevention of kwashiorkor. Since 1975, soy bean has become a main source of daily dietary protein in many parts of Nigeria as a result of the successful incorporation of soy-bean products into almost all traditional Nigerian foods. This is a review of previous work in Nigeria on eliminating the beany flavour, bitter taste, and flatus factors in soy-bean milk and cooked soy-bean paste preparations.

  20. Fate of ethanol during cooking of liquid foods prepared with alcoholic beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snitkjær, Pia; Ryapushkina, Julia; Skovenborg, Erik

    2017-01-01

    To obtain an understanding of the ethanol loss during cooking of liquid foods containing alcoholic beverages, ethanol concentration was measured as a function of time and remaining volume in meat stocks prepared with wine and beer. A mathematical model describing the decline in volatile compounds...... like pot dimensions and temperature. When using a lid to cover the pot during cooking, the model was still valid but the ethanol concentrations decreased more steeply, corresponding to a higher exponent. The results provide a theoretical and empirical guideline for predicting the ethanol concentration...... in cooked liquid foods...

  1. Food safety involving ingestion of foods and beverages prepared with phthalate-plasticizer-containing clouding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Lin, Ja-Liang

    2011-11-01

    In May 2011, the illegal use of the phthalate plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in clouding agents for use in foods and beverages was reported in Taiwan. This food scandal has caused shock and panic among the majority of Taiwanese people and has attracted international attention. Phthalate exposure is assessed by ambient monitoring or human biomonitoring. Ambient monitoring relies on measuring chemicals in environmental media, foodstuff and consumer products. Human biomonitoring determines body burden by measuring the chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in human specimens. In mammalian development, the fetus is set to develop into a female. Because the female phenotype is the default, impairment of testosterone production or action before the late phase may lead to feminizing characteristics. Phthalates disrupt the development of androgen-dependent structures by inhibiting fetal testicular testosterone biosynthesis. The spectrum of effects obtained following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities with the human testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Epidemiological studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and shorter gestational age, shorter anogenital distance, shorter penis, incomplete testicular descent, sex hormone alteration, precocious puberty, pubertal gynecomastia, premature thelarche, rhinitis, eczema, asthma, low birth weight, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, low intelligence quotient, thyroid hormone alteration, and hypospadias in infants and children. Furthermore, many studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and increased sperm DNA damage, decreased proportion of sperm with normal morphology, decreased sperm concentration, decreased sperm morphology, sex hormone alteration, decreased pulmonary function, endometriosis, uterine leiomyomas, breast cancer, obesity, hyperprolactinemia, and thyroid hormone alteration in adults. Finally, the number of

  2. Food safety involving ingestion of foods and beverages prepared with phthalate-plasticizer-containing clouding agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzung-Hai Yen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In May 2011, the illegal use of the phthalate plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate in clouding agents for use in foods and beverages was reported in Taiwan. This food scandal has caused shock and panic among the majority of Taiwanese people and has attracted international attention. Phthalate exposure is assessed by ambient monitoring or human biomonitoring. Ambient monitoring relies on measuring chemicals in environmental media, foodstuff and consumer products. Human biomonitoring determines body burden by measuring the chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in human specimens. In mammalian development, the fetus is set to develop into a female. Because the female phenotype is the default, impairment of testosterone production or action before the late phase may lead to feminizing characteristics. Phthalates disrupt the development of androgen-dependent structures by inhibiting fetal testicular testosterone biosynthesis. The spectrum of effects obtained following perinatal exposure of male rats to phthalates has remarkable similarities with the human testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Epidemiological studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and shorter gestational age, shorter anogenital distance, shorter penis, incomplete testicular descent, sex hormone alteration, precocious puberty, pubertal gynecomastia, premature thelarche, rhinitis, eczema, asthma, low birth weight, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, low intelligence quotient, thyroid hormone alteration, and hypospadias in infants and children. Furthermore, many studies have suggested associations between phthalate exposure and increased sperm DNA damage, decreased proportion of sperm with normal morphology, decreased sperm concentration, decreased sperm morphology, sex hormone alteration, decreased pulmonary function, endometriosis, uterine leiomyomas, breast cancer, obesity, hyperprolactinemia, and thyroid hormone alteration in adults

  3. vProtein: identifying optimal amino acid complements from plant-based foods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Woolf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indispensible amino acids (IAAs are used by the body in different proportions. Most animal-based foods provide these IAAs in roughly the needed proportions, but many plant-based foods provide different proportions of IAAs. To explore how these plant-based foods can be better used in human nutrition, we have created the computational tool vProtein to identify optimal food complements to satisfy human protein needs. METHODS: vProtein uses 1251 plant-based foods listed in the United States Department of Agriculture standard release 22 database to determine the quantity of each food or pair of foods required to satisfy human IAA needs as determined by the 2005 daily recommended intake. The quantity of food in a pair is found using a linear programming approach that minimizes total calories, total excess IAAs, or the total weight of the combination. RESULTS: For single foods, vProtein identifies foods with particularly balanced IAA patterns such as wheat germ, quinoa, and cauliflower. vProtein also identifies foods with particularly unbalanced IAA patterns such as macadamia nuts, degermed corn products, and wakame seaweed. Although less useful alone, some unbalanced foods provide unusually good complements, such as Brazil nuts to legumes. Interestingly, vProtein finds no statistically significant bias toward grain/legume pairings for protein complementation. These analyses suggest that pairings of plant-based foods should be based on the individual foods themselves instead of based on broader food group-food group pairings. Overall, the most efficient pairings include sweet corn/tomatoes, apple/coconut, and sweet corn/cherry. The top pairings also highlight the utility of less common protein sources such as the seaweeds laver and spirulina, pumpkin leaves, and lambsquarters. From a public health perspective, many of the food pairings represent novel, low cost food sources to combat malnutrition. Full analysis results are available online

  4. Legacy effects of drought on plant growth and the soil food web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Franciska; Liiri, Mira; Strandmark, Lisa Bjørnlund

    2012-01-01

    the potential to feed back on each other's performance. In a greenhouse experiment, we compared legacy effects of repeated drought on plant growth and the soil food web in two contrasting land-use systems: extensively managed grassland, rich in C and with a fungal-based food web, and intensively managed wheat...... lower in C and with a bacterial-based food web. Moreover, we assessed the effect of plant presence on the recovery of the soil food web after drought. Drought legacy effects increased plant growth in both systems, and a plant strongly reduced N leaching. Fungi, bacteria, and their predators were more...... resilient after drought in the grassland soil than in the wheat soil. The presence of a plant strongly affected the composition of the soil food web, and alleviated the effects of drought for most trophic groups, regardless of the system. This effect was stronger for the bottom trophic levels, whose...

  5. Probabilistic risk model for staphylococcal intoxication from pork-based food dishes prepared in food service establishments in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Griffiths, Mansel W; Fazil, Aamir M; Lammerding, Anna M

    2009-09-01

    Foodborne illness contracted at food service operations is an important public health issue in Korea. In this study, the probabilities for growth of, and enterotoxin production by, Staphylococcus aureus in pork meat-based foods prepared in food service operations were estimated by the Monte Carlo simulation. Data on the prevalence and concentration of S. aureus as well as compliance to guidelines for time and temperature controls during food service operations were collected. The growth of S. aureus was initially estimated by using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Pathogen Modeling Program. A second model based on raw pork meat was derived to compare cell number predictions. The correlation between toxin level and cell number as well as minimum toxin dose obtained from published data was adopted to quantify the probability of staphylococcal intoxication. When data gaps were found, assumptions were made based on guidelines for food service practices. Baseline risk model and scenario analyses were performed to indicate possible outcomes of staphylococcal intoxication under the scenarios generated based on these data gaps. Staphylococcal growth was predicted during holding before and after cooking, and the highest estimated concentration (4.59 log CFU/g for the 99.9th percentile value) of S. aureus was observed in raw pork initially contaminated with S. aureus and held before cooking. The estimated probability for staphylococcal intoxication was very low, using currently available data. However, scenario analyses revealed an increased possibility of staphylococcal intoxication when increased levels of initial contamination in the raw meat, andlonger holding time both before and after cooking the meat occurred.

  6. Preliminary results on food consumption rates for off-site dose calculation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gab Bock; Chung, Yang Geun; Bang, Sun Young; Kang, Duk Won

    2005-01-01

    The Internal dose by food consumption mostly account for radiological dose of public around nuclear power plants(NPP). But, food consumption rate applied to off-site dose calculation in Korea which is the result of field investigation around Kori NPP by the KAERI in 1988. is not reflected of the latest dietary characteristics. The Ministry of Health and Welfare Affairs has investigated the food and nutrition of nations every 3 years based on the Law of National Health Improvement. To update the food consumption rates of the maximum individual, the analysis of the national food investigation results and field surveys around nuclear power plant sites have been carried out

  7. NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF SUBJECTS WITH DOMINANT PLANT FOOD CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Pauková

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In three groups of apparently healthy subjects – vegetarians (plant food, dairy products, eggs, semi-vegetarians (as vegetarians with addition of white meat consumption and non-vegetarians (control group on traditional mixed diet were analyzed the dietary questionnaires of consumption frequency  and measured the values of lipid profile, insulin resistance, homocysteine with determinants (vitamins B6, B9, B12 and plasma antioxidative vitamins (C,E, beta-carotene. Vegetarians and semi-vegetarians consumed the significantly reduced amount of cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, methionine, lysine, vitamin B12 and on the other hand, they have the significantly higher daily intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, fiber, plant proteins, arginine, glycine, serine, alanine, folic acid (vitamin B9, vitamin B6, vitamins C,E and beta-carotene. Alternative nutrition groups vs. non-vegetarians have the significantly reduced concentrations of total and LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, insulin as well as values of atherogenic index and insulin resistance. The vegetarian (but not semi-vegetarian value of homocysteine is significantly increased as a consequence of the significantly reduced and low concentration of vitamin B12. Other two determinants of homocysteine degradation were significantly increased in serum of alternative nutrition groups. The both vegetarian groups have the significantly higher plasma concentrations of antioxidative vitamins and these values are in range of effective free radical disease reduction. The results  of favourable values of cardiovascular risk markers and antioxidants document a beneficial effect of vegetarian nutrition in prevention of degenerative age-related diseases. doi:10.5219/148

  8. Preparation of environmental reports and impact statements for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Y.H.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable first-hand experience has accumulated during the past decade in the United States regarding the preparation of environmental reports (ER) and environmental impact statements (EIS) for nuclear power plants. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), which is responsible for regulating the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, is required under the National Environmental Policy Act to prepare an EIS for each plant. To obtain information essential to the EIS, the USNRC requires that each power company submit an ER. This paper focuses on the interrelationships of the two environmental documents and discusses the environmental review process and the environmental laws and regulations related to the licensing of nuclear power plants. It also describes the format and content, environmental issues, data requirements, and impact assessment methodologies for preparation of the ER and EIS. Problems associated with preparing the EIS are presented, with particular emphasis on the problems and methodologies associated with evaluating environmental costs and benefits

  9. Food plant derived disease tolerance and resistance in a natural butterfly-plant-parasite interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; Lefèvre, Thierry; Li, James; de Castillejo, Carlos Lopez Fernandez; Li, Hui; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2012-11-01

    Organisms can protect themselves against parasite-induced fitness costs through resistance or tolerance. Resistance includes mechanisms that prevent infection or limit parasite growth while tolerance alleviates the fitness costs from parasitism without limiting infection. Although tolerance and resistance affect host-parasite coevolution in fundamentally different ways, tolerance has often been ignored in animal-parasite systems. Where it has been studied, tolerance has been assumed to be a genetic mechanism, unaffected by the host environment. Here we studied the effects of host ecology on tolerance and resistance to infection by rearing monarch butterflies on 12 different species of milkweed food plants and infecting them with a naturally occurring protozoan parasite. Our results show that monarch butterflies experience different levels of tolerance to parasitism depending on the species of milkweed that they feed on, with some species providing over twofold greater tolerance than other milkweed species. Resistance was also affected by milkweed species, but there was no relationship between milkweed-conferred resistance and tolerance. Chemical analysis suggests that infected monarchs obtain highest fitness when reared on milkweeds with an intermediate concentration, diversity, and polarity of toxic secondary plant chemicals known as cardenolides. Our results demonstrate that environmental factors-such as interacting species in ecological food webs-are important drivers of disease tolerance. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Basic Studies on Sponge Cake Making as a Teaching Material of Food Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Shiratsuti, Hiroko; Ikawa, Yoshiko

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate about the basic condition for sponge cake making usable as a teaching material of food preparation. The results were as follows : 1. Egg foams were stable under high concentration of sucrose and low temperature. The cake with 34% sucrose showed a good appearance. 2. Substituting starch for wheat flour was effective to keep low viscosity of batters. 3. The data for the baking process indicated the importance of the first and second stages in baking, ...

  11. Urbanized South Asians' susceptibility to coronary heart disease: The high-heat food preparation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakde, Smitha; Bhopal, Raj S; Bhardwaj, Swati; Misra, Anoop

    2017-01-01

    Known risk factors do not fully explain the comparatively high susceptibility to coronary heart disease (CHD) in South Asians (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, and Sri Lankan populations in South Asia and overseas). The search for explanatory hypotheses and cofactors that raise susceptibility of South Asians to CHD continues. The aim of this study was to propose "the high-heat food preparation hypothesis," where neo-formed contaminants (NFCs) such as trans-fatty acids (TFAs) and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are the cofactors. We reviewed the actions of AGEs and TFAs, the burden of these products in tissues and blood in South Asians, the relationship between these products and CHD, the effects of preparing food and reheating oils at high temperatures on NFCs, and the foods and mode of preparation in South Asian and Chinese cuisines. Animal and human studies show NFCs increase the risk for CHD. Evidence on the consumption and body burden of these products across ethnic groups is not available, and comparable data on the NFC content of the cuisine of South Asians and potential comparison populations (e.g., the Chinese with lower CHD rates) are limited. South Asians' cuisine is dominated by frying and roasting techniques that use high temperatures. South Asian foods have high TFA content primarily through the use of partially hydrogenated fats, reheated oils, and high-heat cooking. Reheating oils greatly increases the TFA content. In comparison, Chinese cuisine involves mostly braising, steaming, and boiling rather than frying. We hypothesize that South Asians' susceptibility to CHD is partly attributable to high-heat treated foods producing high NFCs. Research to accrue direct evidence is proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Change in radionuclide content of crops as a result of food preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watterson, J.; Nicholson, K.W.

    1996-01-01

    Radionuclides, including 3 H, 14 C and 35 S, are periodically and routinely discharged from nuclear powered electricity generation sites and it is important to assess the radiological impact of such discharges on humans due to food consumption. Foodstuffs may be cooked before being eaten and this can change their radionuclide content. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a range of domestic food preparation techniques on the radionuclide contents of a range of food types. Radionuclide concentrations of tritium (free tritium, HTO, and organically bound tritium, (OBT), 14 C and 35 S were examined in a selection of fruit and vegetables that would form part of a typical diet. The foodstuffs included blackberries, broad beans, cabbages, carrots and potatoes (at two stages of development). The preparation techniques included boiling (potatoes, carrots, broad beans), roasting (potatoes), steaming (cabbage), or stewing (blackberries). In general, the radionuclide concentrations were reduced at the crops by at least 30% after preparation using any of the cooking techniques. The concentrations of 35 S fell by at least 60%, and this radionuclide showed the greatest reductions in the levels of HTO and 35 S. The results of this work indicate that the effects of cooking should be considered when assessing the dose received from the intake of foodstuffs. (Author)

  13. Fate of ethanol during cooking of liquid foods prepared with alcoholic beverages: Theory and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitkjær, Pia; Ryapushkina, Julia; Skovenborg, Erik; Astrup, Arne; Bech, Lene Mølskov; Jensen, Morten Georg; Risbo, Jens

    2017-09-01

    To obtain an understanding of the ethanol loss during cooking of liquid foods containing alcoholic beverages, ethanol concentration was measured as a function of time and remaining volume in meat stocks prepared with wine and beer. A mathematical model describing the decline in volatile compounds during heating of simple liquid foods was derived. The experimental results and the model show that concentration of ethanol at any given time is determined by the initial concentration and a power law function of the remaining volume fraction. The power law function is found to be independent of factors like pot dimensions and temperature. When using a lid to cover the pot during cooking, the model was still valid but the ethanol concentrations decreased more steeply, corresponding to a higher exponent. The results provide a theoretical and empirical guideline for predicting the ethanol concentration in cooked liquid foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 9 CFR 590.26 - Egg products entering or prepared in official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products entering or prepared in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.26 Egg products entering or prepared in official plants. Eggs and...

  15. [Introduction of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) principles at the flight catering food production plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, A Yu; Trukhina, G M; Mikailova, O M

    In the article there is considered the quality control and safety system implemented in the one of the largest flight catering food production plant for airline passengers and flying squad. The system for the control was based on the Hazard Analysis And Critical Control Points (HACCP) principles and developed hygienic and antiepidemic measures. There is considered the identification of hazard factors at stages of the technical process. There are presented results of the analysis data of monitoring for 6 critical control points over the five-year period. The quality control and safety system permit to decline food contamination risk during acceptance, preparation and supplying of in-flight meal. There was proved the efficiency of the implemented system. There are determined further ways of harmonization and implementation for HACCP principles in the plant.

  16. Domestic food preparation practices: a review of the reasons for poor home hygiene practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sakkaf, Ali

    2015-09-01

    New Zealand has a much higher rate of reported campylobacteriosis cases than the rest of the developed world. It has been suggested that New Zealanders have worse home hygiene practices during food preparation than the citizens of other developed countries. Thus, it is necessary to recognize and understand the reasons for consumer's poor practices in order to help develop a more effective message to improve New Zealanders' practices in the domestic environment. This could in turn lead to a reduction in the number of campylobacteriosis cases. The objective is to review cited literature on consumer practices which is related to food poisoning and to attempt to list the factors related to poor consumer practice. There are many internationally identifiable reasons for the poor practices of consumers. These reasons include psychological, demographic and socioeconomic variables; personal interest in new information; prior knowledge; cultural influence; educational background; perception of risk, control and liability; and attitude towards the addressed practices or hazards. The results have indicated that 'optimistic bias', the 'illusion of control', habits and lack of knowledge concerning food safety during domestic food preparation are prevalent among consumers. The research indicated the influence of demographic factors (age, gender, level of education, income, work hours, race, location, culture), as they play a potential role in determining domestic food safety behaviour. It appears that all these factors are applicable for New Zealand consumers and should be addressed in any future education strategy aimed at improving New Zealanders' food handling practices. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Two mini-preparation protocols to DNA extraction from plants with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Were standardized two previously reported standard plant DNA extraction methods, but improved them on mini preparations to use the samples for population genetic analysis. The combination of CTAB lysis procedure-solvent extraction and DNA column purification (DNeasy plant mini kit modification) enables a faster and ...

  18. Food Choice Architecture: An Intervention in a Secondary School and its Impact on Students' Plant-based Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensaff, Hannah; Homer, Matt; Sahota, Pinki; Braybrook, Debbie; Coan, Susan; McLeod, Helen

    2015-06-02

    With growing evidence for the positive health outcomes associated with a plant-based diet, the study's purpose was to examine the potential of shifting adolescents' food choices towards plant-based foods. Using a real world setting of a school canteen, a set of small changes to the choice architecture was designed and deployed in a secondary school in Yorkshire, England. Focussing on designated food items (whole fruit, fruit salad, vegetarian daily specials, and sandwiches containing salad) the changes were implemented for six weeks. Data collected on students' food choice (218,796 transactions) enabled students' (980 students) selections to be examined. Students' food choice was compared for three periods: baseline (29 weeks); intervention (six weeks); and post-intervention (three weeks). Selection of designated food items significantly increased during the intervention and post-intervention periods, compared to baseline (baseline, 1.4%; intervention 3.0%; post-intervention, 2.2%) χ(2)(2) = 68.1, p food items during the intervention period, compared to baseline. The study's results point to the influence of choice architecture within secondary school settings, and its potential role in improving adolescents' daily food choices.

  19. Food Choice Architecture: An Intervention in a Secondary School and its Impact on Students’ Plant-based Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Ensaff

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With growing evidence for the positive health outcomes associated with a plant-based diet, the study’s purpose was to examine the potential of shifting adolescents’ food choices towards plant-based foods. Using a real world setting of a school canteen, a set of small changes to the choice architecture was designed and deployed in a secondary school in Yorkshire, England. Focussing on designated food items (whole fruit, fruit salad, vegetarian daily specials, and sandwiches containing salad the changes were implemented for six weeks. Data collected on students’ food choice (218,796 transactions enabled students’ (980 students selections to be examined. Students’ food choice was compared for three periods: baseline (29 weeks; intervention (six weeks; and post-intervention (three weeks. Selection of designated food items significantly increased during the intervention and post-intervention periods, compared to baseline (baseline, 1.4%; intervention 3.0%; post-intervention, 2.2% χ2(2 = 68.1, p < 0.001. Logistic regression modelling also revealed the independent effect of the intervention, with students 2.5 times as likely (p < 0.001 to select the designated food items during the intervention period, compared to baseline. The study’s results point to the influence of choice architecture within secondary school settings, and its potential role in improving adolescents’ daily food choices.

  20. Suggested improvements for the allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants used in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Richard E; Tetteh, Afua O

    2011-08-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants are increasingly used for food production and industrial applications. As the global population has surpassed 7 billion and per capita consumption rises, food production is challenged by loss of arable land, changing weather patterns, and evolving plant pests and disease. Previous gains in quantity and quality relied on natural or artificial breeding, random mutagenesis, increased pesticide and fertilizer use, and improved farming techniques, all without a formal safety evaluation. However, the direct introduction of novel genes raised questions regarding safety that are being addressed by an evaluation process that considers potential increases in the allergenicity, toxicity, and nutrient availability of foods derived from the GM plants. Opinions vary regarding the adequacy of the assessment, but there is no documented proof of an adverse effect resulting from foods produced from GM plants. This review and opinion discusses current practices and new regulatory demands related to food safety.

  1. Flamanville 3. A new power plant to prepare the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This brochure presents the Flamanville-3 nuclear power plant project (Flamanville, Manche, France). This new power generation unit is based on the European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR) concept. The construction started in 2007 and the plant will be put into service in 2012. The Flamanville-3 reactor will be the forehead of an eventual series of a new generation of reactors devoted to replace the actual French reactors that are close to the end of their service life. The reactor is a 1650 MWe PWR which complements the two existing units already in operation since 1985 and 1986. The safety characteristics of this new generation of reactor and the socio-economical fallouts of its construction are briefly presented. (J.S.)

  2. "mus co shee": Indigenous Plant Foods and Horticultural Imperialism in the Canadian Sub-Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloway, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    The 17th-century arrival of the Hudson's Bay Company in Rupert's Land disrupted Mushkegowuk (Cree) hunter-gatherer society by replacing the collection of indigenous plant foods with a British planted-food model. Within a hundred years of British contact, new foodways relied upon hunting and gardening, bringing a loss in heritage plant food knowledge. Mushkegowuk living in the sub-arctic today have minimal knowledge of edible indigenous plants. Dependence on limited local gardening or imported grocery store vegetables has affected diet, nutrition, and cultural systems. In addition to exploring plant food gathering and gardening history in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, this paper demonstrates how re-discovering lost foodway knowledge can contribute to the health and well-being of those living in the far north.

  3. Wild food plants used in the villages of the Lake Vrana Nature Park (northern Dalmatia, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Łuczaj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Croatia is a country of diverse plant use traditions, which are still insufficiently documented. The aim of this study was to document local traditions of using wild food plants around Lake Vrana (northern Dalmatia, Zadar region.  We interviewed 43 inhabitants of six traditional villages north of Lake Vrana. On average 12 species were listed, which in total produced an inventory of 55 food plants and 3 fungi taxa. Wild vegetables were most widely collected, particularly by older women who gathered the plants mainly when herding their flocks of sheep. Wild fruits and mushrooms were rarely collected. The former used to be an important supplementary food for children, or for everyone during times of food shortage, and the latter were relatively rare due to the dry climate and shortage of woods. The most commonly collected plants are wild vegetables: Cichorium intybus, Foeniculum vulgare, Sonchus oleraceus, Asparagus acutifolius, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex pulcher, Daucus carota, Allium ampeloprasum and Silene latifolia.

  4. [Microfungicid--a preparation based on trichoderma viride for plant diseases control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolombet, L V; Zhigletsova, S K; Derbyshev, V V; Ezhov, D V; Kosareva, N I; Bystrova, E V

    2001-01-01

    A technology was designed for manufacturing a preparation based on Trichoderma viride Pers ex S.F. Gray that strongly suppresses the development of causative agents of certain plant diseases and displays a growth-stimulating activity. Cultivation of the strain in a liquid medium for 18-24 h produced up to 60 g dry biomass per liter nutrient medium. A marketable form created in this work conserves the activity of the mycelial preparation for six months. The preparation is compatible with insecticides (carbofos, vismetrin, talstar, and applaud) and certain fungicides (such as baitan). Tests performed with the liquid form of Mycofungicid (seeds were treated with this preparation at a dose of 20-30 g per metric ton before sowing) showed its high efficiency in protecting cereal crops from plant pathogens. The incidence of plant diseases decreased by 65%, and crop yields increased by 15-20%.

  5. Policy on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) and adherence to food preparation guidelines: a cross sectional survey of stakeholders in food service in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Sekyere, Kofi Boateng; Addy, Ernestine Akosua

    2013-11-04

    Food borne diseases claim more lives and are growing public health concerns. Simple preventive techniques such as adoption and adherence to hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) policy can significantly reduce this disease burden. Though food screening and inspection are done, the ultimate regulation, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point, which is known and accepted worldwide, appears not to be popular among food operators in Ghana. This paper examines the level of awareness of the existence of policy on hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) and its adherence to food preparation guidelines among food service providers in Ghana. The results revealed the mean age of food providers as 33.1 years with a standard deviation of 7.5, range of 18-55 years, more females, in full time employment and with basic education. Of the fifty institutional managers, 42 (84%) were senior officers and had worked for more than five years. Education and type of food operator had strong statistically significant relationship with the implementation of HCCP policy and adherence with food preparation guidelines. The enforcement of HACCP policy and adherence with food safety guidelines was led by the Ghana Tourist Board, Public Health officers, and KMA, respectively. While a majority of food operators 373/450 (83.3%) did not know HACCP policy is part of food safety guidelines, staff of food safety law enforcement 44/50 (88%) confirmed knowing that food operators were not aware of the HACCP policy. The study documents evidence on the practice of food safety principles or HACCP policy or adherence to food preparation guidelines. Existing food safety guidelines incorporate varying principles of HACCP, however, awareness is low among food operators. The implication is that food production is likely to fall short of acceptable standards and not be wholesome putting consumers at health risk. Repeating this study in rural and urban areas in Ghana is necessary to

  6. Irradiation pilot plants and experimental facilities available for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    With the ever-increasing world food crisis mankind has to face today, the prevention of spoilage of perishable food is gaining in momentum. The World Food Conference (Rome, November 1974) of the United Nations clearly recognized the importance of food preservation and urged action in this field. Irradiation is one of the recently discovered methods to preserve food. Its practical introduction largely depends on three main factors: (a) proof of the safety for human consumption of the irradiated product, (b) technological feasibility and (c) economic competitiveness of the process. As data on safety for consumption ('wholesomeness') continue to become available, the number of countries authorizing the irradiation of certain food items is growing (present total: 17 countries), and the same is true for the number of licensed irradiated commodities (total: 23). Under these conditions, testing of the technological and economic feasibility of food irradiation is a matter of increasing importance. Economic feasibility of any industrial operation can only be studied in larger-scale experiments. Thus, they can only be performed with radiation sources larger than those found in laboratories, i.e. in pilot irradiators, capable of handling from a few hundred to a few thousand kilograms of material within a short period of time. The Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has attempted to collect data on the availability, for food preservation, of suitable irradiators in Member States

  7. Effect of processing on iodine content of some selected plants food

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-22

    Feb 22, 2010 ... indicate that processing significantly reduces iodine content of food products, hence consideration must be .... ground levels as well as processing technology and ... on the influence of household preparations and proces-.

  8. Programmable logic control applied to a coal preparation plant complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krahenbil, L W

    1979-02-01

    The programmable Logic Controller (PLC), at its present stage of evolution, is now considered as a mature control system. The PLC combines the solid-state reliability of hard-wired logic and computer control systems with the simplicity of a relay ladder logic. Relay symbolic programming through a function-oriented keyboard provides a means which plant personnel can easily become accoustomed to work with. In a large coal facility, it is shown that the control engineer can provide improved control flexibility with the advanced capabilities of the PLC.

  9. Iron and zinc absorption from weaning foods prepared from germinated cereals and legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuizon, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a public health problem in the Philippines especially in infants, children and pregnant women. The immediate cause is inadequate intake of available iron to meet increased iron requirements. Iron supplementation studies on pregnant women showed improvement in haemoglobin level and reduction of prevalence of anaemia. A project on iron fortification of rice with ferrous sulphate is going on. It is proposed to study iron and zinc absorption from weaning food prepared from germinated rice: mungbean, germinated rice: cowpea, and germinated corn:mungbean to support the finding that these formulations will alleviate not only protein-energy malnutrition but contribute to improvement of iron status as well since iron contents are higher and anti-nutritional factors (phytates and tannin) are either reduced or eliminated. This study aims to measure the iron and zinc absorption from weaning foods prepared from germinated rice-mungbean, germinated rice-cowpea, and germinated corn-mungbean and to indicate usefullness of modifying local foods to improve iron absorption. 24 refs, 4 figs

  10. Iron and zinc absorption from weaning foods prepared from germinated cereals and legumes using isotope tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdez, D H; Kuizon, M D; Marero, L M; Mallillin, A C; Cruz, E M; Madriaga, J R [Department of Science and Technology, Manila (Philippines). Food and Nutrition Research Inst.

    1994-12-31

    Iron bioavailability from weaning foods prepared from 70:30 combination of germinated rice:mungbean (GRM); germinated rice: cowpea (GRC) and germinated corn:mungbean (GCM) was determined by radioisotopic measurements of iron absorption in human subjects. The gruels were prepared as plain with sugar and flavoring labeled by the extrinsic tag method, and served as hot porridge. It was estimated that iron-deficient infants would absorb 3.5% from GRM, 4.9% from GRC and 5.6% from GCM. Differences between absorption among the weaning foods were not statistically significant. Planning of diets for these age group should include other sources of iron especially heme. Zinc absorption from the weaning food formulations will be studied by the in vitro and in vivo methods. For the in vivo method on human subjects, the absorption of zinc will be determined from the measurement of the whole body retention of the isotope 14 days after intake of the labeled mean. Serum zinc level will be determined to assess the zinc status of the subjects. (author). 23 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. Iron and zinc absorption from weaning foods prepared from germinated cereals and legumes using isotope tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, D.H.; Kuizon, M.D.; Marero, L.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Cruz, E.M.; Madriaga, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    Iron bioavailability from weaning foods prepared from 70:30 combination of germinated rice:mungbean (GRM); germinated rice: cowpea (GRC) and germinated corn:mungbean (GCM) was determined by radioisotopic measurements of iron absorption in human subjects. The gruels were prepared as plain with sugar and flavoring labeled by the extrinsic tag method, and served as hot porridge. It was estimated that iron-deficient infants would absorb 3.5% from GRM, 4.9% from GRC and 5.6% from GCM. Differences between absorption among the weaning foods were not statistically significant. Planning of diets for these age group should include other sources of iron especially heme. Zinc absorption from the weaning food formulations will be studied by the in vitro and in vivo methods. For the in vivo method on human subjects, the absorption of zinc will be determined from the measurement of the whole body retention of the isotope 14 days after intake of the labeled mean. Serum zinc level will be determined to assess the zinc status of the subjects. (author). 23 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  12. Food production in developing countries - the role of plant biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    D. I. Ferreira

    1995-01-01

    The world is facing major problems with regard to food production. Agricultural land suffers from various conditions which make it less efficient for crop production while the rapid population growth, especially in developing countries, raises concern for sustainable food production. The Green Revolution has failed to secure sustainable food production and it is hoped that biotechnology will facilitate the transition to more sustainable agriculture. Excellent progress has been made with b...

  13. Niigugim Qalgadangis (Atkan Food).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Moses; Dirks, Lydia

    A history of food gathering and food preparation techniques of Alaska natives on Atka Island in the Aleutians are presented in Western Aleut and English with illustrations by J. Leslie Boffa and Mike Dirks. Directions are given for preparing: various plants, including wild rice; salted, dried, or smoked fish; baked flour; fried dough; boiled…

  14. Ethnobotanical investigation of 'wild' food plants used by rice farmers in Kalasin, Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Garcia Gisella S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wild food plants are a critical component in the subsistence system of rice farmers in Northeast Thailand. One of the important characteristics of wild plant foods among farming households is that the main collection locations are increasingly from anthropogenic ecosystems such as agricultural areas rather than pristine ecosystems. This paper provides selected results from a study of wild food conducted in several villages in Northeast Thailand. A complete botanical inventory of wild food plants from these communities and surrounding areas is provided including their diversity of growth forms, the different anthropogenic locations were these species grow and the multiplicity of uses they have. Methods Data was collected using focus groups and key informant interviews with women locally recognized as knowledgeable about contemporarily gathered plants. Plant species were identified by local taxonomists. Results A total of 87 wild food plants, belonging to 47 families were reported, mainly trees, herbs (terrestrial and aquatic and climbers. Rice fields constitute the most important growth location where 70% of the plants are found, followed by secondary woody areas and home gardens. The majority of species (80% can be found in multiple growth locations, which is partly explained by villagers moving selected species from one place to another and engaging in different degrees of management. Wild food plants have multiple edible parts varying from reproductive structures to vegetative organs. More than two thirds of species are reported as having diverse additional uses and more than half of them are also regarded as medicine. Conclusions This study shows the remarkable importance of anthropogenic areas in providing wild food plants. This is reflected in the great diversity of species found, contributing to the food and nutritional security of rice farmers in Northeast Thailand.

  15. Analysis of Selenium Contents in Plant Foods Consumed by Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Okhee; Kim, Kangsung; Moon, Jonghwa; Chung, Yongsam

    2014-01-01

    Se exhibited a relatively small range of adequate ingestion level for health. An accurate investigation of Se consumption in Korean population has been rare because the database of food containing selenium is rather small. The table of Se content in food is a basic tool for calculating selenium intake. Since diet is the main source of Se intake, the Se content in various foods and personal dietary practices would be primarily determined to evaluate the nutritional status of Se for a population. To evaluate the Se intake levels of a population, a Se food database should be generated based on data produced by high-precision analytical techniques. In addition, this database should contain the Se contents of foods that are regularly consumed by the studied population. Plant foods contain lower Se levels when compared to animal products. However, grains, potatoes, starches, and legumes have been the main sources of carbohydrates and proteins in traditional Korean diet. Since grains such as rice are a staple food and remain the most consumed foods in Korea, their contribution to dietary Se intake might be considerable. However, no reports on the selenium content from plant foods have been compiled for the Korean population. The goal of this study was to measure the Se content in common consumed plant foods such as grain, potatoes, legumes and their products. The legume rich in protein contained relatively high amount of Se when compared to other plant food type. The raw wheat and wheat product which have been imported from abroad showed higher amount of Se than rice mostly produced in Korea. The acquired Se value is useful to assess the Se intake of Korean adults from plant foods

  16. Analysis of Selenium Contents in Plant Foods Consumed by Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Okhee; Kim, Kangsung [Kyonghee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jonghwa; Chung, Yongsam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Se exhibited a relatively small range of adequate ingestion level for health. An accurate investigation of Se consumption in Korean population has been rare because the database of food containing selenium is rather small. The table of Se content in food is a basic tool for calculating selenium intake. Since diet is the main source of Se intake, the Se content in various foods and personal dietary practices would be primarily determined to evaluate the nutritional status of Se for a population. To evaluate the Se intake levels of a population, a Se food database should be generated based on data produced by high-precision analytical techniques. In addition, this database should contain the Se contents of foods that are regularly consumed by the studied population. Plant foods contain lower Se levels when compared to animal products. However, grains, potatoes, starches, and legumes have been the main sources of carbohydrates and proteins in traditional Korean diet. Since grains such as rice are a staple food and remain the most consumed foods in Korea, their contribution to dietary Se intake might be considerable. However, no reports on the selenium content from plant foods have been compiled for the Korean population. The goal of this study was to measure the Se content in common consumed plant foods such as grain, potatoes, legumes and their products. The legume rich in protein contained relatively high amount of Se when compared to other plant food type. The raw wheat and wheat product which have been imported from abroad showed higher amount of Se than rice mostly produced in Korea. The acquired Se value is useful to assess the Se intake of Korean adults from plant foods.

  17. EPlantLIBRA: A composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plumb, J.; Lyons, J.; Nørby, Karin Kristiane

    2015-01-01

    The newly developed ePlantLIBRA database is a comprehensive and searchable database, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on plant food supplement (PFS) bioactive compounds, with putative health benefits as well as adverse effects, and contaminants and residues. It is the......The newly developed ePlantLIBRA database is a comprehensive and searchable database, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on plant food supplement (PFS) bioactive compounds, with putative health benefits as well as adverse effects, and contaminants and residues...

  18. Rapid immunohistochemical diagnosis of tobacco mosaic virus disease by microwave-assisted plant sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellnig, Günther; Möstl, Stefan; Zechmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Immunoelectron microscopy is a powerful method to diagnose viral diseases and to study the distribution of the viral agent within plant cells and tissues. Nevertheless, current protocols for the immunological detection of viral diseases with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in plants take between 3 and 6 days and are therefore not suited for rapid diagnosis of virus diseases in plants. In this study, we describe a method that allows rapid cytohistochemical detection of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in leaves of tobacco plants. With the help of microwave irradiation, sample preparation of the leaves was reduced to 90 min. After sample sectioning, virus particles were stained on the sections by immunogold labelling of the viral coat protein, which took 100 min. After investigation with the TEM, a clear visualization of TMV in tobacco cells was achieved altogether in about half a day. Comparison of gold particle density by image analysis revealed that samples prepared with the help of microwave irradiation yielded significantly higher gold particle density as samples prepared conventionally at room temperature. This study clearly demonstrates that microwave-assisted plant sample preparation in combination with cytohistochemical localization of viral coat protein is well suited for rapid diagnosis of plant virus diseases in altogether about half a day by TEM. PMID:23580761

  19. The prevalence of plant food allergies: A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuidmeer, Laurian; Goldhahn, Klaus; Rona, Roberto J.

    2008-01-01

    ) in the literature database MEDLINE focused on fruits, vegetables/legumes, tree nuts, wheat, soy, cereals, and seeds. Prevalence estimates were categorized by food item and method used (food challenges, skin prick test, serum IgE, parent/self-reported symptoms), complemented by appropriate meta-analyses. Results: We...

  20. The application of plant biotechnology for non-food uses: The case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... in China has more diverse applications for non-food uses and environmental sustainability. This paper ..... pollen distribution on mulberry leaves near rice fields. Acta .Ecol. Sin. .... resistant plants on pollinating bees. Acta Ecol.

  1. VERIFICATION OF THE FOOD SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN DEEP FROZEN FOOD PRODUCTION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zajác

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In work is presented verification of food safety management system of deep frozen food. Main emphasis is on creating set of verification questions within articles of standard STN EN ISO 22000:2006 and on searching of effectiveness in food safety management system. Information were acquired from scientific literature sources and they pointed out importance of implementation and upkeep of effective food safety management system. doi:10.5219/28

  2. Food consumption and growth rates of juvenile black carp fed natural and prepared feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Nathaniel C.; Schramm, Harold L.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2014-01-01

    The introduced mollusciphagic black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus poses a significant threat to native mollusks in temperate waters throughout the northern hemisphere, but consumption rates necessary to estimate the magnitude of impact on mollusks have not been established. We measured food consumption and growth rates for small (77–245 g) and large (466–1,071 g) triploid black carp held individually under laboratory conditions at 20, 25, and 30°C. Daily consumption rates (g food · g wet weight fish−1·d−1·100) of black carp that received prepared feed increased with temperature (small black carp 1.39–1.71; large black carp 1.28–2.10), but temperature-related increases in specific growth rate (100[ln(final weight) - ln(initial weight)]/number of days) only occurred for the large black carp (small black carp −0.02 to 0.19; large black carp 0.16–0.65). Neither daily consumption rates (5.90–6.28) nor specific growth rates (0.05–0.24) differed among temperatures for small black carp fed live snails. The results of these laboratory feeding trials indicate food consumption rates can vary from 289.9 to 349.5 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp receiving prepared feed, from 268.8 to 441.0 J·g−1·d−1for 800 g black carp receiving prepared feed, and from 84.8 to 90.2 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp that feed on snails. Applying estimated daily consumption rates to estimated biomass of native mollusks indicates that a relatively low biomass of bla

  3. Abundance of food plant species and food habits of Rhinoceros unicorns Linn. in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Konwar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Food habits and abundance of food plant species of Rhinoceros unicornis in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary were studied from January 1999 through December 2001. Totally 32 numbers of Rhino food plants were identified, of which 15 were grasses, four shrubs, five aquatic hydrophytes and eight tree species (21 terrestrial and 11 aquatic. During the dry season, the Rhino feeds on almost 90% food items from Hemarthria compressa, Arundo donax, Phragmites karka, Cerex rubro-brumee etc. The other short grasses such as Cynodon dactylon, Andropogon ssp., Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aciculatus and tender and young shoots and twigs of Schelristechya fuesche, Saccharum spontaneum, Lagerstroemia flosreginae etc. are consumed in limited portions. The rhino consumes 11 cultivated crops and vegetables, viz., Ricinus communis, Oryza sativa, Solanum melongena, Lycopersicon esculentum, Solanum tuberosum, Brassica nigra, Luffa cylindrica, Luffa acutangula, Cucurbita moschata, Cucumis sativus and Ipomoea batatas etc. Highest density of food plant species observed in the study area were Cynodon dactylon (167.5/m2, Hemarthria compressa (73.75/m2, Vetiveria zizanioides (56/m2, Saccharum ravannae (51.5/m2, Pharagmites karka (50.75/m2, Leersia hexandra (46.75/m2, Brachiarea pseudointerrupta (40/m2 and Eichhornia crassipes (35/m2.

  4. Primary Food Processing : Cornerstone of plant-based food production and the bio-economy in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logatcheva, K.; Galen, van M.A.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the supply chains and special characteristics of plant-based primary food processors; producers of (wheat) flour, starches, vegetable oils and fats, sugar, and cocoa. The production value, direct employment in the industry, and indirect employment in farming were calculated.

  5. Estimation of countries’ interdependence in plant genetic resources provisioning national food supplies and production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Khoury, C.K.; Achicanoy, H.A.; Bjorkman, A.D.; Navarro-Racines, C.; Guarino, L.; Flores-Palacios, X.; Engels, J.M.M.; Wiersema, J.H.; Dempewolf, H.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P.; Fowler, C.; Jarvis, A.; Rieseberg, L.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Contracting Parties of the International Treaty recognize that plant genetic resources for food and agriculture are a common concern of all countries, in that all countries depend largely on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture that originated elsewhere. Nearly 20 years ago, an initial research on interdependence mong countries on crop diversity provided information helpful for countries to establish the Treaty, and in particular its Multilateral System of Access and Benefit-s...

  6. Preparation of substituting seaweed field mounds accompanying site preparation for No.3 plant in Ikata Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Hisashi; Oshima, Teruhiko; Fujisaki, Yuichi; Saeki, Taketoshi

    1987-01-01

    Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc. is constructing No.3 plant adjacently to No.1 and No.2 plants in operation in Ikata Nuclear Power Station. In the coastal area of Iyo-nada, many seaweed fields are distributed, which are important biologically and for fishery. In the works of site preparation for No.3 plant, a part of the site is created by reclamation of sea area, therefore the natural seaweed fields in the area disappear. From the viewpoint of various circumstances and environment preservation, it was decided to create about 60,000 m 2 of seaweed field mounds on the seabed around the site as the substitute for disappearing natural seaweed fields. The Seaweed Field Study Group composed of the men of learning and experience was organized to obtain the guidance on the possibility of creating artificial seaweed fields, the techniques for creation and the effect on environment accompanying the creation of mounds. The creation works were started in October, 1985, and are in progress smoothly utilizing effectively the stones and rocks cut in the site preparation works. The topographic and geological features, sea conditions, the present state of seaweed fields, the experiment on creating artificial seaweed fields, the design and construction of mounds and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  7. 78 FR 41803 - Establishment of a Public Docket for Comment on the Report Prepared Under the Food and Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ... Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA) Section 1138, enacted July 9, 2012, and posted on the FDA Web... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0757] Establishment of a Public Docket for Comment on the Report Prepared Under the Food and Drug Administration...

  8. Safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations used as ingredients in food supplements: Testing an EFS tired approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speijers, G.; Bottex, B.; Dusemund, B.; Lugasi, A.; Toth, J.; Amberg-Muller, J.; Galli, C.; Silano, V.; Rietjens, I.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes results obtained by testing the European Food Safety Authority-tiered guidance approach for safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food supplements. Main conclusions emerging are as follows. (i) Botanical ingredients must be identified

  9. Characteristics of Youth Food Preparation in Low-Income, African American Homes: Associations with Healthy Eating Index Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Melissa; Hopkins, Laura; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Cristello, Angelica; Mccloskey, Morgan; Gittelsohn, Joel; Hurley, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    This study explores food preparation behaviors, including types of food prepared, methods of preparation, and frequency of preparation of low-income urban African American youth ages 9-15 in Baltimore City (n = 289) and analyzes a potential association to diet quality as measured through Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI) scores. Overall, the youth prepared their own food 6.7 ± 0.33 times per week without significant differences between age groups or genders as measured through pairwise comparison of means. Cereal, noodles, and sandwiches were amongst the foods prepared most frequently. Linear regression analysis found youth food preparation frequency was not significantly associated with total HEI (p = 0.59), sodium (p = 0.58), empty calories (p = 0.96), or dairy scores (p = 0.12). Younger age was associated with higher total HEI scores (p = 0.012) and higher dairy scores (p = 0.01) and female gender was associated with higher total HEI scores (p = 0.03), higher sodium scores (p = 0.03), and lower dairy scores (p = 0.008).

  10. Effect of processing on iodine content of some selected plants food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of processing on iodine content of some selected plants food was investigated. Results show significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the iodine content of the processed food compared with the raw forms. The iodine value of 658.60 ± 17.2 ìg/100g observed in raw edible portion of Discorea rotundata was significantly higher ...

  11. The mother - child nexus. Knowledge and valuation of wild food plants in Wayanad, Western Ghats, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz Garcia, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the mother-child nexus (or process of enculturation) with respect to knowledge and valuation of wild food plants in a context where accelerated processes of modernization and acculturation are leading to the erosion of knowledge and cultural values associated with wild food

  12. Release of Antioxidant Capacity from Five Plant Foods during a Multistep Enzymatic Digestion Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papillo, V.A.; Vitaglione, P.; Graziani, G.; Gokmen, V.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at elucidating the influence of food matrix on the release of antioxidant activity from five plant foods (apple, spinach, walnut, red bean, and whole wheat). To this purpose a protocol based on sequential enzymatic digestion was adopted. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of both

  13. Ethnobotanical study of wild food plants used by rice farmers in Northeast Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz Garcia, G.S.

    2012-01-01

    Wild food plants have been recognized as an essential component of the world’s food basket. Farmer’s gathering locations are increasingly from anthropogenic ecosystems given the decline of pristine environments. However, there are neither quantitative studies on the ecological characterization

  14. IRANIAN AND TURKISH FOOD CULTURES: A COMPARISON THROUGH THE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD IN TERMS OF PREPARATION, DISTRIBUTION AND CONSUMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Avcıoğlu, Gamze Gizem; Avcıoğlu, Gürcan Şevket

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make a comparative sociological analysis of Iranian and Turkish food cultures in terms of food preparation, distribution and consumption. Moreover, contribution is intended to be made to the field of applied food sociology. The research design carries features of a qualitative research. Of the qualitative research techniques, observation and interview form were used in the study. Research findings were obtained through observations made in Tehran, the capital c...

  15. Bio-accumulation of essential and heavy metals in plant food

    OpenAIRE

    Balabanova, Biljana; Stafilov, Trajče

    2017-01-01

    The contamination of soils due to the presence of toxic metals can result in serious negative consequences, such as damage of ecosystems and of agricultural productivity, deterioration of food chain and serious human and animal health problems. The impact of soil pollution (due to urban and mining areas) on the food chain presents a challenge for many investigations. Availability of essential and potentially toxic metals in polluted soil and their possible transfer in various plant foods were...

  16. Uptake of phenolic compounds from plant foods in human intestinal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. GAVIRANGAPPA HITHAMANI1 DHANYA KIZHAKAYIL1 KRISHNAPURA SRINIVASAN1. Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, CSIR – Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570 020, India ...

  17. Microbiological Quality and Food Safety of Plants Grown on ISS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A challenge for growing fresh foods (vegetables) in space is demonstrating that they are safe for consumption according to NASA microbiological standards set for...

  18. Biologically Active Compounds of Plant Foods: Prospective Impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the other hand, other biologically active compounds impair health by ... of essential elements through different mechanisms and giving astringent taste, odor, ... The health benefits of selected substances from Ethiopian food crops need to ...

  19. Challenges and opportunities for improving food quality and nutrition through plant biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, David; Finer, John J; Grotewold, Erich

    2017-04-01

    Plant biotechnology has been around since the advent of humankind, resulting in tremendous improvements in plant cultivation through crop domestication, breeding and selection. The emergence of transgenic approaches involving the introduction of defined DNA sequences into plants by humans has rapidly changed the surface of our planet by further expanding the gene pool used by plant breeders for plant improvement. Transgenic approaches in food plants have raised concerns on the merits, social implications, ecological risks and true benefits of plant biotechnology. The recently acquired ability to precisely edit plant genomes by modifying native genes without introducing new genetic material offers new opportunities to rapidly exploit natural variation, create new variation and incorporate changes with the goal to generate more productive and nutritious plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tehnika za proizvodnju hrane u terenskim uslovima / Technology for food preparation in field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko M. Tešanović

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available U terenskim uslovima osnovna sredstva za pripremanje hrane su pokretne kuhinje. One se koriste u miru za vreme izvođenja vežbi, logorovanja, za obuku vojnika kuvara i u vojnim školama za obuku studenata i učenika intendantske službe. Izuzetno, mogu se koristiti za kuvanje jela kada se vojni restorani adaptiraju ili se zbog drugih razloga hrana ne može pripremati u njima. U Vojsci Srbije danas su u upotrebi sledeće vrste pokretnih kuhinja: kuhinja autoprikolica od 250, 200, 300 i 400 l i kuhinja tovarna od 25 l. Za pripremu hrane u terenskim uslovima OS NATO koriste veoma raznovrstan park poljskih tehničkih sredstava. / In field conditions, the basic means for food preparation are mobile kitchens. Mobile kitchens are used in peace time during exercise and camping as well as for training military chefs and students of logistic support in military schools. Exceptionally, they can be used for cooking meals when repairing or adapting military restaurants or for some other valid reasons. In the Army of Serbia today, there are the following types of mobile kitchens: mobile kitchen 250, 200, 300 and 400 l and a kitchen pack of 25 l. For the preparation of food in field conditions, NATO forces use a very versatile choice of field technical resources.

  1. Impact of cooking and home food preparation interventions among adults: outcomes and implications for future programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Trofholz, Amanda C; Stang, Jamie S; Laska, Melissa N

    2014-01-01

    Cooking programs are growing in popularity; however, an extensive review has not examined their overall impact. Therefore, this study reviewed previous research on cooking/home food preparation interventions and diet and health-related outcomes among adults and identified implications for practice and research. Literature review and descriptive summative method. Dietary intake, knowledge/skills, cooking attitudes and self-efficacy/confidence, health outcomes. Articles evaluating the effectiveness of interventions that included cooking/home food preparation as the primary aim (January, 1980 through December, 2011) were identified via Ovid MEDLINE, Agricola, and Web of Science databases. Studies grouped according to design and outcomes were reviewed for validity using an established coding system. Results were summarized for several outcome categories. Of 28 studies identified, 12 included a control group with 6 as nonrandomized and 6 as randomized controlled trials. Evaluation was done postintervention for 5 studies, pre- and postintervention for 23, and beyond postintervention for 15. Qualitative and quantitative measures suggested a positive influence on main outcomes. However, nonrigorous study designs, varying study populations, and the use of nonvalidated assessment tools limited stronger conclusions. Well-designed studies are needed that rigorously evaluate long-term impact on cooking behavior, dietary intake, obesity and other health outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of cooking and home food preparation interventions among adults: outcomes and implications for future programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Trofholz, Amanda C.; Stang, Jamie S; Laska, Melissa N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cooking programs are growing in popularity; however an extensive review has not examined overall impact. Therefore, this study reviewed previous research on cooking/home food preparation interventions and diet and health-related outcomes among adults and identified implications for practice and research. Design Literature review and descriptive summative method. Main outcome measures Dietary intake, knowledge/skills, cooking attitudes and self-efficacy/confidence, health outcomes. Analysis Articles evaluating effectiveness of interventions that included cooking/home food preparation as the primary aim (January 1980 through December 2011) were identified via OVID MEDLINE, Agricola and Web of Science databases. Studies grouped according to design and outcomes were reviewed for validity using an established coding system. Results were summarized for several outcome categories. Results Of 28 studies identified, 12 included a control group with six as non-randomized and six as randomized controlled trials. Evaluation was done post-intervention for five studies, pre- and post-intervention for 23 and beyond post-intervention for 15. Qualitative and quantitative measures suggested a positive influence on main outcomes. However, non-rigorous study designs, varying study populations, and use of non-validated assessment tools limited stronger conclusions. Conclusions and Implications Well-designed studies are needed that rigorously evaluate long-term impact on cooking behavior, dietary intake, obesity and other health outcomes. PMID:24703245

  3. Metabolome analysis of food-chain between plants and insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evolution has shown the co-dependency of host plants-predators (insects), especially inevitable dependency of predators on plant biomass for securing their energy sources. In this respect, it had been believed that NAD+ source used for major energy producing pathway in insects is a glycerol-3-phosph...

  4. Estrogenic plant foods of red colobus monkeys and mountain gorillas in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Michael D; Taylor-Gutt, Alexandra; Rothman, Jessica M; Chapman, Colin A; Milton, Katharine; Leitman, Dale C

    2012-05-01

    Phytoestrogens, or naturally occurring estrogen-mimicking compounds, are found in many human plant foods, such as soybeans (Glycine max) and other legumes. Because the consumption of phytoestrogens may result in both health benefits of protecting against estrogen-dependent cancers and reproductive costs of disrupting the developing endocrine system, considerable biomedical research has been focused on the physiological and behavioral effects of these compounds. Despite this interest, little is known about the occurrence of phytoestrogens in the diets of wild primates, nor their likely evolutionary importance. We investigated the prevalence of estrogenic plant foods in the diets of two folivorous primate species, the red colobus monkey (Procolobus rufomitratus) of Kibale National Park and mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei) of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, both in Uganda. To examine plant foods for estrogenic activity, we screened 44 plant items (species and part) comprising 78.4% of the diet of red colobus monkeys and 53 plant items comprising 85.2% of the diet of mountain gorillas using transient transfection assays. At least 10.6% of the red colobus diet and 8.8% of the gorilla diet had estrogenic activity. This was mainly the result of the red colobus eating three estrogenic staple foods and the gorillas eating one estrogenic staple food. All estrogenic plants exhibited estrogen receptor (ER) subtype selectivity, as their phytoestrogens activated ERβ, but not ERα. These results demonstrate that estrogenic plant foods are routinely consumed by two folivorous primate species. Phytoestrogens in the wild plant foods of these two species and many other wild primates may have important implications for understanding primate reproductive ecology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Wild and semi-domesticated food plant consumption in seven circum-Mediterranean areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadjichambis, A.C.; Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, D.; Della, A.; Giusti, M.E.; Pasquale, C.; Lenzarini, C.; Censorii, E.; Gonzales-Tejero, M.R.; Sanchez-Rojas, C.P.; Ramiro-Gutierrez, J.M.; Skoula, M.; Johnson, C.; Sarpaki, A.; Hmamouchi, M.; Jorhi, S.; El-Demerdash, M.; El-Zayat, M.; Pieroni, A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of local Mediterranean food plants is at the brink of disappearance. Even though there is relatively abundant information on inventories of wild edible taxa, there is also a crucial need to understand how these plants are consumed and when and how these consumption phenomena change over time

  6. Associations between Japanese schoolchildren's involvement in at-home meal preparation, their food intakes, and cooking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozue, Miho; Ishida, Hiromi; Hazano, Sayaka; Nakanishi, Akemi; Yamamoto, Taeko; Abe, Aya; Nishi, Nobuo; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Murayama, Nobuko

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the association of Japanese schoolchildren's involvement in at-home meal preparation with food intake and cooking skill. We included 1,207 fifth-grade children aged 10-11 years and one parent of each child. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data on involvement in at-home meal preparation. Correspondence analysis was used to classify involvement in at-home meal preparation into three groups: food-related activities (cooking only or with other activities such as shopping, table-setting, clean up, and dishwashing), non-food-related activities (table-setting and/or clean up), and no (helping) activities. Food intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to examine involvement in at-home meal preparation associations. The sample consisted of 1,207 fifth-grade children. Vegetable intake was lower in the no (helping) activities group than the food-related activities group (95% CI; boys: 1.2, 5.1, girls: 2.0, 8.9). Fewer children in the non-food-related activities group reported they were able to make a portion of their meals compared with the food-related activities group (95% CI; boys: 1.6, 3.5; girls: 1.5, 3.2). Children in the food-related activities group showed more favorable food intake and cooking skills than children in the no (helping) activities or non-food-related activities group.

  7. Associations between Japanese schoolchildren's involvement in at-home meal preparation, their food intakes, and cooking skills

    OpenAIRE

    Nozue, Miho; Ishida, Hiromi; Hazano, Sayaka; Nakanishi, Akemi; Yamamoto, Taeko; Abe, Aya; Nishi, Nobuo; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Murayama, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study aimed to examine the association of Japanese schoolchildren's involvement in at-home meal preparation with food intake and cooking skill. SUBJECTS/METHODS We included 1,207 fifth-grade children aged 10-11 years and one parent of each child. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data on involvement in at-home meal preparation. Correspondence analysis was used to classify involvement in at-home meal preparation into three groups: food-related activities (...

  8. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria: prevalence in food and inactivation by food-compatible compounds and plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2015-04-22

    Foodborne antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria such as Campylobacter jejuni, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, and Vibrio parahemolyticus can adversely affect animal and human health, but a better understanding of the factors involved in their pathogenesis is needed. To help meet this need, this overview surveys and interprets much of our current knowledge of antibiotic (multidrug)-resistant bacteria in the food chain and the implications for microbial food safety and animal and human health. Topics covered include the origin and prevalence of resistant bacteria in the food chain (dairy, meat, poultry, seafood, and herbal products, produce, and eggs), their inactivation by different classes of compounds and plant extracts and by the use of chlorine and physicochemical methods (heat, UV light, pulsed electric fields, and high pressure), the synergistic antimicrobial effects of combinations of natural antimicrobials with medicinal antibiotics, and mechanisms of antimicrobial activities and resistant effects. Possible areas for future research are suggested. Plant-derived and other safe natural antimicrobial compounds have the potential to control the prevalence of both susceptible and resistant pathogens in various environments. The collated information and suggested research will hopefully contribute to a better understanding of approaches that could be used to minimize the presence of resistant pathogens in animal feed and human food, thus reducing adverse effects, improving microbial food safety, and helping to prevent or treat animal and human infections.

  9. The use of urban plant resources for health and food security in Kampala, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollee, Eefke Maria

    an understanding of the current and potential contribution of urban plant resources to human wellbeing (with a focus on food security) in Kampala, Uganda. To fulfil this aim, I created 4 objectives: 1) to assess plant species composition and use in Kampala’s homegardens, 2) to explore associations between...... homegardens and socio-economic determinants of dietary diversity and fruit consumption of children aged 2-5 years, 3) to explore the prevalence and determinants of wild plant collectors in Kampala, Uganda, and 4) to assess the extent and importance of alternative food sources of different food groups for low...... species) were collected for food purposes, while the other 25 species were collected for medicinal purposes and were also collected more frequently. The findings indicate that urban homegardens and wild space can play an important role in human wellbeing. It is important to incorporate biodiversity...

  10. Evaluation of the hygiene of ready-to-eat food preparation areas and practices in mobile food vendors in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Christine; Sagoo, Satnam

    2009-12-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the cleanliness of food preparation areas, cleaning methods used, and the microbiological quality of water used by 1258 mobile food vendors in the UK. Samples collected included potable water (1102), cleaning cloths (801) and environmental swabs from food preparation surfaces (2704). Cleaning cloths were more heavily contaminated with Aerobic Colony Counts, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus compared to surfaces sampled. Surfaces that were visually dirty, wet, and chopping boards that were plastic or damaged also had high levels of these bacteria. Fifty-four percent of potable water samples were of poor microbiological quality; i.e. contained coliforms, E. coli and/or enterococci. A documented food safety management system was only evident in 40.1% of vendors and cleaning schedules were only used by 43.6%. Deficiencies in the correct use of cleaning materials, such as dilution factors and the minimum contact time for disinfectants, were identified.

  11. Medicinal and wild food plants of Marmara Island (Balikesir – Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Bulut

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal and wild food plants have always played an important role in people’s lives especially in rural areas. Similar situation can be said for islands due to the reason of them being isolated from mainland. This paper reports an ethnobotanical investigations performed in 2009 and 2014 to determine medicinal and wild food plants of Marmara Island. A total of 30 individuals were interviewed (19 men, 11 women. Totally, 22 plants are recorded as used as traditional folk medicine for the region, and nine of these are also used as a source of wild food. Furthermore, 18 taxa are wild sources of nutrition for the area. The plants most commonly used in the region as medicinal remedies were Salvia fruticosa, Hypericum perforatum, Ficus carica, and Mentha spicata. Plants are mostly used for the treatment of abdominal pain, the common cold, and haemorrhoids. The species most commonly used for food are: Salvia fruticosa, Arbutus unedo, Rhus coriaria, and Rubus sanctus. This ethnobotanical study conducted in this island will enable the traditional use of wild plants both as food sources and herbal remedies to be passed on to future generations.

  12. Application of immunoaffinity columns for different food item samples preparation in micotoxins determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić Marijana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In analytical methods used for monitoring of what special attention is paid to sample preparation. Therefore, the objective of this study was testing the efficiency of immunoaffinity columns (IAC that are based on solid phase extraction principles used for samples preparation in determining aflatoxins and ochratoxins. Aflatoxins and ochratoxins concentrations were determined in totally 56 samples of food items: wheat, corn, rice, barley and other grains (19 samples, flour and flour products from grain and additives for the bakery industry (7 samples, fruits and vegetables (3 samples, hazelnut, walnut, almond, coconut flour (4 samples, roasted cocoa beans, peanuts, tea, coffee (16 samples, spices (4 samples and meat and meat products (4 samples. Obtained results indicate advantage of IAC use for sample preparation based on enhanced specificity due to binding of extracted molecules to incorporated specific antibodies and rinsing the rest molecules from sample which could interfere with further analysis. Additional advantage is the usage of small amount of organic solvents and consequently decreased exposure of staff who conduct micotoxins determination. Of special interest is increase in method sensitivity since limit of quantification for aflatoxins and ochratoxins determination method is lower than maximal allowed concentration of these toxines prescribed by national rule book.

  13. Preparation of Environmental and Food Samples to Support the Heavy Metals Detection by Stripping Electrochemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iswani S

    2002-01-01

    Preparation of environmental and food samples to support the heavy metals detection by stripping electrochemistry was done. The water samples taken directly from the ground water were acidified with 1 mL of HNO 3 acic suprapure was not digested, while the soils samples which have already dried in the oven at 105 o C, ware grinded and sieved through 150 μm, werte digested with HNO 3 acic suprapure in the digestion bomb at 150 o C for 3-4 hours. The mussels samples which have already freezed in the freezer were peeled, dried with N 2 liquid, grinded and dried again in the freeze drier at the pressure of ≅ 10 -2 mBar, and then were grinded again, weighted, digested with HNO 3 acic and HClO 4 suprapure in the digestion bomb at 150 o C for 3 hours. Food samples were homogenized by electric mixer, dried with freeze dried, homogenized again by using ZrO 2 ball mill, weighted, digested by HPA (high Pressure Asher). The heavy metals in the food samples solution of digestion product were detected by using Polarographic Analyzer EGandG of SWV and DPASV methods, while in the water, soils and the mussels solution were detected by using PDV 2000 and Polarograf E-505, DPASV method. The method validity were tested with SRM materials such as soil-5, soil-7, water W-4, and coppepoda. The heavy metals detection results in the water, soils, mussels, and food by electrochemical method were reported in this paper. (author)

  14. Plant DNA Detection from Grasshopper Guts: A Step-by-Step Protocol, from Tissue Preparation to Obtaining Plant DNA Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Avanesyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: A PCR-based method of identifying ingested plant DNA in gut contents of Melanoplus grasshoppers was developed. Although previous investigations have focused on a variety of insects, there are no protocols available for plant DNA detection developed for grasshoppers, agricultural pests that significantly influence plant community composition. Methods and Results: The developed protocol successfully used the noncoding region of the chloroplast trnL (UAA gene and was tested in several feeding experiments. Plant DNA was obtained at seven time points post-ingestion from whole guts and separate gut sections, and was detectable up to 12 h post-ingestion in nymphs and 22 h post-ingestion in adult grasshoppers. Conclusions: The proposed protocol is an effective, relatively quick, and low-cost method of detecting plant DNA from the grasshopper gut and its different sections. This has important applications, from exploring plant “movement” during food consumption, to detecting plant–insect interactions.

  15. Preparation and testing of plant seed meal-based wood adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhongqi; Chapital, Dorselyn C

    2015-03-05

    Recently, the interest in plant seed meal-based products as wood adhesives has steadily increased, as these plant raw materials are considered renewable and environment-friendly. These natural products may serve as alternatives to petroleum-based adhesives to ease environmental and sustainability concerns. This work demonstrates the preparation and testing of the plant seed-based wood adhesives using cottonseed and soy meal as raw materials. In addition to untreated meals, water washed meals and protein isolates are prepared and tested. Adhesive slurries are prepared by mixing a freeze-dried meal product with deionized water (3:25 w/w) for 2 hr. Each adhesive preparation is applied to one end of 2 wood veneer strips using a brush. The tacky adhesive coated areas of the wood veneer strips are lapped and glued by hot-pressing. Adhesive strength is reported as the shear strength of the bonded wood specimen at break. Water resistance of the adhesives is measured by the change in shear strength of the bonded wood specimens at break after water soaking. This protocol allows one to assess plant seed-based agricultural products as suitable candidates for substitution of synthetic-based wood adhesives. Adjustments to the adhesive formulation with or without additives and bonding conditions could optimize their adhesive properties for various practical applications.

  16. Preparation of labelled lipids by the use of plant cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangold, H.K.

    1978-01-01

    The preparation of some radioacitvely labelled lipids by the use of plant cell cultures is discussed and further applications of the new method are suggested. Cell suspension cultures of rape (Brassica napus) and soya (Glycine max) have been used for the preparation of lipids labelled with radioisotopes. Radioactive acetic acid as well as various long-chain fatty acids are readily incorporated into the neutral and ionic lipids of plant cell cultures. In addition, 14 C-labelled glycerol, ethanolamine and choline are well utilized by the cells. Randomly labelled lipids have been obtained by incubating cell suspension cultures of rape and soya with [1- 14 C] acetic acid, and uniformly labelled lipids have been isolated from cultures that had been incubated with a mixture of [1- 14 C] acetic acid plus [2- 14 C] acetic acid. The use of techniques of plant cell cultures for the preparation of lipds labelled with stable or radioactive isotopesappears particularly rewarding because the uptake of precursors by the cells and their incorporation into various lipid compounds proceeds rapidly and often quanitatively.This new approach should be useful also for the biosynthesis of lipids whose acyl moieties contain a spn radical, a fluorescent group, or a light-sensitive label. Thus, plant cell cultures constitute valuable new tools for the biosynthetic preparation of a great variety of labelled lipids. (A.G.)

  17. Standard assays do not predict the efficiency of commercial cellulase preparations towards plant materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabel, M.A.; Maarel, van der M.J.E.C.; Klip, G.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Commercial cellulase preparations are potentially effective for processing biomass feedstocks in order to obtain bioethanol. In plant cell walls, cellulose fibrils occur in close association with xylans (monocotyls) or xyloglucans (dicotyls). The enzymatic conversion of cellulose/xylans is a complex

  18. Standard Assays Do Not Predict the Efficiency of Commercial Cellulase Preparations Towards Plant Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabel, Mirjam A.; Maarel, Marc J.E.C. van der; Klip, Gert; Voragen, Alphons G.J.; Schols, Henk A.

    2006-01-01

    Commercial cellulase preparations are potentially effective for processing biomass feedstocks in order to obtain bioethanol. In plant cell walls, cellulose fibrils occur in close association with xylans (monocotyls) or xyloglucans (dicotyls). The enzymatic conversion of cellulose/xylans is a complex

  19. Fruiting of browse plants affected by pine site preparation in east Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Stransky; Douglas Richardson

    1977-01-01

    Pine planting sites prepared by burning yielded 120 kg/ha of browse fruits the third growing season after site treatment. Control plots yielded 74, KG-bladed plots 57, and chopped plots 41 kg/ha. Blackberries, American beautyberry, sumac, Sebastian bush, muscadine grape, blueberries, and southern wax-myrtle were the principal species. Most fruit was available in summer...

  20. Multi-fields' coordination information integrated platform for nuclear power plant operation preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Chang; Li Yong; Ye Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    To realize the coordination in multi-fields' work and information sharing, by applying the method of Enterprise Architecture (EA), the business architecture, functional flow and application architecture of Nuclear Power Plant's operation preparation information integrated platform are designed, which can realize the information sharing and coordination of multi fields. (authors)

  1. Mapping food: Painting the right picture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    and promote food security. ... natural resource management and food security .... It is used to inform decisions on planting, marketing ... Applying GIS to the process of preparing crop estimates has improved accuracy while lowering costs.

  2. Magnetic Dinner Salads: The Role of Biogenic Magnetite in Cryopreservation for Common Food Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, T. M.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Kobayashi, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Biogenically-precipitated magnetite has been found in organisms ranging from Bacteria, single-celled protists, and many of the animal phyla, where its major function is navigation and magnetoreception. To date there is but a single report of biogenic magnetite in plants (essentially, magnetoferritin), and that is in common grass (Festuca species, from Gajdardziska-Josifovska et. al. doi:10.1127/0935-1221/2001/0013/0863). Recent developments in cryopreservation suggest that ~ 1 mT, ~ 10 Hz oscillating magnetic fields can drastically reduce ice nucleation during freezing, promote supercooling, and minimize cellular damage in living tissues (e.g., Kaku et al., doi: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2012.02.001). Kobayashi & Kirschvink (2014, doi:10.1016/j.cryobiol.2013.12.002) suggest that biogenic magnetite crystals could be the nucleating site for damaging ice crystals, and that they would be driven magneto-mechanically to rotate in those oscillating fields which could inhibit the ice crystal nucleation process. This prompted our investigation into the magnetite content of ordinary fruit and vegetable food products, as knowledge of the natural levels of biogenic magnetite in the human food supply could guide the selection of which foods might work for this type of cryopreservation. Our study involved a range of common foods including avocados, bananas, garlic, and apples. Samples were prepared in a clean lab environment kept free of contaminant particles, and subjected to a variety of standard rock-magnetic tests including IRM and ARM acquisition, and the corresponding Af demagnetization, on a standard 2G™ SRM. Results are consistent with moderately interacting single-domain magnetite (see figure), with moderate inter-particle interaction effects. Typical magnetite concentrations in these samples are in the range of .1 to 1 ng/g for room temperature samples, increasing to the range of 1-10 ng/g when measured frozen (to inhibit thermal rotation of small particles and clumps). If

  3. A Proteomics Sample Preparation Method for Mature, Recalcitrant Leaves of Perennial Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Zhang; Chengying, Lao; Bo, Wang; Dingxiang, Peng; Lijun, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Sample preparation is key to the success of proteomics studies. In the present study, two sample preparation methods were tested for their suitability on the mature, recalcitrant leaves of six representative perennial plants (grape, plum, pear, peach, orange, and ramie). An improved sample preparation method was obtained: Tris and Triton X-100 were added together instead of CHAPS to the lysis buffer, and a 20% TCA-water solution and 100% precooled acetone were added after the protein extraction for the further purification of protein. This method effectively eliminates nonprotein impurities and obtains a clear two-dimensional gel electrophoresis array. The method facilitates the separation of high-molecular-weight proteins and increases the resolution of low-abundance proteins. This method provides a widely applicable and economically feasible technology for the proteomic study of the mature, recalcitrant leaves of perennial plants. PMID:25028960

  4. Elaboration of natural polyfunctional preparations with antiparasitic and biostimulating properties for plant growing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iutynska, G O

    2012-01-01

    Producer of macrolide antibiotic avermectin Streptomyces avermitilis UCM Ac-2179 has been isolated from Ukrainian chernozem soil, its biosynthetic activity has been increased by the traditional selection and chemical mutagenesis methods. Streptomyces avermitilis UCM Ac-2179 synthesizes avermectin with the content of anti-parasitic B-components more than 40%. Addition of exogenous Na-pyruvate (1.5 mg/L) in cultural medium promotes a 2.5-fold augmentation of the avermectin synthesis. The preparation Avercom has been obtained by the method of ethanol extraction from the producer biomass. This preparation includes antibiotic avermectin and other biologically active substances: free amino acids, lipids, phytohormones. Avercom has high nematicidic activity and raises plant resistance to fungal and viral diseases. On the base of Avercom and plant growth regulators the complex preparations Actinolan and Ascoldia have been elaborated. The effectiveness of the biopreparations as nematicidic and plantstimulating means under experimental and industrial conditions was confirmed.

  5. A proteomics sample preparation method for mature, recalcitrant leaves of perennial plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Gang

    Full Text Available Sample preparation is key to the success of proteomics studies. In the present study, two sample preparation methods were tested for their suitability on the mature, recalcitrant leaves of six representative perennial plants (grape, plum, pear, peach, orange, and ramie. An improved sample preparation method was obtained: Tris and Triton X-100 were added together instead of CHAPS to the lysis buffer, and a 20% TCA-water solution and 100% precooled acetone were added after the protein extraction for the further purification of protein. This method effectively eliminates nonprotein impurities and obtains a clear two-dimensional gel electrophoresis array. The method facilitates the separation of high-molecular-weight proteins and increases the resolution of low-abundance proteins. This method provides a widely applicable and economically feasible technology for the proteomic study of the mature, recalcitrant leaves of perennial plants.

  6. Improvement in water-slurry circulation at the Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabokov, A.K.; Fedotov, B.P.; Mitlash, V.V.

    1988-02-01

    The Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant (Donetskugleobogashchenie association) was put into operation in 1935. It processes 570 t/h of coal slurry with an ash content of 38.6% and produces grade T coal for coking and power generation. Coal preparation technology used is described. Shortcomings of the system cause 130 kg of high ash slurries to be recirculated per m/sup 3/ of hydrocyclone drain. Mathematical analysis of the present process and of two improved variants is presented. The analysis permits variants for clarification of the recirculated water to be developed and evaluated and the best one to be selected. The optimum variant permits the amount of thin recirculated slurry to be reduced to 48% and the amount of granular slurry to 13%. Implementation of this variant at the Chumakovskaya coal preparation plant will ensure annual savings of 20,000 rubles.

  7. Quality control of repair of equipment for coal preparation plants. Upravlenie kachestvom remonta oborudovaniya ugleobogatitel'nykh fabrik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okonishnikov, A I; Neskoromnykh, V M; Surzhenko, V S; Sirichenko, R P; Pavlyuchenko, S G; Lesikov, A V

    1984-01-01

    The Ukrniiugleobogashchenie, Kalininsk and Sukhodol'sk coal preparation plants have developed the SUKRO system for control of repair quality of coal preparation equipment in the USSR. The system is based on a system of standards used in coal preparation plants. The following systems of standards used by the SUKRO system are analyzed: organization standards (order of repair in a coal preparation plant, repair planning, spare part systems, methods for determining equipment wear, analysis of equipment failures), standards for maintenance and repair (methods for equipment maintenance, service life of each equipment component or system, structure of preventive repair or repair, organizational models of repair operations, lubrication systems), standards for assessment of labor quality during repair operations. Use of the SUKRO system in the Sukhodol'sk coal preparation plant is evaluated. The SUKRO forms a system of standards for repair and maintenance of equipment considering operation conditions in coal preparation plants, requirements for equipment reliability and service life. (4 refs.)

  8. The importance of hygiene in the domestic kitchen: implications for preparation and storage of food and infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Elizabeth C; Griffith, Christopher J

    2009-03-01

    Public concerns relating to food safety remain high with most attention focused on manufactured foods and those served in catering operations. However, previous data have suggested that the home may be the main location for cases of food-borne disease. The aim of this paper is to review the microbiological risks associated with hygiene in the domestic kitchen related to food and infant formula safety. Compared to other food sectors, research on consumer food hygiene, domestic food-handling and preparation of infant formula is relatively understudied. Behavioural and microbiological studies of consumer hygiene and the domestic kitchen have been reviewed to incorporate research relating to the safety of infant formula. Incidence data identify the home as an important location for acquiring food-borne disease. The domestic kitchen can be used for a variety of purposes and is often contaminated with potentially harmful micro-organisms such as Campylobacter and Salmonella. Consumer hygiene habits have frequently been found to be inadequate and relate both to microbial growth, survival and cross-contamination. Due to the reduced immune response of infants, the activities associated with the preparation of infant formula and associated bottles and equipment are of particular concern. Cumulatively, the data suggest that more effort should be made to educate the consumer in food hygiene, especially when the kitchen is used to reconstitute infant formula. This information needs to be provided in a form appropriate for use by consumers.

  9. Changes in School Food Preparation Methods Result in Healthier Cafeteria Lunches in Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Timothy K; Liebert, Mina L; Peterson, Hannah J; Howard Smith, Jennifer; Sutliffe, Jay T; Day, Aubrey; Mack, Jodi

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of a districtwide food best practices and preparation changes in elementary schools lunches, implemented as part of the LiveWell@School childhood obesity program, funded by LiveWell Colorado/Kaiser Permanente Community Health Initiative. Longitudinal study examining how school changes in best practices for food preparation impacted the types of side items offered from 2009 to 2015 in elementary school cafeterias in a high-need school district in southern Colorado. Specifically, this study examined changes in side items (fruits, vegetables, potatoes, breads, and desserts). In Phase 1 (2009-2010), baseline data were collected. During Phase 2 (2010-2011), breaded and processed foods (e.g., frozen nuggets, pre-packaged pizza) were removed and school chefs were trained on scratch cooking methods. Phase 3 (2011-2012) saw an increased use of fresh/frozen fruits and vegetables after a new commodity order. During Phase 4 (2013-2015), chef consulting and training took place. The frequency of side offerings was tracked across phases. Analyses were completed in Fall 2016. Because of limited sample sizes, data from Phases 2 to 4 (intervention phases) were combined for potatoes and desserts. Descriptive statistics were calculated. After adjusting for length of time for each phase, Pearson chi-square tests were conducted to examine changes in offerings of side items by phase. Fresh fruit offerings increased and canned fruit decreased in Phases 1-4 (p=0.001). A significant difference was observed for vegetables (p=0.001), with raw and steamed vegetables increasing and canned vegetables decreasing from Phase 1 to 4. Fresh potatoes (low in sodium) increased and fried potatoes (high in sodium) decreased from Phase 1 to Phases 2-4 (p=0.001). Breads were eliminated entirely in Phase 2, and dessert changes were not significant (p=0.927). This approach to promoting healthier lunch sides is a promising paradigm for improving elementary

  10. IAEA activities in preparation of reglamentary documents on nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, L.V.

    1976-01-01

    The activities of the IAEA in the field of working out practical rules and recommendations ensuring the nuclear power plant safety are discussed. The practical rules will establish the aims and the minimum of requirements, that must be carried out to ensure the necessary safety of systems, components and equipment of the nuclear power plant throughout the whole period of its exploitation. Described is the procedure of the document preparation, consisting of the collection of documents, edited in different countries, the integration of documents by the IAEA Secretariat, the consideratiom of documents by the Group of senior advisers, the preparation of the draft document, the additional wort at the document in accordaqce with the remarks of the IAEA member-countries, the edition and dissemination of documents. The necessity for the active participation of the CMEA member-countries in the development and discussion of documents concerning the nuclear power plant safety is stated [ru

  11. The use of plants to protect plants and food against fungal pathogens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Plant fungal pathogens play a crucial role in the profitability, quality and quantity of plant production. These phytopathogens are persistent in avoiding plant defences causing diseases and quality losses around the world that amount to billions of US dollars annually. To control the scourge of plant fungal ...

  12. The Stability of Medicinal Plant microRNAs in the Herb Preparation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Xie

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine is now globally accepted as a valid alternative system of pharmaceutical therapies. Various studies around the world have been initiated to develop scientific evidence-based herbal therapies. Recently, the therapeutic potential of medicinal plant derived miRNAs has attracted great attraction. MicroRNAs have been indicated as new bioactive ingredients in medicinal plants. However, the stability of miRNAs during the herbal preparation process and their bioavailability in humans remain unclear. Viscum album L. (European mistletoe has been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Our previous study has indicated the therapeutic potential of mistletoe miRNAs by using bioinformatics tools. To evaluate the stability of these miRNAs, various mistletoe extracts that mimic the clinical medicinal use as well as traditional folk medicinal use were prepared. The mistletoe miRNAs including miR166a-3p, miR159a, miR831-5p, val-miR218 and val-miR11 were quantified by stem-loop qRT-PCR. As a result, miRNAs were detectable in the majority of the extracts, indicating that consumption of medicinal plant preparations might introduce miRNAs into mammals. The factors that might cause miRNA degradation include ultrasonic treatment, extreme heat, especially RNase treatment, while to be associated with plant molecules (e.g., proteins, exosomes might be an efficient way to protect miRNAs against degradation. Our study confirmed the stability of plant derived miRNAs during herb preparations, suggesting the possibility of functionally intact medicinal plant miRNAs in mammals.

  13. The Stability of Medicinal Plant microRNAs in the Herb Preparation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenyan; Melzig, Matthias F

    2018-04-16

    Herbal medicine is now globally accepted as a valid alternative system of pharmaceutical therapies. Various studies around the world have been initiated to develop scientific evidence-based herbal therapies. Recently, the therapeutic potential of medicinal plant derived miRNAs has attracted great attraction. MicroRNAs have been indicated as new bioactive ingredients in medicinal plants. However, the stability of miRNAs during the herbal preparation process and their bioavailability in humans remain unclear. Viscum album L. (European mistletoe) has been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Our previous study has indicated the therapeutic potential of mistletoe miRNAs by using bioinformatics tools. To evaluate the stability of these miRNAs, various mistletoe extracts that mimic the clinical medicinal use as well as traditional folk medicinal use were prepared. The mistletoe miRNAs including miR166a-3p, miR159a, miR831-5p, val-miR218 and val-miR11 were quantified by stem-loop qRT-PCR. As a result, miRNAs were detectable in the majority of the extracts, indicating that consumption of medicinal plant preparations might introduce miRNAs into mammals. The factors that might cause miRNA degradation include ultrasonic treatment, extreme heat, especially RNase treatment, while to be associated with plant molecules (e.g., proteins, exosomes) might be an efficient way to protect miRNAs against degradation. Our study confirmed the stability of plant derived miRNAs during herb preparations, suggesting the possibility of functionally intact medicinal plant miRNAs in mammals.

  14. Critical components of odors in evaluating the performance of food waste composting plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, I-F.; Tsai, C.-J.; Shen, S.-H.; Lin, T.-F.; Chen, W.-K.; Chen, M.-L.

    2006-01-01

    The current Taiwan government policy toward food waste management encourages composting for resource recovery. This study used olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas detector tubes to evaluate the ambient air at three of the largest food waste composting plants in Taiwan. Ambient air inside the plants, at exhaust outlets and plant boundaries was examined to determine the comprehensive odor performance, critical components, and odor elimination efficiencies of various odor control engineering. Analytical results identified 29 compounds, including ammonia, amines, acetic acid, and multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (hydrocarbons, ketones, esters, terpenes and S-compounds) in the odor from food waste composting plants. Concentrations of six components - ammonia, amines, dimethyl sulfide, acetic acid, ethyl benzene and p-Cymene - exceeded human olfactory thresholds. Ammonia, amines, dimethyl sulfide and acetic acid accounted for most odors compared to numerous VOCs. The results also show that the biotrickling filter was better at eliminating the concentrations of odor, NH 3 , amines, S-compounds and VOCs than the chemical scrubber and biofilters. All levels measured by olfactometry at the boundaries of food waste composting plants (range, 74-115 Odor Concentration (OC)) exceeded Taiwan's EPA standard of 50 OC. This study indicated that the malodor problem continued to be a significant problem for food waste recovery

  15. Critical components of odors in evaluating the performance of food waste composting plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, I-F. [Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec.2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: ifmao@ym.edu.tw; Tsai, C.-J. [Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec.2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shen, S.-H. [Department of Environment Management, Jin Wen Institute of Technology, No. 99, An-Chung Rd., Hsin-Tien City, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, T.-F. [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Ta-Hsueh Rd., Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, W.-K. [Department of Environment Management, Jin Wen Institute of Technology, No. 99, An-Chung Rd., Hsin-Tien City, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, M.-L. [Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec.2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: mlchen@ym.edu.tw

    2006-11-01

    The current Taiwan government policy toward food waste management encourages composting for resource recovery. This study used olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas detector tubes to evaluate the ambient air at three of the largest food waste composting plants in Taiwan. Ambient air inside the plants, at exhaust outlets and plant boundaries was examined to determine the comprehensive odor performance, critical components, and odor elimination efficiencies of various odor control engineering. Analytical results identified 29 compounds, including ammonia, amines, acetic acid, and multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (hydrocarbons, ketones, esters, terpenes and S-compounds) in the odor from food waste composting plants. Concentrations of six components - ammonia, amines, dimethyl sulfide, acetic acid, ethyl benzene and p-Cymene - exceeded human olfactory thresholds. Ammonia, amines, dimethyl sulfide and acetic acid accounted for most odors compared to numerous VOCs. The results also show that the biotrickling filter was better at eliminating the concentrations of odor, NH{sub 3}, amines, S-compounds and VOCs than the chemical scrubber and biofilters. All levels measured by olfactometry at the boundaries of food waste composting plants (range, 74-115 Odor Concentration (OC)) exceeded Taiwan's EPA standard of 50 OC. This study indicated that the malodor problem continued to be a significant problem for food waste recovery.

  16. Grewia asiatica L., a Food Plant with Multiple Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Feo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Grewia asiatica L., is a species native to south Asia from Pakistan, east to Cambodia, cultivated primarily for its edible fruit and well-reputed for its diverse medicinal uses. Fruits are a rich source of nutrients such as proteins, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals and contain various bioactive compounds, like anthocyanins, tannins, phenolics and flavonoids. Different parts of this plant possess different pharmacological properties. Leaves have antimicrobial, anticancer, antiplatelet and antiemetic activities; fruit possess anticancer, antioxidant, radioprotective and antihyperglycemic properties; while stem bark possesses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. This review focuses on the botanical description, phytochemistry, nutritional studies and pharmacological properties of this plant.

  17. Preparation of Some Eco-friendly Corrosion Inhibitors Having Antibacterial Activity from Sea Food Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mohamed H M; El-Hady, Mohamed F; Shehata, Hassan A H; Hegazy, Mohammad A; Hefni, Hassan H H

    2013-03-01

    Chitosan is one of the important biopolymers and it is extracted from exoskeletons of crustaceans in sea food waste. It is a suitable eco-friendly carbon steel corrosion inhibitor in acid media; the deacetylation degree of prepared chitosan is more than 85.16 %, and the molecular weight average is 109 kDa. Chitosan was modified to 2-N,N-diethylbenzene ammonium chloride N-oxoethyl chitosan (compound I), and 12-ammonium chloride N-oxododecan chitosan (compound II) as soluble water derivatives. The corrosion inhibition efficiency for carbon steel of compound (I) in 1 M HCl at varying temperature is higher than for chitosan and compound (II). However, the antibacterial activity of chitosan for Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans is higher than for its derivatives, and the minimum inhibition concentration and minimum bacterial concentration of chitosan and its derivatives were carried out with the same strain.

  18. A Dynamic Time Warping Approach to Real-Time Activity Recognition for Food Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Cuong; Plötz, Thomas; Olivier, Patrick

    We present a dynamic time warping based activity recognition system for the analysis of low-level food preparation activities. Accelerometers embedded into kitchen utensils provide continuous sensor data streams while people are using them for cooking. The recognition framework analyzes frames of contiguous sensor readings in real-time with low latency. It thereby adapts to the idiosyncrasies of utensil use by automatically maintaining a template database. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the classification approach by a number of real-world practical experiments on a publically available dataset. The adaptive system shows superior performance compared to a static recognizer. Furthermore, we demonstrate the generalization capabilities of the system by gradually reducing the amount of training samples. The system achieves excellent classification results even if only a small number of training samples is available, which is especially relevant for real-world scenarios.

  19. SPE/TLC/Densitometric Quantification of Selected Synthetic Food Dyes in Liquid Foodstuffs and Pharmaceutical Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna W. Sobańska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selected synthetic food dyes (tartrazine, Ponceau 4R, Brilliant Blue, orange yellow, and azorubine were isolated from liquid preparations (mouthwashes and beverages by Solid Phase Extraction on aminopropyl-bonded silica with diluted aqueous sodium hydroxide as an eluent. The extraction step was followed by thin layer chromatography on silica gel 60 with chloroform-isopropanol-25% aq. ammonia 1 : 3 : 1 (v/v/v as mobile phase and the densitometric quantification of dyes was achieved using quadratic calibration plots (R2>0.997; LOQ = 0.04–0.09 μgspot−1. The overall recoveries for all studied dyes were at the average level of over 90% and the repeatability of the proposed procedure (CV ≤ 4.1% was sufficient to recommend it for the routine quantification of the aforementioned dyes in liquid matrices.

  20. Public-Private Partnerships in Plant Genomics for Global Food

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ina

    2012-06-06

    Jun 6, 2012 ... revolution in the way we approach the science of crop im- provement. ... to transition its emphasis from generation of sequence data ...... genetic markers for Ug99 stem rust. 2009- ..... Plant Cell Physiology 52(12): 2017-2038.

  1. Comparative safety assessment of plant-derived foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, E.J.; Keijer, J.; Kleter, G.A.; Kuiper, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    The second generation of genetically modified (GM) plants that are moving towards the market are characterized by modifications that may be more complex and traits that more often are to the benefit of the consumer. These developments will have implications for the safety assessment of the resulting

  2. Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Changing lifestyles have recently caused a severe reduction of the gathering of wild food plants. Knowledge about wild food plants and the local environment becomes lost when plants are no longer gathered. In Central Europe popular scientific publications have tried to counter this trend. However, detailed and systematic scientific investigations in distinct regions are needed to understand and preserve wild food uses. This study aims to contribute to these investigations. Methods Research was conducted in the hill country east of Graz, Styria, in Austria. Fifteen farmers, most using organic methods, were interviewed in two distinct field research periods between July and November 2008. Data gathering was realized through freelisting and subsequent semi-structured interviews. The culinary use value (CUV) was developed to quantify the culinary importance of plant species. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on gathering and use variables to identify culture-specific logical entities of plants. The study presented was conducted within the framework of the master's thesis about wild plant gathering of the first author. Solely data on gathered wild food species is presented here. Results Thirty-nine wild food plant and mushroom species were identified as being gathered, whereas 11 species were mentioned by at least 40 percent of the respondents. Fruits and mushrooms are listed frequently, while wild leafy vegetables are gathered rarely. Wild foods are mainly eaten boiled, fried or raw. Three main clusters of wild gathered food species were identified: leaves (used in salads and soups), mushrooms (used in diverse ways) and fruits (eaten raw, with milk (products) or as a jam). Conclusions Knowledge about gathering and use of some wild food species is common among farmers in the hill country east of Graz. However, most uses are known by few farmers only. The CUV facilitates the evaluation of the culinary importance of species and makes comparisons

  3. Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schunko Christoph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changing lifestyles have recently caused a severe reduction of the gathering of wild food plants. Knowledge about wild food plants and the local environment becomes lost when plants are no longer gathered. In Central Europe popular scientific publications have tried to counter this trend. However, detailed and systematic scientific investigations in distinct regions are needed to understand and preserve wild food uses. This study aims to contribute to these investigations. Methods Research was conducted in the hill country east of Graz, Styria, in Austria. Fifteen farmers, most using organic methods, were interviewed in two distinct field research periods between July and November 2008. Data gathering was realized through freelisting and subsequent semi-structured interviews. The culinary use value (CUV was developed to quantify the culinary importance of plant species. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on gathering and use variables to identify culture-specific logical entities of plants. The study presented was conducted within the framework of the master's thesis about wild plant gathering of the first author. Solely data on gathered wild food species is presented here. Results Thirty-nine wild food plant and mushroom species were identified as being gathered, whereas 11 species were mentioned by at least 40 percent of the respondents. Fruits and mushrooms are listed frequently, while wild leafy vegetables are gathered rarely. Wild foods are mainly eaten boiled, fried or raw. Three main clusters of wild gathered food species were identified: leaves (used in salads and soups, mushrooms (used in diverse ways and fruits (eaten raw, with milk (products or as a jam. Conclusions Knowledge about gathering and use of some wild food species is common among farmers in the hill country east of Graz. However, most uses are known by few farmers only. The CUV facilitates the evaluation of the culinary importance of species and

  4. Food-Energy Interactive Tradeoff Analysis of Sustainable Urban Plant Factory Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chun Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the food–energy interactive nexus of sustainable urban plant factory systems. Plant factory systems grow agricultural products within artificially controlled growing environment and multi-layer vertical growing systems. The system controls the supply of light, temperature, humidity, nutrition, water, and carbon dioxide for growing plants. Plant factories are able to produce consistent and high-quality agricultural products within less production space for urban areas. The production systems use less labor, pesticide, water, and nutrition. However, food production of plant factories has many challenges including higher energy demand, energy costs, and installation costs of artificially controlled technologies. In the research, stochastic optimization model and linear complementarity models are formulated to conduct optimal and equilibrium food–energy analysis of plant factory production. A case study of plant factories in the Taiwanese market is presented.

  5. Home food preparation techniques impacted the availability of natural antioxidants and bioactivities in kale and broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Gao, Boyan; Li, Yanfang; Wang, Thomas T Y; Luo, Yinghua; Wang, Jing; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2018-01-24

    This study evaluated the effects of grinding and chopping with/without microwaving on the health-beneficial components, and antioxidant, anti-inflammation and anti-proliferation capacities of commercial kale and broccoli samples. The availability of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolic contents, the scavenging activities against DPPH, oxygen, hydroxyl and ABTS cation radicals, and cell-based antioxidant activities were determined for the antioxidant capacities. The results indicated that chopping released the least nutraceutical components and antioxidant compounds. Microwaving had no effect on the I3C release from kale, but resulted in an elevated (more than 2-fold) release of I3C from broccoli. In addition, the choice of a blender affected the availability of the anti-proliferative compounds from the vegetables, while it had no effect on the availability of their anti-inflammatory compounds. In summary, different food preparation methods could strongly impact the availability of bioactive factors in the selected vegetables. These findings suggest that choosing an appropriate food processing method for each vegetable might be critical to obtain desirable health-beneficial effects.

  6. Dose estimation from food intake due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Kunugita, Naoki; Takahashi, Kunihiko

    2013-01-01

    Since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, concerns have arisen about the radiation safety of food raised at home and abroad. Therefore, many measures have been taken to address this. To evaluate the effectiveness of these measures, dose estimation due to food consumption has been attempted by various methods. In this paper, we show the results of dose estimation based on the monitoring data of radioactive materials in food published by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The Radioactive Material Response Working Group in the Food Sanitation Subcommittee of the Pharmaceutical Affairs and Food Sanitation Council reported such dose estimation results on October 31, 2011 using monitoring data from immediately after the accident through September, 2011. Our results presented in this paper were the effective dose and thyroid equivalent dose integrated up to December 2012 from immediately after the accident. The estimated results of committed effective dose by age group derived from the radioiodine and radiocesium in food after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident showed the highest median value (0.19 mSv) in children 13-18 years of age. The highest 95% tile value, 0.33 mSv, was shown in the 1-6 years age range. These dose estimations from food can be useful for evaluation of radiation risk for individuals or populations and for radiation protection measures. It would also be helpful for the study of risk management of food in the future. (author)

  7. Plant nutraceuticals as antimicrobial agents in food preservation: terpenoids, polyphenols and thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Del-Río, Ignacio; Fernández, Javier; Lombó, Felipe

    2018-05-16

    Synthetic food additives generate a negative perception in consumers. Therefore, food manufacturers search for safer natural alternatives as those involving phytochemicals and plant essential oils. These bioactives have antimicrobial activities widely proved in in vitro tests. Foodborne diseases cause thousands of deaths and millions of infections every year, mainly due to pathogenic bacteria as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes or Staphylococcus aureus. This review summarizes industrially interesting antimicrobial bioactivities, as well as their mechanisms of action, for three main types of plant nutraceuticals, terpenoids (as carnosic acid), polyphenols (as quercetin) and thiols (as allicin), which are important constituents of plant essential oils with a broad range of antimicrobial effects. These phytochemicals are widely distributed in fruits and vegetables and are really useful in food preservation as they inhibit microbial growth. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Medicine is not health care, food is health care: plant metabolic engineering, diet and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathie; Li, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Contents 699 I. 699 II. 700 III. 700 IV. 706 V. 707 VI. 714 714 References 714 SUMMARY: Plants make substantial contributions to our health through our diets, providing macronutrients for energy and growth as well as essential vitamins and phytonutrients that protect us from chronic diseases. Imbalances in our food can lead to deficiency diseases or obesity and associated metabolic disorders, increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Nutritional security is now a global challenge which can be addressed, at least in part, through plant metabolic engineering for nutritional improvement of foods that are accessible to and eaten by many. We review the progress that has been made in nutritional enhancement of foods, both improvements through breeding and through biotechnology and the engineering principles on which increased phytonutrient levels are based. We also consider the evidence, where available, that such foods do enhance health and protect against chronic diseases. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Factors influencing workers to follow food safety management systems in meat plants in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Brita; Wilcock, Anne; Aung, May

    2009-06-01

    Small and medium sized food businesses have been slow to adopt food safety management systems (FSMSs) such as good manufacturing practices and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP). This study identifies factors influencing workers in their implementation of food safety practices in small and medium meat processing establishments in Ontario, Canada. A qualitative approach was used to explore in-plant factors that influence the implementation of FSMSs. Thirteen in-depth interviews in five meat plants and two focus group interviews were conducted. These generated 219 pages of verbatim transcripts which were analysed using NVivo 7 software. Main themes identified in the data related to production systems, organisational characteristics and employee characteristics. A socio-psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour is proposed to describe how these themes and underlying sub-themes relate to FSMS implementation. Addressing the various factors that influence production workers is expected to enhance FSMS implementation and increase food safety.

  10. Effect of humic-plant feed preparations on biochemical blood parameters of laying hens in deep litter housing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubel, F; Dobrzański, Z; Gaweł, A; Pogoda-Sewerniak, K; Grela, E R

    2015-01-01

    An influence of various humic-plant feed additives based on some herbs (nettle, chamomile, yarrow, perforatum), lucerne and humic materials on biochemical indices of Lohmann Brown (LB) layers blood plasma was estimated. Hens were housed in deep litter system, 20 birds in a group. Four groups were formed: control (C - standard feeding), and experimental, supplemented with prepara- tions: E-1 herbal-humic, E-2 humic-herbal and E-3--humic-lucerne. Hens were placed in the pens on the 16th week of life, addition of preparations with standard food mixture started at the 22nd wk and lasted until 66th wk of life. Blood for analyses was collected four times in the following periods: 27, 37, 54 and 65th wk of life. The applied humic-plant preparations to a limited degree affected the values of examined biochemical parameters in serum: total protein (TP), albumins (Albs), glucose (Glu), urea, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TCh), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminot- ransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). It is difficult to determine based on these study, which preparation is one the most active biologically, however is seems that humic-lucerne prepara- tion affected the examined blood parameters to the highest degree. The reference values ranges in hens blood serum LB hens were proposed for: TP (43-65 g/l), Albs (15-22 g/l), urea (0.5-1.2 mmol/l), Glu 10-15 mmol/l), TCh (2.2-4.5 mmol/l), TAG (10-24 mmol/l), AST (4-12 U/l), ALT (150-280 mmol/l) and ALP (190-350 U/l).

  11. Impact of the Healthy Foods North nutrition intervention program on Inuit and Inuvialuit food consumption and preparation methods in Canadian Arctic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahdooz, Fariba; Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Mead, Erin; Beck, Lindsay; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2014-07-04

    The 12-month Healthy Foods North intervention program was developed to improve diet among Inuit and Inuvialuit living in Arctic Canada and assess the impact of the intervention established for the communities. A quasi-experimental study randomly selected men and women (≥19 years of age) in six remote communities in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. Validated quantitative food frequency and adult impact questionnaires were used. Four communities received the intervention and two communities served as delayed intervention controls. Pre- and post-intervention changes in frequency of/total intake of de-promoted food groups and healthiness of cooking methods were determined. The impact of the intervention was assessed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Post-intervention data were analysed in the intervention (n = 221) and control (n = 111) communities, with participant retention rates of 91% for Nunavut and 83% for the Northwest Territories. There was a significant decrease in de-promoted foods, such as high fat meats (-27.9 g) and high fat dairy products (-19.8 g) among intervention communities (all p ≤ 0.05). The use of healthier preparation methods significantly increased (14.7%) in intervention communities relative to control communities. This study highlights the importance of using a community-based, multi-institutional nutrition intervention program to decrease the consumption of unhealthy foods and the use of unhealthy food preparation methods.

  12. Review of scientific Research results in identification of plant raw materials in food products

    OpenAIRE

    GOLUBTSOVA YU. V.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the science-based capabilities have been generated to develop and test various identification methods of food products and reveal adulteration using advanced technique and processes. This article reviews researches and developments to identify the plant raw materials in food products based on morphological, anatomic, physical and chemical test methods and the latest DNA-technologies. Review of physical, chemical, anatomic and morphological test methods to identify raw materials bot...

  13. Plants and mushrooms as sources of bio-based food coloring, preserving and bioactive agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2018-01-01

    Food additives have been used for thousands of years to enhance food properties, safety and appearance. Nevertheless, several of the worldwide used artificial additives have been related to potential toxic and allergenic effects to the consumers, which has been justifying the growing interest in additives of natural origin that provide colouring, preserving, and bioactive properties to foodstuff without hazardous effects [1]. In this context, several plants and mushrooms have been...

  14. Traditional and Current Food Use of Wild Plants Listed in the Russian Pharmacopoeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikov, Alexander N; Tsitsilin, Andrey N; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Valery G; Heinrich, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Historically Russia can be regarded as a "herbophilious" society. For centuries the multinational population of Russia has used plants in daily diet and for self-medication. The specificity of dietary uptake of medicinal plants (especially those in the unique and highly developed Russian herbal medical tradition) has remained mostly unknown in other regions. Based on 11th edition of the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR, we selected 70 wild plant species which have been used in food by local Russian populations. Empirical searches were conducted via the Russian-wide applied online database E-library.ru, library catalogs of public libraries in St-Petersburg, the databases Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and search engine Google Scholar. The large majority of species included in Russian Pharmacopoeia are used as food by local population, however, aerial parts are more widely used for food. In this review, we summarize data on medicinal species published in Russia and other countries that are included in the Russian Pharmacopoeia and have being used in food for a long time. Consequently, the Russian Pharmacopoeia is an important source of information on plant species used traditionally at the interface of food and medicine. At the same time, there are the so-called "functional foods", which denotes foods that not only serves to provide nutrition but also can be a source for prevention and cure of various diseases. This review highlights the potential of wild species of Russia monographed in its pharmacopeia for further developing new functional foods and-through the lens of their incorporation into the pharmacopeia-showcases the species' importance in Russia.

  15. An ethnobotanical perspective on traditional fermented plant foods and beverages in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Pieroni, Andrea; Biró, Marianna; Dénes, Andrea; Dogan, Yunus; Hajdari, Avni; Kalle, Raivo; Reade, Benedict; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nedelcheva, Anely; Quave, Cassandra L; Łuczaj, Łukasz

    2015-07-21

    Fermented food and beverages represent an important part of the worldwide foodscape, medicinal food domain and domestic strategies of health care, yet relevant traditional knowledge in Europe is poorly documented. Review of primary ethnographic literature, archival sources and a few ad-hoc ethnobotanical field studies in seven selected Eastern European countries (Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Kosovo, and Poland) were conducted. Current or recently abandoned uses of 116 botanical taxa, belonging to 37 families in fermented food or medicinal food products were recorded. These findings demonstrate a rich bio-cultural diversity of use, and also a clear prevalence of the use of fruits of the tannin- and phenolic-rich Rosaceae species in alcoholic, lactic- and acetic acid fermented preparations. In the considered countries, fermentation still plays (or has played until recent years) a crucial role in folk cuisines and this heritage requires urgent and in-depth evaluation. Future studies should be aimed at further documenting and also bio-evaluating the ingredients and processes involved in the preparation of homemade fermented products, as this can be used to support local, community-based development efforts to foster food security, food sovereignty, and small-scale local food-based economies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of biological and chemical preparations on peroxidase activity in leaves of tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Kolomiets

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In terms of treating tomato variety Chaika with chemical preparations with active substances if aluminum phosphate, 570 g/l + phosphorous acid 80 g/,l and mankotseb in concentration of 640 g/kg, the maximum increase in peroxidase activity in leaves of plants was observed in12 hours. In terms of use of biological preparations based on living cells Bacillus subtilis and Azotobacter chroococcum its activity was maximum in 24 hours and ranged from 77.7 to 112.7 un.mg-1•s-1

  17. Nutritive values of some food plants, fresh and processed fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aberoumand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of four edible plant foods species, three fish species and one prawn were analyzed in Food Chemistry Laboratory of Behbahan Khatam Alanbia University of Technology, Behbahan, Iran in 2014. The analysis of fatty acid and sugars composition were performed by gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Protein and lipid content were founded higher in baked and fried in fish S. commersonnianus (74.29%, (20.20%, fish Sphyraena helleri (88.12% and (17.77%, respectively. Ash content in fish S. commersonnianus varies from 9.80% to 15.34%, and in fish S. helleri from 5.83% to 7.68%. Based on the proximate analysis, it can be calculated that an edible portion of 100 g of studied edible plant foods provides, on average, around 303.9±1.04 kcal. The plant Portulaca neglecta is suitable for high temperature food processes. The macronutrient profile in general revealed that the wild plant foods were with rich sources of protein and carbohydrates, and had low amounts of fat. The highest protein, the lowest fat and energy contents were found in boiled in both fish species; therefore, boiling can be recommended as the best cooking method for healthy diet.

  18. The use of wild plants as food in pre-industrial Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the actual gathering and use of wild edible plants in the 18th and 19th centuries, with a brief concluding discussion on the present day use of wild plants as food within Sweden. The peasants and the nomads in pre-industrial Sweden utilised very few wild plant taxa as food. Many even despised the wild fruits and green plants. Some plants and fruits were earlier mostly eaten fresh on the spot, or gathered for consumption in bread, gruel or soup. Other fruits were dried or preserved in other ways. In times of food shortages the amount of wild plants increased in the diet, but still the peasantry and nomads were often able to use fish and game to provide enough nutrients. With access to cheap sugar in the early 20th century wild fruits (Vaccinium myrtillus L., V. vitis-idaea L., and Rubus chamaemorus L. increased in importance, especially among urban-dwellers and within food industry. In the last few decades fungi have also become part of the urban diet. Fifty years ago working class people gathered only Cantharellus cibarius (Fr. and occasionally Boletus edulis Bull. Nowadays more taxa are utilised within the Swedish households, and especially the easy to pick Cantharellus tubaeformis (Pers. has become very popular recently. Harvesting fruits and mushrooms in the forests is a popular pastime for many urban people, but also a source of income for immigrants and especially foreign seasonal labour. The only traditional green wild food plant that is regularly eaten in contemporary Sweden is Urtica dioica L.

  19. Interaction of plant phenols with food macronutrients: characterisation and nutritional-physiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Dandan; Sun, Jing; Liu, Xianting; Jiang, Lu; Guo, Huiyuan; Ren, Fazheng

    2014-06-01

    Polyphenols are dietary constituents of plants associated with health-promoting effects. In the human diet, polyphenols are generally consumed in foods along with macronutrients. Because the health benefits of polyphenols are critically determined by their bioavailability, the effect of interactions between plant phenols and food macronutrients is a very important topic. In the present review, we summarise current knowledge, with a special focus on the in vitro and in vivo effects of food macronutrients on the bioavailability and bioactivity of polyphenols. The mechanisms of interactions between polyphenols and food macronutrients are also discussed. The evidence collected in the present review suggests that when plant phenols are consumed along with food macronutrients, the bioavailability and bioactivity of polyphenols can be significantly affected. The protein-polyphenol complexes can significantly change the plasma kinetics profile but do not affect the absorption of polyphenols. Carbohydrates can enhance the absorption and extend the time needed to reach a maximal plasma concentration of polyphenols, and fats can enhance the absorption and change the absorption kinetics of polyphenols. Moreover, as highlighted in the present review, not only a nutrient alone but also certain synergisms between food macronutrients have a significant effect on the bioavailability and biological activity of polyphenols. The review emphasises the need for formulations that optimise the bioavailability and in vivo activities of polyphenols.

  20. Study on standard coal preparation plant for coking coal in Jharia Coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiewski, J; Sarkar, G G

    1975-10-01

    The proposed standardization of coal preparation plant will be based on three standard types of crushing station, a standard jig washery or cyclone washery, and three standard types of slurry water treatment section. Some large installations, and some existing washeries after modification, may incorporate heavy media baths for coarse coal and jigs for slack coal, where coal is easy or moderately easy to wash. Flow sheets are given for the standard types of crushing plant, washery, and slurry water circuit. The storage of raw coal and saleable products is briefly discussed.

  1. Formation of Plant Sterol Oxidation Products in Foods during Baking and Cooking Using Margarine without and with Added Plant Sterol Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuguang; Knol, Diny; Menéndez-Carreño, María; Blom, Wendy A M; Matthee, Joep; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Trautwein, Elke A

    2016-01-27

    Plant sterols (PS) in foods are subject to thermal oxidation to form PS oxidation products (POP). This study measured POP contents of 19 foods prepared by typical household baking and cooking methods using margarines without (control) and with 7.5% added PS (as 12.5% PS-esters, PS-margarine). Median POP contents per portion size of cooked foods were 0.57 mg (range 0.05-1.11 mg) with control margarine versus 1.42 mg (range 0.08-20.5 mg) with PS-margarine. The oxidation rate of PS (ORP) was 0.50% (median) with the PS-margarine and 3.66% with the control margarine. Using the PS-margarine, microwave-cooked codfish had the lowest POP content, with 0.08 mg per portion, while shallow-fried potatoes had the highest POP content, 20.5 mg per portion. Median POP contents in cookies, muffins, banana bread, and sponge cake baked with the control or PS-margarine were 0.12 mg (range 0.11-0.21 mg) and 0.24 mg (range 0.19-0.60 mg) per portion, with a corresponding ORP of 1.38% and 0.06%, respectively. POP contents in all the cooked and baked foods did not exceed 20.5 mg per typical portion size. A wide variation in the distribution of individual POP among different foods existed, with 7-keto-PS and 5,6-epoxy-PS being the major oxidation products.

  2. The role of food-related shopping, preparation and meal practices in diet quality and association with depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Toft, Madeleine Broman; Stancu, Catalin Mihai

    Purpose: Depression has become a major public health concern. Previous research indicates that depression is associated with diet quality and irregularity of meals. Yet, very few studies have addressed the role of food provisioning related behaviours, such as buying, storing and preparing food......-item instruments. Data was analysed by using cluster analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Results: The results confirmed that impulse buying and eating food on-the-go had a negative association with overall quality of diet, as well as a positive association with depressive...

  3. The role of food-related shopping and preparation practices in diet quality and association with depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Madeleine Broman; Pedersen, Susanne; Stancu, Catalin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Depression has become a major public health concern. Previous research indicates that depression is associated with diet quality and irregularity of meals. Yet, very few studies have addressed the role of food provisioning related behaviours, such as buying, storing and preparing food......-item instruments. Data was analysed by using cluster analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Results: The results confirmed that impulse buying and eating food on-the-go had a negative association with overall quality of diet, as well as a positive association with depressive...

  4. Isolation of Arcobacter butzleri in environmental and food samples collected in industrial and artisanal dairy plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Giacometti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence of Arcobacter species in two cheese factories; a total of 22 environmental samples and 10 food samples were collected from an artisanal and an industrial cheese factory; Arcobacter species were isolated after enrichment, and isolates were identified at species level by multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the artisanal cheese factory, Arcobacter spp. were isolated from several environmental samples, cow and water buffalo raw milk and ricotta cheese. In the industrial plant, Arcobacter spp. were isolated from surfaces not in contact with food and from a cleaned surface in contact with food; no Arcobacter spp. was isolated from food. All isolates were identified as A. butzleri. We report of the presence of A. butzleri in a ready-to-eat cheese produced for retail. In addition, the isolation of A. butzleri in food processing surfaces in the two cheese factories could be assessed as a source of potential contamination for cheeses

  5. Discovery and validation of urinary exposure markers for different plant foods by untargeted metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj-Britt Schmidt; Kristensen, Mette; Manach, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    While metabolomics is increasingly used to investigate the food metabolome and identify new markers of food exposure, limited attention has been given to the validation of such markers. The main objectives of the present study were to (1) discover potential food exposure markers (PEMs) for a range...... of plant foods in a study setting with a mixed dietary background and (2) validate PEMs found in a previous meal study. Three-day weighed dietary records and 24-h urine samples were collected three times during a 6-month parallel intervention study from 107 subjects randomized to two distinct dietary...... patterns. An untargeted UPLC-qTOF-MS metabolomics analysis was performed on the urine samples, and all features detected underwent strict data analyses, including an iterative paired t test and sensitivity and specificity analyses for foods. A total of 22 unique PEMs were identified that covered 7 out...

  6. A multipurpose irradiation plant for simultaneous treatment of different foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carassiti, F.; Tata, A.

    1982-01-01

    An industrial multipurpose irradiation plant with a particularly high effectiveness of radiation utilization is presented. The originality of this conceptual design consists of the simultaneous treatment of two products, which are separately irradiated to either high or low absorbed doses. A pneumatical transport system into appropriate channels with air mixing during irradiation has been proposed for the radappertization of granular animal feed, meanwhile a conventional truck-conveyor system has been suggested for the sprout inhibition treatment of potatoes. Moreover, potatoes pass through the irradiation cell twice at high and low level respectively. (author)

  7. RNAi-based GM plants: food for thought for risk assessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, Matthew; Devos, Yann; Lanzoni, Anna; Liu, Yi; Gomes, Ana; Gennaro, Andrea; Waigmann, Elisabeth

    2014-12-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an emerging technology that offers new opportunities for the generation of new traits in genetically modified (GM) plants. Potential risks associated with RNAi-based GM plants and issues specific to their risk assessment were discussed during an international scientific workshop (June 2014) organized by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Selected key outcomes of the workshop are reported here. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Metal nanoparticles (other than gold or silver) prepared using plant extracts for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasca, Roxana-Diana; Santa, Szabolcs; Racz, Levente Zsolt; Racz, Csaba Pal

    2016-12-01

    There are many modalities to prepare metal nanoparticles, but the reducing of the metal ions with plant extracts is one of the most promising because it is considerate less toxic for the environment, suitable for the use of those nanoparticles in vivo and not very expensive. Various metal ions have been already studied such as: cobalt, copper, iron, platinum, palladium, zinc, indium, manganese and mercury and the number of plant extracts used is continuously increasing. The prepared systems were characterized afterwards with a great number of methods of investigation: both spectroscopic (especially UV-Vis spectroscopy) and microscopic (in principal, electron microscopy-TEM) methods. The applications of the metal nanoparticles obtained are diverse and not completely known, but the medical applications of such nanoparticles occupy a central place, due to their nontoxic components, but some diverse industrial applications do not have to be forgotten.

  9. Unconventional methods for food preservation and recovery of phytochemicals from plant wastes: towards a science for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Pinela, José; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2016-01-01

    Plants are irreplaceable sources of food and bioactive phytochemicals. In this sense, this work has been focused on valorisation and processing of traditional plant foods, including medicinal plants (consumed in herbal beverages), leafy vegetables, and tomato farmers’ varieties, but also biowastes (source of biomolecules), using non-conventional and emerging technologies [1]. The preservation of dried medicinal plants (Tuberaria lignosa (Sweet) Samp. and Malva neglecta Wallr.) ...

  10. Dosimetry in radiation plant of food and medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Keiji

    1975-01-01

    The fundamental concept for sterilization is generally to bring the objects into the condition that less than one microorganism can grow in 10 6 products. Therefore required dose differs according to the selection of indexing microorganism. In the U.K., approximately 2.5 Mrad is adopted by employing methylmethacrylate (trade name Perspex) as the standard dosimeter. Japan has no legally controlled sterilization dose, but 2.5 Mrad in adopted in irradiation plants. In Japan, plants for the germination suppression of potatos and onions have been operated, the permitted dose being 15 krad. It is legal obligation to measure dose, and presently Fricke dosimeter is used, though it has some problems. As for rice and wheat sterilization, also Fricke dosimeter meets the requirements for the package forms of box or bag, but problems arise in bulk treatment at silo type equipments. Considering future expansion of application, the following developments may be necessary: dosimeters for 10--50 krad, dosimeters for 0.1 to 0.5 Mrad measurement being able to be handled similarly to Fricke or Perspex dosimeter, and measuring method for absorbed dose of electron beam. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. Improving of the water preparation systems in the industry thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choshnova Daniela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Some modern possibilities for modernization of the water preparation in the heat power plants of metallurgical enterprises are presented. It is focused on the ecological and technological advantages of the methods for obtaining of ultra-pure water. This work is not intended to justify the need of usage of particular technology in an object. This is a separate task requiring in-depth consideration.

  12. Traditional and Current Food Use of Wild Plants Listed in the Russian Pharmacopoeia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Shikov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Historically Russia can be regarded as a “herbophilious” society. For centuries the multinational population of Russia has used plants in daily diet and for self-medication. The specificity of dietary uptake of medicinal plants (especially those in the unique and highly developed Russian herbal medical tradition has remained mostly unknown in other regions. Based on 11th edition of the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR, we selected 70 wild plant species which have been used in food by local Russian populations. Empirical searches were conducted via the Russian-wide applied online database E-library.ru, library catalogs of public libraries in St-Petersburg, the databases Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and search engine Google Scholar. The large majority of species included in Russian Pharmacopoeia are used as food by local population, however, aerial parts are more widely used for food. In this review, we summarize data on medicinal species published in Russia and other countries that are included in the Russian Pharmacopoeia and have being used in food for a long time. Consequently, the Russian Pharmacopoeia is an important source of information on plant species used traditionally at the interface of food and medicine. At the same time, there are the so-called “functional foods”, which denotes foods that not only serves to provide nutrition but also can be a source for prevention and cure of various diseases. This review highlights the potential of wild species of Russia monographed in its pharmacopeia for further developing new functional foods and—through the lens of their incorporation into the pharmacopeia—showcases the species' importance in Russia.

  13. Critical control points for foods prepared in households whose members had either alleged typhoid fever or diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michanie, S; Bryan, F L; Alvarez, P; Olivo, A B; Paniagua, A

    1988-10-01

    Hazard analysis of food preparation practices were conducted in four households and eleven others were visited to survey both food preparation practices and environmental conditions. Households selected had members who were suffering from either diarrhea of unknown etiology or alleged typhoid fever. Hazard analyses and sanitary surveys included gathering data on time-temperature exposures of foods, collecting samples of food and drinking water, sampling sewage or drains, and obtaining stool specimens from persons with diarrhea and from family controls. Food samples were tested for aerobic mesophilic colony counts and common foodborne pathogens; specimens were tested for Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter and Yersinia. Campylobacter was isolated from two persons purported to have diarrhea, but neither Salmonella, Shigella nor Yersinia were recovered from alleged cases or controls. Salmonella agona was recovered from a latrine. Most foods were cooked to internal temperatures to or near to boiling. Those not promptly eaten were held at ambient room or outside temperatures until a subsequent meal, until a family member returned home, or until lunch time when taken to the fields. During these intervals, microorganisms multiplied and mesophilic aerobic organisms increased often reaching 10(8)/g or greater before consumption. None of these foods were reheated before eating. Bacillus cereus was isolated from 4 of 10 samples; one sample of 'moro' (beans and rice) exceeded 10(6)/g, two other samples exceeded 10(3)/g. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 7 of 14 samples, one exceeded 10(5)/g. Fecal coliforms were isolated from 8 of 14 food samples, five exceeded 10(5)/g. Neither Salmonella nor Shigella were isolated from any food, the community water supplies or from vessels of water within houses. Fecal coliform counts of water were less than 3/ml, except one sample from a clay vessel (9/ml). Risks associated with cooked foods which were not promptly eaten appeared to be

  14. Improving occupational conditions in coal preparation plants considering noise factor. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhurbinskii, L.F.; Shabel' nikova, E.V.; Sidorov, E.G.

    1985-11-01

    Three research institutes (IOTT, UkrNIIugleobogashchenie and KuzNIIugleobogashchenie) investigated health hazards associated with noise in coal preparation plants in the Donbass, Kuzbass and Karaganda basins. Investigations showed that there is a close correlation of noise pollution with rate of illness (heart diseases, nervous system diseases, alimentary duct diseases, respiratory diseases and diseases of the auditory organs). An equation which describes the correlation is derived. Correlation coefficient (ranging from 0.75 to 0.94) for each of 4 types of diseases was determined. Analyses showed that reducing noise level from 95 to 85 dB caused a decrease in rate of illness ranging from 2.5 to 3.0 times. Absenteeism due to illness decreased 1.5 to 2.0 times. Investigations also showed that accident rate is influenced by noise level. About 30% of accidents fell on working places with increased noise level. About 10% of accidents fell on working places with noise level of about 85 dB and from 3 to 4% accidents on working places with noise level of about 70 dB. Methods for noise pollution control in coal preparation plants in the USSR are evaluated. Effects of coal transport and handling on noise pollution in coal preparation plants are analyzed.

  15. Environmental Impacts of Plant-Based Diets: How Does Organic Food Consumption Contribute to Environmental Sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Camille; Seconda, Louise; Allès, Benjamin; Hercberg, Serge; Langevin, Brigitte; Pointereau, Philippe; Lairon, Denis; Baudry, Julia; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2018-01-01

    Studies investigating diet-related environmental impacts have rarely considered the production method of the foods consumed. The objective of the present study, based on the NutriNet-Santé cohort, was to investigate the relationship between a provegetarian score and diet-related environmental impacts. We also evaluated potential effect modifications on the association between a provegetarian score and the environmental impacts of organic food consumption. Food intake and organic food consumption ratios were obtained from 34,442 French adults using a food frequency questionnaire, which included information on organic food consumption for each group. To characterize the overall structure of the diets, a provegetarian score was used to identify preferences for plant-based products as opposed to animal-based products. Moreover, three environmental indicators were used to assess diet-related environmental impacts: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, cumulative energy demand (CED), and land occupation. Environmental impacts were assessed using production life cycle assessment (LCA) at the farm level. Associations between provegetarian score quintiles, the level of organic food consumption, and environmental indicators were analyzed using ANCOVAs adjusted for energy, sex, and age. Participants with diets rich in plant-based foods (fifth quintile) were more likely to be older urban dwellers, to hold a higher degree in education, and to be characterized by an overall healthier lifestyle and diet. A higher provegetarian score was associated with lower environmental impacts (GHG emissions Q5vsQ1  = 838/1,664 kg CO 2eq /year, -49.6%, P  impacts but only among participants with diets rich in plant-based products. Future field studies should endeavor to integrate all the components of a sustainable diet, i.e., both diet composition and production methods.

  16. Storage, preparation, and usage of fortified food aid among Guatemalan, Ugandan, and Malawian beneficiaries: a field study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Jonathan P; Brodegard, William C; Pike, Oscar A; Steele, Frost M; Dunn, Michael L

    2008-09-01

    An important consideration in determining the ability of fortified food-aid commodities to meet the nutritional needs of beneficiaries is the manner in which commodities are utilized and prepared and the degree to which micronutrient losses occur during handling and cooking by the beneficiaries. A field study was conducted in Uganda, Malawi, and Guatemala to obtain data on storage, preparation, and usage of fortified blended foods provided by the US Agency for International Development. Interview and observational data on the use of corn-soy blend, cornmeal, soy-fortified cornmeal, soy-fortified bulgur, and fortified vegetable oil were collected from more than 100 households and two wet-feeding sites (where food is prepared and served by staff on-site) in 32 villages. Storage practices by beneficiaries appeared to be appropriate, and all commodities observed were free from off-flavors and odors. Cooking water was typically obtained from boreholes or open wells with a pH range of 4.7 to 7.7 Food preparation usually took place in covered areas with the use of an aluminum or clay pot over a wood-fueled fire. Thin or thick porridges were the most common dishes prepared from cereal-based products, with concentration ranges of 10% to 31% (wt/ wt) in water. Cooking times for porridges ranged from 5 to 53 minutes, with a mean of 26 minutes. Tortillas and beverages were other preparations commonly observed in Guatemala. Vegetable oil was typically used for pan frying. Cooking fuel could be saved and nutritional quality probably improved if relief agencies emphasized shorter cooking times. These data can be used to simulate preparation methods in the laboratory for assessment of the nutritional impact of cooking.

  17. Preparation and application of agar/alginate/collagen ternary blend functional food packaging films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long-Feng; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2015-09-01

    Ternary blend agar/alginate/collagen (A/A/C) hydrogel films with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and grapefruit seed extract (GSE) were prepared. Their performance properties, transparency, tensile strength (TS), water vapor permeability (WVP), water contact angle (CA), water swelling ratio (SR), water solubility (WS), and antimicrobial activity were determined. The A/A/C film was highly transparent, and both AgNPs and GSE incorporated blend films (A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE)) exhibited UV-screening effect, especially, the A/A/C(GSE) film had high UV-screening effect without sacrificing the transmittance. In addition, the A/A/C blend films formed efficient hydrogel film with the water holding capacity of 23.6 times of their weight. Both A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE) composite films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) food-borne pathogenic bacteria. The test results of fresh potatoes packaging revealed that all the A/A/C ternary blend films prevented forming of condensed water on the packaged film surface, both A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE) composite films prevented greening of potatoes during storage. The results indicate that the ternary blend hydrogel films incorporated with AgNPs or GSE can be used not only as antifogging packaging films for highly respiring fresh agriculture produce, but also as an active food packaging system utilizing their strong antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of a community-based food skills intervention on cooking confidence, food preparation methods and dietary choices - an exploratory trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrieden, Wendy L; Anderson, Annie S; Longbottom, Pat J; Valentine, Karen; Stead, Martine; Caraher, Martin; Lang, Tim; Gray, Bill; Dowler, Elizabeth

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of undertaking a food skills intervention study in areas of social deprivation aimed at altering cooking confidence, food preparation methods and dietary choices. A standardised skills programme was implemented in community-based settings. Pre- (T1) and post-intervention (T2) and 6-month follow-up (T3) measures (7-day diaries and self-administered questionnaires) were undertaken in intervention and comparison groups. Eight urban communities in Scotland. One hundred and thirteen adults living in areas of social deprivation. It was clear that many subjects led fragmented lives and found commitment to intervention classes problematic. Sixty-three subjects completed the final (T3) assessments. The response to each component varied due to inability to attend sessions, illness, study requirements, employment, moving out of the area, change in circumstances, loss of interest and loss of postal questionnaires. At baseline, reported consumption of fruit and vegetables was low (mean frequency 8.1 +/- 4.78 times per week). Fruit intake increased significantly (P food skills intervention is likely to have a small but positive effect on food choice and confidence in food preparation. A full-scale randomised controlled trial in this hard-to-reach group would require a range of flexible approaches rather than a fully defined intervention, and presents challenges for trial design.

  19. Inhibition of cholinesterase by essential oil from food plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyana, Wantida; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2012-06-15

    Inhibition of cholinesterase has attracted much attention recently because of its potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In this work, the anticholinesterase activities of plant oils were investigated using Ellman's colorimetric method. The results indicate that essential oils obtained from Melissa officinalis leaf and Citrus aurantifolia leaf showed high acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase co-inhibitory activities. C. aurantifolia leaf oil revealed in this study has an IC(50) value on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase of 139 ± 35 and 42 ± 5 μg/ml, respectively. GC/MS analysis revealed that the major constituents of C. aurantifolia leaf oil are monoterpenoids including limonene, l-camphor, citronellol, o-cymene and 1,8-cineole. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Vegetation and plant food reconstruction of lowermost Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, using modern analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Sandi R

    2007-08-01

    Vegetation and plant foods for hominins of lowermost Bed II, Olduvai Gorge were modeled by examining vegetation in modern habitats in northern Tanzania (Lake Manyara, Ngorongoro, Serengeti) that are analogous to the paleolandscape in terms of climate, land forms, and soil types, as indicated by previous paleoenvironmental studies of Olduvai. Plant species in the modern habitats were identified in a series of sample plots, and those known to be eaten by modern humans, chimpanzees, or baboons were considered potentially edible for early hominins. Within the 50-80 kyr deposition of lowermost Bed II, periods of drier climate were characterized by low lake stands and a broad eastern lacustrine plain containing a mosaic of springs, marsh, woodland, and edaphic grassland. Based on results of this study, plant food diversity in each of those habitats was relatively low, but the mosaic nature of the area meant that hominins could reach several different habitat types within short distances, with access to potential plant foods including marsh plants, grass grains, roots, shrub fruits, edible parts from palms, leafy herbaceous plants, and Acacia pods, flowers, and gum. Based on Manyara analogs, a greater variety of plant foods, such as tree fruits (e.g., Ficus, Trichilia) and the roots and fruits of shrubs (e.g., Cordia, Salvadora) would be expected further east along the rivers in the lacustrine terrace and alluvial fans. Interfluves of the alluvial fans were probably less wooded and offered relatively fewer varieties of plant foods, but there is sparse paleoenvironmental evidence for the character of Olduvai's alluvial fans, making the choice of appropriate modern analogs difficult. In the western side of the basin, based on modern analogs in the Serengeti, riverine habitats provided the greatest variety of edible plant food species (e.g., Acacia, Grewia, Justicia). If the interfluves were grassland, then a large variety of potentially edible grasses and forbs were present

  1. Transfer of lead (Pb) in the soil-plant-mealybug-ladybird beetle food chain, a comparison between two host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Wang, Xingmin; Ashraf, Umair; Qiu, Baoli; Ali, Shaukat

    2017-09-01

    Contamination of soil with heavy metals has become an issue of concern on global scale. This study investigates the translocation of lead (Pb) along the soil - plant (eggplant and tomato) - mealybug (Dysmicoccus neobrevipes) - ladybird beetle (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri) food chain. Soil amendments used for this study were adjusted to 0, 25, 50 and 100mg/kg of Pb (w/w). The results revealed significantly higher transfer of Pb in tomato when compared to eggplant. Bio-magnification of Pb (2-4 times) was observed for soil - root transfer whereas Pb was bio-minimized in later part of food chain (shoot - mealybug - ladybird transfer). A dose dependent increase in transfer of Pb across the multi-trophic food chain was observed for both host plants. A decrease in coefficients of Pb transfer (from root - shoot and shoot - mealybug) was observed with increase in Pb concentrations. Our results also showed removal of Pb from the bodies of ladybird beetle during metamorphosis. Further studies are required to explain the mechanisms or physiological pathways involved in the bio-minimization of Pb across the food chain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Food prepared in iron cooking pots as an intervention for reducing iron deficiency anaemia in developing countries: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerligs, P. D. Prinsen; Brabin, B. J.; Omari, A. A. A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To complete a systematic review of the effect of preparing food cooked in iron pots on haemoglobin concentrations and to assess compliance with pot use. Design and Search strategy We searched The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness,

  3. 21 CFR 20.106 - Studies and reports prepared by or with funds provided by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Administration. (a) The following types of reports and studies prepared by or with funds provided by the Food and... needs and performance. (3) Surveys, compilations, and summaries of data and information. (4) Consumer surveys. (5) Compliance surveys. (6) Compliance programs, except that names of specific firms, the...

  4. The Development of a Competency Based Food Preparations Curriculum for High School Special Needs Students in New Castle County, Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Richard Lee

    A competency-based culinary arts food preparation curriculum for Delaware high school students with special needs was developed during a project that included the following activities: review of the state's existing culinary arts curriculum for regular education students; incumbent worker survey administered to 24 restaurant…

  5. Antioxidant activity of five Brazilian plants used as traditional medicines and food in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Allana K L; Costa, José G M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Cansanção, Isaac F; Santos, Karla K A; Matias, Edinardo F F; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2010-10-01

    This study evaluates the radical-scavenging activity of five plants used as food and medicines in the northeastern region of Brazil. Spectrophotometric analysis of the plants' ethanol extracts was carried out. The antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) test. The antioxidant capacity was measured using ascorbic acid as a positive control. All tested plant extracts showed an antioxidant activity, but the highest activity was observed with the extracts of Momordica charantia and Eugenia jambolana. Therefore, these species must be studied as a putative source of products for use in the prevention and treatment of diseases in which oxidants or free radicals are implicated.

  6. Spatial and seasonal diversity of wild food plants in home gardens of Northeast Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz Garcia, G.S.; Struik, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Wild food plants (WFPs) are major components of tropical home gardens, constituting an important resource for poor farmers. The spatial and seasonal diversity of WFPs was analyzed across multi-species spatial configurations occurring within home gardens in a rice farming village in northeast

  7. A plant culture system for producing food and recycling materials with sweetpotato in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Yano, Sachiko; Hirai, Hiroaki

    2016-07-01

    The long term human life support in space is greatly dependent on the amounts of food, atmospheric O2 and clean water produced by plants. Therefore, the bio-regenerative life support system such as space farming with scheduling of crop production, obtaining high yields with a rapid turnover rate, converting atmospheric CO2 to O2 and purifying water should be established with employing suitable plant species and varieties and precisely controlling environmental variables around plants grown at a high density in a limited space. We are developing a sweetpotato culture system for producing tuberous roots as a high-calorie food and fresh edible leaves and stems as a nutritive functional vegetable food in space. In this study, we investigated the ability of food production, CO2 to O2 conversion through photosynthesis, and clean water production through transpiration in the sweetpotato production system. The biomass of edible parts in the whole plant was almost 100%. The proportion of the top (leaves and stems) and tuberous roots was strongly affected by environmental variables even when the total biomass production was mostly the same. The production of biomass and clean water was controllable especially by light, atmospheric CO2 and moisture and gas regimes in the root zone. It was confirmed that sweetpotato can be utilized for the vegetable crop as well as the root crop allowing a little waste and is a promising functional crop for supporting long-duration human activity in space.

  8. Minor components in food plants--Note I. Flavonol glycosides from Ullucus tuberosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, A; Rastrelli, L; Saturnino, P; Schettino, O

    1991-12-01

    This work deals with the isolation and characterization in Ullucus tuberosus of flavonoids, a class of natural products influencing potentially the taste and nutritional value of the plant food. The three flavonoids, rutin, narcissin and kaempferol 3-O-(2",6"-di-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosil)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, isolated, are devoid of taste, but appear to possess health promoting effects.

  9. Plant foods in the Upper Palaeolithic at Dolní Věstonice? Parenchyma redux

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pryor, A.; Steele, M.; Jones, M. K.; Svoboda, Jiří; Beresford-Jones, D. G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 338 (2013), s. 971-984 ISSN 0003-598X Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Czech Republic * Dolní Věstonice * upper palaeolithic * gravettian * archaeobotany * plant foods * parenchyma Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology Impact factor: 1.594, year: 2013

  10. Supercritical fluid extraction for the detection of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone in low dose irradiated plant foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvatovich, Peter; Miesch, Michel; Hasselmann, Claude; Marchioni, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction [152 bar (15,200 kPa), 80 degrees C, 4 ml min(-1), 60 min], performed on lipids (2 g) previously extracted from irradiated plant foods, allowed a selective extraction of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone and its further detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

  11. Role of Bifidobacterium bifidum and plant food extracts in improving microflora and biochemical and cytogenetic parameters in adjuvant arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.; Mohamed, D. A.; Donya, S. M.; Abd El Khalek, A. B.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present research was to discover plant food extracts and probiotics that may have bioactivity towards chronic inflammation. Three plant food extract mixtures expected to be rich in phenolic compounds, carotenoids and tocopherols were prepared. The anti-inflammatory activity of the different mixtures as well as probiotic bacteria (Bifidobacterium bifidum) were evaluated in adjuvant arthritis in rats. The anti-inflammatory effect, mechanism of action and safety of the three mixtures and Bifidobacterium bifidum were studied by measuring the size of inflammation and the determination of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, colonic bacteria profile and specific cytogenetic parameters. The contents of tocopherols, {beta}-carotene and phenolic compounds in the mixtures were determined. The results show that the tested mixtures and Bifidobacterium bifidum possess promising anti-inflammatory effects. The mechanism of action seems to involve a reduction in oxidative stress and inflammatory bio markers and an effect on colonic microflora. Genotoxicity and DNA fragmentation induced by adjuvant arthritis were prevented after supplementation with the tested mixtures. (Author) 61 refs.

  12. Prospects for the use of plant cell cultures in food biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kevin M; Deroles, Simon C

    2014-04-01

    Plant cell cultures can offer continuous production systems for high-value food and health ingredients, independent of geographical or environmental variations and constraints. Yet despite many improvements in culture technologies, cell line selection, and bioreactor design, there are few commercial successes. This is principally due to the culture yield and market price of food products not being sufficient to cover the plant cell culture production costs. A better understanding of the underpinning biological mechanisms that control the target metabolite biosynthetic pathways may allow the metabolic engineering of cell lines to provide for economically competitive product yields. However, uncertainty around the regulatory and public acceptance of products derived from engineered cell cultures presents a barrier to the uptake of the technology by food product companies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biotransfer of Cd along a soil-plant- mealybug-ladybird food chain: A comparison with host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingmin; Zhang, Can; Qiu, Baoli; Ashraf, Umair; Azad, Rashid; Wu, Jianhui; Ali, Shaukat

    2017-02-01

    Agro-ecosystem contamination by the heavy metals present in different agricultural products is a serious challenge faced by the living organisms. This study explains the cadmium (Cd) transfer from soils contaminated with different cadmium concentrations through a plant (eggplant and tomato) - mealybug (Dysmicoccus neobrevipes) - predator (Cryptolaemus-montrouzieri) food chain. The soils were amended with Cd at the rates of 0, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg (w/w). Our findings showed that considerably higher Cd transfer through tomato plant. Cadmium was biomagnified during soil-root transfer while bio-minimization of Cd was observed for shoot-mealybug - ladybird transfer. Our results further showed sequestration of Cd during the metamorphosis of ladybird beetle whilst transfer of Cd through soil-plant-mealybug-ladybird multi-trophic food chain increased in a dose dependent manner. Our results emphasize the need of further studies to elaborate possible mechanisms of Cd bio-minimization by plants, mealybugs and ladybirds observed during this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Carotenoid deposition in plant and animal foods and its impact on bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiggert, R M; Carle, R

    2017-06-13

    Over the past decades, an enormous body of literature dealing with the natural deposition of carotenoids in plant- and animal-based foods has accumulated. Prominent examples are the large solid-crystalline aggregates in carrots and tomatoes or the lipid-dissolved forms in dairy products and egg yolk. Latest research has identified lipid-dissolved forms in a rare number of plant foods, such as tangerine tomatoes and peach palm fruit (Bactris gasipaes Kunth). In addition, liquid-crystalline forms were assumed in so-called tubular chromoplasts of numerous fruits, e.g., in papaya, mango, and bell pepper. The bioavailability of carotenoids from fresh and processed foods strongly depends on their genuine deposition form, since their effective absorption to the human organism requires their liberation from the food matrix and subsequent solubilization into mixed micelles in the small intestine. Consequently, a broad overview about the natural array of carotenoid deposition forms should be helpful to better understand and modulate their bioavailability from foods. Furthermore, naturally highly bioavailable forms may provide biomimetic models for the improved formulation of carotenoids in food supplements. Therefore, this review paper presents scientific evidence from human intervention studies associating carotenoid deposition forms with their bioavailability, thus suggesting novel technological and dietary strategies for their enhanced absorption.

  15. A novel sample preparation method using rapid nonheated saponification method for the determination of cholesterol in emulsified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, In-Seek; Kwak, Byung-Man; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Leem, Donggil; Yoon, Taehyung; Yoon, Changyong; Jeong, Jayoung; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Jin-Man

    2012-10-01

    In this study, nonheated saponification was employed as a novel, rapid, and easy sample preparation method for the determination of cholesterol in emulsified foods. Cholesterol content was analyzed using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The cholesterol extraction method was optimized for maximum recovery from baby food and infant formula. Under these conditions, the optimum extraction solvent was 10 mL ethyl ether per 1 to 2 g sample, and the saponification solution was 0.2 mL KOH in methanol. The cholesterol content in the products was determined to be within the certified range of certified reference materials (CRMs), NIST SRM 1544 and SRM 1849. The results of the recovery test performed using spiked materials were in the range of 98.24% to 99.45% with an relative standard devitation (RSD) between 0.83% and 1.61%. This method could be used to reduce sample pretreatment time and is expected to provide an accurate determination of cholesterol in emulsified food matrices such as infant formula and baby food. A novel, rapid, and easy sample preparation method using nonheated saponification was developed for cholesterol detection in emulsified foods. Recovery tests of CRMs were satisfactory, and the recoveries of spiked materials were accurate and precise. This method was effective and decreased the time required for analysis by 5-fold compared to the official method. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Co-surfactant free microemulsions: Preparation, characterization and stability evaluation for food application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenbo; Jin, Jun; Zheng, Minying; Zheng, Yan; Xu, Xuebing; Liu, Yuanfa; Wang, Xingguo

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study is to prepare co-surfactant free microalgal oil microemulsions and investigate their properties as well as processing stability for food application. The physicochemical characteristics of the microemulsions were investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), turbidity, conductivity, rheological measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Within the microemulsion region, when the surfactant to oil ratio was 9:1, the hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) was 18nm; when the surfactant to oil ratio was 7.5:1, the hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) was 50nm. Rheological studies proved that the microemulsion system was a pseudoplastic fluid, which followed a shear thinning flow behavior. The loss rate of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was less than 5%wt after ultra high temperature (UHT) and high temperature short time (HTST) thermal treatments. A high content of CaCl2 (10.0%wt) could not destroy the microemulsion system, and it could be stored at 4°C for two years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Wild plant food in agricultural environments: a study of occurrence, management, and gathering rights in Northeast Thailand.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the gathering of wild plant foods in agricultural environments and utilizes research conducted among rice cultivators in northeast Thailand as the case study. The management of wild food plants and gathering rights on agricultural land are closely linked to women's roles as

  18. IgE mediated food allergy in Korean children: focused on plant food allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Soo-Young

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy (FA) is a worldwide problem, with increasing prevalence in many countries, and it poses a clearly increasing health problem in Korea. In Korea, as a part of International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC), a series of nation-wide population studies for prevalence of allergic disease in children were carried out, with the Korean version of ISAAC in 1995, 2000, and 2010. From the survey, the twelve-month prevalence of FA showed no significant differences from 1995 to...

  19. Oral antineoplastic agent interactions with medicinal plants and food: an issue to take into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Borrell, Roberto; Escudero-Vilaplana, Vicente; Romero-Jiménez, Rosa; Iglesias-Peinado, Irene; Herranz-Alonso, Ana; Sanjurjo-Sáez, María

    2016-11-01

    To review interactions between oral antineoplastic agents (OAAs) for the treatment of solid and hematological tumors and common food and medicinal plants. All potential interactions between OAAs, medicinal plants and food were reviewed. OAAs were considered to be drugs for oral administration that have direct antitumor activity and were approved by the European Medicines Agency in April 2015. We performed the literature search in Pubmed(®) considering only medicinal plants and food. In addition, available data were analyzed from each OAA in secondary data sources taken from Thomson Micromedex(®) and Lexi-comp(®), as well as in the summary of product characteristics. Fifty-eight OAAs were analyzed. We found interactions in 60.3 % of OAAs. Those with most interactions described were: imatinib and procarbazine (4 interactions) and erlotinib, vemurafenib, pomalidomide, medroxyprogesterone and methotrexate (3 interactions). We found 39 interactions (74.4 % important). St. John's wort was the medicinal plant with most interactions (92.6 % were considered important). The rest were: important (ginseng-imatinib, methotrexate-cola and tobacco-erlotinib and tobacco-pomalidomide) and moderate (caffeine-vemurafenib/medroxyprogesterone, medroxyprogesterone-ruxolitinib/St. John's wort, garlic-anagrelide and ginseng-procarbazine). Twenty-six interactions (61.5 % important). Grapefruit had most interactions (82.4 % were considered important). The rest were: important (alcohol-procarbazine) and moderate (dairy-estramustine, methotrexate-ethanol, procarbazine-tyramine, vitamin A-tretinoin/bexarotene and grapefruit-bexarotene/etoposide/sunitinib). A review of interactions of medicinal plants and food should be taken into account in the management of OAAs, since more than half have interactions with MPs and food, of which 70.3 % are considered important. The most relevant are HSJ, grapefruit, ginseng and tobacco. This review is intended to serve as a support to all healthcare

  20. Soil-to-Plant Concentration Ratios for Assessing Food Chain Pathways in Biosphere Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-10-01

    This report describes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report summarizes characteristics of samples of soils and groundwater from three geographical regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and analyses performed to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Because the uptake and behavior of radionuclides in plant roots, plant leaves, and animal products depends on the chemistry of the water and soil coming in contact with plants and animals, water and soil samples collected from these regions of the United States were used in experiments at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to determine radionuclide soil-to-plant concentration ratios. Crops and forage used in the experiments were grown in the soils, and long-lived radionuclides introduced into the groundwater provide the contaminated water used to water the grown plants. The radionuclides evaluated include 99Tc, 238Pu, and 241Am. Plant varieties include alfalfa, corn, onion, and potato. The radionuclide uptake results from this research study show how regional variations in water quality and soil chemistry affect radionuclide uptake. Section 3 summarizes the procedures and results of the uptake experiments, and relates the soil-to-plant uptake factors derived. In Section 4, the results found in this study are compared with similar values found in the biosphere modeling literature; the study’s results are generally in line with current literature, but soil- and plant-specific differences are noticeable. This food-chain pathway data may be used by the NRC staff to assess dose to persons in the reference biosphere (e.g., persons who live and work in an area potentially affected by

  1. Wild food plants used on the Dubrovnik coast (south-eastern Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katija Dolina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Croatia’s versatile plant use traditions are still not sufficiently documented. The aim of this study was to record local traditions of wild food plant use on the Dubrovnik coast. We interviewed 40 inhabitants of 23 villages, mainly knowledgeable informants. On average 19 species were listed, which in total produced an inventory of 95 food plant species (including species whose leaves or inflorescences are used as recreational teas. The most commonly collected are: Sonchus oleraceus and S. asper, Asparagus acutifolius, Dioscorea communis, Cichorium intybus, Crepis zacintha, Allium ampeloprasum, Picris echioides and Foeniculum vulgare (all of them used as vegetables, the fruits of Rubus ulmifolius (mainly eaten raw, the fruits of roses (Rosa sempervirens and R. canina and the leaves of Salvia officinalis (both roses and salvia are used for making recreational teas. A particular feature of the local gastronomy is the collection of young Ruscus aculeatus shoots.

  2. Healthier home food preparation methods and youth and caregiver psychosocial factors are associated with lower BMI in African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Rebecca F; Coutinho, Anastasia J; Vaeth, Elisabeth; Christiansen, Karina; Suratkar, Sonali; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2012-05-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects African American (AA) children and adolescents and leads to an increased risk of adult chronic diseases. Eating few meals at home has been implicated as a cause of obesity among youth, but to our knowledge, previous studies have not specifically investigated this relationship in AA adolescents or looked at both the healthfulness and frequency of home meals in AA households. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between home food preparation and adolescent BMI in a sample of 240 AA adolescents aged 10-15 y and their caregivers. Multiple linear regressions were used to model psychosocial characteristics, household factors, and adolescent and caregiver food preparation behaviors as predictors of adolescent BMI, and psychosocial and household factors as predictors of food preparation behavior. Adolescents in the sample had a mean BMI-for-age percentile of 70.4, and >90% of the sample families received at least one form of food assistance. Adolescent children of caregivers who used healthier cooking methods were more likely to use healthy cooking methods themselves (P = 0.02). Having more meals prepared by a caregiver was predictive of higher BMI-for-age percentile in adolescents (P = 0.02), but healthier cooking methods used by the caregiver was associated with reduced risk of adolescent overweight or obesity (P prepared at home in AA households do not necessarily promote healthy BMI in youth. Family meals are a promising adolescent obesity prevention strategy, but it is important to target both frequency and healthfulness of meals prepared at home for effective health promotion in AA families.

  3. Simple preparation of plant epidermal tissue for laser microdissection and downstream quantitative proteome and carbohydrate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eFalter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The outwardly directed cell wall and associated plasma membrane of epidermal cells represent the first layers of plant defense against intruding pathogens. Cell wall modifications and the formation of defense structures at sites of attempted pathogen penetration are decisive for plant defense. A precise isolation of these stress-induced structures would allow a specific analysis of regulatory mechanism and cell wall adaption. However, methods for large-scale epidermal tissue preparation from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, which would allow proteome and cell wall analysis of complete, laser-microdissected epidermal defense structures, have not been provided. We developed the adhesive tape – liquid cover glass technique for simple leaf epidermis preparation from A. thaliana, which is also applicable on grass leaves. This method is compatible with subsequent staining techniques to visualize stress-related cell wall structures, which were precisely isolated from the epidermal tissue layer by laser microdissection coupled to laser pressure catapulting. We successfully demonstrated that these specific epidermal tissue samples could be used for quantitative downstream proteome and cell wall analysis. The development of the adhesive tape – liquid cover glass technique for simple leaf epidermis preparation and the compatibility to laser microdissection and downstream quantitative analysis opens new possibilities in the precise examination of stress- and pathogen-related cell wall structures in epidermal cells. Because the developed tissue processing is also applicable on A. thaliana, well-established, model pathosystems that include the interaction with powdery mildews can be studied to determine principal regulatory mechanisms in plant-microbe interaction with their potential outreach into crop breeding.

  4. Effects of Mechanical Site Preparation on Growth of Oaks Planted on Former Agricultural Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Hodges

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical site preparation is frequently proposed to alleviate problematic soil conditions when afforesting retired agricultural fields. Without management of soil problems, any seedlings planted in these areas may exhibit poor growth and survival. While mechanical site preparation methods currently employed in hardwood afforestation are proven, there is a substantial void in research comparing subsoiling, bedding, and combination plowing treatments. A total of 4,320 bare-root Nuttall oak (Quercus texana Buckley, Shumard oak (Quercus shumardii Buckley, and swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt. seedlings were planted in February 2008 on three Mississippi sites. All sites were of comparable soils and received above average precipitation throughout the three-year duration of the study. Four site preparation treatments were replicated at each site, with 480 seedlings planted in each of nine replications, and a total of 1,440 seedlings per species planted across all sites. Mechanical treatments were installed using 3.1 m row centers, with treatments as follows: control, subsoiling, bedding, and combination plowing. Treatment effects on seedling height, groundline diameter (GLD, and survival were analyzed. Seedlings exhibited greater height in bedded and combination plowed areas (79.7 cm to 102.7 cm and 82.6 cm to 100.1 cm, respectively compared to subsoiled or control areas (70.4 cm to 84.6 cm and 71.4 cm to 86.9 cm, respectively. Greater GLD was observed in bedded and combination plowed areas (11.9 mm to 18.4 mm and 12.2 mm to 18.3 mm, respectively compared to subsoiled or control areas (10.2 mm to 14.6 mm and 10.5 mm to 15.6 mm, respectively. Survival was high for this study (94.%, and no differences were detected among treatments.

  5. NutriChem: a systems chemical biology resource to explore the medicinal value of plant-based foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper; Panagiotou, Gianni; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene

    2015-01-01

    million MEDLINE abstracts for information thatlinks plant-based foods with their small moleculecomponents and human disease phenotypes. Nu-triChem contains text-mined data for 18478 pairs of1772 plant-based foods and 7898 phytochemicals,and 6242 pairs of 1066 plant-based foods and 751diseases. In addition......,there is currently no exhaustive resource on thehealth benefits associated to specific dietary inter-ventions, or a resource covering the broad molecu-lar content of food. Here we present the first releaseof NutriChem, available athttp://cbs.dtu.dk/services/NutriChem-1.0, a database generated by text miningof 21...

  6. Africa's wild C4 plant foods and possible early hominid diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Charles R; Vogel, John C

    2005-03-01

    A small minority of Africa's wild plant foods are C4. These are primarily the seeds of some of the C4 grasses, the rootstocks and stem/leaf bases of some of the C4 sedges (especially papyrus), and the leaves of some of the C4 herbaceous dicots (forbs). These wild food plants are commonly found in disturbed ground and wetlands (particularly the grasses and sedges). Multiple lines of evidence indicate that C4 grasses were present in Africa by at least the late Miocene. It is a reasonable hypothesis that the prehistory of the C4 sedges parallels that of the C4 grasses, but the C4 forbs may not have become common until the late Pleistocene. CAM plants may have a more ancient history, but offer few opportunities for an additional C4-like dietary signal. The environmental reconstructions available for the early South African hominid sites do not indicate the presence of large wetlands, and therefore probably the absence of a strong potential for a C4 plant food diet. However, carbon isotope analyses of tooth enamel from three species of early South African hominids have shown that there was a significant but not dominant contribution of C4 biomass in their diets. Since it appears unlikely that this C4 component could have come predominantly from C4 plant foods, a broad range of potential animal contributors is briefly considered, namely invertebrates, reptiles, birds, and small mammals. It is concluded that the similar average C4 dietary intake seen in the three South African hominid species could have been acquired by differing contributions from the various sources, without the need to assume scavenging or hunting of medium to large grazing ungulates. Effectively similar dominantly dryland paleo-environments may also be part of the explanation. Theoretically, elsewhere in southern and eastern Africa, large wetlands would have offered early hominids greater opportunities for a C4 plant diet.

  7. Apple allergy across Europe: how allergen sensitization profiles determine the clinical expression of allergies to plant foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Bolhaar, Suzanne; González-Mancebo, Eloina; Asero, Riccardo; van Leeuwen, Astrid; Bohle, Barbara; Ma, Yan; Ebner, Christof; Rigby, Neil; Sancho, Ana I.; Miles, Susan; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Knulst, André; Breiteneder, Heimo; Mills, Clare; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; van Ree, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy to a plant food can either result from direct sensitization to that food or from primary sensitization to pollen, latex, or another food. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the primary sensitizers in apple allergy across Europe, the individual allergens involved, and whether

  8. Quantification of protein and total nitrogen in some plant foods of Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are consumed as fruits and vegetables. The study involved the comparison of these plant protein values by selecting them and subjecting them to heat processing and to preparation of canned vegetables. The estimated protein values estimated are 57.0% for Arum, 44.86% for Portulaca, 28.47% for Chlorophytum, 22.69% ...

  9. Risk assessment for pyrrolizidine alkaloids detected in (herbal) teas and plant food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Lu; Mulder, Patrick P.J.; Louisse, Jochem; Peijnenburg, Ad; Wesseling, Sebas; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are plant metabolites present in some botanical preparations, with especially 1,2-unsaturated PAs being of concern because they are genotoxic carcinogens. This study presents an overview of tumour data on PAs and points of departure (PODs) derived from them,

  10. Preparing Soups. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.10b. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with preparing and serving soups. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these areas: thin soups, thick soups, convenience soups,…

  11. Plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: spices as beneficial antidiabetic food adjuncts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, K

    2005-09-01

    Diet has been recognized as a corner stone in the management of diabetes mellitus. Spices are the common dietary adjuncts that contribute to the taste and flavour of foods. Besides, spices are also known to exert several beneficial physiological effects including the antidiabetic influence. This review considers all the available information from animal experimentation as well as clinical trials where spices, their extracts or their active principles were examined for treatment of diabetes. Among the spices, fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenumgraecum), garlic (Allium sativum), onion (Allium cepa), and turmeric (Curcuma longa) have been experimentally documented to possess antidiabetic potential. In a limited number of studies, cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), mustard (Brassica nigra), curry leaves (Murraya koenigii) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) have been reported to be hypoglycaemic.

  12. The use of plants containing genotoxic carcinogens as foods and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsloo, Gerhard; Nogemane, Noluyolo; Street, Renee

    2018-04-05

    In many developing countries, populations rely on traditional medicine for primary health care, which have infiltrated commercial markets globally as natural remedies are generally regarded as safe. Traditional and natural remedies are adapted and expanded in commercial products and product ranges to provide alternatives for various diseases and illnesses. These products resemble very little of the traditional use and application and adverse effects are observed in several cases. Some of the herbs and botanical formulations therefore, are not as safe as are commonly contemplated. This paper discusses some plants that are used as food or medicine. These plants are known to contain chemical components that have been identified as genotoxic carcinogens. Often contradictory results are obtained with beneficial and adverse effects reported. The concentration, biotransformation and metabolism of these compounds, as well as the matrix effect, affect the outcome of these results, therefore not providing a clear picture of the risk associated with the use and consumption of these plants. This paper focuses on plants that are accepted as healthy, however contain compounds that are genotoxic and carcinogenic. We further highlight the risks in use of these plants where thorough studies have been conducted in various food and plant products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Parameters on the radionuclide transfer in crop plants for Korean food chain dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lim, K. M.; Cho, Y. H.

    2001-12-01

    For more realistic assessment of Korean food chain radiation doses due to the operation of nuclear facilities, it is required to use domestically produced data for radionuclide transfer parameters in crop plants. In this report, results of last about 15 years' studies on radionuclide transfer parameters in major crop plants by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, were summarized and put together. Soil-to-plant transfer factors, parameters quantifying the root uptake of radionuclides, were measured through greenhouse experiments and field studies. In addition to traditional transfer factors, which are based on the activity in unit weight of soil, those based on the activity applied to unit area of soil surface were also investigated. Interception factors, translocation factors and weathering half lives, parameters in relation to direct plant contamination, were investigated through greenhouse experiments. The levels of initial plant contamination with HTO and I2 vapor were described with absorption factors. Especially for HTO vapor, 3H levels in crop plants at harvest were expressed with TFWT (tissue free water tritium) reduction factors and OBT (organically bound tritium) production factors. The above-mentioned parameters generally showed great variations with soils, crops and radionuclide species and application times. On the basis of summarized results, the points to be amended or improved in food chain dose assessment models were discussed both for normal operation and for accidental release

  14. Accumulation of contaminants of emerging concern in food crops-part 2: Plant distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Katherine C; Blaine, Andrea C; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Arid agricultural regions often turn to using treated wastewater (reclaimed water) to irrigate food crops. Concerns arise, however, when considering the potential for persistent contaminants of emerging concern to accumulate into plants intended for human consumption. The present study examined the accumulation of a suite of 9 contaminants of emerging concern into 2 representative food crops, lettuce and strawberry, following uptake via the roots and subsequent distribution to other plant tissues. Calculating accumulation metrics (concentration factors) allowed for comparison of the compartmental affinity of each chemical for each plant tissue compartment. The root concentration factor was found to exhibit a positive linear correlation with the pH-adjusted octanol-water partition coefficient (DOW ) for the target contaminants of emerging concern. Coupled with the concentration-dependent accumulation observed in the roots, this result implies that accumulation of these contaminants of emerging concern into plant roots is driven by passive partitioning. Of the contaminants of emerging concern examined, nonionizable contaminants, such as triclocarban, carbamazepine, and organophosphate flame retardants displayed the greatest potential for translocation from the roots to above-ground plant compartments. In particular, the organophosphate flame retardants displayed increasing affinity for shoots and fruits with decreasing size/octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW ). Cationic diphenhydramine and anionic sulfamethoxazole, once transported to the shoots of the strawberry plant, demonstrated the greatest potential of the contaminants examined to be then carried to the edible fruit portion. © 2015 SETAC.

  15. Does involvement in food preparation track from adolescence to young adulthood and is it associated with better dietary quality? Findings from a 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Melissa N; Larson, Nicole I; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2012-07-01

    To examine whether involvement in food preparation tracks over time, between adolescence (15-18 years), emerging adulthood (19-23 years) and the mid-to-late twenties (24-28 years), as well as 10-year longitudinal associations between home food preparation, dietary quality and meal patterning. Population-based, longitudinal cohort study. Participants were originally sampled from Minnesota public secondary schools (USA). Participants enrolled in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults)-I, EAT-II and EAT-III (n 1321). Most participants in their mid-to-late twenties reported an enjoyment of cooking (73 % of males, 80 % of females); however, few prepared meals including vegetables most days of the week (24 % of males, 41 % of females). Participants in their mid-to-late twenties who enjoyed cooking were more likely to have engaged in food preparation as adolescents and emerging adults (P prepared meals including vegetables were more likely to have engaged in food preparation as emerging adults (P food preparation predicted better dietary quality five years later in the mid-to-late twenties, including higher intakes of fruit, vegetables and dark green/orange vegetables, and less sugar-sweetened beverage and fast-food consumption. Associations between adolescent food preparation and later dietary quality yielded few significant results. Food preparation behaviours appeared to track over time and engagement in food preparation during emerging adulthood, but not adolescence, was associated with healthier dietary intake during the mid-to-late twenties. Intervention studies are needed to understand whether promoting healthy food preparation results in improvements in eating patterns during the transition to adulthood.

  16. Non-home prepared foods : contribution to energy and nutrient intake of consumers living in two low-income areas in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't H.; Hartog, den A.P.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the nutritional importance of non-home prepared foods for men, women and schoolchildren living in two low-income residential areas of Nairobi, and the sources of these non-home prepared foods. Design, setting and subjects: A survey was conducted in Korogocho, a slum area, and

  17. Elevating optimal human nutrition to a central goal of plant breeding and production of plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, David C; Morris, Cindy E; Dratz, Edward A; Pilgeram, Alice

    2009-11-01

    High-yielding cereals and other staples have produced adequate calories to ward off starvation for much of the world over several decades. However, deficiencies in certain amino acids, minerals, vitamins and fatty acids in staple crops, and animal diets derived from them, have aggravated the problem of malnutrition and the increasing incidence of certain chronic diseases in nominally well-nourished people (the so-called diseases of civilization). Enhanced global nutrition has great potential to reduce acute and chronic disease, the need for health care, the cost of health care, and to increase educational attainment, economic productivity and the quality of life. However, nutrition is currently not an important driver of most plant breeding efforts, and there are only a few well-known efforts to breed crops that are adapted to the needs of optimal human nutrition. Technological tools are available to greatly enhance the nutritional value of our staple crops. However, enhanced nutrition in major crops might only be achieved if nutritional traits are introduced in tandem with important agronomic yield drivers, such as resistance to emerging pests or diseases, to drought and salinity, to herbicides, parasitic plants, frost or heat. In this way we might circumvent a natural tendency for high yield and low production cost to effectively select against the best human nutrition. Here we discuss the need and means for agriculture, food processing, food transport, sociology, nutrition and medicine to be integrated into new approaches to food production with optimal human nutrition as a principle goal.

  18. Possible causes of variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries prepared in food service establishments: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanny, M; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S; Luning, P A

    2012-05-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, and its presence in a range of fried and oven-cooked foods has raised considerable health concern world-wide. Dietary intake studies observed significant variations in acrylamide concentrations, which complicate risk assessment and the establishment of effective control measures. The objective of this study was to obtain an insight into the actual variation in acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared under typical conditions in a food service establishment (FSE). Besides acrylamide, frying time, frying temperature, and reducing sugars were measured and the actual practices at receiving, thawing and frying during French fries preparation were observed and recorded. The variation in the actual frying temperature contributed most to the variation in acrylamide concentrations, followed by the variation in actual frying time; no obvious effect of reducing sugars was found. The lack of standardised control of frying temperature and frying time (due to inadequate frying equipment) and the variable practices of food handlers seem to contribute most to the large variation and high acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared in a restaurant type of FSE as compared to chain fast-food services, and institutional caterers. The obtained insights in this study can be used to develop dedicated control measures in FSE, which may contribute to a sustainable reduction in the acrylamide intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Three-Step Test System for the Identification of Novel GABAA Receptor Modulating Food Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Sümeyye; Eulenburg, Volker; Kreis, Wolfgang; Villmann, Carmen; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-12-01

    Potentiation of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-induced GABA A receptor (GABA A R) activation is a common pathway to achieve sedative, sleep-enhancing, anxiolytic, and antidepressant effects. Presently, a three-component test system was established for the identification of novel GABA A R modulating food plants. In the first step, potentiation of GABA-induced response of the GABA A R was analysed by two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) for activity on human α1β2-GABA A R expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Positively tested food plants were then subjected to quantification of GABA content by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) to exclude test foods, which evoke a TEVC-response by endogenous GABA. In the third step, specificity of GABA A -modulating activity was assessed by TEVC analysis of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the homologous glycine receptor (GlyR). The three-component test was then applied to screen 10 aqueous extracts of food plants for their GABA A R activity. Thus, hop cones (Humulus lupulus) and Sideritis sipylea were identified as the most potent specific GABA A R modulators eliciting significant potentiation of the current by 182 ± 27 and 172 ± 19 %, respectively, at the lowest concentration of 0.5 μg/mL. The extracts can now be further evaluated by in vivo studies and by structural evaluation of the active components.

  20. Use of transglutaminases in foods and potential utilization of plants as a transglutaminase source – Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bittencourt Luciano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n4p1   Transglutaminases (TGases are enzymes able to catalyze acyl-transfer reactions introducing covalent cross-links between proteins, peptides and primary amines. Animal TGases were the first studied and are divided in nine different groups of isoenzymes. They have a wide range of functions in the metabolism of most animal cells, and share the characteristic of being Ca2+-dependent. Microbial and plant TGases were also identified, and there is a vast heterogeneity among their amino acid sequences. Interestingly, it seems that all transglutaminases share a specific amino acid triad of Cys-His-Asp in their catalytic site, which can be found in all tertiary structures of the enzymes yet studied so far. Microbial TGases are the most widely used for food modification due to lower costs and high yields involved with their extraction and purification when compared to mammal sources. TGases are ubiquitously found in a variety of plants, and their utilization for food transformation has been proposed. However, there is only a single attempt using vegetal TGase in food systems, where apple pomace was used to improve the quality of pork meat. The transference of mammalian TGase genes to plants has also been considered and they were found to be successfully expressed in rice and tobacco leaves. These results lead to a new approach, where TGases could be literally farmed for food utilization.

  1. Use of transglutaminases in foods and potential utilization of plants as a transglutaminase source – Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando B. Luciano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Transglutaminases (TGases are enzymes able to catalyze acyl-transfer reactions introducing covalent cross-links between proteins, peptides and primary amines. Animal TGases were the first studied and are divided in nine different groups of isoenzymes. They have a wide range of functions in the metabolism of most animal cells, and share the characteristic of being Ca2+-dependent. Microbial and plant TGases were also identified, and here is a vast heterogeneity among their amino acid sequences. Interestingly, it seems that all transglutaminases share a specific amino acid triad of Cys-His-Asp in their catalytic site, which can be found in all tertiary structures of the enzymes yet studied so far. Microbial TGases are the most widely used for food modification due to lower costs and high yields involved with their extraction and purification when compared to mammal sources. TGases are ubiquitously found in a variety of plants, and their utilization for food transformation has been proposed. However, there is only a single attempt using vegetal TGase in food systems, where apple pomace was used to improve the quality of pork meat. The transference of mammalian TGase genes to plants has also been considered and they were found to be successfully expressed in rice and tobacco leaves. These results lead to a new approach, where TGases could be literally farmed for food utilization.

  2. The role of plant pathology and plant pathology journals in future food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    The world's population is expected to exceed 9 billion by 2050 and this will require a significant increase in crop production for global food security. Future increases in crop production will require limiting the effects of weeds, insects, and diseases incited by fungi, viruses, nematodes, and ba...

  3. Three Traditional Fermented Baobab Foods from Benin, Mutchayan, Dikouanyouri and Tayohounta: Preparation, Properties and Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadare, F.J.; Gayet, D.P.; Azokpota, P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Linnemann, A.R.; Hounhouigan, M.H.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Forest food resources contribute significantly to food supply in areas where they grow. Three fermented baobab foods were studied: Dikouanyouri (from seeds, pH = 6.5); Tayohounta (from seed kernels, pH = 7), and Mutchayan (from baobab pulp and sorghum, pH = 4.2). Bacillus spp. (8.5 and 9.5 Log cfu

  4. Sago-Type Palms Were an Important Plant Food Prior to Rice in Southern Subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Barton, Huw J.; Wan, Zhiwei; Li, Quan; Ma, Zhikun; Li, Mingqi; Zhang, Dan; Wei, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Poor preservation of plant macroremains in the acid soils of southern subtropical China has hampered understanding of prehistoric diets in the region and of the spread of domesticated rice southwards from the Yangtze River region. According to records in ancient books and archaeological discoveries from historical sites, it is presumed that roots and tubers were the staple plant foods in this region before rice agriculture was widely practiced. But no direct evidences provided to test the hypothesis. Here we present evidence from starch and phytolith analyses of samples obtained during systematic excavations at the site of Xincun on the southern coast of China, demonstrating that during 3,350–2,470 aBC humans exploited sago palms, bananas, freshwater roots and tubers, fern roots, acorns, Job's-tears as well as wild rice. A dominance of starches and phytoliths from palms suggest that the sago-type palms were an important plant food prior to the rice in south subtropical China. We also believe that because of their reliance on a wide range of starch-rich plant foods, the transition towards labour intensive rice agriculture was a slow process. PMID:23667584

  5. Preparing and Conducting Review Missions of Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    The IERICS (Independent Engineering Review of Instrumentation and Control Systems) mission is a comprehensive engineering review service directly addressing strategy and the key elements for implementation of modern instrumentation and control (I&C) systems, noting in applicable cases, specific concerns related to the implementation of advanced digital I&C systems and the use of software and/or digital logic in safety applications of a nuclear power plant. The guidelines outlined in this publication provide a basic structure, common reference and checklist across the various areas covered by an IERICS mission. Publications referenced in these guidelines could provide additional useful information for the counterpart while preparing for the IERICS mission. A structure for the mission report is given in the Appendix. In 2016, this publication was revised by international experts who had participated in previous IERICS missions. The revision reflects experiences and lessons learned from the preparation and conduct of those missions

  6. Preparation and properties of SYNROC D containing simulated Savannah River Plant high-level defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenig, C.; Rozsa, R.; Bazan, F.; Otto, R.; Grens, J.

    1981-01-01

    We describe in detail the formulation and processing steps used to prepare all SYNROC D samples tested in the Comparative Leach Testing Program at the Savannah River Laboratory. We also discuss how the composition of the Savannah River Plant sludge influences the formulation and ultimate preparation of SYNROC D. Mechanical properties are reported in the categories of elastic constants, flexural and compressive strengths, and microhardness; thermal expansion and thermal conductivity results are presented. The thermal expansion data indicated the presence of significant residual strain and the possibility of an unidentified amorphous or glassy phase in the microstructure. We summarize the standardized (MCC) leaching results for both crushed Synroc and monoliths in deionized water, silicate water, and salt brine at 90 0 C and 150 0 C

  7. Preparation and properties of SYNROC D containing simulated Savannah River Plant high-level defense waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenig, C.; Rozsa, R.; Bazan, F.; Otto, R.; Grens, J.

    1981-07-23

    We describe in detail the formulation and processing steps used to prepare all SYNROC D samples tested in the Comparative Leach Testing Program at the Savannah River Laboratory. We also discuss how the composition of the Savannah River Plant sludge influences the formulation and ultimate preparation of SYNROC D. Mechanical properties are reported in the categories of elastic constants, flexural and compressive strengths, and microhardness; thermal expansion and thermal conductivity results are presented. The thermal expansion data indicated the presence of significant residual strain and the possibility of an unidentified amorphous or glassy phase in the microstructure. We summarize the standardized (MCC) leaching results for both crushed Synroc and monoliths in deionized water, silicate water, and salt brine at 90/sup 0/C and 150/sup 0/C.

  8. Report on second FAO/IAEA research coordination meeting on radiotracer studies of fungicide residues in food plants - Neuherberg, Germany, F.R., 4-8 May 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, the FAO/IAEA Joint Division established the coordinated research programme on 'Radiotracer studies of fungicide residues in food plants'. The first FAO/IAEA research coordination meeting of the programme was held in Panama City, Panama in October 1985. It established a framework for experiments by the participating researchers to investigate metabolism and terminal residues of ethylenebisdithiocarbamates in food plants using 14 C-labelled materials with associated and other techniques. In this second report, progress made since the first report is presented and the further research needed to fulfill the objectives of the programme is outlined. The objectives of the meeting were as follows: To review progress within the coordinated research programme; To discuss problems pertinent to methodologies and labelled substrates; To prepare a report and recommendations with particular reference to future needs and priorities. The 12 papers presented at the meeting are given in summary form. (orig./MG)

  9. Natural gums of plant origin as edible coatings for food industry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anuradha; Tyagi, Shvetambri; Gupta, Rajinder K; Tyagi, Yogesh K

    2017-12-01

    Natural plant-based gums and their derivatives are widely utilized in food industries, however, their applications as edible coatings to extend fresh fruits and vegetable shelf-life has been explored recently. These natural polymeric polysaccharides have many advantages as compared to synthetic polymers, because they are biodegradable, nontoxic, economical and easily available in the environment. Natural gums can also be semi synthetically modified to produce derivatives, which can easily compete with the synthetic preservatives available on the food market. In this review, the recent developments in the use of natural gums and their derivatives as edible coatings have been explored and discussed.

  10. Preparation and characterization of biocomposite film based on chitosan and kombucha tea as active food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Azam; Jokar, Maryam; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza

    2018-03-01

    An active film composed of chitosan and kombucha tea (KT) was successfully prepared using the solvent casting technique. The effect of incorporation of KT at the levels 1%-3% w/w on the physical and functional properties of chitosan film was investigated. The antimicrobial activity of chitosan/KT film against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated using agar diffusion test, and its antioxidant activity was determined using DPpH assay. The results revealed that incorporation of KT into chitosan films improved the water vapor permeability (from 256.7 to 132.1gcm -2 h -1 KPa -1 mm) and enhanced the antioxidant activity of the latter up to 59% DPpH scavenging activity. Moreover, the incorporation of KT into the chitosan film increased the protective effect of the film against ultra violet (UV). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis revealed the chemical interactions between chitosan and the polyphenol groups of KT. In a minced beef model, chitosan/KT film effectively served as an active packaging and extended the shelf life of the minced beef as manifested in the retardation of lipid oxidation and microbial growth from 5.36 to 2.11logcfugr -1 in 4days storage. The present work demonstrates that the chitosan/KT film not only maintains the quality of the minced beef but also, retards microbial growth significantly, extending the shelf life of the minced beef meat up to 3days; thus, chitosan/KT film is a potential material for active food packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of residual polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in dried shiitake mushrooms as an enzyme preparation in food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, E; Konishi, Y; Tsujiyama, S

    2016-11-01

    To examine the activities of residual enzymes in dried shiitake mushrooms, which are a traditional foodstuff in Japanese cuisine, for possible applications in food processing. Polysaccharide-degrading enzymes remained intact in dried shiitake mushrooms and the activities of amylase, β-glucosidase and pectinase were high. A potato digestion was tested using dried shiitake powder. The enzymes reacted with potato tuber specimens to solubilize sugars even under a heterogeneous solid-state condition and that their reaction modes were different at 38 and 50 °C. Dried shiitake mushrooms have a potential use in food processing as an enzyme preparation.

  12. Diamond like carbon Ag nanocomposites as a control measure against Campylobacter jejuni and Listeria monocytogenes on food preparation surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Zakarienė, Gintarė; Novoslavskij, Aleksandr

    2018-01-01

    on selective agars and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) including staining with propidium monoazide (PMA). It was determined, that DLC:Ag film was the most efficient coating in the reduction of C. jejuni and L. monocytogenes numbers. Culture-based enumeration revealed that C. jejuni numbers were reduced......:Ag antimicrobial surface showed a reduced ability to grow on culture media, but maintained viability during the whole experiment. Nonetheless, DLC:Ag antimicrobial surface could be further considered for the reduction of cross-contamination risk from food preparation surfaces due to their contamination with C....... jejuni and L. monocytogenes in domestic and commercial kitchens or food establishments....

  13. The preparation and implementation of the commissioning of Qinshan nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jinyuan

    1993-05-01

    The commissioning test of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant is summarized. The preparation stage includes the organizations, commissioning programme, network planning, commissioning items, management procedures, responsibilities and interfaces between divisions, products ordering and supplying, personal training, quality assurance and the review and supervision by National Nuclear Safety Administration etc. The implementation stage includes the commissioning programme planning, intermediate hand-over inspection of the system and equipment, inspecting conditions and setting organizations for commissioning, the transition from commissioning to operating. Finally, some experiences in the commissioning test are presented in the article

  14. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs

  15. Quality assurance program preparation - review of requirements and plant systems - selection of program levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmuss, G.

    1980-01-01

    The establishment and implementation for a practicable quality assurance program for a nuclear power plant demands a detailed background in the field of engineering, manufacturing, organization and quality assurance. It will be demonstrated with examples to define and control the achievement of quality related activities during the phases of design, procurement, manufactoring, commissioning and operation. In general the quality assurance program applies to all items, processes and services important to safety of nuclear power plant. The classification for safety related and non-safety related items and services demonstrate the levels of quality assurance requirements. The lecture gives an introduction of QA Program preparation under the following topics: -Basic criteria and international requirements - Interaction of QA activities - Modular and product oriented QA programs - Structuring of organization for the QA program - Identification of the main quality assurance functions and required actions - Quality Assurance Program documentation - Documentation of planning of activities - Control of program documents - Definitions. (orig./RW)

  16. Detection of some safe plant-derived foods for LTP-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asero, Riccardo; Mistrello, Gianni; Roncarolo, Daniela; Amato, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    Lipid transfer protein (LTP) is a widely cross-reacting plant pan-allergen. Adverse reactions to Rosaceae, tree nuts, peanut, beer, maize, mustard, asparagus, grapes, mulberry, cabbage, dates, orange, fig, kiwi, lupine, fennel, celery, tomato, eggplant, lettuce, chestnut and pineapple have been recorded. To detect vegetable foods to be regarded as safe for LTP-allergic patients. Tolerance/intolerance to a large spectrum of vegetable foods other than Rosaceae, tree nuts and peanut was assessed by interview in 49 subjects monosensitized to LTP and in three distinct groups of controls monosensitized to Bet v 1 (n = 24) or Bet v 2 (n = 18), or sensitized to both LTP and birch pollen (n = 16), all with a history of vegetable food allergy. Patients and controls underwent skin prick test (SPT) with a large spectrum of vegetable foods. The absence of IgE reactivity to foods that were negative in both clinical history and SPT was confirmed by immunoblot analysis and their clinical tolerance was finally assessed by open oral challenge (50 g per food). All patients reported tolerance and showed negative SPT to carrot, potato, banana and melon; these foods scored positive in SPT and elicited clinical symptoms in a significant proportion of patients from all three control groups. All patients tolerated these four foods on oral challenge. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the lack of IgE reactivity to these foods by LTP-allergic patients. Carrot, potato, banana and melon seem safe for LTP-allergic patients. This finding may be helpful for a better management of allergy to LTP.

  17. Regulations applicable to plant food supplements and related products in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silano, Vittorio; Coppens, Patrick; Larrañaga-Guetaria, Ainhoa; Minghetti, Paola; Roth-Ehrang, René

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with the current regulatory and legal settings of traditional plant food supplements and herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Marketing of botanicals in foods and food supplements in the EU is subject to several provisions of food law, which cover aspects of safety, production, labelling and product composition, including the use of additives and maximum levels of contaminants and residues. However, due to limited harmonization at the EU level, specific national regulations adopted at a Member State level also apply and mutual recognition is the mechanism through which such products can be marketed in EU countries other than those of origin. Unlike food supplements, marketing of traditional herbal medicinal products is regulated by an ad hoc Directive (i.e. Directive 2004/24/EC) covering in detail all the relevant aspects of these products, including a facilitated registration procedure at national level. However, by distinguishing traditional herbal medicinal products from plant food supplements and establishing selective marketing modalities for these two product categories, the EU has been confronted with implementation difficulties for traditional herbal medicinal products and a lack of homogeneity in the regulatory approaches adopted in different EU Member States. In fact, currently the nature of the commercial botanical products made available to consumers as traditional medicinal products or food supplements, depends largely on the EU Member State under consideration as a consequence of how competent National Authorities and manufacturing companies interpret and apply current regulations rather than on the intrinsic properties of the botanical products and their constituents. When the EU approach is compared with approaches adopted in some non-European countries to regulate these product categories, major differences become evident.

  18. Environmental Impacts of Plant-Based Diets: How Does Organic Food Consumption Contribute to Environmental Sustainability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Lacour

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundStudies investigating diet-related environmental impacts have rarely considered the production method of the foods consumed. The objective of the present study, based on the NutriNet-Santé cohort, was to investigate the relationship between a provegetarian score and diet-related environmental impacts. We also evaluated potential effect modifications on the association between a provegetarian score and the environmental impacts of organic food consumption.MethodsFood intake and organic food consumption ratios were obtained from 34,442 French adults using a food frequency questionnaire, which included information on organic food consumption for each group. To characterize the overall structure of the diets, a provegetarian score was used to identify preferences for plant-based products as opposed to animal-based products. Moreover, three environmental indicators were used to assess diet-related environmental impacts: greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, cumulative energy demand (CED, and land occupation. Environmental impacts were assessed using production life cycle assessment (LCA at the farm level. Associations between provegetarian score quintiles, the level of organic food consumption, and environmental indicators were analyzed using ANCOVAs adjusted for energy, sex, and age.ResultsParticipants with diets rich in plant-based foods (fifth quintile were more likely to be older urban dwellers, to hold a higher degree in education, and to be characterized by an overall healthier lifestyle and diet. A higher provegetarian score was associated with lower environmental impacts (GHG emissionsQ5vsQ1 = 838/1,664 kg CO2eq/year, −49.6%, P < 0.0001; CEDQ5vsQ1 = 4,853/6,775 MJ/year, −26.9%, P < 0.0001; land occupationQ5vsQ1 = 2,420/4,138 m2/year, −41.5%, P < 0.0001. Organic food consumption was also an important modulator of the relationship between provegetarian dietary patterns and environmental impacts but only

  19. Consequences of plant-chemical diversity for domestic goat food preference in Mediterranean forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraza, Elena; Hódar, José A.; Zamora, Regino

    2009-01-01

    The domestic goat, a major herbivore in the Mediterranean basin, has demonstrated a strong ability to adapt its feeding behaviour to the chemical characteristics of food, selecting plants according to their nutritive quality. In this study, we determine some chemical characteristics related to plant nutritional quality and its variability among and within five tree species, these being the main components of the mountain forests of SE Spain, with the aim of determining their influence on food selection by this generalist herbivore. We analyse nitrogen, total phenols, condensed tannins and fibre concentration as an indicator of the nutritive value of the different trees. To determine the preference by the domestic goat, we performed two types of feeding-choice assays, where goats had to select between different species or between branches of the same species but from trees of different nutritional quality. The analysis of the plant nutritional quality showed significant differences in the chemical characteristics between species, and a high variability within species. However, when faced with different tree species, the domestic goat selected some of them but showed striking individual differences between goats. When selecting between trees of the same species, the goats showed no differential selection. This limited effect of chemical plant characteristics, together with the variability in foraging behaviour, resulted in a widespread consumption of diverse plant species, which can potentially modulate the effect of the goat on vegetation composition, and open the way for the conservation of traditional livestock grazing on natural protected areas.

  20. Aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative life support systems based on higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluem, V.; Paris, F.

    Most bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) are based on gravitropic higher plants which exhibit growth and seed generation disturbances in microgravity. Even when used for a lunar or martian base the reduced gravity may induce a decreased productivity in comparison to Earth. Therefore, the implementation of aquatic biomass production modules in higher plant and/or hybrid BLSS may compensate for this and offer, in addition, the possibility to produce animal protein for human nutrition. It was shown on the SLS-89 and SLS-90 space shuttle missions with the C.E.B.A.S.-MINI MODULE that the edible non gravitropic rootless higher aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demeresum exhibits an undisturbed high biomass production rate in space and that the teleost fish species, Xiphophorus helleri, adapts rapidly to space conditions without loss of its normal reproductive functions. Based on these findings a series of ground-based aquatic food production systems were developed which are disposed for utilization in space. These are plant production bioreactors for the species mentioned above and another suitable candidate, the lemnacean (duckweed) species, Wolffia arrhiza. Moreover, combined intensive aquaculture systems with a closed food loop between herbivorous fishes and aquatic and land plants are being developed which may be suitable for integration into a BLSS of higher complexity.

  1. Application of vascular aquatic plants for pollution removal, energy and food production in a biological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Barlow, R. M.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Vascular aquatic plants such as water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb., when utilized in a controlled biological system (including a regular program of harvesting to achieve maximum growth and pollution removal efficiency), may represent a remarkably efficient and inexpensive filtration and disposal system for toxic materials and sewage released into waters near urban and industrial areas. The harvested and processed plant materials are sources of energy, fertilizer, animal feed, and human food. Such a system has industrial, municipal, and agricultural applications.

  2. Desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii are selective herbivores that track the flowering phenology of their preferred food plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Bryan Jennings

    Full Text Available Previous studies of desert tortoise foraging ecology in the western Mojave Desert suggest that these animals are selective herbivores, which alter their diet according to the temporal availability of preferred food plants. These studies, however, did not estimate availability of potential food plants by taking into account the spatial and temporal variability in ephemeral plant abundance that occurs within the spring season. In this study, we observed 18 free-ranging adult tortoises take 35,388 bites during the spring foraging season. We also estimated the relative abundance of potential food plants by stratifying our sampling across different phenological periods of the 3-month long spring season and by different habitats and microhabitats. This methodology allowed us to conduct statistical tests comparing tortoise diet against plant abundance. Our results show that tortoises choose food plants non-randomly throughout the foraging season, a finding that corroborates the hypothesis that desert tortoises rely on key plants during different phenological periods of spring. Moreover, tortoises only consumed plants in a succulent state until the last few weeks of spring, at which time most annuals and herbaceous perennials had dried and most tortoises had ceased foraging. Many species of food plants--including several frequently eaten species--were not detected in our plant surveys, yet tortoises located these rare plants in their home ranges. Over 50% of bites consumed were in the group of undetected species. Interestingly, tortoises focused heavily on several leguminous species, which could be nutritious foods owing to their presumably high nitrogen contents. We suggest that herbaceous perennials, which were rare on our study area but represented ~30% of tortoise diet, may be important in sustaining tortoise populations during droughts when native annuals are absent. These findings highlight the vulnerability of desert tortoises to climate change

  3. Wild food plants traditionally consumed in the area of Bologna (Emilia Romagna region, Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Sansanelli, Sabrina; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    Background This research was performed in an area belonging to the province of the city of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy). The purpose of the present survey was to record the local knowledge concerning traditional uses of wild food plants and related practices, such as gathering, processing, cooking, therapeutic uses, with the aim of preserving an important part of the local cultural heritage. Methods Thirty-nine people still retaining Traditional Local Knowledge (TLK) were i...

  4. Nuclear science for food security. IAEA says plant breeding technique can help beat world hunger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-02

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) today called for increased investment in a plant breeding technique that could bolster efforts aimed at pulling millions of people out of the hunger trap. IAEA scientists use radiation to produce improved high-yielding plants that adapt to harsh climate conditions such as drought or flood, or that are resistant to certain diseases and insect pests. Called mutation induction, the technique is safe, proven and cost-effective. It has been in use since the 1920s. 'The global nature of the food crisis is unprecedented. Families all around the world are struggling to feed themselves,' says Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA. 'To provide sustainable, long-term solutions, we must make use of all available resources. Selecting the crops that are better able to feed us is one of humankind's oldest sciences. But we've neglected to give it the support and investment it requires for universal application. The IAEA is urging a revival of nuclear crop breeding technologies to help tackle world hunger.' For decades the IAEA, in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), has assisted its Member States to produce more, better and safer food. In plant breeding and genetics, its expertise is helping countries around the world to achieve enhanced agricultural output using nuclear technology. Already more than 3000 crop varieties of some 170 different plant species have been released through the direct intervention of the IAEA: they include barley that grows at 5000 meters (16,400 ft) and rice that thrives in saline soil. These varieties provide much needed food as well as millions of dollars in economic benefits for farmers and consumers, especially in developing countries. But with increased investment and broader application, the technology could positively impact the health and livelihood of even greater numbers of people. And as world hunger grows, the need has never been more urgent.

  5. Nuclear science for food security. IAEA says plant breeding technique can help beat world hunger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) today called for increased investment in a plant breeding technique that could bolster efforts aimed at pulling millions of people out of the hunger trap. IAEA scientists use radiation to produce improved high-yielding plants that adapt to harsh climate conditions such as drought or flood, or that are resistant to certain diseases and insect pests. Called mutation induction, the technique is safe, proven and cost-effective. It has been in use since the 1920s. 'The global nature of the food crisis is unprecedented. Families all around the world are struggling to feed themselves,' says Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA. 'To provide sustainable, long-term solutions, we must make use of all available resources. Selecting the crops that are better able to feed us is one of humankind's oldest sciences. But we've neglected to give it the support and investment it requires for universal application. The IAEA is urging a revival of nuclear crop breeding technologies to help tackle world hunger.' For decades the IAEA, in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), has assisted its Member States to produce more, better and safer food. In plant breeding and genetics, its expertise is helping countries around the world to achieve enhanced agricultural output using nuclear technology. Already more than 3000 crop varieties of some 170 different plant species have been released through the direct intervention of the IAEA: they include barley that grows at 5000 meters (16,400 ft) and rice that thrives in saline soil. These varieties provide much needed food as well as millions of dollars in economic benefits for farmers and consumers, especially in developing countries. But with increased investment and broader application, the technology could positively impact the health and livelihood of even greater numbers of people. And as world hunger grows, the need has never been more urgent

  6. Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Integrating CCHP with NW Food Processing Plant #1: Modeling Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Michael G.; Srivastava, Viraj; Wagner, Anne W.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Thornton, John

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has launched a project funded by the Bonneville Power Association (BPA) to identify strategies for increasing industrial energy efficiency and reducing energy costs of Northwest Food Processors Association (NWFPA) plants through deployment of novel combinations and designs of variable-output combined heat and power (CHP) distributed generation (DG), combined cooling, heating and electric power (CCHP) DG and energy storage systems. Detailed evaluations and recommendations of CHP and CCHP DG systems will be performed for several Northwest (NW) food processing sites. The objective is to reduce the overall energy use intensity of NW food processors by 25% by 2020 and by 50% by 2030, as well as reducing emissions and understanding potential congestion reduction impacts on the transmission system in the Pacific Northwest.

  7. Improved method for measurement of dietary fiber as non-starch polysaccharides in plant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englyst, H N; Cummings, J H

    1988-01-01

    A method is described that allows rapid estimation of total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber as the non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in plant foods. It is a modification of an earlier, more complex procedure. Starch is completely removed enzymatically, and NSP is measured as the sum of its constituent sugars released by acid hydrolysis. The sugars may, in turn, be measured by gas chromatography (GC), giving values for individual monosaccharides, or more rapidly by colorimetry. Both GC and colorimetry are suitable for routine measurement of total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber in cereals, fruits, and vegetables. Values obtained are not affected by food processing so the dietary fiber content of various processed foods and mixed diets can be calculated simply from knowing the amount in the raw materials. The additional information obtained by GC analysis is valuable in the interpretation of physiological studies and in epidemiology where disease is related to type and amount of dietary fiber.

  8. Does involvement in food preparation track from adolescence to young adulthood and is it associated with better dietary quality? Findings from a ten-year longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether involvement in food preparation tracks over time, between adolescence (15–18 years), emerging adulthood (19–23 years), and the mid-to-late twenties (24–28 years), as well as examine 10-year longitudinal associations between home food preparation, dietary quality and meal patterning. Design Population-based, longitudinal cohort study. Setting Participants were originally sampled from Minnesota public secondary schools (USA). Subjects Participants enrolled in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens)-I, EAT-II, and EAT-III (n=1,321). Results Most participants in their mid-to-late twenties reported an enjoyment of cooking (73% of males, 80% of females); however, few prepared meals including vegetables most days of the week (24% males, 41% females). Participants in their mid-to-late twenties who enjoyed cooking were more likely to have engaged in food preparation as adolescents and emerging adults (pprepared meals including vegetables were more likely to have engaged in food preparation as emerging adults (pfood preparation predicted better dietary quality five years later in the mid-to-late twenties, including higher intakes of fruit, vegetables, dark green/orange vegetables, and less sugar sweetened beverage and fast food consumption. Associations between adolescent food preparation and later dietary quality yielded few significant results. Conclusions Food preparation behaviors appeared to track over time, and engagement in food preparation during emerging adulthood, but not adolescence, was associated with healthier dietary intake during the mid-to-late twenties. Intervention studies are needed to understand whether promoting healthy food preparation results in improvements in eating patterns during the transition to adulthood. PMID:22124458

  9. Safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations used as ingredients in food supplements: testing an European Food Safety Authority-tiered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speijers, Gerrit; Bottex, Bernard; Dusemund, Birgit; Lugasi, Andrea; Tóth, Jaroslav; Amberg-Müller, Judith; Galli, Corrado L; Silano, Vittorio; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2010-02-01

    This article describes results obtained by testing the European Food Safety Authority-tiered guidance approach for safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food supplements. Main conclusions emerging are as follows. (i) Botanical ingredients must be identified by their scientific (binomial) name, in most cases down to the subspecies level or lower. (ii) Adequate characterization and description of the botanical parts and preparation methodology used is needed. Safety of a botanical ingredient cannot be assumed only relying on the long-term safe use of other preparations of the same botanical. (iii) Because of possible adulterations, misclassifications, replacements or falsifications, and restorations, establishment of adequate quality control is necessary. (iv) The strength of the evidence underlying concerns over a botanical ingredient should be included in the safety assessment. (v) The matrix effect should be taken into account in the safety assessment on a case-by-case basis. (vi) Adequate data and methods for appropriate exposure assessment are often missing. (vii) Safety regulations concerning toxic contaminants have to be complied with. The application of the guidance approach can result in the conclusion that safety can be presumed, that the botanical ingredient is of safety concern, or that further data are needed to assess safety.

  10. An overview of consumer attitudes and beliefs about plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Bernadette; Hodgkins, Charo; Shepherd, Richard; Timotijevic, Lada; Raats, Monique

    2011-12-01

    The use of dietary supplements is increasing globally and this includes the use of plant food supplements (PFS). A variety of factors may be influencing this increased consumption including the increasing number of older people in society, mistrust in conventional medicine and the perception that natural is healthy. Consumer studies in this area are limited, with a focus on dietary supplements in general, and complicated by the use of certain plant food supplements as herbal medicines. Research indicates that higher use of dietary supplements has been associated with being female, being more educated, having a higher income, being white and being older, however the drivers for consumption of supplements are complex, being influenced by both demographic and health-related factors. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the users and the determinants of usage of plant food supplements. With growing consumption of these products, the need for effective risk-benefit assessment becomes ever more important and an insight into who uses these types of products and why is an important starting point for any future science-based decisions made by policy makers, PFS manufacturers and ultimately by consumers themselves.

  11. Reciprocal diversification in a complex plant-herbivore-parasitoid food web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokma Folmer

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants, plant-feeding insects, and insect parasitoids form some of the most complex and species-rich food webs. According to the classic escape-and-radiate (EAR hypothesis, these hyperdiverse communities result from coevolutionary arms races consisting of successive cycles of enemy escape, radiation, and colonization by new enemy lineages. It has also been suggested that "enemy-free space" provided by novel host plants could promote host shifts by herbivores, and that parasitoids could similarly drive diversification of gall form in insects that induce galls on plants. Because these central coevolutionary hypotheses have never been tested in a phylogenetic framework, we combined phylogenetic information on willow-galling sawflies with data on their host plants, gall types, and enemy communities. Results We found that evolutionary shifts in host plant use and habitat have led to dramatic prunings of parasitoid communities, and that changes in gall phenotype can provide "enemy-free morphospace" for millions of years even in the absence of host plant shifts. Some parasites have nevertheless managed to colonize recently-evolved gall types, and this has apparently led to adaptive speciation in several enemy groups. However, having fewer enemies does not in itself increase speciation probabilities in individual sawfly lineages, partly because the high diversity of the enemy community facilitates compensatory attack by remaining parasite taxa. Conclusion Taken together, our results indicate that niche-dependent parasitism is a major force promoting ecological divergence in herbivorous insects, and that prey divergence can cause speciation in parasite lineages. However, the results also show that the EAR hypothesis is too simplistic for species-rich food webs: instead, diversification seems to be spurred by a continuous stepwise process, in which ecological and phenotypic shifts in prey lineages are followed by a lagged evolutionary

  12. Sustained by First Nations: European newcomers' use of Indigenous plant foods in temperate North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Turner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Peoples of North America have collectively used approximately 1800 different native species of plants, algae, lichens and fungi as food. When European explorers, traders and settlers arrived on the continent, these native foods, often identified and offered by Indigenous hosts, gave them sustenance and in some cases saved them from starvation. Over the years, some of these species – particularly various types of berries, such as blueberries and cranberries (Vaccinium spp., wild raspberries and blackberries (Rubus spp., and wild strawberries (Fragaria spp., and various types of nuts (Corylus spp., Carya spp., Juglans spp., Pinus spp., along with wild-rice (Zizania spp. and maple syrup (from Acer saccharum – became more widely adopted and remain in use to the present day. Some of these and some other species were used in plant breeding programs, as germplasm for hybridization programs, or to strengthen a crop's resistance to disease. At the same time, many nutritious Indigenous foods fell out of use among Indigenous Peoples themselves, and along with their lessened use came a loss of associated knowledge and cultural identity. Today, for a variety of reasons, from improving people's health and regaining their cultural heritage, to enhancing dietary diversity and enjoyment of diverse foods, some of the species that have dwindled in their use have been “rediscovered” by Indigenous and non-Indigenous Peoples, and indications are that their benefits to humanity will continue into the future.

  13. EuroFIR-BASIS - a combined composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant-based foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gry, Jørn; Black, Lucinda; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted

    2007-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that certain non-nutrient bioactive compounds promote optimal human health and reduce the risk of chronic disease. An Internet-deployed database, EuroFIR-BASIS, which uniquely combines food composition and biological effects data for plant-based bioactive compounds......, is being developed. The database covers multiple compound classes and 330 major food plants and their edible parts with data sourced from quality-assessed, peer-reviewed literature. The database will be a valuable resource for food regulatory and advisory bodies, risk authorities, epidemiologists...... and researchers interested in diet and health relationships, and product developers within the food industry....

  14. Food emulsion type oil in water prepared with high-protein from shrimp (Penaeus vannamei heads flour – SHF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Cano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of flour from shrimp (Penaeus vannamei heads with a high content of protein (SHF to stabilize food emulsions type oil in water (o/w is an alternative to take advantage of the by-products of the shrimp industry. The aim of this work was to prepare food emulsion type oil in water (o/w using the SHF due to the high percentage in proteins; for this procedure a physicochemical and bromatological characterization of flour of shrimps (Penaeus vannamei heads has been done, in which a percentage of protein 51 %, moisture of 11,82 %, fat 8,52 % and 22,23 % of ash has been obtained. The base emulsions may be used in food products such as salad dressing, mayonnaise, spreads, dressings and other products. The different emulsions with adequate rheological and microstructural characteristics were prepared using different concentrations of palm oil (20, 30 and 40%w/w and different concentrate of SHF (0,5, 1 and 2 % w/w. Therefore, we have obtained a food emulsion stable type oil in water (O/W with 2 % w/w of SHF, which presented a behavior non-Newtonian fluid type shear-thinning and homogeneous distribution of droplets.

  15. Desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) are selective herbivores that track the flowering phenology of their preferred food plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Bryan W.; Berry, Kristin H.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of desert tortoise foraging ecology in the western Mojave Desert suggest that these animals are selective herbivores, which alter their diet according to the temporal availability of preferred food plants. These studies, however, did not estimate availability of potential food plants by taking into account the spatial and temporal variability in ephemeral plant abundance that occurs within the spring season. In this study, we observed 18 free-ranging adult tortoises take 35,388 bites during the spring foraging season. We also estimated the relative abundance of potential food plants by stratifying our sampling across different phenological periods of the 3-month long spring season and by different habitats and microhabitats. This methodology allowed us to conduct statistical tests comparing tortoise diet against plant abundance. Our results show that tortoises choose food plants non-randomly throughout the foraging season, a finding that corroborates the hypothesis that desert tortoises rely on key plants during different phenological periods of spring. Moreover, tortoises only consumed plants in a succulent state until the last few weeks of spring, at which time most annuals and herbaceous perennials had dried and most tortoises had ceased foraging. Many species of food plants—including several frequently eaten species—were not detected in our plant surveys, yet tortoises located these rare plants in their home ranges. Over 50% of bites consumed were in the group of undetected species. Interestingly, tortoises focused heavily on several leguminous species, which could be nutritious foods owing to their presumably high nitrogen contents. We suggest that herbaceous perennials, which were rare on our study area but represented ~30% of tortoise diet, may be important in sustaining tortoise populations during droughts when native annuals are absent. These findings highlight the vulnerability of desert tortoises to climate change if such changes

  16. [Estimation of maximum acceptable concentration of lead and cadmium in plants and their medicinal preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitkevicius, Virgilijus; Savickiene, Nijole; Abdrachmanovas, Olegas; Ryselis, Stanislovas; Masteiková, Rūta; Chalupova, Zuzana; Dagilyte, Audrone; Baranauskas, Algirdas

    2003-01-01

    Heavy metals (lead, cadmium) are possible dashes which quantity is defined by the limiting acceptable contents. Different drugs preparations: infusions, decoctions, tinctures, extracts, etc. are produced using medicinal plants. The objective of this research was to study the impurities of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) in medicinal plants and some drug preparations. We investigated liquid extracts of fruits Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and herbs of Echinacea purpurea Moench., tinctures--of herbs Leonurus cardiaca L. The raw materials were imported from Poland. Investigations were carried out in cooperation with the Laboratory of Antropogenic Factors of the Institute for Biomedical Research. Amounts of lead and cadmium were established after "dry" mineralisation using "Perkin-Elmer Zeeman/3030" model electrothermic atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ETG AAS/Zeeman). It was established that lead is absorbed most efficiently after estimation of absorption capacity of cellular fibers. About 10.73% of lead crosses tinctures and extracts, better cadmium--49.63%. Herbs of Leonurus cardiaca L. are the best in holding back lead and cadmium. About 14.5% of lead and cadmium crosses the tincture of herbs Leonurus cardiaca L. We estimated the factors of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) in the liquid extracts of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and Echinacea purpurea Moench., tincture of Leonurus cardiaca L. after investigations of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) in drugs and preparations of it. The amounts of heavy metals (lead, cadmium) don't exceed the allowable norms in fruits of Crataegus monogyna Jacq., herbs of Leonurus cardiaca L. and Echinacea purpurea Moench. after estimation of lead and cadmium extraction factors, the maximum of acceptable daily intake and the quantity of drugs consumption in day.

  17. Adsorption of caffeine on mesoporous activated carbon fibers prepared from pineapple plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Karla K; Cazetta, André L; de Souza, Patrícia S C; Spessato, Lucas; Silva, Taís L; Almeida, Vitor C

    2018-01-01

    The present work reports the preparation of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) from pineapple plant leaves, and its application on caffeine (CFN) removal from aqueous solution. The preparation procedure was carried out using the H 3 PO 4 as activating agent and slow pyrolysis under N 2 atmosphere. The characterization of materials was performed from the N 2 adsorption and desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Boehm titration and pH pzc method. ACFs showed high BET surface area value (S BET = 1031m 2 g -1 ), well-developed mesoporous structure (mesopore volume of 1.27cm³ g -1 ) and pores with average diameter (D M ) of 5.87nm. Additionally, ACFs showed features of fibrous material with predominance of acid groups on its surface. Adsorption studies indicated that the pseudo-second order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models were that best fitted to the experimental data. The monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 155.50mgg -1 . thermodynamic studies revealed that adsorption process is spontaneous, exothermic and occurs preferably via physisorption. The pineapple leaves are an efficient precursor for preparation of ACFs, which were successful applied as adsorbent material for removal of caffeine from the aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Process description and plant design for preparing ceramic high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, L.F.; McKisson, R.L.; Guon, J.; Flintoff, J.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The ceramics process flow diagram has been simplified and upgraded to utilize only two major processing steps - fluid-bed calcination and hot isostatic press consolidating. Full-scale fluid-bed calcination has been used at INEL to calcine high-level waste for 18 y; and a second-generation calciner, a fully remotely operated and maintained calciner that meets ALARA guidelines, started calcining high-level waste in 1982. Full-scale hot isostatic consolidation has been used by DOE and commercial enterprises to consolidate radioactive components and to encapsulate spent fuel elements for several years. With further development aimed at process integration and parametric optimization, the operating knowledge of full-scale demonstration of the key process steps should be rapidly adaptable to scale-up of the ceramic process to full plant size. Process flowsheets used to prepare ceramic and glass waste forms from defense and commercial high-level liquid waste are described. Preliminary layouts of process flow diagrams in a high-level processing canyon were prepared and used to estimate the preliminary cost of the plant to fabricate both waste forms. The estimated costs for using both options were compared for total waste management costs of SRP high-level liquid waste. Using our design, for both the ceramic and glass plant, capital and operating costs are essentially the same for both defense and commercial wastes, but total waste management costs are calculated to be significantly less for defense wastes using the ceramic option. It is concluded from this and other studies that the ceramic form may offer important advantages over glass in leach resistance, waste loading, density, and process flexibility. Preliminary economic calculations indicate that ceramics must be considered a leading candidate for the form to immobilize high-level wastes

  19. Financial burden of allergen free food preparation in the catering business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, A.R.; Fels, van der Ine; Bonanno, A.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify costs and benefits of allergen free food (food not containing ingredients that fall under the European labelling regime) production at a catering business under two scenarios. In scenario 1 the caterer provides information to the consumer regarding the presence of

  20. Flavour aspects of pea and its protein preparations in relation to novel protein foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heng, L.

    2005-01-01

    This research is part of the multidisciplinary program, PROFETAS (PROtein Foods Environment Technology And Society), which aimed to feasibly shift from animal proteins to pea proteins for the development of Novel Protein Foods (NPFs) with desirable flavour. The aim of this research is to investigate

  1. Fermentable short chain carbohydrate (FODMAP) content of common plant-based foods and processed foods suitable for vegetarian- and vegan-based eating patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, C; Ly, E; Bogatyrev, A; Costetsou, I; Gibson, P; Barrett, J; Muir, J

    2018-06-01

    The low FODMAP (fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols) diet is an effective strategy to improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. However, combining the low FODMAP diet with another dietary restriction such as vegetarianism/veganism is challenging. Greater knowledge about the FODMAP composition of plant-based foods and food processing practices common to vegetarian/vegan eating patterns would assist in the implementation of the diet in this patient population. The present study aimed to quantify the FODMAP content of plant-based foods common in vegetarian/vegan diets and to investigate whether food processing can impact FODMAP levels. Total FODMAP content was quantified in 35 foods, including fructose-in-excess-of-glucose, lactose, sorbitol, mannitol, galacto-oligosaccharide and total fructan, using high-performance-liquid-chromatography and enzymatic assays. The effects of cooking, sprouting, pickling, fermentation, activation and canning on FODMAP content were assessed. The Monash University criteria to classify foods as low FODMAP was used. Of the 35 foods, 20 were classified as low FODMAP, including canned coconut milk (0.24 g serve -1 ), dulse (0.02 serve -1 ), nutritional yeast (0.01 serve -1 ), soy cheese (0.03 serve -1 ), tempeh (0.26 serve -1 ), wheat gluten (0.13 serve -1 ) and wheat grass (0.05 serve -1 ). No FODMAPs were detected in agar-agar, egg replacer, vegan egg yolk, kelp noodles and spirulina. Food processing techniques that produced the greatest reduction in FODMAP content included pickling and canning. The present study provides a greater FODMAP composition knowledge of plant-based foods that can now be applied to the dietetic management of vegetarians/vegans requiring a low FODMAP diet. Food processing lowered the FODMAP content of foods, thereby increasing options for patients following a low FODMAP diet. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  2. The development of plant food processing in the Levant: insights from use-wear analysis of Early Epipalaeolithic ground stone tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, Laure; Nadel, Dani

    2015-11-19

    In recent years, the study of percussive, pounding and grinding tools has provided new insights into human evolution, more particularly regarding the development of technology enabling the processing and exploitation of plant resources. Some of these studies focus on early evidence for flour production, an activity frequently perceived as an important step in the evolution of plant exploitation. The present paper investigates plant food preparation in mobile hunter-gatherer societies from the Southern Levant. The analysis consists of a use-wear study of 18 tools recovered from Ohalo II, a 23 000-year-old site in Israel showing an exceptional level of preservation. Our sample includes a slab previously interpreted as a lower implement used for producing flour, based on the presence of cereal starch residues. The use-wear data we have obtained provide crucial information about the function of this and other percussive tools at Ohalo II, as well as on investment in tool manufacture, discard strategies and evidence for plant processing in the Late Pleistocene. The use-wear analysis indicates that the production of flour was a sporadic activity at Ohalo II, predating by thousands of years the onset of routine processing of plant foods. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Study On DPPH Free Radical - Scavenging Activity Of Antioxidant Compounds In Plants Composing BIN-5 Biological Active Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purevjav Urjintseren

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been common trend among people to refuse from food and medications produced via synthetic method but try to consume natural products as much as possible instead. In this regard wild berries and medicinal plants are considered to be highly essential for human health as these kinds of plants serve as rich sources of biological active substances-phenol compounds. As a result of conducting research on source and spread of herbs which are commonly used as anti-diabetic medication we have developed a technological method to extract preparations from medicinal herbs such as Peony Paeonia lactiflora Pall Dandelion Taraxacum officinalis Wigg. Huckleberry Vaccinium myrtillus L Blueberry Vaccinium uliginosum L Cranberry Vaccinium vitisidaea L and Stinging nettles Urtica dioica accordingly studied chemical composition and antioxidant activity and conducted pharmacological study. With the use of Folin Denis amp Folin Ciocalteu reagent methodit was determined that the content of polyphenol compounds was 4.14-5.17 and 27.5 101.5mgml. The study was also aimed to investigate DPPH free radical-scavenging activity in connection with term temperature and concentration to identify the most rational technological procedure. As a result of study it was identified that free radical-scavenging activity of herbs selected for the study was generally estimated at 564.25-1750.00 mcgml whereas antioxidant activity of solvents with 2-10 mgml concentration was 417.20-1750.00 mcg ml respectively. This shows that such activity is dependent on concentration. However in temperature of 30 1000amp1057 degrees their activity has slowly been decreased by 1750 mcgml 476.7mcgml depending on temperature. Regarding the stinging nettles the activity was grown directly dependent from temperature. DPHH free radical-scavenging activity was gradually increased in 1-10 minutes but was relatively stable and active in 11-16 minutes.

  4. Evaluation of engineering foods for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of developing acceptable and reliable engineered foods for use in controlled ecological support systems (CELSS) was evaluated. Food resupply and regeneration are calculated, flow charts of food processes in a multipurpose food pilot plant are presented, and equipment for a multipurpose food pilot plant and potential simplification of processes are discussed. Food-waste treatment and water usage in food processing and preparation are also considered.

  5. Selected natural and fallout radionuclides in plant foods around the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, E Mahiban; Raj, Y Lenin; Wesley, S Godwin; Rajan, M P

    2013-01-01

    The activity concentrations of certain radionuclides were quantified in some plant foods cultivated around Kudankulam, where a mega-nuclear power plant is being established. The activity concentrations were found more in the 'pulses' group and were the lowest in 'other vegetable' category. The annual effective dose was computed based on the activity concentration of radionuclides and it was found to be higher due to the consumption of cereals and pulses. Other vegetables, cereals, pulses and nuts recorded high transfer factors for the radionuclide (228)Ra. Fruits, leafy vegetables, tubers and roots, and palm embryo registered high transfer factors for (226)Ra. Group-wise activity concentration, radiation dose to the public and soil-plant-to-transfer factor are discussed in detail. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum sterol responses to increasing plant sterol intake from natural foods in the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escurriol, Verónica; Cofán, Montserrat; Serra, Mercè; Bulló, Mónica; Basora, Josep; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Zazpe, Itziar; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio

    2009-09-01

    Phytosterols in natural foods are thought to inhibit cholesterol absorption. The Mediterranean diet is rich in phytosterol-containing plant foods. To assess whether increasing phytosterol intake from natural foods was associated with a cholesterol-lowering effect in a substudy of a randomized trial of nutritional intervention with Mediterranean diets for primary cardiovascular prevention (PREDIMED study). One hundred and six high cardiovascular risk subjects assigned to two Mediterranean diets supplemented with virgin olive oil (VOO) or nuts, which are phytosterol-rich foods, or advice on a low-fat diet. Outcomes were 1-year changes in nutrient intake and serum levels of lipids and non-cholesterol sterols. Average phytosterol intake increased by 76, 158 and 15 mg/day in participants assigned VOO, nuts and low-fat diets, respectively. Compared to participants in the low-fat diet group, changes in outcome variables were observed only in those in the Mediterranean diet with nuts group, with increases in intake of fibre, polyunsaturated fatty acids and phytosterols (P natural foods appear to be bioactive in cholesterol lowering.

  7. Neanderthal medics? Evidence for food, cooking, and medicinal plants entrapped in dental calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Karen; Buckley, Stephen; Collins, Matthew J.; Estalrrich, Almudena; Brothwell, Don; Copeland, Les; García-Tabernero, Antonio; García-Vargas, Samuel; de la Rasilla, Marco; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Huguet, Rosa; Bastir, Markus; Santamaría, David; Madella, Marco; Wilson, Julie; Cortés, Ángel Fernández; Rosas, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Neanderthals disappeared sometime between 30,000 and 24,000 years ago. Until recently, Neanderthals were understood to have been predominantly meat-eaters; however, a growing body of evidence suggests their diet also included plants. We present the results of a study, in which sequential thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) were combined with morphological analysis of plant microfossils, to identify material entrapped in dental calculus from five Neanderthal individuals from the north Spanish site of El Sidrón. Our results provide the first molecular evidence for inhalation of wood-fire smoke and bitumen or oil shale and ingestion of a range of cooked plant foods. We also offer the first evidence for the use of medicinal plants by a Neanderthal individual. The varied use of plants that we have identified suggests that the Neanderthal occupants of El Sidrón had a sophisticated knowledge of their natural surroundings which included the ability to select and use certain plants.

  8. Is scratch-cooking a cost-effective way to prepare healthy school meals with US Department of Agriculture foods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Kao, Janice; Kiesel, Kristin; Lewis Miller, Markell; Boyle, Maria; Drago-Ferguson, Soledad; Braff-Guajardo, Ellen; Crawford, Patricia

    2014-09-01

    Despite the resurgence of interest in scratch-cooking as a way to increase the quality and appeal of school meals, many school districts are concerned about the cost implications of switching to scratch-cooking. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Foods are the single largest source of ingredients for school meals, and about half of USDA Foods are diverted for processing before being sent to the school district. We aimed to determine whether school lunch entrées made in a district from basic or raw USDA Foods ingredients can be healthier and less expensive to prepare than those sent to external processors. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between the extent of scratch-cooking and the nutritional content and cost to prepare entrées. Information was gathered by interview with school foodservice personnel and from school foodservice records from a convenience sample of 10 school districts in California that employed varying degrees of scratch-cooking and is diverse in terms of geographic location and the sociodemographics of the student body. The sample included all elementary school lunch entrées that contain USDA Foods offered during October 2010 for a total sample of 146 entrées. Ordinary least squares regressions were used to test for statistically significant differences in cost and nutrient content of entrées according to the level of scratch-cooking. There was no significant relationship between total costs and level of scratch-cooking. Entrées with the highest scratch-cooking scores had significantly lower food costs, higher labor costs, and not significantly different total costs compared with entrées with no scratch-cooking. Nutrient content was not consistently associated with scratch-cooking, but scratch-cooked entrées did include a larger variety of non-fast-food-type entrées. The findings suggest that scratch-cooking can be a cost-effective way to expand the variety of healthy school lunches prepared with USDA Foods

  9. Moving forward in plant food safety and security through NanoBioSensors: Adopt or adapt biomedical technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Tarun K; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Rakwal, Randeep; Agrawal, Ganesh K; Bansal, Vipul

    2015-05-01

    Plant-based foods are integral part of our day-to-day diet. Increasing world population has put forth an ever increasing demand for plant-based foods, and food security remains a major concern. Similarly, biological, chemical, and physical threats to our food and increasing regulatory demands to control the presence of foreign species in food products have made food safety a growing issue. Nanotechnology has already established its roots in diverse disciplines. However, the food industry is yet to harness the full potential of the unique capabilities offered by this next-generation technology. While there might be safety concerns in regards to integration of nanoproducts with our food products, an aspect of nanotechnology that can make remarkable contribution to different elements of the food chain is the use of nanobiosensors and diagnostic platforms for monitoring food traceability, quality, safety, and nutritional value. This brings us to an important question that whether existing diagnostic platforms that have already been well developed for biomedical and clinical application are suitable for food industry or whether the demands of the food industry are altogether different that may not allow adoption/adaptation of the existing technology. This review is an effort to raise this important "uncomfortable" yet "timely" question. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Plant functional traits reveal the relative contribution of habitat and food preferences to the diet of grasshoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Sébastien; Manneville, Olivier; Miquel, Christian; Taberlet, Pierre; Valentini, Alice; Aubert, Serge; Coissac, Eric; Colace, Marie-Pascale; Duparc, Quentin; Lavorel, Sandra; Moretti, Marco

    2013-12-01

    Food preferences and food availability are two major determinants of the diet of generalist herbivores and of their spatial distribution. How do these factors interact and eventually lead to diet differentiation in co-occurring herbivores? We quantified the diet of four grasshopper species co-occurring in subalpine grasslands using DNA barcoding of the plants contained in the faeces of individuals sampled in the field. The food preferences of each grasshopper species were assessed by a choice (cafeteria) experiment from among 24 plant species common in five grassland plots, in which the four grasshoppers were collected, while the habitat was described by the relative abundance of plant species in the grassland plots. Plant species were characterised by their leaf economics spectrum (LES), quantifying their nutrient vs. structural tissue content. The grasshoppers' diet, described by the mean LES of the plants eaten, could be explained by their plant preferences but not by the available plants in their habitat. The diet differed significantly across four grasshopper species pairs out of six, which validates food preferences assessed in standardised conditions as indicators for diet partitioning in nature. In contrast, variation of the functional diversity (FD) for LES in the diet was mostly correlated to the FD of the available plants in the habitat, suggesting that diet mixing depends on the environment and is not an intrinsic property of the grasshopper species. This study sheds light on the mechanisms determining the feeding niche of herbivores, showing that food preferences influence niche position whereas habitat diversity affects niche breadth.

  11. Evaluation of specimen preparation techniques for micro-PIXE localisation of elements in hyperaccumulating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachenko, Anthony G.; Siegele, Rainer; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Singh, Balwant; Ionescu, Mihail

    2008-01-01

    Hybanthus floribundus subsp. floribundus, a rare Australian Ni-hyperaccumulating shrub and Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana, an Australian naturalized As-hyperaccumulating fern are promising species for use in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) spectroscopy was used to map the elemental distribution of the accumulated metal(loid)s, Ca and K in leaf or pinnule tissues of the two plant species. Samples were prepared by two contrasting specimen preparation techniques: freeze-substitution in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and freeze-drying. The specimens were analysed to compare the suitability of each technique in preserving (i) the spatial elemental distribution and (ii) the tissue structure of the specimens. Further, the μ-PIXE results were compared with concentration of elements in the bulk tissue obtained by ICP-AES analysis. In H. floribundus subsp. floribundus, μ-PIXE analysis revealed Ni, Ca and K concentrations in freeze-dried leaf tissues were at par with bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps illustrated that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermal tissues (1% DW) and least concentration was found in spongy mesophyll tissues (0.53% DW). Conversely, elemental distribution maps of THF freeze-substituted tissues indicated significantly lower Ni, Ca and K concentrations than freeze-dried specimens and bulk tissue concentrations. Moreover, Ni concentrations were uniform across the whole specimen and no localisation was observed. In P. calomelanos var. austroamericana freeze-dried pinnule tissues, μ-PIXE revealed statistically similar As, Ca and K concentrations as compared to bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps showed that As localisation was relatively uniform across the whole specimen. Once again, THF freeze-substituted tissues revealed a significant loss of As compared to freeze-dried specimens and the concentrations obtained by bulk tissue analysis

  12. Do We Need Plant Food Supplements? A Critical Examination of Quality, Safety, Efficacy, and Necessity for a New Regulatory Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2018-04-01

    Given the expanding market of plant food supplements (PFSs) not undergoing any pre-marketing authorization, the overall quality, safety and efficacy of PFSs were subjected to a critical examination. Although many high-quality PFSs exist on the legal market, quality concerns are in general justified. Besides economic adulteration, active ingredients dramatically differing from label claims and among products were reported in several studies. In addition, PFSs sold via the Internet may be intentionally adulterated with undeclared prescription drugs. Compared to PFSs with only one single herb, PFSs containing herbal mixtures were more involved in moderate and severe clinical courses. Although prohibited by regulation, misleading labels on PFSs are common. Above all, only vague evidence for the efficacy of PFSs exists. Notwithstanding the unproven efficacy and insufficient safety assessment, PFSs represent a relevant source for consumers to get access to herbal preparations in the United States and meanwhile also in Europe, as launching of licensed/registered European herbal medicinal products (HMPs) has steadily decreased. However, being non-vitamin, non-mineral products, PFSs are neither food nor drugs. In terms of protecting public health and providing the consumer with high-quality, effective, and safe PFSs, possibilities are shown how to deal with the many challenges of PFSs. Last but not least, suggestions are made for assigning PFSs a separate regulatory category being less regulated compared to HMPs but more strictly regulated compared to food laws including implementation of good manufacturing practices and a scientific pre-marketing review process by an expert commission. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Traditional Preparations and Methanol Extracts of Medicinal Plants from Papua New Guinea Exhibit Similar Cytochrome P450 Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica C. Larson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis underlying this current work is that fresh juice expressed from Papua New Guinea (PNG medicinal plants (succus will inhibit human Cytochrome P450s (CYPs. The CYP inhibitory activity identified in fresh material was compared with inhibition in methanol extracts of dried material. Succus is the most common method of traditional medicine (TM preparation for consumption in PNG. There is increasing concern that TMs might antagonize or complicate drug therapy. We have previously shown that methanol extracts of commonly consumed PNG medicinal plants are able to induce and/or inhibit human CYPs in vitro. In this current work plant succus was prepared from fresh plant leaves. Inhibition of three major CYPs was determined using human liver microsomes and enzyme-selective model substrates. Of 15 species tested, succus from 6/15 was found to inhibit CYP1A2, 7/15 inhibited CYP3A4, and 4/15 inhibited CYP2D6. Chi-squared tests determined differences in inhibitory activity between succus and methanol preparations. Over 80% agreement was found. Thus, fresh juice from PNG medicinal plants does exhibit the potential to complicate drug therapy in at risk populations. Further, the general reproducibility of these findings suggests that methanol extraction of dried material is a reasonable surrogate preparation method for fresh plant samples.

  14. Preparation for decommissioning of the Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delcheva, T.; Ribarski, V.; Demireva, E.

    2006-01-01

    The first decommissioning strategy of units 1 and 2 of Kozloduy NPP (KNPP) stipulated 3 phases: a 5 year phase including the post operation activities and preparation of the safe enclosure (SE); a 35 years SE period, followed by deferred dismantling. 'Updated Decommissioning Strategy for Units 1-4 of Kozloduy NPP' was issued in June 2006. The Updated Strategy is based on the so called 'Continuous Dismantling' Concept. The updated Strategy starts preparatory work earlier and then moves into dismantling work without a significant gap. The aim is to achieve a more optimal distribution of the dismantling activities along the time, saving jobs and the existing knowledge of the plant personnel during the decommissioning, and ensuring smooth and more effective use of financial and human resources and of the available infrastructure for waste treatment. This paper gives general information about the updated strategy and activities required for its implementation. (author)

  15. Preparation of Grinding Aid Using Waste Acid Residue from Plasticizer Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingxiao; Feng, Yanchao; Liu, Manchao; Zhao, Fengqing

    2017-09-01

    The grinding aid for granulated blast-furnace slag were prepared from waste acid residue from plasticizer plant through neutralization, de-methanol and granulation process. In this process, sulfuric acid was transformed into gypsum which has much contribution for grinding effect by combined use with the glycerol and poly glycerin in the waste. Fly ash was used for granulation for the composite grinding aid. Methanol can be recycled in the process. The result showed that the suitable addition of grinding aid is 0.03 % of granulated blast-furnace slag (mass). In this case, the specific surface area is 14% higher than that of the blank. Compared with the common grinding aids, it has excellent performance and low cost.

  16. Long term operation of nuclear power plants in Spain: preparing for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcelles, I.; Frutos, E.; Jardi, X.; Cosgaya, F., E-mail: imarcelles@tecnatom.es [Tecnatom, S. A., Av. Montes de Oca 1, 28703 San Sebastian de los Reyes, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-09-15

    The Spanish nuclear industry is preparing for the Long Term Operation (LTO) of its complete fleet. Therefore, an important number of activities are being currently developed in order to achieve the safe and economical life extension of the operational life of the Spanish nuclear power plants. This paper describes the main activities that will be performed to meet the licensing requirements, in order to be granted and operating license for LTO, such as the development of Ageing Management Plans (Amp), Time Limited Ageing Analysis (TLAA) as well as databases and software tools to support LTO. In addition to this, this paper will describe the implementation of the NDE activities included in the AMPs and some of the research and development programs that the Spanish nuclear industry research is working on related to LTO (e.g. cable ageing, concrete degradation, etc.) (Author)

  17. Long term operation of nuclear power plants in Spain: preparing for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcelles, I.; Frutos, E.; Jardi, X.; Cosgaya, F.

    2017-09-01

    The Spanish nuclear industry is preparing for the Long Term Operation (LTO) of its complete fleet. Therefore, an important number of activities are being currently developed in order to achieve the safe and economical life extension of the operational life of the Spanish nuclear power plants. This paper describes the main activities that will be performed to meet the licensing requirements, in order to be granted and operating license for LTO, such as the development of Ageing Management Plans (Amp), Time Limited Ageing Analysis (TLAA) as well as databases and software tools to support LTO. In addition to this, this paper will describe the implementation of the NDE activities included in the AMPs and some of the research and development programs that the Spanish nuclear industry research is working on related to LTO (e.g. cable ageing, concrete degradation, etc.) (Author)

  18. Separation of krypton from dissolver off-gas of a reprocessing plant using preparative gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoni, M.

    1984-02-01

    Kr-85 can be separated from the pre-purified purge air in the final processing step of the purification phase for dissolver off-gases of a reprocessing plant with the aid of preparative gas chromatography. Activated carbon adsorbers in combination with helium as carrier gas permits maximum gas mixture through-flow. A separation temperature of 30 0 C is considered optimal. An adsorbent volume of 40 dm 3 is necessary for processing the residual gas flow of 2.5 Nm 3 /h; the adsorbent is divided between 2 columns linked in series each of which are 2 m long with an internal diameter of 100 mm. The helium flow required is five times greater than the off-gas flow. The degree of purity for krypton is greater than 90% for a decontamination factor of greater than 1000. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: The role of animal feeding trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haver, van E.; Alink, G.M.; Cockburn, A.; Kuiper, H.A.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The

  20. Preparation for Pick-and-Eat Food Production on the International Space Station: Flight Definition for the VEG-04 and VEG-05 Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, G. D.; Wheeler, R. M.; Romeyn, M. W.; Hummerick, M. E.; Spencer, L. E.; Morrow, R. C.; Mitchell, C. A.; Burgner, S.; Whitmire, A. M.; Young, M. H.; hide

    2018-01-01

    -handling protocol is also being evaluated to support food safety. All harvests reserve a subset of samples for microbial analysis to determine baseline microbial levels and help establish critical control points for food safety. Testing was initially conducted in hardware analogs of the standard Veggie plant pillows. However, a new Veggie watering system, the Passive Orbital Nutrient Delivery System or PONDS, has been designed and is being prepared for future flight experiments. With the selection of this growth system, ground tests have shifted to analog PONDS systems. Crop tests on ISS, designated VEG-04 for mizuna and VEG-05 for tomato, are planned in 2018 to evaluate any additional impacts of spaceflight on the light and fertilizer conditions down-selected from ground tests. A set of Veggie-specific questions has been developed to characterize the psychological impacts of plant growth and plant-care activities during spaceflight. Organoleptic questionnaires have been developed to assess produce attributes in microgravity taste sessions. These tests for plants growing in the Veggie hardware on ISS will help to mitigate the risk of an inadequate food supply for long duration missions by developing methods and determining hardware requirements to integrate fresh vegetables as a dietary supplement. This research was co-funded by the Human Research Program and Space Biology (MTL1075) in the ILSRA 2015 NRA call.

  1. Bioaerosols from a food waste composting plant affect human airway epithelial cell remodeling genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Min-Wei; Lee, Chung-Ru; Hung, Hsueh-Fen; Teng, Kuo-Sheng; Huang, Hsin; Chuang, Chun-Yu

    2013-12-24

    The composting procedure in food waste plants generates airborne bioaerosols that have the potential to damage human airway epithelial cells. Persistent inflammation and repair responses induce airway remodeling and damage to the respiratory system. This study elucidated the expression changes of airway remodeling genes in human lung mucoepidermoid NCI-H292 cells exposed to bioaerosols from a composting plant. Different types of microorganisms were detectable in the composting plant, using the agar culture method. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the level of Aspergillus fumigatus and the profile of remodeling genes. The real-time PCR results indicated that the amount of A. fumigatus in the composting hall was less than 10(2) conidia. The endotoxins in the field bioaerosols were determined using a limulus amebocyte lysate test. The endotoxin levels depended on the type of particulate matter (PM), with coarse particles (2.5-10 μm) having higher endotoxin levels than did fine particles (0.5-2.5 μm). After exposure to the conditioned medium of field bioaerosol samples, NCI-H292 cells showed increased pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 release and activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21 WAF1/CIP1) gene expression, but not of matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9. Airborne endotoxin levels were higher inside the composting hall than they were in other areas, and they were associated with PM. This suggested that airborne bioaerosols in the composting plant contained endotoxins and microorganisms besides A. fumigatus that cause the inflammatory cytokine secretion and augment the expression of remodeling genes in NCI-H292 cells. It is thus necessary to monitor potentially hazardous materials from bioaerosols in food composting plants, which could affect the health of workers.

  2. Bioaerosols from a Food Waste Composting Plant Affect Human Airway Epithelial Cell Remodeling Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Wei; Lee, Chung-Ru; Hung, Hsueh-Fen; Teng, Kuo-Sheng; Huang, Hsin; Chuang, Chun-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The composting procedure in food waste plants generates airborne bioaerosols that have the potential to damage human airway epithelial cells. Persistent inflammation and repair responses induce airway remodeling and damage to the respiratory system. This study elucidated the expression changes of airway remodeling genes in human lung mucoepidermoid NCI-H292 cells exposed to bioaerosols from a composting plant. Different types of microorganisms were detectable in the composting plant, using the agar culture method. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the level of Aspergillus fumigatus and the profile of remodeling genes. The real-time PCR results indicated that the amount of A. fumigatus in the composting hall was less than 102 conidia. The endotoxins in the field bioaerosols were determined using a limulus amebocyte lysate test. The endotoxin levels depended on the type of particulate matter (PM), with coarse particles (2.5–10 μm) having higher endotoxin levels than did fine particles (0.5–2.5 μm). After exposure to the conditioned medium of field bioaerosol samples, NCI-H292 cells showed increased pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 release and activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21WAF1/CIP1) gene expression, but not of matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9. Airborne endotoxin levels were higher inside the composting hall than they were in other areas, and they were associated with PM. This suggested that airborne bioaerosols in the composting plant contained endotoxins and microorganisms besides A. fumigatus that cause the inflammatory cytokine secretion and augment the expression of remodeling genes in NCI-H292 cells. It is thus necessary to monitor potentially hazardous materials from bioaerosols in food composting plants, which could affect the health of workers. PMID:24368426

  3. Stability lies in flowers: Plant diversification mediating shifts in arthropod food webs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendes Haro

    Full Text Available Arthropod community composition in agricultural landscapes is dependent on habitat characteristics, such as plant composition, landscape homogeneity and the presence of key resources, which are usually absent in monocultures. Manipulating agroecosystems through the insertion of in-field floral resources is a useful technique to reduce the deleterious effects of habitat simplification. Food web analysis can clarify how the community reacts to the presence of floral resources which favour ecosystem services such as biological control of pest species. Here, we reported quantitative and qualitative alterations in arthropod food web complexity due to the presence of floral resources from the Mexican marigold (Tagetes erecta L. in a field scale lettuce community network. The presence of marigold flowers in the field successfully increased richness, body size, and the numerical and biomass abundance of natural enemies in the lettuce arthropod community, which affected the number of links, vulnerability, generality, omnivory rate and food chain length in the community, which are key factors for the stability of relationships between species. Our results reinforce the notion that diversification through insertion of floral resources may assist in preventing pest outbreaks in agroecosystems. This community approach to arthropod interactions in agricultural landscapes can be used in the future to predict the effect of different management practices in the food web to contribute with a more sustainable management of arthropod pest species.

  4. Disentangling the root- and detritus-based food chain in the micro-food web of an arable soil by plant removal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Glavatska

    Full Text Available Soil food web structure and function is primarily determined by the major basal resources, which are living plant tissue, root exudates and dead organic matter. A field experiment was performed to disentangle the interlinkage of the root-and detritus-based soil food chains. An arable site was cropped either with maize, amended with maize shoot litter or remained bare soil, representing food webs depending on roots, aboveground litter and soil organic matter as predominant resource, respectively. The soil micro-food web, i.e. microorganisms and nematodes, was investigated in two successive years along a depth transect. The community composition of nematodes was used as model to determine the changes in the rhizosphere, detritusphere and bulk soil food web. In the first growing season the impact of treatments on the soil micro-food web was minor. In the second year plant-feeding nematodes increased under maize, whereas after harvest the Channel Index assigned promotion of the detritivore food chain, reflecting decomposition of root residues. The amendment with litter did not foster microorganisms, instead biomass of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as that of fungi declined in the rooted zone. Likely higher grazing pressure by nematodes reduced microbial standing crop as bacterial and fungal feeders increased. However, populations at higher trophic levels were not promoted, indicating limited flux of litter resources along the food chain. After two years of bare soil microbial biomass and nematode density remained stable, pointing to soil organic matter-based resources that allow bridging periods with deprivation. Nematode communities were dominated by opportunistic taxa that are competitive at moderate resource supply. In sum, removal of plants from the system had less severe effects than expected, suggesting considerable food web resilience to the disruption of both the root and detrital carbon channel, pointing to a legacy of

  5. Disentangling the root- and detritus-based food chain in the micro-food web of an arable soil by plant removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavatska, Olena; Müller, Karolin; Butenschoen, Olaf; Schmalwasser, Andreas; Kandeler, Ellen; Scheu, Stefan; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Ruess, Liliane

    2017-01-01

    Soil food web structure and function is primarily determined by the major basal resources, which are living plant tissue, root exudates and dead organic matter. A field experiment was performed to disentangle the interlinkage of the root-and detritus-based soil food chains. An arable site was cropped either with maize, amended with maize shoot litter or remained bare soil, representing food webs depending on roots, aboveground litter and soil organic matter as predominant resource, respectively. The soil micro-food web, i.e. microorganisms and nematodes, was investigated in two successive years along a depth transect. The community composition of nematodes was used as model to determine the changes in the rhizosphere, detritusphere and bulk soil food web. In the first growing season the impact of treatments on the soil micro-food web was minor. In the second year plant-feeding nematodes increased under maize, whereas after harvest the Channel Index assigned promotion of the detritivore food chain, reflecting decomposition of root residues. The amendment with litter did not foster microorganisms, instead biomass of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as that of fungi declined in the rooted zone. Likely higher grazing pressure by nematodes reduced microbial standing crop as bacterial and fungal feeders increased. However, populations at higher trophic levels were not promoted, indicating limited flux of litter resources along the food chain. After two years of bare soil microbial biomass and nematode density remained stable, pointing to soil organic matter-based resources that allow bridging periods with deprivation. Nematode communities were dominated by opportunistic taxa that are competitive at moderate resource supply. In sum, removal of plants from the system had less severe effects than expected, suggesting considerable food web resilience to the disruption of both the root and detrital carbon channel, pointing to a legacy of organic matter

  6. Accumulation and preparation of nondestructive inspection data for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    In recent years, flaws due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in stainless steel piping and nickel based alloy welds were detected at nuclear power plants in Japan. Weld Overlay (WOL) has been developed as a repairing method for piping items without removing flaws. Since the inspection techniques for WOL pipes and nickel based alloy welds are not verified enough in Japan, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) has been carrying out a six year research project entitled 'Accumulation and Preparation of Nondestructive Inspection Data for Nuclear Power Plants' regarding nondestructive inspection since FY2007. In this research project, detection and sizing capability of SCC by Ultrasonic Testing (UT) are evaluated using mockup tests. In addition, the results of this project and past nondestructive inspection data performed by JNES projects are gathered, and inputted into the database of NDT information. In FY2012, followings were conducted. 1) Analysis for UT measurement results of nickel based alloy weld simulating safe end of reactor vessel outlet nozzle. 2) Analysis for UT measurement results of cast stainless steel piping. 3) Development of interface of UT simulation. 4) Development of nondestructive testing guideline. (author)

  7. A decade of plant proteomics and mass spectrometry: translation of technical advancements to food security and safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Sarkar, Abhijit; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Pedreschi, Romina; Carpentier, Sebastien; Wang, Tai; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Kohli, Ajay; Ndimba, Bongani Kaiser; Bykova, Natalia V; Rampitsch, Christof; Zolla, Lello; Rafudeen, Mohamed Suhail; Cramer, Rainer; Bindschedler, Laurence Veronique; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Ndimba, Roya Janeen; Farrant, Jill M; Renaut, Jenny; Job, Dominique; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Rakwal, Randeep

    2013-01-01

    Tremendous progress in plant proteomics driven by mass spectrometry (MS) techniques has been made since 2000 when few proteomics reports were published and plant proteomics was in its infancy. These achievements include the refinement of existing techniques and the search for new techniques to address food security, safety, and health issues. It is projected that in 2050, the world's population will reach 9-12 billion people demanding a food production increase of 34-70% (FAO, 2009) from today's food production. Provision of food in a sustainable and environmentally committed manner for such a demand without threatening natural resources, requires that agricultural production increases significantly and that postharvest handling and food manufacturing systems become more efficient requiring lower energy expenditure, a decrease in postharvest losses, less waste generation and food with longer shelf life. There is also a need to look for alternative protein sources to animal based (i.e., plant based) to be able to fulfill the increase in protein demands by 2050. Thus, plant biology has a critical role to play as a science capable of addressing such challenges. In this review, we discuss proteomics especially MS, as a platform, being utilized in plant biology research for the past 10 years having the potential to expedite the process of understanding plant biology for human benefits. The increasing application of proteomics technologies in food security, analysis, and safety is emphasized in this review. But, we are aware that no unique approach/technology is capable to address the global food issues. Proteomics-generated information/resources must be integrated and correlated with other omics-based approaches, information, and conventional programs to ensure sufficient food and resources for human development now and in the future. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Food plant diversity as broad-Scale Determinant of Avian Frugivore Richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kissling, W. Daniel; Rahbek, Carsten; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    from niche assembly mechanisms (e.g. coevolutionary adaptations to fruit size, fruit colour or vertical stratification of fruit presentation) or, alternatively, from stochastic speciation-extinction processes. In any case, the close relationship between species richness of Ficus and avian frugivores......The causes of variation in animal species richness at large spatial scales are intensively debated. Here, we examine whether the diversity of food plants, contemporary climate and energy, or habitat heterogeneity determine species richness patterns of avian frugivores across sub-Saharan Africa....... Path models indicate that species richness of Ficus (their fruits being one of the major food resources for frugivores in the tropics) has the strongest direct effect on richness of avian frugivores, whereas the influences of variables related to water-energy and habitat heterogeneity are mainly...

  9. Dental calculus reveals unique insights into food items, cooking and plant processing in prehistoric central Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Stephen; Usai, Donatella; Jakob, Tina; Radini, Anita; Hardy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Accessing information on plant consumption before the adoption of agriculture is challenging. However, there is growing evidence for use of locally available wild plants from an increasing number of pre-agrarian sites, suggesting broad ecological knowledge. The extraction of chemical compounds and microfossils from dental calculus removed from ancient teeth offers an entirely new perspective on dietary reconstruction, as it provides empirical results on material that is already in the mouth. Here we present a suite of results from the multi-period Central Sudanese site of Al Khiday. We demonstrate the ingestion in both pre-agricultural and agricultural periods of Cyperus rotundus tubers. This plant is a good source of carbohydrates and has many useful medicinal and aromatic qualities, though today it is considered to be the world's most costly weed. Its ability to inhibit Streptococcus mutans may have contributed to the unexpectedly low level of caries found in the agricultural population. Other evidence extracted from the dental calculus includes smoke inhalation, dry (roasting) and wet (heating in water) cooking, a second plant possibly from the Triticaceae tribe and plant fibres suggestive of raw material preparation through chewing.

  10. Dental calculus reveals unique insights into food items, cooking and plant processing in prehistoric central Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Buckley

    Full Text Available Accessing information on plant consumption before the adoption of agriculture is challenging. However, there is growing evidence for use of locally available wild plants from an increasing number of pre-agrarian sites, suggesting broad ecological knowledge. The extraction of chemical compounds and microfossils from dental calculus removed from ancient teeth offers an entirely new perspective on dietary reconstruction, as it provides empirical results on material that is already in the mouth. Here we present a suite of results from the multi-period Central Sudanese site of Al Khiday. We demonstrate the ingestion in both pre-agricultural and agricultural periods of Cyperus rotundus tubers. This plant is a good source of carbohydrates and has many useful medicinal and aromatic qualities, though today it is considered to be the world's most costly weed. Its ability to inhibit Streptococcus mutans may have contributed to the unexpectedly low level of caries found in the agricultural population. Other evidence extracted from the dental calculus includes smoke inhalation, dry (roasting and wet (heating in water cooking, a second plant possibly from the Triticaceae tribe and plant fibres suggestive of raw material preparation through chewing.

  11. IAEA activities to prepare safety codes and guides for thermal neutron nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iansiti, E.

    1977-01-01

    In accordance with the programme presented to, and endorsed by, the eighteenth General Conference in September 1974, the IAEA is now developing a complete set of safety codes and guides that will represent recommendations for the safety of thermal neutron power plants. The safety codes outline the minimum requirements for achieving this safety, and the safety guides set forth the criteria, procedures and methods to implement the safety codes. The whole programme is directed towards the five areas of Governmental Organization, Siting, Design, Operation, and Quality Assurance. One Scientific Secretary from the Agency Secretariat is responsible for each of these areas and a Co-ordinator takes care of common problems. For the development of each of these documents a working group of a few world experts is first convened which prepare a preliminary draft. This draft is then reviewed by a larger, international Technical Review Committee (one for each of the five areas) and a subsequent review by the Senior Advisory Group - with representatives from 20 states - ensures that the document is well coordinated within the programme. At this stage, it is sent to Member States for comments. The Technical Review Committee concerned is reconvened to integrate these comments into the document, and, after a final review by the Senior Advisory Group, the document is ready for transmission to the Director General of the Agency for endorsement and publication. A preliminary to this procedure is the collation by the Secretariat of large amounts of information submitted by Member States so that the first draft is really based on a very complete knowledge of what is done in each area all over the world. This collation frequently reveals differences in approach which are not random but due, rather, to the local conditions and the types of reactors. These differences must be harmonized in the documents produced without detracting from the effectiveness of the code or guide. The whole

  12. The study of the antimicrobial activity of colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles prepared using food stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandin, G V; Suvorov, O A; Shaburova, L N; Podkopaev, D O; Frolova, Yu V; Ermolaeva, G A

    2015-06-01

    The bactericidal effect of colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles based on food stabilizers, gum arabic and chitosan, against bacterial cultures of microorganisms in food production is described. The antibacterial activity of nanotechnology products containing different amounts of stabilizing additives when applied to solid pH-neutral substrates is studied. For its evaluation a method making it possible to take into account the capability of nanoparticles to diffuse in solid media was applied. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of nanoparticles used against Erwinia herbicola, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina flava were found. A suggestion was made concerning the influence of the spatial structure of bacteria on the antibacterial activity of colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles. The data concerning the antibacterial activity and minimal inhibiting concentrations of nanoparticles may be used for development of products suppressing activity of microorganisms hazardous for food production.

  13. Health Effects of Bioactive Components in Plant Foods; Results and Opinion of the EU-COST926 Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Piskula, M.; Bovy, Arnaud; Dekker, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the main results of EU-action: “COST 926: Impact of new technologies on the health benefits and safety of bioactive plant compounds”. The bioavailability and the effects on gene expression of various bioactive components in plant foods are described in relation with their

  14. Plant species identity and diversity effects on different trophic levels of nematodes in the soil food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Deyn, G.B.; Raaijmakers, C.E.; Van Ruijven, J.; Berendse, F.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies on biodiversity and soil food web composition have mentioned plant species identity, as well as plant species diversity as the main factors affecting the abundance and diversity of soil organisms. However, most studies have been carried out under limitations of time, space, or

  15. Food irradiation combined with refrigeration in food industrial plants. L'ionisation combinee au froid dans les industries agro-alimentaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisseau, P. (CEA Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Physiologie Vegetale et Ecosystemes)

    1991-04-01

    Food irradiation and refrigeration are both physical treatments used for food preservation. The complementarity of their effects on food is the best reason for their combination. Irradiation is essentially used for disinfestation and refrigeration to protect food against non microbial degradations. Refrigeration and irradiation could be combined for shelf life extension of fresh fruits and vegetables or reduction of microflora in animal products, without loss of quality. Freezing must be combined with ionizing treatments if high doses are necessary as it is the case with destruction of pathogens in meat or food sterilization. Some examples of combination of refrigeration and irradiation are routinely applied in some industrial plants in France but it is expected that more and more combined treatments will be used thanks to research.

  16. Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran and others

    2006-01-15

    This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

  17. Practical use of herb mixture preparations as functional foods for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran and others

    2006-01-01

    This research project was intended to verify biological efficacy and to develop optimal manufacturing process of a novel herbal preparation (HemoHIM), and finally to practicalize it as a functional food for hemato-immunomodulation and cancer therapy assistance. HemoHIM alleviated the suppression of immune and hematopoietic functions in irradiated or anticancer drug(cyclophosphamide)-treated mice, enhanced the anticancer immune activity, and reduced the biological damage by oxidative stress. From these results, the optical application condition of HemoHIM was established. Then, the biologically active components, polysaccharide fraction for immune and hematopoiesis, and 5 antioxidant compounds, were isolated and identified. Based on these results, the standards for the active component contents were established and the optimal manufacturing process was developed. The contents of heavy metals and pesticides were analyzed by US FDA and the pilot product was shown to contain no heavy metals and pesticides. Also the pilot product showed no biological toxicity in the animal toxicity test including the long-term administration, teratogenicity, and local toxicity test. These results confirmed the safety of HemoHIM as a food. Finally, the human efficacy was evaluated. In result, the pilot product alleviated the suppression of immune cell numbers in cancer patients who received the radiation or chemotherapy, and enhanced the immune cell numbers and functions in the immune-depressed sub-healthy volunteers. Based on these results, KAERI and Kolmar Korea, Co. founded the joint venture company, SunBioTech Co. and two herbal preparation products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) were partially commercialized. This herbal preparation is expected to be applied as a heath functional food for immune and hematopoiesis modulation, and also as a general medicine for the alleviation of immune and hematopoiesis suppression during cancer treatments in the future through further study.

  18. Weaving Together Space Biology and the Human Research Program: Selecting Crops and Manipulating Plant Physiology to Produce High Quality Food for ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Hummerick, Mary; Douglas, Grace; Wheeler, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Researchers from the Human Research Program (HRP) have teamed up with plant biologists at KSC to explore the potential for plant growth and food production on the international space station (ISS) and future exploration missions. KSC Space Biology (SB) brings a history of plant and plant-microbial interaction research for station and for future bioregenerative life support systems. JSC HRP brings expertise in Advanced Food Technology (AFT), Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), and Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP). The Veggie plant growth hardware on the ISS is the platform that first drove these interactions. As we prepared for the VEG-01 validation test of Veggie, we engaged with BHP to explore questions that could be asked of the crew that would contribute both to plant and to behavioral health research. AFT, AEH and BHP stakeholders were engaged immediately after the return of the Veggie flight samples of space-grown lettuce, and this team worked with the JSC human medical offices to gain approvals for crew consumption of the lettuce on ISS. As we progressed with Veggie testing we began performing crop selection studies for Veggie that were initiated through AFT. These studies consisted of testing and down selecting leafy greens, dwarf tomatoes, and dwarf pepper crops based on characteristics of plant growth and nutritional levels evaluated at KSC, and organoleptic quality evaluated at JSCs Sensory Analysis lab. This work has led to a successful collaborative proposal to the International Life Sciences Research Announcement for a jointly funded HRP-SB investigation of the impacts of light quality and fertilizer on salad crop productivity, nutrition, and flavor in Veggie on the ISS. With this work, and potentially with other pending joint projects, we will continue the synergistic research that will advance the space biology knowledge base, help close gaps in the human research roadmap, and enable humans to venture out to Mars and beyond.

  19. Hazardous organic compounds in biogas plant end products-Soil burden and risk to food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suominen, K.; Verta, M.; Marttinen, S.

    2014-01-01

    The end products (digestate, solid fraction of the digestate, liquid fraction of the digestate) of ten biogas production lines in Finland were analyzed for ten hazardous organic compounds or compound groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB(7)), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH(16)), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP + NPEOs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Biogas plant feedstocks were divided into six groups: municipal sewage sludge, municipal biowaste, fat, food industry by-products, animal manure and others (consisting of milling by-products (husk) and raw former foodstuffs of animal origin from the retail trade). There was no clear connection between the origin of the feedstocks of a plant and the concentrations of hazardous organic compounds in the digestate. For PCDD/Fs and for DEHP, the median soil burden of the compound after a single addition of digestate was similar to the annual atmospheric deposition of the compound or compound group in Finland or other Nordic countries. For PFCs, the median soil burden was somewhat lower than the atmospheric deposition in Finland or Sweden. For NP + NPEOs, the soil burden was somewhat higher than the atmospheric deposition in Denmark. The median soil burden of PBDEs was 400 to 1000 times higher than the PBDE air deposition in Finland or in Sweden. With PBDEs, PFCs and HBCD, the impact of the use of end products should be a focus of further research. Highly persistent compounds, such as PBDE- and PFC-compounds may accumulate in agricultural soil after repeated use of organic fertilizers containing these compounds. For other compounds included in this study, agricultural use of biogas plant end products is unlikely to cause risk to food safety in Finland. - Highlights:

  20. Hazardous organic compounds in biogas plant end products-Soil burden and risk to food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suominen, K., E-mail: kimmo.suominen@evira.fi [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Risk Assessment Research Unit, Mustialankatu 3, 00790 Helsinki (Finland); Verta, M. [Finnish Environmental Institute (SYKE), Mechelininkatu 34a, P.O. Box 140, 00251 Helsinki (Finland); Marttinen, S. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, 31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2014-09-01

    The end products (digestate, solid fraction of the digestate, liquid fraction of the digestate) of ten biogas production lines in Finland were analyzed for ten hazardous organic compounds or compound groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB(7)), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH(16)), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP + NPEOs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Biogas plant feedstocks were divided into six groups: municipal sewage sludge, municipal biowaste, fat, food industry by-products, animal manure and others (consisting of milling by-products (husk) and raw former foodstuffs of animal origin from the retail trade). There was no clear connection between the origin of the feedstocks of a plant and the concentrations of hazardous organic compounds in the digestate. For PCDD/Fs and for DEHP, the median soil burden of the compound after a single addition of digestate was similar to the annual atmospheric deposition of the compound or compound group in Finland or other Nordic countries. For PFCs, the median soil burden was somewhat lower than the atmospheric deposition in Finland or Sweden. For NP + NPEOs, the soil burden was somewhat higher than the atmospheric deposition in Denmark. The median soil burden of PBDEs was 400 to 1000 times higher than the PBDE air deposition in Finland or in Sweden. With PBDEs, PFCs and HBCD, the impact of the use of end products should be a focus of further research. Highly persistent compounds, such as PBDE- and PFC-compounds may accumulate in agricultural soil after repeated use of organic fertilizers containing these compounds. For other compounds included in this study, agricultural use of biogas plant end products is unlikely to cause risk to food safety in Finland. - Highlights:

  1. Metabolic engineering approaches for production of biochemicals in food and medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah A; Roberts, Susan C

    2014-04-01

    Historically, plants are a vital source of nutrients and pharmaceuticals. Recent advances in metabolic engineering have made it possible to not only increase the concentration of desired compounds, but also introduce novel biosynthetic pathways to a variety of species, allowing for enhanced nutritional or commercial value. To improve metabolic engineering capabilities, new transformation techniques have been developed to allow for gene specific silencing strategies or stacking of multiple genes within the same region of the chromosome. The 'omics' era has provided a new resource for elucidation of uncharacterized biosynthetic pathways, enabling novel metabolic engineering approaches. These resources are now allowing for advanced metabolic engineering of plant production systems, as well as the synthesis of increasingly complex products in engineered microbial hosts. The status of current metabolic engineering efforts is highlighted for the in vitro production of paclitaxel and the in vivo production of β-carotene in Golden Rice and other food crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Guidance on the preparation and presentation of an application for authorisation of a novel food in the context of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    . This guidance presents a common format for the organisation of the information to be presented in order to assist the applicant in preparing a well-structured application to demonstrate the safety of the novel food. The application should be comprehensive and complete. This guidance outlined the data needed......Following the adoption of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283 of the European Parliament and of the Council on novel foods, the European Commission requested EFSA to update and develop scientific and technical guidance for the preparation and presentation of applications for authorisation of novel foods...... for the safety assessments of novel foods. Requirements which should be covered in all applications relate to the description of the novel food, production process, compositional data, specification, proposed uses and use levels, and anticipated intake of the novel food. Further sections on the history of use...

  3. Detection and identification of multiple adulterants in plant food supplements using attenuated total reflectance-Infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Aouadi, C; Bothy, J L; Courselle, P

    2018-04-15

    Due to the rising popularity of dietary supplements, especially plant food supplements, and alternative herbal medicines, a whole market developed and these products became freely available through internet. Though several searches revealed that at least a part of these products, especially the ones obtained from websites disclosing their physical identity, are aldulterated with pharmaceutical compounds. This causes a threat for public health, since these compounds are not declared and therefore adverse effects will not immediately be related to the product. The more the adulterants can interfere with other medicinal treatments. Since the present active pharmaceutical ingredients are not declared on the package and the products are sold as 100% natural or herbal in nature, it is very difficult for custom personnel to discriminate between products to be confiscated or not. Therefore easy to apply analytical approaches to discriminate between adulterated and non-adulterated products are necessary. This paper presents an approach based on infrared spectroscopy combined with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and partial least squares- discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to easily differentiate between adulterated and non- adulterated plant food supplements and to get a first idea of the nature of the adulterant present. The performance of PLS-DA models based on Mid-IR and NIR data were compared as well as models based on the combined data. Further three preprocessing strategies were compared. The best performance was obtained for a PLS-DA model using Mid-IR data with the second derivative as preprocessing method. This model showed a correct classification rate of 98.3% for an external test set. Also eight real samples were screened using the model and for seven of these samples a correct classification was obtained. Generally it could be concluded that the obtained model and the presented approach could be used at customs to discriminate between adulterated and non

  4. Data collection and preparation of authoritative reviews on space food and nutrition research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The collection and classification of information for a manually operated information retrieval system on the subject of space food and nutrition research are described. The system as it currently exists is designed for retrieval of documents, either in hard copy or on microfiche, from the technical files of the MSC Food and Nutrition Section by accession number, author, and/or subject. The system could readily be extended to include retrieval by affiliation, report and contract number, and sponsoring agency should the need arise. It can also be easily converted to computerized retrieval. At present the information retrieval system contains nearly 3000 documents which consist of technical papers, contractors' reports, and reprints obtained from the food and nutrition files at MSC, Technical Library, the library at the Texas Medical Center in Houston, the BMI Technical Libraries, Dr. E. B. Truitt at MBI, and the OSU Medical Libraries. Additional work was done to compile 18 selected bibliographies on subjects of immediate interest on the MSC Food and Nutrition Section.

  5. Food source quality and ant dominance hierarchy influence the outcomes of ant-plant interactions in an arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Flores, Rocío Vianey; Aguirre, Armando; Anjos, Diego V.; Neves, Frederico S.; Campos, Ricardo I.; Dáttilo, Wesley

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we conducted a series of experiments in a population of Vachellia constricta (Fabaceae) in the arid Tehuacan-Cuicatláan valley, Mexico, in order to evaluate if the food source quality and ant dominance hierarchy influence the outcomes of ant-plant interactions. Using an experiment with artificial nectaries, we observed that ants foraging on food sources with higher concentration of sugar are quicker in finding and attacking potential herbivorous insects. More specifically, we found that the same ant species may increase their defence effectiveness according to the quality of food available. These findings indicate that ant effectiveness in plant protection is context-dependent and may vary according to specific individual characteristics of plants. In addition, we showed that competitively superior ant species tend to dominate plants in periods with high nectar activity, emphasizing the role of the dominance hierarchy structuring ant-plant interactions. However, when high sugar food sources were experimentally available ad libitum, the nocturnal and competitively superior ant species, Camponotus atriceps, did not dominate the artificial nectaries during the day possibly due to limitation of its thermal tolerance. Therefore, temporal niche partitioning may be allowing the coexistence of two dominant ant species (Camponotus rubritorax during the day and C. atriceps at night) on V. constricta. Our findings indicate that the quality of the food source, and temporal shifts in ant dominance are key factors which structure the biotic plant defences in an arid environment.

  6. Increasing Vitamin C Content in Plant Foods to Improve Their Nutritional Value—Successes and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Gallie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C serves as a cofactor in the synthesis of collagen needed to support cardiovascular function, maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth, as well as being required in wound healing. Although vitamin C is essential, humans are one of the few mammalian species unable to synthesize the vitamin and must obtain it through dietary sources. Only low levels of the vitamin are required to prevent scurvy but subclinical vitamin C deficiency can cause less obvious symptoms such as cardiovascular impairment. Up to a third of the adult population in the U.S. obtains less than the recommended amount of vitamin C from dietary sources of which plant-based foods constitute the major source. Consequently, strategies to increase vitamin C content in plants have been developed over the last decade and include increasing its synthesis as well as its recycling, i.e., the reduction of the oxidized form of ascorbic acid that is produced in reactions back into its reduced form. Increasing vitamin C levels in plants, however, is not without consequences. This review provides an overview of the approaches used to increase vitamin C content in plants and the successes achieved. Also discussed are some of the potential limitations of increasing vitamin C and how these may be overcome.

  7. Increasing vitamin C content in plant foods to improve their nutritional value-successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallie, Daniel R

    2013-08-30

    Vitamin C serves as a cofactor in the synthesis of collagen needed to support cardiovascular function, maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth, as well as being required in wound healing. Although vitamin C is essential, humans are one of the few mammalian species unable to synthesize the vitamin and must obtain it through dietary sources. Only low levels of the vitamin are required to prevent scurvy but subclinical vitamin C deficiency can cause less obvious symptoms such as cardiovascular impairment. Up to a third of the adult population in the U.S. obtains less than the recommended amount of vitamin C from dietary sources of which plant-based foods constitute the major source. Consequently, strategies to increase vitamin C content in plants have been developed over the last decade and include increasing its synthesis as well as its recycling, i.e., the reduction of the oxidized form of ascorbic acid that is produced in reactions back into its reduced form. Increasing vitamin C levels in plants, however, is not without consequences. This review provides an overview of the approaches used to increase vitamin C content in plants and the successes achieved. Also discussed are some of the potential limitations of increasing vitamin C and how these may be overcome.

  8. Predicting the impacts of climate change on the potential distribution of major native non-food bioenergy plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguo; Tang, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Qili; Pan, Ke; Hu, Qichun; He, Mingxiong; Li, Jiatang

    2014-01-01

    Planting non-food bioenergy crops on marginal lands is an alternative bioenergy development solution in China. Native non-food bioenergy plants are also considered to be a wise choice to reduce the threat of invasive plants. In this study, the impacts of climate change (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a for 2080) on the potential distribution of nine non-food bioenergy plants native to China (viz., Pistacia chinensis, Cornus wilsoniana, Xanthoceras sorbifolia, Vernicia fordii, Sapium sebiferum, Miscanthus sinensis, M. floridulus, M. sacchariflorus and Arundo donax) were analyzed using a MaxEnt species distribution model. The suitable habitats of the nine non-food plants were distributed in the regions east of the Mongolian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau, where the arable land is primarily used for food production. Thus, the large-scale cultivation of those plants for energy production will have to rely on the marginal lands. The variables of "precipitation of the warmest quarter" and "annual mean temperature" were the most important bioclimatic variables for most of the nine plants according to the MaxEnt modeling results. Global warming in coming decades may result in a decrease in the extent of suitable habitat in the tropics but will have little effect on the total distribution area of each plant. The results indicated that it will be possible to grow these plants on marginal lands within these areas in the future. This work should be beneficial for the domestication and cultivation of those bioenergy plants and should facilitate land-use planning for bioenergy crops in China.

  9. Predicting the impacts of climate change on the potential distribution of major native non-food bioenergy plants in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenguo Wang

    Full Text Available Planting non-food bioenergy crops on marginal lands is an alternative bioenergy development solution in China. Native non-food bioenergy plants are also considered to be a wise choice to reduce the threat of invasive plants. In this study, the impacts of climate change (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a for 2080 on the potential distribution of nine non-food bioenergy plants native to China (viz., Pistacia chinensis, Cornus wilsoniana, Xanthoceras sorbifolia, Vernicia fordii, Sapium sebiferum, Miscanthus sinensis, M. floridulus, M. sacchariflorus and Arundo donax were analyzed using a MaxEnt species distribution model. The suitable habitats of the nine non-food plants were distributed in the regions east of the Mongolian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau, where the arable land is primarily used for food production. Thus, the large-scale cultivation of those plants for energy production will have to rely on the marginal lands. The variables of "precipitation of the warmest quarter" and "annual mean temperature" were the most important bioclimatic variables for most of the nine plants according to the MaxEnt modeling results. Global warming in coming decades may result in a decrease in the extent of suitable habitat in the tropics but will have little effect on the total distribution area of each plant. The results indicated that it will be possible to grow these plants on marginal lands within these areas in the future. This work should be beneficial for the domestication and cultivation of those bioenergy plants and should facilitate land-use planning for bioenergy crops in China.

  10. Engineering plastid fatty acid biosynthesis to improve food quality and biofuel production in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, Marcelo; Carrer, Helaine

    2011-06-01

    The ability to manipulate plant fatty acid biosynthesis by using new biotechnological approaches has allowed the production of transgenic plants with unusual fatty acid profile and increased oil content. This review focuses on the production of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) and the increase in oil content in plants using molecular biology tools. Evidences suggest that regular consumption of food rich in VLCPUFAs has multiple positive health benefits. Alternative sources of these nutritional fatty acids are found in cold-water fishes. However, fish stocks are in severe decline because of decades of overfishing, and also fish oils can be contaminated by the accumulation of toxic compounds. Recently, there is also an increase in oilseed use for the production of biofuels. This tendency is partly associated with the rapidly rising costs of petroleum, increased concern about the environmental impact of fossil oil and the attractive need to develop renewable sources of fuel. In contrast to this scenario, oil derived from crop plants is normally contaminant free and less environmentally aggressive. Genetic engineering of the plastid genome (plastome) offers a number of attractive advantages, including high-level foreign protein expression, marker-gene excision and transgene containment because of maternal inheritance of plastid genome in most crops. Here, we describe the possibility to improve fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids, production of new fatty acids and increase their content in plants by genetic engineering of plastid fatty acid biosynthesis via plastid transformation. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Preliminary Study of Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene Plant Food Strategies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi Tang, M.; Liu, X.; Fritz, G.; Zhao, Z.

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, studies on the domestication and early cultivation of seed crops have contributed significantly to how we understand human-plant interactions, and their impact on human social organisation and the environment. It is becoming clear, however, that plants have been critical to the human diet for much longer and in more diverse ways than previously assumed. This paper is a preliminary attempt at identifying and addressing early prehistoric plant food strategies in China. In particular, very little is known about the use of vegetatively propagated plants, despite their significant representation in modern crops. Many ingredients of Chinese medicine are also roots and tubers (or vegetative storage organs, VSOs). Unlike seed crops, however, we lack a systematic criterion for examining diagnostic characters of different VSO taxa in the archaeological record. To address this issue, we characterized commonly consumed and historically significant VSOs in China, by studying experimentally charred modern samples under the optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. We then compared the characteristics of these modern VSO samples against plant remains from Late Pleistocene to early Holocene archaeological sites in China, such as Zengpiyan (Guangxi), Zhaoguodong (Guizhou), and Jiahu (Henan) sites. We found that different taxa of VSOs can be differentiated by using multiple lines of evidence, including: shape and size of various cells, texture and arrangement of cell walls, as well as anatomical arrangements of organs, especially the vascular bundles. Though identification can be difficult when fragile cell structures have collapsed or deteriorated, more robust features are often preserved for diagnosis. Our results suggest that the potential for studying the role of vegetatively propagated plants in early human-environmental interactions is overlooked, and can be expanded significantly with further investment in their systematic identification.

  12. The local knowledge of food plants used by Karo ethnic in Semangat Gunung Village, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisyawati, Aini, R. N.; Silalahi, M.; Purba, E. C.; Avifah, N.

    2017-07-01

    Research on the local knowledge of food plants used by Karo ethnic in the Semangat Gunung Village, North Sumatra has been done. The aim of this study is to reveal plant species that used by the people of Karo ethnic as food. We used the ethnobotanical approach which included open-ended, semi-structural interview, and exploration method. One eldervillage, 2 traditional healers, and 30 respondents have been selected as sources of information. Descriptive statistics have been used to analyze the gathered data. A number of 109 species which belong to 83 genus and 45 families known to be used as food sources by Karo people. Four families have the highest number of food plant species, which are Solanaceae (8 species), Poaceae (7 species), Fabaceae (6 species), and Zingiberaceae (6 species). All of those families are found in the village, both wild and Cultivated. Solanaceae is used as source of fruits, vegetables, and spices. Poaceae is used as the source of the staple food, alternative food sources, snacks, spices, and traditional foods. Fabaceae is used as source of vegetables and traditional foods. Zingiberaceae is used as source of spices.

  13. Evaluation and communication of potential risk of radionuclide contamination of foods after Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekizawa, Jun; Nakamura, Yumiko

    2011-01-01

    A large scale nuclear power plant accident happened after the great earthquake with a huge tsunami in the Eastern part of Japan in March 2011. Potential risk from radionuclide contamination in foods after the nuclear power plant accident was estimated using data of radiological food contamination from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Data analyzed by combining nuclide, food, level of radiation detection, period, age-classified population, were compared to provisional index levels of radionuclides, and existing contamination levels in food by natural radioactive potassium. Health risk was shown to be very low or negligible considering presence of background radiological exposure from foods and the environment. Appropriate explanation of risk to various stakeholders of the society is imperative and results of trials were reported. (author)

  14. Incidence of Listeria spp. in Ready-to-Eat Food Processing Plant Environments Regulated by the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Robert G; Kalinowski, Robin M; Bodnaruk, Peter W; Eifert, Joseph D; Boyer, Renee R; Duncan, Susan E; Bailey, R Hartford

    2018-06-07

    A multiyear survey of 31 ready-to-eat (RTE) food processing plants in the United States was conducted to determine the incidence of Listeria spp. in various RTE production environments. Samples were collected from 22 RTE plants regulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) and from 9 RTE food plants regulated by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Only nonfood contact surfaces in the RTE manufacturing areas with exposed RTE product were sampled. Each sample was individually analyzed for the presence of Listeria spp. by using a PCR-based rapid assay. In total, 4,829 samples were collected from various locations, including freezers, equipment framework, floors, walls, wall-floor junctures, drains, floor mats, doors, and cleaning tools. Nine (29%) of the facilities had zero samples positive for Listeria spp. in the production environment, whereas 22 (71%) had one or more samples positive for Listeria spp. The total incidence of Listeria spp. in all RTE food plants was 4.5%. The positive rate in plants regulated by the FSIS ranged from 0 to 9.7%, whereas the positive rate in plants regulated by the FDA ranged from 1.2 to 36%.

  15. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (Ptea was clearly improved. PMID:24711352

  16. Inter-annual changes in detritus-based food chains can enhance plant growth response to elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Jes; Eisenhauer, Nico; Drake, Bert G

    2015-12-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 generally enhances plant growth, but the magnitude of the effects depend, in part, on nutrient availability and plant photosynthetic pathway. Due to their pivotal role in nutrient cycling, changes in abundance of detritivores could influence the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on essential ecosystem processes, such as decomposition and primary production. We conducted a field survey and a microcosm experiment to test the influence of changes in detritus-based food chains on litter mass loss and plant growth response to elevated atmospheric CO2 using two wetland plants: a C3 sedge (Scirpus olneyi) and a C4 grass (Spartina patens). Our field study revealed that organism's sensitivity to climate increased with trophic level resulting in strong inter-annual variation in detritus-based food chain length. Our microcosm experiment demonstrated that increased detritivore abundance could not only enhance decomposition rates, but also enhance plant growth of S. olneyi in elevated atmospheric CO2 conditions. In contrast, we found no evidence that changes in the detritus-based food chains influenced the growth of S. patens. Considered together, these results emphasize the importance of approaches that unite traditionally subdivided food web compartments and plant physiological processes to understand inter-annual variation in plant production response to elevated atmospheric CO2. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Using Ellenberg-Pignatti values to estimate habitat preferences of wild food and medicinal plants: an example from northeastern Istria (Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitasović Kosić, Ivana; Juračak, Josip; Łuczaj, Łukasz

    2017-06-02

    The paper presents the first ethnobotanical application of Ellenberg indicator values, which are widely used in European plant ecology. The aim of the study was to find out if Ellenberg values (indicating habitat preferences) differ for wild food and medicinal plants used in north-eastern Istria (Croatia). We used Ellenberg-Pignatti values (the version of Ellenberg values used in this part of Europe). Fifty semi-structured interviews were carried out among local key informants, asking which wild food and medicinal plants they used. The mean number of food and medicinal plants mentioned per interview was 30. Altogether, 121 species were recorded as food or medicine used or previously used in the study area. Thirty-one species are used exclusively as food or everyday drink, 50 species are used exclusively as medicine and 40 species are used for both food and medicine. There were no significant differences between Ellenberg values for food and medicinal plants, apart from the Nitrogen indicator value - the plants used exclusively as food had a significantly higher index than those used in medicine. This probably stems from the fact that plants with soft fleshy shoots are attractive as food and they are more likely to come from nitrogen-rich ruderal habitats. Food plants and medicinal plants are collected from a variety of habitats and no clear difference between the two categories of plants was detected, however further testing of Ellenberg values in ethnobotanical studies could be interesting.

  18. Consumer food preparation and its implication for survival of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma, N.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Asselt, van E.D.; Zwietering, M.H.; Jong, de A.E.I.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose ¿ The disease burden caused by Campylobacter jejuni may be decreased by reduced consumption of undercooked chicken meat. However, little is known about consumer preparation of poultry and the effects of commonly applied cooking times on bacterial inactivation. This study aimed to answer

  19. Preparation and characterization of biocomposite film based on chitosan and kombucha tea as active food packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashrafi, Azam; Jokar, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    An active film composed of chitosan and kombucha tea (KT) was successfully prepared using the solvent casting technique. The effect of incorporation of KT at the levels 1%–3% w/w on the physical and functional properties of chitosan film was investigated. The antimicrobial activity of chitosan...

  20. Transgenic and cloned animals in the food chain--are we prepared to tackle it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesan, Premanandh; Bin Salem, Samara

    2015-11-01

    Transgenic and cloned animal production for various purposes has been increasing rapidly in recent times. While the actual impact of these animals in the food chain is unknown, the significance of tracking and monitoring measures to curb accidental and or deliberate release has been discussed. Religious perspectives from different faiths and traditions have been presented. Although the concept of substantial equivalence satisfies the technical and nutritional requirements of these products when assessed against comparators, public opinion and religious concerns should also be considered by the regulators while developing policy regulations. In conclusion, measures to prevent real or perceived risks of transgenic and cloned animals in food production require global coordinated action. It is worthwhile to consider establishing effective tracking systems and analytical procedures as this will be a valuable tool if a global consensus is not reached on policy regulation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.