WorldWideScience

Sample records for prepare polymetallic complexes

  1. Controlled thermolysis of uranium (alkoxy)siloxy complexes. A route to polymetallic complexes of low-valent uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, Clement; Pecaut, Jacques; Mazzanti, Marinella [CEA-Grenoble (France). Lab. de Reconnaissance Ionique et Chimie de Coordination; Kefalidis, Christos E.; Maron, Laurent [Toulouse Univ. (France). LPCNO, CNRS et INSA, UPS

    2013-11-25

    Decomposition into higher species: Intramolecular U{sup III}-mediated homolytic C-O bond cleavage in U{sup III} (alkoxy)siloxy complexes at low temperature and subsequent reduction with KC{sub 8} led to unprecedented polymetallic complexes containing siloxy, silanediolate, and silanetriolate ligands (see example: U green, Si yellow, K blue, O red). Such compounds may be useful precursors to uranium ceramics relevant for catalysis and the storage of spent nuclear fuel. [German] Zerfall in hoehere Spezies: Die intramolekulare U{sup III}-vermittelte homolytische C-O-Spaltung in U{sup III}-(Alkoxy)siloxy-Komplexen bei tiefer Temperatur mit nachfolgender Reduktion mit KC{sub 8} fuehrte zu ungewoehnlichen Polymetallkomplexen mit Siloxy-, Silandiolat- und Silantriolatliganden (siehe Beispiel: U gruen, Si gelb, K blau, O rot). Solche Verbindungen sind nuetzliche Vorstufen von Urankeramiken, die fuer die Katalyse und fuer die Speicherung verbrauchter Kernbrennstoffe wichtig sind.

  2. Preparation and Investigation of Monodentate and Bridging Pyrazole Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Wynne

    2004-01-01

    Complexes of pyrazole-derived ligands are very popular due to the ability of the pyrazolato anion to form bridged polymetallic compounds in which the metals are held close enough to react with small molecules or facilitate magnetic exchange. The preparation of monodentate pyrazole and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (DMHpz) nickel species and the…

  3. Review of Biohydrometallurgical Metals Extraction from Polymetallic Mineral Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R. Watling

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review has as its underlying premise the need to become proficient in delivering a suite of element or metal products from polymetallic ores to avoid the predicted exhaustion of key metals in demand in technological societies. Many technologies, proven or still to be developed, will assist in meeting the demands of the next generation for trace and rare metals, potentially including the broader application of biohydrometallurgy for the extraction of multiple metals from low-grade and complex ores. Developed biotechnologies that could be applied are briefly reviewed and some of the difficulties to be overcome highlighted. Examples of the bioleaching of polymetallic mineral resources using different combinations of those technologies are described for polymetallic sulfide concentrates, low-grade sulfide and oxidised ores. Three areas for further research are: (i the development of sophisticated continuous vat bioreactors with additional controls; (ii in situ and in stope bioleaching and the need to solve problems associated with microbial activity in that scenario; and (iii the exploitation of sulfur-oxidising microorganisms that, under specific anaerobic leaching conditions, reduce and solubilise refractory iron(III or manganese(IV compounds containing multiple elements. Finally, with the successful applications of stirred tank bioleaching to a polymetallic tailings dump and heap bioleaching to a polymetallic black schist ore, there is no reason why those proven technologies should not be more widely applied.

  4. Strategy for polymetallic nodule mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    , geological, technical and economic conditions, a singe polymetallic nodule mining operation can be carried out for a period of lime 4 • There are several factors for selection of a mine sites sucha~: Nodule distribution, grade and abundance Distribution... (Ol As = (C) (E) (M) Where As= annual nodule recovery rate (dmllycar) D = d'urdtion of mining operation (years) . C =average nodule abundance in mineable area (dmt/sq.km) E =-overall mining efficiency (perccnt) M =proportion of mineable area...

  5. Biosourced polymetallic catalysts: an efficient means to synthesize underexploited platform molecules from carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escande, Vincent; Olszewski, Tomasz K; Petit, Eddy; Grison, Claude

    2014-07-01

    Polymetallic hyperaccumulating plants growing on wastes from former mining activity were used as the starting material in the preparation of novel plant-based Lewis acid catalysts. The preparation of biosourced Lewis acid catalysts is a new way to make use of mining wastes. These catalysts were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These analyses revealed a complex composition of metal species, present mainly as polymetallic chlorides. The catalysts proved to be efficient and recyclable in a solid-state version of the Garcia Gonzalez reaction, which has been underexploited until now in efforts to use carbohydrates from biomass. This methodology was extended to various carbohydrates to obtain the corresponding polyhydroxyalkyl furans in 38-98% yield. These plant-based catalysts may be a better alternative to classical Lewis acid catalysts that were previously used for the Garcia Gonzalez reaction, such as ZnCl2 , FeCl3 , and CeCl3 , which are often unrecyclable, require aqueous treatments, or rely on metals, the current known reserves of which will be consumed in the coming decades. Moreover, the plant-based catalysts allowed novel control of the Garcia Gonzalez reaction, as two different products were obtained depending on the reaction conditions.

  6. Flotation Experiment Study on a Copper-Lead-Zinc Complex Polymetallic Ore in Inner Mongolia%内蒙古某铜铅锌复杂多金属矿的浮选试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋涛; 洪家薇; 刘宸婷

    2011-01-01

    试验矿样取自内蒙古某地的铜铅锌复杂多金属矿,原矿含Cu 0.25%、Pb 2.53%、Zn 4.47%,并且伴生Ag 92.5 g/t、In 42.5 g/t,研究了该矿石的浮选工艺以及在浮选过程中各种药剂的用量,最终得到铜精矿中含Cu 17.62%、回收率达到58.26%;铅精矿含Pb 66.55%、回收率高达90.39%;锌精矿含Zn 48.12%,回收率90.29%;与此同时,铅精矿含Ag达到1 642.0 g/t、回收率60.3%,锌精矿含In达到248.7 g/t、回收率达到53.5%.结果表明,此浮选工艺可有效处理该复杂多金属矿.%The experiment sample is taken from a copper-lead-zinc complex polymetallic deposit in Inner Mongolia, there are 0. 25 % Cu, 2. 53 % Pb, 4.47% Zn in the raw ore, and it also associated with 92. 5 g/t Ag and 42. 5 g/t In, the flotation process of this ore and also the dosage of agents which used in the flotation process is researched, the copper concentrate contents Cu 17.6% , and the recovery can be reached to 58. 26% ; the lead concentrate contents Pb 66. 55% , the recovery reach up to 90. 39% ; the zinc concentrate contents Ag 1 642.0 g/t, the recovery is 60. 3% ; the zinc concentrate contents In 248. 7 g/t, the recovery is 53.5%. The results showed that this flotation process can treat this complex polymetallic ore effectively.

  7. Experimental research on ore dressing of one complex copper and zinc polymetallic ore from Inner Mongolia%内蒙古某铜锌复杂多金属矿石选矿试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘先鹏; 刁玉东; 董丽梅

    2016-01-01

    A flotation experimental research is carried out according to the property of the ores from one complex copper and zinc polymetallic mine in Inner Mongolia.Through a preferential flotation flowsheet,that is to recover cop-per prior to zinc,a fairly good closed circuit test index is obtained:the copper grade in copper concentrate is 26.98%with the recovery rate of 83 .56%;the zinc grade in zinc concentrate is 50 .59%with the recovery rate of 76 .84%.%针对内蒙古某铜锌复杂多金属矿矿石性质,进行了浮选试验研究。通过采用优先浮选流程,即先选铜,再选锌,获得了较好的试验指标:铜精矿铜品位26.98%、铜回收率83.56%,锌精矿锌品位50.59%、锌回收率76.84%。

  8. The Berezitovoe gold-polymetallic deposit (Upper Amur region, Russia):Structure, mineralogy and genetic aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexandr S. Vakh; Vadim G. Khomich; Natalia G. Boriskina; M. Santosh

    2016-01-01

    The Berezitovoe deposit in the Sergachi volcano-plutonic and metallogenic belt preserves evidence for polymetallic mineralization of multiple stages. The steeply dipping garnet-tourmaline-muscovite-quartz metasomatites (with K-Ar ages of 132 ? 2.9 and 127 ? 4.4 Ma) carry two distinct stages of mineralization developed at different times:(1) polymetallic mineralization and (2) gold-quartz. The deposit is located within Paleozoic gneissose granitoids of the Pikansky complex (dated as 379 ? 1.1 Ma by zircon U-Pb method) intruded by early Cretaceous porphyry-like granites of the Haikta pluton (dated as 137 ? 0.67 Ma by zircon U-Pb method) and late Cretaceous dikes of porphyrites, porphyries, and lamprophyres. Evidence suggests the action of late gold-bearing hydrothermal fluids on the early pol-ymetallic ores and the selective mobilization of some elements from these lead to redeposition together with complex sulphosalts.

  9. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  10. The Berezitovoe gold-polymetallic deposit (Upper Amur region, Russia: Structure, mineralogy and genetic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr S. Vakh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Berezitovoe deposit in the Sergachi volcano-plutonic and metallogenic belt preserves evidence for polymetallic mineralization of multiple stages. The steeply dipping garnet-tourmaline-muscovite-quartz metasomatites (with K-Ar ages of 132 ± 2.9 and 127 ± 4.4 Ma carry two distinct stages of mineralization developed at different times: (1 polymetallic mineralization and (2 gold-quartz. The deposit is located within Paleozoic gneissose granitoids of the Pikansky complex (dated as 379 ± 1.1 Ma by zircon U-Pb method intruded by early Cretaceous porphyry-like granites of the Haikta pluton (dated as 137 ± 0.67 Ma by zircon U-Pb method and late Cretaceous dikes of porphyrites, porphyries, and lamprophyres. Evidence suggests the action of late gold-bearing hydrothermal fluids on the early polymetallic ores and the selective mobilization of some elements from these lead to redeposition together with complex sulphosalts.

  11. Indian exploration for polymetallic nodules in the central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShyamPrasad, M.

    concepts therefore involve exploiting manganese (which comes in the residue after the removal of Cu, Ni and Co), also as one of the economically important metals. One option would be to have at sea processing of nodules which would redeposit the gangue... currently in use is ‘polymetallic nodules’. By all estimates the total quantity of polymetallic nodules on the seafloor is ~500 billion tons. The possible economic importance of these deposits was highlighted by Mero (1965), who was able to convince...

  12. StudyonTwo-stagesPressureLeachingofZn,CuandFeFromCu-Pb-ZnComplexPolymetallicOre%从铜铅锌复杂多金属精矿中两段加压浸出锌铜铁试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘述平; 李博; 王昌良; 唐湘平

    2013-01-01

    T he experimental sample is a Cu-Pb-Zn complex polymetallic ore .Leaching of Zn ,Cu and Fe from the ore by a two-stages pressure leaching process was researched .Using the solution in which H2 SO4 initial concentration is 105 g/L ,Fe concentration is 15 g/L ,Zn concentration is 55 g/L as leaching agent ,the first-stage leaching was conducted under the conditions of leching temperature of 120 ℃ ,leaching time of 2 h ,the ratio between liquid and solid of 4 mL/g ,total pressure of 1 .9 MPa , stirring speed of 600 r/min ,additive usage of 0 .3% ,the leaching rate of Zn was about 72% ,while Cu wasn’t leached ,the removal rate of Fe was 95% .The second-stage leaching of the first-stage leaching residue was conducted under the conditions of H2SO4 initial concentration of 140 g/L ,the ratio between liquid and solid of 4 mL/g ,total pressure of 1 .9 MPa ,stirring speed of 600 r/min ,leaching temperature of 160 ℃ ,leaching time of 3 h ,additive usage of 0 .3% ,leaching rate of Zn ,Cu and Fe were 85 .91% ,77 .76% and 58 .84% ,respectively .The second-stage leaching solution was used to prepare the leaching agent for the first-stage leaching .The first-stage leaching solution with lower concentation of H2 SO4 and Fe is easy to be purified in subsequent ,the purified solution meets with the requirement of zinc electrodepositing .%针对某地铜铅锌复杂多金属精矿,研究了采用两段加压浸出法浸出锌、铜、铁。试验结果表明:以H2 SO4初始质量浓度105 g/L、Fe质量浓度约15 g/L、Zn质量浓度约55 g/L的溶液为浸出剂,在温度120℃、浸出时间2 h、液固体积质量比4 mL/g、总压力1.9 M Pa、搅拌转速600 r/min、添加剂加入量为矿石质量的0.3%条件下进行一次浸出,锌浸出率为72%左右,铜基本不被浸出,溶液中铁去除率为95%;对一次浸出渣,在硫酸初始质量浓度140 g/L、液固体积质量比4 mL/g、总压力1.9 M Pa、搅拌转速600 r/min、温度160

  13. Intramolecular energy transfer reactions in polymetallic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, J.

    1990-11-01

    This report is concerned with intramolecular, energy-transfer reactions. The concept of preparing synthetically a complex molecular species, capable of absorbing a photon at one metal center (antenna fragment), transferring that energy to a second metal center (reactive fragment) via a bridging ligand was first reported by our group in 1979. It is now apparent that a major emphasis in inorganic chemistry in the future will involve these types of molecular ensembles. Complexes discussed include Rh, Ru, and Cu complexes. 23 refs., 14 tabs.

  14. Bifunctional pincer-type organometallics as substrates for organic transformations and as novel building blocks for polymetallic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Gema; Albrecht, Martin; Schoenmaker, Jeroen; Ford, Alan; Lutz, Martin; Spek, Anthony L; van Koten, Gerard

    2002-05-08

    The reactivity of the bifunctionalized ligand NC(Br)N-I 1 [IC(6)H(2)(CH(2)NMe(2))(2)-3,5-Br-4] has been studied as a versatile synthon for organic and/or organometallic synthesis. Chemoselective metalation (M = Pd, Pt, Li) at the C(aryl)-I or C(aryl)-Br bonds was achieved by choosing the appropriate metal precursors. In this way a series of Pt(II) and Pd(II) complexes were prepared that have a second functional group available for further reactions. These Pt(II) and Pd(II) complexes were subjected to a wide range of organic and organometallic reactions, revealing the remarkable stability of their M-C sigma-bond and opening an easy route for the synthesis of mono- and (hetero)bimetallic building blocks. The scope of the chemistry of such building blocks shows that they are good candidates for use in the synthesis of dendrimers, bioorganometallic systems, or polymetallic materials. The X-ray crystal structures of the most representative complexes (2, 3a, 19, 20, and 24) are also reported.

  15. Preparing English Language Learners for Complex Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Janice; Delleman, Paul; Phesia, Andria

    2013-01-01

    Although the Common Core state standards' goal of ensuring that every student leaves high school prepared to meet the demands of college and career is laudable, it's daunting for teachers who serve English language learners. The authors, educators at a private bilingual school in Mexico, describe how they used short excerpts of longer works giving…

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Double Metal Cyanide Complex Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Guo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of double metal cyanide (DMC complex catalysts were prepared in two different methods by using ß-cyclodextrin, PEG-1000 and Tween-60 as an additional complex ligands respectively. It was showed that a mixture of crystalline and amorphous DMC was synthesized by using traditional method in which the additional complex ligand was added after the precipitation of DMC. Amorphous and dispersed DMC with higher activity could be obtained when the additional complex ligand was added in the reactant solution before reaction. The effect of additional complex ligand and preparation method on the crystalline state and catalytic property of DMC were also investigated.

  17. Synthesis of lithium ferrites from polymetallic carboxylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEFANIA STOLERIU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ferrite was prepared by the thermal decomposition of three polynuclear complex compounds containing as ligands the anions of malic, tartaric and gluconic acid: (NH42[Fe2.5Li0.5(C4H4O53(OH4(H2O2]×4H2O (I, (NH46[Fe2.5Li0.5(C4H4O63(OH8]×2H2O (II and (NH42[Fe2.5Li0.5(C6H11O73(OH7] (III. The polynuclear complex precursors were characterized by chemical analysis, IR and UV–Vis spectra, magnetic measurements and thermal analysis. The obtained lithium ferrites were characterized by XRD, scanning electron microscopy, IR spectra and magnetic measurements. The single α-Li0.5Fe2.5O4 phase was obtained by thermal decomposition of the tartarate complex annealed at 700 °C for 1 h. The magnetization value ≈ 50 emu g-1 is lower than that obtained for the bulk lithium ferrite due to the nanostructural character of the ferrite. The particle size was smaller than 100 nm.

  18. Isotopic age dating of the alkaline intrusive complex and its related molybdenum polymetallic deposit at Hekanzi, western Liaoning Province%辽西河坎子碱性侵入杂岩体及钼多金属矿床同位素年代学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 聂凤军; 方俊钦

    2012-01-01

    The newly discovered Hekanzi deposit is a medium-size porphyry molybdenum deposit in western Liaoning Province. Intrusive complexes are widely distributed in the study area, with the Mesozoic alkaline and calc-alka-line rocks being the most developed alkaline rocks. They intruded into the Precambrian and Paleozoic volcanic-sedimentary rocks in the forms of batholiths, stocks, and dykes. Alkaline intrusive rocks are mainly miascite, alkaline syenite and alkaline diabase. The calc-alkaline rocks are mainly granite porphyry, granodiorite, biotite granite and K-feldspar granite. Isotopic ages of the Hekanzi alkaline granite and its related Mo polymetallic deposit have been determined. The rock-forming age of the biotite-orthoclase granite is (235.3 ± 1.0) Ma with MSWD value of 0.68. Re-Os isotopic data of six molybdenite separates define a correlation line corresponding to an age of (224.0 ?1.3) Ma with MSWD value of 0.72. The metallic minerals in the ore are pyrite, chalcopy-rite, molybdenite, pyrrhotite, marcasite and a little scheetine. Gangue minerals are mainly calcite, fluorite, garnet, serpentine, peridotite, dolomite, feldspar, plagioclase and quartz. The NE-trending, NS-trending and NW-trending fault zones are widely distributed in the alkaline intrusive complex and its related molybdenum polymetallic deposit at Hekanzi.%对辽西河坎子地区与碱性杂岩体相关的钼多金属矿床进行了同位素年代学研究.所获黑云母正长花岗岩锆石LA-ICP-MS U-Pb同位素加权平均年龄为(235.3±1.0) Ma,MSWD值为0.68;河坎子钼多金属矿床内辉钼矿的Re-Os同位素等时线年龄为(224.0±1.3) Ma,MSWD值为0.72.碱性杂岩体与相关的钼多金属矿床具有密切的空间关系,两者的形成时间亦比较接近,据此可推测,河坎子碱性杂岩体与相关的钼多金属矿床均为印支期构造-岩浆作用及流体活动的产物.印支期内频繁的岩浆-热液活动为该地区内钼、铜、金多金属元素的活

  19. Deep-seated structure and metallogenic dynamics of the Ailaoshan polymetallic mineralization concentration area, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Ailaoshan poly-metallic mineralization concentrated area (MCA) consists of the well known Ailaoshan metallogenic belt and adjacent mineral districts and/or deposits. Located in an area of several complex and intersecting tectonic units, the Ailaoshan poly-metallic MCA is controlled by deep crustal and mantle tectonism. Through interpretation of remote sensing images, we identified a large ring structure system that surrounds the MCA. This ring structure encloses regional deep-crustal faults, ductile shear zones, geothermal anomalies, magmatic rocks, and the major mineral deposits, all of which are the reflections of deep tectonic geodynamics that have been long active in this area. Geophysical data indicate that the crust is comprised of relatively stable two or three layers, with some irregular lower-velocity belts. The Moho in the ring sutures occurs as an area of local uplift. There exists an obvious transitional zone between the crust and mantle boundaries. Asthenopheric mantle shows multi-layer upwelling, which indicates multiple events during different geological epochs. It is believed that these mantle events or pulses were responsible for the formation of the regional shear zones, magmatic rocks, and polymetallic orebodies. Furthermore, an integrated metallogenic dynamics model related to the asthenopheric upwelling pulses in the MCA is established, defining events as old as Late Paleozoic.

  20. Early gene expression in Pseudomonas fluorescens exposed to a polymetallic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Sagasti, María T; Becerril, José M; Epelde, Lur; Alkorta, Itziar; Garbisu, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    The molecular response of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells exposed to a mixture of heavy metals remains largely unknown. Here, we studied the temporal changes in the early gene expression of P. fluorescens cells exposed to three doses of a polymetallic solution over two exposure times, through the application of a customized cDNA microarray. At the lowest metal dose (MD/4), we observed a repression of the Hsp70 chaperone system, MATE and MFS transporters, TonB membrane transporter and histidine kinases, together with an overexpression of metal transport (ChaC, CopC), chemotaxis and glutamine synthetase genes. At the intermediate metal dose (MD), several amino acid transporters, a response regulator (CheY), a TonB-dependent receptor and the mutT DNA repair gene were repressed; by contrast, an overexpression of genes associated with the antioxidative stress system and the transport of chelates and sulfur was observed. Finally, at the highest metal dose (4MD), a repression of genes encoding metal ion transporters, drug resistance and alginate biosynthesis was found, together with an overexpression of genes encoding antioxidative proteins, membrane transporters, ribosomal proteins, chaperones and proteases. It was concluded that P. fluorescens cells showed, over exposure time, a highly complex molecular response when exposed to a polymetallic solution, involving mechanisms related with chemotaxis, signal transmission, membrane transport, cellular redox state, and the regulation of transcription and ribosomal activity.

  1. Facile Preparation Method for Inclusion Complexes between Amylose and Polytetrahydrofurans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rachmawati, Rachmawati; Woortman, Albert J. J.; Loos, Katja

    Several methods were used to investigate the possibility of preparing inclusion complexes between amylose and polytetrahydrofurans (PTHF) via direct mixing. Potato amylose (M-v similar to 200 kg/mol) and synthetic amylose (M-n 42 kg/mol) were complexed with PTHF having different molecular weights

  2. Review of Biohydrometallurgical Metals Extraction from Polymetallic Mineral Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Watling, Helen R.

    2014-01-01

    This review has as its underlying premise the need to become proficient in delivering a suite of element or metal products from polymetallic ores to avoid the predicted exhaustion of key metals in demand in technological societies. Many technologies, proven or still to be developed, will assist in meeting the demands of the next generation for trace and rare metals, potentially including the broader application of biohydrometallurgy for the extraction of multiple metals from low-grade and com...

  3. CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY OF A NEW COMPLEX HEPATOPROTECTIVE PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenenko M. P.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the studies of the influence of a new complex hepatoprotective preparation on the basic system of the body, the mechanism of occurrence and manifestation of its biological effects, the dependence of this action from the components that are parts of the preparation, the dose, as well as the regularity of manifestation of possible side effects. The effect of the different doses of the preparation (1% and 2% on the average daily weight gain and morphological and biochemical indices of the birds’ blood was studied. The conducted research determined a stimulatory influence of the preparation on the growth, development and safety of broiler chickens. The new hepatoprotector exhibits the properties aimed on revitalizing the erythro- and hematopoiesis and magnification of the cellular immunity against the exogenous influence. The use of the preparation helps to improve liver function and reduce the toxic load on hepatocytes, which manifests an increase in a number of metabolic parameters, such as total protein, glucose, calcium, phosphorus. We have noted an expressed hepatoprotective effect on the enzyme activity of AST and the remission of the cytolytic syndrome of the experimental chickens. Thereby it was found out that the complex hepatoprotective preparation has a pronounced pharmacological activity, providing a significant impact on the energy of the broiler chickens’ growth and their safety, morphological and biochemical indices of the blood and metabolic processes in the body of the bird

  4. Preparation and characterization of debranched-starch/phosphatidylcholine inclusion complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weiwei; Luo, Zhigang; Li, Lin; Fu, Xiong

    2015-01-21

    In this study, debranched-starch/phosphatidylcholine inclusion complexes were prepared. The effect of reaction parameters such as reaction temperature, reaction time, and addition amount of phosphatidylcholine on the phosphatidylcholine payload and inclusion rate was investigated. The phosphatidylcholine payload and inclusion rate prepared under the optimal conditions were 106 mg/g and 84.8%, respectively. The formation of debranched-starch/phosphatidylcholine inclusion complexes was confirmed by the results of XRD and FT-IR. Furthermore, the molecular, cluster, and fractal structures of the complexes were investigated using (13)C CP/MAS NMR and SAXS. The results indicated that the inclusion complexes were formed by hydrophobic interactions between alkyl chain of phosphatidylcholine and debranched-starch helix cavity. The complexes possessed a mass fractal structure, and a semicrystalline structure with a Bragg distance of 19.04 nm formed. After complexation, the stability of phosphatidylcholine was significantly improved, and phosphatidylcholine of the complexes can be gradually released with pancreatin treatment. This study revealed that debranched-starch can be used as an effective carrier of phosphatidylcholine for the purpose of improving its stability.

  5. Preparation and Identification of Angelica sinensis Polysaccharide-iron Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kai-ping; ZHANG Yu; DAI Li-quan

    2005-01-01

    Angelica sinensis polysaccharide(ASP) was extracted from Angelica sinensis by boiling water. An Angelica sinensis polysaccharide-iron complex(APC) was prepared under the alkaline condition by adding a ferric chloride solution to the ASP solution. Then some identifiable properties of the complex were studied. The content of iron (Ⅲ) in the complex was determined with iodometry. The thermal property, the microscopic structure, the spectral characteristics, and N, C, H contents of the complex were examined by a variety of techniques including DSC, TEM, IR,NMR, and elemental analysis. The content of iron (Ⅲ) in the complex ranges from 10% to 40%. The DSC result shows that the melting point of the complex is about 450 ℃. The TEM result shows that the complex has an iron(Ⅲ)core(β-FeOOH core) linked by hydroxy and oxy bridges, with the polysaccharide chains attached to the surface of the core. The IR and NMR results also show that there is aβ-FeOOH core in the complex. The elemental analysis shows that the contents of N, C , H in the complex are, respectively, lower than those of N, C, H in ASP. All our studies indicate that the APC consists of aβ-FeOOH core surrounded by ASP.

  6. Preparation of the Inclusion Complex-Type Nonlinear Optical Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Fen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the inclusion complex method to import nonlinear optical (NLO chromophores, disperse red1 (DR1, and spiropyran (SP, into the γ-CD cavity of the γ-cyclodextrin polymer (γ-CDP to prepare orderly aligned nonphotocontrollable and photocontrollable nonlinear optical polymers. Calculations support the ultraviolet/visible analyses and suggest the formation of the 1 : 2 DR1/γ-CDP and 1 : 2 SP/γ-CDP inclusion complexes. Upon complexation, the DR1 and SP molecules are free to align themselves along an applied electric field and show high order parameters of approximately 0.48 and 0.20, respectively. Reversible photochromic reactions exhibit that the SP/γ-CDP complex still retains the photochromic properties following corona poling.

  7. Triheterometallic Lanthanide Complexes Prepared from Kinetically Inert Lanthanide Building Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Just; Tropiano, Manuel; Kenwright, Alan M.

    2017-01-01

    . The photophysical properties of these heterotrimetallic complexes were investigated and are discussed by comparison with simpler, but related, heterodimetallic compounds. It was found that an aminonaphthalene unit inhibits the sensitisation of terbium, and that the spatial arrangement of the chromophores......Three molecular structures, each containing three different lanthanide(III) centres, have been prepared by coupling three kinetically inert lanthanide(III) complexes in an Ugi reaction. These 2 kDa molecules were purified by dialysis and characterised by NMR and luminescence techniques...

  8. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME SILICON (IV COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.F DAWOOD

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Silicon(IV complexes containing mixed ligands: Shiff-bases (AH {derived from 2- or 3- amino-pyridine with 2-hydroxy- or 3-me- thoxy- or 2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzaldehyde} and benzalde- hyde semicarbazone (BSCH, have been prepared. The resulted complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance values, infrared and electronic spectral data. Complexes of the type [Si(BSCH2(AH]Cl4, [Si(BSC2(AnH]Cl2 and [Si(BSC2(A]Cl (where n=2 or 3, A=deprotonated Schiff-base ligands , BSC= deprotonated semicarbazone have been proposed in neutral and basic medium, respectively.

  9. Preparation and stabilization of heparin/gelatin complex coacervate microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsung, M; Burgess, D J

    1997-05-01

    The aims of this study are to optimize conditions for the preparation, stabilization, and harvesting of heparin/gelatin microcapsules prepared by complex coacervation. Microelectrophoresis and dry coacervate weight were used to determine the optimum conditions of pH and ionic strength for maximum heparin/gelatin coacervate yield. Heparin/gelatin microcapsules were formed by complex coacervation in the presence and absence of poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP), which was used as a stabilizer. The microcapsules were collected using a spray-drying technique. Microcapsule particle size was analyzed using an AccuSizer optical sizer. Optimized conditions for maximum coacervate yield were pH 2.6, ionic strength 10 mM, and a 1:2 heparin/gelatin A ratio. PVP stabilized the heparin/gelatin coacervate droplets and reduced droplet aggregation during spray-drying. The mean particle diameter of the spray-dried coacervate droplets was lower in the presence of PVP and was unaffected by PVP concentration (in the range 0.5-2.0% w/w). Heparin/gelatin microcapsules, prepared under conditions optimized for maximum coacervate yield, were stabilized without the use of chemical cross-linking agents. Stabilization was achieved by a combination of the addition of PVP and spray-drying.

  10. Mucoadhesive microspheres prepared by interpolymer complexation and solvent diffusion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Myung-Kwan; Cho, Chong-Su; Choi, Hoo-Kyun

    2005-01-20

    Mucoadhesive microspheres were prepared to increase gastric residence time using an interpolymer complexation of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) with poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and a solvent diffusion method. The complexation between poly(acrylic acid) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) as a result of hydrogen bonding was confirmed by the shift in the carbonyl absorption bands of poly(acrylic acid) using FT-IR. A mixture of ethanol/water was used as the internal phase, corn oil was used as the external phase of emulsion, and span 80 was used as the surfactant. Spherical microspheres were prepared and the inside of the microspheres was completely filled. The optimum solvent ratio of the internal phase (ethanol/water) was 8/2 and 7/3, and the particle size increased as the content of water was increased. The mean particle size increased with the increase in polymer concentration. The adhesive force of microspheres was equivalent to that of Carbopol. The release rate of acetaminophen from the complex microspheres was slower than the PVP microspheres at pH 2.0 and 6.8.

  11. Environmental studies for mining of deep-sea polymetallic nodules - Accomplishments and future plans

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    Environmental studies for mining of deep-sea polymetallic nodules were initiated to evaluate the possible impacts of mining on benthic environment and develop protocols for environmental studies, to fulfill one of the obligations of the country as a...

  12. Variation in size, morphology and chemical composition of polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Parthiban, G.

    Chemical composition of 613 polymetallic nodules from 150 stations in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) are determined and variations in Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn and moisture content are studied with respect to their size and surface texture...

  13. Deep-seated structure and metallogenic dynamics of the Ailaoshan polymetallic mineralization concentration area, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE LiangSheng; DENG Jun; GUO XiaoDong; ZOU YiLin; LIU YinChun

    2009-01-01

    The Ailaoshan poly-metalllc mineralization concentrated area (MCA) consists of the well known Aileoshan metallogenic belt and adjacent mineral districts and/or deposits. Located in an area of sev-eral complex and intersecting tectonic units, the Ailaoshan poly-metallic MCA is controlled by deep crustal and mantle tectonism. Through interpretation of remote sensing images, we identified a large ring structure system that surrounds the MCA. This ring structure encloses regional deep-crustal faults, ductile shear zones, geothermal anomalies, magmatic rocks, and the major mineral deposits, all of which are the reflections of deep tectonic geodynamics that have been long active in this area. Geo-physical data indicate that the crust is comprised of relatively stable two or three layers, with some irregular lower-velocity belts. The Moho in the ring sutures occurs as an area of local uplift. There ex-lets an obvious transitional zone between the crust and mantle boundaries. Asthenopheric mantle shows multi-layer upwelling, which indicates multiple events during different geological epochs. It is believed that these mantle events or pulses were responsible for the formation of the regional shear zones, magmatic rocks, and polymetallic orebodies. Furthermore, an integrated metallogenic dynamics model related to the asthenopheric upwelling pulses in the MCA is established, defining events as old as Late Paleozoic.

  14. Characterization of novel lactoferrin loaded capsules prepared with polyelectrolyte complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Xi; Zhang, Qi-Lei; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2013-10-15

    Novel capsules loaded with lactoferrin (LF) were prepared using polyelectrolyte complexes that were formed by water soluble chitosan (WSC), sodium cellulose sulfate (NaCS) and sodium polyphosphate (PPS). Normal chitosan (soluble in acidic conditions) was chosen as a control to prepare similar capsules with NaCS and PPS. (1)H NMR and FTIR spectra analysis showed that WSC was in a form of chitosan hydrochloride which can be directly dissolved and protonated in acid-free water. SEM results showed that the capsules had a typical wall-capsule structure with a regular spherical shape and an average diameter of 1.97 mm. TGA studies revealed that the thermal stability of the capsules were enhanced and the moisture content of the drug-free/loaded capsules were 6.3% and 3.2%. SDS-PAGE results showed that the primary structures of the processed LF in the capsules were unchanged. Drug loading (LE%) and encapsulation efficiency (EE%) analysis showed that the capsules had a higher LE% (45.6%) and EE% (70.7%) than that of the control. In vitro release studies showed that the capsules had a regular and sustainable release profiles in simulated colonic fluid. All of these results indicated that the capsules prepared could be used as a candidate protein drug carrier for colon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Studies on Novel Polymer Materials Prepared through Intermacromolecular Complexation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi; GAO Jun; DAN Yi; CHEN Zhe

    2004-01-01

    The basic feature of polymers is their multi-order structure. Structure change at each level offers a possibility tomodify polymer properties and to develop new polymer materials. Therefore,novel polymer materials can be developed by tailoring their chain structure through chemical bonding among atoms, i.e., via the traditional molecular chemistry methods, e.g., polymerization of new monomer, controlling chain length (molecular weight and molecular weight distribution) and stereoregularity, copolymerization of different kinds of monomers, controlling sequence distribution,block of graft length of copolymer, etc., which have been the focus of polymer chemistry for several decades, as well as by tailoring specific supramolecular architecture using molecules as building block through intermolecular interactions, i.e., via supramolecular science methods, e.g., molecular self-assembly, intermacromolecular complexation, etc., which is a modern and fast-developing academic research field.This paper reports novel polymer materials prepared through intermacromolecular complexation,e.g., a new polymer solid electrolyte poly(metyl methacrylate-methacrylic acid)[P(MMA-MAA)]/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/A2-LiClO4 developed by intermacromolecular complexation through hydrogen bonding, which has enhanced ambient ionic conductivity and fairly good mechanical and film-forming properties, a new polymer microcomposite poly(acrylonitrile-acrylamide-acrylic acid) [P(AN-AM-AA)]/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) reinforced by the twin molecular chain microfibrils formed through intermacromolecular complexation of P(AN-AM-AA) with PVA through hydrogen bonding, which exhibits much better mechanical properties than its constituents and could be used to manufacture PVA based complexed fibers with higher modulus and better dyeability, a new polymer flooding agent poly(acrylamide-acrylic acid)[P(AM-AA)]/poly(acrylamide- dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) [P(AM-DMDAAC)] developed by intermacromolecular

  16. [Studies on cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of Dragon's blood and its tablets preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bin-Bin; Pei, Hui-Na; Sun, Hai-Song; Ning, Quan-Kui; Ren, Yong

    2008-09-01

    To study the cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of Dragon's blood for improving the drug solubility and the preparation. The inclusion complexes were prepared with beta-cyclodextrin, HP-beta-cyclodextrin, SBE-beta-cyclodextrin and confirmed by DTA. The activity of the inclusion complex was tested by animal experiments. Inclusion complexes tablets were prepared and the dissolution test was performed. The solubility of inclusion complexes was increased to 13. 75-168. 39 times. The activity of the inclusion complex was markedly improved, and dissolution rate was 78.69%. The cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of Dragon's blood have a good solubility, dissolution rate and pharmacological activity.

  17. Synthesis of copper and zinc sulfide nanocrystals via thermolysis of the polymetallic thiolate cage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Kuzuya, Yutaka Tai, Saeki Yamamuro and Kenji Sumiyama

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper report on the synthesis of copper and zinc sulfide nanocrystals (NCs via the formation of polymetallic thiolate cages. Cu2S NCs derived from Cu–dodecanethiol complex formed well-defined spherers, which were sufficiently monodisperse (with a size distribution of ~10% standard deviation of approximately 4.7 nm diameter on average to generate ordered self-assemblies. An electron diffraction pattern and UV–vis spectrum of Cu2S NCs indicate that this process can provide pure β-chalcocite (Cu2S. Nearly monodisperse ZnS NCs with a size ranging from 3 to 7 nm were obtained by thermolysis of the S–Zn–dodecanethiol precursor. The electron diffraction pattern indicates that zinc sulfide NCs are either wurtzite or a mixture of wurtzite and zincblende. TEM observation and UV–vis spectra revealed that the growth rate of ZnS NCs depends strongly on the annealing temperature. UV–vis spectra of 3 nm ZnS NCs show sharp excitonic features and a large blue shift from the bulk material. The photoluminescence spectra exhibit a large red shift from the absorption band edges. These shifts could be attributed to recombination from the surface traps. The narrow size distribution of Cu2S and ZnS NCs led to the formation of ordered self-assemblies with various well-defined but nonclosed-packing.

  18. [XRD, FTIR and XPS analysis of oxidized particles from Dongshengmiao pyrite-polymetallic sulfide deposit, inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xue-Ling; Cao, Jian-Jin; Xie, Fang-Yan; Yang, Xiao-Jie; Yan, Hong-Bin; Lai, Pei-Xin; Wang, Zheng-Hai; Zeng, Jian-Nian

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, characteristics of material compositions, phase structures, surface element states, and transformation mechanism of oxidized particles from Dongshengmiao pyrite-polymetallic sulfide deposit were studied using modern analytical testing technology including XRD, FTIR and XPS. The results show that the samples consist of gypsum, calcite, quartz, muscovite, goethite, organic matter, etc. Primary ore in deep oxidation zone mainly under went such processes as oxidization, hydrolysis, dehydration and carbonation. Compared to the surface oxidation zone of arid and extremely arid regions in the northwestern China, the oxidation process and oxidizing condition of the deep oxidation zone were less complex. New mineral type was also not found, and extensively developed sulfate minerals were rare to be seen. The research results can not only be applied to mineral identification of oxidized particles from this type of ore deposit but also play an important role in ore exploration, mining, mineral processing, etc.

  19. Preparing the perfect cuttlefish meal: complex prey handling by dolphins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Finn

    Full Text Available Dolphins are well known for their complex social and foraging behaviours. Direct underwater observations of wild dolphin feeding behaviour however are rare. At mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama in the Upper Spencer Gulf in South Australia, a wild female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus was observed and recorded repeatedly catching, killing and preparing cuttlefish for consumption using a specific and ordered sequence of behaviours. Cuttlefish were herded to a sand substrate, pinned to the seafloor, killed by downward thrust, raised mid-water and beaten by the dolphin with its snout until the ink was released and drained. The deceased cuttlefish was then returned to the seafloor, inverted and forced along the sand substrate in order to strip the thin dorsal layer of skin off the mantle, thus releasing the buoyant calcareous cuttlebone. This stepped behavioural sequence significantly improves prey quality through 1 removal of the ink (with constituent melanin and tyrosine, and 2 the calcareous cuttlebone. Observations of foraging dolphin pods from above-water at this site (including the surfacing of intact clean cuttlebones suggest that some or all of this prey handling sequence may be used widely by dolphins in the region. Aspects of the unique mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish in this region of South Australia may have contributed to the evolution of this behaviour through both high abundances of spawning and weakened post-spawning cuttlefish in a small area (>10,000 animals on several kilometres of narrow rocky reef, as well as potential long-term and regular visitation by dolphin pods to this site.

  20. Molecular and Crystal Magnetic Engineering of Polymetallic Coupling System: From Magnetic Molecules to Molecular Magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程鹏; 廖代正

    2001-01-01

    One of the main challenges in the field of molecular materials is the design of molecular ferromagnets. General design strategy includes two steps, that is molecular magnetic engineering and crystal magnetic engineering. The first step is the synthesis of ferromagnetically coupled polymetallic systems.Tne second step is the assembly of polymetallic systems with muti-dimensional structure and exhibiting a ferromagnetic transition.This paper summarized the strategies of molecular design and crystal engineering allowed to obtain such systems and our efforts in the fields of molecular magnetism and molecular-based magnets.

  1. Preparation of Forsythiaside-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex and Its Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou; Xiaolin; Zhou; Xuping; Li; Qiuming; Lu; Yan; Sun; Yingjian; Wu; Guojuan

    2014-01-01

    To overcome the chemical instability of forsythiaside,the forsythiaside-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex was prepared by triturating. The inclusion complex was found having a varied UV spectrum and melt temperature point. Inclusion complex has a higher stability to UV light and temperature over forythiaside itself. Pharmacological evidence showed that inclusion complex has little effect on pharmacokinetics by chicken intravenous injection. This study is favorable for developing preparations for forsythiaside and its clinical application.

  2. Preparing for Complexity and Wicked Problems through Transformational Learning Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    As the information environment becomes increasingly complex and challenging, Library and Information Studies (LIS) education is called upon to nurture innovative leaders capable of managing complex situations and "wicked problems." While disciplinary expertise remains essential, higher levels of mental complexity and adaptive…

  3. Sulfur Isotopes Geochemistry of the Nage Cu-Pb Polymetallic Deposit, Southeast Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Xuan-lin; ZHOU Jia-xi; HUANG Zhi-long; WANG Jing-song; YANG De-zhi; FAN Liang-wu; BAO Guang-ping; LIU Yong-kun

    2009-01-01

    @@ The Nage Cu-Pb polymetallic deposit is located in the transitional zone of the Yangtze craton and cathaysia, that is the southwest of Jiangnan orogenic belt. The mainly strata are Wentong formation of Mesoproterozoic Sibo group and the Jialu formation (Qbj) , Wuye formation (Qbw) , Fanzhao formation (Qbf) and Gongdong formation (Qbg) of the Neoproterozoic Qingbaikou System Xiajiang group.

  4. Regional variability in occurrence and distribution of polymetallic nodules in the central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A; Rebello, J.M.S.

    Regional scale morphological studies on different-sized polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Basin show that only 2–5 cm sized nodules have highest occurrence per station (92–94% along latitudes; 88–94% along longitudes). A nodule size shows...

  5. Morphological variations in the polymetallic nodules from selected stations in the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.

    Polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean largely range in size from 2 to 6 cm. The smaller nodules (4 cm) are subspheroidal to spheroidal in shape and with the increase in size, nodules become more discoidal and elongated. The size...

  6. Propellant Preparation Laboratory Complex (Area1-21)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: Area 1-21 is an explosion resistant complex of nine cells built into the side of a granite ridge. Three solid propellant cutting cells are housed in the...

  7. Factors influencing Complexity in Financial Report preparation - Evidence from the Banking Sector in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Mutiso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The current developments in the business environment as well as in the accountancy profession have significantly affected the way the financial reports are prepared. This study sought to assess the factors influencing complexity of preparing financial reports in the banking sector in Kenya. The objectives included assessing whether disclosures, adoption of International financial Reporting Standard, regulations and lack of competence by the preparers have contributed to the complexity of preparing financial statements. Using a descriptive study design, data was collected from ten banks registered in the Nairobi Capital Market. The study found out that the identified variables positively contributed to complications in the preparation of financial reports. Management interference, lack of guidance on interpretations and frequent updates of the standards were identified as the main challenges in preparing financial reports. Several recommendations were given to help simplify the process of preparing financial statements.

  8. Preparation and Properties of Cereal-Metal Complex Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Various kinds of biodegradable polymer materials have been researched[1]. In our previous papers,cereals such as wheat,buckwheat,glutinous rice and nonglutinous rice were polycondenced with citric acid and polysilicic acid to prepare copolymer films respectively[2,3].These copolymer fims have relatively good mechanical properties but the water proofness is not so good.Recently,some cereals such as wheat,glutinous rice,nonglutinous rice,kaoliang,millet and maize were reacted with copper chlorid...

  9. Preparation and property of polyurethane/nanosilver complex fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Rongjun; Gao, Jingjing; Tang, Bo; Ma, Qianli; Qu, Baohan; Sun, Changmei

    2014-03-01

    Utilizing terminal reactive groups in polyurethane, nanometer silvers were reduced in situ. The formation mechanism of nanosilver in PU was under preliminary discussion. UV-vis spectroscopy and TEM analysis were used to monitor reduction process; and the PU/nanosilver complex fibers were produced by dry spinning, which were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and so on. The influence of nanosilver on the thermal, mechanical and antimicrobial properties of PU was studied. It is inferred that 0.030% Ag should be a proper concentration for the PU/nanosilver complex fibers with favorable mechanical properties and highly effective antibacterial activities.

  10. Photoinduced energy transfer in transition metal complex oligomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The work we have done over the past three years has been directed toward the preparation, characterization and photophysical examination of mono- and bimetallic diimine complexes. The work is part of a broader project directed toward the development of stable, efficient, light harvesting arrays of transition metal complex chromophores. One focus has been the synthesis of rigid bis-bidentate and bis-tridentate bridging ligands. We have managed to make the ligand bphb in multigram quantities from inexpensive starting materials. The synthetic approach used has allowed us prepare a variety of other ligands which may have unique applications (vide infra). We have prepared, characterized and examined the photophysical behavior of Ru(II) and Re(I) complexes of the ligands. Energy donor/acceptor complexes of bphb have been prepared which exhibit nearly activationless energy transfer. Complexes of Ru(II) and Re(I) have also been prepared with other polyunsaturated ligands in which two different long lived ( > 50 ns) excited states exist; results of luminescence and transient absorbance measurements suggest the two states are metal-to-ligand charge transfer and ligand localized {pi}{r_arrow}{pi}* triplets. Finally, we have developed methods to prepare polymetallic complexes which are covalently bound to various surfaces. The long term objective of this work is to make light harvesting arrays for the sensitization of large band gap semiconductors. Details of this work are provided in the body of the report.

  11. Photoinduced energy transfer in transition metal complex oligomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The work done over the past three years has been directed toward the preparation, characterization and photophysical examination of mono- and bimetallic diimine complexes. The work is part of a broader project directed toward the development of stable, efficient, light harvesting arrays of transition metal complex chromophores. One focus has been the synthesis of rigid bis-bidentate and bis-tridentate bridging ligands. The authors have managed to make the ligand bphb in multigram quantities from inexpensive starting materials. The synthetic approach used has allowed them to prepare a variety of other ligands which may have unique applications (vide infra). They have prepared, characterized and examined the photophysical behavior of Ru(II) and Re(I) complexes of the ligands. Energy donor/acceptor complexes of bphb have been prepared which exhibit nearly activationless energy transfer. Complexes of Ru(II) and Re(I) have also been prepared with other polyunsaturated ligands in which two different long lived (> 50 ns) excited states exist; results of luminescence and transient absorbance measurements suggest the two states are metal-to-ligand charge transfer and ligand localized {pi}{r_arrow}{pi}* triplets. Finally, the authors have developed methods to prepare polymetallic complexes which are covalently bound to various surfaces. The long term objective of this work is to make light harvesting arrays for the sensitization of large band gap semiconductors. Details of this work are provided in the body of the report.

  12. Preparation and property of polyurethane/nanosilver complex fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Rongjun, E-mail: rongjunqu@sohu.com [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Gao, Jingjing [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Tang, Bo [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Ma, Qianli [Yantai Spandex Co., Ltd, Yantai 264006 (China); Qu, Baohan [College of Chemistry and Pharmacology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, Shandong (China); Sun, Changmei [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Utilizing terminal reactive groups in polyurethane, nanometer silvers were reduced in situ. And the PU/nanosilver complex fibers were produced by dry spinning. • The influence of nanosilver on the properties of PU was studied. • It is inferred that 0.030% Ag should be a proper concentration for the PU/nanosilver complex fibers with favorable mechanical properties and highly effective antibacterial activities. - Abstract: Utilizing terminal reactive groups in polyurethane, nanometer silvers were reduced in situ. The formation mechanism of nanosilver in PU was under preliminary discussion. UV–vis spectroscopy and TEM analysis were used to monitor reduction process; and the PU/nanosilver complex fibers were produced by dry spinning, which were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and so on. The influence of nanosilver on the thermal, mechanical and antimicrobial properties of PU was studied. It is inferred that 0.030% Ag should be a proper concentration for the PU/nanosilver complex fibers with favorable mechanical properties and highly effective antibacterial activities.

  13. Synthesis, characterization, and comparative analysis of amylose-guest complexes prepared by microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryno, Lisa M; Levine, Yael; Iovine, Peter M

    2014-01-13

    The preparation and characterization of amylose-small molecule complexes is a heavily researched area. There are few reports, however, that compare complexation efficiencies across a matrix of different amylose hosts and guests. We present herein a detailed account of using microwave irradiation to prepare amylose-small molecule complexes in water. Microwave heating reduced the time required to prepare these amylose complexes from hours to minutes. We characterized not only the quantity of complex for each amylose-guest pairing but also the loading of small molecule guest in that complex. Amylose-1-naphthol complexes were found to have the highest loading density compared with other hydrophobic guests studied; in the case of 1-naphthol, there was a linear dependence of guest loading on amylose molecular weight. In addition, complexes featuring 1-naphthol were the most ordered as judged by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry. Further, powder XRD analysis of the microwave-prepared complexes revealed that many contained mixtures of V-form (single helix) and B-form (double helical) amylose. Lastly, untreated Hylon VII complexed the widest variety of small molecules with the overall greatest efficiency.

  14. Preparation and Catalytic Properties of Polymer Supported Dendritic Metal Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cui-ling; YANG Zhi-wang; KANG Qiao-xiang; MA Heng-chang; MA Xiao-peng; GAO Qi-kuan; GUO Zhen; LEI Zi-qiang

    2004-01-01

    Polymer supported materials are extensively used as oxidizing agent, reducing agent catalysts, photosensitizers ion exchange resins and agriculturally and pharmacologically active agents1. The application of polymer metal complexes has been widely investigated2. The polymer supported complex undergoes swelling in a suitable solvent medium and provides enough surface area in carrying out electron transfer reactions, which clearly emphasizes the influence of a polymer network in heterogeneous catalysis.In the present, we have succeeded in the grafting of "dendrimer-like" hyperbranched polymer onto the surface of chloromethyl polystyrene reactions.All the catalysts show promising catalytic activities for the oxidation of iso-propylbenzene in the mild reaction condition, in each case, hypnone 1, 2-phenyl-2-propanol 2 were obtained as the major products

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Layered Compound Zirconium Bis(monohydrogenphosphate) Intercalated with Rare Earth Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Layered compound zirconium bis(monohydrogenphosphate)(α -ZrP) intercalated with rare earth complex Eu(DBM)3phen was prepared. The pre-intercalation of p-methoxyaniline into α -ZrP makes the interlayer separation large enough to exchange PMA with europium complex, thus, the luminescent assembly was prepared. This was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectra and elemental analysis. The fluorescence spectra and lifetime of the assembly were also presented.

  16. Preparation, characterization and in vitro dissolution study of Nitrazepam: Cyclodextrin inclusion complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to prepare and characterize inclusion complexes of Nitrazepam with Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD and Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin (SBEβCD to study the effect of complexation on the dissolution rate of Nitrazepam, a water-insoluble drug. The phase solubility profile of Nitrazepam with Hydroxypropyl- β-cyclodextrin and Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin was an AP-type, indicating the formation of 2:1 stoichiometric inclusion complexes. Gibbs free energy values were all negative, indicating the spontaneous nature Nitrazepam solubilization and their value decreased with increase in the cyclodextrin concentration, demonstrating that the reaction conditions became more favorable as the concentration of cyclodextrins increased. Complexes of Nitrazepam were prepared with cyclodextrin using various methods such as physical mixing, kneading, spray-drying and lyophilization. The complexes were characterized by Differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction studies. These studies indicated that a complex prepared by lyophilization had successful inclusion of the Nitrazepam molecule into the cyclodextrin cavity. Complexation resulted in a marked improvement in the solubility and wettability of Nitrazepam. Among all the samples, a complex prepared with Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin by lyophilization had the greatest improvement in the in vitro rate of Nitrazepam dissolution. The mean dissolution time for Nitrazepam decreased significantly after preparing complexes. The similarity factor indicated a significant difference between the release profiles of Nitrazepam from complexes, physical mixtures and plain Nitrazepam. To conclude that, the tablets containing complexes prepared with Cyclodextrins had significant improvement in the release profile of Nitrazepam as compared to tablets containing Nitrazepam without cyclodextrin.

  17. Sterically Hindered Square-Planar Nickel(II) Organometallic Complexes: Preparation, Characterization, and Substitution Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Manuel; Muller, Guillermo; Rocamora, Merce; Rodriguez, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The series of experiments proposed for advanced undergraduate students deal with both standard organometallic preparative methods in dry anaerobic conditions and with a kinetic study of the mechanisms operating in the substitution of square-planar complexes. The preparation of organometallic compounds is carried out by transmetallation or…

  18. A Three-Step Laboratory Sequence to Prepare a Carbene Complex of Silver(I) Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, John P.; Ramnial, Taramatee; Langlois, Lisa D.; Abernethy, Colin D.; Clyburne, Jason A. C.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a multistep inorganic synthesis experiment for our second-year undergraduate teaching laboratory that introduces students to modern organometallic chemistry. The ligands are prepared in two simple steps and the preparation of an air-stable silver carbene complex is accomplished in the third step. The students are introduced to…

  19. Principles of big data preparing, sharing, and analyzing complex information

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Jules J

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Big Data helps readers avoid the common mistakes that endanger all Big Data projects. By stressing simple, fundamental concepts, this book teaches readers how to organize large volumes of complex data, and how to achieve data permanence when the content of the data is constantly changing. General methods for data verification and validation, as specifically applied to Big Data resources, are stressed throughout the book. The book demonstrates how adept analysts can find relationships among data objects held in disparate Big Data resources, when the data objects are endo

  20. [PREPARATIONS OF PAMIDRONOVIC ACID IN COMPLEX TREATMENT ON OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyma, A M; Guk, Yu M; Magomedov, O M; Gayko, O G; Kincha-Polishchuk, T A

    2015-07-01

    Modern view of drug therapy in the complex treatment of orthopedic manifestations of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) was submitted. Developed and tested system of drug correction of structural and functional state of bone tissue (BT) using drugs pamidronovic acid, depending on osteoporosis severity and type of disease. Such therapy is appropriate to apply both independently and in conjunction with surgery to correct deformations of long bones of the lower extremities. Effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods of drug therapy was proved, most patients resume features walking and support.

  1. Polyion complex (PIC) particles: Preparation and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insua, Ignacio; Wilkinson, Andrew; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco

    2016-08-01

    Oppositely charged polyions can self-assemble in solution to form colloidal polyion complex (PIC) particles. Such nanomaterials can be loaded with charged therapeutics such as DNA, drugs or probes for application as novel nanomedicines and chemical sensors to detect disease markers. A comprehensive discussion of the factors affecting PIC particle self-assembly and their response to physical and chemical stimuli in solution is described herein. Finally, a collection of key examples of polyionic nanoparticles for biomedical applications is discussed to illustrate their behaviour and demonstrate the potential of PIC nanoparticles in medicine.

  2. Kinetics of oxidative leaching of ocean polymetallic nodules in molten potassium hydroxide medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yun-shan; LI Zuo-hu; LI Hao-ran

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics of oxidative leaching of ocean polymetallic nodules in molten potassium hydroxide medium was investigated in terms of the gas-flow rate, stirring rate, reaction time, reaction temperature and partial pressure of oxygen on the ratio of manganese conversion in ocean polymetallic nodules. The category of the rate controlling step was determined. The process of the liquid-phase oxidation reaction can be described by surface chemical reaction-controlled non-reaction shrinking core model(SCM), the apparent activation energy was achieved and the rate equation was put forward. From the equation, it can be concluded that the reaction rate mainly depends on the reaction temperature and the partial pressure of oxygen.

  3. Structural Study of Inclusion Complex of Andrographolide with β-Cyclodextrin Prepared under Microwave Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    An inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin with andrographolide (Andro) was prepared by using a convenient method of microwave irradiation. The structure of the inclusion complex was determined by the 1H NMR, 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as the elemental analysis.

  4. Red Emitting Phosphor (Y,Gd)BO3:Eu3+ for PDP Prepared by Complex Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Red phosphor (Y, Gd)BO3:Eu3+ with grain shape, small size, non-agglomerate, high crystallinity and good photoluminescence (PL) intensity was prepared by a complex method that the precursor of the phosphor was prepared by co-precipitation method and the phosphor was prepared by combustion method. The SEM photos and the photoluminescence spectrum excited under VUV show that the morphology and luminescent properties of this phosphor are satisfied when an appropriate amount of urea was adopted as the combustion agent in the preparation procedure.

  5. Quantitative prediction process and evaluation method for seafloor polymetallic sulfide resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyi Ren

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Seafloor polymetallic sulfide resources exhibit significant development potential. In 2011, China received the exploration rights for 10,000 km2 of a polymetallic sulfides area in the Southwest Indian Ocean; China will be permitted to retain only 25% of the area in 2021. However, an exploration of seafloor hydrothermal sulfide deposits in China remains in the initial stage. According to the quantitative prediction theory and the exploration status of seafloor sulfides, this paper systematically proposes a quantitative prediction evaluation process of oceanic polymetallic sulfide resources and divides it into three stages: prediction in a large area, prediction in the prospecting region, and the verification and evaluation of targets. The first two stages of the prediction process have been employed in seafloor sulfides prospecting of the Chinese contract area. The results of stage one suggest that the Chinese contract area is located in the high posterior probability area, which indicates good prospecting potential area in the Indian Ocean. In stage two, the Chinese contract area of 48°–52°E has the highest posterior probability value, which can be selected as the reserved region for additional exploration. In stage three, the method of numerical simulation is employed to reproduce the ore-forming process of sulfides to verify the accuracy of the reserved targets obtained from the three-stage prediction. By narrowing the exploration area and gradually improving the exploration accuracy, the prediction will provide a basis for the exploration and exploitation of seafloor polymetallic sulfide resources.

  6. Purification of Ovine Respiratory Complex I Results in a Highly Active and Stable Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, James A; Degliesposti, Gianluca; Fiedorczuk, Karol; Skehel, Mark; Sazanov, Leonid A

    2016-11-18

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest (∼1 MDa) and the least characterized complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Because of the ease of sample availability, previous work has focused almost exclusively on bovine complex I. However, only medium resolution structural analyses of this complex have been reported. Working with other mammalian complex I homologues is a potential approach for overcoming these limitations. Due to the inherent difficulty of expressing large membrane protein complexes, screening of complex I homologues is limited to large mammals reared for human consumption. The high sequence identity among these available sources may preclude the benefits of screening. Here, we report the characterization of complex I purified from Ovis aries (ovine) heart mitochondria. All 44 unique subunits of the intact complex were identified by mass spectrometry. We identified differences in the subunit composition of subcomplexes of ovine complex I as compared with bovine, suggesting differential stability of inter-subunit interactions within the complex. Furthermore, the 42-kDa subunit, which is easily lost from the bovine enzyme, remains tightly bound to ovine complex I. Additionally, we developed a novel purification protocol for highly active and stable mitochondrial complex I using the branched-chain detergent lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol. Our data demonstrate that, although closely related, significant differences exist between the biochemical properties of complex I prepared from ovine and bovine mitochondria and that ovine complex I represents a suitable alternative target for further structural studies.

  7. Preparation, characterization, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Bi3+-Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yang; Chen, Yao; Li, Qian; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Ming; Feng, Weiwei; Takase, Mohammed; Wu, Xueshan; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-09-22

    Two new Bi3+-Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (BiHEP) complexes were prepared using Bi3+ and two purified polysaccharides from H. erinaceus (HEPs), respectively. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, CD, SEM, AFM, XRD, and TG. The anti-Helicobacter pylori (Hp) activities in vitro by agar dilution assay of the complexes were evaluated. The molecular weights of HEPs were 197 and 20 kDa, respectively. All the analyses confirmed the formation of new BiHEP complexes with lower content of Bi3+ compared with colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS), the most utilized bismuth preparation clinically. Furthermore, HEPs themselves have definite inhibition effects on Hp, and BiHEP complexes have lower content of Bi exhibited strong inhibition effects on Hp (MIC=20 μg/mL), similar to that of CBS with higher content of Bi. The study provides a basis for further development of multiple treatments of Hp infection or new medicines.

  8. Modulation of solubility and dissolution of furosemide by preparation of phospholipid complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Semalty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to improve the solubility and dissolution of furosemide (a potent high ceiling diuretic used for the treatment of hypertension and a Class IV drug that is low solubility and low permeability drug as per the Biopharmaceutical Classification System by preparing its phospholipid complexes or pharmacosomes. Materials and Methods: Furosemide was complexed with phosphatidylcholine in four different molar ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 by conventional solvent-evaporation technique. The pharmacosomes prepared were evaluated for drug content, solubility, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD and in-vitro dissolution study. Results: Pharmacosomes of furosemide showed high drug content ranging from 88.30% to 100%. XRPD studies confirmed the formation of phospholipid complex and the amorphization of drug in the complex. The water solubility was found to be increased up to six-fold in the complexes. The octanol solubility also increased in the complexes indicating the probable increase in permeability. The in-vitro dissolution profile of the prepared complexes was found to be much better than furosemide. Conclusion: It was concluded that the phospholipid complexes can be effectively used for improving the solubility, dissolution, permeability and hence the bioavailability of furosemide like Class IV drugs.

  9. Preparation and primary biological evaluation of novel nitrido-188Re complexes/lipiodol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guanquan; WEI Hongyuan; LUO Shunzhong; HE Jiaheng; YANG Yuqing; WANG Wenjin; XIONG Xiaoling

    2008-01-01

    Two new nitrido-188Re complexes were prepared by a modified method in high yield.These complexes were stable in vitro.The biodistribution in normal mice showed that these nitrido-188Re complexes could accumulate in liver and dissipate quickly from almost all organs.TAE was performed with the use of lipiodol solutions of two complexes to rabbit VX2 liver tumor models.SPECT images showed that the two lipiodol solutions could remain in tumor for about 9 h (188ReN-NEPTDD/lipiodol) and 12 h (188ReN-NEMMPTDD/Iipiodol),respectively.

  10. Preparation and characterization of the crystalline inclusion complexes between cyclodextrins and poly(1,3-dioxolane)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景烨; 颜德岳; 陈群

    2002-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of the crystalline inclusion complexes between a polymeric guest, poly(1,3-dioxolane) (PDXL), and small-molecular hosts, cyclodextrins (CDs) are reported. It is observed that the polymer guest can form crystalline inclusion complexes with three kinds of cyclodextrins, which may be attributed to the high oxygen atom density in PDXL chain. The crystalline inclusion complexes were characterized with FTIR , TGA, X-ray diffraction, SEM, 1H NMR and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopes. It was found that the crystalline inclusion complexes have higher temperature stability than the pure CDs. The X-ray powder diffraction patterns of the crystalline inclusion complexes proved that they have columnar structures. 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra of the crystalline inclusion complexes indicate that CDs adopt a more symmetrical conformation in the complexes, while pure CDs assume a less symmetrical conformation in the crystal without a guest inside their cavities. The morphology of the crystal was

  11. Preparation, characterization, and thermal stability of β-cyclodextrin/soybean lecithin inclusion complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinge; Luo, Zhigang; Xiao, Zhigang

    2014-01-30

    β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD), which is widely used to increase the stability, solubility, and bioavailability of guests, can form host-guest inclusion complexes with a wide variety of organic molecules. In this study the β-CD/soybean lecithin inclusion complex was prepared. The effect of reaction parameters such as reaction temperature, reaction time and the molar ratio of β-CD/soybean lecithin on inclusion ratio were studied. The inclusion ratio of the product prepared under the optimal conditions of β-CD/soybean lecithin molar ratio 2:1, reaction temperature 60°C reaction time 2h was 40.2%. The results of UV-vis, DSC, XRD and FT-IR spectrum indicated the formation of inclusion complex. The thermal stability experiment indicated that the thermal stability of soybean lecithin in inclusion complex was significantly improved compared with free soybean lecithin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation for Supramolecular Complexes of Chiral Diols BDPDD, DMBDPD and BINOL with Some Prochiral Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Interaction between chiral diols BDPDD, DMBDPD and BINOL with prochiral compounds was examined and some new supramolecular complexes were prepared. It was found that these chiral hosts could include prochiral guests,α,β-unsaturated compounds or piper- azinedione derivatives to give inclusion crystals in different molar ratio. Formations of these supramolecular complexes were characterized by the data of IR and 1H NMR spectra.

  13. Preparation and characterization of complexes of RE3+ with furfural modified water-soluble chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Maoyuan; QIU Ligan; MA Guilin

    2008-01-01

    Degraded chitosan, with highly water-solubility, was obtained by the oxidation of chitosan with H2O2, and then reacted with furfural The final product coordinated with the rare earth ions (RE3+ = Sm3+,Eu3+), which led to the formation of the complexes. The prepared complexes were characterized with Inflated Spectroscopy (IR), Ultra Violet (UV), fluorescence, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Thermogravimetric-Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TG-DSC) measurements.

  14. Geochemistry of polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Khadge, N.H.; Desa, J.A.E.

    stream_size 30968 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mar_Geol_103_361.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mar_Geol_103_361.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Marine Geology, 103 (1992... neutron activation analyses (INAA) using the Reddy et al. (1976) procedure. The REE standards were prepared by evapora- tion from previously prepared solutions of known concentration. The known weights of all samples for irradiation were kept...

  15. Disseminated, veinlet and vein Pb-Zn, Cu and Sb polymetallic mineralization in the GaleChah-Shurab mining district, Iranian East Magmatic Assemblage (IEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Mehrabi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian East Magmatic Assemblage (IEMA in the Central Lut region, hosted porphyry and vein-type polymetallic mineralization. The GaleChah-Shurab mining district is located in NW of the IEMA. Volcanic and subvolcanic bodies in the area are composed of calc-alkaline porphyry quartz-latite, porphyry dacite and rhyodacite and hornblende-biotite andesite, equivalent to I-type granite. They emplaced in Tertiary and intruded the Jurassic shale, siltstone and limestone basement (Shemshak Fm. The faults, joints and fractures, are the main controls on the mineralization, in forms of disseminated, vein, veinlet and minor stockwork and brecciation type mineralization of Pb, Zn, Cu, Sb and trace elements. Vein and veinlet of Pb+Zn±Cu±Sb in the Gale-Chah abandoned mine accompanied by carbonate and silicic alterations in association with galena, sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, bournonite and tetrahedrite as the hypogene ore minerals and their supergene products including cerussite, covellite, digenite and second-generation colloidal pyrite. The Pb+Zn+Cu+Sb mineralization associated with sericitic and silicic alterations in the Shurab abandoned mine, is composed of two types of mineralization, veinlet and brecciation vein in the porphyry dacite boundaries with Jurassic shale and sandstones, and the disseminated and disseminated-veinlet mineralization which is hosted by the altered porphyry dacite and rhyodacite intrusive rocks. The mineral assemblages are galena, sphalerite, stibnite, As-bearing pyrite, chalcopyrite and tetrahedrite-tennantite complex hypogene-sulfide ore as a hypogene ore, and malachite, covellite, cerussite and melancoitic pyrite as a sulfide-oxide supergene ore. The Pb+Zn+Sb±As±Ag polymetallic occurrence is associated with sericitic, carbonate and chloritic alteration assemblage in the Chupan occurrence, in two forms, I vein, veinlet-stockwork (30m depth confined to fault structures and II disseminated-replacement (below 70m mainly

  16. Dissolution enhancement of gliclazide by preparation of inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiremath S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gliclazide is an oral hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The drug is practically insoluble in water and exhibits an exceedingly slow intrinsic dissolution rate and poor bioavailability. The present study has emphasized on improving the solubility and dissolution rate of the drug by forming inclusion complex with β -cyclodextrin. Phase solubility studies indicated the formation of 1:2 M complex in solution. The value of apparent stability constant K c was found to be 691.45 M -1 . The inclusion complexes were prepared by physical mixture and kneading method. Prepared complexes were characterized by infrared (IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC studies, which indicated formation of 1:2 M complex. The gliclazide:β -CD (1:2 M complex prepared by kneading method exhibited higher dissolution rate and dissolution efficiency values in 0.1-N HCl. A 20.31-fold increase in dissolution rate and 16.50-fold increase in dissolution efficiency values were observed in the kneading method.

  17. Effect of method of preparation on pioglitazone HCl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloshe Shrikant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pioglitazone HCl is an antidiabetic agent with poor aqueous solubility. Inclusion complexes of pioglitazone HCl were prepared with β-cyclodextrin using various methods (physical mixing, kneading method, co-precipitation. The main aim of the present invention is to study the effect of the method of preparation on the dissolution profiles of pioglitazone HCl-β-Cyclodextrin inclusion complexes . The phase solubility profile of pioglitazone HCl with β-cyclodextrin was classified as AL-type and stability constant with 1:1 molar ratio was 115.45, calculated from the phase solubility diagram. Formation of the inclusion complex between pioglitazone HCl and β-cyclodextrin was confirmed by the Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. The dissolution profile of inclusion complexes were determined and compared with those of pioglitazone HCl alone and its physical mixtures. The dissolution rate of the pioglitazone HCl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex prepared by the co-precipitation method was six times higher when compared with the pure drug. The method of complexation of pioglitazone HCl in β-CD increased the dissolution rate of the drug in the following order: Coppt > KM > PM >Drug.

  18. Preparation of starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles from amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles were prepared from amylose-sodium palmitate complexes by first converting sodium palmitate to silver palmitate by reaction with silver nitrate and then reducing the silver ion to metallic silver. This process produced water solutions that could be dried and the...

  19. Rodent repellent studies. IV. Preparation and properties of trinitrobenzene-aryl amine complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, J.B.; Bellack, E.; Welch, J.F.

    1953-01-01

    Data are presented on methods of preparation, chemical arid physical characteristics, toxicity, and repellency to rodents of complexes of symmetrical trinitrohenzene with various aromatic amines: When applied in suitable carriers or incorporated in plastic .films, members of this series ofmaterials were shown to offer significant increases in time required by wild rodents to damage common packaging materials.

  20. Supercritical CO2-assisted preparation of ibuprofen loaded PEG-PVP complexes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, Philip W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stoichiometric ratios of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG, Mw = 400) with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP, Mw = ±3.1 x 104 & Mw = 1.25 x 106 Mw) were prepared from ethanol cast solutions and in supercritical CO2. The complex formation was studied via glass...

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Hybrid Luminescence Mesoporous MCM-48 Doped with Eu( Ⅲ ) Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Qingguo; Li Huanrong; Peng Chunyun; Zhang Hongjie; Boutinaud P; Franville A C; Mahiou R

    2004-01-01

    The preparation of hybrid mesoporous MCM-48 grafted by vinyl group via post-grafting process was reported and studied by X-ray diffraction, BET and 29Si solid MAS NMR.An organic β-diketonate Europium complex the corresponding luminescence property was characterized.

  2. Extruded foams prepared from high amylose starch with sodium stearate to form amylose inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch foams were prepared from high amylose corn starch in the presence and absence of sodium stearate and PVOH to determine how the formation of amylose-sodium stearate inclusion complexes and the addition of PVOH would affect foam properties. Low extrusion temperatures were used, and X-ray diffra...

  3. Preparation, X-ray crystallography, and thermal decomposition of some transition metal perchlorate complexes of hexamethylenetetramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdip; Baranwal, B P; Kapoor, I P S; Kumar, Dinesh; Fröhlich, Roland

    2007-12-20

    The perchlorate complexes of manganese, nickel, and zinc with hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) of the general formula [M(H2O-HMTA-H2O)2(H2O-ClO4)2(H2O)2] (where M=Mn, Ni, and Zn) have been prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography. Thermal studies were undertaken using thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and explosion delay (DE) measurements. The kinetics of thermal decomposition of these complexes was investigated using isothermal TG data by applying isoconversional method. The decomposition pathways of the complexes have also been proposed. These were found to explode when subjected to higher temperatures.

  4. Biological responses to disturbance from simulated deep-sea polymetallic nodule mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel O B; Kaiser, Stefanie; Sweetman, Andrew K; Smith, Craig R; Menot, Lenaick; Vink, Annemiek; Trueblood, Dwight; Greinert, Jens; Billett, David S M; Arbizu, Pedro Martinez; Radziejewska, Teresa; Singh, Ravail; Ingole, Baban; Stratmann, Tanja; Simon-Lledó, Erik; Durden, Jennifer M; Clark, Malcolm R

    2017-01-01

    Commercial-scale mining for polymetallic nodules could have a major impact on the deep-sea environment, but the effects of these mining activities on deep-sea ecosystems are very poorly known. The first commercial test mining for polymetallic nodules was carried out in 1970. Since then a number of small-scale commercial test mining or scientific disturbance studies have been carried out. Here we evaluate changes in faunal densities and diversity of benthic communities measured in response to these 11 simulated or test nodule mining disturbances using meta-analysis techniques. We find that impacts are often severe immediately after mining, with major negative changes in density and diversity of most groups occurring. However, in some cases, the mobile fauna and small-sized fauna experienced less negative impacts over the longer term. At seven sites in the Pacific, multiple surveys assessed recovery in fauna over periods of up to 26 years. Almost all studies show some recovery in faunal density and diversity for meiofauna and mobile megafauna, often within one year. However, very few faunal groups return to baseline or control conditions after two decades. The effects of polymetallic nodule mining are likely to be long term. Our analyses show considerable negative biological effects of seafloor nodule mining, even at the small scale of test mining experiments, although there is variation in sensitivity amongst organisms of different sizes and functional groups, which have important implications for ecosystem responses. Unfortunately, many past studies have limitations that reduce their effectiveness in determining responses. We provide recommendations to improve future mining impact test studies. Further research to assess the effects of test-mining activities will inform ways to improve mining practices and guide effective environmental management of mining activities.

  5. Biological responses to disturbance from simulated deep-sea polymetallic nodule mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Stefanie; Sweetman, Andrew K.; Smith, Craig R.; Menot, Lenaick; Vink, Annemiek; Trueblood, Dwight; Greinert, Jens; Billett, David S. M.; Arbizu, Pedro Martinez; Radziejewska, Teresa; Singh, Ravail; Ingole, Baban; Stratmann, Tanja; Simon-Lledó, Erik; Durden, Jennifer M.; Clark, Malcolm R.

    2017-01-01

    Commercial-scale mining for polymetallic nodules could have a major impact on the deep-sea environment, but the effects of these mining activities on deep-sea ecosystems are very poorly known. The first commercial test mining for polymetallic nodules was carried out in 1970. Since then a number of small-scale commercial test mining or scientific disturbance studies have been carried out. Here we evaluate changes in faunal densities and diversity of benthic communities measured in response to these 11 simulated or test nodule mining disturbances using meta-analysis techniques. We find that impacts are often severe immediately after mining, with major negative changes in density and diversity of most groups occurring. However, in some cases, the mobile fauna and small-sized fauna experienced less negative impacts over the longer term. At seven sites in the Pacific, multiple surveys assessed recovery in fauna over periods of up to 26 years. Almost all studies show some recovery in faunal density and diversity for meiofauna and mobile megafauna, often within one year. However, very few faunal groups return to baseline or control conditions after two decades. The effects of polymetallic nodule mining are likely to be long term. Our analyses show considerable negative biological effects of seafloor nodule mining, even at the small scale of test mining experiments, although there is variation in sensitivity amongst organisms of different sizes and functional groups, which have important implications for ecosystem responses. Unfortunately, many past studies have limitations that reduce their effectiveness in determining responses. We provide recommendations to improve future mining impact test studies. Further research to assess the effects of test-mining activities will inform ways to improve mining practices and guide effective environmental management of mining activities. PMID:28178346

  6. Microreactor and method for preparing a radiolabeled complex or a biomolecule conjugate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, David E; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Wheeler, Tobias D; Desai, Amit V; Zeng, Dexing; Onal, Birce C

    2015-03-17

    A microreactor for preparing a radiolabeled complex or a biomolecule conjugate comprises a microchannel for fluid flow, where the microchannel comprises a mixing portion comprising one or more passive mixing elements, and a reservoir for incubating a mixed fluid. The reservoir is in fluid communication with the microchannel and is disposed downstream of the mixing portion. A method of preparing a radiolabeled complex includes flowing a radiometal solution comprising a metallic radionuclide through a downstream mixing portion of a microchannel, where the downstream mixing portion includes one or more passive mixing elements, and flowing a ligand solution comprising a bifunctional chelator through the downstream mixing portion. The ligand solution and the radiometal solution are passively mixed while in the downstream mixing portion to initiate a chelation reaction between the metallic radionuclide and the bifunctional chelator. The chelation reaction is completed to form a radiolabeled complex.

  7. Preparation of TiO2-activated carbon complex membranes and their photoelectrocatalytic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤宏; 姚杰; 孙丽欣; 王强

    2003-01-01

    The experimental process of preparing TiO2-activated carbon complex membranes with activated carbon powder as main carrier, PTFE as binder and wire netting as matrix is described in detail, and both photo-catalysis and photo-electro-catalysis are measured to study the properties of complex membranes. Experimental results show that the photo-catalytic activity of the membranes is high and stable in the process of treating Rhodamine-B; the application of an electric field accelerates the speed of photo-catalysis, and the efficiency of photo-catalysis is increased 2.5 times when the applied voltage is 0.8 V; and the degradation of Rhodamine-B follows the dynamics of first order reaction. It is concluded from the discussion of experimental results that the preparation process of TiO2-activated carbon complex membranes is a simple low-cost process suitable for large scale application.

  8. Deep-sea polymetallic nodule mining: Challenges ahead for technologists and environmentalists

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    surveys and data collection, a variety of survey equipment, remotely operated vehicles, and tethered online cameras have been developed to remotely record backscatter and subbottom profiling data. Indian Polymetallic Nodule Program The National Institute... & conc. n ) 0.17 0.14 39516 86.2 20500 (1992–94) MMT ¼ Million Metric Tones; T ¼ Tonnes; NA ¼ Data not available. 84 and would be effectively operational for 250 days in a year (Herrouin 2001). The mining system would have a capacity of 500t=h (140Kg...

  9. A kuroko-type polymetallic sulfide deposit in a submarine silicic caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizasa; Fiske; Ishizuka; Yuasa; Hashimoto; Ishibashi; Naka; Horii; Fujiwara; Imai; Koyama

    1999-02-12

    Manned submersible studies have delineated a large and actively growing Kuroko-type volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit 400 kilometers south of Tokyo in Myojin Knoll submarine caldera. The sulfide body is located on the caldera floor at a depth of 1210 to 1360 meters, has an area of 400 by 400 by 30 meters, and is notably rich in gold and silver. The discovery of a large Kuroko-type polymetallic sulfide deposit in this arc-front caldera raises the possibility that the numerous unexplored submarine silicic calderas elsewhere might have similar deposits.

  10. Origin of the fluorine-rich highly differentiated granites from the Qianlishan composite plutons (South China) and implications for polymetallic mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Ma, Xinghua; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2014-10-01

    Many composite granite plutons occur in South China, accompanied by large-scale polymetallic mineralization. Each composite pluton is composed of main-phase granite and late-stage highly differentiated granite. Traditionally, the highly differentiated granite is thought to be residual melt of the former via fractionation, and ore-forming materials and fluids are from granite magma itself. We propose a different model for the origin of the granites and related mineralization, based on petrological and geochemical studies on the Qianlishan composite plutons that host the supergiant Shizhuyuan W-Sn-Bi-Mo deposit. The main-phase granite shows features of normal granites, while the highly differentiated granite is characterized by F-rich, water-deficient, low fO2, alkalinity, REE tetrad effect, and modified behavior of some trace elements, e.g., very high K/Ba and low K/Rb and Zr/Hf ratios. We suggest that the parent magma of the highly differentiated granite was derived from melting of dominantly lower crustal rocks, triggered by underplating of a new pulse of basaltic magmas; small amounts of basaltic magmas and volatiles such as fluorine were involved in the source of the granite. Addition of fluorine lowered the solidus temperature and viscosity of granite magma, and thus prolonged the process of magma evolution. This resulted in extreme fractional crystallization, and intense interaction between melt and circulating waters from country rocks, forming the unusual geochemical features of the granite. The high temperature circulating waters, along with metamorphic fluids released from deep crustal rocks, subsequently, extract ore-forming metals from country rocks through forming F-bearing complexation, forming the polymetallic deposits.

  11. Lamellar metal-organic complex and its rod-like nanoparticles prepared with ultrasonic technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Metal-organic complex (H3NCH2CH2NH2)3[MoO2(OC6H4O)2] with a lamellar morphology has been syn- thesized. Its crystal structure was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The morphology of the crystal was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The metal-organic nanoparticles have been prepared by using an ultrasonic method. The morphology of the as-prepared nanoparticles was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The possible formation mechanism has also been proposed.

  12. Preparation and luminescence properties of organogel doped with Eu(TTA)3phen complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocca, M.; Di Lorenzo, M. L.; Avella, M.; Gentile, G.; Aubouy, L.; Della Pirreira, M.; Gutiérrez-Tauste, D.; Kennedy, M.; Doran, J.; Norton, B.

    2012-07-01

    In this contribution we report the preparation and the luminescence property of Eu(TTA)3phen complex doped toluene gels. Gels were prepared by using either a low molecular weight gelator, 12-hydroxystearic acid (HSA), or a macromolecular gelator, syndiotactic polymethylmethacrylate (s-PMMA). The gelation properties and their reversible behavior from solid-like to liquid systems have been investigated. In addition, photophysical investigations, as well as morphology, thermal properties and ageing behavior of the gels were analyzed as a function of composition of the gels.

  13. Preparation of organogel with tea polyphenols complex for enhancing the antioxidation properties of edible oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rong; Zhang, Qiuyue; Vriesekoop, Frank; Yuan, Qipeng; Liang, Hao

    2014-08-20

    Food-grade organogels are semisolid systems with immobilized liquid edible oil in a three-dimensional network of self-assembled gelators, and they are supposed to have a broad range of potential applications in food industries. In this work, an edible organogel with tea polyphenols was developed, which possesses a highly effective antioxidative function. To enhance the dispersibility of the tea polyphenols in the oil phase, a solid lipid-surfactant-tea polyphenols complex (organogel complex) was first prepared according to a novel method. Then, a food-grade organogel was prepared by mixing this organogel complex with fresh peanut oil. Compared with adding free tea polyphenols, the organogel complex could be more homogeneously distributed in the prepared organogel system, especially under heating condition. Furthermore, the organogel loading of tea polyphenols performed a 2.5-fold higher antioxidation compared with other chemically synthesized antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene and propyl gallate) by evaluating the peroxide value of the fresh peanut oil based organogel in accelerated oxidation conditions.

  14. Preparation and guest-uptake protocol for a porous complex useful for 'crystal-free' crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuma, Yasuhide; Yoshioka, Shota; Ariyoshi, Junko; Arai, Tatsuhiko; Fujita, Makoto

    2014-02-01

    We recently reported a new method for single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCD) analysis that does not require the crystallization of the target compound. In this 'crystal-free' crystallography, a tiny crystal of a porous complex is soaked in the solution of the target guest. The guest molecules are absorbed and oriented in the crystal pores and can be analyzed by X-ray diffraction. We describe here a detailed synthetic protocol for the preparation of uniform single crystals of the porous host complex and for the subsequent guest uptake. The protocol describes our most versatile porous complex, which is prepared from commercially available ZnI2 and 2,4,6-tri(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine. The host complex has large pores with a cross-section of 8 × 5 Å(2). Single crystals of the complex are grown from layered solutions of the two components. The pores of the as-synthesized complex are filled with nitrobenzene, which is replaced with the inert solvent cyclohexane. This solvent exchange is essential for the rapid and effective inclusion of target compounds. The most crucial and delicate step is the selection of high-quality single crystals from the mixture of crystals of various shapes and sizes. We suggest using the facial indices of the single crystals as a criterion for crystal selection. Single-crystal samples for X-ray analysis can be prepared by immersing the selected crystals in a cyclohexane/dichloromethane solution of target compound. After a very slow evaporation of the solvent, typically over 2 d, the final crystal can be picked and directly subjected to SCD analysis. The protocol can be completed within ∼16 d.

  15. Mineral Potential Mapping for Tungsten Polymetallic Deposits in the Nanling Metallogenic Belt, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Liu; Qiuming Cheng; Qinglin Xia; Xinqing Wang

    2014-01-01

    The Nanling belt in South China has considerable resources of tungsten polymetallic commodities and is one of the most important metallogenic belts in the world. Data-driven weights-of-evidence (WofE) and fuzzy logic models are used to evaluate the tungsten polymetallic po-tential of the Nanling belt. Initially, seven ore-controlling factors derived from multi-source geospatial datasets (e.g., geological, geochemical, and geophysical) are used for data integration in the two models. Two mineral potential maps are generated that efficiently predicate the locations of the deposits. The WofE map predicate 81%of the deposits within 13.6%of the study area, whereas the fuzzy logic map predicate 81.5%of the deposits within 13%of the area. The predictive maps are syntheses of spatial association rules, which provide better understanding of those factors that control the distribution of mineralization and trigger eventual exploration work in new areas. Subsequently, in order to evaluate the success rate accuracy, the receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curves (AUCs) for the two potential maps are constructed. The results show that the AUCs for the WofE and fuzzy logic models are 0.775 7 and 0.840 6, respectively. The higher AUC value for the fuzzy logic model implies that it delineate a greater number of favorable areas compared with the WofE model. Overall, the capabilities of both models for correctly classifying areas with existing mineral deposits are satisfactory.

  16. Mechanochemical Preparation of Cobalt Nanoparticles through a Novel Intramolecular Reaction in Cobalt(II) Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A novel solid state reaction involving a series of cobalt(II) hydrazine-azides has been used to prepare metallic cobalt nanoparticles. The reactions of [Co(N2H4)(N3)2], [Co(N2H4)2(N3)2], and [Co(N2H4)(N3)Cl]·H2O via NaOH, KOH as reactants were carried out in the solid state. These complexes undergo an intramolecular two-electron oxidation-reduction reaction at room temperature, producing metallic cobalt nanoparticles (Co1–Co6). The aforementioned complexes contain cobalt(II) that is an oxidiz...

  17. FREE-FLOWING COMPLEX BACTERIAL PREPARATION FOR CROP AND EFFICIENCY OF ITS USE IN AGROECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Кurdish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the influence of different nanomaterials on physiological and biochemical activity of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria Azotobacter vinelandii IMV V-7076 and phosphate mobilizing bacteria Bacillus subtilis IMV V-7023 for the development of high-efficient free-flowing bacterial complex for crop production. Among the studied nanomaterials, vermiculite stimulated the most effectively bacterial growth, synthesis of amino acids and phytohormones, dehydrogenase, catalase and peroxidase activities. Based on vermiculite and highly efficient strains of bacteria Azotobacter vinelandii IMV V-7076 and Bacillus subtilis IMV V-7023, a free-flowing bacterial complex preparation for crop production was created. The preparation was stable during storage, it improved the nitrogenous and phosphorus nutrition of plants stimulated their growth by biologically active substances and protected plants from lesion by phytopathogenic micromicetes and bacteria.

  18. Physical-chemical and biocatalytic properties of a proteolytic complex of the preparation "Protepsin"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic technologies were included strongly into practical activities of the person, the volume of the world market constantly grows and is updated. However the domestic production of enzymatic preparations very lags behind world level that is in many respects connected with insufficient scientific and technical base for a wide circulation of technologies in large-scale production. At the same time there were Russian producers of enzymatic preparations from animal fabrics and bodies for processing of raw materials of an animal origin, according to forecasts, of interest in rational use of resources of an animal origin. In article data on research of properties of the enzymatic preparation "Protepsin" and an assessment of prospects of application are provided in processing of raw materials of an animal origin. The enzymatic preparation "Protepsin" made in the conditions of JSC Plant of Endocrine Enzymes (Rzhavki, Moscow region activity at action on proteins of meat shows, including the strengthened structure, has milk-clotting effect, is active in the field of pH 4,0-6,0 and temperature 20-45zs. The proteinaceous complex includes 4 fractions, 2 from which possess the general proteolytic activity. One of them shows the general proteolytic and milk-clotting activity. Enzymes differ in an amino-acid set and molecular weight. The method of a disk electrophoresis determined molecular-mass structure of "Protepsin". The preparation inactivation conditions guaranteeing its safety in the production technology of foodstuff as active proteolytic enzymes in the course of digestion can cause violations of integrity of fabrics and corresponding diseases are shown. Thus, conditions of use of a perspective proteolytic preparation in technology of a wide range of food of an animal origin are in a complex proved and picked up.

  19. Influence of cueing on the preparation and execution of untrained and trained complex motor responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alouche, S.R.; Sant'Anna, G.N.; Biagioni, G.; Ribeiro-do-Valle, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of cueing on the performance of untrained and trained complex motor responses. Healthy adults responded to a visual target by performing four sequential movements (complex response) or a single movement (simple response) of their middle finger. A visual cue preceded the target by an interval of 300, 1000, or 2000 ms. In Experiment 1, the complex and simple responses were not previously trained. During the testing session, the complex response pattern varied on a trial-by-trial basis following the indication provided by the visual cue. In Experiment 2, the complex response and the simple response were extensively trained beforehand. During the testing session, the trained complex response pattern was performed in all trials. The latency of the untrained and trained complex responses decreased from the short to the medium and long cue-target intervals. The latency of the complex response was longer than that of the simple response, except in the case of the trained responses and the long cue-target interval. These results suggest that the preparation of untrained complex responses cannot be completed in advance, this being possible, however, for trained complex responses when enough time is available. The duration of the 1st submovement, 1st pause and 2nd submovement of the untrained and the trained complex responses increased from the short to the long cue-target interval, suggesting that there is an increase of online programming of the response possibly related to the degree of certainty about the moment of target appearance. PMID:22473319

  20. Influence of cueing on the preparation and execution of untrained and trained complex motor responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Alouche

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of cueing on the performance of untrained and trained complex motor responses. Healthy adults responded to a visual target by performing four sequential movements (complex response or a single movement (simple response of their middle finger. A visual cue preceded the target by an interval of 300, 1000, or 2000 ms. In Experiment 1, the complex and simple responses were not previously trained. During the testing session, the complex response pattern varied on a trial-by-trial basis following the indication provided by the visual cue. In Experiment 2, the complex response and the simple response were extensively trained beforehand. During the testing session, the trained complex response pattern was performed in all trials. The latency of the untrained and trained complex responses decreased from the short to the medium and long cue-target intervals. The latency of the complex response was longer than that of the simple response, except in the case of the trained responses and the long cue-target interval. These results suggest that the preparation of untrained complex responses cannot be completed in advance, this being possible, however, for trained complex responses when enough time is available. The duration of the 1st submovement, 1st pause and 2nd submovement of the untrained and the trained complex responses increased from the short to the long cue-target interval, suggesting that there is an increase of online programming of the response possibly related to the degree of certainty about the moment of target appearance.

  1. Preparation and Property of Acrylic Acid Rare Earth Complex and Its Hydrosilylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ming; Chen Haiyan; Chen Xiaosong; Dai Shaojun; Inoue Shinich; Okamoto Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    Acrylic acid rare earth complex was prepared. Its chemical composition was determined by chemical and elemental analysis, and its structure as well as properties was characterized using IR, Fluorescence and UV spectrum, and its solubility was also investigated. Meanwhile a kind of elastic functional polymer with rare earth units in the side chains was produced. It is confirmed by IR spectrum that the Si-H bonds really react with acrylic acid rare earth.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Starch-g-PVA/Nano-hydroxyapatite Complex Hydrogel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Starch-g-PVA/hydroxyapatite complex hydrogel was prepared with two-repeated freezing/ thawing circles. SEM observation results exhibits that hydroxyapatite is dispersed in starch-g-PVA in nanoscale. Thermogravimetric analysis curves show that the remained fraction keeps the same at the temperatures higher than 490℃ . It was found the dried starch-g- PVA/ hydroxyapatite films could reswell within 12 minutes.

  3. Polyelectrolyte complexes : Preparation, characterization, and use for control of wet and dry adhesion between surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ankerfors, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) preparation, adsorption behaviour, and potential use for control of wet and dry adhesion between surfaces. PEC formation was studied using a jet-mixing method not previously used for mixing polyelectrolytes. The PECs were formed using various mixing times, and the results were compared with those for PECs formed using the conventional polyelectrolyte titration method. The results indicated that using the jet mixer allowed the size of the form...

  4. A New Humidity-Sensitive Material Based on PPBT Prepared with Palladium Complex Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Soluble Poly(propargyl benzoate) (PPBT) with p -conjugated structure was synthesized using a novel bis(triphenylphosphine)-bisacetylide palladium complex catalyst [Pd(PPh3)2(Co CCH2OOCPh)2] (PPB). An interdigital gold electrode was covered by screen printing films of doped PPBT (DPPBT) to prepare a resistance-type humidity sensor, which exhibits electrical response towards relative humidity (RH%) variations in the range 11%-96%. PPBT shows promise as a new humidity-sensitive material.

  5. Task complexity differentially affects executed and imagined movement preparation: evidence from movement-related potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Kranczioch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neural simulation theory predicts similarity for the neural mechanisms subserving overt (motor execution and covert (movement imagination actions. Here we tested this prediction for movement preparation, a key characteristic of motor cognition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: High-density electroencephalogram (EEG was recorded during covert and overt actions. Movement preparation was studied with a motor priming paradigm, which varied task complexity and amount of advance information. Participants performed simple or complex sequential finger movements either overtly or covertly. Advance information was either fully predictive or partially predictive. Stimulus-locked event-related potential (ERP data showed the typical pattern of foreperiod activation for overt and covert movements. The foreperiod contingent negative variation (CNV differed between simple and complex movements only in the execution task. ERP topographies differed between execution and imagination only when advance information was fully predictive. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results suggest a differential contribution of the movement preparation network to action imagination and execution. Overt and covert actions seem to involve similar though not identical mechanisms, where overt actions engage a more fine-grained modulation of covert preparatory states.

  6. Antipyrine-gamma cyclodextrin inclusion complex: Molecular modeling, preparation, characterization and cytotoxicity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannimani, Ramesh; Perumal, Amanda; Ramesh, Muthusamy; Pillay, Karen; Soliman, Mahmoud E.; Govender, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    Molecular docking, semi-empirical and molecular dynamics studies were conducted for α, β and γ-cyclodextrin-associated inclusion complexes of antipyrine. The results of molecular modeling were systematically analyzed to determine the stability of inclusion complexes. In preliminary computational screening, β and γ-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of antipyrine were found to be more stable as compared to α-cyclodextrin based on docking score and binding free energies. Further, inclusion complex of antipyrine with γ-cyclodextrin was prepared by freeze drying method. Formation of the inclusion complex was investigated by solid state characterization techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The changes observed in decomposition temperature, diffractogram, vibrational frequencies and morphological appearance confirmed the formation of inclusion complex. In addition, results from 1H NMR and 2D NOESY studies supported the inclusion phenomenon. The results obtained from computational studies were found to be in consistent with experimental data to ascertain the encapsulation of antipyrine into γ-cyclodextrin. The inclusion complex was found to be non-toxic toward MDCK-1 cell lines. Thus, this approach may be helpful in the formulation of drug molecules using cyclodextrins.

  7. Preparation and Properties of Eu3+ Rare Earth Complex and Fluorescent Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yu-xian; XI Peng; HUANG Xiang-an

    2006-01-01

    A novel Eu3+ rare earth complex, composed of 4 -hydroxybenzolate acid and 1, 10 - phenanthroline ligands was synthesized. The apparent morphology, composition,thermal stability and fluorescent property of the rare earth complex were measured by TEM, Element analysis, IR, TG and Fluorescence spectrometer. The results indicated that this rare earth complex has sphere-like morphology and its diameter was about 100 nm. The complex has good thermal stability due to the strong coordination between the Eu3+ions and the ligands. Based on the composition analysis, the complex structure formula was: Eu(HOC6 H4 COO)3(phen)complex emission peaks were corresponding to the transition of 5D0→7 FJ(J=0,1,2,4), and the highest intensity fluorescence peak was at 617 nm. The luminescent fiber was prepared by blending melt-spinning with rare earth complex and polypropylene resin. It also has a good luminescent quality,which the strongest emission peak was at 619 nm. It could be considered suitable for industrial application.

  8. Preparation and characterization of the crystalline inclusion complexes between cyclodextrins and poly(1,3-dioxolane)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景烨; 颜德岳; 陈群

    2002-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of the crystalline inclusion complexes between a polymeric guest, poly(1,3-dioxolane)(PDXL), and small-molecular hosts, cyclodextrins(CDs) are reported. It is observed that the polymer guest can form crystalline inclusion complexes with three kinds of cyclodextrins, which May be attributed to the high oxygen atom density in PDXL chain. The crystalline inclusion complexes were characterized with FTIR , TGA, X-ray diffraction, SEM, 1H NMR and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopes. It was found that the crystalline inclusion complexes have higher temperature stability than the pure CDs. The X-ray powder diffraction patterns of the crystalline inclusion complexes proved that they have columnar structures. 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra of the crystalline inclusion complexes indicate that CDs adopt a more symmetrical confor-mation in the complexes, while pure CDs assume a less symmetrical conformation in the crystal without a guest inside their cavities. The morphology of the crystal was observed by means of SEM.

  9. A novel method for preparation of HAMLET-like protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permyakov, Sergei E; Knyazeva, Ekaterina L; Leonteva, Marina V; Fadeev, Roman S; Chekanov, Aleksei V; Zhadan, Andrei P; Håkansson, Anders P; Akatov, Vladimir S; Permyakov, Eugene A

    2011-09-01

    Some natural proteins induce tumor-selective apoptosis. α-Lactalbumin (α-LA), a milk calcium-binding protein, is converted into an antitumor form, called HAMLET/BAMLET, via partial unfolding and association with oleic acid (OA). Besides triggering multiple cell death mechanisms in tumor cells, HAMLET exhibits bactericidal activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The existing methods for preparation of active complexes of α-LA with OA employ neutral pH solutions, which greatly limit water solubility of OA. Therefore these methods suffer from low scalability and/or heterogeneity of the resulting α-LA - OA samples. In this study we present a novel method for preparation of α-LA - OA complexes using alkaline conditions that favor aqueous solubility of OA. The unbound OA is removed by precipitation under acidic conditions. The resulting sample, bLA-OA-45, bears 11 OA molecules and exhibits physico-chemical properties similar to those of BAMLET. Cytotoxic activities of bLA-OA-45 against human epidermoid larynx carcinoma and S. pneumoniae D39 cells are close to those of HAMLET. Treatment of S. pneumoniae with bLA-OA-45 or HAMLET induces depolarization and rupture of the membrane. The cells are markedly rescued from death upon pretreatment with an inhibitor of Ca(2+) transport. Hence, the activation mechanisms of S. pneumoniae death are analogous for these two complexes. The developed express method for preparation of active α-LA - OA complex is high-throughput and suited for development of other protein complexes with low-molecular-weight amphiphilic substances possessing valuable cytotoxic properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. β-Cyclodextrin inclusion complex: preparation, characterization, and its aspirin release in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui-Yun; Jiang, Ling-Juan; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Li, Jun-Bo

    2012-09-01

    In this work, the optimal clathration condition was investigated for the preparation of aspirin-β-cyclodextrin (Asp-β-CD) inclusion complex using design of experiment (DOE) methodology. A 3-level, 3-factor Box-Behnken design with a total of 17 experimental runs was used. The Asp-β-CD inclusion complex was prepared by saturated solution method. The influence on the embedding rate was investigated, including molar ratio of β-CD to Asp, clathration temperature and clathration time, and the optimum values of such three test variables were found to be 0.82, 49°C and 2.0 h, respectively. The embedding rate could be up to 61.19%. The formation of the bonding between -COOH group of Asp and O-H group of β-CD might play an important role in the process of clathration according to FT-IR spectra. Release kinetics of Asp from inclusion complex was studied for the evaluation of drug release mechanism and diffusion coefficients. The results showed that the drug release from matrix occurred through Fickian diffusion mechanism. The cumulative release of Asp reached only 40% over 24 h, so the inclusion complex could potentially be applied as a long-acting delivery system.

  11. Characterization of Ketoprofen/Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin Complexes Prepared Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Banchero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complexes of methyl-β-cyclodextrin and ketoprofen, a crystalline anti-inflammatory drug with poor water solubility, have been prepared for the first time in the presence of supercritical CO2 at 40°C and 20 MPa. The supercritical treatment allows these pharmaceutical formulations to be prepared without the use of any auxiliary agents or organic solvents. The treated samples were characterized through differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, and the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to exclude the presence of crystalline drug and check the formation of the complexes. The increase of the drug dissolution rate was investigated performing in vitro release tests in aqueous solutions. The results showed that the supercritical treatment can be an efficient method to obtain inclusion complexes with enhanced release kinetics. The operating methods of the release tests, that is, the “tablet method” or the “dispersed amount method,” affected both the dissolution rate and its dependence on the drug amount in the samples. On the contrary, the variation of the pH of the dissolution medium did not show any effect on the release rate of the supercritical complexes.

  12. Double-loaded liposomes encapsulating Quercetin and Quercetin beta-cyclodextrin complexes: Preparation, characterization and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Shaji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta-cyclodextrin (CD inclusion complexes of Quercetin were formed and characterized by Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR spectroscopy. Plain Quercetin liposomes using phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol were prepared and optimized. Factors such as ratio of lipids employed, drug:lipid ratio, etc. were fine tuned and optimized to achieve maximum entrapment of the Quercetin into the bilayer. Entrapment was further enhanced by double loading the liposomes. These were prepared by incorporating Quercetin as a plain drug as well as the inclusion complexes within the lipid bilayer and the aqueous compartment, respectively, of the liposomes using the thin film hydration technique. The highest entrapment was achieved with a lipid ratio of 9:1, and the amount of plain drug entering the bilayer was 1/10 th the amount of lipid employed. Double loading increased this value to one part of drug per five parts of lipid when Quercetin-beta-CD (1:1 mol/mol was entrapped. The release of Quercetin from liposomes was highest when the drug was entrapped in the form of a complex with beta cylodextrin. The high entrapment ability of Quercetin in the form of plain drug as well as beta cylodextrin-Quercetin complexes in comparison with plain drug is an indubitable advantage of this approach.

  13. Study on Preparation and Application of Ti/Si Complex Zeolite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Baoji; Wang Xieqing

    2003-01-01

    A Ti/Si complex zeolite has been prepared. X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrometry study has shown that two structures, namely the ZSM-5 and MCM-41, exist in the sample. BET tests have revealed that the complex zeolite contains regular mesopores of 2.6 nm. Ultraviolet spectrometry analysis has shown that the Ti species exist in the zeolite skeleton in the form of tetra-coordinate valence. The Ti/Si complex zeolite (TS-1/Ti-MCM-41) has apparently improved catalytic activity with respect to the macromolecular organic compound oxidation as compared to individual components of either Ti or Si containing zeolites (TS- 1 and Ti-MCM-41).

  14. Preparation and Catalytic Properties of Polymer-Bound Schiff Base Ternary Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Cheng-jun; WANG Rong-min; HE Yu-feng; WANG Yun-pu; XIA Chun-gu

    2004-01-01

    The polymer-bound Schiff base ternary manganese complexes [PS-SalPhe-Mn-L (L = Phen, Bipy and 8HQ)-] have been prepared from the polymer-bound Schiff base ligand, a manganese salt and the second ligand, such as 1,10-phenanthroline(phen), 2,2′-bipyridyl(bipy) and 8-quinolinol(8HQ). The polymer-bound Schiff base ternary manganese complexes were characterized by means of infrared spectrometry and ICPAES. The catalytic activities of the complexes have been studied in the aerobic epoxidation of long-chain linear a[iphatic olefins. It is shown that 1-octene or 1-decene can be directly oxidized by molecular oxygen when catalyzed by PS-SalPhe-Mn-L(L=Phen, Bipy and 8HQ), and 1,2-epoxy alkane can be afforded in these reactions.

  15. PREPARATION AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF POLYMERIC COMPLEXES CONTAINING 1,10-PHENANTHROLINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-jiang Jiang; Wei-lin Sun; Ren-hua Zheng

    2006-01-01

    A series of polymeric complexes were prepared from Fe2+, Co2+ or Ni2+ and poly(Schiff base) (DAPcIPA), which was obtained by polycondensation of 5,6-diamino-1,10-phenanthroline (DAP) with isophthalaldehyde (IPA). The structures of the polymer and the polymeric complexes were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR and elemental analysis. The magnetic behavior of these complexes was measured as a function of magnetic field strength (0-3.98 × 106 A/m) at 5 K and as a function of temperature (5-300 K) at a magnetic field strength of 2.39 × 106 A/m. Experimental results show that DAPcIPA-Ni2+, DAPcIPA-Co2+ are soft ferromagnets while DAPcIPA-Fe2+ exhibits features of an antiferromagnet.

  16. Preparation and Antibacterial Activity of Inclusion Complex Sulfonatocalix[4]arene-Xanthone against Escherichia Coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaningsih, T.; Firdaus, M.; Suparjo, H. F.

    2017-02-01

    The preparation of inclusion complex sulfonatocalix[4]arene (SC[4]A) with xanthone and measurement of antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli have been performed. Analysis of the structure of inclusion complex between SC[4]A and xanthone was investigated by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H-NMR). The solubility of the product in water was examined. Surface area and porous determination were analyzed by Surface Area Analyzer (SAA). Antibacterial activity test was performed for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hours. The results showed that antibacterial activity of the complex of xanthone SC[4]An against Escherichia coli was higher than that of xanthone it self.

  17. Preparation and characterization of standardized pomegranate extract-phospholipid complex as an effective drug delivery tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amisha Kamlesh Vora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Punicalagins, a pair of anomeric ellagitannins, present in Punica granatum (Pomegranates are known to possess excellent antioxidant activity in vitro, but poor oral bioavailability. The reasons cited for poor bioavailability are their large molecular size, poor lipophilicity, and degradation by colonic microflora into less active metabolites. The objective of the present research work was to complex the standardized pomegranate extract (SPE with phospholipid to formulate standardized pomegranate extract-phospholipid complex (SPEPC, characterize it and check its permeability through an ex vivo everted gut sac experiment. SPEPC was prepared by mixing SPE (30% punicalagins and soya phosphatidylcholine (PC in 1:1 v/v mixture of methanol and dioxane and spray-drying the mixture. The complex was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. It was evaluated for its octanol solubility, dissolution, and permeability by everted the gut sac technique. The characterization methods confirmed the formation of complex. Increased n-octanol solubility of the complex proved its increased lipophilicity. Dissolution studies revealed that the phospholipid covering may prevent the punicalagins to be released in gastro-intestinal tract, thus preventing their colonic microbial degradation. SPEPC showed better apparent permeability than SPE in an everted gut sac technique. Hence, it could be concluded that phospholipid complex of SPE may be of potential use in increasing the permeability and hence the bioavailability of punicalagins.

  18. Preparation and properties of films cast from mixtures of poly(vinyl alcohol) and submicron particles prepared from amylose-palmitic acid inclusion complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanta, George F; Selling, Gordon W; Felker, Frederick C; Kenar, James A

    2015-05-05

    The use of starch in polymer composites for film production has been studied for increasing biodegradability, improving film properties and reducing cost. In this study, submicron particles were prepared from amylose-sodium palmitate complexes both by rapidly cooling jet-cooked starch-palmitic acid mixtures and by acidifying solutions of starch-sodium palmitate complexes. Films were cast containing poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) with up to 50% starch particles. Tensile strength decreased and Young's modulus increased with starch concentration, but percent elongations remained similar to controls regardless of preparation method or starch content. Microscopy showed particulate starch distribution in films made with rapidly cooled starch-palmitic acid particles but smooth, diffuse starch staining with acidified sodium palmitate complexes. The mild effects on tensile properties suggest that submicron starch particles prepared from amylose-palmitic acid complexes provide a useful, commercially viable approach for PVOH film modification.

  19. Preparation and characterization of tetrandrine-phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules as potential oral carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao YQ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yi-qing Zhao, Li-ping Wang, Chao Ma, Kun Zhao, Ying Liu, Nian-ping FengSchool of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Tetrandrine is an active constituent that is extracted from the root tuber of the Chinese herb Stephania tetrandra S. Moore. It has shown various pharmacological effects, such as antitumor activity, multidrug resistance reversal, and hepatic fibrosis resistance. In clinical applications, it has been used to treat hypertension, pneumosilicosis, and lung cancer. However, the poor water solubility of tetrandrine has limited its application. In this study, a newly emerging oral drug carrier of phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules was developed to improve the oral bioavailability of tetrandrine.Methods: The phospholipid complex was prepared with the solvent-evaporation method to enhance the liposolubility of tetrandrine. The formation of the phospholipid complex was confirmed with a solubility study, infrared spectroscopy, and a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis. The tetrandrine-phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules (TPC-LNCs were prepared using the phase inversion method. Lyophilization was performed with mannitol (10% as a cryoprotectant. TPC-LNCs were characterized according to their particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, morphology by transmission electron microscopy, and crystallinity by DSC. In addition, the in vitro release of tetrandrine from TPC-LNCs was examined to potentially illustrate the in vivo release behavior. The in vivo bioavailability of TPC-LNCs was studied and compared to tetrandrine tablets in rats.Results: The liposolubility of tetrandrine in n-octanol improved from 8.34 µg/mL to 35.64 µg/mL in the tetrandrine-phospholipid complex. The prepared TPC-LNCs were spherical-shaped particles with a small size of 40 nm and a high encapsulation efficiency of 93.9%. DSC measurements revealed

  20. Contribution of biomineralization during growth of polymetallic nodules and ferromanganese crusts from the Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-hong WANG; Lu GAN; Werner E.G.M(U)LLER

    2009-01-01

    The ocean hosts inorganic raw materials to a magnitude,which surpasses the resources of these materials available on land Those mineral resources include industrial minerals,metalliferous oxides,hydro-thermal metalliferous sulfides and dissolved minerals Hence,a significant source of minerals for sustainable recovery in the future may be ocean waters. Among of those mineral resources,there are two kinds of very important minerals which ale consolidated on the seabeds of ocean basins in polymetallic nodules and on the surface of seamounts in polymetallic crusts. Until now,the(bio)chemical processes that result in the formation of metal deposits in the form of nodules or crusts are not understood. In the present review,we concentrate on the (potential)biogenic origin of nodule and crust formation We studied polymetallic/ferromanganese nodules that had been collected from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the Eastem Pacific Ocean,by high-resoludon scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) to search for microorganisms.The nodules are made up of small-sized micronodules,100 to 450 um in size,which are bound/glued together by an interstitial whitish material. In these micronodules,dense accumulations of microorganisms/bacteria can be visualized that display only two morphotypes:(I)round-shaped cocci and (ii) elongated rods. The microorganisms are decorated on their surfaces with Slayers,which are indicative for bacteria. Moreover,the data suggestthatthese S-layers are the crystallization seeds for the mineralization process. We conclude that the mineral material of the nodule has a biogenic origin and propose consequently tlle vlew that mineralization in nodules is caused by biologically controlled mineralization processesIn a second series of investigations,first evidence fur a biogenic origin of ferromanganese crusts formation is given Crusts were obtained from the Magellan seamounts and analyzed for their chemical composition using the EDX technique. Again,special emphasis

  1. Polycaprolactone/Amino-β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex Prepared by an Electrospinning Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Moyers-Montoya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun scaffolds of neat poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL, poly-ε-caprolactone/β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex (PCL/β-CD and poly-ε-caprolactone amino derivative inclusion complex (PCL/β-CD-NH2 were prepared by the electrospinning technique. The obtained mats were analyzed by a theoretical model using the Hartree–Fock method with an STO-3G basis set, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, confocal-Raman spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR and contact angle measure (CA. Different mixtures of solvents, such as dimethylformamide (DMF-tetrahydrofuran (THF, dichlormethane (DCM-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol (TFE, were tested in the fiber preparation. The results indicate that electrospun nanofibers have a pseudorotaxane structure and when it was prepared using a 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol (TFE as solvent, the nanofibers were electrospun well and, with the other solvents, fibers present defects such as molten fibers and bead-like defects into the fiber structure. This work provides insights into the design of PCL/β-CD-NH2 based scaffolds that could have applications in the biomedical field.

  2. Characteristics of the Distribution and Control Factors of Polymetallic Nodules in the West Region of CCFZ (China Pioneer Area)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuWenzheng

    2004-01-01

    The tectonic setting of the west region of the Reserved Area of the International Seabed Authority is the same as that of China Pioneer Area. They have similar characteristics of topography and nodule distribution. To research and analyse the characteristics and control factors of nodule distribution can help the establishment of a geological model and the assessment of the polymetallic nodule resource. From the year of 1991 till 2000 COMRA (China Ocean Mineral Resource Research and Development Association) carried out phase 1 and 2 of the exploration and resource assessment project of polymetallic nodules in China Pioneer Area. The features of topography and geology, and the distribution of polymetallic nodules and control factors have been clearly understood. The results show that the formation and types and spatial features of abundance and grade of nodules resulted from several factors, the tectonic features (volcanism and faulting)and seafloor topography play an important role in the geological process of the formation of polymetallic nodules.

  3. Application of a Dual-Arm Robot in Complex Sample Preparation and Measurement Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Heidi; Drews, Robert Ralf; Janson, Jessica; Chinna Patlolla, Bharath Reddy; Chu, Xianghua; Klos, Michael; Thurow, Kerstin

    2016-10-01

    Automation systems with applied robotics have already been established in industrial applications for many years. In the field of life sciences, a comparable high level of automation can be found in the areas of bioscreening and high-throughput screening. Strong deficits still exist in the development of flexible and universal fully automated systems in the field of analytical measurement. Reasons are the heterogeneous processes with complex structures, which include sample preparation and transport, analytical measurements using complex sensor systems, and suitable data analysis and evaluation. Furthermore, the use of nonstandard sample vessels with various shapes and volumes results in an increased complexity. The direct use of existing automation solutions from bioscreening applications is not possible. A flexible automation system for sample preparation, analysis, and data evaluation is presented in this article. It is applied for the determination of cholesterol in biliary endoprosthesis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A dual-arm robot performs both transport and active manipulation tasks to ensure human-like operation. This general robotic concept also enables the use of manual laboratory devices and equipment and is thus suitable in areas with a high standardization grade.

  4. Complex rare-earth aluminum hydrides: mechanochemical preparation, crystal structure and potential for hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenthaler, Claudia; Pommerin, André; Felderhoff, Michael; Sun, Wenhao; Wolverton, Christopher; Bogdanović, Borislav; Schüth, Ferdi

    2009-11-25

    A novel type of complex rare-earth aluminum hydride was prepared by mechanochemical preparation. The crystal structure of the REAlH(6) (with RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd) compounds was calculated by DFT methods and confirmed by preliminary structure refinements. The trigonal crystal structure consists of isolated [AlH(6)](3-) octahedra bridged via [12] coordinated RE cations. The investigation of the rare-earth aluminum hydrides during thermolysis shows a decrease of thermal stability with increasing atomic number of the RE element. Rare-earth hydrides (REH(x)) are formed as primary dehydrogenation products; the final products are RE-aluminum alloys. The calculated decomposition enthalpies of the rare-earth aluminum hydrides are at the lower end for reversible hydrogenation under moderate conditions. Even though these materials may require somewhat higher pressures and/or lower temperatures for rehydrogenation, they are interesting examples of low-temperature metal hydrides for which reversibility might be reached.

  5. Preparation and characterization of controlled release matrices based on novel seaweed interpolyelectrolyte complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Héctor J; Matulewicz, María C; Bonelli, Pablo R; Cukierman, Ana L

    2012-06-15

    Novel interpolyelectrolyte complexes (IPECs) between naturally sulfated polysaccharides of the seaweed Polysiphonia nigrescens (PN) and cationized agaroses (CAG) and Eudragit E (EE) were prepared using an organic solvent free process, characterized, and explored for controlled drug release. Tablets containing model drug ibuprofen and IPECs were prepared by direct compression. Drug release in acid medium was low owing to the low solubility of ibuprofen in that condition and to the matrix action. Zero order drug release was determined in the buffer stage (pH=6.8), with Fickian diffusion predominating over relaxation during the initial phases. Relaxation appears to increase along the release process and even overcomes diffusion for some systems. Drug release profiles could be controlled by varying the content of IPECs in the tablets. Also, the change in molecular weight and the degree of substitution of the components allowed altering the release profiles.

  6. Preparation and antimicrobial evaluation of polyion complex (PIC) nanoparticles loaded with polymyxin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insua, Ignacio; Majok, Sieta; Peacock, Anna F A; Krachler, Anne Marie; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco

    2017-02-01

    Here, we describe novel polyion complex (PIC) particles for the delivery of Polymyxin B (Pol-B), an antimicrobial peptide currently used in the clinic as a last resort antibiotic against multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria. A range of conditions for the controlled assembly of Pol-B with poly(styrene sulphonate) (PSS) has been identified which let us prepare stable colloidal PIC particles. This way, PIC particles containing different Pol-B:PSS ratios have been prepared and their stability under simulated physiological conditions (i.e. pH, osmotic pressure and temperature) characterised. Furthermore, preliminary evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of these Pol-B containing PIC particles has been performed, by monitoring their effect on the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic gram-negative bacterium.

  7. Preparation and Properties of Cellutose-Alginic Acid Interpolymeric Complex Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Hua HE; Mei-Yu HUANG; Ying-Yan JIANG

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction General synthetic polymers such as polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene etc. have been produced and used in large quantities. They are very cheap, but their wastes are difficult to decompose in nature so to cause environmental pollution . In order to overcome such disadvantage, various kinds of biodegradable synthetic polymers such as polyactic acid, aliphatic polyester, polyvinyl alcohol complexes etc. have been researched[1]. However, they are expensive, so cannot be manufactured on large scale. Biopolymers such as starch and cellulose have been used as raw materials to prepare biodegradable polymer materials[1,2]. Starch derivatives and starch containing materials have been prepared to obtain relatively cheap biodegradable polymer materials, but their water proofness is not so good[2].

  8. Geochemical Characteristics of Rare Earth Elements in Gejiu Tin Polymetallic Deposits,Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾润幸; 方维萱; 赫英; 高振敏; 李红阳

    2004-01-01

    In order to get a better understanding of metallogeny,the geochemical characteristics of REE and trace element for Gejiu tin polymetallic deposits were studied by comparing concentrations of REE and trace elements in different type ores and rocks,including skarn-type ore,bedded-type ore,vein-type ore,altered granite,country rocks. Results of this study indicated that the metallogenic matters for different type ores in the study area might be derived from the same origin source,which may be mainly related to granitic activities. Furthermore,there are some differences in concentrations of REE in different ores due to their different depositional mechanism during that time. LREE concentrations were enriched relatively in the vein-type ores and the bedded-type ores with relatively low total REE concentrations,whereas total REE concentrations were higher in the skarn-type ores with LREE and HREE concentrations in wide variation ranges.

  9. Non-destructive γ spectrum analysis of polymetallic nodules from the eastern Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广山; 黄奕普; 蔡毅华; 陈敏

    2002-01-01

    -- Non-destructive γ spectrum analyses of 20 polymetallic nodules from the eastern Pacific were carried out. Numerous nuclides, such as 238 U, 230 Th, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 235 U, 227 Ac ( or 231pa) and 40K were detected. The count rates of the nuclides in the top or bottom side of nodules facing detector were measured and the ratio R of the count rates of nuclides in the top and the bottom sides was obtained. From counts and ratios, some useful information relating to the growth and movement of the nodules, the source of nuclide and relationship between those and environment can be gotten. A new method for clear distinction between the top and bottom sides of the nodule based on the R value of 226Ra or 210pb was developed. In addition, one can infer the turnover of nodules according to the R value of 230Th.

  10. Roasting of a sulfide polymetallic concentrate in a fluidized bed furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinova, Yu. A.; Popov, V. A.; Portov, A. B.; Tsemekhman, L. Sh.

    2014-05-01

    Three series of experiments on oxidizing roasting of sulfide polymetallic concentrates in a laboratory fluidized bed furnace are performed to develop an economically efficient technology of processing the sulfide polymetallic ore concentrate of the Artem'evsk deposit (Kazakhstan). The composition of the initial concentrate and the products of its oxidizing roasting are studied. The mineral composition of the concentrate is determined, and it demonstrates that this material tends toward intense spinel formation under oxidizing roasting conditions. The main structural constituents of the cinder are found to be sulfate-spinel conglomerates and oxide and sulfide particles. The possible ways of formation of these constituents are discussed using the obtained experimental data, the existing theoretical concepts, and the results of thermodynamic analysis. The calculations are performed using the FactSage software package and database. The formation of oxide and spinel components are found to be caused by both direct oxidation of sulfide minerals (primary processes) and the interaction of primary products with sulfuric anhydride and each other (secondary processes). In turn, all sulfates in the cinder are the products of secondary processes, and primary sulfate formation does not take place in roasting under the chosen conditions. Spinels cannot be completely removed from the cinder using their sulfation because of predominant consumption of sulfuric anhydride for interaction with oxide components. The optimum roasting conditions that ensure the formation of the best cinder for subsequent hydrometallurgical processing are chosen on the basis of the obtained data. The degree of extraction of nonferrous metals achieved upon leaching of the cinder is 94-96 wt %.

  11. Geochemical hunting of lithogenic and anthropogenic impacts on polymetallic distribution (Bregalnica river basin, Republic of Macedonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Biljana; Stafilov, Trajče; Šajn, Robert; Tănăselia, Claudiu

    2016-11-09

    The main subject of this investigation was the assessment of the lithogenic and anthropogenic distribution of 69 elements in the sediments and fluvisol in the Bregalnica river basin. Alluvial soil and fluvisol samples were collected from the total of eighteen locations along the course of the Bregalnica river and additional thirteen samples were collected from its tributaries. The matrix elements accumulation patterns followed the order: Fe > Na > Al > Ca > Mg > K > Ti > P. The potentially toxic elements, such as As, Cd, Pb, and Zn, have enriched content in the sediments in the medium course of the river, where the main anthropogenic introduction activities occurred. By multivariate analysis the dominant geochemical associations were extracted, as follows: F1: Y-Eu-Lu-Cr-V-La-Gd-Nb-Co-Hf-Zr-Ga-Mg-Fe-Sr-Ta-Sn-Li-Na-Rb-Ni-Ge-Be-Cs; F2: As-W-Ba-Ag-Cu-Tl-Zn-Sb-Mo-In-Cd-Te-Bi-Pb and F3: I-Sc-Br-K. Lead and zinc contents were strongly correlated with the hydrothermal exploitations, especially in the area of Neogene clastite and vulcanite. These elements occur as dominant geochemical markers of the anthropogenic impacts of polymetallic enrichments due to the hydrothermal ore exploitation (Factor 2). The impact of Oligocene volcanism (Kratovo-Zletovo region) was observed in the lithological enrichments of Pb, Zn, Cu, As, Sb, Mo and Bi. Despite the natural distribution along the course of the Bregalnica river, an exceptional anomaly in the iron distribution of the old polymetallic unused mineralization was detected in Zone 1 (Berovo region).

  12. New process for preparing complex-shaped dielectric film similar to Mylar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, R. R.; Kraynik, A. M.

    1982-02-01

    A new thermoforming/heat-treatment process yields complex-shaped dielectric film having electrical and shrinkage properties similar to those of flat Mylar film. This similarity should extend to other physical properties because the new process is directly analogous to the process used to prepare Mylar. Commercially available poly(ethylene terephthalate) film is formed into a cavity at approx. 110 C and then heat treated at approx. 180 C. A laboratory-scale forming apparatus has produced cylindrically shaped films having depth/diameter ratio approx. 1, a tapered wall-section, and variation in wall thickness of 3X. Evaluation of other forming methods suggest that the production rate and thickness uniformity can be improved with existing technology. Thermal shrinkage at 150 C, 1 kHz dielectric constant from -55 to +70 C, leakage current at 1 kV, and breakdown voltage have been measured for both the complex-shaped film and Mylar.

  13. A novel method for preparation of 8-hydroxyquinoline functionalized mesoporous silica: Aluminum complexes and photoluminescence studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiei, Alireza; Goldooz, Hassan; Ziarani, Ghodsi Mohammadi

    2011-03-01

    8-Hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) was attached to mesoporous silica by sulfonamide bond formation between 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonyl chloride (8-HQ-SO 2Cl) and aminopropyl functionalized SBA-15 (designated as SBA-SPS-Q) and then aluminum complexes of 8-HQ was covalently bonded to SBA-SPS-Q using coordinating ability of grafted 8-HQ.The prepared materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), elemental analysis and fluorescence spectra. The environmental effects on the emission spectra of grafted 8-HQ and its complexes were studied and discussed in details.

  14. Preparation, Characterization and Luminescent Properties of MCM-41 Type Materials Impregnated with Rare Earth Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid materials incorporating Eu-(TTA)3.2H2O(hereafter designated as Eu-TTA, with TTA:thenoyltrifluoroacetone)in unmodified or modified MCM-41 by 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES)were prepared by impregnation method.The obtained materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction(XRD),IR and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and luminescence spectra.All the hybrid samples exhibited the characteristic emission bands of Eu3+ under UV light excitation at room temperature, and the excitation spectra showed significant blue-shifts compared to the pure rare-earth complex. Although the red emission intensity in the modified hybrid was almost the half of the red emission intensity in the pure Eu-TTA complex at room temperature,the hybrid showed a much higher thermal stability due to the shielding character of the MCM-41host.

  15. Preparation and fluorescent properties of a complex probe based on inorganic QDs and organic dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei Xuening, E-mail: xueningfei@126.co [Department of Material Science and Engineering, TianJin Institute of Urban Construction, No. 26, Jinjing Road, Tianjin 300384 (China) and School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, TianJin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Gu Yingchun [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, TianJin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Department of Material Science and Engineering, TianJin Institute of Urban Construction, No. 26, Jinjing Road, Tianjin 300384 (China); Wang Jun; Jia Guozhi; Liu Zhijun [Department of Material Science and Engineering, TianJin Institute of Urban Construction, No. 26, Jinjing Road, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2011-02-15

    A novel complex fluorescent probe based on quantum dots and organic dye (QDs-TO) was designed and prepared by incorporating a benzothiazole derivative into QDs-1-(3-amidepropyl)-4-methylquinoline. The complex probe was characterized by FT-IR and TG/DTA. The emission wavelength of QDs-1-(3-amidepropyl)-4-methylquinoline was found at 475 nm and a new peak corresponding to QDs-TO appeared at 550 nm, indicating that benzothiazole derivative can react with QDs-1-(3-amidepropyl)-4-methylquinoline to afford QDs-TO. Furthermore, the emission wavelength of QDs shifted blue while the characteristic peak of TO shifted red during the reaction. This suggests that the probe may be useful for biological labeling in offering an efficient method to study the interrelation between quantum dots and organic dyes.

  16. Examining Rhodium Catalyst complexes for Use with Conducting Polymers Designed for Fuel Cells in Preparing Biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpio, M.M.; Kerr, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Biosensing devices are important because they can detect, record, and transmit information regarding the presence of, or physiological changes in, different chemical or biological materials in the environment. The goal of this research is to prepare a biosensing device that is effective, quick, and low cost. This is done by examining which chemicals will work best when placed in a biosensor. The first study involved experimenting on a rhodium catalyst complexed with ligands such as bipyridine and imidazole. The rhodium catalyst is important because it is reduced from RhIII to RhI, forms a hydride by reaction with water and releases the hydride to react with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to selectively produce 1,4-NADH, the reduced form of NAD+. The second study looked at different types of ketones and enzymes for the enzyme-substrate reaction converting a ketone into an alcohol. Preliminary results showed that the rhodium complexed with bipyridine was able to carry out all the reactions, while the rhodium complexed with imidazole was not able to produce and release hydrides. In addition, the most effective ketone to use is benzylacetone with the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase from baker’s yeast. Future work includes experimenting with bis-imidazole, which mimics the structure of bipyridine to see if it has the capability to reduce and if the reduction rate is comparable to the bipyridine complex. Once all testing is completed, the fastest catalysts will be combined with polymer membranes designed for fuel cells to prepare biosensing devices that can be used in a variety of applications including ones in the medical and environmental fields.

  17. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  18. New process for preparing complex-shaped dielectric film similar to Mylar. [Polyethylene terephthalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, R.R.; Kraynik, A.M.

    1982-02-01

    A new thermoforming/heat-treatment process yields complex-shaped dielectric film having electrical and shrinkage properties similar to those of flat Mylar film. This similarity should extend to other physical properties because the new process is directly analogous to the process used to prepare Mylar. Commercially available poly(ethylene terephthalate) film is formed into a cavity at approx. 110/sup 0/C and then heat treated at approx. 180/sup 0/C. A laboratory-scale forming apparatus has produced cylindrically shaped films having depth/diameter ratio approx. 1, a tapered wall-section, and variation in wall thickness of < 3X. Evaluation of other forming methods suggests that the production rate and thickness uniformity can be improved with existing technology. Thermal shrinkage at 150/sup 0/C, 1 kHz dielectric constant from -55 to +70/sup 0/C, leakage current at 1 kV, and breakdown voltage have been measured for both the complex-shaped film and Mylar. These comparative measurements indicate that the complex-shaped film could replace the flat Mylar dielectric currently used in energy-storage capacitors. A complex-shaped energy-storage capacitor could enhance safety in certain nuclear weapon applications by allowing strong-link devices in a firing set to be enclosed by a weak link.

  19. Complexation of chitosan with surfactant like ionic liquids: molecular interactions and preparation of chitosan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharmoria, Pankaj; Singh, Tejwant; Kumar, Arvind

    2013-10-01

    Interactions and behavior of chitosan (Ch) with surface active ionic liquids (ILs)- 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octylsulfate, [C4mim][C8OSO3] or 3-methyl-1-octylimidazolium chloride, [C8mim][Cl]-have been probed at the air solution interface and in the bulk in aqueous media at pH 3.0 using a multi-technique approach, viz. tensiometry, conductometry, turbidimetry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). At the interface, a strong complexation is observed in Ch-[C4mim][C8OSO3] system. Bulk [C4mim][C8OSO3] interacts with Ch to form Ch-[C4mim][C8OSO3] complexes which precipitate out at higher IL concentrations, whereas comparatively weaker Ch-[C8mim][Cl] complexes remain solubilized in the solution. DLS measurements showed that the Ch chains contract before the cmc and expands after the cmc upon interaction with both the ILs. Interaction of ILs with Ch resulted in facile preparation of uniformly distributed Ch nanoparticles with good sphericity and control which have been verified using DLS, SEM, AFM, and fluorescence microscopy. The present study provides an understanding of forces governing the complexation behavior of Ch with surface active ILs and their efficacy to produce Ch nanoparticles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Preparation and characterization of aqueous dispersions of high amylose starch and conjugated linoleic acid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Tae-Rang; Kim, Hee-Young; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2016-11-15

    Crystalline starch-CLA complexes were prepared by blending an alcoholic solution of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in an aqueous high-amylose maize starch dispersion. Recovery yield of CLA in the precipitates obtained by centrifuging the dispersion was dependent on reaction conditions such as temperature, time and pH. The CLA recovery reached a maximum when the reaction was performed at 90°C for 6h at neutral pH, with 67.7% of the initial CLA being co-precipitated with starch. The precipitates contained amylose-CLA complex exhibiting a V6I-type crystalline structure under X-ray diffraction analysis and a type II polymorph under DSC analysis. Ultrasonic treatment for the re-dispersed starch-CLA complex in water resulted in the reduction of hydrodynamic diameter of the complex particles to 201.5nm. The dispersion exhibited a zeta potential of -27.0mV and remained stable in an ambient storage without forming precipitates for more than 4weeks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nanocrystalline magnesium ferrite prepared for photocatalytic applications by using the polymerized complex method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dom, Rekha; Borse, Pramod H.; Hong, Kyong-Soo; Choi, Seyong; Lee, Byeong Seob; Ha, Myoung Gyu; Kim, Jong Pil; Jeong, Euh Duck; Kim, Hyun Gyu

    2015-11-01

    Magnesium ferrite (MgFe2O4) exhibiting a spinel phase was synthesized by using the polymerized complex and the solid-state reaction methods, and its physico-chemical properties were studied to explore the water-splitting under visible light photons. The study revealed the potential for using MgFe2O4 particles for photo-catalytic application. The structural study provided information on ferrite nano-crystallites fabricated by using the polymer complex method. The morphological studies demonstrated that, in contrast to the solid-state reaction method, a homogenous, monodispersed ferrite photocatalyst could be formed by using the polymerized complex method. The optical study revealed a larger visible-light absorption capability for the nanosized MgFe2O4 photocatalysts prepared by using the polymer complex methods, and indicated a red-shift of the bandgap by 0.06 eV as compared to the bandgap of the bulk. These nanocrystallites were highly photoactive with respect to the photodegradation and photocatalytic hydrogen evolution applications. The electrochemical analysis showed that they exhibited favorable bandedge positions suitable for photocatalytic H2 evolution. Thus, nanocrystalline MgFe2O4 is an active visible-light photocatalyst, that might be useful for the decomposition of water.

  2. Poly(vinyl alcohol) composite films with high percent elongation prepared from amylose-fatty ammonium salt inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylose inclusion complexes prepared from cationic fatty ammonium salts and jet-cooked high amylose starch were combined with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) to form glycerol-plasticized films. Their tensile properties were compared with similar films prepared previously with analogous anionic fatty acid...

  3. Iodine-125 Chitosan-Vitamin C complex. Preparation, characterization and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbarbary, Ahmed M. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt). Polymer Chemistry Dept.; Shafik, H.M.; Ebeid, N.H.; Ayoub, S.M. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Lab. Center; Othman, Sameh H. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Research Center

    2015-07-01

    In heterogeneous conditions, water soluble Chitosan-Vitamin C Complex (CSVC) is successfully synthesized via the ionic interaction between γ-degraded CS and VC. Chitosan (CS) of low molecular weight (MW) is prepared using γ-irradiation method. The coupling of CS and vitamin C (VC) is carried out by the chemical treatment of VC with the γ-degraded CS. The formation of CSVC complex instead of physical mixture is confirmed by FT-IR and UV spectrometry. Characterization by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) shows the formation of a nanostructure in 40 nm range. The preparation of labeled CSVC was performed using chloramines-T oxidation method. The labeling feasibility of CSVC nanostructure by Iodine-125 ({sup 125}I) is investigated. The optimized conditions of labeling are thought to be 50 μg of oxidizing agent, pH 3, and one minute reaction time. The Biodistribution activity of {sup 125}I radiolabeled CSVC nanostructure ({sup 125}I-CSVC) is examined on a group of different ascites tumor bearing mice. Calculation of the biodistribution percentages shows that the tumor, liver, and kidney are the targeting organs of {sup 125}I-CSVC nanostructure.

  4. Preparation and study of conductivity in lithium salt complexes of mixed MEEP : PEO polymer electrolytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Saibaba; D Srikanth; A Ramachandra Reddy

    2004-02-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide)–LiX complexes and poly[bis(methoxy ethoxy ethoxide) phosphazene]–LiX complexes of polymer thin films were prepared. Conductivity measurements were carried out and the values were found to lie between 10-8 and 1.7 × 10-5 (S/cm). MEEP : LiX salts showed higher conductivity than PEO–LiX salts despite lower dimensional stability. For enhancing stability and conductivity, MEEP–PEO : (LiX) systems were prepared and conductivity measurements carried out. Further the MEEP/PEO : (LiX) was doped with Al2O3 and TiO2 nanocomposite ceramic fillers and the conductivity was studied. The conductivity vs temperature plots showed the enhancement of conductivity with TiO2 added nanocomposite ceramic fillers. The enhanced conductivity is explained on the basis of the effect of local structural modification-promoting localized amorphous region-for enhancement of the Li+ ion transport.

  5. Redistribution of mineral elements in wheat grain when applying the complex enzyme preparations based on phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kuznetsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic minerals play an important role in the whole human nutrition, but they are included in the grain of the phytates that reduces their bioavailability. Whole wheat bread is generally considered a healthy food, but the presence of mineral elements in it is insignificant, because of weak phytate degradation. From all sources of exogenous phytase the most productive are microscopic fungi. To accelerate the process of transition hard mineral elements are mobilized to implement integrated cellulolytic enzyme preparation based on the actions of phytase (producer is Penicillium canescens. Phytase activity was assessed indirectly by the rate of release of phosphate from the substrate. It has been established that the release rate of the phosphoric acid substrate is dependent on the composition of the drug and the enzyme complex is determined by the presence of xylanase. The presented experimental data shows that a cellulase treatment of the grain in conjunction with the β-glucanase or xylanase leading to an increase in phytase activity could be 1.4 - 2.3 times as compared with the individual enzymes. As a result of concerted action of enzymes complex preparation varies topography grain, increase the pore sizes in seed and fruit shells that facilitate the penetration of the enzyme phytase in the aleurone layer to the site of phytin hydrolysis and leads to an increase in phytase activity. In terms of rational parameters of enzymatic hydrolysis, the distribution of mineral elements in the anatomical parts of the grain after processing complex enzyme preparation with the help of X-ray detector EMF miniCup system in a scanning electron microscope JEOL JSM 6390 were investigated. When processing enzyme preparation wheat trend in the distribution of mineral elements, characteristic of grain - the proportion of these elements in the aleurone layer decreases, and in the endosperm increases. Because dietary fiber and phytate found together in the

  6. Modeling the Thermal Rocket Fuel Preparation Processes in the Launch Complex Fueling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zolin

    2015-01-01

    hydrocarbon fuel returning to the storage tank.Mathematical models of cooling and heating processes are built on the assumption that the heat exchange process of storage and environment is quasistationary.The paper presents relationships for determining the relative masses of nitrogen and time to perform the operation of cooling fuel from the initial to the desired final temperature as well as relationships to define the time of heating operation for a given capacity of the heat exchanger-heater and the pump station fueling system.The results of calculations of the relative liquid nitrogen costs during cooling of hydrocarbon gases depending on the mass flow rate of nitrogen in the cooling fuel system are shown in comparison with experimental data and numerical calculations. The maximum error of analytical calculation results and experimental values of the relative cost of liquid nitrogen does not exceed 4.5% and the error in determining the time required for operations of temperature preparation does not exceed 5%.Analytical relationships and results of calculations obtained on their basis are adequate and in compliance with experimental results, in accuracy are on a par with results of numerical calculations and, as compared to numerical solution, greatly simplify a procedure of implemented design calculations of fuel temperature preparation processes. Using these relationships allows to analyze the effectiveness of the operations of heating and cooling hydrocarbon fuel depending on the design parameters of the storage capacity, its thermal insulation, mass of fuel, thermal power of the heating devices, flow of nitrogen, as well as to determine the required mass of liquid nitrogen and the operation parameters of cooling (heating fuel for filling systems of launch complexes for different values of the environmental parameters, the initial and desired final temperaturesof the fuel.

  7. Guangzhou Chemical Industry%Preparation and Evaluation of Salvianolic Acid B Phospholipid Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑾; 朱美娟; 周凯; 王倩倩; 杨曼; 潘梓衡

    2016-01-01

    探讨了丹酚酸B磷脂复合物的制备最佳工艺条件。以丹酚酸B与磷脂的复合率为评价指标,考察反应溶剂、反应温度、反应时间、初始浓度和投料比对复合率的影响,采用正交实验筛选出最佳制备工艺,并通过差示扫描量热法、红外光谱、透射电镜以及泡沫细胞渗透性实验验证磷脂复合物形态及性质。确定丹酚酸B磷脂复合物制备的最佳工艺为:反应溶剂为四氢呋喃,反应温度40℃,反应时间3 h,丹酚酸B反应浓度为25 mg·mL-1,丹酚酸B与磷脂投料比为1:1,差示扫描量热法、红外光谱、透射电镜以及泡沫细胞渗透性等实验均证实了磷脂复合物的形成和优良特性。成功制备了丹酚酸B磷脂复合物,复合率可达99.5%。%To research the optimal conditions for preparing the SalB phospholipid complex, the formulation factors such as solvent, reactive temperature, reactive time, concentration of reactants and the ratio of reactants on this reaction were investigated and the prescription composition was screened out by orthogonal design. The morphologyand property of the phospholipid complex were verified by DSC, IR, TEMand form cell permeability experiment. The best conditions for preparing the SalB phospholipid complex were obtained as follows: the solvent was THF, the reactive temperature was 40 ℃, the reactive time was 3 h, the concentration of SalB was 25 mg·mL-1 and the ratio of SalB to phospholipid was 1:1. The recombination rate of SalB phospholipid complex were more than 99. 5%, and the quality of the SalB phospholipid complex was well.

  8. Pickering Emulsion Gels Prepared by Hydrogen-Bonded Zein/Tannic Acid Complex Colloidal Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan; Guo, Jian; Yin, Shou-Wei; Wang, Jin-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2015-08-26

    Food-grade colloidal particles and complexes, which are formed via modulation of the noncovalent interactions between macromolecules and natural small molecules, can be developed as novel functional ingredients in a safe and sustainable way. For this study was prepared a novel zein/tannic acid (TA) complex colloidal particle (ZTP) based on the hydrogen-bonding interaction between zein and TA in aqueous ethanol solution by using a simple antisolvent approach. Pickering emulsion gels with high oil volume fraction (φ(oil) > 50%) were successfully fabricated via one-step homogenization. Circular dichroism (CD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements, which were used to characterize the structure of zein/TA complexes in ethanol solution, clearly showed that TA binding generated a conformational change of zein without altering their supramolecular structure at pH 5.0 and intermediate TA concentrations. Consequently, the resultant ZTP had tuned near neutral wettability (θ(ow) ∼ 86°) and enhanced interfacial reactivity, but without significantly decreased surface charge. These allowed the ZTP to stabilize the oil droplets and further triggered cross-linking to form a continuous network among and around the oil droplets and protein particles, leading to the formation of stable Pickering emulsion gels. Layer-by-layer (LbL) interfacial architecture on the oil-water surface of the droplets was observed, which implied a possibility to fabricate hierarchical interface microstructure via modulation of the noncovalent interaction between hydrophobic protein and natural polyphenol.

  9. Preparation and evaluation of kaempferol-phospholipid complex for pharmacokinetics and bioavailability in SD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kexia; Gu, Liqiang; Chen, Jinpeng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Yu; Zhao, Longshan; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

    2015-10-10

    As one of the dietary flavonoids, kaempferol (KP) has been well known to show strong anti-oxidative effect along with other biological properties. However, the oral bioavailability of KP is relatively low due to its poor solubility. In this study, we intended to increase the solubility and bioavailability of KP by preparing kaempferol-phospholipid complex (KP-PC). The KP-PC's physicochemical properties were characterized in terms of infrared spectroscopy (IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), water/n-Octanol solubility and in vitro dissolution. KP-PC exhibited higher solubility and dissolution rate than KP, indicating a significant improvement in hydrophilicity. A UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of KP in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat plasma, so as to investigate the oral bioavailability of KP-PC versus KP. Results showed that Cmax and AUC(0-48 h) of KP from the complex (Cmax: 3.94 ± 0.83 μg/mL, AUC(0-48 h): 57.81 ± 9.43 mg/Lh) were higher than that of KP (Cmax: 1.43 ± 0.21 μg/mL, AUC(0-48 h): 13.65 ± 3.12 mg/Lh). This research indicated that phospholipid complex (PC) might be one of the suitable approachs to improve the oral bioavailability of KP and other poor-solubility flavonoids.

  10. Preparation and application of hydroxyapatite(HA) nanoparticles/NR2B-siRNA complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hui; HUANG Dong; ZHU Shai-hong; YAN Xue-bin; GU Yong-hong; YAN Hui; WU Li-xiang

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite(HA) nanoparticles were prepared by coprecipitation-hydrothermal synthesis and their exosyndrome was estimated via transmission electron microscopy. Agarose gel electrophoresis and ultraviolet spectrophotometry were used to evaluate the ability of HA to bind NR2B-siRNA at different pH values and at different HA-NR2B-siRNA ratios. And the stability of the complex in saline was also evaluated. The effect of HA/NR2B-siRNA complex on chronic inflammatory pain was evaluated in vivo in mice. Transmission electron microscopy(TEM) reveals that HA nanoparticles are thin strips or short rod in shape and the one-dimensional particle size of HA nanoparticles is 40-50 nm. Under the acid or neutral condition, the Zeta potential of HA is positive; nanoparticles can completely bind NR2B-siRNA when the HA:NR2B-siRNA ratio is at or larger than 35-1; while under the alkaline condition, the affinity of HA to NR2B-siRNA is rather weak. HA/NR2B-siRNA complex is not dissociated when being resuspended in saline. The nociception of the tonic phase induced by formalin is significantly reduced in the HA/NR2B-siRNA treated mice as compared with the controls. Therefore, HA may be a new siRNA nano-vector material.

  11. Catalytic property of TiO2/PS complex nanoparticles prepared via a novel TSM

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bitao Su; Xiaohong Zhang; Zhanying Ma; Peng Fei; Jiaxing Sun; Ziqiang Lei

    2010-12-01

    With an average size of 7 nm and good catalytic property under the natural light, TiO2/PS complex nanoparticles were successfully prepared through a novel two-step method (TSM) from TiCl4, used as both the catalyst for polymerization of styrene and Ti source, and styrene monomer and characterized by TG-DTA, XRD, IR, TEM and UV-Vis techniques. Its catalytic property was evaluated by the decolourization and degradation of dye MB solution under the natural light. From its TEM, the particles with an average size of 7 nm were observed without the separation of TiO2 and PS phases, i.e., TiO2/PS was hybrid material in nanosize scale. IR spectrum of TiO2/PS showed increase of unsaturated degree and growth of the group C=O on the chain of PS and Ti–O–C coordination bond between TiO2 and PS. The nanosize of the TiO2/PS complex particles and the conjugated structure and polar groups of PS were advantageous to good adsorptive property and strong interaction of PS and TiO2. And they brought multi-functions of inorganic and organic materials in the single material. Catalytic experiments indicated that the complex nanoparticles could catalytically degrade dye MB solution in 10 min under the natural light while P25 basically showed adsorptive property for MB molecules under the same conditions.

  12. Preparation of fine nickel powders via reduction of nickel hydrazine complex precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Guo-yong; XU Sheng-ming; XU Gang; LI Lin-yan; ZHANG Li-feng

    2009-01-01

    Fine nickel(Ni) powders with controllable particle sizes were synthesized via the reduction of nickel hydrazine complex precursors of pure [Ni(N2H4)2]Cl2 and a mixture of [Ni(N2H4)2]Cl2 and [Ni(N2H4)3]Cl2 in aqueous solution. The mechanism of the formation of metallic Ni powders experiences the reduction of nickel hydroxide by hydrazine released from the ligand exchange reaction between nickel hydrazine complex and NaOH. In comparison with the method of preparing Ni powders from nickel salts, the method of making Ni powders via the reduction of nickel hydrazine complex precursors shows the advantages of using half dosage of hydrazine for complete reduction of nickel ions in solution, and the obtained Ni particles show less agglomeration and better dispersibility. Moreover, the average particle size of nickel powders can be controlled from 180 to 260 nm by adjusting the reaction molar ratio and concentration.

  13. Preparation, Structure and Electrochemical Property of a Pyrazole-substituted Diiron Dithiolate Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ya-Nan; CHEN Rui-Ping; LI Zhi-Hua; DU Shao-Wu

    2012-01-01

    A pyrazole-substituted diiron dithiolate complex [Fez(p-pdt)(CO)5(3,5-Me2Pz)] (1, 3,5-MezPz = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole) was prepared as a biomimetic model for the active site of [FeFe]-hydrogenase by CO-substitution of aU-carbonyl complex [Fe2(μ-pdt)(CO)6] with 3,5-Me2Pz. The molecular structure was confirmed by MS, IR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis and single-crystal X-ray analysis. Complex 1 crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group PI with a = 9.108(7), b = 9.743(8), c = 11.192(9)A, a = 109.235(5), fl = 101.914(9), y = 96.605(6). In CH3CN solution, reversible transformation between 1 and the acetonitrile-substituted species [Fe2(p-pdt)- (CO)5(NCCH3)] was detected by both IR and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electrochemical proton reduction catalyzed by 1 in the presence of acetic acid was also studied in CH2C12.

  14. Preparation, characterization, and circularly polarized luminescence of lanthanum and europium 1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diyl phosphate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedziwiatr, Marta; Kosareff, Nicole M; Muller, Gilles; Koposov, Alexey Y; Nemykin, Victor N; Riehl, James P; Legendziewicz, Janina

    2008-02-28

    Solvated tris-complexes of (R)- and (S)-1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-dyil phosphate with lanthanum(III) and europium(III) centers were prepared and characterized by spectroscopic methods and elemental analysis. Circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) spectra for the optically active isomers of the europium complexes are also reported.

  15. Preparation and use of recombinant protein G-gold complexes as markers in double labelling immunocytochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Y; Hansen, Gert Helge

    1989-01-01

    Recombinant protein G (RPG) was conjugated to colloidal gold particles and used for immunocytochemistry. In this report, the preparation of RPG-gold conjugates (RPGG) and the application of these conjugates in spot blot tests and in double immunolabelling are described. The immunolabelling...... was performed on ultracryosections of pig small intestine using antibodies directed against aminopeptidase N and sucrase-isomaltase. The labelling efficiency of RPGG was compared to that of protein A-gold conjugates (PAG) in different compartments of the enterocyte. Quantification showed that the labelling...... intensity was dependent on the size of the marker as well as on the kind of protein used for complex formation. The distributions for RPGG and PAG were respectively: for the 12 nm particles, 10.3 and 6.2 particles/micron of length of microvillar membrane, 3.5 and 1.0 particles/micron2 of Golgi profile and 5...

  16. Facile preparation of methylcellulose/poly(vinyl alcohol) physical complex hydrogels with tunable thermosensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Nan Geng; Cong Ming Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Novel complex hydrogels of methylcellulose (MC) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with wide-spectrum thermoresponsivity were prepared via physical and mild process. Thermal phase transition of MC/PVA hydrogels exhibited two forms including sol/sol to gel/sol and sol/gel to gel/gel. The phase transition temperature of MC/PVA solution ranged from 38.7 to 60.6 ℃ and was able to be adjusted by simply changing the feeding ratios of two components. The interior morphology of MC/PVA gels was examined with fluorescence analysis and scanning electron microscopy analysis, which showed that MC was well dispersed in matrix before and after thermally gelling.

  17. Preparation of {0 1 0}-faceted anatase TiO2 nanocuboids from peroxotitanium complex solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yigao; Gao, Jiacheng

    2012-12-01

    {0 1 0}-faceted anatase TiO2 nanocuboids have been fabricated by hydrothermal route using peroxotitanium complex solution as precursor. The effects of reaction time, the amount of urea and temperature on the formation of {0 1 0}-faceted anatase TiO2 were characterized by XRD, FESEM and TEM. The growth mechanism of nanocuboids was proposed that the nanocuboids were formed by the transition from H2Ti2O5·H2O phase to anatase TiO2 in the basic condition. The photocatalytic performance of the prepared samples was tested in the degradation of Rhodamine B and the anatase nanocuboids exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with the standard P25 powders.

  18. Preparation of Carbon Nanotubes by the Catalysis of Polymer Metal Complex on Porous Al203 Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI YanLi; ZHANG XiaoGang; LI HuLin

    2001-01-01

    @@ At present, synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is normally conducted on a vapor-to-solid interface at ca. 500-3500℃ via various vapor phase methods, such as are discharge, laser ablation, catalytic pyrolysis and chemical vapor deposition, etc.1-2 Recently, channel materials (such as channels of alumina and of AlPO4-5 zeolite) 3 have been utilized as solid-state templates to grow CNTs inside the channel. Here we described a novel method to prepare the carbon nanotubes based on the decomposition of C2H2 gas on the Co-Ni catalyst anchored by polymer complex on the porous A12O3 matrix. The degree of graphitization of synthesized CNTs and catalysts are of great interest.

  19. Preparation of Carbon Nanotubes by the Catalysis of Polymer Metal Complex on Porous Al203 Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI; YanLi

    2001-01-01

    At present, synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is normally conducted on a vapor-to-solid interface at ca. 500-3500℃ via various vapor phase methods, such as are discharge, laser ablation, catalytic pyrolysis and chemical vapor deposition, etc.1-2 Recently, channel materials (such as channels of alumina and of AlPO4-5 zeolite) 3 have been utilized as solid-state templates to grow CNTs inside the channel. Here we described a novel method to prepare the carbon nanotubes based on the decomposition of C2H2 gas on the Co-Ni catalyst anchored by polymer complex on the porous A12O3 matrix. The degree of graphitization of synthesized CNTs and catalysts are of great interest.  ……

  20. Preparation and Biological Properties of Platinum(II Complex-Loaded Copolymer PLA-TPGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Phuong Thu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new nanodrug system containing bis(menthone thiosemicarbazonato Platinum(II complex (Pt-thiomen encapsulated with the block copolymers polylactide-d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PLA-TPGS was prepared by a modified solvent extraction/evaporation technique. The characteristics of the nanoparticles including surface morphology, size distribution, structure, and biological activities such as antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were in vitro investigated. The spherical nanoparticles were around 50 nm in size with core-shell structure and narrow-size distribution. The encapsulated Pt-thiomen can avoid interaction with proteins in the blood plasma. The inhibitory activity of Pt-thiomen-loaded PLA-TPGS nanoparticles on the growth of some bacteria, fungi, and Hep-G2 cells suggests a possibility of developing PLA-TPGS-Pt-thiomen nanoparticles as one of the potential chemotherapeutic agents.

  1. Preparation and evaluation of a radiogallium complex-conjugated bisphosphonate as a bone scintigraphy agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Kazuma, E-mail: kogawa@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Takai, Kenichiro; Kanbara, Hiroya; Kiwada, Tatsuto [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Kitamura, Yoji; Shiba, Kazuhiro [Advanced Science Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-8640 (Japan); Odani, Akira [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Introduction: {sup 68}Ga is a radionuclide of great interest as a positron emitter for positron emission tomography (PET). To develop a new bone-imaging agent with radiogallium, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) was chosen as a chelating site and Ga-DOTA complex-conjugated bisphosphonate, which has a high affinity for bone, was prepared and evaluated. Although we are interested in developing {sup 68}Ga-labeled bone imaging agents for PET, in these initial studies {sup 67}Ga was used because of its longer half-life. Methods: DOTA-conjugated bisphosphonate (DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP) was synthesized by conjugation of 2-(4-isothiocyanatebenzyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7, 10-tetraacetic acid to 4-amino-1-hydroxybutylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (alendronate). {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP was prepared by coordination with {sup 67}Ga, and its in vitro and in vivo evaluations were performed. Results: {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP was prepared with a radiochemical purity of over 95% without purification. {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP had great affinity for hydroxyapatite in binding assay. In biodistribution experiments, {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP accumulated in bone rapidly but was hardly observed in tissues other than bone. Pretreatment of an excess amount of alendronate inhibited the bone accumulation of {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP. Conclusions: {sup 67}Ga-DOTA-Bn-SCN-HBP showed ideal biodistribution characteristics as a bone-imaging agent. These findings should provide useful information on the drug design of bone imaging agents for PET with {sup 68}Ga.

  2. Development of a Course on Complex Humanitarian Emergencies: Preparation for the Impact of Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Holly; Downes, Elizabeth

    2017-09-28

    The effects of climate change are far-reaching and multifactorial, with potential impacts on food security and conflict. Large population movements, whether from the aftermath of natural disasters or resulting from conflict, can precipitate the need for humanitarian response in what can become complex humanitarian emergencies (CHEs). Nurses need to be prepared to respond to affected communities in need, whether the emergency is domestic or global. The purpose of the article is to describe a novel course for nursing students interested in practice within the confines of CHEs and natural disasters. The authors used the Sphere Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards as a practical framework to inform the course development. They completed a review of the literature on the interaction on climate change, conflict and health, and competencies related to working CHEs. Resettled refugees, as well as experts in the area of humanitarian response, recovery, and mitigation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and nongovernmental organizations further informed the development of the course. This course prepares the nursing workforce to respond appropriately to large population movements that may arise from the aftermath of natural disasters or conflict, both of which can comprise a complex humanitarian disaster. Using The Sphere Project e-learning course, students learn about the Sphere Project, which works to ensure accountability and quality in humanitarian response and offers core minimal standards for technical assistance. These guidelines are seen globally as the gold standard for humanitarian response and address many of the competencies for disaster nursing (http://www.sphereproject.org/learning/e-learning-course/). © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  3. Preparation of rare-earth metal complex oxide catalysts for catalytic wet air oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning; LI Guangming; YAO Zhenya; ZHAO Jianfu

    2007-01-01

    Catalytic wet air oxidation(CWAO)is one of the most promising technologies for pollution abatement.Developing catalysts with high activity and stability is crucial for the application of the CWAO process.The Mn/Ce complex oxide catalyrsts for CWAO of high concentration phenol containing wastewater were prepared by coprecipitation.The catalyst preparation conditions were optimized by using an orthogonal layout method and single-factor experimental analysis.The Mn/Ce serial catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller(BET)analysis and the metal cation leaching was measured by inductively coupled plasma torch-atomic emission spectrometry(ICP-AES).The results show that the catalysts have high catalytic activities even at a low temperature(80℃)and low oxygen partial pressure(0.5 MPa)in a batch reactor.The metallic ion leaching is comparatively low(Mn<6.577 mg/L and Ce<0.6910 mg/L,respectively)in the CWAO process.The phenol,CODCD and TOC removal efficiencies in the solution exceed 98.5% using the optimal catalyst(named CSP).The new catalyst would have a promising application in CWAO treatment of high concentration organic wastewater.

  4. Redox chemistry in thin layers of organometallic complexes prepared using ion soft landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wen-Ping; Johnson, Grant E; Fortmeyer, Ivy C; Wang, Peng; Hadjar, Omar; Cooks, R Graham; Laskin, Julia

    2011-01-07

    Soft landing (SL) of mass-selected ions is used to transfer catalytically-active metal complexes complete with organic ligands from the gas phase onto an inert surface. This is part of an effort to prepare materials with defined active sites and thus achieve molecular design of surfaces in a highly controlled way. Solution-phase electrochemical studies have shown that V(IV)O(salen) reacts in the presence of acid to form V(V)O(salen)(+) and the deoxygenated V(III)(salen)(+) complex-a key intermediate in the four electron reduction of O(2) by vanadium-salen. In this work, the V(V)O(salen)(+) and [Ni(II)(salen) + H](+) complexes were generated by electrospray ionization and mass-selected before being deposited onto an inert fluorinated self-assembled monolayer (FSAM) surface on gold. A time dependence study after ion deposition showed loss of O from V(V)O(salen)(+) forming V(III)(salen)(+) over a four-day period, indicating a slow interfacial reduction process. Similar results were obtained when other protonated molecules were co-deposited with V(V)O(salen)(+) on the FSAM surface. In all these experiments oxidation of the V(III)(salen)(+) product occurred upon exposure to oxygen or to air. The cyclic regeneration of V(V)O(salen)(+) upon exposure to molecular oxygen and its subsequent reduction to V(III)(salen)(+) in vacuum completes the catalytic cycle of O(2) reduction by the immobilized vanadium-salen species. Moreover, our results represent the first evidence of formation of reactive organometallic complexes on substrates in the absence of solvent. Remarkably, deoxygenation of the oxo-vanadium complex, previously observed only in highly acidic non-aqueous solvents, occurs on the surface in the UHV environment using an acid which is deposited into the inert monolayer. This acid can be a protonated metal complex, e.g. [Ni(II)(salen) + H](+), or an organic acid such as protonated diaminododecane.

  5. Detection of Sulfur-Fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix in Complex Preparations by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Lin Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Detection of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix (PAR in different complex preparations is challenging due to the relatively lower content of PAR and interference from more complicated components in complex preparations with different multiple constituent herbs. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography- triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for detecting sulfur-fumigated PAR in different complex preparations. Paeoniflorin, the major component of PAR, and paeoniflorin sulfonate, the characteristic artifact transformed from paeoniflorin during sulfur-fumigation of PAR, were used as chemical markers. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM scan was employed to maximize sensitivity and selectivity. Through optimizing full mass scan and daughter ion scan conditions, two mass transitions were selected and employed respectively for unequivocal identification of paeoniflorin and paeoniflorin sulfonate. The detection limits for paeoniflorin and paeoniflorin sulfonate using MRM were much lower than those detected with UV 270 nm. Paeoniflorin and paeoniflorin sulfonate could be simultaneously detected in different commercial PAR-containing complex preparations without interference of other components using the established method, indicating that the newly established method was selective and sensitive enough for screening sulfur-fumigated PAR in commercial complex preparations.

  6. Mechanochemical Preparation of Cobalt Nanoparticles through a Novel Intramolecular Reaction in Cobalt(II Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abolghasem Kahani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel solid state reaction involving a series of cobalt(II hydrazine-azides has been used to prepare metallic cobalt nanoparticles. The reactions of [Co(N2H4(N32], [Co(N2H42(N32], and [Co(N2H4(N3Cl]·H2O via NaOH, KOH as reactants were carried out in the solid state. These complexes undergo an intramolecular two-electron oxidation-reduction reaction at room temperature, producing metallic cobalt nanoparticles (Co1–Co6. The aforementioned complexes contain cobalt(II that is an oxidizing agent and also hydrazine ligand as a reducing agent. Other products produced include sodium azide and ammonia gas. The cobalt metal nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The synthesized cobalt nanoparticles have similar morphologies; however, their particle size distributions are different.

  7. Preparation of new technetium-99m NNS/X complexes and selection for brain imaging agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Qiange; CHEN Xiangji; MIAO Yubin; LIU Boli

    2004-01-01

    Based on excellent experiment results of 99mTcO-MPBDA-Cl, two new ligands MPTDA and MPDAA are synthesized. Then series of 99mTcO3+ complexes are prepared through adding different halide anions, followed by tests of physical chemistry qualities and biodistribution experiments. And results of these experiments show that complexes formed with MPTDA and MPDAA have better lipophilicity than those formed with MPBDA, still maintain the good brain retention ability of this type of compounds, but radioactivity uptake in blood is higher than that of 99mTcO-MPBDA and ratios of brain/blood are reduced. Obvious affections are fetched out on brain uptake and retention if fluoride, bromide or iodide anions are added. Results of experiments can be explained in reason with theoretic computation. It is confirmed that 99mTcO-MPBDA-Cl has potential to develop a new type of brain imaging agent considering integrated factors such as brain uptake, retention and toxicity.

  8. Preparing for the Complexities of Teaching: Modeling Conceptual Thinking in Post-Observation Conferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane K. Harvey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2015v68n1p91 In order for teacher educators to prepare teachers for complexities of language teaching, their nature needs to be understood. Vygotskian sociocultural theory ofers a useful framework for construing such complexities. Vygotsky distinguished between everyday and scientiic concepts, and saw the interaction of the two as conceptual thinking, the basis for higher order cognitive skills. Johnson (2009 frames learning to teach as the development of conceptual thinking and considers the nature of the dialogue in teacher education activities as crucial to this development. Drawing on longitudinal data from a semester-long case study of the dialogic interactions between a teacher and teacher educator, this study illustrates how the teacher educator modeled conceptual thinking in her language. We propose a taxonomy of conceptualizations about language teaching that may help teacher educators be more purposeful in designing activities for and interacting with novice teachers.

  9. Inclusion complexes of red bell pepper pigments with β-cyclodextrin: preparation, characterisation and application as natural colorant in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Lidiane Martins Mendes; Petito, Nicolly; Costa, Valéria Gonçalves; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; de Lima Araújo, Kátia G

    2014-04-01

    This work aimed to prepare inclusion complexes between red bell pepper pigments and β-cyclodextrin using two different procedures (i.e., magnetic stirring and ultrasonic homogenisation), to characterise the prepared inclusion complexes and to evaluate the colour stability of a selected complex added to yogurt. The mass ratio of extract to β-cyclodextrin was 1:4. The formed extract: β-cyclodextrin complexes and a physical mixture of extract and β-cyclodextrin were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, particle size distribution and Zeta potential. The obtained data showed that ultrasonic homogenisation resulted in better yield and inclusion efficiency compared to magnetic stirring. The yogurt with the added complex produced by ultrasonic homogenisation showed slower variations for the a(∗) (redness) and b(∗) (yellowness) indices compared to yogurt with added extract, indicating a higher protection of the colour during storage.

  10. Hair trace elements concentration to describe polymetallic mining waste exposure in Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Flavia Laura; Cournil, Amandine; Souza Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo; Bénéfice, Eric; Gardon, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Severe polymetallic contamination is frequently observed in the mining communities of Bolivian Altiplano. We evaluated hair trace elements concentrations at the population level to characterise exposure profile in different contexts of contact with mining and metallurgical pollution. We sampled 242 children aged 7 to 12 years in schools from five Oruro districts located in different contexts of potential contamination. Hair trace elements concentrations were measured using ICP-MS (Pb, As, Hg, Cd, Sb, Sn, Bi, Ag, Ni, Se, Cu, Cr, Mn, Co and Zn). We compared concentration according to school areas and gender. Concentrations were markedly different depending on school areas. Children from schools near industrial areas were far more exposed to non essential elements than children from downtown and suburban schools, as well as the rural school. The most concentrated non-essential element was Pb (geometric means (SD): 1.6 (1.3) µg/g in rural school; 2.0 (2.3) µg/g in suburban school; 2.3 (3.0) µg/g in downtown school; 14.1 (2.7) µg/g in the mine school and 21.2 (3.3) µg/g in the smelter school). Boys showed higher levels for all non-essential elements while girls had higher levels of Zn. Hair trace elements concentrations highlighted the heterogeneity of exposure profiles, identifying the most contaminated districts.

  11. Endogenic Au-Ag polymetallic ore deposits and ore-bearing potentiality of strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Baode; NIU Shuyin; SUN Aiqun; XIE Yan; LUO Yi; LIU Hailong; WANG Yanhua

    2010-01-01

    The problem of ore-bearing potentiality of the strata involves metallogenic theory and ore-search orientation. Studies of the spatial distribution of endogenic Au-Ag polymetallic ore deposits in North Hebei indicated that the strata in which ore deposits occurred range in age from Paleozoic, Proterozoic to Mesozoic. In addition the ore deposits are characterized as being strata-bound in nature. The arise and establishment of "extracting" viewpoint may be attributed to the following three reasons: 1) influence by the idea of "ore-source bed"; 2) limitation of analytical techniques in the 1980s' (especially gold element); and 3) a small number of samples (sampling locations were mostly disturbed by mineralization). Studies have shown that ore-forming materials would most probably come from the deep interior of the Earth. Deep-seated ore-bearing materials including Au-Ag polymetals were brought to the shallow levels by way of mantle plume-mantle sub-plume-mantle branch structure multi-stage evolution, finally leading to the formation of ore deposits.

  12. Threatened by mining, polymetallic nodules are required to preserve abyssal epifauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanreusel, Ann; Hilario, Ana; Ribeiro, Pedro A.; Menot, Lenaick; Arbizu, Pedro Martínez

    2016-06-01

    Polymetallic nodule mining at abyssal depths in the Clarion Clipperton Fracture Zone (Eastern Central Pacific) will impact one of the most remote and least known environments on Earth. Since vast areas are being targeted by concession holders for future mining, large-scale effects of these activities are expected. Hence, insight into the fauna associated with nodules is crucial to support effective environmental management. In this study video surveys were used to compare the epifauna from sites with contrasting nodule coverage in four license areas. Results showed that epifaunal densities are more than two times higher at dense nodule coverage (>25 versus ≤10 individuals per 100 m2), and that taxa such as alcyonacean and antipatharian corals are virtually absent from nodule-free areas. Furthermore, surveys conducted along tracks from trawling or experimental mining simulations up to 37 years old, suggest that the removal of epifauna is almost complete and that its full recovery is slow. By highlighting the importance of nodules for the epifaunal biodiversity of this abyssal area, we urge for cautious consideration of the criteria for determining future preservation zones.

  13. Nanometer properties of oceanic polymetallic nodules and cobalt-rich crusts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An ammonia leaching process was utilized to extract Co, Ni and Cu from oceanic polymetallic nodules, whereas an acid leaching process was utilized to extract Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn from cobalt-rich crusts. Both processes produced nanometer materials--ammonia leaching residue and acid leaching residue. A systematic study was conducted on the phase, composition and physicochemistry properties of these residues. The result shows that both residues contain a large amount of nanometer minerals. Ammonia leaching residue mainly consists of rhodochrosite, with the average grain diameter of 17.9 nm; whereas the acid leaching residue mainly consists of well-developed bassanite, with the average grain deameter of 9.5 nm. The bassanite also has a microporous structure, the volume of the pore space is 1.23×10?2 mL/g. Both the ammonia and acid leaching residues have a large specific surface area, and they display a strong adsorption capacity to saturate sodium chloride vapour, N2 and SO2. Both residues have high contents of rare earth elements, and most of these elements exist in the state of ionic adsorption. The content of ∑FeO is high. The P2O5 enrichment is observable in acid leaching residues. The unique composition and nanometer solid properties of the leaching residues displayed their potential value and promised a bright future for their application in the field of environmental protection and materials.

  14. Transformation of polymetallic dust in the organic horizon of Al-Fe-humus podzol (field experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyanguzova, I. V.; Goldvirt, D. K.; Fadeeva, I. K.

    2015-07-01

    Scanning electron microscopy with an X-ray spectral microanalysis showed that the ash matter from the organic horizons (after ignition) of control and experimental plots mainly (>85%) consists of different soil-forming minerals and iron oxides (particularly magnetite). From 10% to 15% of particles in the organic horizon of Al-Fe-humus podzol (Albic Rustic Podzol) of the experimental plot were represented by polymetallic ball-shaped dust particles that were preserved in the soil without significant transformation for 14 years after their artificial application. The total contents of Cu, Pb, As, and Ni in the organic horizon on the experimental plot were 22-100 times higher than those in the control; the contents of Zn and Fe were 2-5 times higher. The sequence of chemical elements according to their total contents in the samples of control and experimental plots was different. The portion of available forms of heavy metal (Ni, Cu, and Co) compounds extractable with 1.0 M HCl averaged 20-30% of their total contents in the soil. More than 80% of acid-soluble forms of heavy metals were concentrated in the organic horizon of contaminated podzol soil, which represents the biogeochemical barrier to the migration of pollutants down the soil profile. Durable fixation of heavy metals in the organic horizon and their weak migration into the mineral soil layers significantly hamper the processes of self-purification of contaminated soils.

  15. Crust-mantle interaction and its contribution to the Shizhu-yuan superlarge tungsten polymetallic mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Zhenhua; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Sillitoe, R. H., Tin mineralization above mantle hot spots, Nature, 1974, 248: 497.[2]Wang Changlie, Lou Shihui, Xu YouZhi et al., Geology of the Shizhuyuan Tungsten Multimetal Deposit (in Chinese), Beijing: Geology Publishing House, 1987, 29-48, 131-137.[3]Mao Jingwen, Li Hongyan, Pei Rongfu, Geology and geochemistry of the Qianlishan granite stock and its relationship to polymetallic tungsten mineralization, Mineral Deposits (in Chinese), 1995, 14(1): 12.[4]Mao Jingwen, Li Hongyan, Pei Rongfu, Nd-Sr isotopic and petrogenetic studies of the Qianlishan granite stock , Hunan Province, Geology of Mineral Deposits (in Chinese), 1995, 14(3): 235.[5]Mao Jingwen, Metallogenetic speciality of super giant polymetallic tungsten deposit: taking Shizhuyuan deposit as an example, Scientia Geologica Sinica (in Chinese), 1997, 32(3): 351.[6]Liu Yimao, Wang Changlie, Xu Youzhi et al., On the ore-forming conditions and ore-forming model of the super-large multi-metal deposit in Shizhuyuan, Science in China, Ser. D, 1998, 41(5): 502.[7]Tu Guangzhi, The unique nature in ore composition, geological background and metallogene mechanism of non-conventional super-large ore deposits: a preliminary discussion, Science in China, Ser. D, 1998, 41(Supp): 1.[8]Tong Qianming, Wu Renhe, Peng Jilai et al., Metallogeny of W, Sn, Pb-Zn, Au and Ag deposits in the Chengxian-Guiyang Region, South Hunan, China (in Chinese with English abstract), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1995, 24.[9]Jin Hesheng, Fu Liangwen, The evolution of volcanic rocks in Hunan Province and their implication in plate tectonics, Geological Review (in Chinese with English abstract), 1981, 32(3): 235.[10]Chen Yuchuan, Mao Jingwen, Metallogenic Series of Ore Deposits and Metallogenic Evolution Through Geological History in North Guangxi (in Chinese with English abstract), Nanning: Science and Technology Press, 1995, 24—47.[11]Gilder, S. A., Gill, J., Coe, R. S. et al

  16. Preparation and characterization of polymer composites based on charge-transfer complex of phenothiazine–iodine in polystyrene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R A Singh; R K Gupta; S K Singh

    2005-08-01

    Polymer composites based on charge-transfer complex of phenothiazine and iodine with polystyrene have been prepared in different weight ratios and characterized by FTIR, XRD, mechanical, microstructure and electrical properties (d.c. as well as a.c.). These composites show semiconducting behaviour as the conductivity increases with increasing temperature. Low percolation threshold (10% wt CTC) has been found indicating that processable conducting polymers with improved mechanical properties can be prepared by this method.

  17. Preparation and chemical and biological characterization of a pectin/chitosan polyelectrolyte complex scaffold for possible bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, P; Ferreira, P; de Sousa, H C; Batista, P; Rodrigues, M A; Correia, I J; Gil, M H

    2011-01-01

    In this work, porous scaffolds obtained from the freeze-drying of pectin/chitosan polyelectrolyte complexes were prepared and characterized by FTIR, SEM and weight loss studies. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the prepared scaffolds was evaluated in vitro, using human osteoblast cells. The results obtained showed that cells adhered to scaffolds and proliferated. The study also confirmed that the degradation by-products of pectin/chitosan scaffold are noncytotoxic.

  18. Manganese containing protein complex isolated from Photosystem II preparations of spinach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frasch, W.D.; Bowlby, N.R.

    1986-05-01

    By using a ligand-receptor crosslinking method the authors have stabilized Mn associated with Photosystem II (PSII) in a protein complex with an apparent molecular weight of 75,000 and with 3-4 Mn per complex. To crosslink the proteins, purified 33 kDa protein (33) was modified to contain about 8 adducts of the heterobifunctional photoaffinity reagent N-succinimidyl-(4-azidophenyl-dithio)-propionate (SADP). The SADP-33 was reconstituted into PSII membranes which had been depleted of 33 by a 1M CaCl/sub 2/ wash and crosslinking was initiated by ultraviolet illumination. The crosslinked membranes were solubilized in lauryl sulfate (SDS) and the constituent proteins were identified by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Evidence which supports the hypothesis that the Mn associated with the crosslinked proteins has been retained at the site of the photosynthetic oxygen evolving system includes: 1, Scatchard analysis of (/sup 125/I)-33 binding to CaCl/sub 2/-washed PSII preparations revealed one tight binding site and several lower affinity sites; 2, reconstitution of O/sub 2/ evolving activity and binding to the tight site had the same concentration dependence on 33; 3, the SADP-33 was able to reconstitute O/sub 2/ evolution in CaCl/sub 2/ washed PSII membranes; 4, the percent of Mn retained by the crosslinked membranes after treatment with edetic acid (EDTA) was approximately equal to the percent reconstitution of O/sub 2/ evolving activity by SADP-33 before photoactivation of SADP.

  19. Preparation and characterization of solidified oleanolic acid–phospholipid complex aiming to improve the dissolution of oleanolic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxu Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to prepare the oleanolic acid–phospholipid complex (OA-PC and then solidify it employing fumed silica by simple solvent evaporation technique to improve dissolution rate of oleanolic acid and oleanolic acid–phospholipid complex. The process of OA-PC was optimized and the type and proportion of fumed silica were studied by dissolution text. The structures of the phospholipid complex and solidified powder were also characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscope. In the dissolution tests, OA from solidified powder was further released compared with that from pure OA and OA-PC in different kinds of dissolution media. These results suggest that the method of preparing solidified powder of oleanolic acid–phospholipid complex is suitable for enhancing the dissolution rate of OA and OA-PC.

  20. Preparation of octahydro- and tetrahydro-[1,10]phenanthroline zirconium and hafnium complexes for olefin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun Yeong; Park, Geun Ho; Lee, Chun Sun; Kang, Yi Young; Lee, Junseong; Lee, Bun Yeoul

    2015-02-28

    Post-metallocenes were constructed for olefin polymerization using 1,2,3,4,7,8,9,10-octahydro[1,10]phenanthroline and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro[1,10]phenanthroline derivatives. A series of zirconium complexes - LZrCl2(NHMe2)2 [L = 2,9-H2-C12H12N2 (4), 2,9-Me2-C12H12N2 (5), 2,9-nBu2-C12H12N2 (6), and 2,9-iPr2-C12H12N2 (7)] - and hafnium complexes - LHfCl2(NHMe2)2 [L = 2,9-H2-C12H12N2 (8), 2,9-Me2-C12H12N2 (9), 2,9-nBu2-C12H12N2 (10), and 2,9-iPr2-C12H12N2 (11)] - were synthesized via the reaction of octahydro[1,10]phenanthrolines (2,9-R2-C12H12(NH)2) with (Me2N)2MCl2 (DME). The reaction of 2,9-R2-C12H12(NH)2 with (PhCH2)2ZrCl2 in the presence of a small amount of THF afforded a series of THF adduct analogs, i.e., LZrCl2(THF)2 [L = 2,9-H2-C12H12N2 (12), 2,9-Me2-C12H12N2 (13), 2,9-nBu2-C12H12N2 (14), and 2,9-iPr2-C12H12N2 (15)]. The treatment of 12 and 13 with excess Me3Al resulted in the formation of unexpected complexes, i.e., (η(4)-LAlMe2)ZrCl2(Me) [L = 2,9-H2-C12H12N2 (16) and 2,9-Me2-C12H12N2 (17)], in which the Me2Al unit forms a five-membered ring through binding with the two nitrogen donors and the MeCl2Zr unit slips to an η(4)-binding mode containing the N-C-C-N fragment. The treatment of tetrahydro[1,10]phenanthrolines [2,9-R2-C12NH9(NH)] with M(CH2Ph)4 afforded tribenzyl zirconium complexes LZr(CH2Ph)3 - [L = 2,9-Me2-C12NH9N (18) and 2,9-nBu2-C12NH9N (19)] - and hafnium complexes - LHf(CH2Ph)3 [L = 2,9-Me2-C12NH9N (20), 2,9-nBu2-C12NH9N (21), and 2,9-iPr2-C12NH9N (22)]. The structures of 4, 5, 12, 17, and 22 were elucidated by X-ray crystallography. The newly prepared complexes were screened for ethylene/1-octene copolymerization activity: 12 and 16 were potent catalysts (activities of 74 × 10(6) g mol-Zr h(-1) at ∼120 °C under 30 bar ethylene) for the production of wax-like low-molecular weight polyethylene (Mn: ∼5000), which is widely used in industry.

  1. The time-space distribution of Eocene to Miocene magmatism in the central Peruvian polymetallic province and its metallogenetic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissig, Thomas; Ullrich, Thomas D.; Tosdal, Richard M.; Friedman, Richard; Ebert, Shane

    2008-07-01

    rocks west of Tarma (21-20 Ma). A relationship between the Oligocene intrusions and polymetallic mineralization at Uchucchacua is possible, but evidence remains inconclusive. Widespread magmatism resumed in the middle Miocene and includes large igneous complexes in the Cordillera Occidental to the south of Domo de Yauli, and smaller scattered intrusive centers to the north thereof. Ore deposits of modest size are widely associated with middle Miocene intrusions along the Cordillera Occidental, north of Domo de Yauli. However, small volcanic centers were also active up to 50 km east of the continental divide and include dacitic dikes and domes, spatially associated with major base and precious metal mineralization at Cerro de Pasco and Colquijirca. Basaltic volcanism (14.54 ± 0.49 Ma) is locally observed in the back-arc domain south of Domo de Yauli approximately 30 km east of the Cordillera Occidental. After about 10 Ma intrusive activity decreased throughout Central Perú and ceased between 6 and 5 Ma. Late Miocene magmatism was locally related to important mineralization including San Cristobal (Domo de Yauli), Huarón and Yauricocha. Overall, there is no evidence for a systematic eastward migration of the magmatic arc through time. The arc broadened in the late Eocene to early Oligocene, and thereafter ceased over wide areas until the early Miocene, when magmatism resumed in a narrow arc. A renewed widening and subsequent cessation of the arc occurred in the late middle and late Miocene. The pattern of magmatism probably reflects two cycles of flattening of the subduction in the Oligocene and late Miocene. Contrasting crustal architecture between areas south and north of Domo de Yauli probably account for the differences in the temporal and aerial distribution of magmatism in these areas. Ore deposits are most abundant between Domo de Yauli and Cerro de Pasco and were generally emplaced in the middle and late Miocene during the transition to flat subduction and

  2. Synthesis and reactivity of a conveniently prepared two-coordinate bis(amido) nickel(II) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschutz, Michael I; Tilley, T Don

    2012-07-21

    A strictly two-coordinate nickel(II) bis(amido) complex has been prepared and its reactivity towards a variety of small molecules is described. Ni[N(SiMe(3))(DIPP)](2) reacts with DMAP and acetonitrile to form T-shaped three-coordinate complexes, and preliminary results show that Ni[N(SiMe(3))(DIPP)](2) is a catalyst for the hydrosilation of olefins with secondary silanes at ambient temperature.

  3. POLYMER/MONTMORILLONITE COMPLEXES:PREPARATION AND INTERACTIONS WITH ROSIN ACID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihong Zhao; Wenxia Liu

    2004-01-01

    Polymer/montmorillonite complexes were prepared via intercalating polymers of low molecular weight into layers of montmorillonite and evaluated for their interactions with rosin acid. Three polymers from various amines modified by epichlorohydrin and an acidified diethylenetriamine were separately intercalated into montmorillonite via direct solution intercalation. X-ray diffraction patterns are performed to obtain information about the intercalation of these agents. The examination revealed that it was feasible for the direct intercalation of polymers, while hard for the unmodified diethylenetriamine. Adsorption isotherm curves were established to assess the efficiency of the various montmorillonites including the intercalated montmorillonites, the simple mixtures of the corresponding intercalation agents and ordinary montmorillonite in removing pitch from water solution. From the adsorption behavior of various samples, it was found that the interaction of the montmorillonite with pitch was not only through van der Waals attraction, but also through electrostatic interactions. Both the organo-philic and the surface electrostatic properties of the montmorillonites are important for successful pitch control.

  4. Preparative divergent flow IEF without carrier ampholytes for separation of complex biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stastna, Miroslava; Slais, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Efficient separation method is a crucial part of the process in which components of highly complex biological sample are identified and characterized. Based on the principles of recently newly established electrophoretic method called divergent flow IEF (DF IEF), we have tested the DF IEF instrument which is able to operate without the use of background carrier ampholytes. We have verified that during separation and focusing of sample consisting of high numbers of proteins (yeast lysate and wheat flour extract), the pH gradient of preparative DF IEF can be created by autofocusing of the sample components themselves without any addition of carrier ampholytes. In DF IEF, the proteins are separated, desalted and concentrated in one step. The fractions of yeast lysate sample, collected at the DF IEF output and subjected to gel IEF, contained the zones of proteins gradually covering the pI values from 3.7 to 8.5. In our experimental arrangement, the highest number of proteins has been found in fractions with pI values around 5.3 as detected by polyacrylamide gel IEF with CBB staining. During DF IEF, the selected protein bands have been concentrated up to 16.8-fold.

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Nucleus/Shell TiO2/HAP Complex Nanophotocatalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongfei LIU; Xiaonong CHENG; Juan YANG; Xuehua YAN; Hebin SHI

    2007-01-01

    A rapid and more efficient method was developed to prepare nucleus/shell titania/hydroxyapatite (TiO2/HAP)complex nanophotocatalyst. Hydroxyapatite (5μm) which had been dissolved with 0.1 mol/L HCI was formed on the surface of the nanosized anatase titania powders by increasing the pH value of the solution at 90℃ in the water bath for only several hours .The microstructure and morphology of the resulting sample were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The results indicated that nucleus/shell structural TiO2/HAP was formed in our experiments, and the thickness of the coating layer was about 5 nm. Photocatalytic decomposition of methyl orange was utilized to test the photocatalysis of the resulting samples and the result was compared with that of pure anatase titania powders (about 20 nm). It was shown that the photocatalytic activity of the sample was not decreased due to the coating of HAP.

  6. Vaginal inserts based on chitosan and carboxymethylcellulose complexes for local delivery of chlorhexidine: preparation, characterization and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigucci, Federica; Abruzzo, Angela; Vitali, Beatrice; Saladini, Bruno; Cerchiara, Teresa; Gallucci, Maria Caterina; Luppi, Barbara

    2015-01-30

    The aim of this work was to prepare vaginal inserts based on chitosan/carboxymethylcellulose polyelectrolyte complexes for local delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate. Complexes were prepared with different chitosan/carboxymethylcellulose molar ratios at a pH value close to pKa interval of the polymers and were characterized in terms of physico-chemical properties, complexation yield and drug loading. Then complexes were used to prepare inserts as vaginal dosage forms and their physical handling, morphology, water-uptake ability and drug release properties as well as antimicrobial activity toward Candida albicans and Escherichia coli were evaluated. Results confirmed the ionic interaction between chitosan and carboxymethylcellulose and the influence of the charge amount on the complexation yield. Complexes were characterized by high values of drug loading and showed increasing water-uptake ability with the increase of carboxymethylcellulose amount. The selection of appropriate chitosan/carboxymethylcellulose molar ratios allowed to obtain cone-like shaped solid inserts, easy to handle and able to hydrate releasing the drug over time. Finally, the formulated inserts showed antimicrobial activity against common pathogens responsible for vaginal infections.

  7. Effect of preparation processes and structural insight into the supermolecular system: Bisacodyl and β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shanshan [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhai, Yuanming [Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Yan, Jin; Wang, Lili; Xu, Kailin [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Li, Hui, E-mail: lihuilab@sina.com [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2016-01-01

    In this study, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and bisacodyl were chosen as model host and guest molecule to explore the effect of preparation processes on the physicochemical properties of inclusion complexes (ICs) and to gain an insight into the structure of ICs. The influence of temperature and pH on complexation was studied by multiple temperature–pH phase solubility analysis. The most favorable conformation was predicted by molecular modeling using AutoDock. {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance and rotating frame nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy further confirmed the structure. Moreover, bisacodyl·β-CD ICs in solid state were successfully prepared via three different procedures (co-crystallization, co-evaporation, and co-grinding) and fully characterized by several solid-state techniques, namely, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that acid solution and low temperature were unfavorable for formation of bisacodyl·β-CD. The pyridine moiety was suggested to be enclosed in the hydrophobic cavity of β-CD. The complexes prepared using co-crystallization showed properties similar to those prepared using co-evaporation. Moreover, ICs obtained by co-evaporation and co-grinding had higher loading efficiency, water solubility, and dissolution rate than ICs obtained by co-crystallization. - Highlights: • The structure of inclusion complex-bisacodyl·β-CD was determined. • Thermodynamic behaviors of complexation under different conditions were discussed. • Products from three different preparation methods were systemically compared. • Co-crystallization and co-evaporation produced similar complexes. • Co-evaporation and co-grinding had better effects than co-crystallization.

  8. Preparation and self-sterilizing properties of Ag@TiO{sub 2}–styrene–acrylic complex coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiang-dong; Chen, Feng; Yang, Jin-tao, E-mail: yangjt@zjut.edu.cn; Yan, Xiao-hui; Zhong, Ming-qiang, E-mail: zhongmingqiang@hotmail.com

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we report a simple and cost-effective method for self-sterilized complex coatings obtained by Ag@TiO{sub 2} particle incorporation into styrene–acrylic latex. The Ag@TiO{sub 2} particles were prepared via a coupling agent modification process. The composite latices characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study were highly homogeneous at the nanometric scale, and the Ag@TiO{sub 2} particles were well dispersed and exhibited an intimate contact between both the organic and inorganic components. The Ag@TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles significantly enhanced the absorption in the visible region and engendered a good heat-insulating effect of the complex coatings. Moreover, the Ag@TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle incorporation into this polymer matrix renders self-sterilized nanocomposite materials upon light excitation, which are tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The complex coatings display an impressive performance in the killing of all micro-organisms with a maximum for a Ag@TiO{sub 2} loading concentration of 2–5 wt.%. The weathering endurance of the complex coating was also measured. - Highlights: ► We prepared Ag@TiO{sub 2}–styrene–acrylic complex latex in one pot. ► Good antibacterial performances of complex coatings were observed. ► The complex coating was resistant to weathering after 48 h. ► The complex coating exhibits good heat-insulating effect.

  9. Early transcriptomic response of Arabidopsis thaliana to polymetallic contamination: implications for the identification of potential biomarkers of metal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Sagasti, María T; Barrutia, Oihana; Ribas, Griselda; Garbisu, Carlos; Becerril, José M

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metal contaminated sites are frequently characterized by the simultaneous presence of several heavy metals. However, many studies report metal-induced plant responses after long-term exposure to just one metal. By contrast, whole genome expression microarrays were employed here to investigate the early (3 h) transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to polymetallic treatment (Pb, Hg, Cu, Cd, Co, Ni, Zn, and Mn) at low (L) and high (H) concentrations. After 3 h of exposure to polymetallic treatment, a total of 1315 noticeably (≥2-fold) and significantly (P < 0.05) differentially expressed genes were identified: 656 and 351 upregulated and 314 and 200 downregulated genes in L and H treatments, respectively. Functional analysis revealed that many genes involved in oxidative stress and perception/signalling/regulation systems were activated. Genes encoding proteins involved in hormone regulation (jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, ethylene, and auxins), glucosinolate metabolism and sulphur and nitrogen transport were also modulated. RT-qPCR analysis of four downregulated (AOP2, SAUR16, BBX31, and MTPC3) and upregulated genes (ASN1, DIN2, BT2, and EXL5), markedly responsive to both L and H treatments, validated our microarray data and suggested the potential of some of these genes (AOP2, SAUR16, ASN1, and DIN2) as early biomarkers of metal exposure. Relevant changes in gene expression occur as early as 3 h after exposure to polymetallic treatment. Four genes deserve further studies as novel putative biomarkers of early metal exposure and also owing to their potential implications in stress-related mechanisms: sulphur balance (AOP2), phytohormone regulation of plant growth and development (SAUR16), ammonium detoxification (ASN1) and senescence (DIN2).

  10. Laboratory testing results of kinetics and processing technology of the polymetallic sulphide concentrate Blagojev Kamen – Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad Ćirković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the laboratory testing results of kinetics the oxidation process and sample processing of the sulphide polymetallic concentrate Blagojev Kamen. The aim of investigation is recovery of these types of raw material, present in large quantities in the peripheral parts of already used primary mineral deposits of copper, because of their high economic potential due to the content of a large number of metals and especially precious metals. Characterization of this raw material is based on the chemical analyses, XRD results, DTA analysis, etc. For these investigations, the sulphide concentrate with the following content was used in %: Cu – 2.3; Fe – 19.8; S – 27.19; Zn – 9.13; As – 0.167; Pb – 15.63; SiO2 – 17.93; CaO – 0.97; Al2O3 – 1.43; Ag – 480 g/t; Au – 659 g/t. Kinetic investigations of oxidation processes were carried out under the isothermal conditions within the temperature range of 400 to 625 oC. The Sharp's model was used for determination the kinetics parameters, and determined values of activation energy are 67 kJ/mole for the first period, and 47 kJ/mole for the second period. Pyrometallurgical treatment of this type of polymetallic concentrate, in the laboratory conditions, was carried out using the oxidative roasting and, then the reduction smelting was done in the Taman's furnace. Gold from 90.5 to 97.95% and silver from 77.28 to 93.37% are moved into the raw lead (smelting product. Gold from 1.1 to 3.92% and silver from 4.35 to 8.42% are moved into the polymetallic copper matte. Gold from 0.58 to 1.6% and silver from 2.45 to 6.82% are moved into the slag.

  11. Helium, lead and sulfur isotope geochemistry of the Gejiu Sn-polymetallic ore deposit and the sources of ore-forming materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Studies on the helium, lead and sulfur isotopic composition were performed of the Gejiu super-large Sn-polymetallic ore deposit. The results indicated that the ore-forming materials came from different sources and the deposit is a product of superimposed mineralization. The deposit is characterized by multi-source and multi-period mineralization, which experienced submarine hydrothermal deposition and Late Yanshanian magmatic hydrothermal mineralization. It is held that the Gejiu super-large Sn-polymetallic ore deposit is a multi-genesis deposit.

  12. Preparation of polymer-rare earth complex using salicylic acid-containing polystyrene and its fluorescence emission property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Baojiao, E-mail: gaobaojiao@126.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Zhang Wei; Zhang Zhengguo; Lei Qingjuan [Department of Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Salicylic acid (SA) was first bonded onto the side chains of polystyrene (PS), obtaining functional macromolecule SAPS. Using the salicylic acid-containing polystyrene as a macromolecular ligand, a polymer-rare earth complex, SAPS-Eu(III), was prepared. The structure of SAPS-Eu(III) was characterized, and the fluorescence properties of SAPS-Eu(III) were mainly investigated. The experimental results show that the complex SAPS-Eu(III) has fine chemical stability because of the bidentate chelating effect of salicylic acid ligand. More important, the ligand SA on the side chains of PS can strongly sensitize the fluorescence emission of the center ion, Eu{sup 3+} ion, and it enables the complex SAPS-Eu(III) to produce the apparent 'Antenna Effect'. In the diluted solution of the functional macromolecule SAPS, the formed complex SAPS-Eu(III) belongs to an intramolecular complex, or an intrachain complex. For the binary intramolecular complex SAPS-Eu(III), the apparent saturated coordination number of SA of SAPS towards Eu{sup 3+} ion is equal to 10, and here the binary intrachain complex SAPS-Eu(III) has the strongest fluorescence emission. On this basis, small-molecule 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) acting as a co-ligand is added and the ternary complex SAPS-Eu(III)-Phen will be formed. As long as a small amount of Phen is added (in the molar ratio 1:1 (n(Phen):n(Eu))), the coordination of the two kinds of ligands, SA of SAPS and Phen, to Eu{sup 3+} ion will reach complete saturation, and here the fluorescence emission of the ternary complex will be further enhanced via the complementary coordination effect in comparison with that of the binary complex SAPS-Eu(III). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared the functional polystyrene, SAPS, on whose side chain salicylic acid ligand was bonded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polymer-rare earth complex, SAPS-Eu(III), was prepared and a stronger 'antenna effect' was produced. Black

  13. Ore Zoning and Dynamics of Ore—Forming Processes of Yinshan Polymetallic Deposit in Dexing,Jiangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德会; 於崇文; 等

    1997-01-01

    The Yinshan deposit,one of the large-scale Cu-Pb-Zn-Au-Ag polymetallic deposits,may be named a middle-low temperature subvolcanic hydrothermal deposit and referred to as the "transitional deposit"linking mineralization of the epithermal and porphyry coppertypes.In this paper,the characteristics and structures of ore zoning are briefly described.On the basis of the dynamics of ore-forming processes and applying computer numerical simulation technique,the mechanism of ore zoning is discussed and a concealed igneous body controlling ore deposition at depth of the Yinshan mine is predicted.

  14. Gold nanorod-templated synthesis of polymetallic hollow nanostructures with enhanced electrocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xia; Ye, Wei; Zhu, Rui; Wang, Wenxin; Xie, Fang; Sun, Hongyan; Zhao, Qing; Ding, Yi; Yang, Jian

    2014-09-01

    Anisotropic polymetallic hollow nanostructures are highly desired for many applications because of their unique morphology, large specific surface areas and attractive electronic effects. Here, a simple method using gold nanorods as a self-sacrificed template has been developed for the fabrication of hollow dumbbell-like nanorods of Au@PtAg. The formation of the hollow structures involves the growth of another metallic shell first, and then the etching of gold nanorods, which is induced by oxygen and ascorbic acid. The lattice mismatch and cohesive energy of the shell, along with its surface passivation, greatly affect the subsequent etching and the resulting products, as has been demonstrated by a positive control in the case of Rh and a negative control in the case of Pd. Hollow dumbbell-like nanorods of Au@PtAg show great enhancement for the dehydrogenation pathway in the oxidation of formic acid, as compared to solid Au@PtAg nanorods, PtAu nanotubes and commercial Pt/C.Anisotropic polymetallic hollow nanostructures are highly desired for many applications because of their unique morphology, large specific surface areas and attractive electronic effects. Here, a simple method using gold nanorods as a self-sacrificed template has been developed for the fabrication of hollow dumbbell-like nanorods of Au@PtAg. The formation of the hollow structures involves the growth of another metallic shell first, and then the etching of gold nanorods, which is induced by oxygen and ascorbic acid. The lattice mismatch and cohesive energy of the shell, along with its surface passivation, greatly affect the subsequent etching and the resulting products, as has been demonstrated by a positive control in the case of Rh and a negative control in the case of Pd. Hollow dumbbell-like nanorods of Au@PtAg show great enhancement for the dehydrogenation pathway in the oxidation of formic acid, as compared to solid Au@PtAg nanorods, PtAu nanotubes and commercial Pt/C. Electronic

  15. A reverse taxonomic approach to assess macrofaunal distribution patterns in abyssal Pacific polymetallic nodule fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Janssen

    Full Text Available Heightened interest in the exploitation of deep seafloor minerals is raising questions on the consequences for the resident fauna. Assessing species ranges and determination of processes underlying current species distributions are prerequisites to conservation planning and predicting faunal responses to changing environmental conditions. The abyssal central Pacific nodule belt, located between the Clarion and Clipperton Fracture Zones (CCZ, is an area prospected for mining of polymetallic nodules. We examined variations in genetic diversity and broad-scale connectivity of isopods and polychaetes across the CCZ. Faunal assemblages were studied from two mining claims (the eastern German and French license areas located 1300 km apart and influenced by different productivity regimes. Using a reverse taxonomy approach based on DNA barcoding, we tested to what extent distance and large-scale changes in environmental parameters lead to differentiation in two macrofaunal taxa exhibiting different functions and life-history patterns. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit 1 (COI was analyzed. At a 97% threshold the molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs corresponded well to morphological species. Molecular analyses indicated high local and regional diversity mostly because of large numbers of singletons in the samples. Consequently, variation in composition of genotypic clusters between sites was exceedingly large partly due to paucity of deep-sea sampling and faunal patchiness. A higher proportion of wide-ranging species in polychaetes was contrasted with mostly restricted distributions in isopods. Remarkably, several cryptic lineages appeared to be sympatric and occurred in taxa with putatively good dispersal abilities, whereas some brooding lineages revealed broad distributions across the CCZ. Geographic distance could explain variation in faunal connectivity between regions and sites to some extent, while assumed

  16. Utilization of central nervous system resources for preparation and performance of complex walking tasks in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Clark

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionWalking in the home and community often involves performance of complex walking tasks. Understanding the control of such tasks is crucial to preserving independence and quality of life in older adults. However, very little research has been conducted in this area. Here we assess the extent to which two measures of central nervous system (CNS activity are responsive to the challenges posed by preparation and performance of complex walking tasks. Prefrontal cortical activity was measured by functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS and sympathetic nervous system arousal was measured by skin conductance level (SCL.Materials and MethodsSixteen older men and women (age 77.2 ± 5.6 years with mild mobility deficits participated in this study. Participants walked at their preferred speed without distractions along an unobstructed, well-lit course (control task and also walked on the same course under five separate challenging conditions: performing a cognitive verbal fluency task (verbal task, dim lighting (dim task, carrying a tray (carry task, negotiating obstacles (obstacles task and wearing a weighted vest (vest task. Mean prefrontal activation and SCL were calculated during the preparation and performance phases of each task. Gait spatiotemporal measurements were acquired by an instrumented gait mat.ResultsPrefrontal cortical activity and SCL were elevated during the preparation phase of complex walking tasks relative to the control task. During the performance phase, prefrontal activity remained elevated to a similar level as during task preparation. In contrast, SCL continued to increase beyond the level observed during task preparation. A larger increase in prefrontal activity was found to be linked to preserved quality of gait during complex walking tasks.DiscussionThese findings indicate that availability and utilization of CNS resources are important for optimizing performance of complex walking tasks in older adults.

  17. Influence of complexing agents on the preparation of bimetallic platinum-ruthenium catalysts supported on O-functionalized graphite cloths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieben, J.M., E-mail: jmsieben@uns.edu.a [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Universidad Nacional del Sur., Av. Alem 1253, (B8000CPB) Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Duarte, M.M.E.; Mayer, C.E. [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Universidad Nacional del Sur., Av. Alem 1253, (B8000CPB) Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2010-02-18

    Electrodeposition of bimetallic Pt-Ru catalysts on O-functionalized graphite cloths from H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} and RuCl{sub 3} solutions containing trisodium citrate (Cit) and disodium dihydrogen ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Na{sub 2}H{sub 2}EDTA) was investigated. SEM analysis of the electrode prepared without complexant showed a relatively compact and rough deposit displaying a 'tree cortex' structure, whereas uniform size and globular shape particles regularly distributed over the support surface were obtained using citrate and Na{sub 2}H{sub 2}EDTA as complexants. In addition, XRD diffraction and EDX analysis revealed that the catalysts prepared using the complexants showed smaller size particles and lower Ru content. Electrocatalytic activity measurements indicated that the most active electrode for methanol oxidation was obtained with Na{sub 2}H{sub 2}EDTA as additive.

  18. Auricularia auricular polysaccharide-low molecular weight chitosan polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles: Preparation and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles (AAP/LCS NPs were prepared in this study and these were produced by mixing negatively charged auricularia auricular polysaccharide (AAP with positively charged low molecular weight chitosan (LCS in an aqueous medium. The AAP was extracted and purified from auricularia auricular, and then characterized by micrOTOF-Q mass spectrometry, UV/Vis spectrophotometry, moisture analyzer and SEM. The yield, moisture, and total sugar content of the AAP were 4.5%, 6.2% and 90.12% (w/w, respectively. The AAP sample was water-soluble and exhibited white flocculence. The characteristics of AAP/LCS NPs, such as the particle size, zeta potential, morphology, FT-IR spectra, DSC were investigated. The results obtained revealed that the AAP/LCS NPs had a spherical shape with a diameter of 223 nm and a smooth surface, and the results of the FT-IR spectra and DSC investigations indicated that there was an electrostatic interaction between the two polyelectrolyte polymers. Bovine serum albumin (BSA, pI = 4.8 and bovine hemoglobin (BHb, pI = 6.8 were used as model drugs to investigate the loading and release features of the AAP/LCS NPs. The results obtained showed that the AAP/LCS NPs had a higher entrapment efficiency (92.6% for BHb than for BSA (81.5%. The cumulative release of BSA and BHb from AAP/LCS NPs after 24 h in vitro was 95.4% and 91.9%, respectively. The in vitro release demonstrated that AAP/LCS NPs provided a sustained release matrix suitable for the delivery of protein drugs. These studies demonstrate that AAP/LCS NPs have a very promising potential as a delivery system for protein drugs.

  19. Molecular biomineralization: toward an understanding of the biogenic origin of polymetallic nodules, seamount crusts, and hydrothermal vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Wiens, Matthias; Schröder, Heinz C; Schloßmacher, Ute; Müller, Werner E G

    2011-01-01

    Polymetallic nodules and crusts, hydrothermal vents from the Deep Sea are economically interesting, since they contain alloying components, e.g., manganese or cobalt, that are used in the production of special steels; in addition, they contain rare metals applied for plasma screens, for magnets in hard disks, or in hybrid car motors. While hydrothermal vents can regenerate in weeks, polymetallic nodules and seamount crusts grow slowly. Even though the geochemical basis for the growth of the nodules and crusts has been well studied, the contribution of microorganisms to the formation of these minerals remained obscure. Recent HR-SEM (high-resolution scanning electron microscopy) analyses of nodules and crusts support their biogenic origin. Within the nodules, bacteria with surface S-layers are arranged on biofilm-like structures, around which Mn deposition starts. In crusts, coccoliths represent the dominant biologically formed structures that act as bio-seeds for an initial Mn deposition. In contrast, hydrothermal vents have apparently an abiogenic origin; however, their minerals are biogenically transformed by bacteria. In turn, strategies can now be developed for biotechnological enrichment as well as selective dissolution of metals from such concretions. We are convinced that the recent discoveries will considerably contribute to our understanding of the participation of organic matrices in the enrichment of those metals and will provide the basis for feasibility studies for biotechnological applications.

  20. Mineralization Zoning in Yindongzi—Daxigou Barite—Siderite,Silver—Polymetallic Deposits in the Qinling Orogen,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方维萱; 胡瑞忠; 等

    2001-01-01

    The Yindongzi-Daxigou strata-bound barite-siderite,silver-polymetallic deposits discovered in the Qinling orogen are hosted within flysch facies in a deep-water fault-controlled basin on the passive northern margin of the Qinling microplate.The orebodies occur in a series of hydrothermal depositonal rocks.Mineralization zoning is characterized by Fe-Ba←Ba-Cu←Pb-Ab→Cu-Ag→Pb→Au.This is obviously a gradational transition mineralization from ventproximal mineralization to more distal mineralization.In this gradational transition between Chefanggou and Yindongzi,vent-proximal mineralization consists of silver-polymetallic orebodies(Pb-Ag),which is the center of hydrothermal mineralization.The Chefanggou Ba-Cu ore district in the west and the Yindongzi Cu-Ag ore district in the east represent vent lateral mineralization.Distal mineralization in the west is represented by the Daxigou Fe-Ba ore district while distal mineralization in te east is represented by the Pb ore district.Thick massive,laminated barren albite chert and jasperite,sometimes with minor silver-ploymetallic mineralization of commercial importance,and pyritization in rocks feature more distal mineralization.Geochemical anomalies of Au-As associations are found in ankerite phyllite and muddy sandstone.Actually,Au deposits are dominantly controlled by the late brittle-ductile shear zone.

  1. Mineralization Zoning in Yindongzi-Daxigou Barite-Siderite, Silver-Polymetallic Deposits in the Qinling Orogen, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方维萱; 胡瑞忠; 黄转莹

    2001-01-01

    The Yindongzi-Daxigou strata-bound barite-siderite, silver-polymetallic deposits discovered in the Qinling orogen are hosted within flysch facies in a deep-water fault-controlled basin on the passive northern margin of the Qinling microplate. The orebodies occur in a series of hydrothermal depositional rocks. Mineralization zoning is characterized by Fe-Ba←Ba-Cu←Pb-Ag→Cu-Ag→Pb→Au. This is obviously a gradational transition mineralization from ventproximal mineralization to more distal mineralization. In this gradational transition between Chefanggou and Yindongzi, vent-proximal mineralization consists of silver-polymetallic orebodies (Pb-Ag), which is the center of hydrothermal mineralization. The Chefanggou Ba-Cu ore district in the west and the Yindongzi Cu-Ag ore district in the east represent vent lateral mineralization. Distal mineralization in the west is represented by the Daxigou Fe-Ba ore district while distal mineralization in the east is represented by the Pb ore district. Thick massive, laminated barren albite chert and jasperite, sometimes with minor silver-ploymetallic mineralization of commercial importance, and pyritization in rocks feature more distal mineralization. Geochemical anomalies of Au-As associations are found in ankerite phyllite and muddy sandstone.Actually, Au deposits are dominantly controlled by the late brittle-ductile shear zone.

  2. Re-Os isotopic data for molybdenum from Hejiangkou tungsten and tin polymetallic deposit in Chenzhou and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德波; 杨柳; 邓湘伟; 戴雪玲; 王雄军; CHONGkhaiyuen; 杜高峰; 魏和平

    2016-01-01

    Hejiangkou W−Sn-polymetallic deposit is a newly found deposit in Xitian ore field, one of the important and large scale W−Sn-polymetallic ore fields in the middle segment of Nanling metallogenic zone. Re−Os isotope dating was used on three molybdenite samples from Hejiangkou deposit to determine the ore forming period. The result is (224.9±2.6)Ma−(225±3.1)Ma and isochron age is (225.5±3.6)Ma. The field geological observations, geochronological data and optical petrography indicated that Hejiangkou deposit underwent multi-period of superimposed mineralization. It can be differentiated into three periods composed of six mineralization stages. The first period is the initial period for hydrothermal metasomatism and metal element enrichment during Indosinian Epoch. Further enrichment, strong brittle fracturing and hydrothermal metasomatism, remobilization and superimposition happened in the second period, during early Yanshanian. It is the major mineralization period of Hejiangkou deposit and can be subdivided into four mineralization stages, namely the skarn stage, oxide stage, high-temperature sulfide stage and low-temperature sulfide stage. And the third period is the mineralization period of a porphyry-skarn system related to the emplacement of the granite porphyry dyke. As minerogenic epoch of Hejiangkou deposit is similar with Hehuaping deposit, they show the possibility of Indosinian mineralization event in Nanling metallogenic zone. It can be an important perspective in any future mineral exploration in the same metallogenic zone.

  3. Green preparation of antibiotic nanoparticle complex as potential anti-biofilm therapeutics via self-assembly amphiphile-polyelectrolyte complexation with dextran sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheow, Wean Sin; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2012-04-01

    Nanoscale antibiotic delivery has emerged as a promising therapeutic means to treat lung biofilm infection owed to its sputum penetrating ability. Due to the high antibiotic dosage requirement in anti-biofilm therapy, the most suitable formulation for this purpose is the antibiotic nanoparticles themselves, instead of the more extensively studied antibiotic-loaded nano-carriers, which often exhibit low drug loading. The present work details the preparation and characterization of antibiotic nanoparticle complex (or nanoplex) by self-assembly amphiphile-polyelectrolyte complexation process. Ofloxacin (OFX) and levofloxacin (LEV) are used as the antibiotics with dextran sulfate (DXT) as the polyelectrolyte. The nanoplex possesses high drug loading (up to 80%) and sizeenergy-minimal, solvent-free, and highly efficient as manifested in nearly 100% of drug is transformed into nanoplex. The effects of drug-to-polyelectrolyte charge ratio, pH, drug, and salt concentrations on the nanoplex characteristics (i.e. size, stability, drug loading) are investigated from which the optimal preparation conditions have been identified. Higher complexation efficiency and stronger agglomeration tendency are observed for LEV nanoplex owed to its higher hydrophobicity. The antibiotics are completely released from the nanoplex in aqueous salt solution within 3h and their antimicrobial activity is preserved upon complexation. The nanoplex is readily transformed into amorphous dry powders that remain stable after one-month storage owed to the high glass transition temperature. The antibiotic nanoplexes are highly charged enabling their subsequent functionalization for targeted delivery and controlled drug release purposes.

  4. Integration of multi-source and multi-scale datasets for 3D structural modeling for subsurface exploration targeting, Luanchuan Mo-polymetallic district, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gongwen; Ma, Zhenbo; Li, Ruixi; Song, Yaowu; Qu, Jianan; Zhang, Shouting; Yan, Changhai; Han, Jiangwei

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, multi-source (geophysical, geochemical, geological and remote sensing) datasets were used to construct multi-scale (district-, deposit-, and orebody-scale) 3D geological models and extract 3D exploration criteria for subsurface Mo-polymetallic exploration targeting in the Luanchuan district in China. The results indicate that (i) a series of region-/district-scale NW-trending thrusts controlled main Mo-polymetallic forming, and they were formed by regional Indosinian Qinling orogenic events, the secondary NW-trending district-scale folds and NE-trending faults and the intrusive stock structure are produced based on thrust structure in Caledonian-Indosinian orogenic events; they are ore-bearing zones and ore-forming structures; (ii) the NW-trending district-scale and NE-trending deposit-scale normal faults were crossed and controlled by the Jurassic granite stocks in 3D space, they are associated with the magma-skarn Mo polymetallic mineralization (the 3D buffer distance of ore-forming granite stocks is 600 m) and the NW-trending hydrothermal Pb-Zn deposits which are surrounded by the Jurassic granite stocks and constrained by NW-trending or NE-trending faults (the 3D buffer distance of ore-forming fault is 700 m); and (iii) nine Mo polymetallic and four Pb-Zn targets were identified in the subsurface of the Luanchuan district.

  5. Physical characterization of meloxicam-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex pellets prepared by a fluid-bed coating method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Lu; Xingwang Zhang; Jie Lai; Zongning Yin; Wei Wu

    2009-01-01

    Meloxicam-β-cyclodextrin (ME-β-CD) inclusion complex was prepared by a fluid-bed coating technique upon solvent removal and simultaneous depositing onto the surface of nonpareil pellets and using PVP K30 as a binding agent to facilitate good coating. The resultant pellets were spherical and intact in shape with good flowability and friability. SEM analysis showed that the pellets were smooth and had a tightly coated inclusion complex layer. In vitro dissolution of the inclusion complex pellets in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer was dramatically enhanced at an ME/CD ratio of 1/1. DSC and powder X-ray diffractometry proved the absence of crystallinity in the ME/CD inclusion complexes. Moreover, Fourier transform-infrared spectrometry together with Raman spectrometry indicated that the thiazole ring of ME was possibly included in the cavity of β-CD.

  6. Preparation of inclusion complex of apigenin-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin by using supercritical antisolvent process for dissolution and bioavailability enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yannian; Zu, Yuangang; Zhao, Xiuhua; Wu, Mingfang; Feng, Ziqi; Deng, Yiping; Zu, Chang; Wang, Lingling

    2016-09-25

    In this study, an inclusion complex of apigenin (AP)-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) was prepared via supercritical antisolvent (SAS) method using N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as solvent and carbon dioxide as antisolvent. The mole ratio of AP and HP-β-CD (1:1) was established by phase solubility equilibrium experiment. The optimal conditions were determined through single-factor experiments; these conditions included precipitation pressure of 22.5MPa, precipitation temperature of 50°C, and AP concentration of 20mg/ml. The load efficiency and encapsulation efficiency of the AP-HP-β-CD inclusion complex, with a mean particle size of 392.13±7.56nm, were 13.97%±0.17% and 93.22%±1.17%, respectively, under the optimal conditions. FTIR, (1)H NMR, SEM, XRD, DSC, and TG analyses were also conducted. Results showed that the inclusion complex was formed because of the interaction between AP and HP-β-CD. DMF residue in the inclusion complex was 0.033% lower than the ICH limit for class II solvents. The solubility of the inclusion complex was approximately 152.43 times higher than that of the raw AP. In the in vitro study, the dissolution rate of the AP-HP-β-CD inclusion complex was about 7.60 times higher than that of the raw AP. In the in vivo study, the bioavailability of the inclusion complex increased by 6.45 times compared with that of the raw AP. Hence, the prepared AP-HP-β-CD inclusion complex exhibits potential as a new oral therapeutic agent formulation for clinical applications.

  7. Preparation and characteristics of chemical bath deposited ZnS thin films: Effects of different complexing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seung Wook [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Agawane, G.L.; Gang, Myeng Gil [Photonics Technology Research Institute, Department of Materials Science Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Moholkar, A.V. [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416-004 (India); Moon, Jong-Ha [Photonics Technology Research Institute, Department of Materials Science Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hyeok, E-mail: jinhyeok@chonnam.ac.kr [Photonics Technology Research Institute, Department of Materials Science Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Yong, E-mail: j.y.lee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thick ZnS thin films were successfully prepared by chemical bath deposition in a basic medium using less toxic complexing agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of different complexing agents such as no complexing agent, Na{sub 3}-citrate and a mixture of Na{sub 3}-citrate and EDTA on the properties of ZnS thin films was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnS thin film deposited using two complexing agent showed the outstanding characteristics as compared to those using no and one complexing agent. - Abstract: Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by a chemical bath deposition technique using aqueous zinc acetate and thiourea solutions in a basic medium (pH {approx} 10) at 80 Degree-Sign C. The effects of different complexing agents, such as a non-complexing agent, Na{sub 3}-citrate, and a mixture of Na{sub 3}-citrate and ethylenediamine tetra-acetate (EDTA), on the structural, chemical, morphological, optical, and electrical properties of ZnS thin films were investigated. X-ray diffraction pattern showed that the ZnS thin film deposited without any complexing agent was grown on an amorphous phase. However, the ZnS thin films deposited with one or two complexing agents showed a polycrystalline hexagonal structure. No secondary phase (ZnO) was observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that all ZnS thin films exhibited both Zn-S and Zn-OH bindings. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images showed that ZnS thin films deposited with complexing agents had thicker thicknesses than that deposited without a complexing agent. The electrical resistivity of ZnS thin films was over 10{sup 5} {Omega} cm regardless of complexing agents. The average transmittance of the ZnS thin films deposited without a complexing agent, those with Na{sub 3}-citrate, and those with a mixture of Na{sub 3}-citrate and EDTA was approximately 85%, 65%, and 70%, respectively, while the band gap

  8. A novel oral preparation of hydroxysafflor yellow A base on a chitosan complex: a strategy to enhance the oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guan-nan; Yu, Fang-lin; Wang, Shan; Li, Zhi-ping; Xie, Xiang-yang; Mei, Xing-guo

    2015-06-01

    Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), the main active pharmaceutical ingredient of the safflower plant (Carthamus tinctorius L.), is a hydrophilic drug with low oral bioavailability (BA). The objective of the present study was to improve the oral BA of HSYA by formulation design. The effect of several pharmaceutical excipients on enhancing BA, including Poloxamer 188 (P188), sodium caprate (SC), sodium deoxycholate, and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), was investigated through animal models. Sodium caprate, with a relative BA of 284.2%, was able to improve the oral BA of HSYA. Furthermore, HSYA can bind with chitosan (CS) by Coulomb attraction and form a HSYA-CS complex. The preparation process was optimized, and the binding rate reached 99.4%. HSYA granules were prepared using a HSYA-CS complex and SC. The results of the pharmacokinetics showed that the relative BA of HSYA granules was 476%, much higher than HSYA/SC.

  9. Preparation of fluorescent organometallic porphyrin complex nanogels of controlled molecular structure via reverse-emulsion click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guo-Dong; Jiang, Hua; Yao, Fang; Xu, Li-Qun; Ling, Jun; Kang, En-Tang

    2012-09-26

    Here, we are the first to report a novel approach to preparing well-defined poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) fluorescent nanogels, with well-defined molecular structures and desired functionalities via reverse (mini)emulsion copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (REM-CuAAC). Nanogels with hydroxyl groups and Ga-porphyrin complex (Ga-porphyrin-OH nanogels), as well as with Ga-porphyrin complex and folate functional groups (Ga-porphyrin-FA), are successfully prepared. Nanogels of 30 and 120 nm in diameter are obtained and they exhibit an emission maxima within the wavelength range 700-800 nm. The nanogels could find uses in near infrared (NIR) imaging attributable to their fluorescence and their functionality for cell affinity.

  10. Evaluation of supercritical fluid technology as preparative technique of benzocaine-cyclodextrin complexes--comparison with conventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marzouqi, Ali H; Jobe, Baboucarr; Dowaidar, Ali; Maestrelli, Francesca; Mura, Paola

    2007-01-17

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the preparation method on the physico-chemical properties of complexes prepared between beta-cyclodextrin (beta-Cyd) and benzocaine (BZC). In particular, the effectiveness of a new technique based on supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO(2)) for preparing solid drug-cyclodextrin complexes was investigated and compared to other more conventional methods such as kneading (KN), co-evaporation (COE), co-grinding (GR) and sealed-heating (S.H.). Effects of temperature, pressure and exposure time on the properties of complexes prepared by SC CO(2) technology were also studied. The different systems were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) and dissolution test according to the dispersed amount method. The co-grinding (GR) method resulted in amorphous products while other methods led to crystalline or partially amorphous products depending on both the method and its experimental conditions. SC CO(2) method revealed to be an effective technique for preparing solid systems between beta-cyclodextrin and benzocaine, avoiding the use of organic solvents (and problems of their complete removal) and allowing an easy scale-up of the process. As for the influence of the experimental conditions in promoting the solid-state drug-carrier interaction when using the SC CO(2) method, temperature seemed to play the major role, whereas pressure and exposure times had more limited effects. Dissolution tests confirmed a limited but favourable effect in increasing the exposure time, while indicated a possible interaction effect between temperature and pressure in influencing the dissolution performance of the final product. The best product obtained by the SC CO(2) method showed dissolution properties similar to those of the co-ground product and only slightly lower than the system obtained by sealed-heating, which was the most

  11. Microbiological and geochemical dynamics in simulated-heap leaching of a polymetallic sulfide ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeman, Kathryn; Auvinen, Hannele; Johnson, D Barrie

    2008-11-01

    The evolution of microbial populations involved in simulated-heap leaching of a polymetallic black schist sulfide ore (from the recently-commissioned Talvivaara mine, Finland) was monitored in aerated packed bed column reactors over a period of 40 weeks. The influence of ore particle size (2-6.5 mm and 6.5-12 mm) on changes in composition of the bioleaching microflora and mineral leaching dynamics in columns was investigated and compared to fine-grain (iron-oxidizing autotroph Leptospirillum ferriphilum, with smaller numbers of Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus caldus and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans. Both metal recovery and (for the most part) total numbers of prokaryotes were greater in the column reactor containing the medium-grain than that containing the coarse-grain ore. The bioleaching communities in the columns displayed temporal changes in composition and differed radically from those in shake flask cultures. While iron-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria were always the most numerically dominant bacteria in the medium-grain column bioreactor, there were major shifts in the most abundant species present, with the type strain of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans dominating in the early phase of the experiment and other bacteria (At. ferrooxidans NO37 and L. ferriphilum) dominating from week 4 to week 40. With the coarse-grain column bioreactor, similar transitions in populations of iron-oxidizing chemoautotrophs were observed, though heterotrophic acidophiles were often the most abundant bacteria found in mineral leach liquors. Four bacteria not included in the mixed culture used to inoculate the columns were detected by biomolecular techniques and three of these (all Alicyclobacillus-like Firmicutes) were isolated as pure cultures. The fourth bacterium, identified from a clone library, was related to the Gram-positive sulfate reducer Desulfotomaculum salinum. All four were considered to have been present as endospores on the dried ore, which was

  12. Preparation of a N-Heterocyclic Carbene Nickel(II) Complex: Synthetic Experiments in Current Organic and Organometallic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritleng, Vincent; Brenner, Eric; Chetcuti, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    A four-part experiment that leads to the synthesis of a cyclopentadienyl chloro-nickel(II) complex bearing a N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand is presented. In the first part, the preparation of 1,3-bis-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolium chloride (IMes[middle dot]HCl) in a one-pot procedure by reaction of 2,4,6-trimethylaniline with…

  13. A New Approach to Pectin Manufacture by Copper Method : Part 2. Preparation of Dry Metal-Pectin Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Kausar, Pervez; Nomura, Danji

    1981-01-01

    This study was part of an attempt to develop a disintegrated pectin manufacture process to utilize to its maximum already existing facilities at citrus juice plants as well as to cut down the energy and transport costs by maximum using the wet leached peel and transporting dry metal-pectin complex to a central pectin manufacture plant for further processing instead of transporting huge volume of pectin pomace. This type of approach was thought essential to prepare cost wise competiable pectin...

  14. Preparation of Thiophene-Fused and Tetrahydroquinoline-Linked Cyclopentadienyl Titanium Complexes for Ethylene/α-Olefin Copolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hun Kim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic scheme was developed for the large-scale preparation of a dimethylthiophene-fused and tetrahydroquinaldine-linked dimethylcyclopentadienyl titanium complex (2, which is a high-performance homogeneous Ziegler catalyst. 2,3,4,5-Tetramethyl-4,5-dihydrocyclopenta[b]thiophen-6-one was prepared without chromatography purification on the 40-g scale in a laboratory setting, from which the ligand precursor for 2 was obtained in 65% yield on a 50-g scale in a one-pot without the need for chromatography purification. Metallation was achieved in a high yield (78% through reaction of the dilithiated compound with TiCl4. Many derivatives were prepared by employing the same synthetic scheme as applied for 2. Among them, the titanium complex prepared from 2-methyl-4,5-dimethyl-6-(2-n-butyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroquinolin-8-yl-4H-cyclopenta[b]thiophene exhibited an exceptionally high activity. Under commercially relevant high-temperature polymerization conditions (160 °C, this compound showed a higher activity than 2 (126 × 106 g/molTi∙h versus 72 × 106 g/molTi∙h, albeit with the formation of a polymer of slightly lower molecular weight (Mw, 159,000 versus 218,000 and with a slightly lower 1-octene content (9.3 mol% versus 12 mol%.

  15. Study of the Formulation and Preparation of Chewable Tablets With a Calcium Complex Association and Vitamin D3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Creţu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The experimental study objective was the development of
    chewable tablets with the calcium complex association, the minerals and vitamin D3 for children, subject to the rules as stipulated by the Romanian Pharmacopoeia Xth edition. Generating sources of calcium, used as raw materials in the preparation of these tablets are natural products represented by complex mineral rich in calcium - Lactoval (R HiCal (ratio of calcium and phosphorus is 2,2:1, report the same as breast milk and 30% bovine colostrums [1, 3], making the absorption of calcium should be increased. Also, in order to
    fix and better absorb calcium in the body was added to make the preparation of these chewable tablets and vitamin D3.
    Was chosen as a method of preparing direct compression. Excipients for direct compression are diluents-binder-disaggregated. They are unitary excipients or co-processed products, multi-processed excipients together to meet those properties: microcrystalline cellulose (Vivapur 102 Ludipress, lactose (Tablettose 80, Kollidon CL Isomalt DC 100. Was also added to a lubricant (magnesium stearate and sweetener and flavoring to carry out the preparation of tablets and after 30 days as provided Romanian Pharmacopoeia Xth and its 2001 supplement, which comprises: organoleptic control, uniformity of weight, strength, disintegration and their friability. Working method chosen and make the appropriate choice leads to tablets in terms of quality standards officinal.

  16. Some Transition Metal Complexes of NO Type Schiff Base: Preparation and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal CANPOLAT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal complexes of Schiff base ligand (5-bromo-3-methoxysalicyliden-p-iminoacetophenone oxime derived from 5-bromo-3-methoxsalicylaldehyde and p-aminoacetophenoneoxime is reported. Schiff base was found to be bidentate ligand involving the imino nitrogen and carboxyl oxygen atoms in the complexes. Metal to ligand ratio were found to be 1:2 for all of the complexes. Co(II, Ni(II, and Zn(II complexes have been found tetrahedral geometry and Cu(II complex has been found four coordinated geometry. The complexes are found to have the formulae [M(L2]. The compounds obtained have been characterized by their elemental analyses, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, UV spectra, magnetic susceptibility and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA.

  17. Preparation and Electronic Property Investigation of Zinc(II)-Schiff Base Complexes in the Confined Space

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Shang; Lei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Metal-Schiff base complexes have attracted continued research interest regarding their intriguing and useful features, while the electronic properties of these complexes in the confined space have not been sufficiently addressed in previous studies. In this work, a new zinc(II)-Schiff base complex bis(N-dodecyl salicylideneiminato)Zn(II) (1) was synthesized and subsequently loaded in an inorganic solid host. A large red shift (~40 nm) of the absorption onset was recorded, when the microenviro...

  18. Preparation, property of the complex of carboxymethyl chitosan grafted copolymer with iodine and application of it in cervical antibacterial biomembrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Yang, Yumin; Liao, Qingping [Zhejiang Sanchuang Biological Technology Co., Ltd., Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province 314031 (China); Yang, Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Ma, Wanfeng [Zhejiang Sanchuang Biological Technology Co., Ltd., Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province 314031 (China); Zhao, Jian [Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, The First Hospital of Peking University, Beijing 100034 (China); Zheng, Xionggao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Yang, Yang [Zhejiang Sanchuang Biological Technology Co., Ltd., Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province 314031 (China); Chen, Rui [Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, The First Hospital of Peking University, Beijing 100034 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Cervical erosion is one of the common diseases of women. The loop electrosurgical excisional procedure (LEEP) has been used widely in the treatment of the cervical diseases. However, there are no effective wound dressings for the postoperative care to protect the wound area from further infection, leading to increased secretion and longer healing time. Iodine is a widely used inorganic antibacterial agent with many advantages. However, the carrier for stable iodine complex antibacterial agents is lack. In the present study, a novel iodine carrier, Carboxymethyl chitosan-g-(poly(sodium acrylate)-co-polyvinylpyrrolidone) (CMCTS-g-(PAANa-co-PVP), was prepared by graft copolymerization of sodium acrylate (AANa) and N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) to a carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCTS) skeleton. The obtained structure could combine prominent property of poly(sodium acrylate) (PAANa) anionic polyelectrolyte segment and good complex property of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) segment to iodine. The bioactivity of CMCTS could also be kept. The properties of the complex, CMCTS-g-(PAANa-co-PVP)-I{sub 2}, were studied. The in vitro experiment shows that it has broad-spectrum bactericidal effects to virus, fungus, gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. A CMCTS-g-(PAANa-co-PVP)-I{sub 2} complex contained cervical antibacterial biomembrane (CABM) was prepared. The iodine release from the CABM is pH-dependent. The clinic trial results indicate that CABM has better treatment effectiveness than the conventional treatment in the postoperative care of the LEEP operation. - Highlights: • The multifunctional iodine complexing carrier CMCTS-g-(PAANa-co-PVP) was prepared. • CMCTS-g-(PAANa-co-PVP)-I{sub 2} with high antibacterial property and bio-safety was studied. • By compositing it with CMCTS and gelatin further, CABM with multifunction was deduced. • The releasing properties of the activated iodine from CABM showed pH sensitivity. • CABM showed good treating effect for

  19. Preparation, characterization and molecular modeling studies of the inclusion complex of Caffeine with Beta-cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, Samikannu; Swaminathan, Meenakshisundaram; Sivakumar, Krishnamoorthy; Rajamohan, Rajaram

    2015-11-01

    The formation through supramolecular interaction of a host-guest inclusion complex of caffeine (CA) with nano-hydrophobic cavity beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) is achieved by a physical mixture, a kneading method and a co-precipitation method. The formation of the inclusion complex of CA with β-CD in solution state is confirmed by UV-visible spectrophotometer, fluorescence spectrophotometer and time-resolved fluorescence spectrophotometer. The stoichiometry of the inclusion complex is 1:1; the imidazole ring and pyrimidine ring of caffeine is deeply entrapped in the beta-cyclodextrin as confirmed by spectral shifts. The Benesi-Hildebrand plot is used to calculate the binding constant of the inclusion complex of CA with β-CD at room temperature. The Gibbs free energy change of the inclusion complex process is calculated and the process is found to be spontaneous. The thermal stability of the inclusion complex of CA with β-CD is analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry. The crystal structure modification of a solid inclusion complex is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy image analysis. The formation of the inclusion complex of CA with β-CD in the solid phase is also confirmed by FT-IR and XRD. The formation of the inclusion complex between CA and β-CD, as confirmed by molecular docking studies, is in good relationship with the results obtained through different experimental methods.

  20. Preparation and structural characterization of corn starch-aroma compound inclusion complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Zhou, Yibin; Jin, Shanshan; Meng, Xin; Yang, Liping; Wang, Haisong

    2017-01-01

    Six corn starch inclusion complexes were synthesized using small nonpolar or weak polar aroma compounds (heptanolide, carvone and menthone) and small polar aroma compounds (linalool, heptanol and menthol). The objectives of this study were to (a) investigate the ability of corn starch to form inclusion complexes with these aroma compounds and (b) characterize the structure of the corn starch inclusion complexes. The resulting inclusion ratios were 75.6, 36.9, 43.8, 91.9, 67.2 and 54.7% for heptanolide, carvone, menthone, linalool, heptanol and menthol respectively. The inclusion complexes had laminated structures with a certain amount of holes or blocky constructions. Compared with gelatinized corn starch, the transition temperatures, peak temperatures and enthalpies of the inclusion complexes were significantly different. The major peak of CO at 1771 cm(-1) and significant peak shifts revealed the formation of inclusion complexes. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) analyses revealed that the crystallinity of corn starch-polar aroma compound inclusion complexes increased. Based on cross-polarization magic angle spinning (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS (13) C NMR) results, novel peaks and chemical shifts were attributed to the presence of small aroma compounds, thereby confirming the formation of corn starch inclusion complexes. Small nonpolar and polar aroma compounds can be complexed to corn starch. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Discovery of Liangyuan Nb-Ta-Rb-W-polymetallic deposit in Shixing county,Guangdong Province and its significance%广东始兴良源铌钽铷钨多金属矿床的发现及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖惠良; 陈乐柱; 鲍晓明; 范飞鹏; 周延; 吴涵宇; 姚正红; 武玲; 滕龙

    2012-01-01

    The Liangyuan Nb-Ta-Rb-W polymetallic deposit in Shixing county,Guangdong Province,a deposit with a prospect of large scale,was found during the new-round investigation of tungsten polymetallic ores in the eastern Nanling mineralization zones deployed by China Geological Survey(CGS)in recent years.The new results show that five mineralized types can be recognized in the deposit,namely,greisen-type niobium-tantalum-rubidium-tungsten polymetallic ore,muscovitization albite granite-type niobium-tantalum-tungsten polymetallic ore,quartz vein-type tungsten ore,fractured belt alterated rock-type tungsten tin polymetallic ore and skarn-type scheelite,among them,muscovitization albite granite-type niobium-tantalum-tungsten polymetallic deposit shows the most prospective potential of exploration in this area.From the top level downwards to the deeper of the ore-bearing granite,the following differentiation evolution series are successively observed: porphyritic granite,medium-fine grained biotite granite,medium-fine grained two-mica albite granite,medium-fine grained muscovitization albite granite and greisen.In addition,alteration zoning,including muscovitization,chloritization and potassic alteration,is evidently observed in the ore-bearing granite.The ore bodies mainly occur in greisens,and fine grained muscovitization albite granites,and secondarily in quartz veins.The major ore minerals are scheelite,cassiterite,wolframite,molybdenite,bismuth,stibnite,fergusonite,fluorine-tantalum minerals,columbotantalite,galena,sphalerite,chalcopyrite and pyrite.A preliminary study indicates that the Nb-Ta-Rb-W-polymetallic ore bodies might be originated from the differentiation of deep-seated ore-bearing magma.The Liangyuan Nb-Ta-Rb-W-polymetallic deposit is characteristic of stable-grade, large scale and complex ore-forming elements with a Nb-Ta-Rb-W-Mo-Sn-Bi assemblage,enriched in Be、REE、Ag.The discovery of Liangyuan deposit is not only a breakthrough of prospecting in the

  2. Preparation and in-vitro characterization of Risperidone-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes as a potential injectable product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Shukla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n Background and the purpose of the study: This investigation deals with risperidone cyclodextrin (CD complexation for parenteral administration to improve its aqueous solubility which would be beneficial over immediate and sustained release formulations available in market especially for agitated and non-cooperative psychotic patients. "nMethods: The phase solubility study of the drug with β-CD, hydroxypropyl (HP-β-CD and γ-CD was conducted and CDs with higher stability constants were selected for complexation. The complexes of Risperidone with β-CD and HP-β-CD were prepared by precipitation and vacuum drying methods, respectively. Fourier transform-infrared, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry techniques were used for characterization of complexes. Drug precipitation study of complex's solution in water for injection and 100 ml of 0.1 M pH 7.4 phosphate buffer saline and stability study in accelerated condition were also carried out. "nResults: The stability constants of the CD were in the following order: β-CD (341.953±11.87 M-1 > HP-β-CD (170.817± 5.93 M-1 > γ-CD (93.716 ± 3.25 M-1. CDs with high stability constants were selected to prepare the drug CD complex. The complexation efficiencies of β-CD and HP-β-CD were 95.23 ± 2.27% and 97.59 ±1.97%, respectively. Both types of CDs exhibited complexation at 1:2 molar stoichiometric ratio. The drug precipitation study indicated complete solubility (100% drug dissolution without a trace of precipitate within 5 mins. The complexes were found to be stable for a period of 3 months under accelerated stability conditions. Major conclusion:Stable complexes of risperidone were successfully formulated using both β-CD and HP-β-CD by simple and highly efficient methods of complexation for parenteral administration.

  3. Preparation and photoluminescence enhancement in terbium(III ternary complexes with β-diketone and monodentate auxiliary ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devender Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of new solid ternary complexes of terbium(III ion based on β-diketone ligand acetylacetone (acac and monodentate auxiliary ligands (aqua/urea/triphenylphosphineoxide/pyridine-N-oxide had been prepared. The structural characterizations of synthesized ternary compounds were studied by means of elemental analysis, infrared (IR, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectral techniques. The optical characteristics were investigated with absorption as well as photoluminescence spectroscopy. Thermal behavior of compounds was examined by TGA/DTA analysis and all metal complexes were found to have good thermal stability. The luminescence decay time of complexes were also calculated by monitoring at emission wavelength corresponding to 5D4 → 7F5 transition. A comparative inspection of the luminescent behavior of prepared ternary compounds was performed in order to determine the function of auxiliary ligands in the enhancement of luminescence intensity produced by central terbium(III ion. The color coordinates values suggested that compounds showed bright green emission in visible region in electromagnetic spectrum. Complexes producing green light could play a significant role in the fabrication of efficient light conversion molecular devices for display purposes and lightning systems.

  4. Preparation and characterization of a novel Astragalus membranaceus polysaccharide-iron (III) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qi; Xu, Lei; Meng, Yongbin; Liu, Ying; Li, Jian; Zu, Yuangang; Zhu, Minghua

    2016-12-01

    Astragalus membranaceus polysaccharide-iron (III) complex (APS-iron) was synthesized and characterized. Based on single factor and response surface optimization experiments of APS-iron (III) complex synthesis, the optimum conditions of APS-iron (III) complex were obtained as follows: the reaction temperature 89.46°C, pH 8.16, reaction time 46.04min and ratio of catalyst to APS 0.75, respectively. The reaction temperature was the most significant factor, followed by pH, reaction time and the ratio of catalyst to APS in the four reaction parameters. The highest iron content (19.32%) of APS-iron (III) complex was obtained at the optimum conditions, which was characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), antioxidant activities of the APS-iron (III) complex and iron release of APS-iron (III) complex in vitro assay. The results indicated the APS-iron (III) complex had good bioavailability and antioxidant activities in vitro assays. So, it was potential for APS-iron (III) complex as a candidate for iron supplements.

  5. Properties of High Amylose Starch-Beeswax Inclusion Complexes Prepared by Steam Jet Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylose is known to form inclusion complexes with a large number of polar and non-polar organic compounds including fatty acids. Amylose inclusion complexes are proposed to be employed as carrier for delivering ligands with desired functional properties in food and nutritional supplement products. ...

  6. Photocatalysis; IV. Preparation and characterization of a stable copper(I) triflate-trans-cycloheptene complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.T.M.; Mackor, A.

    1979-01-01

    When copper(I) triflate·cis‐cycloheptene is irradiated at 254 nm in n‐hexane solution, cis → trans‐isomerization occurs and the stable complex copper (I) triflate·trans‐cycloheptene precipitates. This complex has been isolated, purified and characterized by elemental analysis and by its 1H and 13C N

  7. STUDY ON TECTONIC FEATURE AND METALLOGENIC MECHANISM OF THE PENGSHAN Sn-Pb-Zn POLYMETALLIC OREFIELD,JIANGXI PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Shudong; DU Yangsong; XIAO E; XU Chunwei

    2005-01-01

    The Pengshan Sn-Pb-Zn polymetallic orefield is located in the Jiujiang-Ruichang region, which is a segment of the middle-lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt. The Pengshan late Yanshanian buried pluton with granitic composition is a calc-alkaline pluton, intrusion of which is responsible for the formation of the Sn-Pb-Zn polymetallic deposit through providing thermodynamic condition and ore-forming material.The long-active basement rifts initially formed in the Jinning period and the domal structure with induced secondary order faults formed by emplacement of the pluton, such as ring-detachment fault,top-detachment fault and joint fissure, act as the passage-way for magma and ore-forming fluid and impounding structure for ore deposit. The magma to form the pluton with DI>90 is intensively differentiated. The variation of the ore-forming fluid in composition with falling in temperature caused by action of magmatic hydrothermal convection system combined with groundwater convection system attributes to mineralization of various types in the orefield. The mineralization process can be divided into six stages, i.e., greisenization, skarnization of early stage, fluorite-stanniferous silication stage, skarnization of advanced stage, quartz and cassiterite-sulfuration stage and carbonation stage. The mineral assemblages formed in different mineralization stages are different owing to temperature changing and may be overlapped in space. Malayaite is recognized from the mineral assemblage formed in the fluorite-stanniferous silication stage. The ores in the Pengshan Sn-Pb-Zn polymetallic deposit are spatially zoned with variation from As-Sn mineral assemblage of high temperature in the inner zone through Sn-Pb and Pb-Zn-Ag mineral assemblage of middle temperature in the middle zone to fluorite mineral assemblage of low temperature in the outer zone.The exchanging of Sn,Mg and Fe between biotite and hydrothermal fluid resulted from variation of physicochemical condition

  8. [Preparation and activity of metal complexes with heteroatomic organic ligands. Preliminary note].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramazza, R; Cereti Mazza, M T; De Cicco, L

    1990-08-01

    Various coordination compounds were prepared between transition metals (in particular copper, zinc, silver and cobalt) and benzotriazole 5-methylbenzotriazole, 2-methylbenzotriazole and 2-methylbenzimidazole. Compounds of this type present a significant herbicidal capacity both on monocotyledons and dicotyledons and some of them also present an antimicrobic activity. The method of preparation, the principal chemical characteristics and the analyses to determine the formulae are reported. It was observed that metal can coordinate with benzotriazole and its derivatives either as a neutral molecule (BTAH) or as a deprotonated anion (BTA-), or as a combination of both (BTAH and BTA-).

  9. Preparation and characterization of salmon calcitonin-sodium triphosphate ionic complex for oral delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hea Eun; Lee, Min Jung; Park, Cho Rong; Kim, A Young; Chun, Kyung Hwa; Hwang, Hee Jin; Oh, Dong Ho; Jeon, Sang Ok; Kang, Jae Seon; Jung, Tae Sung; Choi, Guang Jin; Lee, Sangkil

    2010-04-19

    Even though salmon calcitonin (sCT) has been known as a potent hypocalcemic agent, only injection or nasal spray products are available on the market. In order to develop oral delivery system of the agent, a novel sCT-sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) ionic complex was fabricated and also characterized. For the optimization of the ionic complexation, the effect of incubation time and molar ratio between sCT and STPP was evaluated. Particle size of the ionic complex in aqueous media, SEM images, DSC, FT-IR, in vitro release test, stability within the simulated intestinal fluid, and hypocalcemic effect were evaluated. The optimal molar complexation ratio of sCT to STPP was ranged from 1:5 to 1:10 and the complexation efficiency was about 95%. The SEM image has shown that the freeze dried ionic complex has rough morphology in their surface and the particle size in PBS (pH 7.4) was about 220nm. The DSC and FT-IR results provided evidences for ionic interaction between -NH(2) groups and -P horizontal lineO groups of sCT and STPP, respectively. The sCT ionic complex has shown sustained sCT releasing characteristics for 3weeks. The sCT-STPP ionic complex was protective to enzymatic attack and in vivo animal data revealed that the present ionic complex would show continuous hypocalcemic effect. Conclusively, the present sCT-STPP ionic complex formulation thought to be a novel oral delivery candidate for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  10. Preparation and antibacterial activity of copper and cobalt complexes of 4-chloro-3-nitrobenzoate with a nitrogen donor ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbani, Ahmad Toufic; Hammud, Hassan Hasan; Ghannoum, Amer Mohammed

    2007-03-01

    Copper and cobalt complexes with 4-chloro-3-nitrobenzoate (ClNBz) and the nitrogen ligands 1,3-diaminopropane (1,3-DAP) or o-phenylenediamine (o-PDA), were prepared and characterized. The complexes [Cu(ClNBz)2(1,3-DAP)] (1), [Cu(ClNBz)(o-PDA)]Cl (2), [Co(ClNBz)2(1,3-DAP)] (3) and [Co(ClNBz)2(o-PDA)2] (4) were characterized by FTIR, UV-Visible absorption, elemental analysis and thermal analysis. Complex [Cu(ClNBz)(o-PDA)]Cl (2) shows high antibacterial activity as indicated by its ability to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis.

  11. Preparation and XPS studies of macromolecule mixed-valent Cu(I, II) and Fe(II, III) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Bo [Institute of Energy Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' An 710062 (China)]. E-mail: wangbo@snnu.edu.cn; Gao Fengqin [Institute of Energy Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' An 710062 (China); Department of Chemistry, Xianyang Normal University, Xianyang (China); Ma Hongzhu [Institute of Energy Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' An 710062 (China)

    2007-06-01

    A new macromolecule ligand and its mixed-valent Cu(I, II) and Fe(II, III) complexes have been prepared by using ethylenediamine as core and maleic anhydride as branched units and characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, thermal analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The data obtained from these studies suggested that the coordinate bonds of N {sup {yields}} M, Cl {sup {yields}} M, Ph-OH {sup {yields}} M and H{sub 2}O {sup {yields}} M have been formed and possible binding models are proposed for these complexes. The thermal analysis (TG-DTG) reveals that these complexes possess thermal stable property below 800 deg. C.

  12. Designing Photocatalysts for Hydrogen Evolution: Are Complex Preparation Strategies Necessary to Produce Active Catalysts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Tobias; Tüysüz, Harun

    2015-09-21

    A facile synthetic route for the preparation of highly active photocatalysts was developed. The protocol involves the preparation of a photocatalyst through the direct injection of metal alkoxide precursors into solutions in a photoreactor. As a proof of concept, a tantalum oxide based photocatalyst was chosen as a model system. Tantalum ethoxide [Ta(OEt)5 ] was injected rapidly into a photoreactor filled with a water/methanol mixture, and a TaOx (OH)y composite formed and was able to produce hydrogen under light illumination. Compared to commercial and mesostructured Ta2 O5 and NaTaO3 materials, TaOx (OH)y produced by direct injection shows superior hydrogen production activity. Notably, the samples prepared by direct injection are amorphous; however, their photocatalytic performance is much higher than those of their crystalline equivalents. If Ta(OEt)5 was dispersed in methanol before injection, an amorphous framework with higher surface area and larger pore volume was formed, and the hydrogen production rate increased further. The addition of a sodium precursor during the injection further boosted the photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, this concept has also been applied to a titanium-based photocatalyst, and a much better hydrogen production rate has been obtained in comparison with that of commercial TiO2 (P25-Degussa); therefore, the direct-injection synthesis is a flexible method that opens the door to the facile preparation of highly active nanostructured photocatalysts for hydrogen production.

  13. Starch aerogel beads obtained from inclusion complexes prepared from high amylose starch and sodium palmitate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch aerogels are a class of low density highly porous renewable materials currently prepared from retrograded starch gels and are of interest for their good surface area, porosity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Recently, we have reported on starches containing amylose-fatty acid salt h...

  14. Preparation, structural characterization and biological evaluation of L-tyrosinate metal ion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S.; El-Korashy, Sabry A.; Ahmed, Ahmed S.

    2008-06-01

    The complexes formed between different metal ions and biological molecules like amino acids play an important role in human life. Sn(II), Sn(IV), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Cr(III), Fe(III), La(III), ZrO(II) and UO 2(II) complexes are synthesized with L-tyrosine (tyr). These complexes are characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic measurements, mass, IR, UV-vis and 1H NMR spectra as well as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG). It has been found from the elemental analysis and the thermal studies that the ligand behaves as bidentate ligand forming chelates with 1:3 (metal:ligand) stoichiometry for trivalent metals and 1:2 for divalent and tetravalent metals. The molar conductance measurements of the complexes in DMSO indicate that the complexes are non-electrolyte. The activation energies and other kinetic parameters were calculated from the Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger equations. The biological activities of the metal complexes have also been studied against different bacteria and fungi.

  15. Bioturbation in near-surface sediments from the COMRA Polymetallic Nodule Area:evidence from excess 210Pb measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qunhui; ZHOU Huaiyang

    2004-01-01

    In order to evaluate bioturbation in sediments from the COMRA Polymetallic Nodule Area in the northeast tropical Pacific, excess 210Pb profiles in sediments cores collected with multiple corers during R/V DAYANGYIHAO Environmental Program Cruise in 1998 were measured by direct gamma assay using Ortec HPGe GWL series well-type coaxial low background intrinsic germanium detectors. A steady-state diffusion model of excess 210Pb profiles suggests that bioturbation mixing depths and biodiffusion coefficients are 16 cm and 2.75 cm2/a in East Zone, and 6 cm and 0.26 cm2/a in West Zone, respectively. Furthermore, the observations of macrofauna and measurements of total organic carbon (TOC) content in sediments suggest that bioturbation is directly controlled by species and abundance of benthic fauna, such as polychaete, and the bioturbation mixing depth and intensity are positively correlated with the organic matter content.

  16. Rapid Microwave Digestion Procedures for the Elemental Analysis of Alloy and Slag Samples of Smelted Ocean Bed Polymetallic Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Smita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwave digester for digestion of alloy and slag samples of smelted ocean bed polymetallic nodules has permitted the complete digestion of samples, thereby replacing the tedious classical methods of digestion of samples. The digestion procedure includes two acid-closed digestions of samples in a microwave oven. Owing to the hazardous nature of perchloric acid, it was not used in developed digestion procedure. Digested sample solutions were analyzed for concentrations of various radicals and the effectiveness of the developed digestion methodology was tested using certified reference materials. It was found that the developed method is giving results comparable with that obtained from conventionally digested samples. In this digestion procedure, time required for digestion of samples was reduced to about 1 hour only from 8-9 hours of conventional digestion.

  17. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration area, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Cnidaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Helena; Rabone, Muriel; Amon, Diva J; Ikebe, Chiho; Watling, Les; Smith, Craig R; Glover, Adrian G

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background We present data from a DNA taxonomy register of the abyssal Cnidaria collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise ‘AB01’ to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration area ‘UK-1’ in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific Ocean abyssal plain. This is the second paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules. Data were collected from the UK-1 exploration area following the methods described in Glover et al. (2015b). New information Morphological and genetic data are presented for 10 species and 18 records identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data, including molecular phylogenetic analyses. These included 2 primnoid octocorals, 2 isidid octocorals, 1 anemone, 4 hydroids (including 2 pelagic siphonophores accidentally caught) and a scyphozoan jellyfish (in the benthic stage of the life cycle). Two taxa matched previously published genetic sequences (pelagic siphonophores), two taxa matched published morphological descriptions (abyssal primnoids described from the same locality in 2015) and the remaining 6 taxa are potentially new species, for which we make the raw data, imagery and vouchers available for future taxonomic study. We have used a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections. For some of the specimens we also provide image data collected at the seabed by ROV, wich may facilitate more accurate taxon designation in coming ROV or AUV surveys. PMID:27660533

  18. Isotopic and fluid-inclusion constraints on the formation of polymetallic vein deposits in the central Argentinian Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejonghe, Léon; Darras, Benoît; Hughes, Guillermo; Muchez, Philippe; Scoates, James S.; Weis, Dominique

    2002-03-01

    The lead isotope compositions of galena and the fluid-inclusion systematics of nine barite-bearing polymetallic (Au, Ag, Pb, Zn) deposits of the central Argentinian Patagonia (Chubut and Rio Negro provinces) have been investigated to constrain the compositions and sources of the mineralizing fluids. Most of the deposits occur as veins, with less common wall-rock disseminations and/or stockworks, and are low-sulfidation epithermal deposits hosted in Jurassic volcanic rocks. Fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures (Th) from quartz and sphalerite from the deposits fall within the range of 100-300 °C, with the highest measured average temperatures for the most eastern deposits (Mina Angela - 298 °C; Cañadón Bagual - 343 °C). The salinities of the hydrothermal fluids at all deposits were low to moderate (≤10.4 equiv. wt% NaCl). Three groups of ore deposits can be defined on the basis of 206Pb/204Pb ratios for galena and these show a general decrease from west to east (from 18.506 to 18.000). The central Argentinian Patagonia deposits have distinctly less radiogenic lead isotope compositions than similar deposits from Peru and Chile, except for the porphyry copper deposits of central and southern Peru. Galena from the Mina Angela deposit is characterized by very low radiogenic lead isotope compositions (18.000Precambrian basement. The geographic trend in lead isotope compositions of both galena and whole rocks indicates a crustal contribution which increases eastwards, also reflected in the strontium-neodymium isotope systematics of the host lavas. Finally, due to the lack of precise age determinations for the central Patagonian polymetallic deposits, a potential link with Andean porphyry copper systems remains an open question.

  19. Preparation, stability and antimicrobial activity of cationic cross-linked starch-iodine complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaviciute, Rima; Bendoraitiene, Joana; Rutkaite, Ramune; Siugzdaite, Jurate; Zemaitaitis, Algirdas

    2012-12-01

    Cationic cross-linked starch (CCS)-iodine complexes containing different amounts of quaternary ammonium groups (different degrees of substitution (DS)) and iodine have been obtained by iodine adsorption on CCS from aqueous iodine potassium iodide solution. Equilibrium adsorption studies showed that with an increase of DS the amount of iodine adsorbed on CCS and the affinity of iodine to CCS increased linearly. The influences of the DS of CCS and the amount of adsorbed iodine on the stability of CCS-iodine complexes in a solution of 0.02M sodium acetate and reactivity toward l-tyrosine have been investigated. At the same DS, the stability of CCS-iodine complexes decreased with an increase of the amount of adsorbed iodine. With increasing the DS, the stability of CCS-iodine complexes increased. The iodine consumption in the reaction with l-tyrosine increased significantly with an increase of the amount of adsorbed iodine. The influence of DS on iodine consumption was lower and depended on the amount of adsorbed iodine. The antibacterial activity of CCS-iodine complexes against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli was determined by the broth-dilution and spread-plate methods. The obtained results have demonstrated that an appropriate selection of the CCS-iodine complex composition (the DS of CCS and the amount of adsorbed iodine) could ensure good antimicrobial properties by keeping a low concentration of free iodine in the system. The main advantage of using CCS-iodine complexes as antimicrobial agents is the biodegradability of the polymeric matrix.

  20. Preparation, structure and microbial evaluation of metal complexes of the second generation quinolone antibacterial drug lomefloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeek, Sadeek A.; El-Shwiniy, Walaa H.

    2010-09-01

    Lomefloxacinate of Y(III), Zr(IV) and U(VI) were isolated as solids with the general formula; [Y(LFX) 2Cl 2]Cl·12H 2O, [ZrO(LFX) 2Cl]Cl·15H 2O and [UO 2(LFX) 3](NO 3) 2·4H 2O. The new synthesized complexes were characterized with physicochemical and diverse spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV-Vis. and 1H NMR spectroscopies) as well as thermal analyses. In these complexes lomefloxacin act as bidentate ligand bound to the metal ions through the pyridone oxygen and one carboxylate oxygen. The kinetic parameters of thermogravimetric (TGA) and its differential (DTG), such as entropy of activation, activation energy, enthalpy of activation and Gibbs free energy evaluated by using Coats- Redfern and Horowitz- Metzger equations for free lomefloxacin and three complexes were carried out. The bond stretching force constant and length of the U dbnd O bond for the [UO 2(LFX) 3](NO 3) 2·4H 2O complex were calculated. The antimicrobial activity of lomefloxacin and its metal complexes was tested against different bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species and also against two species of antifungal, penicillium ( P. rotatum) and trichoderma ( T. sp.). The three complexes are of a good action against three bacterial species but the Y(III) complex exhibit excellent activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa), when compared to the free lomefloxacin.

  1. The preparation and use of metal salen complexes derived from cyclobutane diamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Smita

    The helix is an important chiral motif in nature, there is increasing development in field of helical transition metal complexes and related supramolecular structures. Hence, the goals of this work are to apply the principles of helicity in order to produce metal complexes with predictable molecular shapes and to study their properties as asymmetric catalysts. Computational studies suggest that the (1R,2 R)-cyclobutyldiamine unit can produce highly twisted salen complexes with a large energy barrier between the M and P helical forms. To test this prediction, the tartrate salt of (1R,2R)-cyclobutyldiamine was synthesized and condensed with a series of saliclaldehydes to produce novel salen ligands. The salicylaldehydes chosen have extended phenanthryl or benz[a]anthryl sidearms to encourage formation of helical coordination complexes. These ligands were metallated with zinc, iron and manganese salts to produce salen metal complexes which were characterized by NMR analysis, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and IR spectroscopy. A second ligand type, neutral bis(pyridine-imine) has also been synthesized from (1R,2R)-cyclobutyldiamine and quinolylaldehydes. The synthesis of bis(pyridine-imine) ligands was conducted using greener method, solvent assisted grinding. These ligands, in-situ with nickel metal salts, showed good catalytic activity for asymmetric Diels-Alder reactions. The third ligand type studied was chiral acid-functionalized Schiff-base ligands. These were synthesized by the condensation of 3-formyl-5-methyl salicylic acid and (1R,2R)-cyclobutyldiamine. With this type of ligand, there is possibility of producing both mono and dinuclear metal complexes. In our studies, we were only able to synthesize mononuclear complexs. These were tested as catalysts for asymmetric direct Mannich-type reaction, but were found to be ineffective.

  2. Preparation and assessment cytotoxic and hemolytic activities of Complexes from “Chelating Kojic–Lipid Conjugate”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio S. C. Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex bis (2-Oleicoyloxymethyl-5-hydroxy-gamma-pyrone copper (II and tris (2-Oleicoyloxymethyl-5-hydroxy-gamma-pyrone iron (III were prepared in ethanol using the structure "chelator conjugate kojic -lipid". This ester was obtained from kojic acid by improving their lipophilicity of obtaining metalobioactives with application in Medicinal Bioinorganic Chemistry. Through the technique ATR/FTIR, the values ​​of the infrared kojic acid has been updated and it was possible to characterize      the complex 1567m, 1511w (Cu (II←[O=C]2, and 1540m, 1519m (Fe(III←[O=C]3. These compounds no showed cytotoxic potential against B16 (melanoma and ACP02 (gastric adenocarcinoma (IC50> 5 μg mL-1 and low hemolytic activity (EC50> 250 μg mL-1.The preparation of these new molecules by structural modification techniques and these interesting biological results confirm the continuity of this studies related to these coordination complexes to glimpse the possibility of obtaining other derivatives/ analogues with significant biological potential of this metallo-bioactive.

  3. Preparation of polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles of chitosan and poly(2-acry1amido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) for doxorubicin release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Jie; Ni, Caihua; Zhang, Yanan; Shi, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A new kind of polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) based on cationic chitosan (CS) and anionic poly(2-acry1amido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) (PAMPS) was prepared using a polymer-monomer pair reaction system. Chitosan was mixed with 2-acry1amido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) (AMPS) in an aqueous solution, followed by polymerization of AMPS. The complex was formed by electrostatic interaction of NH3(+) groups of CS and SO3(-) groups of AMPS, leading to a formation of complex nanoparticles of CS-PAMPS. A series of nanoparticles were obtained by changing the weight ratio of CS to AMPS, the structure and properties of nanoparticles were investigated. It was observed that the nanoparticles possessed spherical morphologies with average diameters from 255 nm to 390 nm varied with compositions of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were used as drug vehicles for doxorubicin, displaying relative high drug loading rate and encapsulation rate. The vitro release profiles revealed that the drug release could be controlled by adjusting pH of the release media. The nanoparticles demonstrated apparent advantages such as simple preparation process, free of organic solvents, size controllable, good biodegradability and biocompatibility, and they could be potentially used in drug controlled release field.

  4. Feasibility of antibody-poly(glutamic acid) complexes: preparation of high-concentration antibody formulations and their pharmaceutical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaki, Shunsuke; Kurinomaru, Takaaki; Maruyama, Takuya; Uchida, Takayuki; Handa, Kenji; Kimoto, Tomoaki; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2015-06-01

    Development of high-concentration antibody formulations for subcutaneous administration remains challenging. Recently, a precipitation-redissolution method was proposed to prepare suspensions or precipitates of salt-dissociable protein-poly(amino acid) complexes. To elucidate the utility of this method for protein therapy, we investigated the feasibility of a precipitation-redissolution method using poly(amino acid) for high-concentration antibody formulation. Omalizumab and adalimumab formulations of 150 mg/mL could be prepared using poly-l-glutamic acid (polyE) from low-concentration stock solutions. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, circular dichroism, and size-exclusion chromatography revealed that the formation of antibody-polyE complex and precipitation-redissolution process did not significantly affect the immunoreactivity or secondary structure of the antibodies. The precipitation-redissolution method was less time-consuming and more effective than lyophilization-redissolution, evaporation-redissolution, and ultrafiltration from the viewpoint of final yield. Scalability was confirmed from 400 μL to 1.0 L. The general toxicity and pharmacokinetic profiles of the antibody-polyE complex formulations were similar to those of conventional antibody formulations. These results suggested that the precipitation-redissolution method using poly(amino acid) has great potential as a concentration method for antibody formulation and medicinal use.

  5. Preparation of alumina-doped yttria-stabilized zirconia nanopowders by microwave-assisted peroxyl-complex coprecipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Liang; XU Ming-xia; TIAN Yu-ming; ZHAO Jin-wei

    2006-01-01

    Alumina-doped yttria-stabilized zirconia (ADYSZ) nanopowders were prepared by microwave-assisted peroxyl-complex coprecipitation (MAPCC) using ZrOCl2·8H2O,Y2O3 and AlCl3·6H2O as starting materials,NH3·H2O as precipitant and H2O2 as complexant. The effects of adding H2O2 and microwave drying on the preparation and properties of ADYSZ were investigated. The precursors and nanopowders were studied by EDX,XRD,SEM and TEM techniques. The results show that the uniformity of component distribution within ADYSZ nanopowders is improved by adding appropriate dosage of H2O2. Complexing reaction between H2O2 and Zr4+ ion restrains the hydrolyzation and precipitation of Zr4+ ion. With the addition of H2O2,Al3+,Y3+ and Zr4+ ions can be precipitated synchronously in a relatively narrow range of pH value. H2O2 also improves the filterability of the wet precipitate. The highly hydrophilic precipitates can be quickly and effectively separated from aqueous solution. During microwave drying process,the moisture of wet precursors is selectively heated. Quick expansion of steam vapor within the wet colloidal particles causes the aggregations burst into numerous tiny lumps. Compared with oven drying,microwave drying can not only shorten drying time but also reduce aggregation intensity of the resultant ADYSZ nanopowders.

  6. Preparation and characterization of PVA–I complex doped mesoporous TiO{sub 2} by hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Qian [School of Chemistry and Material Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Jiang, Caiyun [Department of Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu Institute of Economic and Trade Technology, Nanjing 210007 (China); Wang, Yuping, E-mail: wangyuping@njnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Material Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 210093 (China); Yang, Weiben; Yang, Chun [School of Chemistry and Material Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Polyvinyl alcohol [PVA]–iodine complex doped mesoporous TiO{sub 2} (PIT) and iodine doped (IT) catalysts were prepared by hydrothermal method, using tetrabutyl titanate as precursor, potassium iodate and iodine as iodine sources. The as-prepared PIT and IT catalysts were characterized by UV–vis, XRD, FESEM, BET, TG/DTA, XPS and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Production of ·OH radicals on the surface of photocatalyst was detected by the PL technique using terephthalic acid as a probe molecule. The influences of calcinated temperature on the structure and properties of the catalysts were investigated. The photocatalytic activity of catalysts was evaluated through photocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue (MB) aqueous solution. The results showed that PIT samples were anatase mesoporous TiO{sub 2} and their iodine content and mesoporous structure were influenced by calcinated temperature. Particle size of PIT samples was smaller than that of IT as a result of the PVA skeleton and regular structure. Because of the complexation of iodine and PVA, thermostability of iodine is improved and the amount of iodine in PIT calcinated at 200 °C (PIT-200) is higher than that of IT calcinated at same temperature. Light absorption range and intensity of PIT-200 has been greatly improved due to the synergy of iodine and carbon. The efficiency of photocatalysis for MB is greatly improved with TiO{sub 2} modified by PVA–I complex under simulated sun light irradiation.

  7. Magmatism and polymetallic mineralization in southwestern Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xudong; Lu, Jianjun; Wang, Rucheng; Ma, Dongsheng

    2016-04-01

    As Neoproterozoic suture zone between the Yangtze Block and Cathaysia Block, Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt is one of the 21 key metallogenic belts in China. Intensive multiple-aged felsic magmatism and related polymetallic mineralization take place in this belt. Although Neoproterozoic, Paleozoic, Triassic granites and associated deposits have been found in southwestern Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt, Middle-Late Jurassic (150-165 Ma) magmatism and related mineralization is of the most importance. Three major kinds of Middle-Late Jurassic granitoids have been distinguished. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids are slightly differentiated, calc-alkaline and metaluminous dioritic to granodioritic rocks. Sn-(W)-bearing granites contain dark microgranular enclaves and have high contents of REE and HFSE, suggesting affinities of aluminous A-type (A2) granites. W-bearing granites are highly differentiated and peraluminous rocks. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids have ɛNd(t) values of -11 ˜ -4 and ɛHf(t) values of -12 ˜ -7, corresponding to TDMC(Nd) from 1.4 to 1.8 Ga and TDMC(Hf) from 1.6 to 2.0 Ga, respectively. The ɛNd(t) values of W-bearing granites vary from -11 to -8 with TDMC(Nd) of 1.6 ˜ 1.9 Ga and ɛHf(t) values change from -16 to -7 with TDMC(Hf) of 1.5 ˜ 2.0 Ga. Compared with (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids and W-bearing granites, the Sn-(W)-bearing granites have higher ɛNd(t) (-8 ˜ -2) and ɛHf(t) (-8 ˜ -2) values and younger TDMC(Nd) (1.1 ˜ 1.6 Ga) and TDMC(Hf) (1.2 ˜ 1.8 Ga) values, showing a more juvenile isotopic character. Sn-(W)-bearing granites originate from partial melting of granulitized lower crust involved with some mantle-derived materials. W-bearing granites are derived from partial melting of crust. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids are also derived from crust but may be influenced by more mantle-derived materials. For (Cu)-Pb-Zn deposits, skarn and carbonate replacement are the most important mineralization types. Cu ore bodies mainly

  8. Remote preparation of complex spatial states of single photons and verification by two-photon coincidence experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoonshik; Cho, Kiyoung; Noh, Jaewoo; Vitullo, Dashiell L P; Leary, Cody; Raymer, M G

    2010-01-18

    We propose and provide experimental evidence in support of a theory for the remote preparation of a complex spatial state of a single photon. An entangled two-photon source was obtained by spontaneous parametric down-conversion, and a double slit was placed in the path of the signal photon as a scattering object. The signal photon was detected after proper spatial filtering so that the idler photon was prepared in the corresponding single-photon state. By using a two-photon coincidence measurement, we obtained the Radon transform, at several longitudinal distances, of the single-photon Wigner distribution function modified by the double slit. The experimental results are consistent with the idler photon being in a pure state. An inverse Radon transformation can, in principle, be applied to the measured data to reconstruct the modified single-photon Wigner function, which is a complete representation of the amplitude and phase structure of the scattering object.

  9. Preparation and surface photoelectric properties of Fe(II/III) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Xu, Xiao-Ting; Li, Dan; Han, Xiao; Li, Lei; Chi, Yu-Xian; Niu, Shu-Yun; Zhang, Guang-Ning

    2013-05-01

    Four Fe(II/III) supramolecules, {[Fe(Hpdc)2(H2O)2]·2H2O} (1), [Fe(HImbc)2(H2O)2] (2), [Fe(phen)2(CN)2]·CH3CH2OH·2H2O (3), K[Fe(tp)2]·SO4 (4) (H2pdc = 2,5-Pyridinedicarboxylic acid, H2Imbc = 4,5-Imidazoledicarboxylic acid, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, tp- = poly(pyrazolyl)borate), were synthesized by hydrothermal and room temperature stirring methods. They were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS), field-induced surface photovoltage spectroscopy (FISPS), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), UV-Vis absorption spectra (UV-Vis), infrared spectra (IR) and element analysis. The structural analyses indicate that complex (1) is a supramolecule with 2D structure connected by hydrogen bonds. Complex (2) is a supramolecule with hydrogen-bonded 3D structure. Complexes (3) and (4) are both 1D supramolecules connected by hydrogen bonds. The electronic state of central metal Fe(II) ions in complexes (1) and (2) is d6 with FeN2O4 coordination mode, lying in weaker distorted octahedral field. The electronic state of Fe(II) ion in complex (3) is d6 with Fe(CN)2N4 mode in the strong distorted octahedral field. The electronic state of Fe(III) ion in complex (4) is d5 with FeN6 mode, lying in the strong octahedral field. The micro-environment of Fe(II/III) ions in the four complexes is further investigated by EPR. The SPS of four complexes all exhibit photovoltage responses in the range of 300-700 nm. This indicates that they all possess certain photoelectric conversion capability. The effects of component, structure, type of ligands of the complexes, valence state and coordination micro-environment of the central metal ions on the SPS were discussed. Furthermore, the SPS and UV-Vis absorption spectra were interrelated.

  10. The preparation and characterization of trans-platinum(IV) complexes with unusually high cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubo, Leticia; Hambley, Trevor W; Sanz Miguel, Pablo J; Carnero, Amancio; Navarro-Ranninger, Carmen; Quiroga, Adoración G

    2011-01-14

    The physical and biological properties have been determined for three Pt(IV) complexes with trans amine ligands: trans,trans,trans-[PtCl(2)(OH)(2)(dimethylamine)(isopropylamine)] (1(IV)), trans,trans,trans-[PtCl(2)(OH)(2)(dimethylamine)(methylamine)] (2(IV)) and trans,trans,trans-[PtCl(2)(OH)(2)(isopropylamine)(methylamine)] (3(IV)). The crystal structures of 2(IV) and 3(IV) reveal substantial strain resulting from repulsion between the amine ligands and the chlorido and hydroxido ligands. All three complexes have reduction potentials in the range -666 to -770 mV, values usually associated with high resistance to reduction and low cytotoxicity. However, the complexes all demonstrate surprisingly high cytotoxicity with values and trends that closely follow those seen for the Pt(II) congeners of these complexes. These results are consistent with more rapid reduction of the Pt(IV) complexes than would be expected based on the reduction potentials, perhaps associated with the trans arrangement of the chlorido ligands.

  11. Osmium Complexes Useful in the Preparation of Metal Thin Film and Highly Efficient Electroluminescent Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Chi

    2004-01-01

    Treatment of β-diketone ligand, such as hfacH (hexafluoroacetylacetone), with Os3(CO)12 in a stainless steel autoclave at elevated temperature afforded the corresponding mononuclear osmium complex [Os(CO)3(hfac)(tfa)] (1) in good yield. This complex is highly volatile and displays moderate stability at the higher temperatures; thus, it can be utilized for depositing metal thin-film material with overall quality comparable or better than those deposited using the commercially available chemical reagents. Moreover, combination of Os3(CO)12 with another class of chelate ligand such as 3-trifluoromethyl-5-(2-pyridyl) pyrazole (ppz)H gave formation of the Os(H) dicarbonyl complex [Os(CO)2(ppz)2] (2). This osmium complex shows blue phosphorescence at room temperature, which is characteristic for the 3ππ* emission with vibronic progressions at 430,457 and 480 nm. The remarkable photophysical properties were rationalized by a combination of π electron accepting CO ligand, relative ppz orientation and heavy-atom enhanced spin-orbit coupling effects. Related chemical transformations that afforded other useful luminescent Os complexes are presented.

  12. Preparation and characterization of inclusion complexes of antitumor camptothecin with cucurbit[n=7,8]urils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The slightly water-soluble anticancer drug camptothecin(CPT) and its inclusion complexes with cucurbit[n = 7,8]uril(Q[n](n = 7,8)) were investigated.The formation of 1:2 complexes with Q[n](n = 7,8) in aqueous solution was confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy and the apparent stability constants were determined to be higher than 3.01 × 1012 L2/mol2.The solid inclusion complexes of CPT and Q[n](n = 7,8) were also prepared by the co-evaporation method and characterized by Fourier transformation-infrared spectroscopy,differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction.Aqueous solubility and dissolution studies indicate that the complexes exhibited significantly increased dissolution rates compared with the pure drug and physical mixtures.The potential of Q[7] or Q[8] for stabilizing lactone modality of CPT was investigated by the High Performance Liquid Chromatography(HPLC) method.The results reveal more than 63% CPT lactone form(active form) in CPT-Q[7] or Q[8] complexes compared to only 36% CPT lactone form in the absence of Q[7] or Q[8] after being incubated in the phosphate buffer solution(pH 7.4 at 37 °C) for 5h.

  13. Inclusion complex of tamibarotene with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin: Preparation, characterization, in-vitro and in-vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to improve the solubility and oral bioavailability of tamibarotene by complexing it with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD. The inclusion complex of tamibarotene with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (Am80-HP-β-CD was prepared through a freeze-drying method at the mole ratio of 1:1 (Am80: HP-β-CD. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC indicated the formation of Am80-HP-β-CD. In vitro dissolution studies showed that the solubility and dissolution percentage of Am80-HP-β-CD was improved substantially compared to Am80. An improved dissolution with approximately 97% drug release in 3 min was observed, in comparison with Am80 with approximately 60% release in 45 min. In vivo studies indicated that the AUC0-∞ has increased 2.79 times and the Cmax 4.37 times after the formation of inclusion complex. The decrease of tmax indicated the Am80-HP-β-CD inclusion complex can be absorbed into blood faster. In short, the solubility and bio-availability of Am80 has notably increased with the complexation of HP-β-CD. Therefore, using the inclusion technique is a promising method to improve the solubility of insoluble drugs.

  14. Preparation and tribological properties of inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin/dialkyl pentasulfide as additive in PEG-600 aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Jiju; Xu, Xuefeng, E-mail: xuxuefeng@zjut.edu.cn; Li, Gan; Peng, Wei

    2014-01-15

    The inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and dialkyl pentasulfide (DPS), in which DPS was incorporated into β-CD cavities, was prepared by a co-precipitation method. The tribological properties of the complex used as lubricant additive in PEG 600 aqueous solution were investigated by a four-ball tester. The complex exhibited better tribological properties than β-CD under different loads, and also showed better anti-friction performance than DPS in the latter half of the test duration. The tribological action mechanism of the complex on a steel surface was studied according to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The β-CD molecules of the complexes were decomposed into various molecular fragments and the DPS molecules were released under the friction condition. It revealed that thiolate and ferrous sulfide (FeS) films formed by DPS played a major role, and iron alkoxide and carbon deposition films formed by the friction fragments of β-CD mainly exhibited anti-friction property on FeS-to-FeS interface. The interactions among different films led to the formation of a mixed boundary lubrication film.

  15. Preparation and spectral investigation of inclusion complex of caffeic acid with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Li, Jinxia; Zhang, Liwei; Chao, Jianbin

    2009-01-01

    The inclusion complexation behavior of caffeic acid (CA) with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) was studied by UV-vis, fluorescence spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Experimental conditions including the concentration of HP-beta-CD and media acidity were investigated in detail. The result suggested HP-beta-CD was more suitable for including CA in acidity solution. The binding contants (K) of the inclusion complexes were determined by linear regression analysis and the inclusion ratio was found to be 1:1. The water solubility of CA was increased by inclusion with HP-beta-CD according to the phase-solubility diagram. The spatial configuration of complex has been proposed based on (1)H NMR and two-dimensional (2D) NMR, the result suggested that CA was entrapped inside the hydrophobic core of HP-beta-CD with the lipophilic aromatic ring and the portion of ethylene.

  16. Preparation, characterization, and antitumor activity of new ethylenediamine platinum(IV) complexes containing mixed carboxylate ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, A R; Deng, Y; Kido, Y; Siddik, Z H

    1993-05-01

    A series of ethylenediamine platinum(IV) complexes of the type PtIV(en)XA2 and PtIV(en)X'2A2, where X = 1,1-cyclobutanedicarboxylato or malonato, X' = chloro, cyclobutanecarboxylato, cyclopentanecarboxylato, or cyclohexanecarboxylato, and A = acetato or trifluoroacetato were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared, and NMR (13C and 195Pt) spectroscopic techniques. These compounds had good to excellent antitumor activity against murine leukemia L1210 cells. Complexes with axial trifluoroacetate groups were superior to those with acetate ligands. Those possessing both axial trifluoroacetate groups and monodentate bis-carboxylate ligands in the equatorial positions were the most active in the series investigated.

  17. Self-ordering and complexity in epizonal mineral deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Richard W.; Berger, Byron R.

    2000-01-01

    Epizonal base and precious metal deposits makeup a range of familiar deposit styles including porphyry copper-gold, epithermal veins and stockworks, carbonate-replacement deposits, and polymetallic volcanic rock-hosted (VHMS) deposits. They occur along convergent plate margins and are invariably associated directly with active faults and volcanism. They are complex in form, variable in their characteristics at all scales, and highly localized in the earth’s crust.

  18. DNA-surfactant complexes : preparation, self-assembly properties and applications in synthesis and bioelectronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The powerful ionic self-assembly behavior of DNA-surfactant complexes make it a unique material for various applications from optoelectronics to biomedicine. Three types of DNA-surfactant assemblies, including bulk films, lyotropic liquid crystals (LCs) and hydrogels have been investigated extensive

  19. Preparation, Characterization and Pharmacokinetic Study of Xiangfu Siwu Decoction Essential Oil/β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junzuan Xi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Xiang-Fu-Si-Wu Decoction (XFSWD, a famous Chinese herbal formula, is considered an effective prescription for treating primary dysmenorrhea. The essential oil is a significant effective ingredient of XFSWD. However, its volatility, instability and poor water-solubility influence its pharmacodynamic effects. β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD has the intrinsic ability to form specific inclusion complexes with such drugs to enhance their stability, solubility and bioavailability. The aim of this study was thus to compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics and the oral bioavailability of XFSWD essential oil (XEO and its β-CD inclusion complex after oral administration to rats. A simple, rapid, and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of five active components of XEO in rat plasma. The in vivo data showed that XEO/β-CD inclusion complex displayed higher maximum plasma concentration (Cmax, longer half-time (T1/2 and bigger area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0–24 h. These results demonstrated that the formation of β-CD inclusion complex has significantly increased the oral bioavailability of the drugs in rats than free oil.

  20. Preparation of Eleutherine americana-Alginate Complex Microcapsules and Application in Bifidobacterium longum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoem, Atchara N; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation using extrusion and emulsion techniques was prepared for Bifidobacterium longum protection against sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, refrigeration storage and heat treatment. Eleutherine americana was used as the co-encapsulating agent. Hydrolysis of E. americana by gastric and intestinal juices was also determined. E. americana and its oligosaccharide extract demonstrated their resistance to low pH and partial tolerance to human α-amylase. Microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana and oligosaccharide extract prepared by the extrusion technique survived better than that by the emulsion technique under adverse conditions. Survival of microencapsulated cells after exposure to the juices and refrigeration storage was higher than free cells at Weeks 2 and 4. In addition, the viability of microencapsulated cells was better than free cells at 65 °C for 15 min. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana offers the effective delivery of probiotics to colon and maintains their survival in food products. PMID:25629556

  1. Preparation and photoluminescence properties of functionalized silica materials incorporating europium complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, A. V. S.; Kodaira, C. A.; Souza, E. R.; Felinto, M. C. F. C.; Malta, O. L.; Brito, H. F.

    2011-08-01

    In the present work, the surface of the Eu-BTC = [Eu(EMA)(H 2O) 2], [Eu(TLA)(H 2O) 4] and [Eu(TMA)(H 2O) 6] complexes (EMA = 1,2,3-benzenetricarboxylate, TLA = 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylate and TMA = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) was modified using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) by a new microwave assisted method that proved to be simple and efficient. According to our observations, the most efficient luminescence is the material based on APTES incorporating [Eu(TMA)(H 2O) 6] complexes, denoted as Eu-TMA-Si, shows the highest emission efficiency. Therefore, it is proposed as a promising material for molecular conjugation in clinical diagnosis.

  2. Temporal and spatial distribution of Au-Ag polymetallic ore deposits and source of ore-forming materials in the Zhangjiakou-Xuanhua mantle-branch metallogenetic zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Zhangjiakou-Xuanhua area is a mineral resource-concentrated area for gold-silver polymetallic ore deposits. The temporal and spatial distribution and origin of mineral resources have been argued for a long time. Based on the comprehensive studies of geochronology and sulfur, lead, oxygen, carbon and noble gas isotopes, it is considered that the temporal and spatial distribution of mineral resources in this area is obviously controlled by the Zhangjiakou-Xuanhua mantle branch structure, as is reflected by the occurrence of gold deposits in the inner parts and of Ag-Pb-Zn polymetallic ore deposits in the outer parts. The mineralization took place mainly during the Yanshanian period. Ore-forming materials came largely from the deep interior of the Earth, and hydrothermal fluids were derived predominantly from Yanshanian magmatism.

  3. Preparation and Standard Formation Enthalpy of 2-Amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine and Its Related Complexes of Copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN San-ping; WEI Qing; JIAO Bao-juan; GAO Sheng-li

    2003-01-01

    The complexes of hydrous copper chloride and copper nitrate with 2-amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine(ADMP) were prepared via reflux in alcohol. The compositions of the complexes were identified as Cu(ADMP)2Cl2*2H2O(b) and Cu(ADMP)(NO3)2*H2O(c) by chemical and elemental analyses. The complexes were characterized by IR, XPS, 1H NMR and TG-DTG techniques. The constant-volume combustion energies of ADMP and the complexes, ΔcE, were determined by a precise rotating-bomb calorimeter at 298.15 K. They were (-3664.53±1.18), (-4978.47±2.72) and (-1696.70±1.36) Kj/mol, respectively. Their standard enthalpies of combustion, ΔcH0m, and standard enthalpies of formation, ΔfH0m, were calculated to be (-3666.39±1.18), (-4977.23±2.72), (-1691.12±1.36) Kj/mol and (19.09±1.43), (-2041.80±3.29), (-2397.24±1.65) Kj/mol, respectively.

  4. Preparation and Analysis of Complex Barrier Layer of Heterocyclic and Long-Chain Organosilane on Copper Alloy Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A single electrodeposited film of 6-(3-triethoxysilylpropylamino-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol monosodium (TES on a copper alloy surface was prepared by the galvanostatic method, then octyl-triethoxysilane (OTES or hexadecyl-trimethoxysilane (HDTMS was used to modify the electrodeposited film by the self-assembled technique to fabricate the complex film. The electrodeposition process was inferred by cyclic voltammetry. The single and complex films were characterized by means of contact angle, cyclic voltammetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results showed that the contact angle of the complex film covering the copper alloy surface was up to 118.1° compared with 89.4° of the bare copper alloy. The cyclic voltammogram, polarization curves and EIS indicated that the anti-corrosion performance of complex film was better than that of single electrodeposited TES film, and the protection efficiency was up to 90.2%.

  5. Preparation and Electronic Property Investigation of Zinc(II-Schiff Base Complexes in the Confined Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Shang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal-Schiff base complexes have attracted continued research interest regarding their intriguing and useful features, while the electronic properties of these complexes in the confined space have not been sufficiently addressed in previous studies. In this work, a new zinc(II-Schiff base complex bis(N-dodecyl salicylideneiminatoZn(II (1 was synthesized and subsequently loaded in an inorganic solid host. A large red shift (~40 nm of the absorption onset was recorded, when the microenvironment of 1 changed from the solvent ethanol to the inorganic solid medium, evidencing the confined space effect. The marked shift of the absorption onset was associated with a band-gap reduction between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO. Theoretical calculation results showed that the confined space effect is distance dependent and exerts a more profound influence on the HOMO than the LUMO within an effective distance range. An initial study implied that the confined space effect is also accompanied with the electron density variation.

  6. Complex heterogeneous tissue constructs containing multiple cell types prepared by inkjet printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Zhao, Weixin; Zhu, Jian-Ming; Albanna, Mohammad Z; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a versatile method for fabricating complex and heterogeneous three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs using simultaneous ink-jetting of multiple cell types. Human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (hAFSCs), canine smooth muscle cells (dSMCs), and bovine aortic endothelial cells (bECs), were separately mixed with ionic cross-linker calcium chloride (CaCl(2)), loaded into separate ink cartridges and printed using a modified thermal inkjet printer. The three cell types were delivered layer-by-layer to pre-determined locations in a sodium alginate-collagen composite located in a chamber under the printer. The reaction between CaCl(2) and sodium alginate resulted in a rapid formation of a solid composite gel and the printed cells were anchored in designated areas within the gel. The printing process was repeated for several cycles leading to a complex 3D multi-cell hybrid construct. The biological functions of the 3D printed constructs were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Each of the printed cell types maintained their viability and normal proliferation rates, phenotypic expression, and physiological functions within the heterogeneous constructs. The bioprinted constructs were able to survive and mature into functional tissues with adequate vascularization in vivo. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating complex heterogeneous tissue constructs containing multiple cell types using inkjet printing technology.

  7. Preparation of the Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Egress Complex and Associated Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mayuri; Kamil, Jeremy P; Coen, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    Herpesviruses, like most DNA viruses, replicate their genomes in the host cell nucleus. Their DNA is then packaged and assembled into viral nucleocapsids, which, in most cases, are too large to pass through the nuclear pore complex. Instead, herpesviruses use a complex multistep pathway, termed nuclear egress, to exit the nucleus. Key players in this process include two conserved viral proteins that form the nuclear egress complex (NEC). In human cytomegalovirus, these NEC proteins are UL50, embedded in the inner nuclear membrane, and its nucleoplasmic partner UL53. Both are essential for viral nuclear egress. However, other viral components as well as host nuclear envelope proteins may also participate in nuclear egress. Identifying these viral and cellular factors may provide important insight into the herpesvirus lifecycle and its relationship to the underlying, yet still-mysterious, host nuclear egress pathway. We developed an immunoprecipitation-based protocol, described herein, to identify protein-protein interactions involving the NEC from the nuclear fraction of infected cells that express an epitope-tagged version of NEC subunit UL53.

  8. Investigation of β-cyclodextrin-norfloxacin inclusion complexes. Part 1. Preparation, physicochemical and microbiological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Cassiana; Wiemes, Bárbara Paula; Buttchevitz, Aline; Christ, Ana Paula; Ribas, Karla Giacomelli; Adams, Andréa Inês Horn; Silva, Marcos Antônio Segatto; Oliveira, Paulo Renato

    2015-01-01

    Drugs classified as class IV by the Biopharmaceutical Classification System present significant problems in relation to effective oral administration. In the case of antibiotics, the subsequently high doses required can enhance the emergence of microorganism resistance and lead to a low rate of patient treatment adherence. In an attempt to improve physicochemical properties and microbiological activity of norfloxacin, the aim of this study was to investigate different methods (coevaporation, kneading followed by freeze-drying or spray-drying) to obtain complexes of norfloxacin and different cyclodextrins. Guest-host interactions were investigated through a complete physical-chemical characterization and the dissolution profile and microbiological activity were determined. The formation of a complex of norfloxacin and β-cyclodextrin (1:1), obtained by kneading followed by freeze drying, led to increased drug solubility, which could maximize the oral drug absorption. Moreover, the microbiological activity was enhanced by around 23.3%, demonstrating that the complex formed could represent an efficient drug delivery system.

  9. Preparation, characterization and cytotoxicity studies of some transition metal complexes with ofloxacin and 1,10-phenanthroline mixed ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeek, S. A.; El-Hamid, S. M. Abd

    2016-10-01

    [Zn(Ofl)(Phen)(H2O)2](CH3COO)·2H2O (1), [ZrO(Ofl)(Phen)(H2O)]NO3·2H2O (2) and [UO2(Ofl)(Phen)(H2O)](CH3COO)·H2O (3) complexes of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent ofloxacin (HOfl), containing a nitrogen donor heterocyclic ligand, 1,10-phenathroline monohydrate (Phen), were prepared and their structures were established with the help of elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic properties, thermal studies and different spectroscopic studies like IR, UV-Vis., 1H NMR and Mass. The IR data of HOfl and Phen ligands suggested the existing of a bidentate binding involving carboxylate O and pyridone O for HOfl ligand and two pyridine N atoms for Phen ligand. The coordination geometries and electronic structures are determined from electronic absorption spectra and magnetic moment measurements. From molar conductance studies reveals that metal complexes are electrolytes and of 1:1 type. The calculated bond length and force constant, F(Udbnd O), in the uranyl complex are 1.751 Å and 641.04 Nm-1. The thermal properties of the complexes were investigated by thermogravimetry (TGA) technique. The activation thermodynamic parameters are calculated using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. Antimicrobial activity of the compounds was evaluated against some bacteria and fungi species. The activity data show that most metal complexes have antibacterial activity than that of the parent HOfl drug. The in vitro cytotoxicities of ligands and their complexes were also evaluated against human breast and colon carcinoma cells.

  10. Uncovering the lipidic basis for the preparation of functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor detergent complexes for structural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Orestes; González-Freire, Carol; Ferrer, María Carla; Colón-Sáez, José O; Fernández-García, Emily; Mercado, Juan; Dávila, Alejandro; Morales, Reginald; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2016-09-19

    This study compares the lipid composition, including individual phospholipid molecular species of solubilized nAChR detergent complexes (nAChR-DCs) with those of the bulk lipids from their source, Torpedo californica (Tc) electric tissue. This lipidomic analysis revealed seventy-seven (77) phospholipid species in the Tc tissue. Analysis of affinity-purified nAChR-DCs prepared with C-12 to C-16 phospholipid analog detergents alkylphosphocholine (FC) and lysofoscholine (LFC) demonstrated that nAChR-DCs prepared with FC12, LFC14, and LFC16 contained >60 phospholipids/nAChR, which was more than twice of those prepared with FC14, FC16, and LFC12. Significantly, all the nAChR-DCs lacked ethanolamine and anionic phospholipids, contained only four cholesterol molecules, and a limited number of phospholipid molecular species per nAChR. Upon incorporation into oocytes, FC12 produce significant functionality, whereas LFC14 and LFC16 nAChR-DCs displayed an increased functionality as compared to the crude Tc membrane. All three nAChR-DCs displayed different degrees of alterations in macroscopic activation and desensitization kinetics.

  11. Studying the Efficiency of “Bilator-6” Complex Preparation Against Fungoid Diseases of Garden Strawberry and Common Barberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomichev Valeriy Tarasovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at studying the produced complex preparation “Bilator” characterized by multifunctional effect. Bilator is a nano-structured water solution of bischofite salts (MgCl2 subjected to electrochemical processing with the use of copper anode. In order to activate the efficiency of this solution at the level of a cellular membrane the authors propose the technology of its electrochemical processing as a result of which qualitative characteristics change: the solution turns heterogeneous where the substance is connected in the colloidal nanostructures (micelles representing neutral particles with the sizes of 20-250 nanometers. The colloidal (micellar form of solution structure eliminates coagulation processes, reduces the size of a gradient of osmotic pressure on border of a cell and, thereby, provides better delivery of active agents at cellular level. The structure of a cellular membrane, having the sizes of carrying-out channels of 30-40 nanometers, provides penetration into the cell only to those elements whose sizes do not exceed this range. It gives the chance to use each ingredient with maximum efficiency, facilitates their penetration and provides the synergism. The conducted research proved the efficiency of Bilator-6 preparation for protecting a common barberry and a garden strawberry from mealy dew. The data allowed to assume the positive influence of the preparation on intensity of blossoming of these plants.

  12. Preparation and characterization of fibrous NiO particles by thermal decomposition of nickelous complex precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传福; 湛菁; 邬建辉; 黎昌俊

    2004-01-01

    The influences of pyrolytic conditions, including temperature, time, the flow rate of air, and the heating rate, on the morphology, average size and specific surface area of the NiO particles were investigated, and the composition and morphologies of the products were characterized by using of XRD, SEM and BET. It is found that fibrous NiO particles were produced under the optimal conditions. A suitable range of pH for preparing dispersive precursors was chosen according to analysis of zeta potential. Based on the observations of NiO precursors growth and SEM morphology of the precursor, the oriented attachment was proposed for the well-aligned growth of the NiO precursor fibres. The final product NiO inherits the morphology of the precursor.

  13. Preparation of Overbased Calcium Alkylbenzene Sulfonate for Formulating Complex Sulfonate Grease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yinong

    2015-01-01

    Six kinds of alkylbenzene sulfonic acids were selected to prepare the sulfonates S1—S6. Among them, the sul-fonates S3, S4, and S6 could be incorporated into lubricating grease with good performance in comparison with the grease produced from commercial sulfonates T106-1 and T106-2. The optimized conditions for synthesis of the sulfonates S3, S4, and S6were explored by using different mass ratios of methanol, water and the type of copromoters. It was found out that the appropriate conditions for synthesis of the sulfonate S3 included a methanol to M (M is the total mass of alkylbenzene sulfonic acid and base oil) mass ratio of 16%, a water to M mass ratio of 4%, and a copromoter A to M mass ratio of 2%; the appropriate conditions for synthesis of the sulfonate S4 included a methanol to M mass ratio of 24%, a water to M mass ratio of 2%, a copromoter B to M mass ratio of 2%; and the optimized conditions for synthesis of the sulfonate S6 included a methanol/ M mass ratio of 8%, a water/M mass ratio of 4% and a copromoter B/M mass ratio of 2%. The new sulfonates S3, S4, and S6 produced under the optimized conditions exhibited higher TBN and better antiwear property in camparison with the previous products. Grease samples G9, G10, and G11 were prepared with new sulfonates S3, S4, and S6 successfully and exhibited improved water stability and high temperature performance.

  14. Disseminated, veinlet and vein Pb-Zn, Cu and Sb polymetallic mineralization in the GaleChah-Shurab mining district, Iranian East Magmatic Assemblage (IEMA)

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad Mehrabi; Ebrahim Tale Fazel; Ali Nokhbatolfoghahai

    2011-01-01

    The Iranian East Magmatic Assemblage (IEMA) in the Central Lut region, hosted porphyry and vein-type polymetallic mineralization. The GaleChah-Shurab mining district is located in NW of the IEMA. Volcanic and subvolcanic bodies in the area are composed of calc-alkaline porphyry quartz-latite, porphyry dacite and rhyodacite and hornblende-biotite andesite, equivalent to I-type granite. They emplaced in Tertiary and intruded the Jurassic shale, siltstone and limestone basement (Shemshak Fm). Th...

  15. Improving bioavailability and anthelmintic activity of albendazole by preparing albendazole-cyclodextrin complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Rodriguez J.J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The bioavailability and anthelmintic activity of albendazole-cyclodextrin complexes (ABZ-CDC compared to albendazole suspensions in carboxymethylcellulose (ABZ-CMC was assessed in a mouse model for Trichinella infections. Swiss CD-1 mice experimentally infected with T. spiralis were treated with both formulations against enteral (adult worms and parenteral (migrating and encysted larvae. Oral bioavailability was assessed in age matched mice treated with 50 mg/kg of both formulations. The anthelmintic effects and plasma concentration of the active metabolite albendazole-sulphoxide (ABZSO enantiomer (– were significantly increased following administration of ABZ-CDC in relation to ABZ-CMC.

  16. Indium-Carrier Minerals in Polymetallic Sulphide Ore Deposits: A Crystal Chemical Insight into an Indium Binding State Supported by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Rosa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Indium is a typical chalcophile element of the Earth’s crust, with a very low average content that seldom forms specific minerals, occurring mainly as dispersed in polymetallic sulphides. Indium recovery is based primarily on zinc extraction from sphalerite, the prototype of so-called tetrahedral sulphides, wherein metal ions fill half of the available tetrahedral sites within the cubic closest packing of sulphur anions, leaving interstices accessible for further in-filling. Ascertaining the tendency towards the establishment of In-In interactions through an x-ray absorption spectroscopy approach would efficiently contribute to understanding the behavior of indium in the carrier mineral. The successful results of applying such a near-edge absorption (XANES study at In L3-edge to samples collected at the Lagoa Salgada polymetallic orebody in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB are described and the crystal chemistry of indium is re-evaluated, disclosing a potential clue for the metal binding state in polymetallic sulphides.

  17. Preparation and biodistribution of copper-67 complexes with tetradentate Schiff-base ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, E K; Bott, A J; Green, M A

    1994-04-01

    Uncharged, lipophilic, low molecular weight copper complexes labeled with generator-produced copper-62 are of interest as potential radiopharmaceutials for imaging the brain with positron emission tomography (PET). We report here the synthesis and biodistribution of a series of [67Cu]copper(II) complexes with tetradentate N2O2(2-)Schiff-base ligands. The compounds studied varied in lipophilicity from log P = 1.7 to log P = 3.6, where P is the octanol/water partition coefficient. In rat biodistribution studies the tracers were generally found to penetrate the blood-brain barrier following intravenous injection, but some far better than others. For closely related compounds brain uptake at 1 min postinjection increased with increasing lipophilicity, although log P was clearly not the sole determinant of high brain uptake. Substantial variations were also observed in the rate at which these various compounds are cleared from brain, with a few exhibiting the prolonged cerebral retention of tracer that would be desired for imaging with 62Cu and PET.

  18. Copper-based nanoparticles prepared from copper (II acetate bipyridine complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lastovina Tatiana A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of CuO, Cu/Cu2O and Cu2O/CuO nanoparticles (NPs from the single copper (II acetate bipyridine complex by three different methods:microwave-assisted, solvothermal and borohydride. Presence of bipyridine ligand in the copper complex would impose no need in additional stabilization during synthesis. The phases of formed NPs were identified by X-ray diffraction. CuO NPs of ~11 nm were obtained via solvothermal synthesis from alkaline solution at 160°C. The Cu/Cu2O NPs of ~80 nm were produced via microwave-assisted polyol procedure at 185-200°C, where ethylene glycol can play a triple role as a solvent, a reducing agent and a surfactant. The Cu2O/CuO NPs of ~16 nm were synthesized by a borohydride method at room temperature. Interplanar spacing calculated from the selected-area electron diffraction data confirmed the formation of Cu, CuO and Cu2O phases in respective samples. All NPs are stable and can be used for various applications including biomedicine.

  19. Preparation and electrochemical behavior of water-soluble inclusion complex of ferrocene with {beta}-cyclodextrin polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Wang; Chen Ming [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002, Jiangsu (China); Diao Guowang, E-mail: gwdiao@yzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002, Jiangsu (China)

    2011-05-30

    Highlights: > Water-soluble Fc-{beta}-CD polymer inclusion complex is prepared with a supermolecular method. > Fc-{beta}-CDP shows better aqueous solubility remarkably than Fc and Fc-{beta}-CD. > It also reserves the electrochemical properties of Fc-{beta}-CDP in aqueous solution. > It is determined the electrochemical constants and dissociated constant. > The method opens up aqueous applications of insoluble organic compounds in electrochemistry. - Abstract: A new water-soluble inclusion complex of ferrocene (Fc) with {beta}-cyclodextrin polymer ({beta}-CDP) was prepared by a facile strategy and characterized by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetry, UV-vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Compared with Fc and the inclusion complex of Fc with {beta}-cyclodextrin (Fc-{beta}-CD), the solubility of ferrocene-{beta}-cyclodextrin polymer (Fc-{beta}-CDP) was greatly enhanced due to the water-soluble {beta}-CDP host. The ratio of {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) unit in {beta}-CDP to Fc was determined as 1:1. At 25 deg. C, the dissociated constant of Fc-{beta}-CDP was measured as 3.65 mM by UV-vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical properties of Fc-{beta}-CDP in water were studied. The diffusion coefficients of oxidation state and reduction state were calculated as 3.52 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} and 3.93 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. The resulting value of standard rate constant was measured as 1.95 x 10{sup -3} cm s{sup -1}. The diffusion activation energy was calculated as 21.8 kJ mol{sup -1}.

  20. Silica-gel Supported V Complexes:Preparation, Characterization and Catalytic Oxidative Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎俊波; 刘习文; 曹灿灿; 郭嘉; 潘志权

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript, a series of catalyst SGn-[VVO2-PAMAM-MSA] (SG=silica gel, PAMAM=poly-amidoamine, MSA=5-methyl salicylaldehyde, n=0, 1, 2, 3) was prepared and their structures were fully charac-terized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelec-tron spectroscopy (XPS) and inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometer (ICP) etc. XPS revealed that the metal V and SGn-PAMAM-MSA combined more closely after the formation of Schiff base derivatives. Their cata-lytic activities for oxidation of dibenzothiophene were evaluated using tert-butyl hydroperoxide as oxidant. The results showed that the catalyst SG2.0-[VVO2-PAMAM-MSA] presented good catalytic activity and recycling time. Mean-while, the optimal condition for the catalytic oxidation of SG2.0-[VVO2-PAMAM-MSA] was also investigated, which showed that when the oxidation temperature was 90 °C, time was 60 min, the O/S was 3︰1, and the mass content of catalyst was 1%, the rate of desulfurization could reach 85.2%. Moreover, the catalyst can be recycled several times without significant decline in catalytic activity.

  1. Methods for the preparation of large quantities of complex single-stranded oligonucleotide libraries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf E Murgha

    Full Text Available Custom-defined oligonucleotide collections have a broad range of applications in fields of synthetic biology, targeted sequencing, and cytogenetics. Also, they are used to encode information for technologies like RNA interference, protein engineering and DNA-encoded libraries. High-throughput parallel DNA synthesis technologies developed for the manufacture of DNA microarrays can produce libraries of large numbers of different oligonucleotides, but in very limited amounts. Here, we compare three approaches to prepare large quantities of single-stranded oligonucleotide libraries derived from microarray synthesized collections. The first approach, alkaline melting of double-stranded PCR amplified libraries with a biotinylated strand captured on streptavidin coated magnetic beads results in little or no non-biotinylated ssDNA. The second method wherein the phosphorylated strand of PCR amplified libraries is nucleolyticaly hydrolyzed is recommended when small amounts of libraries are needed. The third method combining in vitro transcription of PCR amplified libraries to reverse transcription of the RNA product into single-stranded cDNA is our recommended method to produce large amounts of oligonucleotide libraries. Finally, we propose a method to remove any primer binding sequences introduced during library amplification.

  2. Methods for the preparation of large quantities of complex single-stranded oligonucleotide libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgha, Yusuf E; Rouillard, Jean-Marie; Gulari, Erdogan

    2014-01-01

    Custom-defined oligonucleotide collections have a broad range of applications in fields of synthetic biology, targeted sequencing, and cytogenetics. Also, they are used to encode information for technologies like RNA interference, protein engineering and DNA-encoded libraries. High-throughput parallel DNA synthesis technologies developed for the manufacture of DNA microarrays can produce libraries of large numbers of different oligonucleotides, but in very limited amounts. Here, we compare three approaches to prepare large quantities of single-stranded oligonucleotide libraries derived from microarray synthesized collections. The first approach, alkaline melting of double-stranded PCR amplified libraries with a biotinylated strand captured on streptavidin coated magnetic beads results in little or no non-biotinylated ssDNA. The second method wherein the phosphorylated strand of PCR amplified libraries is nucleolyticaly hydrolyzed is recommended when small amounts of libraries are needed. The third method combining in vitro transcription of PCR amplified libraries to reverse transcription of the RNA product into single-stranded cDNA is our recommended method to produce large amounts of oligonucleotide libraries. Finally, we propose a method to remove any primer binding sequences introduced during library amplification.

  3. 雪梨柠檬汁的研制%Preparation on pear lemon complex juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁巧荣; 植中强; 陆思敏

    2012-01-01

    选用雪梨、柠檬为原料研制雪梨柠檬复合饮料,将雪梨、柠檬分别榨汁,按一定的比例混合。雪梨柠檬汁的优化配方为:柠檬汁4%,雪梨汁20%,添加蜂蜜10%,复合稳定剂为0.1%CMC—Na+O.1%黄原胶。经调配、均质、灭菌等工艺制成色泽鲜艳、营养丰富、酸甜适口、老少皆宜的复合饮料。%Selection of pear and lemon as raw materials to prepare compound fruit drink. Respectively squeeze pear and lemon juice, then press the certain proportion mix. Pear lemon juice optimization formula is lemon juice 4%, pear juice 20%, honey 10%, composite stabilizers for 0.1% CMC-Na+0.1% xanthan gum. After deployment, homogeneous, sterilization and other processes into the brightly-colored,nutrient-rich, sweet and sour drink compound all ages.

  4. Preparation of sintered silver nanosheets by coating technique using silver carbamate complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hee-Yong; Cha, Jae-Ryung; Gong, Myoung-Seon, E-mail: msgong@dankook.ac.kr

    2015-03-01

    This study describes a coating technique approach for large-scale preparation of sintered silver nanosheets whose lateral dimensions were controlled in the thickness range of 50–65 nm. These procedures involved coating water-soluble poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and silver 2-ethylhexylcarbamate (Ag-EHC), as well as thermal reduction of a silver precursor by heating at 150 °C, followed by dissolving away the PVA layer with alcoholic water. When the silver carbamate layer on the PVA layer was heated to 150 °C, the silver carbamate layer was thermally reduced and directed to grow into uniform sintered nanosheets with aspect ratios as high as 1000. The multi-stacked PVA/Ag structures and sintered silver nanosheets were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Measurements of the conductive property at room temperature indicated that these nanosheets were electrically continuous with a resistivity of approximately 7.3 × 10{sup −6} Ω cm. - Highlights: • A coating technique is used to make sintered Ag nanosheets. • PVA and silver carbamate act as a separation layer and a silver precursor. • The Ag nanosheets have thickness width 50–60 nm and width up to hundred μm. • The Ag nanosheets showed a resistivity of ca. 7.3 × 10{sup −6} Ω cm.

  5. Polyelectrolyte complex of vancomycin as a nanoantibiotic: Preparation, in vitro and in silico studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikwal, Dhiraj R.; Kalhapure, Rahul S.; Rambharose, Sanjeev; Vepuri, Suresh; Soliman, Mahmoud; Mocktar, Chunderika; Govender, Thirumala, E-mail: govenderth@ukzn.ac.za

    2016-06-01

    Delivery of antibiotics by various nanosized carriers is proving to be a promising strategy to combat limitations associated with conventional dosage forms and the ever-increasing drug resistance problem. This method entails improving the pharmacokinetic parameters for accumulation at the target infection site and reducing their adverse effects. It has been proposed that antibiotic nanoparticles themselves are more effective delivery system than encapsulating the antibiotic in a nanosystem. In this study, we report on nanoparticles of vancomycin (VCM) by self-assembled amphiphilic–polyelectrolyte complexation between VCM hydrochloride and polyacrylic acid sodium (PAA). The size, polydispersity index and zeta potential of the developed nanoplexes were 229.7 ± 47.76 nm, 0.442 ± 0.075, − 30.4 ± 5.3 mV respectively, whereas complexation efficiency, drug loading and percentage yield were 75.22 ± 1.02%, 58.40 ± 1.03% and 60.60 ± 2.62% respectively. An in vitro cytotoxicity study on three mammalian cell lines using MTT assays confirmed the biosafety of the newly formulated nanoplexes. Morphological investigations using scanning electron microscope showed cube shaped hexagonal-like particles. In vitro drug release studies revealed that the drug was completely released from the nanoplexes within 12 h. In silico studies revealed that the nano-aggregation was facilitated by means of self-association of VCM in the presence of the polymer. The supramolecular pattern of the drug self-association was found to be similar to that of the VCM dimer observed in the crystal structure of the VCM available in Protein Data Bank. In vitro antibacterial activity against susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus proved that the potency of VCM was retained after being formulated as the nanoplex. In conclusion, VCM nanoplexes could be a promising nanodrug delivery system to treat infections of S. aureus origin. - Highlights: • Self-assembly of vancomycin to form cube

  6. THERMOSENSITIVE POLYION COMPLEX MICELLES PREPARED BY SELF-ASSEMBLY OF TWO OPPOSITELY CHARGED DIBLOCK COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan He; Chang-wen Zhao; Chun-sheng Xiao; Zhao-hui Tang; Xue-si Chen

    2013-01-01

    Polyion complex (PIC) micelles were spontaneously formed in aqueous solutions through electrostatic interaction between two oppositely charged block copolymers,poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-b-poly(L-glutamic acid) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-b-poly(L-lysine).Their controlled synthesis was achieved via the ring opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides (NCA),ε-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine (Lys(Z)-NCA) or γ-benzyl-L-glutamate (BLG-NCA) with amino-terminated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) macroinitiator and the subsequent deprotection reaction.The formation of PIC micelles was confirmed by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy.Turbidimetric characterization suggested that the formed PIC micelles had a concentration-dependent thermosensitivity and their phase transition behaviors could be easily adjusted either by the block length of coplymers or the concentration of micelles.

  7. RANDOM COPOLYMER OF PROPYLENE OXIDE AND ETHYLENE OXIDE PREPARED BY DOUBLE METAL CYANIDE COMPLEX CATALYST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-jun Huang; Guo-rong Qi; Guan-xi Chen

    2002-01-01

    Copolymerization of propylene oxide (PO) and ethylene oxide (EO) using double metal cyanide (DMC) complex as the catalyst was carried out. The structure of random copolymers was confirmed by 13C-NMR and IR spectra. 1H-NMR analysis shows that the EO content in the copolymer is the same as that in the initial monomer feed. Moderate molecular weight copolymers with various EO content were obtained and their values of molecular weight distribution (MWD) fell in the range of 1.21-1.55. It was found that the molecular weight of copolymers is controlled by the mass ratio ofEO + PO to initiator moles used. The reaction rate as well as polymer yield decrease with increasing EO content in the feed composition.

  8. Basic butylated methacrylate copolymer/kappa-carrageenan interpolyelectrolyte complex: preparation, characterization and drug release behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, H J; Matulewicz, M C; Bonelli, P; Cukierman, A L

    2008-09-01

    The formation of a novel interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC) between basic butylated methacrylate copolymer and kappa-carrageenan was investigated and the product formed was characterized. Turbidity measurements and elemental analyses pointed to a 1:1 interaction of the repeating units. These results and FT-IR confirmed IPEC formation. Electronic microscopy images, particle size determination by image analysis and N(2) (77K) adsorption measurements were consistent with a porous material. This IPEC formed presented very good flowability and compactibility. Two maxima were observed in the swelling behaviour as a function of pH. The performance of the IPEC as a matrix for controlled release of drugs was evaluated, using ibuprofen as a model drug. Release profiles were properly represented by a mathematical model, which indicates that the system releases ibuprofen in a zero-order manner. These profiles could be controlled by conveniently modifying the proportion of the IPEC in the tablets.

  9. PREPARATION,COMPLEX MECHANISM AND STRUCTURE MODEL OF METALLOPHTHALOC- YANINE-Fe3O4 NANOPARTICLES COMPOSITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    MPc-Fe3O4-nanoparticles composite(M=Co, Cu, Ni, Mn) have been prepared and the factors that influence their mean size have been studied. The mean size of the nanoparticles composite increase with the increase of complex temperature. The interaction of MPc with Fe3O4 nanoparticles has been studied. There are M-O covalent bonding and ionic bonding between MPc and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The intensities of M-O bonding and ionic bonding are in vestigated .The complex mechanism of MPc with Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been studied. First, there are complex between MPc and all Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Then, Fe3O4 nanoparticles accumulate together to form the accumulators, MPc have the function of cohering Fe3O4 nanoparticles. A considerable number of MPc combine with Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of the accumulators to form MPc-Fe3O4 nanoparticles composite. All the above proesses take place spontaneously. The structure model of MPc-Fe3O4 nanoparticles composite has also been investigated. Inside the MPc-Fe3O4 nanoparticles composite, Fe3O4 nanoparticles accumulate together without order, on the surface of the composite, MPc form molecular dispersion layer. The threshold of molecular dispersion layer are also investigated.

  10. Preparation of two kinds of superparamagnetic carriers-supported cis-platinum complexes and the comparison of their characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Minqiang; CHEN Shuaijun; XU Xueqing; LI Zhonghan; SHEN Hui; XU Jiarui

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to explore the effect of different surface modifiers in preparation of magnetic carriers-supported cis-plat- inum (CDDP) complex and their characteristics. Sodium alginate (SA) and N-oleoylsarcosine (NOSARK) were used respectively as linkers between CDDP and magnetic nanometer particles (MNP), and carriers-supported CDDP complex of carboxymethyl dextran (CM-dex) was used as the control. The physical and chemical characteristics of CDDP-MNP were measured by transmission electron microscope, photon correlation spectrum (PCS), spectrophotome- ter, etc. The advantages and disadvantages of the two linkers were analyzed through comparing the stability and quantity of reversibly bound CDDP. The cis-platinum magnetic nanometer particles were found to have the shape of approximately uniformly pellets under transmission electron microscope. The distribution of PCS diameter was 43―52 nm and the diameter of magnetic nucleus of CDDP- MNP complex was about 8.8±1.3 nm. The drug- loading capacity of SA is larger than that of NOSARK, and similar to that of CM-dex. The SA-modified CDDP-MNP solution remained stable after being kept at 4℃ for 40 d. SA is superior to NOSARK as a magnetic nanoparticles surface modifier. Natural SA can supersede CM-dex to serve as linker between CDDP and MNP. In practical application, we should take both the maximal reversible CDDP-bonding capacity and CDDP utilization rate into consideration.

  11. Preparation, characterization, and circularly polarized luminescence of lanthanum and europium 1,1′-binaphthyl-2,2′-diyl phosphate complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedziwiatr, Marta; Kosareff, Nicole M.; Muller, Gilles; Koposov, Alexey Y.; Nemykin, Victor N.; Riehl, James P.; Legendziewicz, Janina

    2009-01-01

    Solvated tris-complexes of (R)- and (S)-1,1′-binaphthyl-2,2′-dyil phosphate with lanthanum(III) and europium(III) centers were prepared and characterized by spectroscopic methods and elemental analysis. Circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) spectra for the optically active isomers of the europium complexes are also reported. PMID:19777143

  12. Synthesis and characterization of alumina-supported vanadium oxide catalysts prepared by the molecular designed dispersion of VO(acac)2 complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Baltes, M.; Voort, P. van der; Ramachandra Rao, R.; Catana, Gabriela; Schoonheydt, R.A.; Vansant, E.F.

    2000-01-01

    Alumina-supported vanadium oxide catalysts have been prepared by the molecular designed dispersion method, using the vanadyl acetylacetonate complex (VO(acac)2). The complex has been adsorbed on the support from solution, followed by thermal conversion into the corresponding supported vanadium oxide

  13. 世界海洋结核结壳稀土成因初探%Concentration of REY in world polymetallic nodules and cobalt-rich crusts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴西顺; 黄文斌; 任颖芝; 王淑玲

    2016-01-01

    大洋海底蕴藏着丰富的稀土矿产资源,包括深海富稀土软泥和多金属锰结核和富钴结壳.本文则关注了多金属锰结核和富钴结壳中的稀土元素的富集机制.作者首先统计了全世界范围内各重要海域的结核与结壳的稀土元素和钇(REY)的含量,发现重稀土和钇(H EY)在结核结壳中的比重普遍大于15%,而结核与结壳的稀土含量则普遍高于深海洋泥,其中结壳的稀土含量普遍高于结核.针对这类重要的稀土矿藏,作者以库克群岛为例,初步研究了稀土富集机制.分析认为,稀土元素与铁和磷酸盐的含量具有强相关性,且铁锰结核或结壳中的稀土很可能是主要通过胶状羟基氧化铁吸附而缓慢富集起来的.%There are abundant mineral rare earth resources on the ocean floor such as abyssal rare earth mud ,polymetallic nodules and cobalt-rich crusts .This paper focuses on the concentration mechanism of rare earth elements(REE) in polymetallic nodules and cobalt-rich crusts .The authors firstly sum up the content of REE and yttrium(∑REY) in polymetallic nodules and cobalt-rich crusts all over the world ,finding that the proportions of their heavy REE and yttrium(HEY) are completely higher than 15% .In addition ,∑REY in polymetallic nodules and cobalt-rich crusts is generally higher that in abyssal REE-rich muds ,and ∑REY in crusts is generally higher than that in nodules .Taking Cook Islands as an example ,we study the concentration mechanism of ∑REY in such significant rare earth resources .Analysis shows that there are strong correlations between ∑REY with Fe and P .Also ,it is most likely that ∑REY in polymetallic nodules and cobalt-rich crusts is slowly concentrated by means of the adsorption of iron oxyhydroxide colloid .

  14. Mesozoic magmatism and copper polymetallic mineralization processes in the Shanghang-Datian region,Fujian Province,Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jianren; HU Qing; XU Naizheng; CHEN Rong; YE Haimin; ZHAO Xilin

    2006-01-01

    Various isotopic ages were reported for four granite plutons in the area studied, i. e. , the Tangquan pluton (185-158 Ma); the Zijinshan pluton (157-145 Ma); the Caixi pluton (133 Ma);and the Sifang pluton (108-105 Ma). The Tangquan and Zijinshan plutons belong to Early-Middle Jurassic and Late Jurassic of Early-Mesozoic respectively, and the Caixi and Sifang plutons belong to EarlyCretaceous of Late Mesozoic. Both the Tangquan and Sifang plutons, which are the metaluminous granites with A/CNK < 1.0, are considered to possess the geochemical characteristics of adakite rich in Sr, Ba and poor in HREE, Y, Yb, and are regarded as the most potential host rocks of copper ores. The Zijinshan pluton is regarded as a peraluminous granite with A/CNK > 1.1, and possesses the geochemical features of crust-derived muddy materials resultant from partial melting with enrichments in K, Rb, Th, Y, HREE and depletions in Sr, Ba, and Ti. The Caixi pluton is a weakly peraluminous granite with A/CNK = 1.0-1.1, and its geochemical characteristics are intermediate between the Zijinshan pluton and the Sifang pluton. The Tangquan pluton with higher Na2O contents, which resulted from partial melting of Proterozoic thick lower-crust derived basic rocks in response to underplating of mantle-derived basic magma, is one of the major host rocks of the metallogenic series of copper, iron and polymetallic deposits. The Sifang pluton with higher K2O contents, which was mixed between middle-lower crust-derived granite magma by partial melting and mantle-derived high-K basic magma, giving rise to the increment of K2O in the melt, and extracted large amounts of copper and other metals, as well as sulphur, is one of the major host rocks of the metallogenic series of porphyry copper, gold and polymetallic deposits. Petrological records have shown that there has occurred lithosphere extension since the Early-Middle Jurassic ( 180 Ma) in the region, and the formation of Zijinshan peraluminous

  15. Preparation of Nanosized GdCoO3 Powder Using Amorphous Heteronuclear Complex as a Precursor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yongfa; YI Tao; GAO Song; YAN Chunhua; CAO Lili

    2001-01-01

    Nanosized GdCoO3 cobaltite oxide powder with perovskite structure was successfully synthesized at a relative low calcination temperature using an amorphous heteronuclear complex, GdCo(DTPA)·6H2O, as a precursor.Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the precursor completely decomposed into cobaltit e oxide above 400℃.X-ray photoelection spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the decomposed species was composed of GdCoO3 cobaltite oxide after the precursor was calcined at 500℃ for 2 h.X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrated that nanosized GdCoO3 crystalline powder with perovskite structure was formed after the calcination temperature was increased to 650℃.The GdCoO3 grain size increased linearly from 20 nm to 50 nm when the calcination temperature was increased from 500℃ to 800℃,and the grain size increased from 10 nm to 30 nm when the precursor was calcined at 500℃ for 1 to 8 h.

  16. Characterizing protein activities on the lysozyme and nanodiamond complex prepared for bio applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perevedentseva, E; Cai, P-J; Chiu, Y-C; Cheng, C-L

    2011-02-01

    Recently, nanodiamond particles have attracted increasing attention as a promising nanomaterial for its biocompatibility, easy functionalization and conjugation with biomolecules, and its superb physical/chemical properties. Nanodiamonds are mainly used as markers for cell imaging, using its fluorescence or Raman signals for detection, and as carriers for drug delivery. For the success of these applications, the biomolecule associated with the nanodiamond has to retain its functionality. In this work, the protein activities of egg white lysozyme adsorbed on nanodiamond particles of different sizes is investigated. The lysozyme nanodiamond complex is used here as a protein model for analyzing its structural conformation changes and, correspondingly, its enzymatic activity after the adsorption. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is used for the analysis of the sensitive protein secondary structure. To access the activities of the adsorbed lysozyme, a fluorescence-based assay is used. The process of adsorption is also analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopic measurements in combination with analysis of nanodiamond properties with FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, and ζ-potential measurements. It is found that the activity of lysozyme upon adsorption depends on the nanodiamond's size and surface properties, and that the nanodiamond particles can be selected and treated, which do not alter the lysozyme functional properties. Such nanodiamonds can be considered convenient nanoparticles for various bioapplications.

  17. Polystyrene latex particles containing europium complexes prepared by miniemulsion polymerization using bovine serum albumin as a surfactant for biochemical diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Tatsuo; Mizuno, Akihiro; Kohri, Michinari; Taniguchi, Tatsuo; Kishikawa, Keiki; Nakahira, Takayuki

    2016-09-01

    Luminescent particles have been attracting significant attention because they can be used in biochemical applications, such as detecting and imaging biomolecules. In this study, luminescent polystyrene latex particles were prepared through miniemulsion polymerization of styrene with dissolved europium complexes in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and poly(ethylene glycol) monomethoxy methacrylate as surfactants. The solubility of the europium complex in styrene has a strong effect on the yield of the particle. Europium tris(2-thenoyl trifluoroacetonate) di(tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide), which has a high solubility in styrene, was sufficiently incorporated into the polystyrene particles compared to europium tris(2-thenoyl trifluoroacetonate), which has a low solubility in styrene. The luminescence property of the europium complex could remain intact even after its incorporation through the miniemulsion polymerization. In the aqueous dispersion, the resulting particles could emit strong luminescence, which is a characteristic of the europium complex. The antibody fragments were covalently attached to BSA-covered particles after a reaction with a bifunctional linker, N-(6-maleimidocaproyloxy)succinimide. The time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay technique showed that 3.3pg/mL of human α-fetoproteins (AFP) can be detected by using the resulting luminescent particles. An immunochromatographic assay using the resulting particles was also performed as a convenient method to qualitatively detect biomolecules. The detection limit of AFP measured by the immunochromatographic assay was determined to be 2000pg/mL. These results revealed that the luminescent particles obtained in this study can be utilized for the highly sensitive detection of biomolecules and in vitro biochemical diagnosis.

  18. Preparation of platinum(IV) complexes with dipeptide and diimine. X-ray crystal structure and 195Pt NMR spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Masatoshi; Fukuda, Hiroto; Kitsukawa, Koichiro; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Yukawa, Yasuhiko; Igarashi, Satoshi; Fujii, Yuki; Takayama, Toshio

    2006-10-01

    We prepared platinum(IV) complexes containing dipeptide and diimine or diamine, the [PtCl(dipeptide-N,N,O)(diimine or diamine)]Cl complex, where -N,N,O means dipeptide coordinated as a tridentate chelate, dipeptide=glycylglycine (NH(2)CH(2)CON(-)CH(2)COO(-), digly, where two protons of dipeptide are detached when the dipeptide coordinates to metal ion as a tridentate chelate), glycyl-L-alanine (NH(2)CH(2)CON(-)CHCH(3)COO(-), gly-L-ala), L-alanylglycine (NH(2)CH CH(3)CON(-)CH(2)COO(-), L-alagly), or L-alanyl-L-alanine (NH(2)CHCH(3)CON(-)CHCH(3)COO(-), dil-ala), and diimine or diamine=bipyridine (bpy), ethylenediamine (en), N-methylethylenediamine (N-Me-en), or N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine (N,N'-diMe-en). In the complexes containing gly-L-ala or dil-ala, two separate peaks of the (195)Pt NMR spectra of the [PtCl(dipeptide-N,N,O)(diimine or diamine)]Cl complexes appeared in, but in the complexes containing digly or L-alagly, one peak which contained two overlapped signals appeared. One of the two complexes containing gly-L-ala and bpy, [PtCl(gly-L-ala-N,N,O)(bpy)]NO(3), crystallized and was analyzed. This complex has the monoclinic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with unit cell dimensions of a=9.7906(3)A, b=11.1847(2)A, c=16.6796(2)A, Z=4. The crystal data revealed that this [PtCl(gly-L-ala-N,N,O)(bpy)]NO(3) complex has the near- (Cl, CH(3)) configuration of two possible isomers. Based on elemental analysis, the other complex must have the near- (Cl, CH(3))-[PtCl(gly-L-ala-N,N,O)(bpy)]NO(3) configuration. The (195)Pt NMR chemical shifts of the near- (Cl, CH(3))-[PtCl(gly-L-ala-N,N,O)(bpy)]NO(3) complex and the far- (Cl, CH(3))-[PtCl(gly-L-ala-N,N,O)(bpy)]NO(3) complex are 0 ppm and -19 ppm, respectively (0 ppm for the Na(2)[PtCl(6)] signal). The additive property of the (195)Pt NMR chemical shift is discussed. The (195)Pt NMR chemical shifts of [PtCl(dipeptide-N,N,O)(bpy)]Cl appeared at a higher field when the H attached to the dipeptide carbon atom was replaced with a

  19. Comprehensive biological effects of a complex field poly-metallic pollution gradient on the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, M., E-mail: marion.gust@cemagref.fr [Cemagref, UR MALY, Laboratoire d' ecotoxicologie, 3b quai Chauveau, 69009 Lyon (France); AgroPariTech ENGREF, 19 avenue du Maine, F 75732 Paris (France); Buronfosse, T., E-mail: thierry.buronfosse@inserm.fr [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire d' endocrinologie, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Lyon, avenue Bourgelat, 69280 Marcy l' Etoile (France); Geffard, O., E-mail: olivier.geffard@cemagref.fr [Cemagref, UR MALY, Laboratoire d' ecotoxicologie, 3b quai Chauveau, 69009 Lyon (France); Coquery, M., E-mail: marina.coquery@cemagref.fr [Cemagref, UR MALY, Laboratoire d' analyses physico-chimiques des milieux aquatiques, 3b quai Chauveau, 69009 Lyon (France); Mons, R., E-mail: raphael.mons@cemagref.fr [Cemagref, UR MALY, Laboratoire d' ecotoxicologie, 3b quai Chauveau, 69009 Lyon (France); Abbaci, K., E-mail: khedidja.abbaci@cemagref.fr [Cemagref, UR MALY, Laboratoire d' ecotoxicologie, 3b quai Chauveau, 69009 Lyon (France); Giamberini, L., E-mail: giamb@sciences.univ-metz.fr [Laboratoire des interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes, CNRS UMR 7146, campus Bridoux, 57000 Metz (France); Garric, J., E-mail: jeanne.garric@cemagref.fr [Cemagref, UR MALY, Laboratoire d' ecotoxicologie, 3b quai Chauveau, 69009 Lyon (France)

    2011-01-17

    The Lot River is known to be contaminated by metals, mainly cadmium and zinc, due to a former Zn ore treatment plant in the watershed of the Riou-Mort, a tributary of the Lot River. Many studies have been performed to characterize contamination, but few have assessed its consequences on the biological responses of organisms along the gradient. We exposed adult and juvenile New Zealand freshwater mudsnails Potamopyrgus antipodarum at several sites along the gradient of metal contamination for 28 days. Biological responses were monitored at different levels: individual (survival, growth and fecundity), tissue and biochemical (energy status and vertebrate-like sex steroid levels) to better understand the toxicity mechanisms involved. Accumulation of Cd and Zn was high during exposure. Most of the biological effects observed could be linked to this contamination and were concentration-dependent. Histological lesions of the digestive gland were observed, with hypertrophy of calcium cells and vacuolization of digestive cells. Such effects are likely to explain the decrease of energy status (triglycerides and proteins), juvenile growth and adult fecundity observed at the most polluted site. However the magnitude of the fall in fecundity cannot be attributed only to these tissular effects, indicating another mode of action of Cd or possible confounding factors. Steroid accumulation in snails indicated only organic pollution. Histopathological effects proved the most sensitive endpoint to metal (Cd and Zn) contamination.

  20. Evaluation of Antitumor, Immunomodulatory and Free Radical Scavenging Effects of A New Herbal Prescription Seaweed Complex Preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; SHAO Changlun; KONG Wenwen; FANG Yuchun; WANG Changyun

    2013-01-01

    Seaweed Complex Preparation (SCP) is a clinical traditional Chinese medicine preparation which is composed of seven traditional Chinese herbs,and it has been used for treatment of lung cancer,liver cancer and digestive cancer.However,little information is available about the pharmacodynamic basis.The antitumor,immunomodulatory and free radical scavenging effects of SCP were evaluated in this study.Transplanted tumor in vivo method was used to determine the antitumor effect.The effects on splenocyte proliferation and phagocytosis of macrophages in tumor-bearing mice were measured by the MTT method and the phagocytizing cock red blood cell (CRBC) method respectively.The scavenging activities of SCP on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals in vitro were investigated.It was found that the medium-dose and high-dose of SCP could significantly inhibit the growth of transplanted hepatic tumor of murine hepatocarcinoma cell line H22,and promote proliferation of splenocytes and phagocytosis of macrophages.SCP possessed noticeable scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals.The antitumor effects of SCP might be achieved by improving immune system and scavenging free radicals,which is in accordance with the viewpoint of traditional Chinese medicine in promoting the body resistance and eliminating pathogenic factors for cancer treatment.

  1. Complexation-Induced Phase Separation: Preparation of Metal-Rich Polymeric Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos Vazquez de la Parra, Luis Francisco

    2017-08-01

    The majority of state-of-the-art polymeric membranes for industrial or medical applications are fabricated by phase inversion. Complexation induced phase separation (CIPS)—a surprising variation of this well-known process—allows direct fabrication of hybrid membranes in existing facilities. In the CIPS process, a first step forms the thin metal-rich selective layer of the membrane, and a succeeding step the porous support. Precipitation of the selective layer takes place in the same solvent used to dissolve the polymer and is induced by a small concentration of metal ions. These ions form metal-coordination-based crosslinks leading to the formation of a solid skin floating on top of the liquid polymer film. A subsequent precipitation in a nonsolvent bath leads to the formation of the porous support structure. Forming the dense layer and porous support by different mechanisms while maintaining the simplicity of a phase inversion process, results in unprecedented control over the final structure of the membrane. The thickness and morphology of the dense layer as well as the porosity of the support can be controlled over a wide range by manipulating simple process parameters. CIPS facilitates control over (i) the thickness of the dense layer throughout several orders of magnitude—from less than 15 nm to more than 6 μm, (ii) the type and amount of metal ions loaded in the dense layer, (iii) the morphology of the membrane surface, and (iv) the porosity and structure of the support. The nature of the CIPS process facilitates a precise loading of a high concentration of metal ions that are located in only the top layer of the membrane. Moreover, these metal ions can be converted—during the membrane fabrication process—to nanoparticles or crystals. This simple method opens up fascinating possibilities for the fabrication of metal-rich polymeric membranes with a new set of properties. This dissertation describes the process in depth and explores promising

  2. Preparation and quality control of the [sm]-samarium maltolate complex as a lanthanide mobilization product in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Zohreh; Hakimi, Amir; Jalilian, Amir R; Nemati Kharat, Ali; Bahrami-Samani, Ali; Ghannadi-Maragheh, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Development of lanthanide detoxification agents and protocols is of great importance in management of overdoses. Due to safety of maltol as a detoxifying agent in metal overloads, it can be used as a lanthanide detoxifying agent. In order to demonstrate the biodistribution of final complex, [(153)Sm]-samarium maltolate was prepared using Sm-153 chloride (radiochemical purity >99.9%; ITLC and specific activity). The stability of the labeled compound was determined in the final solution up to 24h as well as the partition coefficient. Biodistribution studies of Sm-153 chloride, [(153)Sm]-samarium maltolate were carried out in wild-type rats comparing the critical organ uptakes. Comparative study for Sm(3+) cation and the labeled compound was conducted up to 48 h, demonstrating a more rapid wash out for the labeled compound. The effective and biological half lives of 2.3 h and 2.46h were calculated for the complex. The data suggest the detoxification property of maltol formulation for lanthanide overdoses.

  3. Biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with insulin-phospholipid complex for oral delivery: preparation, in vitro characterization and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fude; Shi, Kai; Zhang, Liqiang; Tao, Anjin; Kawashima, Yoshiaki

    2006-08-28

    Biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with insulin-phospholipid complex were prepared by a novel reverse micelle-solvent evaporation method, in which soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) was employed to improve the liposolubility of insulin, and biodegradable polymers as carrier materials to control drug release. Solubilization study, IR and X-ray diffraction analysis were employed to prove the complex formation. The effects of key parameters such as polymer/SPC weight ratio, organic phase and polymer type on the properties of the nanoparticles were investigated. Spherical particles of 200 nm mean diameter and a narrow size distribution were obtained under optimal conditions. The drug entrapment efficiency was up to 90%. The in vitro drug release was characterized by an initial burst and subsequent delayed release in both pH 6.8 and pH 1.2 dissolution mediums. The specific modality of drug release, i.e., free or SPC-combined, was investigated in the aid of ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration methods. The influence of polymer type on the drug release was also discussed. The pharmacological effects of the nanoparticles made of PLGA 50/50 (Av.Mw 9500) were further evaluated to confirm their potential suitability for oral delivery. Intragastric administration of the 20 IU/kg nanoparticles reduced fasting plasma glucose levels to 57.4% within the first 8 h of administration and this continued for 12 h. PK/PD analysis indicated that 7.7% of oral bioavailability relative to subcutaneous injection was obtained.

  4. Preparation of ethambutol-copper(II) complex and fabrication of PVC based membrane potentiometric sensor for copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod K; Prasad, Rajendra; Kumar, Azad

    2003-05-28

    Copper(II) complex of ethambutol (I) was prepared and used in the fabrication of Cu(2+) selective ISE membrane. The membrane having Cu(II)-ethambutol complex (I) as electroactive material, along with sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) as anion discriminator, dioctylphthalate (DOP) as plasticizer in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix in the percentage ratio 6:2:190:200 (I:NaTPB:DOP:PVC) (w/w) gave a linear response in the concentration range 7.94x10(-6) to 1.0x10(-1) M of Cu(2+) with a slope of 29.9+/-0.2 mV per decade of activity and a fast response time of 11+/-2 s. The sensor works well in the pH range 2.1-6.3 and could be satisfactorily used in presence of 40% (v/v) methanol, ethanol and acetone and is selective for copper over a large number of cations with slight interference from Na(+) and Co(2+) if present at a level 1.5x10(-5) and 6.5x10(-5) M, respectively. It works well over a period of 6 months and can also be used as indicator electrode for the end point determination in the potentiometric titration of Cu(2+) against EDTA as well as in the determination of Cu(2+) in real samples.

  5. Diversity of Mineralization and Spectrum of the Gejiu Superlarge Tin-Copper Polymetallic Deposit,Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shouting; Xia Qinglin; Zhao Pengda; Gao Yang

    2008-01-01

    The Gejiu (个旧) deposit is a superlarge tin-copper polymetallic ore-forming concentration area characterized by excellent metallogenic geological settings and advantageous ore-controlling factors. The deposit displays diverse mineralization properties due to different minerals and mineral deposit types. Based on the principal metallogenic factors, metallogenic mechanisms, mineralized components, and occurrence of mineral deposits or ore bodies, the Gejiu mineral district can be divided into 2 combinations of metallogenic series, 4 metallogenic series, 8 subseries, and 27 mineral deposit types. Spatial zonality is evident. The distribution regularity of the elements in both plane and section is Be-W, Sn (Cu, Mo, Bi, Be)-Sn, Pb, Ag-Pb, Zn around a granitic intrusion. The metallogenic epoch is mainly concentrated in the late Yanshanian. During this period, large-scale metallogenic processes related to movement caused by tectonics and magmatism occurred, and a series of magmatic hydrothermal deposits formed. The ore-forming processes can be divided into 4 stages: the silicate stage, the oxide stage, the sulphide stage, and the carbonate stage. Based on the orderliness and diversity (in terms of time, space, and genesis) of the mineralization, the authors have developed a comprehensive spectrum of ore deposits in the Gejiu area. This newly proposed diversity of mineralization and the spectrum developed in this work are useful not only for interpreting the genesis of the Gejiu deposit but also for improving mineral exploration in the area, and in particular, for finding large deposits.

  6. Sulfur and oxygen isotope geochemistry of acid mine drainage--the polymetallic sulfide deposit "himmelfahrt fundgrube" in Freiberg (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubrich, F; Tichomirowa, M

    2002-06-01

    We investigated physical, chemical and isotope (S, O) parameters of sulfate from acid mine drainage from the polymetallic sulfide ore deposit Freiberg (Gennany), which was mined for more than eight hundred years. Two main groups of water were distinguished: 1. Flowing mine water with sulfate concentrations of less than 9,000 mg/l and pH values higher than 3.2, 2. Pore water in weathered low grade ores and pools with sulfate concentrations higher than 9000mg/l and pH values below 3.2. The sulfur and oxygen isotope composition of sulfate from flowing mine waters reflects mixing of sulfate from two sulfur sources: a) atmospheric sulfur from precipitation and b) sulfate formed as a result of sulfide oxidation processes. Sulfur isotope values of mine water sulfate were used to estimate the contribution of sulfate derived through oxidation of sulfides. The sulfur isotope composition of pore water sulfate and precipitated sulfate (jarosite) from weathered low grade ore samples is identical to the sulfur isotope composition of primary sulfides. The oxygen isotope composition of pore water sulfate from low grade ore samples indicates that the oxidation process proceeds relatively slowly in 02-depleted waters, probably without significant microbial catalysis.

  7. Authigenetic K—feldspars and Their Relations to Sn—polymetallic Mineralization in the Dachang Ore Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘家华; G.C.AMSTUTZ

    1993-01-01

    Sn-polymetallic ores at Dachang,Guangxi Autonomous Region,China,are hosted in Middle-Upper Devonian reef limestones,siliceous rocks,banded and lenticular limestones,etc.Two types of orebodies can be distinguished according to their telations to the bedding:one is distributed along the bedding and the.other cuts across the bedding.Sn and sulfide orebodies associated with K-feldspare are mostly characterized by laminated ore structure. Microscopic examinations of K-feldspar-bearing rocks,in conjunction with X-ray diffraction,chemical composiion and cathodoluminescence data for K-feldspars,as well as their telations to mineralization,the authors consider that the K-feldspare are of authigenic origin,subordinate to the epigenetic stage of diagenesis,They resulted from the reaction of mixed,deep-seated,circulating underground hot waters rich in K,Al and Si with argillaceous carbonates during the Indo nesian orogenic movement.It is suggested more attention should be paid to the effect of authigenic K-feldspars on Sn mineralization.In the meantime the event related to circulating underground hot waters should also be taken into account so as to provide new clues to blind ore prospecting.

  8. Mining-environmental evaluation of Santa Lucía polymetallic orebody, Pinar del Río, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Milián-Milián

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation is to evaluate the physical environment of the Santa Lucía pyritic poly-metallic ore deposit (Pinar del Río, Cuba from the mining and environmental points of view. The deposit was exploited through opencast mining and nowadays it is an environmental liability and a potential source of environmental degradation. Baryte deposits, rusty material from the iron cap overburden, quarries and old exploration holes were characterized. Photo interpretation methods, collection of data on the current environmental condition, detailed geotectonic description of the deposit and surrounding areas, consultation to the experts involved in the project and those with experience on the site, socioeconomic and statistic information of the population, check lists, projects and compared scenarios. Two zones have been identified, one having a serious impact compared to the other one with a lesser impact. Generation of acid drain and the contamination of the waters with high levels of toxicity are among the most significant impact; therefore, one of the actions proposed is treatment of the waters for human consumption for being contaminated with heavy metals.

  9. Supramolecular composite materials from cellulose, chitosan, and cyclodextrin: facile preparation and their selective inclusion complex formation with endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duri, Simon; Tran, Chieu D

    2013-04-23

    We have successfully developed a simple one-step method of preparing high-performance supramolecular polysaccharide composites from cellulose (CEL), chitosan (CS), and (2,3,6-tri-O-acetyl)-α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrin (α-, β-, and γ-TCD). In this method, [BMIm(+)Cl(-)], an ionic liquid (IL), was used as a solvent to dissolve and prepare the composites. Because a majority (>88%) of the IL used was recovered for reuse, the method is recyclable. XRD, FT-IR, NIR, and SEM were used to monitor the dissolution process and to confirm that the polysaccharides were regenerated without any chemical modifications. It was found that unique properties of each component including superior mechanical properties (from CEL), excellent adsorption for pollutants and toxins (from CS), and size/structure selectivity through inclusion complex formation (from TCDs) remain intact in the composites. Specifically, the results from kinetics and adsorption isotherms show that whereas CS-based composites can effectively adsorb the endocrine disruptors (polychlrophenols, bisphenol A), their adsorption is independent of the size and structure of the analytes. Conversely, the adsorption by γ-TCD-based composites exhibits a strong dependence on the size and structure of the analytes. For example, whereas all three TCD-based composites (i.e., α-, β-, and γ-TCD) can effectively adsorb 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorophenol, only the γ-TCD-based composite can adsorb analytes with bulky groups including 3,4-dichloro- and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol. Furthermore, the equilibrium sorption capacities for the analytes with bulky groups by the γ-TCD-based composite are much higher than those by CS-based composites. Together, these results indicate that the γ-TCD-based composite with its relatively larger cavity size can readily form inclusion complexes with analytes with bulky groups, and through inclusion complex formation, it can strongly adsorb many more analytes and has a size/structure selectivity compared to

  10. Original research paper. A superior preparation method for daidzein-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complexes with improved solubility and dissolution: Supercritical fluid process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Hao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Advantages of the supercritical fluid (SCF process compared to the conventional solution stirring method (CSSM in the preparation of daidzein-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD complexes were investigated. Formation of daidzein/ HPβCD inclusion complexes was confirmed by Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Particle size, inclusion yield, drug solubility and dissolution of daidzein/HPβCD complexes were evaluated. Compared to CSSM, the SCF process resulted in higher inclusion yield and higher solubility. Also, extended dissolution of daidzein from the SCF processed HPβCD inclusion complexes was observed, with only 22.94 % released in 45 min, compared to its rapid release from those prepared by CSSM, with 98.25 % drug release in 15 min. This extended release of daidzein from SCF prepared inclusion complexes was necessary to avoid drug precipitation and improve drug solubilisation in the gastrointestinal tract. The results showed that the SCF process is a superior preparation method for daidzein-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complexes.

  11. 西藏洞中松多铅锌多金属矿床地质特征及成因%A preliminary study of the geologic characteristics and genesis of the Dongzhongsongduo lead-zinc polymetallic deposit, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛存林; 都卫东; 张育平; 魏明; 陈世伟

    2013-01-01

    The Dongzhongsongduo lead-zinc polymetallic deposit is located in the east part of the eastern Gangdese polymetallic mineralization belt. The ore body has mainly occurred as strumiform and stratoid structures in the carbonatite within the skarns of the pre-Ordovician Songduo group complex and the mid-permian Luobadui formation. Wall rock is made up of carbonatite and has strongly altered. Two alterations and nine main ore zones have been delineated. Lead and zinc are the main useful elements in the ore, and silver, iron, copper, sulfur as beneficial groups in the ore. The length of the layered ore-bodies is between 2 620 and 4 100 m, 50∼150 m and the thickness is between the Songduo group complex and the Luobadui formation. The ore is 120∼2 881 m long and 2.1∼13.1 m thick. The footwall of the ore are limestone and tuff and the hanging wall is crystal tuff. The ore minerals include pyrrhotine, pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena and sphalerite, etc. The gangue minerals include quartz, diopside, garnet, chlorite, epidote, calcite and feldspar, etc. The mineralization of lead and zinc was closely related to magmatic activity and meteoric, especially related to the magmatic hydrothermalism which had intruded into carbonatite in the period of late Yanshan-early Himalayas. Presumably, the formation of lead and zinc deposit has been related closely to the plate collision of the Indian-Eurasian Plate and the uplift zone in the Tibetan Plateau. This is the first study of the causes of the deposit. Through an analysis and discussion of the geological characteristics and metallogenic source materials, we believe that the Dongzhongsongduo lead-zinc polymetallic deposit has been related to the tectonic and magmatic activities. The structure has provided motive channels and accumulated space for the deposit. And the deep magma of late Yanshan period-early Himalayas has provided the main ore-forming materials and energy for the deposit. Therefore, it is considered that the

  12. Cytologic assessment of dynamics of reparative processes in the experimental conditionally aseptic wound under the action of complex preparation based on chitosan and metal nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konyuchenko Е.А.. Zhandarova L.F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: assessment of dynamics of reparative processes with the help of cytological examination of the preparations obtained from a conditionally aseptic wound under the action of a complex preparation based on biopolymer chitosan and metal nanoparticles. Material and Methods. A conditionally aseptic wound was simulated in 40 white outbred rats. In comparison and experimental groups cytologic assessment of dynamics of reparative processes was carried out. A number of neutrophilic leukocytes and fibroblastic row perl 00 cells in the preparations is recorded on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 14th day from the moment of formation of the wound with the use of the immersion objective. Results. It is established, that in the comparison group the cytologic pattern of impression smear was characterized by decrease in neutrophilic leukocytes and increase in fibroblastic row cells by the 14th day from the moment of formation of the wound. In the experimental group (the use of a complex preparation more intensive reduction of neutrophilic leukocytes and a significant increase in fibroblastic row cells by the 10th day and a complete healing by the 14th day from the moment of formation of the wound has been determined. Conclusion. When treated by a complex preparation based of biopolymer chitosan and metal nanoparticles earlier occurrence of fibroblastic row cells in preparations and a significant decrease in quantity of neutrophilic leukocytes have been observed.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Mono-cyclopentadienylvanadium Dihalide Bis-phosphine Complexes; Crystal Structure of (η5-C5H5)VCl2(PMe3)2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieman, J.; Teuben, J.H.; Huffman, J.C.; Caulton, K.G.

    1983-01-01

    Mono-cyclopentadienyl complexes CpVX2(PR3)2 and Cp´VX2(PR3)2 (Cp = η5-C5H5; Cp´ = η5-C5H4Me; R = Me, Et; X = Cl, Br) have been prepared by reaction of VX3(PR3)2 with CpM (M = Na, Tl, SnBun3, 1/2 Mg) or Cp´Na. Attempts to prepare analogous complexes with other phosphine ligands, PPh3, PPh2Me, PPhMe2,

  14. Stabilization of polymer lipid complexes prepared with lipids of lactic acid bacteria upon preservation and internalization into eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, P; Hugo, A A; Szymanowski, F; Tymczyszyn, E E; Pérez, P F; Coelho, J F J; Simões, P N; Gómez-Zavaglia, A

    2014-11-01

    The physicochemical characterization of polymer liposome complexes (PLCs) prepared with lipids of lactic acid bacteria and poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) covalently bound to cholesterol (CHO-PDMAEMA) was carried out in an integrated approach, including their stability upon preservation and incorporation into eukaryotic cells. PLCs were prepared with different polymer:lipid molar ratios (0, 0.05 and 0.10). Zeta potential, particle size distribution and polydispersity index were determined. The optimal polymer:lipid ratio and the stability of both bare liposomes and PLCs were evaluated at 37 °C and at different pHs, as well as after storage at 4 °C, -80 °C and freeze-drying in the presence or absence of trehalose 250 mM. Internalization of PLCs by eukaryotic cells was assessed to give a complete picture of the system. Incorporation of CHO-PDMAEMA onto bacterial lipids (ratio 0.05 and 0.10) led to stabilization at 37 °C and pH 7. A slight decrease of pH led to their strong destabilization. Bacteria PLCs showed to be more stable than lecithin (LEC) PLCs (used for comparison) upon preservation at 4 and -80 °C. The harmful nature of the preservation processes led to a strong decrease in the stability of PLCs, bacterial formulations being more stable than LEC PLCs. The addition of trehalose to the suspension of liposomes stabilized LEC PLC and did not have effect on bacterial PLCs. In vitro studies on Raw 264.7 and Caco-2/TC7 cells demonstrated an efficient incorporation of PLCs into the cells. Preparations with higher stability were the ones that showed a better cell-uptake. The nature of the lipid composition is determinant for the stability of PLCs. Lipids from lactic acid bacteria are composed of glycolipids and phospholipids like cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol. The presence of negatively charged lipids strongly improves the interaction with the positively charged CHO-PDMAEMA, thus stabilizing liposomes. In addition, glycolipids and

  15. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  16. Atom transfer as a preparative tool in coordination chemistry. Synthesis and characterization of Cr(V) nitrido complexes of bidentate ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Torben; Bendix, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    The transfer of a terminal nitrido ligand from MnV(N)(salen) to Cr(III) complexes is explored as a new preparative route to CrV nitrido complexes. Reaction of MnV(N)(salen) with labile CrCl3(THF)3 in acetonitrile solution precipitate [Mn(Cl)(salen)]·(CH3CN) and yields a solution containing a mixt...

  17. Core–shell Ag@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles of different silica shell thicknesses: Preparation and their effects on photoluminescence of lanthanide complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jie; Li, Yuan; Chen, Yingnan; Wang, Ailing; Yue, Bin; Qu, Yanrong; Zhao, Yongliang; Chu, Haibin, E-mail: chuhb@imu.edu.cn

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Ag@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles of different silica shell thicknesses were prepared via the Stöber process. • Sm and Dy complexes with benzoate, 1,10-phenanthroline and 2,2′-bipyridine were synthesized. • The complex-doped Ag@SiO{sub 2} composites show stronger luminescent intensities than pure complexes. • The luminescent intensities of the composites strongly depend on the SiO{sub 2} shell thickness. - Abstract: Three kinds of almost spherical core–shell Ag@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles of different silica shell thicknesses (10, 25 and 80 nm) were prepared via the Stöber process. The Ag core nanoparticles were prepared by reducing silver nitrate with sodium citrate. The size, morphology and structure of core–shell Ag@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Subsequently, eight kinds of lanthanide complexes with benzoate, 1,10-phenanthroline and 2,2′-bipyridine were synthesized. The composition of the lanthanide complexes was characterized by elemental analysis, IR and UV spectra. Finally, lanthanide complexes were attached to the surface of Ag@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles to form lanthanide-complex-doped Ag@SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites. The results show that the complex-doped Ag@SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites display much stronger luminescence intensities than the lanthanide complexes. Furthermore, the luminescence intensities of the lanthanide-complex-doped Ag@SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites with SiO{sub 2} shell thickness of 25 nm are stronger than those of the nanocomposites with SiO{sub 2} shell thickness of 10 and 80 nm.

  18. Preparation of Urea Nitrogen Adsorbent of Complex Type and Adsorption Capacity of Urea Nitrogen onto the Adsorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The urea nitroge n adsorbent of complex type, which consists of chitosan coated dialdehyde cellulose (CDAC) and immobilized urease in gelatin membrane (IE), was prepared. The cellulose, the dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) and the CDAC were characterized by scanning electronic microscope. The results indicate that the cellulose C2-C3 bond was broken under the oxidation of periodate and it was oxidated to DAC. The DAC was coated with chitosan and the CDAC was obtained. The adsorption of urea nitrogen onto the adsorbent in Na2HPO4-NaH2PO4 buffer solution was studied in batch system. The effects of the experiment parameters, including degree of oxidation of CDAC, initial urea nitrogen concentration, pH and temperature, on the adsorption capacity of urea nitrogen onto the adsorbent at CDAC/IE weight ratio 10:1 were investigated. The results indicate that these parameters affected significantly the adsorption capacity. The adsorption capacity of urea nitrogen onto the adsorbent was 36.7 mg/g at the degree of oxidation of CDAC 88%, initial urea nitrogen concentration 600 mg/L, pH 7.4 and temperature 37 ℃.

  19. Solid-state flurbiprofen and methyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes prepared using a single-step, organic solvent-free supercritical fluid process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrangi, Shashi Ravi Suman; Kaialy, Waseem; Ghori, Muhammad U; Trivedi, Vivek; Snowden, Martin J; Alexander, Bruce David

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to enhance the apparent solubility and dissolution properties of flurbiprofen through inclusion complexation with cyclodextrins. Especially, the efficacy of supercritical fluid technology as a preparative technique for the preparation of flurbiprofen-methyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes was evaluated. The complexes were prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide processing and were evaluated by solubility, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, practical yield, drug content estimation and in vitro dissolution studies. Computational molecular docking studies were conducted to study the possibility of molecular arrangement of inclusion complexes between flurbiprofen and methyl-β-cyclodextrin. The studies support the formation of stable molecular inclusion complexes between the drug and cyclodextrin in a 1:1 stoichiometry. In vitro dissolution studies showed that the dissolution properties of flurbiprofen were significantly enhanced by the binary mixtures prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide processing. The amount of flurbiprofen dissolved into solution alone was very low with 1.11±0.09% dissolving at the end of 60min, while the binary mixtures processed by supercritical carbon dioxide at 45°C and 200bar released 99.39±2.34% of the drug at the end of 30min. All the binary mixtures processed by supercritical carbon dioxide at 45°C exhibited a drug release of more than 80% within the first 10min irrespective of the pressure employed. The study demonstrated the single step, organic solvent-free supercritical carbon dioxide process as a promising approach for the preparation of inclusion complexes between flurbiprofen and methyl-β-cyclodextrin in solid-state.

  20. Changes in abundance and community structure of nematodes from the abyssal polymetallic nodule field, Tropical Northeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljutin, Dmitry; Miljutina, Maria; Messié, Monique

    2015-12-01

    Deep-sea fields of polymetallic nodules in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCFZ, tropical NE Pacific) are currently being investigated to assess their potential for commercial mining. During such mining, benthic communities will be inevitably disturbed or destroyed. Therefore, assessments of their standing stock and composition may be helpful for the future evaluation of possible impacts of commercial nodule exploitation. Analysis of nematode communities (at genus level) inhabiting the French license area of the CCFZ were studied based on data from the cruises NODINAUT (2004) and BIONOD (2012). The total nematode density was ca. 1.5-fold higher in 2012 as compared with 2004. This reflected a 2-2.5 times higher density of non-selective deposit-feeders (i.e. possessing a small buccal cavity without armature) in 2012 compared with 2004, whereas no significant differences between sampling periods were observed in the density of the other feeding groups. Consequently, whilst the list of the most abundant genera was identical, their relative abundances changed significantly. The relative abundance of the genus Thalassomonhystera was two times greater in 2012 than in 2004, whereas the relative abundances of the genera Acantholaimus and Theristus were significantly lower in 2012 (10% and 4%, respectively) than in 2004 (28% and 9%). Nematode diversity (including values of diversity indices and total number of recorded genera) was significantly lower in 2012 in comparison with 2004. Although our data do not take into account seasonal and shorter temporal scales of variability in nematode assemblages, we report here that a certain fraction of variations observed between the two sampling periods could be associated with differences in primary production. Future studies should aim to better characterise temporal variability in nematode communities of the CCFZ at seasonal and interannual scales.

  1. A One-Pot Self-Assembly Reaction to Prepare a Supramolecular Palladium(II) Cyclometalated Complex: An Undergraduate Organometallic Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alberto; Lopez-Torres, Margarita; Fernandez, Jesus J.; Vazquez-Garcia, Digna; Vila, Jose M.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment for students in advanced inorganic chemistry is described. Students prepare palladium(II) cyclometalated complexes. A terdentate [C,N,O] Schiff base ligand is doubly deprotonated upon reaction with palladium(II) acetate in a self-assembly process to give a palladacycle with a characteristic tetranuclear structure. This…

  2. Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Schiff bases and their complex compounds have been studied for their .... establishing coordination of the N–(2 – hydroxybenzyl) - L - α - valine Schiff base ..... (1967); “Spectrophotometric Identification of Organic Compounds”, Willey, New.

  3. 盐酸巴尼地平β-环糊精包合物的制备%Preparation of Barnidipine Hydrochloride-β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the optimum preparation technology for barnidipine hydrochloride-β-cyclodextrin( BN-β-CD ) inclusion complexation.Methods Saturated aqueous solution method was used to prepare BN-β-CD inclusion complexation, orthogonal design was carried out to optimize the preparation technology by taking the drug loading capacity and inclusion efficiency as the evaluation index.Results The preparation conditions were optimized by orthogonal experiment as follows: barnidipine hydrochloride : β-cyclodextrin being 1 ∶ 2, stining speed was 200 r · min-1, inclusion temperature at 70 ℃ , mixing time as 2 h.Conclusion The method can be used for preparation of BN-β-CD inclusion complexation, in which the dissolution rate of the inclusion complex made by the optimized preparation process increased significantly.%目的 研究盐酸巴尼地平(barnidipine hydrochloride,BN)β-环糊精(β-cyclodextrin,β-CD)包合物的最佳制备工艺.方法 采用饱和水溶液法制备盐酸巴尼地平环糊精(BN-β-CD)包合物,采用正交实验设计法,以载药量和包合率为评价指标,确定优化制备工艺条件.结果 最佳工艺条件为:盐酸巴尼地平与β-CD的投料摩尔比为1:2,搅拌速度为200 r·min-1,包合温度70 ℃,包合时间2 h.结论 该法可用于盐酸巴尼地平β-CD包合物的制备,盐酸巴尼地平的溶解度在包合物中得到显著提高.

  4. Preparation and evaluation of a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system loaded with Akebia saponin D–phospholipid complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jinyang Shen,1 Jianping Bi,2 Hongli Tian,1 Ye Jin,1 Yuan Wang,3 Xiaolin Yang,4 Zhonglin Yang,1 Junping Kou,5 Fei Li1 1State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 2Shandong Provincial Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital & Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, 3Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital of Pukou District, 4Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical and Biological Marine Resources Research and Development of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 5Jiangsu Key Laboratory of TCM Evaluation and Translational Research, Department of Complex Prescription of TCM, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Background: Akebia saponin D (ASD exerts various pharmacological activities but with poor oral bioavailability. In this study, a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS based on the drug–phospholipid complex technique was developed to improve the oral absorption of ASD.Methods: ASD–phospholipid complex (APC was prepared using a solvent-evaporation method and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, morphology observation, and solubility test. Oil and cosurfactant were selected according to their ability to dissolve APC, while surfactant was chosen based on its emulsification efficiency in SNEDDS. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to determine the optimized APC-SNEDDS formulation, which was characterized by droplet size determination, zeta potential determination, and morphology observation. Robustness to dilution and thermodynamic stability of optimized formulation were also evaluated. Subsequently, pharmacokinetic parameters and oral bioavailability of ASD, APC, and APC-SNEDDS were investigated in rats.Results: The liposolubility significantly increased 11.4-fold after formation of APC, which was verified by the solubility test in n-octanol. Peceol (Glyceryl

  5. Protein/CaCO3/Chitin Nanofiber Complex Prepared from Crab Shells by Simple Mechanical Treatment and Its Effect on Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihun Fantahun Aklog

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A protein/CaCO3/chitin nanofiber complex was prepared from crab shells by a simple mechanical treatment with a high-pressure water-jet (HPWJ system. The preparation process did not involve chemical treatments, such as removal of protein and calcium carbonate with sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid, respectively. Thus, it was economically and environmentally friendly. The nanofibers obtained had uniform width and dispersed homogeneously in water. Nanofibers were characterized in morphology, transparency, and viscosity. Results indicated that the shell was mostly disintegrated into nanofibers at above five cycles of the HPWJ system. The chemical structure of the nanofiber was maintained even after extensive mechanical treatments. Subsequently, the nanofiber complex was found to improve the growth of tomatoes in a hydroponics system, suggesting the mechanical treatments efficiently released minerals into the system. The homogeneous dispersion of the nanofiber complex enabled easier application as a fertilizer compared to the crab shell flakes.

  6. Preparation and evaluation of a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system loaded with Akebia saponin D–phospholipid complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jinyang; Bi, Jianping; Tian, Hongli; Jin, Ye; Wang, Yuan; Yang, Xiaolin; Yang, Zhonglin; Kou, Junping; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Background Akebia saponin D (ASD) exerts various pharmacological activities but with poor oral bioavailability. In this study, a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) based on the drug–phospholipid complex technique was developed to improve the oral absorption of ASD. Methods ASD–phospholipid complex (APC) was prepared using a solvent-evaporation method and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, morphology observation, and solubility test. Oil and cosurfactant were selected according to their ability to dissolve APC, while surfactant was chosen based on its emulsification efficiency in SNEDDS. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to determine the optimized APC-SNEDDS formulation, which was characterized by droplet size determination, zeta potential determination, and morphology observation. Robustness to dilution and thermodynamic stability of optimized formulation were also evaluated. Subsequently, pharmacokinetic parameters and oral bioavailability of ASD, APC, and APC-SNEDDS were investigated in rats. Results The liposolubility significantly increased 11.4-fold after formation of APC, which was verified by the solubility test in n-octanol. Peceol (Glyceryl monooleate [type 40]), Cremophor® EL (Polyoxyl 35 castor oil), and Transcutol HP (Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether) were selected as oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant, respectively. The optimal formulation was composed of Glyceryl monooleate (type 40), Polyoxyl 35 castor oil, Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, and APC (1:4.5:4.5:1.74, w/w/w/w), which showed a particle size of 148.0±2.7 nm and a zeta potential of −13.7±0.92 mV after dilution with distilled water at a ratio of 1:100 (w/w) and good colloidal stability. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that APC-SNEDDS exhibited a significantly greater Cmax1 (733.4±203.8 ng/mL) than ASD (437.2±174.2 ng/mL), and a greater Cmax2 (985.8±366.6 ng/mL) than ASD (180.5±75.1 ng/mL) and APC (549.7±113

  7. Rare earth complexes with a novel ligand N-(naphthalen-2-yl)- N-phenyl-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetamide: Preparation and spectroscopic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Na; Tang, Ning; Yan, Lan

    2008-12-01

    Six complexes of rare earth nitrates (Ln = La, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy) with a new amide type ligand, N-(naphthalen-2-yl)- N-phenyl-2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetamide (L) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, IR and and 1H NMR spectra. Under excitation, Eu(III) and Sm(III) complexes exhibited strong red emissions. And the luminescence intensity of Sm(III) complex is higher than that of Eu(III) complex. Thus the Eu(III) and Sm(III) complexes are the potential light conversion agent. However, the Tb(III) and Dy(III) complexes cannot exhibit characteristic emissions of terbium and dysprosium ions, respectively. The results of phosphorescence spectrum show that the triplet-state energy level of the ligand matches better to the resonance level of Eu(III) than Tb(III) ion. In addition, the luminescence of the Eu(III) complex is also relatively strong in highly diluted tetrahydrofuran solution (2 × 10 -4 mol/L) compared with the powder. This is not only due to the solvate effects but also to the changes of the structure of the Eu(III) complex after being dissolved into the solvents. Furthermore, owing to the co-luminescence effect, the proper La(III) or Gd(III) doped Eu(III) complexes show stronger luminescence than the pure Eu(III) complex.

  8. Sedimentary carbonate-hosted giant Bayan Obo REE-Fe-Nb ore deposit of Inner Mongolia, China; a cornerstone example for giant polymetallic ore deposits of hydrothermal origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, E.C.T.; Back, J.M.; Minkin, J.A.; Tatsumoto, M.; Junwen, Wang; Conrad, J.E.; McKee, E.H.; Zonglin, Hou; Qingrun, Meng; Shengguang, Huang

    1997-01-01

    Detailed, integrative field and laboratory studies of the textures, structures, chemical characteristics, and isotopically determined ages and signatures of mineralization of the Bayan Obo deposit provided evidence for the origin and characteristics favorable for its formation and parameters necessary for defining giant polymetallic deposits of hydrothermal origin. Bayan Obo is an epigenetic, metasomatic, hydrothermal rare earth element (REE)-Fe-Nb ore deposit that is hosted in the metasedimentary H8 dolostone marble of the Middle Proterozoic Bayan Obo Group. The metasedimentary sequence was deposited on the northern continental slope of the North China craton. The mine area is about 100 km south of the suture marking Caledonian subduction of the Mongolian oceanic plate from the north beneath the North China craton. The mineralogy of the deposit is very complex, consisting of more than 120 different minerals, some of which are epigenetic minerals introduced by hydrothermal solutions, and some of which are primary and secondary metamorphic minerals. The major REE minerals are monazite and bastnaesite, whereas magnetite and hematite are the dominant Fe-ore minerals, and columbite is the most abundant Nb mineral. Dolomite, alkali amphibole, fluorite, barite, aegirine augite, apatite, phlogopite, albite, and microcline are the most widespread gangue minerals. Three general types of ores occur at Bayan Obo: disseminated, banded, and massive ores. Broad zoning of these ore types occurs in the Main and East Orebodies. Disseminated ores are in the outermost zone, banded ores are in the intermediate zone, and massive ores are in the cores of the orebodies. On the basis of field relations, host rocks, textures, structures, and mineral assemblages, many varieties of these three types of ores have been recognized and mapped. Isotopic dating of monazite, bastnaesite, aeschynite, and metamorphic and metasomatic alkali amphiboles associated with the deposit provides constraints

  9. Insights into the abundance and diversity of abyssal megafauna in a polymetallic-nodule region in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Diva J.; Ziegler, Amanda F.; Dahlgren, Thomas G.; Glover, Adrian G.; Goineau, Aurélie; Gooday, Andrew J.; Wiklund, Helena; Smith, Craig R.

    2016-07-01

    There is growing interest in mining polymetallic nodules in the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the Pacific. Nonetheless, benthic communities in this region remain poorly known. The ABYSSLINE Project is conducting benthic biological baseline surveys for the UK Seabed Resources Ltd. exploration contract area (UK-1) in the CCZ. Using a Remotely Operated Vehicle, we surveyed megafauna at four sites within a 900 km2 stratum in the UK-1 contract area, and at a site ~250 km east of the UK-1 area, allowing us to make the first estimates of abundance and diversity. We distinguished 170 morphotypes within the UK-1 contract area but species-richness estimators suggest this could be as high as 229. Megafaunal abundance averaged 1.48 ind. m-2. Seven of 12 collected metazoan species were new to science, and four belonged to new genera. Approximately half of the morphotypes occurred only on polymetallic nodules. There were weak, but statistically significant, positive correlations between megafaunal and nodule abundance. Eastern-CCZ megafaunal diversity is high relative to two abyssal datasets from other regions, however comparisons with CCZ and DISCOL datasets are problematic given the lack of standardised methods and taxonomy. We postulate that CCZ megafaunal diversity is driven in part by habitat heterogeneity.

  10. Preparation of a 6-OH quaternized chitosan derivative through click reaction and its application to novel thermally induced/polyelectrolyte complex hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Fengju; Zhang, Na; Li, Yi; Cheng, Bin; Zheng, Yongfa

    2017-07-11

    In the present study, a chitosan derivative with long chain quaternary ammonium locating grafted at 6-OH (CTS-6-QAS) was designed and prepared via a novel click reaction. The structure and thermal stability of the products of each step were determined with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Rheological tests indicate that CTS-6-QAS possesses excellent thermally induced hydrogel formation property in the presence of β-glycerophosphate (β-GP). Based on these results, a novel thermally induced/polyelectrolyte complex CTS-6-QAS/alginate (SA)/β-GP dual-network hydrogel was designed. This controllable preparation method can avoid the disadvantages of the preparation methods for single thermo-induced hydrogels and polyelectrolyte complex hydrogels, and promote the homogeneity of the hydrogel. Porous sponges were prepared by freeze-drying the CTS-6-QASSA/β-GP hydrogels. The effects of hydrogel preparation conditions on the porous structure and swelling property of the sponges were quantitatively investigated. Tea tree oil (TTO), a natural antibacterial agent, was successfully embedded in the hydrogel due to the lipophilicity of the long chain quaternary ammonium grafted at 6-OH of chitosan. The sustained release of TTO from the hydrogel was studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel copper (II) complex containing a tetradentate Schiff base: Synthesis, spectroscopy, crystal structure, DFT study, biological activity and preparation of its nano-sized metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidiyan, Zeinab; Sheikhshoaie, Iran; Khaleghi, Mouj; Mague, Joel T.

    2017-04-01

    A new nano-sized copper (II) complex, [Cu(L)] with a tetra dentate Schiff base ligand, 2-((E)-(2-(E-5- bromo-2-hydroxybezenylideneamino) methyl)-4-bromophenol [H2L] was prepared by the reaction between of Cu (CH3COO)2·2H2O and (H2L) ligand with the ratio of 1:1, at the present of triethylamine by sonochemical method. The structure of [Cu (L)] complex was determined by FT-IR, UV-Vis, FESEM and molar conductivity. The structure of [Cu (L)] complex was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The geometry of [Cu (L)] complex was optimized using density functional theory (DFT) method with the B3LYP/6-31(d) level of theory. The calculated bond lengths and bond angles are in good agreement with the X-ray data. This complex was used as a novel precursor for preparing of CuO nano particles by the thermal decomposition method. The antibacterial activities of [H2L] ligand, nano-sized [Cu (L)] complex and nano-sized CuO have been screened against various strains of bacteria. According to the results, nano-sized CuO can be considered as an appropriate antibiotic agent.

  12. 某铅锌金银多金属矿综合回收选矿试验研究%Experimental Study on Comprehensive Recycling of a Lead-Zinc and Silver Polymetallic Mineral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖天祥

    2015-01-01

    针对某铅、锌、金、银多金属矿,矿石结构复杂难选的特点,进行了原矿性质分析、浮选药剂筛选、工艺流程结构和工艺参数的确定及闭路实验等研究,成功实现了铅锌分离,达到了铅、锌、金、银综合回收的目的,获得了铅精矿中铅回收率90.23%,金回收率为60.35%,银回收率60.87%,铅品位53.55%;锌精矿中锌回收率90.96%,锌品位52.32%的理想技术指标。%A lead, zinc, gold, silver polymetallic ore with refractory ore complex structure characteristics was analyzed on ore properties, flotation reagent screening, process flow parameters and closed-circuit experiments were studied.Successful separation of lead and zinc was implemented while lead, zinc, gold, silver were comprehensive recovered.Lead concentrate gained the recovery of lead 90.23%, gold 60.35%, silver 60.87%, with lead grade of 53.55%;Recovery of zinc concen-trate is 90.96%, with zinc grade of 52.32%.

  13. 从某铜多金属选厂尾矿中综合回收钨的试验研究%Experimental Research on Multipurpose Utilization of Tungsten from a Certain Copper Polymetallic Mineral Processing Plant Tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵淑兰; 方晓红; 贾凤梅; 秦丽

    2014-01-01

    The content of tungsten in tailings of a certain copper polymetallic mineral processing plant in Inner Mongolia is WO 3 0 .40%, since the fine particle size , complex components of sul-fide, uneven distribution of tungsten content and dissemination with each other in selected tailings , the original recovery process is not suitable , leading to recovery of tungsten is low in production .In order to improve the recovery of tungsten , the joint process of pre -throwing tailings by centrifugal concentrator , desulphurizing by floatation , gravity separating by shaker and high intensity magnetic separation is used to recover fine grain tungsten , obtained a wolfram products concentrate with 70 . 58%WO3 ,58.53%of recovery.The separation results is better , effectively recovered the tailings resources .%内蒙某铜多金属选厂尾矿中钨含量WO30.40%,由于入选尾矿粒度变细、硫化矿组分复杂、含量分布不均且互相嵌连包含,矿山原有回收工艺已不适合,导致生产中钨的回收率偏低。为了提高钨的回收率,采用离心选矿机预先抛尾-浮选脱硫-重选-强磁选回收细粒钨的联合工艺流程,获得了WO3品位70.58%、回收率58.53%的钨精矿,选别效果较好,有效回收了钨资源。

  14. 内蒙古某高硫铜铅锌多金属矿浮选试验%Flotation Test of a Cu-Pb-Zn Polymetallic Ore with High Sulfur from Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马龙秋; 周世杰; 李阔

    2012-01-01

    内蒙古某高硫铜铅锌多金属矿矿石性质复杂.金属矿物之间共生密切.按探索试验确定的铜铅混合浮选—铜铅分离—抑硫浮锌流程进行了选矿工艺技术条件研究.结果表明,采用1粗4精1扫铜铅混浮、1粗1精1扫铜铅分离、1粗4精1扫抑硫选锌、中矿顺序返回闭路流程处理,可以获得优质铜精矿、铅精矿、锌精矿、硫精矿,且产品中其他杂质元索含量均较低,达到了铜、铅、锌、硫分离效果.%The properties of Cu-Pb-Zn polymetallic ore with high sulfur from Inner Mongolia are complex, in which melal minerals are associated with each other closely. The study on mineral processing techniques was concluded by the flowsheets of Cu-Pb bulk flotalion-separalion of Cu amd Pb-sulfur depression Znic flotalion. The results show that Cu-Pb bulk flolalion with once roughing flotation, four limes cleaning flotation and once scavenging flotalion, Cu-Pb separation with once roughing flotalion, once cleaning flolalion and once scavenging flotation, and the flowsheets of sulfur depression and Zn flotation with once roughing flolalion, four limes cleaning flotation and once scavenging flolalion,middlings urderly return,can obtain the high quality productions as Cu concentrate, Pb concentrate, Zn concentrate and sulfur concentrate, in which contents of impurity elements are low.

  15. Preparation and preliminary biological evaluation of radiogallium-labeled DTPA-amlodipine complex for possible L-type calcium channel imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firuzyar, Tahereh; Shafiee-Ardestani, Mehdi; Khalaj, Ali [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Pharmacy; Jalilian, Amir R.; Fazaeli, Yousef; Aboudzadeh, Mohammad Reza [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Radiopharmacy Research Group

    2014-07-01

    A DTPA-conjugated amlodipine analog (DTPA-AMLO) 3, was prepared for possible voltage gated calcium channel imaging after radiolabeling with Ga-67. [{sup 67}Ga]-DTPA-AMLO complex was prepared starting [{sup 67}Ga]gallium chloride and DTPA-AMLO in 60-90 min at 50-60 C in phosphate buffer. The partition co-efficient and stability of the tracer was determined in final solution (25 C) and presence of human serum (37 C) up to 24 h. The biodistribution of the labeled compound in wild-type rats were determined up to 72 h using organ counting and SPECT. The radiolabled complex was prepared in high radiochemical purity (>96%, RTLC and >98% HPLC) and significant specific activity (7-10 GBq/mmol). The log P for the complex was calculated as -0.594, consistent with a water soluble complex. The tracer is mostly washed out through kidneys which were in full compliance with the amlodipine metabolism and imaging studies demonstrated the same behavior. The tracer uptake in organs with smooth muscles was observed in stomach, colon as well as intestine.

  16. Liquid-liquid extraction and separation of total rare earth (RE) metals from polymetallic manganese nodule leaching solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PK Parhi; KH Park; CW Nam; JT Park

    2015-01-01

    The study on the solvent extraction for quantitative and selective separation of total rare earth metals from the polymetallic nodule leach liquor was investigated. The typical leach liquor bearing 0. 094 g/L total rare earth, 0. 23 g/L Mn, 0.697 g/L Cu, 0.2 g/L Fe, 0.01 g/L Co and 0.735 g/L Ni was subjected to the removal iron content by precipitation method using Ca(OH)2 at pH 3.95, prior to solvent extraction of rare earth metals. Three different organo-phosphoric acid reagents (D2EHPA, PC88A, Cyanex 272) were used to ascertain their performances and selectivity towards the loading of rare earth metals in presence of other base metals. Based on the results of eq. pH effect, the performances of above three extractants followed the order as:D2EHPA>PC88A>Cyanex 272. To ensure the absence of extraction of base metals (Cu, Co, Ni), the eq. pH of the solution was optimized at the level of 2.21, though higher rare earth metal extraction efficiency was observed at higher eq. pH with either of the extractants. The complete process flow diagram for substantial recovery of total rare earth was developed using D2EHPA. Extraction isotherm plot was constructed at A:O=12:1, 3-stages and pHe=2.21, using 0.8 mol/L D2EHPA and the predicted condition of this study was further confirmed by 6-Cycles Counter Current Simulation (CCS) study. The stripping of total rare earth from loaded organic phase (LO) was conducted using HCl solution. Mc-Cabe Thiele diagram study carried out at A:O=1:5 using 4 mol/L HCl showed that three theoretical stages were needed for quantitative stripping of total rare earth. The subsequent stripped solution resulted thus led to contain total rare earth of 5.6 g/L indicating a very high enrichment of total metals by solvent extraction (SX) process.

  17. Metallic elements and metalloids in Boletus luridus, B. magnificus and B. tomentipes mushrooms from polymetallic soils from SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zhang, Ji; Wiejak, Anna; Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Hanć, Anetta

    2017-08-01

    Yunnan Province in China is known for its high biodiversity of mushrooms and a diverse geochemistry of soil bedrock and polymetallic soils, but our knowledge of mineral compositions of mushrooms from Yunnan is scarce. The metallic trace elements, Ag, Ba, Co, Cd, Cs, Cu, Cr, Hg, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V, Tl, U and Zn, and the metalloids, As and Sb, have been investigated using validated methods with a dynamic reactive cell by mass spectroscopy - inductive coupled plasma and cold vapour - atomic absorption spectroscopy on three popular species of Boletus mushrooms from Southwestern China. The trace mineral profiles in caps and stipes of B. luridus (24 individuals), B. magnificus (29 individuals) and B. tomentipes (38 individuals) have been evaluated. The interspecific differences in the content of several trace elements could be attributed to known differences in the geochemistry of soils in Yunnan, but for copper a difference was observed within species. The mean values of concentrations in composite samples of caps for B. luridus, B. magnificus and B. tomentipes from three to four locations were at the ranges (mgkg(-1) dry biomass): Ag (1.3-3.7), As (0.79-53), Ba (4.0-12), Co (0.68-1.2), Cd (0.79-2.2), Cs (0.67-55), Cu (37-77), Cr (5.0-7.6), Hg (2.1-5.4), Li (0.15-0.61), Mn (13-28), Ni (0.86-4.6), Pb (0.59-1.8), Rb (90-120), Sb (0.014-0.088), Sr (0.63-1.6), V (1.4-2.2), Tl (0.017-0.054), U (0.029-0.065) and Zn (130-180). Caps of Boletus mushrooms were richer in Ag, Cu, Hg and Zn than stipes, while other elements were distributed roughly equally between both morphological parts. B. luridus, B. magnificus and B. tomentipes grew in certain sites in Yunnan contained Ag, As, Ba, Cr, Hg, Ni, Sr or V at elevated concentration. A specific geochemistry of the soils type (latosols, lateritic red earths, and red and yellow earths in the Circum-Pacific Mercuriferous Belt of Southwestern China) can explain occurrence of some minerals at greater or elevated amount in mushrooms

  18. Preparation, characterization and pharmacokinetics of doxycycline hydrochloride and florfenicol polyvinylpyrroliddone microparticle entrapped with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianqiang; Xie, Shuyu; Pan, Yuanhu; Qu, Wei; Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Huang, Lingli; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-05-01

    In order to effectively control the bacterial pneumonia in pigs, doxycycline hydrochloride (DoxHcl) and florfenicol (FF) microparticle suspension together with inclusion complexes was prepared by using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) as host molecules, polyvinylpyrroliddone (PVP) as polymer carriers and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as suspending agents. In vitro antibacterial activity, properties, stability and pharmacokinetics of the suspension were studied. The results demonstrated that DoxHcl and FF had a synergistic or additive antibacterial activity against Streptococcus suis, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Haemophilus parasuis. The size, polydispersity index and zeta potential of microparticles were 1.46 ± 0.06 μm, 0.30 ± 0.02 and 1.53 ± 0.04 mV, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of DoxHcl and FF was 45.28% ± 3.30% and 89.69% ± 2.71%, respectively. The re-dispersed time and sedimentation rate of the suspension were 1 min and 1. The suspension went through the 9-gage needle smoothly with withdrawal volume of 9.12 ± 0.87 mL/min. The suspension showed good stability when stored away from light, no irritation at the injection site and sustained release in PBS buffer. After intramuscular administration to pig, DoxHcl and FF could maintain over 0.15 μg/mL for 72 h. Compared to the control injection, the suspension increased the elimination half-life (T½ke) as well as mean residence time (MRT) of DoxHcl from 5.73 to 9.77 h and from 12.02 to 18.81 h, and those of FF from 12.02 to 26.19 h and from 12.02 to 28.16 h, respectively. The suspension increased the bioavailability of DoxHcl and FF by 1.74 and 1.13-fold, respectively. These results suggest that the compound suspension is a promising formulation for pig pneumonia therapy.

  19. Preparation of tetrazine-containing [2 + 1] complexes of (99m)Tc and in vivo targeting using bioorthogonal inverse electron demand Diels-Alder chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Abdolreza; Janzen, Nancy; Czorny, Shannon; Ungard, Robert G; Miladinovic, Tanya; Singh, Gurmit; Valliant, John F

    2017-06-22

    The aim of this work was to synthesize and evaluate [2 + 1] (99m)Tc(i) polypyridine complexes containing tetrazines, which along with the corresponding Re(i) complexes, represent a new class of isostructural nuclear and turn-on luminescent probes that can be derivatized and targeted using bioorthogonal chemistry. To this end, [2 + 1] complexes of (99m)Tc(i) of the type [(99m)Tc(CO)3(N^N)(L)] (N^N = bathophenanthroline disulfonate (BPS) or 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy)), where the monodentate ligand (L) was a tetrazine linked to the metal through an imidazole derivative, were prepared. The desired products were obtained in nearly quantitative radiochemical yield by adding [(99m)Tc(CO)3(N^N)(OH2)](n) to the imidazole-tetrazine ligand and heating at 60 °C for 30 min. Measurement of the reaction kinetics between the tetrazine and (E)-cyclooct-4-enol revealed a second-order rate constant of 8.6 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1) at 37 °C, which is suitable for in vivo applications that require rapid coupling. Stability studies showed that the metal complexes were resistant to ligand challenge and exhibited reasonable protein binding in vitro. Biodistribution studies of the more water-soluble BPS derivative in normal mice, one hour after administration of a bisphosphonate derivative of trans-cyclooctene (TCO-BP), revealed high activity concentrations in the knee (9.3 ± 0.3 %ID g(-1)) and shoulder (5.3 ± 0.7 %ID g(-1)). Using the same pretargeting approach, SPECT/CT imaging showed that the [2 + 1] tetrazine complex localized to implanted skeletal tumors. This is the first report of the preparation of (99m)Tc complexes of BPS and demonstration that their tetrazine derivatives can be used to prepare targeted imaging probes by employing bioorthogonal chemistry.

  20. Practical Preparation of tert-Butanesulfinamide Based on Resolution of tert-Butanesulfinate by Molecular Complexation with BINOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-Xia; SUN Shang-Jin; LIAO Jian; WU Jia-Shou; CUI Xin; ZHU Jin; DENG Jin-Gen

    2003-01-01

    @@ Since its introduction in 1997, tert-butanesulfinamide (1) has proven to an extremely versatile chiral ammonia equivalent for the asymmetric synthesis of amines[1]. However, practical methods for the preparation of enantiopure 1 are very few.[2

  1. Preparing to be unprepared: ground force commander decision making in a volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous world

    OpenAIRE

    Karaoguz, Adam A.

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited What are the characteristics of effective ground force commander (GFC) decision making? What commonalities do we see? What are best practices for pre-mission preparation and mission execution? This thesis focuses on GFC decision making in order to investigate how to better prepare leaders for the current operating environment. It examines tactical-level decision making under conditions of uncertainty. It does so by drawing on interview...

  2. 大洋多金属结核碱浸脱硅及浸出动力学%Desiliconization and Leaching Kinetics of Ocean Polymetallic Nodules Using Alkali

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭成林; 冯雅丽; 李浩然

    2015-01-01

    Pre-desiliconization of ocean polymetallic nodules by NaO H solution under and temperature high pressure was investigated .The effects of initial NaOH concentration ,leaching temperature ,mass ratio of liquid-to-solid ,leaching time on leaching of silicon and the leaching kinetic were examined .The results show that under the conditions of reaction temperature of 170 ℃ ,the NaO H mass concentration of 480 g/L ,the ratio of liquid-to-solid of 4:1 and reaction time of 180 min ,the leaching of SiO2 can up to 81 .5% .T he reaction apparent activation energy is 44 .31 kJ/mol .By the process ,the majority of SiO2 can be removed from the ocean polymetallic nodules ,no physical processing and no tailings .The process accords with cleaning production request ,and may provide a new alternative way for ocean polymetallic nodules .%研究了在高温高压条件下用高浓度N aO H溶液从大洋多金属结核中浸出硅 ,考察了反应温度、浸出时间、NaO H初始质量浓度、液固体积质量比对SiO2 浸出率的影响 ,探究了碱浸脱硅动力学.试验结果表明 :大洋多金属结核碱浸脱硅反应的表观活化能为44 .31 kJ/mol ,浸出反应遵循化学反应控制的粒径缩小收缩核模型 ;在170 ℃ 、NaO H初始质量浓度480 g/L、液固体积质量比4:1条件下反应180 min ,SiO2 浸出率达81 .5% .该方法可避免物理选矿环节且无废渣产生,为大洋多金属结核清洁生产提供了一条可供选择的新途径.

  3. Preparation and Properties of Vegetable-Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) Complex FilmsЦ Water Bamboo-CMC,Chinese Cabbage-CMC etc.Complex Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Various kinds of biodegradable polymers have been researched[1].In our previous papers,cellulose-alginic acid[2],cellulose-agar[3],vegetable-carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) etc.complex films have been researched.Recently,some other kinds of vegetable such as water bamboo,Chinese cabbage,eggplant,spinach,naked oats,and basella,asparagus and pumpkin were used to perpare vegetable-CMC complex films.Every kind of vegetable has different content of water,cellulose,protein,carbohydrate and a small amou...

  4. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro anti-inflammatory evaluation of novel water soluble kamebakaurin/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Aun; Sun, Huifang; Bano, Shumaila; Zhao, Yingying; Xu, Xiuquan; Tang, Jian

    2017-02-01

    To enhance the aqueous solubility of kamebakaurin (KA), it was complexed with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD). In this study, the interaction KA with HP-β-CD and their inclusion complex behavior were determined by different characterization techniques such as UV-vis, 1H NMR, FT-IR, PXRD and SEM. All the characterization information proved the development of inclusion complex KA/HP-β-CD, and this inclusion complex demonstrated discriminable spectroscopic characteristics and properties from free compound KA. The results demonstrated that the water solubility of KA was remarkably increased in the presence of HP-β-CD. Furthermore, in vitro anti-inflammatory study showed that inclusion complex KA/HP-β-CD maintained the anti-inflammatory effect of KA. These results demonstrate that HP-β-CD will be promisingly employed in the application of water-insoluble anti-inflammatory phytochemicals such as KA.

  5. Study of structural and catalytic properties of Ni catalysts prepared from inorganic complex precursor for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheli, Sania; Rezvani, Ali Reza; Malekzadeh, Azim

    2017-09-01

    The silica- and alumina- supported Ni catalysts synthesized by thermal decomposition of inorganic precursors were evaluated for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS); the structural properties and performance of the catalysts were compared to those of samples constructed via impregnation method. The results revealed that the synthesized catalysts have higher catalytic activity comparison to those prepared via the conventional impregnation method. The effect of the preparation method on the structural properties shows that synthesizing the catalyst through inorganic precursor route is more appropriate. Characterization of catalysts is carried out using inductively coupled plasma (ICP), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and BET specific surface area.

  6. Geochemical discrimination of the geotectonic environment of basaltic-andesitic volcanic rocks associated with the Laochang polymetallic ore deposit at Lancang, Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jianguo

    2006-01-01

    The Laochang polymetallic ore deposit at Lancang is one of the well known ancient ore deposits associated with volcanic rocks in the Sanjiang (Tri-river) region of Southwest China. Volcanic rocks are dominated by alkali basalt and trachyte basalt. There has long been a controversy on the environment of formation of basalts. Some scholars hold that the basalts were formed in a continental environment, some thought they were formed in an oceanic environment and others considered that the basalts were emplaced in a back-arc basin. This study focuses on the geochemical characteristics of the basalts on the basis of their major elements, REEs and trace elements. At the same time, strongly incompatible elements such as Ta, Th and Hf and their ratios were used to differentiate the geotectonic settings of basalts. The results showed that the basalts in the region studied were formed in a continental rift environment.

  7. PGE patterns of ores of Dajing Cu-polymetallic deposit in Linxi County, Inner Mongolia: Indicator to source of metallogenic elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By comparing PGE patterns of sulfide ores with that of basic-ultrabasic dikes occurring in the Dajing Cu-polymetallic deposit, we discover that there are similar positive slopes between the basic-ultrabasic dikes and the black ores composed mainly of sphalerite and galena, reflecting affinity of their source. The PGE patterns of the yellow ores composed basically of chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite and pyrite are actually different. One is close to the pattern of the mantle lherzolite, and others resemble the pattern of the basic rocks. However, the concentrations of Ru are higher in the yellow ores, reflecting that sulfur attains or approaches saturation in their parent magma. The PGE characteristics of ores and dikes show that the magmas derived from the deep of crust and the metallogenic elements were supplied mainly by growth material of the crust. In addition, the mantle-derived magma also offered some elements.

  8. 40Ar-39Ar Dating of Quartz from Ore in the Baiyangping Cu-Co Polymetallic Ore-Concentrated Area, Lanping Basin, Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何明勤; 刘家军; 李朝阳; 李志明; 刘玉平; 杨爱平; 桑海清

    2004-01-01

    40Ar-39Ar fast neutron activation age spectrum of quartz in ore collected from the Baiyangping Cu-Co polymetallic ore-concentrated area, Lanping Basin, is saddle-shaped. The plateau age, minimum appearance age and isochron age shown on the spectra are 56.53±0.43 Ma, 55.52±1.78 Ma and 55.90±0.29 Ma respectively. The age data are consistent with each other within 1σ uncertainties. Because the given initial 40Ar/36Ar value of 294.7±1.14 is very close to Nier's value (295.5±5), both plateau and isochron ages may be considered as the forming time of quartz. So the age of 55.90-56.53 Ma represents the forming age of ore deposits. It is obvious that the ore deposits were formed during the Early Himalayan period.

  9. 蒙自多金属硫化矿砷硫分离技术研究%Arsenic-sulfur Separation Technique of a Polymetallic Sulfide Ore from Mengzi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾科; 覃文庆; 何名飞; 赖绍师

    2011-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of a polymetallic sulfide ore from Mengzi, a flowsheet with an arsenic-sulfur bulk floatation and an arsenic-sulfur separation was chosen, where an effective and less toxic reagent, sodium propyl xanthate, was used as the arsenic depressant, and eventually, a sulfur concentrate with a sulfur grade of 43.05%, an arsenic content of 0. 51% and a sulfur recovery of 79.53% can be reclaimed.%针对蒙自多金属硫化矿特点,采用"砷硫混浮-砷硫分离"的工艺流程,选择高效低毒药剂丙基黄原酸钠作砷抑制剂进行了砷硫分离,最终获得硫品位43.05%、含砷0.51%的硫精矿,硫回收率79.53%.

  10. Analysis on Metallogenic Prospect of The Mo Polymetallic, Chizhusheng, Ganxian%赣县赤竹嵊钼多金属矿成矿远景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇飞; 陈检生

    2015-01-01

    The associated minerals of Mo polymetallic deposit are tungsten ore, lead ore, copper ore, fluorite ore, silica ore in the mining area. The ore body is mainly distribute in and near the contact zone of wall rock,and the main prospecting criterias of this area are quartz vein and silicified fractured zone.%矿区内已发现与钼多金属矿共(伴)生的矿化的矿物有钨矿化、铅矿化、铜矿化、萤石矿化、硅石矿化。矿化体主要分布在岩体内部和接触带附近的围岩中,石英脉和硅化破碎带是本区主要的找矿标志。

  11. Complexation as an approach to entrap cationic drugs into cationic nanoparticles administered intranasally for Alzheimer's disease management: preparation and detection in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafy, Amira S; Farid, Ragwa M; ElGamal, Safaa S

    2015-01-01

    Complexation was investigated as an approach to enhance the entrapment of the cationic neurotherapeutic drug, galantamine hydrobromide (GH) into cationic chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) for Alzheimer's disease management intranasally. Biodegradable CS-NPs were selected due to their low production cost and simple preparation. The effects of complexation on CS-NPs physicochemical properties and uptake in rat brain were examined. Placebo CS-NPs were prepared by ionic gelation, and the parameters affecting their physicochemical properties were screened. The complex formed between GH and chitosan was detected by the FT-IR study. GH/chitosan complex nanoparticles (GH-CX-NPs) were prepared by ionic gelation, and characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release and stability for 4 and 25 °C for 3 months. Both placebo CS-NPs and GH-CX-NPs were visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Rhodamine-labeled GH-CX-NPs were prepared, administered to male Wistar rats intranasally, and their delivery to different brain regions was detected 1 h after administration using fluorescence microscopy and software-aided image processing. Optimized placebo CS-NPs and GH-CX-NPs had a diameter 182 and 190 nm, and a zeta potential of +40.4 and +31.6 mV, respectively. GH encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity were 23.34 and 9.86%, respectively. GH/chitosan complexation prolonged GH release (58.07% ± 6.67 after 72 h), improved formulation stability at 4 °C in terms of drug leakage and particle size, and showed insignificant effects on the physicochemical properties of the optimized placebo CS-NPs (p > 0.05). Rhodamine-labeled GH-CX-NPs were detected in the olfactory bulb, hippocampus, orbitofrontal and parietal cortices. Complexation is a promising approach to enhance the entrapment of cationic GH into the CS-NPs. It has insignificant effect on the physicochemical properties of CS-NPs. GH-CX-NPs were successfully

  12. Allergen-containing immune complexes used for immunotherapy of allergic asthma. Preparation of complexes and evaluation of their clinical performance in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L K; Lundberg, L; Søndergaard, I

    1989-01-01

    Guinea pigs inbred for their ability to develop respiratory anaphylaxis to experimental antigens have been used for comparison of different forms of immunotherapy (IT). Passive, active and combined (immune complexes between antigen and specific IgG) IT were compared with placebo. The bronchial re...

  13. Crystal structures and fluorescence properties of lanthanide complexes prepared with 2,2'-biphenyldicarboxylic acid and 2,2':6',2”-terpyridine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Hongzhen; LU Guanzhong

    2013-01-01

    Five lanthanide complexes of Ln2(dpdc)2(tpy)2(NO3)2(H2O)2 [Ln=La (1),Ce (2),Pr (3),Sm (4),Gd (5),H2dpdc=2,2'-biphenyldicarboxylic acid and tpy=2,2':6',2''-terpyridine] were prepared at room temperature and characterized by X-ray diffiaction,FT-IR and thermo-gravimetric analysis.The results showed that complexes 1-5 were isostructural and consisted of dinuclear units [Ln2(dpdc)2(tpy)2(NO3)(H2O)2] bridged by two dpdc2-ligands.The dinuclear units with strong intramolecular hydrogen bonds were assembled into 2D supramolecular layers by the weak π…π staking interactions between pyridine rings of tpy.The TG analysis showed that the complexes 1-5 behaved higher thermal stability with no mass loss at < 320 ℃.The lanthanide contraction effect and the solid state luminescence properties of complexes 1-5 were also investigated.The luminescence emission spectra of complexes 1-5 exhibited ligands emission bands and complex 3 and 4 had no typical emission in the visible region.

  14. Simple cerium-triethanolamine complex: Synthesis, characterization, thermal decomposition and its application to prepare ceria support for platinum catalysts used in methane steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanathana, Worawat; Nootsuwan, Nollapan; Veranitisagul, Chatchai; Koonsaeng, Nattamon; Laosiripojana, Navadol; Laobuthee, Apirat

    2015-06-01

    Cerium-triethanolamine complex was synthesized by simple complexation method in 1-propanol solvent using cerium(III) chloride as a metal source and triethanolamine as a ligand. The structures of the prepared complex were proposed based on FT-IR, FT-Raman and ESI-MS results as equimolar of triethanolamine and cerium chelated complex having monomeric tricyclic structure with and without chloride anion as another coordinating group known as ceratrane. The complex was used as a precursor for ceria material done by thermal decomposition. XRD result revealed that when calcined at 600 °C for 2 h, the cerium complex was totally turned into pure ceria with cubic fluorite structure. The obtained ceria was then employed to synthesize platinum doped ceria catalysts for methane steam reforming. Various amounts of platinum i.e. 1, 3, 5 and 10 mol percents were introduced on the ceria support by microwave-assisted wetness impregnation using ammonium tetrachloroplatinate(II). The platinum-impregnated ceria powders were subjected to calcination in 10% hydrogen/helium atmosphere at 500 °C for 3 h to reduce platinum(II) to platinum(0). XRD patterns of the catalysts confirmed that the platinum particles doped on the ceria support were in the form of platinum(0). Catalytic activity test showed that the catalytic activities got higher as the amounts of platinum doped increased. Besides, the portions of coke formation on the surface of catalysts were reduced as the amounts of platinum doped increased.

  15. Re-Os isotopes and PGE geochemistry of black shales and intercalated Ni-Mo polymetallic sulfide bed from the Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Shaoyong; YANG Jinghong; LING Hongfei; FENG Hongzhen; CHEN Yongquan; CHEN Jianhua

    2003-01-01

    The Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation consists of a thick black shale sequence with a regionally distributed conformable Ni-Mo polymetallic sulfide horizon and a chert bed at its basal strata on theYangtze Platform, South China. In this paper, we discuss all available data on Re-Os isotopes and Platinum Group Element (PGE) distribution pattern of the Ni-Mo polymetallic sulfide ore and its host rocks (black shales, cherts, and phosphorites) from Guizhou and Hunan provinces. Our results show that the black shales and the Ni-Mo sulfide ore have a high initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.78~0.86, indicating that the Early Cambrian ocean across the Yangtze Platform had a highly radiogenic Os value. This ratio is slightly lower than but still similar to present-day seawater, possibly as a result of high continental weathering at that time. The Ni-Mo sulfide ore yields a Re-Os isochron of 537±10 Ma (MSWD=11.9), possibly representing the depositional age of the Niutitang Formation. The chondrite-normalized PGE pattern, Pt anomaly (Pt/Pt*), Pt/Pd, Ir/Pd, Au/Ir and Re/Mo ratios of the Ni-Mo sulfide ore and its host rocks from South China indicate a varying source contribution of the PGE and other metals for different rocks. It is suggested that the cherts and Ni-Mo sulfide ore may have a significant proportion of PGE and probably other metals deriving from submarine-hydrothermal fluids with a mantle signature.

  16. Late-Hercynian intrusion-related gold deposits: An integrated model on the Tighza polymetallic district, central Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Éric, Marcoux; Khadija, Nerci; Yannick, Branquet; Claire, Ramboz; Gilles, Ruffet; Jean-Jacques, Peucat; Ross, Stevenson; Michel, Jébrak

    2015-07-01

    radiogenic isotope studies. Nd and Sr isotope compositions of scheelite and granites suggest the participation of a juvenile component while lead isotopes demonstrate a major participation of the basement. Both gold mineralization and zoning suggest that the system developed at the end of the magmatic activity, accompanying a major transition in magmatic fluid composition. The morphology of the gold-bearing mineralization is dependent of the permeability and the reactivity of host-rocks: focus circulation of fluids through pre-existing tectonic corridors, reactivated by late-Hercynian intrusions favor the formation of large W-type gold veins, while infiltration of fluid within reactive stratigraphic layers gives rise to skarn mineralization. A 40Ar/39Ar date (W1 north vein: 291.8 ± 0.3 Ma) indicates that hydrothermal circulation predates gold and tungsten deposition in open fractures as well as Mine granite emplacement. The W-Au mineralization preceded the onset of a large convective hydrothermal cell around the intrusion that led to the formation of the Pb-Ag-Zn mined veins. The Tighza polymetallic district displays numerous similarities with the R-IRG model that was defined in the American Cordillera, such as thermal and zonation patterns, carbonic hydrothermal fluids and chronology of intrusion and related deposits, but also provides new insight to the R-IRG model such as wide Au-quartz veins instead of sheeted Au-veins, oxidation state of the magma, and Sr-Nd isotopic data. These results establish a major magmatic contribution and discard a direct genetic relationship between gold mineralization and major neighboring Pb-Ag-Zn veins. A large number of classic Pb-Zn district of the Western Hercynides belong to the same clan.

  17. Uranium-polymetallic combination characteristics and significance of volcanic type uranium deposits in China%我国火山岩型铀矿床中铀-多金属组合特征及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海东; 钟福军; 张志勇; 沈滔; 黄广文

    2015-01-01

    火山岩型铀矿床是我国四大工业类型铀矿床之一,在部分铀矿床中存在铀矿与多金属矿共生或伴生组合关系。文章在前人研究基础上,以我国几个典型火山岩型铀矿床为例,综合分析铀-多金属组合的时空关系、成矿规律、矿化分带等特征,结果显示:(1)铀与多金属在区域成矿带上共存,在单个矿床中存在垂向矿化分带现象。(2)在矿床范围内,多金属矿化晕比铀矿化晕范围更大。铀多金属组合特征研究对铀-多金属矿联合勘查具有重要的指导意义。%Volcanic type uranium deposit is one of the four industrial types of uranium deposits in China,and parts of them have uranium and polymetallic intergrowth and associated combination relations.On the basis of previous studies,the space and time relationship of uranium-polymetallic combination,metallogenic regu-larities and ore tumble belt characteristics for several typical volcanic type uranium deposits as examples have been analysis comprehensively in this paper.It is concluded that:(1)the uranium and polymetallic coexist in the regional metallogenic belt,combine with vertical zoning phenomenon in a single deposit;(2)in the range of the ore deposit,the halo of polymetallic mineralization is larger than that of uranium mineralization.The study of uranium-polymetallic combination characteristic has important guiding significance for uranium-polymetallic joint exploration.

  18. Utility of cyclodextrins in the formulation of genistein part 1. Preparation and physicochemical properties of genistein complexes with native cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daruházi, Agnes Emma; Szente, Lajos; Balogh, Balázs; Mátyus, Péter; Béni, Szabolcs; Takács, Mária; Gergely, András; Horváth, Péter; Szoke, Eva; Lemberkovics, Eva

    2008-11-04

    Isoflavones are suitable guest molecules for inclusion complex formation with cyclodextrins (CDs). The molecular encapsulation with CDs results in a solid, molecularly dispersed form and in a significantly improved aqueous solubility of isoflavones. Genistein, a key isoflavone constituent of Ononidis spinosae radix was found to form a supramolecular, non-covalent inclusion complex with both beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and gamma-cyclodextrin (gamma-CD), while it did not form a stable complex with alpha-CD. The guest genistein was found to spatially located in the less polar cavity of cyclodextrin. The isolated binary genistein/CD complexes appeared novel crystalline lattices. The in vitro dissolution of genistein entrapped into both beta- and gamma-CD, significantly surpassed that of the plain isoflavone.

  19. Preparation, spectroscopy, EXAFS, electrochemistry and pharmacology of new ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes containing ferrocenylthiosemicarbazone and triphenylphosphine/arsine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, R.; Anantharaman, S.; Thilagavathi, M.; Kaveri, M. V.; Kalaivani, P.; Karvembu, R.; Dharmaraj, N.; Bertagnolli, H.; Dallemer, F.; Natarajan, K.

    2011-02-01

    A new series of new hetero-bimetallic complexes containing iron and ruthenium of the general formula [RuCl(CO)(B)(EPh 3)(L)] (where E = P or As; B = PPh 3, AsPh 3, py or pip; L = ferrocene derived monobasic bidentate thiosemicarbazone ligand) have been synthesized by the reaction between ferrocene-derived thiosemicarbazones and ruthenium(II) complexes of the type [RuHCl(CO)(B)(EPh 3) 2] (where E = P or As; B = PPh 3, AsPh 3, py or pip). The new complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, IR, electronic, NMR ( 1H, 13C and 31P), EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy) and cyclic voltammetric techniques. Antibacterial activity of the new complexes has been screened against Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa species.

  20. Preparation and immobilization of diNOsarcobalt(III complex in zeolite y for the catalyzed production of hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Carriazo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex cation, diNOsarcobalt(III, [Co(diNOsar]3+, (diNOsar = 1,8-dinitro-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaazabicyclo-[6.6.6]eicosane, was synthesized and immobilized in the cavities of a Y zeolite by the reaction of precursor species in the pores of the zeolite. The encapsulated material was compared to the compound diNOsarcobalt(III chloride, [Co(diNOsar]Cl3. Both diNOsarcobalt(III chloride and the zeolite-encapsulated complex, [Co(diNOsar]3+/zeolite, were obtained in high yield and characterized by ultraviolet-visible and infrared spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction demonstrated the incorporation of the complex cation into the pores of the zeolite. The catalytic production of hydrogen peroxide from oxygenated water confirmed the successful synthesis of the complex diNOsarcobalt(III immobilized in the zeolite.

  1. In situ preparation of powder and the sorption behaviors of molecularly imprinted polymers through the complexation between polymer ion of methyl methacrylate/acrylic acid and Ca++ ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chough, Sung Hyo; Park, Kwang Ho; Cho, Seung Jin; Park, Hye Ryoung

    2014-09-02

    Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) powders were prepared using a simple complexation strategy between the polymer carboxylate groups and template molecule followed by metal cation cross-linking of residual polymer carboxylates. Polymer powders were formed in situ by templating carboxylic acid containing polymers with 4-ethylaniline (4-EA), followed by addition of an aqueous CaCl2 solution. The solution remained homogeneous. The powders were prepared by precipitation by slowly adding a non-solvent, H2O, to the mixture. The resulting particles were very porous with uptake capacity that approached the theoretical value. We suggest two types of complexes are formed between the template, 4-EA, and polymer. The isolated entry type forms well defined cavities for the template with high specific selectivity, while the adjacent entry type forms wider binding sites without specific sorption for isomeric molecules. To evaluate conditions for forming materials with high affinity and selectivity, three MIPs were prepared containing 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 equivalents of template to the base polymer. The MIP containing 0.5 eq showed higher specific selectivity to 4-EA, but the MIP containing 1.5 eq had noticeably lower selectivity. The lower selectivity is attributed to poorly formed binding sites with little selective sorption to any isomer when the higher ratio of template was used. However at the lower ratio of template the isolated entry is preferably formed to produce well defined binding cavities with higher selectivity to template.

  2. Preparation and Antimicrobial Activity of s-Triazine Hydrazones of 7-Hydroxy Coumarin and Their Metal Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Jani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal complexes of 7-hydroxy coumarin hydrazone of s-triazine derivatives derived from 7-hydroxy-8-aceto-N-(4',6’-dichloro-1',3',5'-s-triazine coumarin hydrazone and transition metals have been synthesized and screened for their antibacterial, antifungal and antiseptic activity. The geometry of the complexes has been proposed. The ligand system co-ordinates with the metal ion in a bidentate manner through the nitrogen atom of hydrazone group.

  3. Studies on the preparation and stability of samarium-153 propylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate (PDTMP) complex as a bone seeker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majali, M.A. E-mail: mythili@magnum.barc.ernet.in; Mathakar, A.R.; Shimpi, H.H.; Banerjee, Sharmila; Samuel, Grace

    2000-12-15

    Propylene diamine tetra methylene phosphonate (PDTMP) was synthesised by modifying a method reported for the synthesis of EDTMP. Complexation of the synthesised phosphonate ligand with {sup 153}Sm was carried out by varying the experimental parameters and the complex was radiochemically characterized. Biodistribution studies showed that the uptake by bone in rats was 2% per g of bone, which was retained up to 48 h. The uptake by other organs was insignificant, except by the liver which showed a slightly higher absorption.

  4. Preparation and Spectroscopic Study of Different Stoichiometric Solid Supramolecular Inclusion Complexes of β-Cyclodextrin with Short Chain Aliphatic Amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Le-xin Song; Chuan-feng Teng; Hai-ming Wang; Lei Bai

    2008-01-01

    The solid Supramolecular complexes of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with ethylenediamine 1,diethylenetriamine 2 and triethylamine 3 were obtained and characterized using elemental analysis,powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy,thermogravimetric analysis,and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.Based on the results of elemental analysis and 1H NMR,the guest-host stoichiometries of the three solid complexes were determined to be 5:2 for 1-β-CD,1:1 for 2-β-CD,and 1:3 for 3-β-CD.The yields were relative to the molar volume ratio of guest to β-CD cavity,and increased in the order:1-β-CD<2-β-CD<3-β-CD.X-ray diffraction patterns of the inclusion complexes gave very good exhibitions not only in location of diffraction peaks but also in shape and diffraction intensity of the peaks due to the intermolecular complexations between β-CD and the guests.The formation of host-guest inclusion complexes exhibited obviously enhanced phase change temperatures of the complexed guests such as 1 and 3.The H-5 protons located at the narrower rim inside the CD cavity experienced a higher shift upon inclusion while all other protons experienced lower shifts.

  5. Preparation, Structural Characterization and Luminescent Property of Binuclear Silver(Ⅰ) Complex Formed by Benzotriazole and 1-Hydroxymethyl Benzotriazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU,Qing-xiang(柳清湘); XU,Feng-Bo(徐凤波); LI,Qing-Shan(李庆山); ZENG,Xian-Shun(曾宪顺); LENG,Xue-Bing(冷雪冰); ZHANG,Zheng-Zhi(张正之)

    2002-01-01

    Dinuclear silver(Ⅰ) six-membered ring complex [A g2(bta)2-(hmbta)2] (ClO4)2 (3) has been synthesized by the reaction of benzotriazole (bra) (1) and 1-hydroxymethyl benzotriazole (hmbta) (2) with Ag(CH3CN)4ClO4. The structures of compound 2 and Complex 3 have been studied by single crystal Xray diffraction analysis. The change of luminescent intensity of 1, 2 and3 was reported. Compound 2 crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group P2(1)/c, a = 0.7655(10) nm,b =1.0126(14) nm, c=0.9502(13) nm, β=95.07(2)°, V=0.7337(17) nm3 and Z=4. Complex 3 crystallizes in the triclinic system with space group P1, a=0.73611(18) nm, b=0.9152(2) nm, c = 1.2277(3) nm, β=87.170(5)°, V=0.8221(3) nm3and Z = 1. The main structural feature of complex 3 is a symmetric dinuclear six-menbered ring formed by two silver(Ⅰ) atoms and four N-atoms from two benzotriazoles.The second structural feature of complex 3 is the π-π stacking interaction between two adjacent molecular planes, which forms the two-dimentional layer structure. Besides, compared with 2, the luminescent intensity of complex 3 shows a remarkable enhancement.

  6. Preparation and luminescent properties of lanthanide (Eu3+ and Tb3+) complexes grafted to 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane by covalent bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Haiyan

    2015-12-01

    A novel precursor PMA-Si was synthesized by modifying 1,2,4,5-benzene-tetracarboxylic acid (PMA) with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). Then the hybrids were prepared by PMA-Si coordinating to lanthanide ions (Eu3+ and Tb3+) in sol-gel process. In order to improve luminescent efficiency, 1,10-Phenanthroline (Phen) was introduced to the system as the second ligand. As-prepared compounds in sol condition were coated on quartz plates to form a layer of thin film, which was different from other similar hybrids. The properties of the hybrids were characterized by FT-IR, fluorescence spectra, TG and SEM. The results showed that the obtained materials enhanced thermal stability, mechanical resistances, waterproofness as well as machining properties.

  7. TiO2:(Fe, S Thin Films Prepared from Complex Precursors by CVD, Physical Chemical Properties, and Photocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Bessergenev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The TiO2 thin films were prepared using Ti(dpm2(OPri2 and Ti(OPri4 (dpm = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptane-3,5-dione, Pri = isopropyl as the precursors. The volatile compounds Fe[(C2H52NCS2]3 and [(CH3C]2S2 were used to prepare doped TiO2 films. The synthesis was done in vacuum or in the presence of Ar and O2. The pressure in the CVD chamber was varied between 1.2×10−4 mbar and 0.1 mbar, with the system working either in the molecular beam or gas flow regime. Physical, chemical, and photocatalytic properties of the (Fe, S-doped TiO2 films were studied. Those TiO2:(Fe, S films prepared from the Ti(OPri4 precursor show increased photocatalytic activities, very close to those of Degussa P25 powder in UV region.

  8. The preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes carboxymethyl chitosan(CMC)-pectin by reflux method as a Pb (II) metal ion adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, Budi; Mudasir, Siswanta, Dwi; Triyono

    2016-02-01

    Aim of this research is to synthesized a chemically stable polyelectrolyte complexs carboxymetyl chitosan CMC-pectin as Pb(II) ion adsorbent by reflux method. During synthesis process, the optimum mass ratio of CMC and pectin was pre-determined and the active groups of the CMC-pectin complex was characterized by using IR spectrofotometer. Finally, adsorption capacity of the adsorbent material for Pb (II) ions was studied under optimum condition, i.e. adsorbent mass, contact time, and pH. Result shows that CMC could be succesfully combined with pectin to produce CMC-pectin complex. The optimum mass ratio CMC: pectin to form the polyelectrolyte complexs CMC-pectin was 70% : 30%. The active groups identified in the CMC-pectin complex was a hydroxyl (OH) and carboxylate (-COOH) groups. The optimum conditions for Pb (II) ion absoprtion was 10 mg of the adsorbent mass, 75 min of contact time, and pH 5. This material can be effectively used as adsorbents for Pb (II) ions, where up to 91% Pb (II) metal ions was adsorbed from aqueous solution and the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was 41.63 mg/g.

  9. Preparation, physicochemical analysis and molecular modeling investigation of 2,2‧-Bipyridine: β-Cyclodextrin inclusion complex in solution and solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, R.; Kothainayaki, S.; Sivakumar, K.

    2015-11-01

    Supramolecular interaction between 2,2‧-Bipyridine (BPY) and β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) has been investigated in solution and solid state. Non-covalent interaction between BPY and β-CD was studied in solution using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Inclusion complex of BPY and β-CD was prepared in solid state by co-precipitation method and it was characterized using Fourier Transform Infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermal analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Binding constant values and 1:1 stoichiometry of the inclusion complex were calculated using Benesi-Hildebrand plots at 303 K. Using continuous variation method the 1:1 stoichiometry has been confirmed for BPY: β-CD complex. Thermodynamic parameter, ΔG of inclusion complex formation was determined and the negative value indicated that the inclusion process was an exergonic and spontaneous process. The most probable model of BPY: β-CD inclusion complex suggested by molecular docking studies was in good agreement with the results obtained by experimental methods.

  10. Preparation and Biological Evaluation of Two Novel Platinum(II Complexes Based on the Ligands of Dipicolyamine Bisphosphonate Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Qiu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new platinum(II-based complexes bearing a bone-targeting group were synthesized and characterized. They both have excellent affinity for hydroxyapatite (HA, which is abundant in human bone tissues. Their antitumor activities against five human cancer cell lines (U2OS, A549, HCT116, MDA-MB-231 and HepG2 were evaluated and compared with cisplatin (CDDP. Though the antitumor efficacies of new complexes are lower than that of CDDP, they show higher selectivity against the HepG2 hepatoma cell line than the L02 normal liver cell line. Morphology studies exhibited typical characteristics of cell apoptosis and the cell cycle distribution analysis indicated that the complexes can inhibit cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, a similar mechanism of action to CDDP.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of A New Dinuclear Ruthenium Complex with BDPX Ligand and Its Catalytic Hydrogenation Reactions for Cinnamaldehyde

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG,Yuan-You(唐元友); LI,Rui-Xiang(李瑞祥); LI,Xian-Jun(李贤均); WONG,Ning-Bew(黄宁表); TIN,Kim-Chung(田金忠); ZHANG,Zhe-Ying(张哲英); MAK,Thomas C.W.(麦松威)

    2004-01-01

    A new anionic dinuclear ruthenium complex bearing 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphinomethyl)benzene (BDPX)[NH2Et2][{RuCl (BDPX)}2(μ-Cl)3] (1) was synthesized and its structure was determined by an X-ray crystallographic analysis. This result indicated that complex 1 consisted of an anion dinuclear BDPX-Ru and a cationic diethylammonium. The crystal belonged to monoclinic system, C2/c space group with a=3.3552(7) nm, b= 1.8448(4)nm, c=2.4265(5) nm, β= 101.89(3)° and Z=8. The catalytic hydrogenation activities and selectivities of complex 1 for cinnamaldehyde were investigated.

  12. Magnesium oxide prepared via metal-chitosan complexation method: Application as catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil and catalyst deactivation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerindo, Gizelle I.; Probst, Luiz F. D.; Campos, Carlos E. M.; de Almeida, Rusiene M.; Meneghetti, Simoni M. P.; Meneghetti, Mario R.; Clacens, Jean-Marc; Fajardo, Humberto V.

    2011-10-01

    A simple method to prepare magnesium oxide catalysts for biodiesel production by transesterification reaction of soybean oil with ethanol is proposed. The method was developed using a metal-chitosan complex. Compared to the commercial oxide, the proposed catalysts displayed higher surface area and basicity values, leading to higher yield in terms of fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel). The deactivation of the catalyst due to contact with CO2 and H2O present in the ambient air was verified. It was confirmed that the active catalytic site is a hydrogenocarbonate adsorption site.

  13. [Study of pharmacological activity of complex magnesium-containing preparation based on mineral bishofit and pyridoxine hydrochloride in a rat model of chronic alcoholic intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasov, A A; Petrov, V I; Iezhitsa, I N; Onishchenko, N V; Churbakova, N V; Parshev, V V

    2003-01-01

    Nervous disturbances accompanying alcoholic illness were studied in relation to the depletion of magnesium ion content in the organism. The possibility of correcting the development of psychic (behavioral) pathologies by treatment with a complex magnesium-containing preparation based on mineral bishofit and pyridoxine hydrochloride (below, Mg-containing preparation) was studied in rats upon three-month voluntary alcoholization. A decrease in the locomotor (number of crossed squares) and vertical (number of standings) activity as evaluated in the open-field test and an increase in the immobilization time in the forced swim test showed evidence of depressive state in animals after long-term ethanol administration. After treatment with the Mg-containing preparation (50 mg Mg/kg in 2.5 ml volume, p.o.), the immobilization time of alcohol-preferring rats decreased in comparison to that before treatment and showed no statistically significant differences from the value in the intact control group. A decrease in the immobilization time (the main sign of antidepressant action) allows the Mg-containing preparation to be considered as antidepressant. The level of magnesium in rat blood erythrocytes decreased upon three-month voluntary alcoholization by 40.95 +/- 2.41% relative to control (p < 0.05). After a 5-week treatment with Mg-containing preparation under conditions of free access to alcohol, the content of magnesium in the erythrocytes of alcohol-preferring rats restored on a normal level. Chronic alcoholism reduces the content of microelements and vitamins (in particular, B6), these changes being mutually related.

  14. Pentacoordinate NiII Complexes : Preparation, Magnetic Measurements, and Ab Initio Calculations of the Magnetic Anisotropy Terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costes, Jean-Pierre; Maurice, Remi; Vendier, Laure

    2012-01-01

    Two novel mononuclear five-coordinate nickel complexes with distorted square-pyramidal geometries are presented. They result from association of a tridentate half-unit ligand and 6,6'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine according to a stepwise process that highlights the advantage of coordination chemistry in

  15. Facile preparation of mono-, di- and mixed-carboxylato platinum(IV) complexes for versatile anticancer prodrug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jenny Z; Bonnitcha, Paul; Wexselblatt, Ezequiel; Klein, Alice V; Najajreh, Yousef; Gibson, Dan; Hambley, Trevor W

    2013-01-28

    Facile strategies were developed for the versatile functionalization of platinum(IV) axial sites, allowing for easy accessibility to unsymmetric mono- and mixed-carboxylato, as well as symmetric di-substituted platinum(IV) complexes. The first method involves the direct oxidation and carboxylation of the platinum(II) center using an appropriate peroxide and the carboxylate of choice to firstly yield a monocarboxylato monohydroxido platinum(IV) complex. This platinum(IV) intermediate can undergo further carboxylation to give rise to a mixed-carboxylato platinum(IV) complex. The second method involves the activation of the carboxylate of choice by a common carbodiimide coupling reagent, and its reaction with a dihydroxido platinum(IV) precursor to give the monocarboxylato platinum(IV) complex. Uronium salts can be employed to promote efficient dicarboxylation of the dihydroxido platinum(IV) precursor. Lastly, an axial azide pendant group was demonstrated to be suitable for orthogonal "click" conjugation reactions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Poly(dendrimers) with phosphorescent iridium(III) complex-based side chains prepared via ring-opening metathesis polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, W.-Y.; Balfour, M.N.; Levell, J.W.; Bansal, A.K.; Burn, P.L.; Lo, S.-C.; Samuel, I.D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorescent poly(dendrimers) with a norbornene-derived backbone have been synthesized using ring-opening metathesis polymerization with the Grubbs III catalyst. The dendrimers are comprised of a heteroleptic iridium(III) complex core with two 2-phenylpyridyl ligands and a phenyltriazolyl ligand,

  17. Sample preparation for the analysis of complex carbohydrates by multicapillary gel electrophoresis with light-emitting diode induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajos, Marcell; Hajós, Péter; Bonn, Guenther K; Guttman, András

    2008-06-01

    This paper evaluates various sample preparation methods for multicapillary gel electrophoresis based glycan analysis to support electrokinetic injection. First the removal of excess derivatization reagent is discussed. Although the Sephadex G10 filled multiscreen 96-well filter plate and Sephadex G10 filled pipet tips enabled increased analysis sensitivity, polyamide DPA-6S pipet tips worked particularly well. In this latter case an automated liquid handling system was used to increase purification throughput, necessary to feed the multicapillary electrophoresis unit. Problems associated with the high glucose content of such biological samples as normal human plasma were solved by applying ultrafiltration. Finally, a volatile buffer system was developed for exoglycosidase-based carbohydrate analysis.

  18. Autothermal Reforming and Partial Oxidation of Methane in Fluidized Reactor over Highly Dispersed Ni Catalyst Prepared from Ni Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jing; HOU Zhao-Yin; SHEN Kai; LOU Hui; FEI Jin-Hua; ZHENG Xiao-Ming

    2006-01-01

    Highly dispersed Ni catalysts on spherical SiO2 were prepared by simple impregnation of Ni(acac)2, [Ni-(NH3)6-n(H2O)n]2+, [Ni(en)3]2+ and [Ni(EDTA)]2-. Pulse adsorption of H2 and TEM analysis results confirmed that Ni was dispersed very well on the surface of SiO2 even after calcination (4 h) and reduction (1 h) at high temperature of 800 ℃. These highly dispersed and uniquely sized Ni crystallites were more stable and more reactive for both autothermal reforming and partial oxidation of methane in fluidized reactor.

  19. Preparation and characterization of uranium-iron triple-bonded UFe(CO){sub 3}{sup -} and OUFe(CO){sub 3}{sup -} complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Chaoxian; Meng, Luyan; Luo, Mingbiao [School of Chemistry, Biological and Materials Sciences, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nuclear Resources and Environment, East China University of Technology, Nanchang (China); Wang, Jia-Qi; Li, Wan-Lu; Li, Jun [Department of Chemistry and Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Qu, Hui; Zhou, Mingfei [Department of Chemistry, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2017-06-06

    We report the preparation of UFe(CO){sub 3}{sup -} and OUFe(CO){sub 3}{sup -} complexes using a laser-vaporization supersonic ion source in the gas phase. These compounds were mass-selected and characterized by infrared photodissociation spectroscopy and state-of-the-art quantum chemical studies. There are unprecedented triple bonds between U 6d/5f and Fe 3d orbitals, featuring one covalent σ bond and two Fe-to-U dative π bonds in both complexes. The uranium and iron elements are found to exist in unique formal U(I or III) and Fe(-II) oxidation states, respectively. These findings suggest that there may exist a whole family of stable df-d multiple-bonded f-element-transition-metal compounds that have not been fully recognized to date. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Synthesis, spectral, thermal and biological studies of mixed ligand complexes with newly prepared Schiff base and 1,10-phenanthroline ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Halim, Hanan F.; Mohamed, Gehad G.; Khalil, Eman A. M.

    2017-10-01

    A series of mixed ligand complexes were prepared from the Schiff base (L1) as a primary ligand, prepared by condensation of oxamide and furan-2-carbaldehyde, and 1,10-phenanthroline (1,10-phen) as a secondary ligand. The Schiff base ligand and its mixed ligand chelates were characterized based on elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, thermal analysis, UV-Visible, mass, molar conductance, magnetic moment. X-ray diffraction, solid reflectance and ESR also have been studied. The mixed ligand complexes were found to have the formulae of [M(L1) (1,10-phen)]Clm.nH2O (M = Cr(III) and Fe(III) (m = 3) (n = 0); M = Mn(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) (m = 2) (n = 0); and M = Co(II) (m = 2) (n = 1), Ni(II) (m = 2) (n = 2) and Zn(II) (m = 2) (n = 3)) and that the geometrical structure of the complexes were octahedral. The parameters of thermodynamic using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger equations were calculated. The synthesized Schiff base ligand, 1,10-phenanthroline ligand and Their mixed ligand complexes were also investigated for their antibacterial and antifungal activity against bacterial species (Gram-Ve bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and (Gram + Ve bacteria: Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus pneumonia) and fungi (Aspergillus fumigates and Candida albicans). The anticancer activity of the new compounds had been tested against breast (MFC7) and colon (HCT-116) cell lines. The results showed high activity for the synthesized compounds.

  1. Polyurethane with Tethered Copper(II)-Cyclen Complex: Preparation, Characterization and Catalytic Generation of Nitric Oxide from S-Nitrosothiols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sangyeul

    2008-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of a commercial biomedical grade polyurethane (Tecophilic, SP-93A-100) material possessing covalently linked copper(II)-cyclen moieties as a nitric oxide (NO) generating polymer are described. Chemiluminescence NO measurements demonstrate that the prepared polymer can decompose endogenous S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) such as S-nitrosoglutathione and S-nitrosocysteine to NO in the presence of thiol reducing agents (RSHs; e.g., glutathione and cysteine) at physiological pH. Since such RSNO and RSH already exist in blood, the proposed polymer is capable of spontaneously generating NO when in contact with fresh blood. This is demonstrated by utilizing the polymer as an outer coating at the distal end of an amperometric NO sensor to create a device that generates response toward the RSNO species in the blood. This polymer possesses the combined benefits of a commercial biomedical grade polyurethane with the ability to generate biologically active NO when on contact with blood, and thus may serve as a useful coating to improve the hemocompatibility of various medical devices. PMID:18314189

  2. Preparation of highly purified pinolenic acid from pine nut oil using a combination of enzymatic esterification and urea complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    No, Da Som; Zhao, Ting Ting; Kim, Yangha; Yoon, Mi-Ra; Lee, Jeom-Sig; Kim, In-Hwan

    2015-03-01

    Pinolenic acid (PLA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid of plant origin. PLA has been successfully enriched according to a two-step process involving lipase-catalysed esterification and urea complexation. For the first step, the fatty acids present in pine nut oil were selectively esterified with lauryl alcohol using Candida rugosa lipase. Under the optimum conditions of 0.1% enzyme loading, 10% additional water, and 15 °C, PLA was enriched up to 43 mol% from an initial value of 13 mol% in the pine nut oil. For the second step, the PLA-enriched fraction from the first step was subjected to a urea complexation process. In this way, PLA enrichments with purities greater than 95 mol% were obtained at urea to fatty acid ratios greater than 3:1 (wt/wt), and 100% pure PLA was produced at a urea to fatty acid ratio of 5:1 with an 8.7 mol% yield.

  3. Preparation and surface functionalization of MWCNTs: study of the composite materials produced by the interaction with an iron phthalocyanine complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asedegbega-Nieto, Esther; Pérez-Cadenas, María; Carter, Jonathan; Anderson, James A; Guerrero-Ruiz, Antonio

    2011-04-20

    Carbon nanotubes [CNTs] were synthesized by the catalytic vapor decomposition method. Thereafter, they were functionalized in order to incorporate the oxygen groups (OCNT) and subsequently the amine groups (ACNT). All three CNTs (the as-synthesized and functionalized) underwent reaction with an iron organometallic complex (FePcS), iron(III) phthalocyanine-4,4",4",4"-tetrasulfonic acid, in order to study the nature of the interaction between this complex and the CNTs and the potential formation of nanocomposite materials. Transmission electronic microscopy, N2 adsorption at 77 K, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature-programmed desorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were the characterization techniques employed to confirm the successful functionalization of CNTs as well as the type of interaction existing with the FePcS. All results obtained led to the same conclusion: There were no specific chemical interactions between CNTs and the fixed FePcS.

  4. Preparation and surface functionalization of MWCNTs: study of the composite materials produced by the interaction with an iron phthalocyanine complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon nanotubes [CNTs] were synthesized by the catalytic vapor decomposition method. Thereafter, they were functionalized in order to incorporate the oxygen groups (OCNT and subsequently the amine groups (ACNT. All three CNTs (the as-synthesized and functionalized underwent reaction with an iron organometallic complex (FePcS, iron(III phthalocyanine-4,4",4",4""-tetrasulfonic acid, in order to study the nature of the interaction between this complex and the CNTs and the potential formation of nanocomposite materials. Transmission electronic microscopy, N2 adsorption at 77 K, thermogravimetric analysis, temperature-programmed desorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were the characterization techniques employed to confirm the successful functionalization of CNTs as well as the type of interaction existing with the FePcS. All results obtained led to the same conclusion: There were no specific chemical interactions between CNTs and the fixed FePcS.

  5. Osmium(II)–bis(dihydrogen) complexes containing caryl,CNHC–chelate ligands: Preparation, bonding situation, and acidity

    OpenAIRE

    Bolaño, Tamara; Esteruelas, Miguel A.; Fernández, Israel; Oñate, Enrique; Palacios, Adrián; Tsai, Jui-Yi; Xia, Chuanjun

    2015-01-01

    The hexahydride complex OsH6(PiPr3)2 (1) reacts with the BF4-salts of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-1-H-benzimidazolium, 1-phenyl-3-methyl-1-H-5,6-dimethyl-benzimidazolium, and 1-phenyl-3-methyl-1-H-imidazolium to give the respective trihydride-osmium(IV) derivatives OsH3(κ2-Caryl,CNHC)(PiPr3)2 (2–4). The protonation of these compounds with HBF4·OEt2 produces the reduction of the metal center and the formation of the bis(dihydrogen)-osmium(II) complexes [Os(κ2-Caryl,CNHC)(η2-H2)2(PiPr3)2]BF4 (5–7). DFT c...

  6. Preparation of olanzapine and methyl-β-cyclodextrin complexes using a single-step, organic solvent-free supercritical fluid process: An approach to enhance the solubility and dissolution properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrangi, Shashi Ravi Suman; Trivedi, Vivek; Mitchell, John C; Wicks, Stephen Richard; Alexander, Bruce David

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a single-step, organic solvent-free supercritical fluid process for the preparation of olanzapine-methyl-β-cyclodextrin complexes with an express goal to enhance the dissolution properties of olanzapine. The complexes were prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide processing, co-evaporation, freeze drying and physical mixing. The prepared complexes were then analysed by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, solubility and dissolution studies. Computational molecular docking studies were performed to study the formation of molecular inclusion complexation of olanzapine with methyl-β-cyclodextrin. All the binary mixtures of olanzapine with methyl-β-cyclodextrin, except physical mixture, exhibited a faster and greater extent of drug dissolution than the drug alone. Products obtained by the supercritical carbon dioxide processing method exhibited the highest apparent drug dissolution. The characterisation by different analytical techniques suggests complete complexation or amorphisation of olanzapine and methyl-β-cyclodextrin complexes prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide processing method. Therefore, organic solvent-free supercritical carbon dioxide processing method proved to be novel and efficient for the preparation of solid inclusion complexes of olanzapine with methyl-β-cyclodextrin. The preliminary data also suggests that the complexes of olanzapine with methyl-β-cyclodextrin will lead to better therapeutic efficacy due to better solubility and dissolution properties.

  7. Polyvinylpyrrolidone-bromine complex: An efficient polymeric reagent for selective preparation of benzyl bromides in the presence of hexamethyldisilane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem M. Lakouraj

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Benzylic bromides were conveniently obtained in high yields via the reaction of the corresponding alcohols with crosslinked polyvinylpyrrolidone-bromine complex (PVPP-Br2/hexamethyldisilane in chloroform at reflux condition. Selective conversion of benzyl alcohol to benzyl bromide in the presence of primary aliphatic alcohols, e.g. 2-phenylethanol was also achieved.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i2.14

  8. Preparation and characterization of insulin-surfactant complexes for loading into lipid-based drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ping; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Fano, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    as complexing surfactant and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent. Significant change in secondary structure of insulin freeze dried from DMSO was observed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Changes were quantitatively smaller in the presence of surfactants, demonstrating both a stabilizing effect...... of insulin after freeze-drying from DMSO, constituting a potential generic issue with this technique for protein processing. In the specific case of insulin, the changes were found to be reversible, explaining the success of this strategy in previous studies....

  9. Extractive spectrophotometric determination of five selected drugs by ion-pair complex formation with bromothymol blue in pure form and pharmaceutical preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha G. Nair

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Simple, precise, selective, and expeditious spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of itopride (ITO, midodrine (MID, diclofenac (DIC, mesalamine (MES, and sumatriptan (SUM in their pure form as well as in pharmaceutical preparations. The method was based on ion-pair complex formation between the drugs and anionic dye, bromothymol blue in an acidic medium (pH 2.0–4.0. The yellow colored complexes formed were quantitatively extracted into chloroform and measured at 411, 410, 413, 412, and 414 nm wavelength for ITO, MID, DIC, MES, and SUM, respectively. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 3.0–30 µg/mL for ITO, 1.0–20 µg/mL for MID, 1.5–40 µg/mL for DIC, 1.2–12 µg/mL for MES, and 0.5–15 µg/mL for SUM. The stoichiometry of the complexes formed between the drugs and the dye was 1:1 as determined by Job’s method of continuous variation. The association constant (KIP of the ion-pair complexes formed was evaluated using Benesi–Hildebrand equation. Limit of detection, limit of quantification, and Sandell’s sensitivity of the methods were also estimated. The proposed methods were successfully employed for the determination of these drugs in their pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  10. Preparation, Crystal Structure and Properties of a Pentametallic 3-Ferrocenyl-2-crotonic acid-Bridged Copper(Ⅱ) Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨家祥; 张泽; 吴杰颖; 田玉鹏; 刘清亮; FUN,HoongKun; USMAN,Anwar; 许志强; LAURENCE,K.Thompson

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of the copper(ll) complex[ Cu2 ( OOCCH = C (CH3) Fc )3 ( phen ) 2 ] ClO4·2H2O ( 1 ) are reported. The structure of the complex was determined by singlecrystal X-ray analysis. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group Pc, with Z = 2, a = 1.2799(4) nm,b =0.9969(4) nm, c = 2.5228 nm, and β = 91.576(1)°. The cationic part of 1 indicates a penametallic core in which three 3-ferrocenyl-2-crotonic acid salt (FCA) groups act as (O, O'') bridging ligands between two copper(II) ions with a squarepyramidal environment. Cyclic voltammetric experiments in acetonitrile have been performed mainly to examine the Fe(Ⅱ)→Fe(Ⅲ) one-electron oxidation in FCA and its complex. The variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements re-vealed very weak intramolecular anti-ferromagnetic coupling.Fitting parameters are 2J = -0.2 cm-1, g = 2.114, and θ=0 K.

  11. Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline CuO powders with the different surfactants and complexing agent mediated precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendran, V.; Gajendiran, J., E-mail: gaja.nanotech@gmail.com

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • CuO nanostructures by surfactants mediated method. • Structural and optical properties of CuO nanostructures changes under the effect of surface modifier. • Citric acid assisted is the best, in terms of size, morphology and optical properties than that of CTAB, SDS and PEG-400. - Abstract: Nanostructures of copper oxide (CuO) was synthesized into crystallite sized ranging from 20 to 50 nm in the presence of different surfactants, and complex agent such as cityl tri methyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium do decyl sulfate (SDS), poly ethylene glycol (PEG-400) and citric acid via a precipitation route. Variations in several parameters and their effects on the structural and optical properties of CuO nanostructures (crystallite size, morphology and band gap) were investigated by XRD, FTIR, SEM and UV analysis. The UV–visible absorption spectra of the different surfactants and complexing agent assisted CuO nanostructures indicates that the estimated optical band gap energy value (1.94–1.98 eV) is higher than that of the bulk CuO value (1.4 eV), which is attributed to the quantum confinement effect. The formation mechanism of different surfactants and complexing agent assisted CuO nanostructures is also proposed.

  12. The preparation, characterization, and pharmacokinetic studies of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel/dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye YJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ya-Jing Ye,1 Yun Wang,1 Kai-Yan Lou,1 Yan-Zuo Chen,1 Rongjun Chen,2 Feng Gao1,3,4 1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; 3Shanghai Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Chemistry, 4Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: A novel biocompatible and biodegradable drug-delivery nanoparticle (NP has been developed to minimize the severe side effects of the poorly water-soluble anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX for clinical use. PTX was loaded into the hydrophobic cavity of a hydrophilic cyclodextrin derivative, heptakis (2,6-di-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (DM-β-CD, using an aqueous solution-stirring method followed by lyophilization. The resulting PTX/DM-β-CD inclusion complex dramatically enhanced the solubility of PTX in water and was directly incorporated into chitosan (CS to form NPs (with a size of 323.9–407.8 nm in diameter using an ionic gelation method. The formed NPs had a zeta potential of +15.9–23.3 mV and showed high colloidal stability. With the same weight ratio of PTX to CS of 0.7, the loading efficiency of the PTX/DM-β-CD inclusion complex-loaded CS NPs was 30.3-fold higher than that of the PTX-loaded CS NPs. Moreover, it is notable that PTX was released from the DM-β-CD/CS NPs in a sustained-release manner. The pharmacokinetic studies revealed that, compared with reference formulation (Taxol®, the PTX/DM-β-CD inclusion complex-loaded CS NPs exhibited a significant increase in AUC0→24h (the area under the plasma drug concentration–time curve over the period of 24 hours and mean residence time by 2.7-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively. Therefore, the novel drug/DM-β-CD inclusion complex-loaded CS NPs have promising applications for the

  13. Effects of corticotropin releasing factor on spontaneous burst activity in the piriform-amygdala complex of in vitro brain preparations from newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Tomoko; Onimaru, Hiroshi; Homma, Ikuo

    2011-10-01

    The amygdala is an important higher regulatory center of the autonomic nervous system, involved in respiratory and cardiovascular control, and it also plays a role in the formation of emotions. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neuropeptide involved in stress responses. We have examined the effects of CRF on the spontaneous burst activity in the piriform-amygdala complex of rat brain preparations in vitro. Limbic-brainstem-spinal cord preparations of 0- to 1-day-old Wistar rats were isolated under deep ether anesthesia, and were superperfused in a modified Krebs solution. Bath application of 50nM CRF substantially increased the frequency of burst activity in the piriform-amygdala complex, whereas this polypeptide exerted only minor effects on C4 inspiratory activity. The excitatory effect of CRF on the amygdala burst was effectively blocked by the CRF1 antagonist, antalarmin, but not the CRF2 antagonist, astressin-2B, suggesting that CRF1 mediated the excitatory effect. The spatio-temporal pattern of the burst activity according to optical recordings was basically identical to the controls; the burst activity initially appeared in the piriform cortex and then propagated to the amygdala. The present experimental model could be useful for the study of role of the limbic system, including the amygdala, in stress responses.

  14. Preparation of detergent-lipase complexes utilizing water-soluble amphiphiles in single aqueous phase and catalysis of transesterifications in homogeneous organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, Y; Fukunaga, K; Maruoka, N; Nakao, K; Sugimura, Y

    2000-01-01

    A novel method of preparing detergent-enzyme complexes that can be employed in organic media was developed utilizing newly synthesized water-soluble nonionic gemini-type detergents, N,N-bis(3-D-gluconamidopropyl)-3-(dialkyl-L-glutamatecarbonyl)propanamides (BIG2CnCA: n = 10,12,14,16,18) and N,N-bis(3-D-lactonamidopropyl)-3-(dialkyl-L-glutamatecarbonyl)propanamides (BIL2CnCA: n = 16,18), and nonionic twin-headed detergents, N,N-bis(3-D-gluconamidopropyl)alkanamides (BIG1Cn: n = 12,14,16,18,delta9). This method simply entails mixing a selected enzyme with an appropriate detergent in an aqueous solution followed by lyophilization, and it offers the advantages of enhanced enzymatic activity in organic solvents and eliminates both enzyme loss and the necessity for an organic solvent in the preparation stage. Using various modified lipases originating from Aspergillus niger (Lipase A), Candida rugosa (Lipase C), Pseudomonas cepacia (Lipase P), and porcine pancreas (PPL), prepared using the novel method and detergents, including conventional synthesized nonionic detergents such as dialkyl N-D-glucona-L-glutamates (2CnGE: n = 12,18delta9) and octanoyl-N-methylglucamide (MEGA-8), enantioselective transesterifications of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol (sulcatol) and 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4-methanol (solketal) with a vinyl or isopropenyl carboxylate were carried out in an organic solvent. The modified lipase activity was influenced by both the lipases and the structure of the detergents. The value for the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) of the detergent provided a means of correlating the structure and the obtained modified lipase activity. For detergents of the same class with a HLB value of approximately 9 and 12, the highest activity was obtained for Lipase A and Lipase P, and Lipase C and PPL, respectively. Among detergents of the same HLB value tested, the gemini-type detergents possessing the most bulky head and tail were most effective as a modifier for lipases of all

  15. Microthermometric measurement of fluid inclusions and its constraints on genesis of PGE-polymetallic deposits in Lower Cambrian black rock series, southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Min; SUN Xiaoming; MA Mingyang

    2005-01-01

    Systematic microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusions in the PGE-polymetallic deposits hosted in the Lower Cambrian black rock series in southern China were performed, and the results suggest: (1) there exist two types of fluid inclusions. TypeⅠis of NaCl-H2O system with low-medium salinity, and its homogenization temperatures (Th) and salinities are 106.9- 286.4℃ and ( 0.8- 21.8) wt%NaCl eq. respectively; TypeⅡ is of CaCl2-NaCl-H2O system with medium-high salinities, and its homogenization temperatures and salinities range from 120.1℃ to 269.6℃ and ( 11.4- 31.4) wt%NaCl eq., respectively. The typeⅡ fluid inclusions have been discovered for the first time in this kind of deposits; (2) two generations of ore-forming fluids were recognized. Characteristics of fluid inclusions in the PGE-polymetallic ores and carbonate-quartz stockworks in the underlying phosphorites are almost of no difference, they may represent ore-forming fluids at the main metallogenic stage. The peak value of homogenization temperature of those fluid inclusions is about 170℃, while their salinities possess a remarkable bimodal distribution pattern with two peak values of (27-31) wt%NaCl eq. and (4-6) wt%NaCl eq. On the contrary, fluid inclusions in the carbonate-quartz veins in the hanging wall may represent ore-forming fluids at the post-metallogenetic stage. The homogenization temperatures and the peak values of salinities are mostly 130-170℃ and (12-14) wt%NaCl eq., respectively; (3) nobel gas isotopic composition analyses in combination with the microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusions suggest that the ore-forming fluids at the main metallogenetic stage were probably derived from mixing of basinal hot brines with the CaCl2-NaCl-H2O system and seawater with the NaCl-H2O system; (4) in the Early Cambrian, the basinal hot brines were trapped in the Caledonian basins, which were distributed along the southern margin of the Yangtze Craton, and where giant thick

  16. Investigation of transport of genistein, daidzein and their inclusion complexes prepared with different cyclodextrins on Caco-2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daruházi, Agnes Emma; Kiss, Tímea; Vecsernyés, Miklós; Szente, Lajos; Szőke, Eva; Lemberkovics, Eva

    2013-10-01

    Isoflavonoids are widespread constituents in medical plants especially in legumes (Fabaceae), but occur in other different plant families as well (Rosaceae, Iridaceae, Amaranthaceae). Their antioxidant, estrogen-like, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects make them promising compounds in therapy of important disorders especially in estrogen related diseases. Poor solubility in aqueous system of genistein and daidzein needs a solubility enhancement for pharmaceutical use. These compounds are suitable guest molecules for inclusion complex formation with cyclodextrins (CDs) considering matching their size and polarity. The molecular encapsulation with beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD), gamma-cyclodextrin (γ-CD), hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and random methyl-beta cyclodextrin (RAMEB-CD) results in a solid, molecularly dispersed form and in a significantly improved aqueous solubility of genistein and daidzein. Determining enhancement in solubility and bioavailability we investigated the transport of these inclusion complexes across Caco-2 cell line comparing that of the pure compounds and found significant improving effect of the different CD derivatives on membrane permeation of the two isoflavone aglycons.

  17. Microencapsulation of citronella oil by complex coacervation using chitosan-gelatin (b system: operating design, preparation and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Fitrah Rabani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Citronella oil (CO can be an effective mosquito repellent, but due to its nature which having high volatility, oils rapidly evaporates causing loss of efficacy and shorten the repellent effect. Therefore, microencapsulation technology was implemented to ensure the encapsulated material being protected from immediate contact with environment and offers controlled release. In this study, microencapsulation of CO was done by employing complex coacervation using chitosan-gelatin (B system and utilized proanthocyanidins as the crosslinker. Remarkably, nearly all material involved in this study are from natural sources which are safe to human and environment. In designing operating process condition for CO encapsulation process, we found that wall ratio of 1:35 and pH 5 was the best operating condition based on zeta potential and turbidity analysis. FT-IR analysis found that gelatin-B had coated the CO droplet during emulsification stage, chitosan started to interact with gelatin-B to form a polyelectrolyte complex in adjust pH stage, CO capsules solidified at cooling process and were hardened during crosslinking process. Final product of CO capsules after settling process was identified at the top layer. Surface morphology of CO capsules obtained in this study were described having diameter varies from 81.63 µm to 156.74 µm with almost spherical in shape.

  18. Sample preparation and direct electrospray ionization on a tip column for rapid mass spectrometry analysis of complex samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun-Qing; You, Jin-Qing; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2012-10-07

    A handheld pipette tip column electrospray ionization source (PTC-ESI source) was developed for rapid mass spectrometry analysis at ambient pressure. The PTC-ESI source was made up of three main component parts including a micro DC high voltage (HV) power supply, a micropipette and a disposable micropipette tip filled with a plug of adsorbent. A DC high voltage was applied to the sharp point of the micropipette tip column to induce electrospray ionization. The PTC-ESI source was successfully used for direct analysis of basic organic compounds, organic acids and peptides in a simple matrix. In the case of complex samples, micro-extraction based on the adsorbent phase filled in the pipette tip was used to remove impurities and concentrate target analytes prior to ionization. The eluting solution was not pipetted out, but directly dispersed in the form of electrospray from the pipette tip for ionization. The effectiveness of the PTC-ESI source has been further demonstrated by fast analysis of therapeutic compounds and endogenous bioactive chemicals in complex biological samples.

  19. A general method for preparing lanthanide oxide nanoparticles via thermal decomposition of lanthanide(III) complexes with 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid and hydrazine ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parimalagandhi, Karuppannan; Premkumar, Thathan; Vairam, Sundararajan

    2016-09-01

    Six new lanthanide(III) complexes (i.e., [Ln(L)2(NA)1.5]·3H2O, where Ln=La(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), and Ce(III) and L and NA indicate N2H4 and C10H6(1-O)(2-COO), respectively) with 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid [C10H6(1-O)(2-COOH)] and hydrazine (N2H4) as co-ligands were characterized by elemental, FTIR, UV-visible, and XRD techniques. In the FT-IR spectra, the N-N stretching frequency in the range of 981-949 cm-1 demonstrates evidence of the presence of coordinated N2H4, indicating the bidentate bridging nature of hydrazine in the complexes. These complexes show symmetric and asymmetric COO- stretching from 1444 to 1441 cm-1 and 1582 to 1557 cm-1, respectively, indicating bidentate coordination. TG-DTA studies revealed that the compounds underwent endothermic dehydration from 98 to 110 °C. This was followed by the exothermic decomposition of oxalate intermediates to yield the respective metal oxides as the end products. From SEM images, the average size of the metal oxide particles prepared by thermal decomposition of the complexes was determined to be 39-42 nm. The powder X-ray and SEM coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) studies revealed the presence of the respective nano-sized metal oxides. The kinetic parameters of the decomposition of the complexes were calculated using the Coats-Redfern equation.

  20. EPR and speciation simulation study of Cu2+ complexes in an amine-based aqueous precursor system used for preparation of superconducting YBCO coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommens, Petra; Feys, Jonas; Vrielinck, Henk; De Buysser, Klaartje; Herman, Gerrit; Callens, Freddy; Van Driessche, Isabel

    2012-03-28

    In this work, we investigate the chemistry for an aqueous acetate-triethanolamine-ammonia based YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-δ) (YBCO) precursor system. These precursor solutions are suited for the chemical solution deposition of superconducting YBCO layers on top of single crystal SrTiO(3) or buffered NiW tapes. The development of this kind of precursor inks often involves trial-and-error experimenting and thus is very time-consuming. To reduce labwork to the minimum, the theoretical prediction of pH stability limits and the complexation behaviour of the different metal ions and complexants in the inks are very important. For this purpose, we simulated, based on literature values, the complexation behaviour of Cu(2+) in the aqueous precursor solutions as a function of pH. To validate the used model, we performed potentiometric pH titrations for solutions with similar composition and checked the correctness of fit between experiment and model. The generated complexometric results are coupled with X-band EPR spectra to further confirm the results. EPR spectra for fully prepared precursor solutions as well as for Cu(2+) reference solutions containing only one type of ligand (acetate, triethanolamine or ammonia) were investigated as a function of pH. We find that, in line with speciation simulation, only acetates are actively complexing the Cu(2+) ions at pH values below 7, while when reaching higher pH levels mainly triethanolamine complexes are formed. Over the entire pH range, no trace of free Cu(2+)or Cu(OH)(2), possibly creating precipitation during gelation and thus complicating further processing, could be found.

  1. Preparation by enzymolysis and bioactivity of iron complex of fish protein hydrolysate (Fe-FPH)from low value fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Preparation of Fe2+ chelate of fish protein hydrolysate (Fe-FPH) obtained from low value fish proteins was introduced and its bioactivity was studied by compound enzymolysis. The optimum conditions for hydrolysate chelating Fe2+ are DH (degree of hydrolysis) at 5%, pH 7.0, 20°C and 15 min chelating time for FM (material not being defatted). Four types of Fe-FPH including CA (deposit after chelating), CB (deposit in 50% of absolute ethanol solution), CC (suspended deposit in 80% of absolute ethanol solution), and CD (bottom deposit in 80% of absolute ethanol solution) were fractionated with absolute ethanol from FM. Structural analysis through infra-red spectrum revealed that Fe2+ was combined strongly with amino-group and carboxyl-group in each chelate and each Fe2+ could form two five-member ring structures. All of the four chelates were shown more significant antioxidative activity and can be used as natural hydrophobic and hydrophilic antioxidant. Among all the chelates, the CB possesses the most effective antioxidative activity at 92% as high as that of a-tocopherol. Among all Fe-FPHs, only CD showed the most effective antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis and can be used as natural antibacterial. It provides a more effective way for utilization of low value fish proteins and key information of Fe-FPH as additive in food industry.

  2. Application of CZE Method in Routine Analysis for Determination of B-Complex Vitamins in Pharmaceutical and Veterinary Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Franco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A competitive CZE method for quality control analysis of multivitamin preparations and veterinary products containing B-group vitamins was developed. Vitamins of interest are thiamine hydrochloride (B1, thiamine monophosphate chloride (B1a, riboflavine (B2, riboflavine-5′monophosphate (B2a, nicotinamide (B3, d-pantothenic acid calcium salt (B5, pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6, folic acid (B9, and 4-aminobenzoic acid (B10. These analytes were separated optimizing the experimental conditions in 20 mM tetraborate buffer pH=9.2 as a BGE (background electrolyte, on a Beckman P/ACE System MDQ instrument, using uncoated fused silica capillary. The effective capillary length was of 49.5 cm, I.D.=50 μm, the applied voltage 20 kV and the temperature 25∘C. Detection was performed by a diode array detector at 214 nm for all vitamins except B5 (190 nm and B2a (260 nm. Separation time was about 9 min. After experimental conditions optimization, the proposed method was validated. Precision of migration time and corrected peak area, linearity range, LOD and LOQ, accuracy (recovery, robustness, and ruggedness were evaluated for each analyte demonstrating the good reliability of the method. Analyses of the pharmaceutical real samples were performed and confirmed the versatility of this method.

  3. Preparation and characterization of PAN–KI complexed gel polymer electrolytes for solid-state battery applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N KRISHNA JYOTHI; K K VENKATARATNAM; P NARAYANA MURTY; K VIJAYA KUMAR

    2016-08-01

    The free standing and dimensionally stable gel polymer electrolyte films of polyacrylonitrile (PAN): potassium iodide (KI) of different compositions, using ethylene carbonate as a plasticizer and dimethyl formamide as solvent, are prepared by adopting ‘solution casting technique’ and these films are examined for their conductivities. The structural, miscibility and the chemical rapport between PAN and KI are investigated using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry methods. The conductivity is enhanced with the increase in KI concentration and temperature. The maximum conductivity at 30$^{\\circ}$C is found to be $2.089 \\times 10^{−5}$ S cm$^{−1}$ for PAN:KI (70:30) wt%, which is nine orders greater than that of pure PAN (${\\lt}10^{−14}$ S cm$^{−1}$). The conductivity-temperature dependence of these polymer electrolyte films obeys Arrhenius behaviour with activation energy ranging from 0.358 to 0.478 eV. The conducting carriers of charge transport in these polymer electrolyte films are identified by Wagner’s polarization technique and it is found that the charge transport is predominantlydue to ions. The better conducting sample is used to fabricate the battery with configuration K/PAN $+$ KI/I$_2$ $+$ C $+$ electrolyte and good discharge characteristics of battery are observed.

  4. Preparation by enzymolysis and bioactivity of iron complex of fish protein hydrolysate (Fe-FPH) from low value fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shanggui; Huo, Jiancong; Xie, Chao

    2008-08-01

    Preparation of Fe2+ chelate of fish protein hydrolysate (Fe-FPH) obtained from low value fish proteins was introduced and its bioactivity was studied by compound enzymolysis. The optimum conditions for hydrolysate chelating Fe2+ are DH (degree of hydrolysis) at 5%, pH 7.0, 20°C and 15 min chelating time for FM (material not being defatted). Four types of Fe-FPH including CA (deposit after chelating), CB (deposit in 50% of absolute ethanol solution), CC (suspended deposit in 80% of absolute ethanol solution), and CD (bottom deposit in 80% of absolute ethanol solution) were fractionated with absolute ethanol from FM. Structural analysis through infra-red spectrum revealed that Fe2+ was combined strongly with amino-group and carboxyl-group in each chelate and each Fe2+ could form two five-member ring structures. All of the four chelates were shown more significant antioxidative activity and can be used as natural hydrophobic and hydrophilic antioxidant. Among all the chelates, the CB possesses the most effective antioxidative activity at 92% as high as that of a-tocopherol. Among all Fe-FPHs, only CD showed the most effective antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis and can be used as natural antibacterial. It provides a more effective way for utilization of low value fish proteins and key information of Fe-FPH as additive in food industry.

  5. U-Pb, Re-Os and Ar-Ar dating of the Linghou polymetallic deposit, Southeastern China: Implications for metallogenesis of the Qingzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yanwen; Xie, Yuling; Liu, Liang; Lan, Tingguan; Yang, Jianling; Sebastien, Meffre; Yin, Rongchao; Liang, Songsong; Zhou, Limin

    2017-04-01

    The Qingzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt (QHMB) in Southeastern China has gained increasingly attention in recent years. However, due to the lack of reliable ages on intrusions and associated deposits in this belt, the tectonic setting and metallogenesis of the QHMB have not been well understood. The Linghou polymetallic deposit in northwestern Zhejiang Province is one of the typical deposits of the QHMB. According to the field relationships, this deposit consists of the early Cu-Au-Ag and the late Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization stages. Molybdenite samples with a mineral assemblage of molybdenite-chalcopyrite-pyrite ± quartz are collected from the copper mining tunnel near the Cu-Au-Ag ore bodies. Six molybdenite samples give the Re-Os model ages varying from 160.3 to 164.1 Ma and yield a mean age of 162.2 ± 1.4 Ma for the Cu-Au-Ag mineralization. Hydrothermal muscovite gives a well-defined Ar-Ar isochron age of 160.2 ± 1.1 Ma for the Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization. Three phases of granodioritic porphyry have been distinguished in this deposit, and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating shows that they have formed at 158.8 ± 2.4 Ma, 158.3 ± 1.9 Ma and 160.6 ± 2.1 Ma, comparable to the obtained ages of the Cu-Au-Ag and Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization. Therefore, these intrusive rocks have a close temporal and spatial relationship with the Cu-Au-Ag and Pb-Zn-Cu ore bodies. The presences of skarn minerals (e.g., garnet) and vein-type ores, together with the previous fluid inclusion and H-O-C-S-Pb isotopic data, clearly indicate that the Cu-Au-Ag and Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization are genetically related to these granodiorite porphyries. This conclusion excludes the possibility that this deposit is of ;SEDEX; type and formed in a sag basin of continental rifts setting as previously proposed. Instead, it is proposed that the Linghou polymetallic and other similar deposits in the QHMB, such as the 150-160 Ma Yongping porphyry-skarn Cu-Mo, Dongxiang porphyry? Cu, Shuikoushan/Kangjiawang skarn Pb

  6. [Preparation and antithrombogenicity of oxidated low molecular weight heparin-antithrombin complex coated-polyvinyl chloride tubing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Peng; Liu, Weiyong; Yang, Chun; Zhou, Hua; Cao, Ruijun; Yang, Jian

    2011-02-01

    Based on non-enzymatic protein glycated reaction, the sodium periodate-oxidated low molecular weight heparin-antithrombin covalent complex (SPLMWATH) was produced. By using polyethyleneimine-glutaraldehyde bonding technique, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubings were coated with SPLMWATH, heparin and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Spectrophotometry and dynamic clotting time experiment were used to determine the synthetic ratio of SPLMWATH, graft density, coating leaching ratio and to evaluate the antithrombogenicity of different coating on the PVC tubings. The results showed that the synthetic ratio of SPLMWATH was approximately 55%, and compared with heparin coating and LMWH coating, the graft density of SPLMWATH coating on the PVC tubing was smaller, but its coating stability and antithrombogenicity were significantly better than that of heparin coating and LMWH coating on the PVC tubings.

  7. Development of a formulation for the preparation of sup 9 sup 9 sup m Tc-Ida-bis-Biotin complex

    CERN Document Server

    Gutíerrez, L C

    2000-01-01

    linking were realized to the lyophilized product quality control tests like: stability and radiochemical purity. The analytical techniques used UV spectrophotometry and HRLC were validated. The studies of biodistribution of the sup 9 sup 9 sup m Tc-Ida-bis-biotin complex were realized in healthy laboratory animals, showing stability 'In vivo' with renal purification. (Author) The radiopharmaceuticals of diagnostic use incorporate the radioisotope to an organic or inorganic molecule which goes selectively to the interest organ, to an a physiologic or metabolic process of the body with a simple and quantitatively interpretable kinetics. The sup 9 sup 9 sup m Tc occupies 80% from total of the studies realized in the world by the optimum combination of physical half-life (6 h), radionuclide quantity (ng) and high energy emission which allows to obtain results with the greatest information. Actually, in Nuclear Medicine, the research strategies are directed to the use of 'premarkers systems' based in the antibody ...

  8. Preparation and Single-Crystal X-Ray Structures of Four Related Mixed-Ligand 4-Methylpyridine Indium Halide Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Clark, Eric B.; Schupp, John D.; Williams, Jennifer N.; Duraj, Stan A.; Fanwick, Philip E.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the structures of four related indium complexes obtained during synthesis of solid-state materials precursors. Indium adducts of halides and 4-methylpyridine, InX3(pic)3 (X = Cl, Br; pic = 4-methylpyridine) consist of octahedral molecules with meridional (mer) geometry. Crystals of mer-InCl3(pic)3 (1) are triclinic, space group P1(bar) (No. 2), with a = 9.3240(3), b = 13.9580(6), c = 16.7268 (7) A, alpha = 84.323(2), beta = 80.938(2), gamma = 78.274(3)Z = 4, R = 0.035 for 8820 unique reflections. Crystals of mer-InBr3(pic)3 (2) are monoclinic, space group P21/n (No. 14), with a = 15.010(2), b = 19.938(2), c = 16.593(3), beta = 116.44(1)Z = 8, R = 0.053 for 4174 unique reflections. The synthesis and structures of related compounds with phenylsulfide (chloride) (3) and a dimeric complex with bridging hydroxide (bromide) (4) coordination is also described. Crystals of trans-In(SC6H5)Cl2(pic)3 (3) are monoclinic, space group P21/n (No. 14), with a = 9.5265(2), b = 17.8729(6), c = 13.8296(4), beta = 99.7640(15)Z = 4, R = 0.048 for 5511 unique reflections. Crystals of [In(mu-OH)Br2(pic)22 (4) are tetragonal, space group = I41cd (No. 110) with a = 19.8560(4), b = 19.8560(4), c = 25.9528(6), Z = 8, R = 0.039 for 5982 unique reflections.

  9. Polyelectrolyte complexes of N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan/heparin obtained at different p H: I. Preparation, characterization and controlled release of heparin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) was synthesized through the N-methylation of chitosan (CHT) and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. Polyelectrolytes complexes (PECs) based on TMC and Heparin (HP) were prepared at different pHs (5, 8, 10 and 12) and characterized through FTIR spectroscopy, DSC and TGA curves and WAXS profiles. It was verified that the thermal stability of PECs is higher as higher is the pH of feed solution used for PEC formation. At basic conditions the complexation between TMC and HP is more effective and alterations on WAXS profiles of PECs in relation to the precursor (TMC) were clearly observed. Also, WAXS profiles show that the PEC crystallinity depends on the pH used for the complexation. These results match to the FTIR, DSC and TGA data. Due to the more intense electrostatic interactions, at higher pHs the unlike polymers chains (TMC and HP) are closer enough to produce more stable PECs. Through of the delivery curves was showed that PEC8 is a promising material for uses in oral site-specific HP release systems. This fact is directly related to the thermal properties of PEC8. (author)

  10. Transcriptional activity of telomerase complex in CD34- stem cells of cord blood in dependence of preparation time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bojdys-Szyndlar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether the expression of telomerase subunits encoding genes changes during the process of cord blood preparation. It should establish if the commonly accepted 24 hours time interval in stem cells kriopreservation procedure significantly influences their immortalization and so decreases the "quality" of cord blood stem cells. Investigation includes 69 women. Spontaneous labour was the inclusion condition. The material was collected at birth after clamping of umbilical cord by direct vasopuncture. CD34- cells were extracted from cord blood (MACS, Miltenyi Biotec; Bisley, Surrey, UK. The expression profile of telomerase activators and inhibitors encoding genes was determined using HG_U133A oligonucleotide microarray (Affymetrix. We used a real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay to quantify the telomerase TERT, hTR and TP1 subunits mRNA copy numbers in CD34- cells in 0, 6, 12 and 24 hours after cord blood collection. We observed significant decrease of numbers of copies of TERTA+B mRNA within the successive hours of observation. Significant decrease of numbers of TERTA mRNA copies was confirmed after 24 hours. However, we observed significant increase of numbers of copies of TERTB mRNA after 6 hours of observation. Similar level was maintained during another 6h. The significantly lower number of copies of TERTB mRNA was observed after 24h. We also observed significant increase of number of copies of TERT mRNA after 6 hours. Number of copies of TERT mRNA significantly decreased after another 6h, remaining, however, on a higher then initial one. The significant lower number of copies of TERT mRNA was observed 24h after delivery. The possible explanation of those results is discussed in the paper.

  11. Synaptonemal complex karyotyping in spermatocytes of the Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus). I. Morphology of the autosomal complement in spread preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, M J

    1977-03-16

    Using the Counce-Meyer spreading technique, in over 70 spermatocytes it was possible consistently to obtain whole, flattened nuclei containing complete sets of pachytene SCs. The SCs are visible in both the phase and electron microscopes. Each SC is morphologically intact, preferentially stained, and attached to the nuclear envelope by a dense, terminal plaque. It is thus possible to trace each SC for its entire length. Also, a structure representing the kinetochore is clearly visible in each autosomal SC. Karyotypes comparable to the somatic karyotype can be constructed by arranging SCs according to length and kinetochore position. The observed regularity of SC morphology implies structural stability sufficient to withstand the stresses imposed by the procedure.--A coarse network of closely packed nuclear annuli connecting SC attachment plaques often provides end-to-end associations and may tend to immobilize SCs during processing.--Three kinds of perturbation of SC structure are encountered. Twists in the SC frequently occur, but no regular pattern or correspondence with chiasma distribution is observed. SCs occasionally hook around each other without disruption, but in two instances the unpaired axis of the X apparently was interlocked within an autosomal SC. Streching of the SC is infrequent; it is conspicous when it occurs and is usaully associated with other obvious distortions of the nucleus.--Distinctive morphologies of the X and Y chromosomes facilitate their identification inall preparations.--During zygotene, autosomal synapsis, i.e., the formation of SCs from the pairing of single axial elements, initiates at distal ends and terminates at the kinetochore region; neither initiation nor termination is synchronous among all autosomes.

  12. Procedure for preparing peptide-major histocompatibility complex tetramers for direct quantification of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Hui He; Li-Hui Xu; Yi Liu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish a simplified method for generating peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I tetramers.METHODS: cDNAs encoding the extracellular domain of human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-A*0201 heavy chain (A2) and β2-microglobulin (β2m) from total RNA extracted from leukocytes of HLA-A2+ donors were doned into separate expression vectors by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The recombinant A2 and β2m proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) and recovered from the inclusion body fraction. Soluble A2 proteins loaded with specific antigen peptides were refolded by dilution from the heavy chain in the presence of light chain β2m and HLA-A2-restricted peptide antigens. The refolded A2monomers were biotinylated with a commercial biotinylation enzyme (BirA) and purified by low pressure anion exchange chromatography on a Q-Sepharose (fast flow) column.The tetramers were then formed by mixing A2 monomers with streptavidin-PE in a molar ratio of 4:1. Flow cytometry was used to confirm the expected tetramer staining of CD8+ T cells.RESULTS: Recombinant genes for HLA-A*0201 heavy chain (A2) fused to a BirA substrate peptide (A2-BSP) and mature β2m from HLA-A2+ donor leukocytes were successfully doned and highly expressed in E. coli. Two soluble monomeric A2-peptide complexes were reconstituted from A2-BSP in the presence of β2m and peptides loaded with either human cytomegalovirus pp65495-503 peptide (NLVPMVATV,NLV; designated as A2-NLV) or influenza virus matrix protein Mp58-66 peptide (GILGFVFTL, GIL; designated as A2-GIL). Refolded A2-NLV or A2-GIL monomers were biotinylated and highly purified by single step anion exchange column chromatography. The tetramers were then formed by mixing the biotinylated A2-NLV or A2-GIL monomers with streptavidin-PE, leading to more than 80% multiplication as revealed by SDS-PAGE under non-reducing, unboiled conditions. Flow cytometry revealed that these tetramers could specifically

  13. Validated spectroflurimetric determination of some H1 receptor antagonist drugs in pharmaceutical preparations through charge transfer complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Din, Mohie K Sharaf; Ibrahim, Fawzia; Eid, Manal I; Wahba, Mary E K

    2012-01-01

    A validated simple, rapid, and selective spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of some antihistaminic H(1) receptor antagonist drugs namely ebastine (EBS), cetirizine dihydrochloride (CTZ), and fexofenadine hydrochloride (FXD). The method is based on the reaction of the cited drugs with some Π acceptors namely p-chloranilic acid (CLA), tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), and 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone (DDQ) to give highly fluorescent derivatives. The fluorescence intensity-concentration plots were rectilinear over the concentration ranges of 0.2-3.0, 0.2-2.5 and 0.15-2.0 μg/ml for EBS with CLA, DDQ, and TCNE respectively; 0.5-7.0, 0.5-6.0, and 0.2-4.0 μg/ml for CTZ with the previously mentioned reagents, and 0.2-3.5, 0.5-6.0, and 0.2-3.5 μg/ml for FXD. The factors affecting the formation of the reaction products were carefully studied and optimized. The method was applied for the determination of the studied drugs in their dosage forms. The results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained by the comparison methods. Reactions Stoichiometries of the complexes formed between the studied drugs and Π acceptors were defined by the Job's method of the continuous variation and found in 1:1 in all cases.

  14. Complexation induced phase separation: preparation of composite membranes with a nanometer thin dense skin loaded with metal ions

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos Vazquez de la Parra, Luis Francisco

    2015-04-21

    We present the development of a facile phase-inversion method for forming asymmetric membranes with a precise high metal ion loading capacity in only the dense layer. The approach combines the use of macromolecule-metal intermolecular complexes to form the dense layer of asymmetric membranes with nonsolvent-induced phase separation to form the porous support. This allows the independent optimization of both the dense layer and porous support while maintaining the simplicity of a phase-inversion process. Moreover, it facilitates control over (i) the thickness of the dense layer throughout several orders of magnitude—from less than 15 nm to more than 6 μm, (ii) the type and amount of metal ions loaded in the dense layer, (iii) the morphology of the membrane surface, and (iv) the porosity and structure of the support. This simple and scalable process provides a new platform for building multifunctional membranes with a high loading of well-dispersed metal ions in the dense layer.

  15. Complexation-induced phase separation: preparation of composite membranes with a nanometer-thin dense skin loaded with metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Luis Francisco; Karunakaran, Madhavan; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2015-05-13

    We present the development of a facile phase-inversion method for forming asymmetric membranes with a precise high metal ion loading capacity in only the dense layer. The approach combines the use of macromolecule-metal intermolecular complexes to form the dense layer of asymmetric membranes with nonsolvent-induced phase separation to form the porous support. This allows the independent optimization of both the dense layer and porous support while maintaining the simplicity of a phase-inversion process. Moreover, it facilitates control over (i) the thickness of the dense layer throughout several orders of magnitude from less than 15 nm to more than 6 μm, (ii) the type and amount of metal ions loaded in the dense layer, (iii) the morphology of the membrane surface, and (iv) the porosity and structure of the support. This simple and scalable process provides a new platform for building multifunctional membranes with a high loading of well-dispersed metal ions in the dense layer.

  16. Pygmy squids and giant brains: mapping the complex cephalopod CNS by phalloidin staining of vibratome sections and whole-mount preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollesen, T; Loesel, R; Wanninger, A

    2009-01-01

    Among bilaterian invertebrates, cephalopod molluscs (e.g., squids, cuttlefish and octopuses) have a central nervous system (CNS) that rivals in complexity that of the phylogenetically distant vertebrates (e.g., mouse and human). However, this prime example of convergent evolution has rarely been...... the subject of recent developmental and evolutionary studies, which may partly be due to the lack of suitable neural markers and the large size of cephalopod brains. Here, we demonstrate the usefulness of fluorescence-coupled phalloidin to characterize the CNS of cephalopods using histochemistry combined...... with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Whole-mount preparations of developmental stages as well as vibratome sections of embryonic and adult brains were analyzed and the benefits of this technique are illustrated. Compared to classical neuroanatomical and antibody-based studies, phalloidin labeling...

  17. Preparation of β-sitosterol microcapsules by complex coacervation%β-谷甾醇微胶囊的复凝聚制备法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪; 张丽平; 逄春华; 陈英

    2013-01-01

    以β-谷甾醇为芯材,明胶、阿拉伯胶为壁材,利用复凝聚法制备微胶囊,并用转谷氨酰胺酶(TG酶)进行固化.通过对微胶囊的芯材含量、包埋率和外观形态分析,得出优化的制备工艺条件为:壁材质量分数8%,芯壁比1∶2,复凝聚pH值4.2,TG酶∶明胶=0.2∶1.在此条件下制得的微胶囊外观圆整、大小均一,芯材含量为34.98%,包埋率为48.21%.%β-sitosterol microcapsules are prepared by complex coacervation with β-sitosterol as the core,the mixture of gelatin and gum acacia as the shell and curing with transglutaminase.In consideration of core content,encapsulation efficiency and morphological appearance,the preparation conditions are optimized as follows:8% of the shell material,the core-shell ratio 1 ∶ 2,pH value of 4.2 and the ratio of the gelatin to transglutaminase of 0.2 ∶ 1.The prepared microcapsules feature regular appearance and uniform size,the content of the core material is 34.98% and the embedding rate reaches 48.21%.

  18. 复合凝聚法制备电子墨水纳米胶囊%Preparation of nanoencapsulated electronic ink by complex coacervation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王登武; 王芳; 马素德; 赵晓鹏

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the nanoencapsulated electronic ink containing TiO2 nanoparticles modified with stearic acid dispersed in tetrachloroethylene(TCE)were prepared by complex coacervation using gelatin-gum acacia as wall materials, and the factors effected the dispersion ability of suspension was discussed, and the nanoencapsulated electric inks were also prepared. The results showed the dispersion was able to be obtained by optimizing the factors. The nanocapsules prepared with uniform size distribution, and the TiO2 nanoparticles were encapsulated in nanocapsules identified by TEM.%以明胶-阿拉伯树胶为壁材,四氯乙烯(TCE)为分散介质,硬脂酸表面改性的纳米TiO2为显示颗粒,Span-80为稳定剂,采用复凝聚法一步制备了电子墨水纳米胶囊.讨论了各种因素对电泳液分散体系的影响,并制备了电子墨水纳米胶囊.结果表明,通过分析影响颗粒分散稳定性影响因素,可使得显色颗粒在体系中稳定存在.而纳米胶囊化处理后,制得的纳米胶囊粒径分布均匀,TiO2纳米颗粒被包覆在纳米胶囊内.

  19. Rhythm generation by the pre-Bötzinger Complex in medullary slice and island preparations: Effects of adenosine A1 receptor activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shields Edward J

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC is a central pattern generator within the ventrolateral medulla oblongata's ventral respiratory group that is important for the generation of respiratory rhythm. Activation of adenosine A1 receptors (A1R depresses preBötC rhythmogenesis. Although it remains unclear whether A1R activation is important for organisms in a normal metabolic state, A1R activation is important to the response of the preBötC to metabolic stress, such as hypoxia. This study examined mechanisms linking A1R activation to depression of preBötC rhythmogenesis in medullary slice and island preparations from neonatal mice. Results Converting medullary slices to islands by cutting away much of the medullary tissue adjacent to the preBötC decreased the amplitude of action potential bursts generated by a population of neurons within the preBötC (recorded with an extracellular electrode, and integrated using a hardware integrator, without noticeably affecting burst frequency. The A1R agonist N6-Cyclopentyladenosine (NCPA reduced population burst frequency in slices by ca. 33% and in islands by ca. 30%. As in normal (drug-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF, NCPA decreased burst frequency in slices when GABAAergic or GABAAergic and glycinergic transmission were blocked, and in islands when GABAAergic transmission was antagonized. Converting slices to island preparations decreased synaptic input to inspiratory neurons. NCPA further decreased the frequency of synaptic inputs to neurons in island preparations and lowered the input resistance of inspiratory neurons, even when chemical communication between neurons and other cells was impeded. Conclusion Together these data support the suggestion that depression of preBötC activity by A1R activation involves both decreased neuronal excitability and diminished inter-neuronal communication.

  20. Petrogenesis of tourmaline rocks associated with Fe-carbonate graphite metapelite, metabasite and strata-bound polymetallic sulphide mineralisation, Peloritani Mountains, Sicily, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferla, Paolo; Meli, Carmelina

    2007-12-01

    Tourmalinite and tourmaline-rich rocks associated with Fe-carbonate-graphite phyllite, strata-bound polymetallic sulphide deposits, metabasite and marble were studied, for information on the mechanism of tourmaline formation in the pre-Hercynian low-grade metamorphic sequence of the Mandanici Unit in the Peloritani Mountains of Sicily, southern Italy. The major and trace element compositions of the tourmaline rocks suggest the existence of a sedimentary protolith with pre-metamorphic black shale and bedded chert. Boron was interpreted to be accumulated in a restricted sedimentary basin, between platform carbonate formations, with abundant organic matter and Fe-Al-Ti-rich laterite-bauxite soil-derived clastic supply, under a continental volcano-tectonic extensional regime accompanied by a local convective hydrothermal system along faults. Petrographic, crystal-chemical and δ11B isotopic data are compatible with a model of marine sediment dewatering at temperatures below 200 °C, which caused the removal of boron from clay. Metamorphism led to the development of tourmaline in an Al-Ti-rich environment, in equilibrium with other minerals such as ilmenite, albite and muscovite. The upper temperature of metamorphism (almost 375 °C), estimated on the basis of δ11B, fits geothermometric results from Δ 13C carbonate-graphite on associated rocks. The estimated value of δ11B in the tourmalinite protolith, - 7.5‰ , is also compatible with continental-derived Al-rich sediments.

  1. He-Ar Isotopic Systematics of Fluid Inclusions in Pyrites from PGE-polymetallic Deposits in Lower Cambrian Black Rock Series, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiaoming; WANG Min; XUE Ting; MA Mingyang; LI Yinhe

    2004-01-01

    He-Ar isotopic compositions of fluid inclusions trapped in pyrites from some representative PGEpolymetallic deposits in Lower Cambrian black rock series in South China were analyzed by using an inert gas isotopic mass spectrometer. The results show that the ore-forming fluids possess a low 3He/4He ratio, varying from 0.43x10-8 to 26.39×10-8, with corresponding R/Ra value of 0.003-0.189. The 40Ar/36Ar ratios are 258-287, close to those of airsaturated water (ASW). He-Ar isotopic indicator studies show that the ore-forming fluids were mainly derived from the formation water or basinal hot brine and sea water, while the content of mantle-derived fluid or deep-derived magmatic water might be negligible. The PGE-polymetallic mineralization might be related to the evolution of the Caledonian miogeosynclines distributed along the southern margin of the Yangtze Craton. During the Early Cambrian, the formation water or basinal hot brine trapped in Caledonian basins which accumulated giant thick sediments was expelled and migrated laterally along strata because of the pressure generated by overlying sediments. The basinal hot brine ascended along faults, mixed with sea water and finally deposited ore minerals.

  2. Ore-forming material sources of the Baiyangping Cu-Co-Ag polymetallic deposit in the Lanping Basin, western Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhiming; LIU Jiajun; ZHANG Changjiang

    2008-01-01

    The ore-forming material sources of the Baiyangping copper-cobalt-silver polymetallic deposit have been studied in view of the S, Pb, C, O and H isotopic characteristics and the ratio of Co/Ni of cohaltite. The results showed that sulfur in metallic sulfides may have come from a mixed sulfur-source consisting of the sulfur-source from metamorphic rocks in the basin basement with basic volcanic rocks and the sulfur-source from basin sulfates;lead in the ores was provided by the sedimentary rocks and basement rocks; CO2 in ore-forming fluids was derived from thermolysis of altered and normal marine facies carbonates and decarboxylation of sedimentary organic matter respectively; the ore-forming fluids belong to the SO4-Cl-Na-Ca-type basin thermal brines derived from paleo-meteoric waters; cobalt in the deposit may also be derived from the metamorphic rocks in the basin basement with basic volcanic rocks.

  3. Research on the growth orientation of pyrite grains in the colloform textures in Baiyunpu Pb-Zn polymetallic deposit, Hunan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shang; Huang, Fei; Gu, Xiangping; Chen, Zhenyu; Xing, Miaomiao; Li, Yongli

    2017-02-01

    A large number of colloform-textured pyrites were found in Baiyunpu Pb-Zn ore bodies in Xinshao County, Hunan, China. This study investigates the growth orientation of the pyrite grains in these structures by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), in situ micro X-ray diffraction (μXRD) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The growth proceeded from micro-crystalline cores in the colloform textures. Moreover, the pyrite layers were discrete and separated by locally significant quantities of galena and calcite. The μXRD results suggested clear crystalline characteristics and weakly preferred orientations of the colloform textures. EBSD confirmed that the pyrite grains exist preferred orientations or in the layered zones. According to the crystal growth theory, the formation and variation of crystal preferred orientations (CPOs) in pyrite are mainly restricted by the internal crystal structure of the pyrite and depends on the external environment conditions, such as trace element concentrations and the supersaturation degree. We inferred the evolutionary regularity of lattice planes with different indices in the pyrite crystal structure from morphological, compositional and growth orientation information, which reflect the crystal growth history of the colloform pyrite. This study will advance our understanding of the growth processes of colloform pyrite and environmental evolution in the Baiyunpu Pb-Zn polymetallic deposits.

  4. Pollution level and inhalation exposure of ambient aerosol fluoride as affected by polymetallic rare earth mining and smelting in Baotou, north China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Buqing; Wang, Lingqing; Liang, Tao; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-10-01

    Airborne fluoride associated with total suspended particles (TSP) and respirable particulate (PM10) in the rare earth mining and smelting areas were analyzed during August 2012 and March 2013. In March, average concentrations of fluoride bound to TSP in the mining and smelting areas were 0.598 ± 0.626 μg/m3 and 3.615 ± 4.267 μg/m3, respectively, whereas that in August were 0.699 ± 0.801 μg/m3 and 1.917 ± 2.233 μg/m3, respectively. TSP samples were classified into four categories by different sampling periods and locations using Kohonen's self-organizing map, which demonstrates that high airborne fluoride concentrations in March in the smelting area were probably attributed to industrial emissions from smelting activities and wind-blown dust from tailings pond, influenced by meteorologic parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind speed. The mean daily amount of fluoride inhaled in the mining and smelting areas were estimated to be in the range of 2.77-57.61 μg/day and 3.39-64.32 μg/day, respectively. These results indicate the high potential exposure level of fluoride inhaled for local residents in the polymetallic mining and smelting areas.

  5. The progress on preparation of human prothrombin complex concentrates%人凝血酶原复合物制备工艺研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包正琦(综述); 何彦林(审校)

    2013-01-01

    Prothrombin complex concentrates are haemostatic blood products containing four vitamin K -dependent clotting factors (II, VII, IX and X).It is produced by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE Sephadex A-50 resin from large pool plasma.Preparation technology,the choose of materials,quality control and optimization of critical parameters play a critical role in quality control of PCC .This paper mainly summarizes the preparation of PCC technology conditions , materi-als, critical parameters and the control strategy of coagulation factor activation .%人凝血酶原复合物( Prothrombin complex concentrates ,PCC)是一种含有凝血因子II、VII、IX、X四种维生素K依赖性凝血因子,能够促进血液凝固的血浆蛋白制剂。目前,多数生产厂家采用DEAE Sephadex A-50凝胶从混合血浆中制备PCC。 PCC制备工艺的选择、制备原料的挑选及质量控制、关键工艺参数的优化及控制等方面对PCC制品的质量至关重要。因此,主要对PCC的制备工艺、制备原料、关键工艺参数的优化及生产过程中凝血因子活化的控制策略进行了综述。

  6. Preparation and Properties of Aluminum Complex Grease%复合铝基润滑脂的制备及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋明俊; 郭小川; 熊晓龙

    2011-01-01

    复合铝基润滑脂是一种性能优良的多效润滑脂,尤其是泵送性能良好,适合于集中润滑系统,在冶金等行业获得广泛应用.考察了组成、工艺和添加剂对复合铝基润滑脂性能的影响,复合铝皂对环烷基油的稠化能力优于对石蜡基油的稠化能力,增大基础油黏度有利于改善润滑脂的性能,采用异丙醇铝三聚物比采用异丙醇铝制备复合铝基脂的工艺可靠、产品性能稳定,通过配方和工艺条件优化制备出的复合铝基润滑脂具有良好的性能:高滴点,良好的胶体安定性、机械安定性、氧化安定性,良好的抗水性、抗腐蚀性、抗磨性.%Aluminum complex grease is a kind of multifunction grease. It is suited to central lubrication system for which has good pump ability. It has been used extensively in metallurgy area. The effect of composition, condition and additives on the properties of aluminum complex grease has been discussed. The thickening ability of aluminum complex soap in paraffin oil is superior to that of aluminum complex soap in naphthene oil. Increasing viscosity of base oil can improve the properties of aluminum complex grease. The method of trioxyaluminum tri-isopropylate is superior to that of aluminum isopropylate, because the technology is stable and the property is good. By optimization of composition and condition, the high performance aluminum complex grease has been prepared. It possesses high dropping point, good colloidal stability, shear stability, oxidation stability, water resistance property, anti-corrosion and anti-wear property.

  7. Biological potential study of metal complexes of sulphonylurea glibenclamide on the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera—Muscidae): Preparation, spectroscopic and thermal characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; Abdallah, S. M.; Zayed, M. A.; Nassar, M. M. I.

    2009-10-01

    The ligatation behaviour of sulphonylurea glibenclamide drug is studied in order to give an idea about its potentiality towards some transition metals in vitro systems. Metal complexes of glibenclamide (GCA; H 3L) drug are prepared and characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, diffused reflectance, magnetic moment, molar conductance and thermal analysis (TG and DTG) techniques. From the elemental analyses data, the complexes are proposed to have the general formulae [M(H 3L)Cl n(H 2O) m]· yH 2O (where M = Cr(III) ( n = 3, m = 1, y = 3); Mn(II) ( n = 2, m = 0, y = 1); Fe(III) ( n = 3, m = 1, y = 0), Co(II) ( n = 2, m = 2, y = 0); Ni(II) ( n = 2, m = 2, y = 3); Cu(II) ( n = 2, m = 2, y = 2) and Zn(II) ( n = 2, m = 0, y = 0). The molar conductance data reveal that all the metal chelates are non-electrolytes. IR spectra show that GCA is coordinated to the metal ions in a neutral bidentate manner with OO donor sites of the amide- O and sulphone -O. From the magnetic and solid reflectance spectra, it is found that the geometrical structures of these complexes are octahedral except Mn(II) and Zn(II) complexes which have tetrahedral structure. The thermal behaviour of these chelates is studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TG and DTG) technique. The activation thermodynamic parameters are calculated using Coats-Redfern method. The GCA drug, in comparison to its metal complexes also is screened for its biological activity against house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera—Muscidae). Dose of 5 μg/insect of GCA is topically applied against 3 days old larval instar of M. domestica. Survival of pupal and adult stages has been affected by the complexes of GCA more than larval instars. Morphogenic abnormalities of larvae, pupae and adults are studied. On the other hand pupation and adult emergence program is deteriorated by the effect of different chemicals.

  8. Critical assessment of electron spin resonance studies on Cu(I)-NO complexes in Cu-ZSM-5 zeolites prepared by solid- and liquid-state ion exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umamaheswari, V; Hartmann, Martin; Pöppl, Andreas

    2005-10-27

    Cu(I)-NO adsorption complexes were formed over Cu-ZSM-5 zeolites prepared by (i) solid-state ion exchange of NH(4)-ZSM-5 with CuCl and (ii) liquid-state ion exchange of ZSM-5 with Cu(CH(3)COO)(2). Electron spin resonance spectroscopy revealed the formation of two different Cu(I)-NO species A and B in both systems, whose spin Hamiltonian parameters are comparable with those already reported for the Cu(I)-NO species formed over 66% Cu(II) liquid-state ion-exchanged Cu-ZSM-5 materials. The population of the species A and B differs for the two systems studied. Formation of species B is more favored in the solid-state ion-exchanged Cu-ZSM-5 when compared to the liquid-state exchanged zeolite. The X-, Q- and W-band electron spin resonance spectra recorded at 6 and 77 K reveal the presence of a rigid geometry of the adsorption complexes at 6 K and a dynamic complex structure at higher temperatures such as 77 K. This is indicated by the change in the spin Hamiltonian parameters of the formed Cu(I)-NO species in both the liquid- and solid-state ion-exchanged Cu-ZSM-5 zeolites from 6 to 77 K. Possible models for the motional effects found at elevated temperatures are discussed. The temperature dependence of the electron spin phase memory time measured by two-pulse electron spin-echo experiments indicates, likewise, the onset of a motional process of the adsorbed NO molecules at temperatures above 10 K. The studies support previous assignments where the NO complexes are formed at two different Cu(I) cationic sites in the ZSM-5 framework and highlight that multifrequency electron spin resonance experiments at low temperatures are essential for reliable determination of the spin Hamiltonian parameters of the formed adsorption complexes for further comparison with Cu(I)-NO complex structures predicted by quantum chemical calculations.

  9. Pygmy squids and giant brains: mapping the complex cephalopod CNS by phalloidin staining of vibratome sections and whole-mount preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollesen, T; Loesel, R; Wanninger, A

    2009-04-30

    Among bilaterian invertebrates, cephalopod molluscs (e.g., squids, cuttlefish and octopuses) have a central nervous system (CNS) that rivals in complexity that of the phylogenetically distant vertebrates (e.g., mouse and human). However, this prime example of convergent evolution has rarely been the subject of recent developmental and evolutionary studies, which may partly be due to the lack of suitable neural markers and the large size of cephalopod brains. Here, we demonstrate the usefulness of fluorescence-coupled phalloidin to characterize the CNS of cephalopods using histochemistry combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Whole-mount preparations of developmental stages as well as vibratome sections of embryonic and adult brains were analyzed and the benefits of this technique are illustrated. Compared to classical neuroanatomical and antibody-based studies, phalloidin labeling experiments are less time-consuming and allow a high throughput of samples. Besides other advantages summarized here, phalloidin reliably labels the entire neuropil of the CNS of all squids, cuttlefish and octopuses investigated. This facilitates high-resolution in toto reconstructions of the CNS and contributes to a better understanding of the organization of neural networks. Amenable for multi-labeling experiments employing antibodies against neurotransmitters, proteins and enzymes, phalloidin constitutes an excellent neuropil marker for the complex cephalopod CNS.

  10. Preparation and characterization of Ce1-xFexO2 complex oxides and its catalytic activity for methane selective oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Kongzhai; WANG Hua; WEI Yonggang; LIU Mingchun

    2008-01-01

    A series of Ce1-xFexO2 (x=0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1) complex oxide catalysts were prepared using the coprecipitation method. The catalysts were characterized by means of XRD and H2-TPR. The reactions between methane and lattice oxygen from the complex oxides were investigated. The characteristic results revealed that the combination of Ce and Fe oxide in the catalysts could lower the temperature necessary to reduce the cerium oxide. The catalytic activity for selective CH4 oxidation was strongly influenced by dropped Fe species. Adding the appropriate amount of Fe2O3 to CeO2 could promote the action between CH4 and CeO2. Dispersed Fe2O3 first returned to the original state and would then virtually form the Fe species on the catalyst, which could be considered as the active site for selective CH4 oxidation. The appearance of carbon formation was significant and the oxidation of carbon appeared to be the rate-determining step; the amounts of surface reducible oxygen species in CeO2 were also relevant to the activity. Among all the catalysts, Ce0.6Fe0.4O2 exhibited the best activity, which converted 94.52% of CH4 at 900 °C.

  11. The Influence of Comonomer on Ethylene/α-Olefin Copolymers Prepared Using [Bis(N-(3-tert butylsalicylideneanilinato] Titanium (IV Dichloride Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharaporn Kaivalchatchawal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe the synthesis of [bis(N-(3-tert-butylsalicylideneanilinato] titanium (IV dichloride (Ti-FI complex and examine the effects of comonomer (feed concentration and type on its catalytic performance and properties of the resulting polymers. Ethylene/1-hexene and ethylene/1-octene copolymers were prepared through copolymerization using Ti-FI catalyst, activated by MAO cocatalyst at 323 K and 50 psi ethylene pressure at various initial comonomer concentrations. The obtained copolymers were characterized by DSC, GPC and 13C-NMR. The results indicate that Ti-FI complex performs as a high potential catalyst, as evidenced by high activity and high molecular weight and uniform molecular weight distribution of its products. Nevertheless, the bulky structure of FI catalyst seems to hinder the insertion of α-olefin comonomer, contributing to the pretty low comonomer incorporation into the polymer chain. The catalytic activity was enhanced with the comonomer feed concentration, but the molecular weight and melting temperature decreased. By comparison both sets of catalytic systems, namely ethylene/1-hexene and ethylene/1-octene copolymerization, the first one afforded better activity by reason of easier insertion of short chain comonomer. Although 1-hexene copolymers also exhibited higher molecular weight than 1-octene, no significant difference in both melting temperature and crystallinity can be noticed between these comonomers.

  12. Critical elements in sediment-hosted deposits (clastic-dominated Zn-Pb-Ag, Mississippi Valley-type Zn-Pb, sedimentary rock-hosted Stratiform Cu, and carbonate-hosted Polymetallic Deposits): A review: Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Erin; Hitzman, Murray W.; Leach, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Some sediment-hosted base metal deposits, specifically the clastic-dominated (CD) Zn-Pb deposits, carbonate-hosted Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits, sedimentary-rock hosted stratiform copper deposits, and carbonate-hosted polymetallic (“Kipushi type”) deposits, are or have been important sources of critical elements including Co, Ga, Ge, and Re. The generally poor data concerning trace element concentrations in these types of sediment-hosted ores suggest that there may be economically important concentrations of critical elements yet to be recognized.

  13. Influence of source distribution and geochemical composition of aerosols on children exposure in the large polymetallic mining region of the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goix, Sylvaine; Point, David; Oliva, Priscia; Polve, Mireille; Duprey, Jean Louis; Mazurek, Hubert; Guislain, Ludivine; Huayta, Carlos; Barbieri, Flavia L; Gardon, Jacques

    2011-12-15

    The Bolivian Altiplano (Highlands) region is subject to intense mining, tailing and smelting activities since centuries because of the presence of large and unique polymetallic ore deposits (Ag, Au, Cu, Pb, Sn, Sb, Zn). A large scale PM(10), PM(2.5) aerosol monitoring survey was conducted during the dry season in one of the largest mining cities of this region (Oruro, 200,000 inhabitants). Aerosol fractions, source distribution and transport were investigated for 23 elements at approximately 1 km(2) scale resolution, and compared to children exposure data obtained within the same geographical space. As, Cd, Pb, Sb, W and Zn in aerosols are present at relatively high concentrations when compared to studies from other mining regions. Arsenic exceeds the European council PM(10) guide value (6 ng/m(3)) for 90% of the samples, topping 200 ng/m(3). Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Sb are present at significantly higher levels in the district located in the vicinity of the smelter zone. At the city level, principal component analysis combined with the mapping of factor scores allowed the identification and deconvolution of four individual sources: i) a natural magmatic source (Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and U) originating from soil dust, resuspended by the traffic activity; ii) a natural sedimentary source (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Th) resulting from the suspension of evaporative salt deposits located South; iii) an anthropogenic source specifically enriched in mined elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn) mainly in the smelting district of the city; and iv) a Ni-Cr source homogenously distributed between the different city districts. Enrichment factors for As, Cd and Sb clearly show the impact of smelting activities, particularly in the finest PM(2.5) fraction. Comparison to children's hair metal contents collected in five schools from different districts shows a direct exposure to smelting activity fingerprinted by a unique trace elements pattern (Ag, As, Cu, Pb, Sb).

  14. [Spectral characteristics and implications of quartz from Heliao lead-zinc polymetallic ore district in the south of Qinzhou-Hangzhou joint belt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Wen-Chao; Yang, Zhi-Jun; Zhou, Yong-Zhang; Li, Hong-Zhong; Zeng, Xiang-Qing; Chen, Qing; Liang, Jin; Zeng, Chang-Yu

    2013-05-01

    The XRD, FTIR and Raman spectrum were employed to study the characters of quartz from three types of rock samples, which are mineralized rock sample, near ore body rock sample and far away from ore body rock sample in Heliao lead-zinc polymetallic ore district. The research shows that the quartz in the mineralized rock and far away from ore body rock is pure, while the quartz in near ore body rock contains a small amount of impurities. But such small amounts of impurities did not cause apparent change in the quartz lattice parameters. From far away from ore body rock-->near ore body rock-->mineralized rock, the crystallinity and order degree of quartz are higher and higher. And the quartz in the mineralized rock has a trend to change into low symmetry quartz. It's a unique to mineralized rock that the quartz's absorption peak at 1 050 cm(-1) was split into two strongest ones. It can be used as the signs of whether exists mineralization. The cause for the quartz microstructure changes may be related to the activities of late mineralized hydrothermal fluids. Late hydrothermal influence was very weak to the quartz far away from ore body rock. And through the impact of the multi-stage hydrothermal effect, the quartz in mineralized rock may be purified by recrystallization and structural adjustment. However the quartz in near ore body rock didn't have enough hydrothermal influence, so it's not pure. Genealogy research technology is a useful technique for in-depth exploration of study area mineralization process and metallogenic regularity.

  15. Geochemistry of Platinum Group and Rare Earth Elements of the Polymetallic Layer in the Lower Cambrian,Weng'an,Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Yong; WU Chaodong; GUAN Ping; QU Wenjun; CHEN Jiafu

    2009-01-01

    The black shales of the Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation in Weng'an.on the Yangtze platform of south China,contain voluminous polymetallic sulfide deposits.A comprehensive geochemical investigation of trace,rare earth,and platinum group elements(PGE)has been undertaken in order to discuss its ore genesis and correlation with the tectono.depositional setting.The ore-bearing layers enrich molybdenum(Mo),nickeI(Ni),vanadium(V),lead(Pb),strontium(Sr), bariam(Ba),uranium(U),arsenic(As),and rare earth elements(REE)in abundance.High uranium/thorium(U/Th)ratios(U/Th>1)indicated that mineralization was mainly influenced by the hydrothermal process.The δU value Was above 1.9.showing a reducing sedimentary condition.The REE patterns showed high enrichment in Iight rare earth elements (LREE)(heavy rare earth elements (HREE)(LREE/HREE=5-17),slightly negative europium(EU)and cerium(Ce)anomalies(δEu=0.81-0.93).and positive Ce anomalies(δCe=0.76-1.12).PGE abundance was characterized by the PGE-type distribution patterns,enriching platinum(Pt),palladium(Pd),ruthenium(RuJ and osmium(Os).The Pt,Pd ratio was 0.8.which is close to the ratios of seawater and ultramafic rocks.AII of these geochemical features suggest that the mineralization was triggered by hydrothermal activity in an extensionai setting in the context of break-up of the Rodinian supercontinent.

  16. Preparation and electrochemical and photoelectrochemical properties of a covalently self-assembled monolayer film based on a bis-terpyridyl ruthenium(II) complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hao; Dai, Yong-Cheng; Chen, Xi; Huang, Qiu-Ying; Wang, Ke-Zhi, E-mail: kzwang@bnu.edu.cn

    2013-09-02

    A bis-terpyridyl Ru(II) complex of Ru{sup II}(IPTP){sub 2}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} (in which IPTP = 4′-(4-(imidazol-1-yl)phenyl)-2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine) has been synthesized using a microwave irradiation method, and characterized by elementary analysis, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopy. A Ru{sup II}(IPTP){sub 2}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} based covalently self-assembled monolayer film was prepared and characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The cyclic voltammograms demonstrated that Ru{sup II}(IPTP){sub 2}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} assembled in the film was redox active with surface-confined characteristics. The photoelectrochemical properties and electron-transfer mechanism of the film were studied. It was found that the Ru{sup II}(IPTP){sub 2}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}/ITO electrode film exhibited a large cathodic photocurrent density of 2.72 μA/cm{sup 2} while irradiated with polychromatic light (325 nm < λ < 730 nm) at an applied potential of − 0.4 V versus saturated calomel electrode. The photocurrent action spectrum was in agreement with the metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) absorption band of Ru{sup II}(IPTP){sub 2}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}, indicating that the photocurrent was generated based on MLCT excitation of the Ru{sup II}(IPTP){sub 2}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} in the film. An incident monochromatic photon-to-current conversion efficiency of this monolayer film was calculated to be 1.8% at 500 nm. - Highlights: • Ru complex covalently self-assembled monolayer film. • Reversible electrochemical activity. • Large cathodic photocurrent density of 2.72 μA/cm{sup 2}. • Photoelectric conversion efficiency of 1.8%.

  17. New routes to polymetallic clusters: fluoride-based tri-, deca-, and hexaicosametallic MnIII clusters and their magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leigh F; Rajaraman, Gopalan; Brockman, Jonathon; Murugesu, Muralee; Sanudo, E Carolina; Raftery, Jim; Teat, Simon J; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Christou, George; Brechin, Euan K; Collison, David

    2004-10-11

    The syntheses, structures and magnetic properties of three new MnIII clusters, [Mn26O17(OH)8(OMe)4F10(bta)22(MeOH)14(H2O)2] (1), [Mn(0O6(OH)2(bta)8(py)8F8] (2) and [NHEt3]2[Mn3O(bta)6F3] (3), are reported (bta=anion of benzotriazole), thereby demonstrating the utility of MnF3 as a new synthon in Mn cluster chemistry. The "melt" reaction (100 degrees C) between MnF(3) and benzotriazole (btaH, C6H5N3) under an inert atmosphere, followed by dissolution in MeOH produces the cluster [Mn26O17(OH)8(OMe)4F10(bta)22(MeOH)14(H2O)2] (1) after two weeks. Complex 1 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1, and consists of a complicated array of metal tetrahedra linked by mu3-O2- ions, mu3- and mu2-OH- ions, mu2-MeO- ions and mu2-bta- ligands. The "simpler" reaction between MnF3 and btaH in boiling MeOH (50 degrees C) also produces complex 1. If this reaction is repeated in the presence of pyridine, the decametallic complex [Mn10O6(OH)2(bta)8(py)8F8] (2) is produced. Complex 2 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1 and consists of a "supertetrahedral" [Mn(III)10] core bridged by six mu3-O2- ions, two mu3-OH- ions, four mu2-F- ions and eight mu2-bta- ions. The replacement of pyridine by triethylamine in the same reaction scheme produces the trimetallic species [NHEt3]2[Mn3O(bta)6F3] (3). Complex 3 crystallises in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c and has a structure analogous to that of the basic metal carboxylates of general formula [M3O(RCO2)6L3]0/+, which consists of an oxo-centred metal triangle with mu2-bta- ligands bridging each edge of the triangle and the fluoride ions acting as the terminal ligands. DC magnetic susceptibility measurements in the 300-1.8 K and 0.1-7 T ranges were investigated for all three complexes. For each, the value of chi(M)T decreases with decreasing temperatures; this indicates the presence of dominant antiferromagnetic exchange interactions in 1-3. For complex 1, the low-temperature value of chi(M)T is 10 cm(3) K mol(-1) and fitting of

  18. Preparation and Optoelectronic Characteristics of ZnO/CuO-Cu2O Complex Inverse Heterostructure with GaP Buffer for Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Feng Lin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the optoelectronic characteristics of ZnO/GaP buffer/CuO-Cu2O complex (COC inverse heterostructure for solar cell applications. The GaP and COC layers were used as buffer and absorber in the cell structure, respectively. An energy gap widening effect and CuO whiskers were observed as the copper (Cu layer was exerted under heat treatment for oxidation at 500 °C for 10 min, and arose from the center of the Cu2O rods. For preparation of the 30 nm-thick GaP buffer by sputtering from GaP target, as the nitrogen gas flow rate increased from 0 to 2 sccm, the transmittance edge of the spectra demonstrated a blueshift form 2.24 to 3.25 eV. Therefore, the layer can be either GaP, GaNP, or GaN by changing the flow rate of nitrogen gas.

  19. Preparation and examination of properties of samarium-153-EDTMP complex; Otrzymywanie chelatu kwasu etylenodiaminotetrametylenofosfonowego (EDTMP) z samarem-153 i badanie jego wlasciwosci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, M. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Garnuszek, P.; Lukasiewicz, A.; Wozniak, I.; Zulczyk, W. [Osrodek Badawczo-Rozwojowy Izotopow, Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Licinska, I. [Instytut Lekow, Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Preparation and properties of ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonic acid (EDTMP) as well as some properties of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP chelate have been examined. The chelate formed by samarium-153 (46.3 h, {beta}{sup -}-decay) with EDTMP exhibits high bone uptake and can be used for treatment of disseminated, painful skeletal metastases. The purity and stability of solutions of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP chelate were examined in a broad range of samarium concentration and {sup 153}Sm specific activity. The complex under study was examined by radio-TLC, -electrophoresis and radio-HPLC. The results obtained suggest the small size of molecules of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP chelate as compared with molecules of ``free``EDTMP. The results of biodistribution of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP determined in rats indicate the quick blood clearance, high deposition of radioactivity in bone and quick excretion of radioactivity into urine. No specific uptake of {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP in extra-skeletal organs was found. (author). 42 refs, 13 figs, 22 tabs.

  20. Preparation and Water-Gas Shift Catalytic Activities of the Perovskite Type Complex Oxide La1-x CexFeO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红钦; 谭欣; 朱慧铭; 张继炎; 张鎏

    2003-01-01

    The perovskite type rare-earth iron complex (REIC) oxide La1-xCexFeO3 is designed and prepared as water-gas shift catalyst. Activity evaluation and heat-resisting test show that the perovskite type compounds La1-xCexFeO3 (· K) has a good thermal stability if x is less than or equal to 0. 5. But when x is greater than 0. 5, La1-x Cex FeO3 ( · K) will turn out to be ceria and magnetite partially or completely at high temperature in the shift reaction atmosphere. In the case of x = 0. 5, the conversion of carbon monoxide is about 68% at 530℃. Potassium can greatly improve the low temperature activity, but slightly lower the high temperature activity,and has little impact on the thermal stability. La0.5 Ce0.5 FeO3 ( · K) is a promising chromium-free high-temperature shift catalyst.

  1. Preparation of Platinum(II) Complexes with 1-b-D-Ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide and its Deoxy-analogue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The platinum (II) complexes of the [Pt (N4,N7-Ribavirin) (DMSO) Cl], [Pt (N4,N7-De-oxyribavirin) (DMSO) Cl] were obtained by the reactions of cis-[Pt (DMSO)2 Cl2] and K[Pt (DMSO) Cl3] with 1-b -D-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide (Ribavirin) and its deoxy-analogue (deoxyribavirin). The preparation of 1-(2'-deoxy-b-D-ribofuranosyl) -1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide was also performed through a four-step procedure, protection of 3', 5'-dihydroxyl group of Ribavirin with 1,3-dichloro-1,1,3,3-tetraisopropyldisiloxane (TPDS-Cl), phenoxythio-carbonylation of the 2'-hydroxyl group of 3', 5'-O-TPDS-Ribavirin with phenoxythiocarbonyl-chloride (PTC-Cl), reduction of 2′-O-phenoxythiocarbonyl ester of 3', 5'-O-TPDS-Ribavirin with tri-n-butyltin hydride and AIBN, deprotection of 3', 5'-O-TPDS-Ribavirin with tetrabutylammon-ium fluoride in THF.

  2. Preparados estándar de nutrición parenteral en situaciones clínicas complejas Standard parenteral nutrition preparations in complex clinical situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Llop Talaverón

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Los preparados binarios y ternarios de nutrición parenteral, en determinados casos pueden ver su utilidad limitada. El objetivo de este estudio es establecer situaciones de difícil manejo nutricional y analizar el tipo de fórmula utilizada en estas situaciones. Material y métodos: Se incluyen pacientes tratados con nutrición parenteral durante 9 meses. Se definen tres situaciones clínicamente complejas: larga duración, con más de 25 días; insuficiencia renal, uremia > 20 mmol/L o creatinina sérica > 200 µmol/L; e insuficiencia hepática, bilirrubina total > 30 mmol/L o ALT > 2 µkat/L y fosfatasa alcalina > 3 µkat/L o GGT > 3 µkat/L. Se estudian la mortalidad e hipoalbuminemia (Goal: Binary and ternary parenteral nutrition preparations may be of limited use in certain cases. The goal of this study is to establish difficult nutritional situations to handle and analyze the type of formula used in these situations. Material and methods: The study included patients treated with parenteral nutrition over 9 months. Three clinically complex situations were defined: long duration, lasting more than 25 days; kidney failure, uraemia > 20 mmol/L or serum creatinine > 200 µmol/L; and live failure, total bilirubin > 30 mmol/L or ALT > µkat/L and alkaline phosphatase > 3 µkat/L or GGT > 3 µkat/L. Mortality and hypoalbuminaemia (< 35 g/L were studied and compared by means of a chi squared test (p < 0.05 against the rest of the patients. The use of individualized formulas was studied using a multiple logarithmic regression model, the dependent variable being the administration or not of an individualized formula and the independent variables being the 3 groups of patients in clinical situations defined as complex. The Odds Ratio (OR was studied as the measure of risk. Results: A total of 511 patients receiving 8,015 feeds with parenteral nutrition were studied. Of these, 283 were included in one or more of the 3 complex clinical

  3. On the Interaction between Co- and Mo-complexes in impregnation solutions used for the preparation of Al2O3-supported HDS catalysts: a combined Raman/UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergwerff, J.A.; Visser, T.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Research has been carried out on the formation of cobalt (Co) and molybdenum (Mo) complexes in CoMo-solutions, which are used for the preparation of Al2O3-supported hydrodesulphurization (HDS) catalysts. Aim of this study was to obtain more insight into possible Co–Mo interactions and their implicat

  4. Guangzhou Chemical Industry%Improvement on the Preparation Method of A Complex [ Co(NH3) 5 Cl] Cl2 for Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易正戟; 刘洋; 毛芳芳; 崔莺; 陈满生

    2016-01-01

    Preparation of the coordination compound [ Co ( NH3 ) 5 Cl ] Cl2 is an important inorganic synthesis experiment for the undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry course. However,according to the textbook operation, not only the yield of target product was low and some by-products were produced, but also the volatilization of HCl and NH3 would cause atmosphere pollution. Meanwhile, the target coordination compound detection gave rise to the waste of much valuable reagent AgNO3 . On the basis of green chemistry principle, the key procedure and reagent dosage for the undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry experiment’ for preparing a kind of Co(III) complex were improved. Therefore, the reactant amount of AgNO3 was saved, the yield and purity of the coordination product were increased, and the effect of environmental protection was also achieved.%配位化合物[ Co( NH3)5 Cl] Cl2的制备是大学无机化学课程中一个重要的无机合成实验,但按照教材中的步骤进行操作,不但产率低、易生成其它副产物,而且HCl和NH3气体的挥发容易造成大气污染;同时,目标配合物的检测会造成大量贵重试剂AgNO3的浪费。基于绿色化学理念,针对教材中“一种Co( III)配合物的制备”相关的关键步骤和药品用量进行了改进和创新,节省了AgNO3试剂的用量,提高了产品的产率和纯度,同时也达到了环保的效果。

  5. 江西宝山钨多金属矿床地质特征及矿化富集规律探讨%Geological Features and Mineralization Enrichment Rule of Baoshan Tungsten Polymetallic Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡富春; 吴开兴

    2016-01-01

    The Mineralization of Jiangxi Baoshan skarn-type tungsten polymetallic deposit is controlled by the contact zone of Baoshan granite stock and carboniferous Huanglong and Chuanshan groups. Ore body positioning and mineralization are closely related with emplacement direction and lithorfacies of the granite stock, country rock lithology and groove structure in contact zone. The mining area is divided into 4 ore blocks, i.e. Tongtianyan, Maocaoguo, Bijiashan and Tieshiling. The explored and mined main orebodies in the mining area occurs in Tongtianyan and Maocaoguo. They are divided into top orebodies and deep orebodies. The top orebodies belong to complex mineralization of contact metasomatism and hydrothermal filling, and thus are controlled by fracture structure combined with groove structure in contact zone. They are rich in sulfides and relatively poor in scheelite, and its variation tendency of mineralization with depth is not evident. The deep orebodies occurs in skarn rock mass and primary with scheelite mineralization, and thus belong to typical skarn orebodies. The overall mineralization is getting weaker with the decrease of depth. Mineralization and enrichment of ore-forming element demonstrates a subdued tendency from northwest to southeast, it indicates that the overall potential for ore prospecting in the deep part of the area is not optimistic, but it shall not exclusive of the probability of the existence of a groove with industrial orebody in the depth of southeastern Moucaoguo.%江西宝山夕卡岩型钨多金属矿床成矿受宝山花岗岩株与石炭系黄龙组-船山组接触带控制,矿体定位、矿化富集与花岗岩株侵位方向、花岗岩相、围岩岩性、接触带凹槽构造关系密切.矿区分通天岩、茅草沟、笔架山、铁石岭等矿段.矿区已探采的主要工业矿体产于通天岩和茅草沟矿段,分为上部矿体和深部矿体.上部矿体受接触带凹槽和断裂构造复合控制,属接

  6. Effect of complex puccoon preparation on fungi which could cause beriberi%紫草复合制剂对脚气真菌的抑制作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东方; 张玮玮; 蔡翠芳

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of complex puccoon preparation on fungi which could cause beriberi.Methods:Puccoon,propolis and bee pollen were selected as the main materials,complex puccoon preparation of different ratio was formulated.Inhibitory effects of complex puccoon preparation of different ratio on Candida tropicalis and Aspergillus niger were preliminarily studied by orthogonal design.Results:Complex puccoon preparation of different ratio have certain inhibitory effects on two kinds of fungi.A3BZC3 was optimal process and its inhibitory rate on Candida tropicalis was more than 95%.Conclusion:Long-period performance and stability of inhibitory effect of complex puccoon preparation on fungi should be continued to investigate.%目的:探究中药材紫草复合制剂对引起脚气病病菌的抑制效果。方法:选取紫草、蜂胶、蜂花粉为主要材料,配置不同配比的紫草复合制剂,采用正交设计就紫草复合制剂对热带假丝酵母与黑曲霉菌的抑制作用进行了初步研究。结果:不同配比的紫草复合制剂处理对两类真菌均有一定的抑制作用,本试验G号处理样A3B2C3为最优处理组合,对热带假丝酵母的抑菌率达到了95%以上。结论:其抑制真菌的长效性和稳定性还有待继续观察和研究。

  7. Preparation, characterization, non-isothermal reaction kinetics, thermodynamic properties, and safety performances of high nitrogen compound: Hydrazine 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Jianhua [Xi' an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Xi' an 710065 (China); Zhao Fengqi [Xi' an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Xi' an 710065 (China)], E-mail: yiren@nwu.edu.cn; Gao Hongxu; Xu Siyu; Wang Minchang; Hu Rongzu [Xi' an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Xi' an 710065 (China)

    2008-05-01

    A new high nitrogen compound hydrazine 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one complex (HNTO) was prepared by the reaction of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one with hydrazine hydrate, and its structure was characterized by means of organic elemental analyzer, FT-IR, XRD, {sup 13}C NMR and {sup 15}N NMR. The non-isothermal reaction kinetics of the main exothermic decomposition reaction of HNTO was investigated by means of DSC. The thermodynamic properties of HNTO were calculated. The results showed that the formation of HNTO is achieved by proton transfer of N(4) atom, and it makes a higher nitrogen content and lower acidity. The reaction mechanism of HNTO is classified as nucleation and growth, and the mechanism function is Avramo-Erofeev equation with n = 2/5. The kinetic parameters of the reaction are E{sub a} = 195.29 kJ mol{sup -1}, lg(A (s{sup -1})) = 19.37, respectively. The kinetic equation can be expressed as: (d{alpha})/(dt) =10{sup 18.97}(1-{alpha})[-ln(1-{alpha})]{sup 3/5}e{sup -2.35x10{sup 4}/T} The safety performances of HNTO were carried out. The critical temperature of thermal explosion are 464.26 and 474.37 K, the adiabatic time-to-explosion is 262 s, the impact sensitivity H{sub 50} = 45.7 cm, the friction sensitivity P = 20% and the electrostatic spark sensitivity E{sub 50} > 5.4 J (no ignition). It shows that HNTO has an insensitive nature as RDX and NTO, etc.

  8. 复凝聚法制备阿维菌素微胶囊工艺研究%Preparation of Abamectin Microcapsule by Complex Coacervation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖沛峰; 赖开平; 罗桂新; 农丽华

    2011-01-01

    以阿维菌素为囊芯、明胶和阿拉伯胶为壁材,采用复凝聚法制备阿维菌素微胶囊,然后通过正交试验考察pH值、芯材比、搅拌速度、体系浓度对包囊率的影响.试验结果表明,影响包囊率的因素主次关系依次为搅拌速度、pH值、体系浓度、芯材比,优水平为搅拌速度150 r/min,pH值4.5,芯材比1.1,体系浓度2.0%.在此条件下重复试验得到平均粒径13.65 μm圆整微胶囊,包囊率达到95.42%.%Using abamectin as capsule core, gelatin and arbic gum as wall material, abamectin microcapsules were prepared by means of complex coacervation. The effects of pH value,core material ratio,stirring speed,and system concentration on entrapment rate were investigated by orthogonal experimental design. The results show that the entrapment rate is affected orderly by stirring speed, pH value, system concentration, and core material ratio. A superior level is stirring speed of 150 r/min,pH value of 4. 5,core material ratio of 1. L,and system concentration of 2. 0%. Repeating the experiment in this condition,the average particle size of whole mi-crocapsule is 13. 65 pm and entrapment rate reaches 95. 42%.

  9. 复合凝聚法制备双相核材料纳米胶囊%Preparation of Nanocapsules Containing Diphasic Core Materials by Complex Coacervation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王登武; 王芳; 赵晓鹏

    2012-01-01

    以明胶-阿拉伯树胶为壁材,采用复合凝聚法制备了双相核材料的纳米胶囊,其内包覆改性TiO2/四氯乙烯双相分散体系.讨论了制备过程中,各参数对纳米胶囊粒径的影响,并采用扫描电镜及透射电镜观察了纳米胶囊的粒径分布及形貌.结果表明,制备的纳米胶囊囊壁光滑、均匀,具有窄的粒径分布.双相分散体系被包覆于纳米胶囊内,且TiO2纳米颗粒粒径约为50nm.所制备的纳米胶囊平均粒径约为0.96μm,囊壁厚度约为18nm.%In this study, gelatin-gum arabic nanocapsules containing diphasic core materials were prepared by complex coacervation, during the process of which the TiO2 nanoparticles modified with stearic acid and dispersed in tetraehloroethylene (TCE) were encapsulated. The effects of the various microencapsulation parameters were also experimentally investigated. The obtained materials were characterized by raean9 of scan electron microscopy ( SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicate that the surface of the nanocapsules was smooth and clear. The diphasic dispersion was encapsulated in nanocapsules and the diameter of TiO2 nanoparticles was ~ 50 nm. The resulting nanocapsules have an average diameter of 0. 96 μm with a wall thickness of ~ 18 nm.

  10. Porous structure and Cr(VI) removal abilities of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} prepared from Fe-urea complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asuha, S., E-mail: asuha42@yahoo.com.cn [Chemistry and Environment Science College, Inner Mongolia Normal University, and Key Laboratory of Physics and Chemistry of Function Materials, Inner Mongolia, 81 Zhaowudalu, Huhhot 010022 (China); Suyala, B.; Zhao, S. [Chemistry and Environment Science College, Inner Mongolia Normal University, and Key Laboratory of Physics and Chemistry of Function Materials, Inner Mongolia, 81 Zhaowudalu, Huhhot 010022 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Solvothermal reaction of [Fe(CON{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 6}](NO{sub 3}){sub 3} can produce mesoporous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. {yields} The mesoporous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} shows high removal ability for Cr(VI). {yields} The adsorption of Cr(VI) on the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} can be well described by Langmuir model. - Abstract: In this work, the porous structure and the Cr(VI) removal abilities of the magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanopowder prepared by one-pot solvothermal reaction of Fe-urea complex ([Fe(CON{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 6}](NO{sub 3}){sub 3}) were investigated. Low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements, and transmission electron micrograph (TEM) observations show that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} has a mesoporous structure with an average pore size of 5.3 nm and BET surface area of 120 m{sup 2}/g. The removal of gaseous species including CON{sub 2}H{sub 4}, NO, NO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} during the formation of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} are considered to be the most probable reason for the formation of mesoporous structure. The adsorption behavior of Cr(VI) on the mesoporous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} can be well described by Langmuir adsorption model, and the maximum adsorption capacity for Cr(VI) is estimated to be 15.4 mg/g.

  11. High precision analysis modeling by backward elimination with attitude on interaction effects on Au (Ag)-polymetallic mineralization of Glojeh, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi-Golestan, F.; Hezarkhani, A.

    2016-12-01

    Identification of possible relationship between the elements, in mineralization and geochemical modeling is very important. The Full Cubic Model (FCM) with 90 Predictors including the main effects, quadratic terms, and interaction effects of Ag, As, Cu, Hg, Mn, Nb, P, Pb, Sn, Sr, Zn and U elements was used to create an Optimal and Reduced Cubic Model (ORCM) at vein-style Au (Ag)-polymetallic mineralization of Glojeh. It was generated with multiple regression and variance analysis and enhanced by Backward Elimination Procedure (BEP) for insignificant predictors through 15 steps. All the predictors contributed in ORCM by lowest p-value of 0.07 at degree of freedom (DF) equaled to 36. F ratio and R2 (pred.) criteria showed increasing trend from 0% to 77.80% and 6.12-262.51, respectively in model optimization. The main and interacted elements at ORCM are Sn, U, Pb, Cu and Ag × Sn, As × Mn, As × Zn, Hg × P, P × Sn, Sn2, P2, respectively based on related t-values. Interaction occurred when a pair of elements produces no similar trend on the response at different levels (associated to populations) of another element. Therefore, interaction of two elements on Au concentration was considered, simultaneously. By investigation, a disordinal interaction effect occurs on deposit for Au-As-Mn, Au-Ag-As and Au-Hg-Mn when the third element changes across the background level to vein values. Whereas, ordinal effects was observed at both population for Au-Ag-Hg and Au-As-Hg, since the lines were parallel. It implies that As has similar trend on Au for each value of Hg. The Au-Ag line explains the general downward shift by increasing Hg concentrations from vein to background. It revealed that Hg is more concentrated in background area. The accuracy and precision of this approach have been studied extensively for sample analysis, parameter identification, and modeling to ensure about BEP.

  12. 青海某镍多金属矿选矿试验研究%Mineral processing of nicke polymetallic ore of Qinghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志凯

    2015-01-01

    Studied at the nickel polymetallic ore of Qinghai,it contains 0.80% nickel,0.2% copper and 0.025%cobalt,that is a typical primary sulfide ore.The main copper mineral is chalcopyrite,pentlandite is the dominant nickel mineral,cobalt exist in pentlandite as isomorphism.The main gangue mineral is tremolite,talc and pyroxene.Process of tacle-copper nickel iso-flotation and nickel flotation was adopted. According to the closed circuit tests,copper concentration contains 25.15% copper,1.23% nickel at a 62.14% copper recover,meantime,nickel concentration contains 0.4% copper,0.24% cobalt and,7.95%nickel at a 80.67% nickel recovery and 75.76%cobalt recovery.%本文针对青海省某铜镍钴多金属矿进行选矿实验研究,该矿为原生硫化矿,原矿中的镍、铜、钴的含量分别为0.80%、0.20%、0.025%,铜矿物主要为黄铜矿,镍矿物主要为镍黄铁矿,钴以类质同象形式赋存在镍黄铁矿中,非金属矿物主要为透闪石、滑石、辉石。采用以铜为主的滑石-铜镍等可浮-尾矿强化回收镍工艺流程,闭路试验指标,铜精矿含铜25.15%,含镍1.23%,铜回收率62.14%;镍精矿含镍7.95%,含铜0.40%,含钴0.24%,镍回收率80.67%,钴回收率75.76%。

  13. Genesis of the Bangbule Pb-Zn-Cu polymetallic deposit in Tibet, western China: Evidence from zircon U-Pb geochronology and S-Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Tian; Zheng, Youye; Gao, Shunbao

    2016-04-01

    The Banbule Pb-Zn-Cu skarn deposit is located in the Longger-Gongbujiangda volcanic magma arc in the Gangdese-Nyainqentanglha Plate. It is the only lead-zinc polymetallic deposit discovered in the westernmost Nyainqentanglha metallogenic belt. The measured and indicated resources include 0.9 Mt of Pb+Zn (4.77% Pb and 4.74% Zn, respectively), 6499 t of Cu, and 178 t of Ag (18.75g/t Ag). The orebodies mainly occur as lenses, veins and irregular shapes in the contact zone between the quartz-porphyry and limestone of the Upper Permian Xiala Formation, or in the boundaries between limestone and sandstone. Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization in the Banbule deposit is closely associated with skarns. The ore minerals are dominated by galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, bornite, and magnetite, with subordinate pyrite, malachite, and azurite. The gangue minerals are mainly garnet, actinolite, diopside, quartz, and calcite. The ore-related quartz-porphyry displays LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age of 77.31±0.74 Ma. The δ34S values of sulfides define a narrow range of -0.8 to 4.7‰ indicating a magmatic source for the ore-forming materials. Lead isotopic systematics yield 206Pb/204Pb of 18.698 to 18.752, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.696 to 15.760, and 208Pb/204Pb of 39.097 to 39.320. The data points are constrained around the growth curves of upper crust and orogenic belt according to the tectonic discrimination diagrams. The calculated Δβ - Δγ values plot within the magmatic field according to the discrimination diagram of Zhu et al. (1995). The S-Pb isotopic data suggest that Bangbule is a typical skarn deposit, and the Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization is genetically related to the quartz-porphyry in the mining district. The discovery of the Bangbule deposit indicates that there is metallogenic potential in the westernmost Nyainqentanglha belt, which is of great importance for the exploration work in this area.

  14. 某锂多金属矿综合回收试验研究%Experimental Research on Comprehensive Utilization of a Polymetallic Ore Containing Lithium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩敏; 李志伟; 孙自军; 孙勇; 刘延霞

    2012-01-01

    对某含锂多金属矿进行了选矿试验研究.针对该矿石的性质,采用“重选—磁选—浮选”联合流程,获得了品位为(Ta+Nb)2O556.06%、Ta2O5回收率66.16%、Nb2O5回收率68.95%)的钽铌精矿;品位44.26%、回收率为83.27%的锡精矿和Li2O品位5.08%、对原矿回收率为72.68%的锂精矿.对影响锂辉石浮选的磨矿细度、调整剂、捕收剂及用量等因素进行了探讨,并获得最佳条件工艺.试验结果表明,该工艺合理可行,选矿指标较为理想,对锂辉石回收的同时回收了铌钽、锡等金属矿物,实现了资源的综合利用.%The experimental research on comprehensive utilization of a polymetallic ore containing lithium was conducted. According to characteristics of ore, a combined flowsheet of " gravity concentration -magnetic separation -flotation" was adopted. A Ta - Nb concentrate containing 56. 06% (TaNb)2O5 was obtained with the recoveries of Ta2O5 and Nb2O5 of 66. 16% and 68. 95% respectively, and a tin concentrate containing 44. 26% Sn was obtained with a recovery of 83. 27% , as well as a lithium concentrate containing 5. 08% Li was obtained with a recovery of 72. 68% from the run - of - mine ore containing 1. 29% Li2O5, 0. 0108% Ta2O5, 0. 0205% Nb2O5 and 0.074%Sn. The influence factors on lithium flotation, such as partical size, regulator, collecting agent and collecting agent dosage were explored. The test results showed that the technological flowsheet is rational and feasible, the processing indexes are satisfactory and the objective of comprehensive utilization is realized.

  15. First steps towards a generic sample preparation scheme for inorganic engineered nanoparticles in a complex matrix for detection, characterization, and quantification by asymmetric flow-field flow fractionation coupled to multi-angle light scattering and ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stephan; Legros, Samuel; Löschner, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of a multi-step generic procedure to systematically develop sample preparation methods for the detection, characterization, and quantification of inorganic engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in a complex matrix was successfully demonstrated. The research focused on the optimization...... content by asymmetric flow-field flow fractionation coupled to a multi-angle light scattering detector and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Following the proposed generic procedure SiO2-ENPs were separated from a tomato soup. Two potential sample preparation methods were tested these being...

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Lycopene-sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin Complex%番茄红素-磺丁基醚-β-环糊精包合物的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵青; 侯飞燕; 王柏; 张钧寿

    2011-01-01

    目的:制备番茄红素与磺丁基醚-β-环糊精(SBE-β-CD)包合物,并考察其溶解度及化学稳定性的变化.方法:采用研磨法制备番茄红素-SBE-β-CD包合物,以差式扫描量热法(DSC)对其进行物相鉴定,同时考察番茄红素经SBE-β-CD包合后,其溶解度以及化学稳定性的变化.结果:番茄红素经SBE-p-CD包合后,其溶解度显著增加,化学稳定性也有所提高.结论:SBE-β-CD可明显增加番茄红素的溶解度,并改善其化学稳定性.%To study and prepare lycopene-sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) solid complex and further investigate its properties such as solubility and chemical stability. Methods: Lycopene-SBE -β -CD complex was prepared by a triturating method and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The solubility, and chemical stability of the prepared complex were also examined. Results: The solubility and chemical stability of lycopene were obviously improved by complexation with SBE-P-CD. Conclusion: SBE-β-CD significantly improves the solubility and chemical stability of lycopene.

  17. Biomarker responses of Eisenia andrei to a polymetallic gradient near a lead mining site in North Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughattas, Iteb; Hattab, Sabrine; Boussetta, Hamadi; Sappin-Didier, Valérie; Viarengo, Aldo; Banni, Mohamed; Sforzini, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    Eisenia andrei earthworms were exposed for 7 and 14 days to six samples of soil taken from around an abandoned lead (Pb) mine and characterized by different levels of metal contamination (S6-S1, this latter being the most contaminated soil). The organisms were analyzed for metal bioaccumulation and for biological parameters as biomarkers of stress (lysosomal membrane stability; lipofuscin lysosomal content; lysosomal/cytoplasmic volume ratio) and genotoxicity (Micronucleus frequency). Chemical analysis showed the loads of Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu in the worms following exposure. Among the stress biomarkers, lysosomal membrane stability was significantly affected in the coelomocytes of the earthworms exposed already 7 days to different contaminated soils. Organisms exposed for 14 days to S1 showed in the cells of the chloragogenous tissue, a particularly relevant increase in lipofuscin, a biomarker of oxidative stress, and an increase in the lysosome/cytoplasm volume ratio, indicating stressful condition at the tissue level. Moreover, in the same conditions, a decrease in total body weight was observed. At the longer exposure time, the coelomocytes of worms exposed to S1, S2, and S3 (soils with higher metal concentrations) showed a significant increase in micronuclei (MNi) frequency. Expressions of the P21 and topoisomerase genes, which are involved in DNA repair, showed significant up-regulation in the cells of worms exposed to S1, S2, S3, S4 and to a less extend S6. This may indicate that the worms were only able to successfully reduce the level of DNA damage in S4 and S5 if considering MN frequency data. The biomarker data was integrated by the Earthworm Expert System, allowing an objective interpretation of the complex biological data and clearly defining the areas in which the presence of chemicals is toxic for the edaphic organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Large-scale preparation of the homogeneous LolA lipoprotein complex and efficient in vitro transfer of lipoproteins to the outer membrane in a LolB-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shoji; Oguchi, Yuki; Yokota, Naoko; Tokuda, Hajime

    2007-12-01

    An ATP-binding cassette transporter LolCDE complex of Escherichia coli releases lipoproteins destined to the outer membrane from the inner membrane as a complex with a periplasmic chaperone, LolA. Interaction of the LolA-lipoprotein complex with an outer membrane receptor, LolB, then causes localization of lipoproteins to the outer membrane. As far as examined, formation of the LolA-lipoprotein complex strictly depends on ATP hydrolysis by the LolCDE complex in the presence of LolA. It has been speculated, based on crystallographic and biochemical observations, that LolA undergoes an ATP-dependent conformational change upon lipoprotein binding. Thus, preparation of a large amount of the LolA-lipoprotein complex is difficult. Moreover, lipoproteins bound to LolA are heterogeneous. We report here that the coexpression of LolA and outer membrane-specific lipoprotein Pal from a very efficient plasmid causes the unusual accumulation of the LolA-Pal complex in the periplasm. The complex was purified to homogeneity and shown to be a functional intermediate of the lipoprotein localization pathway. In vitro incorporation of Pal into outer membranes revealed that a single molecule of LolB catalyzes the incorporation of more than 100 molecules of Pal into outer membranes. Moreover, the LolB-dependent incorporation of Pal was not affected by excess-free LolA, indicating that LolB specifically interacts with liganded LolA. Finally, the LolB depletion caused the accumulation of a significant amount of Pal in the periplasm, thereby establishing the conditions for preparation of the homogeneous LolA-lipoprotein complex.

  19. Preparation of paprika red pigment microcapsules by complex coacervation%辣椒红色素复凝聚微囊化工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国清; 孙兴丽; 徐真真; 肖军霞

    2015-01-01

    目的:以大豆分离蛋白(soybean protein isolate, SPI)和壳聚糖(chitosan, CH)为壁材,采用复凝聚法制备辣椒红色素(paprika red pigment, PRP)微胶囊。方法以微胶囊的包埋产率和包埋效率为指标,研究搅拌转速、复凝聚pH、温度、时间及SPI/CH比对微囊化效果的影响。结果 SPI/CH复凝聚法制备PRP微胶囊的最佳工艺为:将均匀的PRP乳状液冷却至室温,按SPI:CH=4:1(m:m)加入0.6%的CH溶液,此时固形物浓度为1.5%,用10% NaOH溶液调节混合液的pH至6.3,25℃、300 r/min条件下搅拌15 min得到微胶囊悬浮液,此时微胶囊的包埋产率为90.05%,效率为95.08%。所得微胶囊大小不均一,多以球形形式存在。结论 SPI/CH复凝聚体系可用于PRP的微囊化。%Objective To prepare paprika red pigment (PRP) microcapsules using complex coacervation using soybean protein isolate (SPI) and chitosan (CH) as coating materials.Methods Microencapsulation efficiency and yield were selected as the indicators to study the effects of reaction temperature, reaction duration, agitation speed, coacervation pH and SPI/CH ratio (m:m) on PRP microencapsulation.Results The optimum microencapsulation conditions were SPI/CH ratio 4:1, total solid concentration 1.5%, coacervation pH 6.3 and agitation at 300 r/min and 25℃ for 15 min. Under these conditions, the microencapsulation yield and microencapsulation efficiency reached up to 90.05% and 95.08% respectively. Microscopy observation revealed that the microcapsules were not uniform in size distribution and most were present as spheres. Conclusion The SPI/CH coacervation system can be successfully used in the microencapsulation of PRP.

  20. Preparation, structures and antimicrobial activity of four different type metal complexes on the base of diethanolamine and o-nitrobenzoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibragimov, A. B.; Ashurov, J. M.; Ibragimov, B. T.; Zakirov, B. S.

    2017-01-01

    Crystallization under identical conditions from aqueous ethanol solutions of diethanolamine (DEA), o-nitrobenzoic acid (ONBA) and definite metal salt yields 4 different type metal complexes and one organic salt - the monoligand complex of Zn(II) with DEA (1), monoligand complex of Cu(II) with ONBA (2), mixed-ligand complex of Ni(II) with DEA and ONBA (3), supramolecular complex between monoligand complex molecule of Zn(II) with DEA and ONBA (4) and DEA+·ONBA- salt (5). In 1 two meridionally distributed DEA molecules are coordinated by a tridentate mode, 2 is a binuclear copper complex with 4 ONBA molecules which are bidentately coordinated through carboxylate groups. In 3 two DEA and two ONBA molecules are coordinated by bidentate and monodentate fashions, respectively. The compound 4 consists of a complex molecule with two facial distributed tridentate DEA molecules and ONBA ones in an outer sphere. Hence, in coordination compounds 1 and 4 Zn-complex ions with two tridentately coordinated DEA molecules are found in different isomeric forms of which a mer-distribution is recorded for the first time. The maximal enhancement of the ligands antimicrobial activity is observed for the mixed-ligand metal complex. The Zn-complex with mer-distributed ligand molecules demonstrated more antimicrobial activity in contrast to fac-isomer.

  1. Preparation of high crystalline nanoparticles of rare-earth based complex pervoskites and comparison of their structural and magnetic properties with bulk counterparts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basith, M. A.; Islam, M. A.; Ahmmad, Bashir

    2017-01-01

    A simple route to prepare Gd0.7Sr0.3MnO3 nanoparticles by ultrasonication of their bulk powder materials is presented in this article. For comparison, Gd0.7Sr0.3MnO3 nanoparticles are also prepared by ball milling. The prepared samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission...... of crystalline and amorphous phases. FESEM images demonstrate the formation of nanoparticles with average particle size in the range of 50–100 nm for both ultrasonication and 4 h (h) of ball milling. The bulk materials and nanoparticles synthesized by both ultrasonication and 4 h ball milling exhibit...... of the nanoparticles due to ball milling particularly for milling time exceeding 8 h. This investigation demonstrates the potential of ultrasonication as a simple route to prepare high crystalline rare-earth based manganite nanoparticles with improved control compared to the traditional ball milling technique....

  2. Preparation and luminescence properties of europium complex with a-naphthylacetic acid incorporated in silica matrix by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈野; 蔡伟民; 孙晓君; 崔丹; 于英宁

    2004-01-01

    Europium ternary complex of Eu (NNA)3(NNA=o-naphthylacetic acid) was embedded in silica matrix at different ratios by sol-gel method. The luminescence properties of silica composites were studied by comparing them with those of corresponding pure complex by means of excitation, emission spectra and lifetimes. The fluorescence lifetime was prolonged when the pure complex was incorporated in silica matrix. The relative fluorescence intensity and fluorescence lifetimes increased simultaneously with the increase of Eu(NNA)3.

  3. 响应面法优化辣椒碱β-环糊精包合物制备工艺%Optimization of Preparation Conditions for Capsaicin-β-cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex by Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 王莹; 王翼; 詹长娟; 徐伟; 乔慧

    2016-01-01

    利用饱和水溶液法制备辣椒碱β-环糊精包合物,以包合率和包合物产率为评价指标,通过对包合温度、包合时间及配料比的考察,以响应面法优选最佳工艺条件.结果表明,辣椒碱β-环糊精包合物的最佳包合条件为包合温度50℃,包合时间为3 h,配料比为1:1(摩尔比),此时包合物平均产率为53.97%,平均包合率为52.51%.采用响应面法可优化辣椒碱β-环糊精包合物的制备工艺,为辣椒碱药物制剂的研发提供借鉴.%The inclusion complex was prepared by saturated solution method with inclusion ratio and yield of capsaicin-β-cy-clodextrin inclusion complex as indexes, influence of inclusion temperature, inclusion time,and ratio of capsaicin-β-cyclodex-trin to inclusion process were investigated by response surface method. Optimum inclusion technology of capsaicin-β-cyclodex-trin inclusion complex were as follows:nclusion temperature of 50℃,inclusion time of 3 h,ratio of capsaicin-β-cyclodextrin of 1:1. Under the optimized conditions, the yield of capsaicin-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex was 53.97%,and the inclusion ratio was 52.51%. Using response surface methodology to optimize preparation of capsaicin-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex had good prediction, and the optimized preparation could be helpful for developing capsaicin agent.

  4. 多金属金矿氢氧化钠焙烧热力学研究%Thermodynamics study of sodium hydroxide roasting in a poly-metallic gold mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞祥; 曾斌; 余攀; 毛继勇; 谢博毅; 王志刚; 阮建国

    2013-01-01

    Roasting is an effective pre-treatment technology to improve gold and silver recovery rate for poly-metallic gold mine. ΔG0T-T function of the main chemical reaction during NaOH roasting process in the poly-metallic gold mine by thermodynamic calculations. ΔG0T-T is drawn accordingly. Thermodynamics calculation results show that NaOH roasting lowers the generating chances of copper ferrite, zinc ferrite, zinc silicate and lead silicate, whose binding forces to Au and Ag decreases accordingly. The appropriate temperature of roasting sodium hydroxide is higher than 834.33 K.%焙烧是一种提高多金属金矿中金、银回收率的有效预处理方法,通过热力学计算,得到了多金属金矿NaOH焙烧过程主要化学反应的△G0T-T函数,并绘制了△G0T-T图.热力学分析结果表明NaOH焙烧能降低CuO· Fe2O3、ZnO·Fe2O3、PbO· SiO2、2ZnO·SiO2的生成几率,从而降低了以上物质对Au、Ag的包裹作用.多金属金矿NaOH焙烧的适宜温度为T≥834.33 K.

  5. 复杂钼铜铁多金属矿的综合利用研究%Comprehensive Utilization of Mo-Cu-Fe Polymetallic Ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严海军; 向宇; 宋永胜

    2011-01-01

    The mineralogical examination was studied on the Mo-Cu-Fe polymetallic ore. The main mineral in this ore is molybdenum mineral, accompanying with copper and iron minerals. According to the ore property, the molybdenum minerals and copper minerals were recovered with bulk flotation, and then the bulk concentrate was separated. The combined kerosene-diesel oil reagents is used to improve molybdenum recovery and effective collector BK802 was used to improve copper recovery in the bulk floatation. Only kerosene is used in the copper-molybdenum separation step. The effects of depressants BK310 and BK311 were compared, then BK310 was chosen. The iron minerals were selected with magnetic separation method from the bulk flotation tailing and the optimal magnetic field is between 0.12 ~0.16 T. The results obtained a copper concentrate with the copper grade of 15.16% and recovery of 80.54% respectively under the copper grade of raw ore on 0.082% , a molybdenum concentrate with the molybdenum grade of 50.87% and recovery of 85.94% respectively using new depressant BK310 with three cleaning, Magnetic separation tests obtained an iron concentrate containing 69.47% Fe and the recovery of Fe was 41. 89% after one regrinding stage for its good liberation.%对某钼铜铁多金属矿矿石进行了工艺矿物学研究,该矿石是以钼为主、并生铜铁的多金属矿.根据矿石的性质,采用钼铜混合浮选混合精矿再分离-尾矿磁选选铁的工艺流程.铜钼混合浮选时,采用煤油、柴油混合捕收剂,有利于提高钼回收率,采用选铜特效捕收剂BK802,有利于提高铜的回收率.铜钼混合精矿分离时,采用煤油作为捕收剂,最终选择BK310进行铜钼分离.对铜钼混选尾矿进行了选铁实验,最适宜的磁场强度为0.12~0.16 T之间.研究结果表明:在原矿铜品位0.082%的情况下,可以得到含铜品位15.16%、铜回收率80.54%的铜精矿;采用新型抑制剂BIC310,一次分离三次

  6. Preparation of Bacillus subtilis-astragalus Complex Biological Reagent%黄芪多糖-枯草芽孢杆菌合生元菌液的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文宇婷; 边连全; 杜欣; 潘树德

    2012-01-01

    研究黄芪多糖-枯草芽孢杆菌合生元菌液制备过程中,黄芪多糖的最适添加量以及合生元菌液的最适培养时间.将活化后的枯草芽孢杆菌ACCC 11025菌液以1%的接种量分别加入含黄芪多糖浓度为0,0.5,1,1.5,2,2.5,3,6,10mg· mL-1的液体培养基中,分别置37℃、120r· min-1以及32℃、120r· min-1培养箱中培养,每隔0·5h检测菌液OD值.结果表明:添加浓度为1.5mg· mL-1黄芪多糖的培养基中,枯草芽孢杆菌ACCC 11025菌液浓度达到最高,分别比对照组和10mg·L-1组提高13.8%和148.8%(p<0.05);在5.5h代时最小,为1.22h,黄芪多糖-枯草芽孢杆菌合生元黄芪多糖最适添加量为1.5mg·mL-1,最适培养时间为5.5h.%This experiment was conducted to study the preparation of Bacillus subtilis—astragalus complex biological reagent,the optimal ratio of the APS and Bacillus subtilis and the best training time. Inoculate the activated Bacillus subtilis into the liquid medium, which contained different concentrations of APS. The concentrations of APS were 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 6, lOmg-mL"1 respectively. Then train them in the 37t, 120r-min~' incubator. Measurement was made every 0.5h at 540nm absorbance. The results showed that the number of Bacillus subtilis in the liquid medium with 1.5mg'mL"' concentration of APS was the highest, and the effect was significantly (p<0.05).The best training time was 5.5h. These results indicated that the optimum dosage of APS for Bacillus subtilis ACCC11025 is 1.5mg-mL~', and the optimum incubation time is 5.5h.

  7. Synthesis of Luminescent Copper(Ⅰ)β-Diketone Complex by a New Preparation Method%一种新方法合成荧光β-二酮铜(Ⅰ)配合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭利兵; 朱靖; 蒋凯; 张传建

    2004-01-01

    At room temperature, the reducing reaction between the bis(diphenylphosphino)butane (dppb) ligand and the compound [Cu(tfac)2] (tfac=2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone) gave luminescent copper(Ⅰ) complex [Cu(dppb)(tfac)]2. They have been characterized by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. Crystal structure of the title complex shows that 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone behaves as chelating ligand and dppb coordinates as bridging bidentate ligand to Cu(Ⅰ) atoms in the newly prepared copper(Ⅰ) complex. The crystal is monoclinic, space group P21/n, with cell parameters a = 1.031 0(2) nm, b = 1.873 0(4) nm, c= 1.763 0(4) nm, β = 95.10(3)°, Z = 4, V = 3.391 0(12)nm3, R = 0.0603, wR = 0.1434. CCDC: 228393.

  8. Preparation, Investigation and the Study of the Effect of Mn(II Complex of Catechol and 2-Aminopyridine on Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. El-Moshaty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of mixed ligand complex of Mn(II with catechol (L1 and 2-aminopyridine (L2 was determined by elemental analyses (C, H and N, molar conductance measurement, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared, electronic and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies. The elemental analysis data show the formation of 1:1:1 [M: L1: L2] complex. The molar conductance measurement shows a non-electrolyte nature. The thermogravimetric analysis data of the complex display the existence of hydrated and coordinated water molecules. The infrared spectral data exhibit the coordination sites that are through -OH,-C=N and –NH2 groups. The electronic spectral data display the electronic transitions of the ligands and suggest an octahedral structure for the complex. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of the complex reveals the existence of paramagnetic phenomena and supports its geometrical structure. Seed germination and root length of grass were also assayed under the effect of MnCl2.4H2O, catechol, 2-aminopyridine and its complex. Mn(II salt was the most effective on germination than its complex which possess the high test effect on root length, while the ligands are the least active of all.

  9. Detection of Salmonella in meat in less than 5 hours by a low-cost and non-complex sample preparation method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fachmann, Mette Sofie Rousing; Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey;

    2017-01-01

    peptone water, and a real-time PCR compatible sample preparation method, based on filtration, centrifugation, and enzymatic digestion, followed by fast cycling real-time PCR detection. The method was validated in an un-paired, comparative study against the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL...

  10. The Preparation and Characterization of the Geometric Isomers of a Coordination Complex: cis- and trans-bis Glycinato Copper (II) Monohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Paul

    1982-01-01

    Preparation of cis and trans isomers of the kinetically labile bis glycinato copper (II) has a number of advantages including its facility, economy, ready theoretical interpretation, and biological relevance. Background information, laboratory procedures, results/discussion are provided for this experiment which can be completed in a single,…

  11. Preparation, thermodynamic property and antimicrobial activity of some rare-earth (III) complexes with 3-bromo-5-iodobenzoic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing-Yu [Testing and Analysis Center, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Ren, Ning [Department of Chemistry, Handan College, Handan 056005 (China); Zhang, Jian-Jun, E-mail: jjzhang6@126.com [Testing and Analysis Center, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Zhang, Cun-Ying [No.1 High School of Shijiazhuang, Shijiazhuang 050011 (China)

    2013-10-20

    Graphical abstract: Four new rare-earth complexes of general formula [Ln(3-Br-5-IBA){sub 3}phen]{sub 2} [Ln = Er (1), Tb (2), Dy (3) and Ho (4); 3-Br-5-IBA = 3-bromo-5-iodobenzoate; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline] were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV and TG/DSC-FTIR technology. Heat capacities of the four complexes were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were tested using disc diffusion method. - Highlights: • Four new complexes [Ln(3-Br-5-IBA){sub 3}phen]{sub 2} were synthesized and characterized. • The non-isothermal kinetics of the first stage for the complexes was studied. • The heat capacities of the complexes were measured by differential scanning calorimeter. • The antimicrobial activities for these complexes were tested. • The fluorescence properties of the complexes 2 and 3 were studied. - Abstract: Four new rare-earth complexes of general formula [Ln(3-Br-5-IBA){sub 3}phen]{sub 2} (Ln(III) = Er (1), Tb (2), Dy (3) and Ho (4); 3-Br-5-IBA = 3-bromo-5-iodobenzoate; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) were synthesized by solution-precipitation method, and investigated using elemental analysis, infrared spectra, ultraviolet spectra and TG/DSC-FTIR technology. The non-isothermal kinetics of the first stage for the complexes was studied by using non-linear integral isoconversional method and double equal-double steps method. The heat capacities of the complexes were measured between 263.15 and 485.55 K by means of differential scanning calorimeter, and the values of the experimental heat capacities were fitted to a polynomial equation with the least-squares method. And the thermodynamic functions [H{sub T} − H{sub 298.15}], [S{sub T} − S{sub 298.15}] and [G{sub T} − G{sub 298.15}] were also derived based on the fitted polynomials and thermodynamic relationships with temperature interval of 10 K. Moreover, the

  12. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of antibacterial activity of catechins and catechins-Zn complex loaded β-chitosan nanoparticles of different particle sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongcai; Jung, Jooyeoun; Zhao, Yanyun

    2016-02-10

    This study used β-chitosan nanoparticles (β-CS NPs) of different particle sizes to encapsulate catechins (CAT) or CAT-Zn complex by ionic gelation technology. The antibacterial activity of CAT or CAT-Zn complex loaded β-CS NPs against Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua were investigated based on bacterial growth curve, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bacterial concentration (MBC). Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) was employed to study the incorporation of CAT or CAT-Zn complex into β-CS NPs. The CAT-Zn complex loaded β-CS NPs had particle size of 208-591 nm, polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.377-0.395, and positive Zeta-potential of 39.17-45.62 mV. The CAT-Zn complex loaded β-CS NPs of smaller particle sizes showed higher antibacterial activity than that of larger particle size ones. The MIC and MBC of CAT-Zn complex loaded β-CS NPs of the smallest particle size against L. innocua and E. coli were 0.031 and 0.063 mg/mL, and 0.063 and 0.125 mg/mL, respectively. This study suggested that encapsulation of CAT-Zn complex in β-CS NPs improved the antibacterial activity of CAT and CAT-Zn complex, and the encapsulators have great potential to be used as antibacterial substances for food and other applications through either direct addition or incorporation into packaging materials.

  13. Preparation, spectroscopic and thermal characterization of new charge-transfer complexes of ethidium bromide with π-acceptors. In vitro biological activity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldaroti, Hala H.; Gadir, Suad A.; Refat, Moamen S.; Adam, Abdel Majid A.

    2013-05-01

    Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is a strong DNA binder and has been widely used to probe DNA structure in drug-DNA and protein-DNA interaction. Four new charge-transfer (CT) complexes consisting of EtBr as donor and quinol (QL), picric acid (PA), tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) or dichlorodicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ) as acceptors, were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, electronic absorption, spectrophotometric titration, IR, Raman, 1H NMR and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) techniques. The stoichiometry of these complexes was found to be 1:2 ratio and having the formula [(EtBr)(acceptor)]. The thermal stability of the synthesized CT complexes was investigated using thermogravimetric (TG) analyses, and the morphology and particle size of these complexes were obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The CT complexes were also tested for its antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and two Gram-negative bacteria; Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeuroginosa strains by using Tetracycline as standard and antifungal property against Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans by using amphotericin B as standard. The results were compared with the standard drugs and significant conclusions were obtained. The results indicated that the [(EtBr)(QL)2] complex had exerted excellent inhibitory activity against the growth of the tested bacterial strains.

  14. Preparation and biodistribution of a (99m)Tc tricarbonyl complex with deoxyglucose dithiocarbamate as a tumor imaging agent for SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao; Chao, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Junbo; Jin, Zhonghui; Zhang, Yanyan

    2014-08-15

    The deoxyglucose dithiocarbamate (DGDTC) was successfully labeled with the (99m)Tc(CO)3 core to provide the corresponding (99m)Tc(CO)3-DGDTC complex in good yields. The radiochemical purity of the (99m)Tc(CO)3-DGDTC complex was over 90%, as measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The complex possessed good stability in saline at room temperature and in mouse plasma at 37 °C. Its partition coefficient result indicated that it was a hydrophilic complex. The electrophoresis results showed the complex was neutral. The biodistribution of (99m)Tc(CO)3-DGDTC in mice bearing S 180 tumor showed that the complex clearly accumulated in tumor, exhibiting high tumor/blood and tumor/muscle ratios and good tumor retention. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image studies showed there was a visible uptake in tumor sites, suggesting (99m)Tc(CO)3-DGDTC could be considered as a potential tumor imaging agent.

  15. Polymeric material prepared from Schiff base based on O-carboxymethyl chitosan and its Cu(II) and Pd(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Talat; Menteş, Ayfer

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a new eco-friendly Schiff base based on O-carboxymethyl chitosan ([OCMCS-7a]) and its copper(II) and palladium(II) complexes were synthesized. Characterizations of [OCMCS-7a] and its metal complexes were conducted using FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, TG/DTG, XRD, SEM-EDAX, ICP, UV-VIS, GC-MS, elemental analysis, magnetic moment and molar conductivity measurements. The degree of substitution (DS) of [OCMCS-7a] was determined by elemental analysis to be 0.44. It was shown by the solubility test that [OCMCS-7a] was completely soluble in water. Surface images of chitosan, [OCMCS-7a] and its Cu(II) and Pd(II) complexes were investigated using the SEM-EDAX technique. Their thermal behaviors and crystallinities of the synthesized complexes were determined by TG/DTG and X-ray powder diffraction techniques, respectively. The metal contents of the obtained complexes were determined using an ICP-OES instrument. From the analyses, it was noted that the thermal stabilities and crystallinities of [OCMCS-7a] and its complexes decreased compared to chitosan. As a consequence of surface screening, it was also noted that the surface structure of the chitosan was smoother than that of the obtained compounds.

  16. Preparação e caracterização espectroscópica de complexos de boro: uma proposta para uma prática integrada de química inorgânica Preparation and spectroscopic characterization of boron complexes: a proposal for an integrated inorganic laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Eberhard Bessler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a proposal for an undergraduate second or third year inorganic laboratory course, the present paper describes the preparation of three representative boron complexes: potassium tetrafluoroborate, pyridoxin boron complex and potassium bis(oxalatoborate. The complexes are characterised by infrared and multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H, 11B and 19F where isotopic effects are demonstrated.

  17. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  18. Preparation of high crystalline nanoparticles of rare-earth based complex pervoskites and comparison of their structural and magnetic properties with bulk counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basith, M. A.; Islam, M. A.; Ahmmad, Bashir; Sarowar Hossain, M. D.; Mølhave, K.

    2017-07-01

    A simple route to prepare Gd0.7Sr0.3MnO3 nanoparticles by ultrasonication of their bulk powder materials is presented in this article. For comparison, Gd0.7Sr0.3MnO3 nanoparticles are also prepared by ball milling. The prepared samples are characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive x-ray (EDX), x-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. XRD Rietveld analysis is carried out extensively for the determination of crystallographic parameters and the amount of crystalline and amorphous phases. FESEM images demonstrate the formation of nanoparticles with average particle size in the range of 50-100 nm for both ultrasonication and 4 h (h) of ball milling. The bulk materials and nanoparticles synthesized by both ultrasonication and 4 h ball milling exhibit a paramagnetic to spin-glass transition. However, nanoparticles synthesized by 8 h and 12 h ball milling do not reveal any phase transition, rather show an upturn of magnetization at low temperature. The degradation of the magnetic properties in ball milled nanoparticles may be associated with amorphization of the nanoparticles due to ball milling particularly for milling time exceeding 8 h. This investigation demonstrates the potential of ultrasonication as a simple route to prepare high crystalline rare-earth based manganite nanoparticles with improved control compared to the traditional ball milling technique.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of a Molybdenum(VI Schiff Base Complex as Magnetic Nanocatalyst for Synthesis of 2-Amino-4H-benzo[h]chromenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Divsalar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new recoverable molybdenum nanocatalyst was prepared by immobilization  of a Schiff base ligand on the surface of silica coated magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2 through condensation reaction between 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane and 2-hydroxy1-naphthaldehyde and succeeding reaction with dioxomolybdenum(VI acetylacetonate (MoO2(acac2. The synthesized catalyst was characterized by inductively coupled plasma, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, Energy-dispersive X-ray, Fourier transform infrared and X-raydiffraction spectroscopy. Catalytic performance of the synthesized nanocatalyst was investigated for the preparation of 2-amino-4H-benzo[h]chromenes. The compounds were prepared high yield through one-pot, three-component reaction of 1-naphthol, various of aldehydes and malonitrile in the presence of nanocatalyst, Fe3O4@SiO2@Mo-Schiff base, under solvent-free conditions. The benefits of this protocol are short reaction time, simple work-up procedure, high yields and use of the concept of green chemistry. The magnetic nanocatalyst could be separated easily from the reaction media using an external magnetic field and reused in subsequent catalytic runs without significant deterioration of its activity.

  20. Effect of complexing agents on the electrochemical performance of LiFePO4/C prepared by sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Kang, Erwei; Jiang, Bailing; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon

    2012-01-05

    LiFePO4/C is synthesized via sol-gel method using Fe3+ as iron sources and different complexing agents, followed by sintering at high temperature for crystallization. The amount of carbon in these composites is less than 6.8 wt.%, and the X-ray diffraction experiment confirms that all samples are pure single phase indexed with the orthorhombic Pnma space group. The particle size of the LiFePO4/C synthesized by acetic acid as a complexing agent is very fine with a size of 200 nm. The electrochemical performance of this material, including reversible capacity, cycle number, and charge-discharge characteristics, is better than those of LiFePO4/C synthesized by other complexing agents. The cell of this sample can deliver a discharge capacity of 161.1 mAh g-1 at the first cycle. After 30 cycles, the capacity decreases to 157.5 mAh g-1, and the capacity fading rate is 2.2%. The mechanism is studied to explain the effect of a complexing agent on the synthesis of LiFePO4/C by sol-gel method. The results show that the complexing agent with a low stability constant may be proper for the synthetic process of LiFePO4/C via sol-gel method.

  1. The preparation and characterization of Cu(II complexes with N,N’,N”,N’”-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane and 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(semi/thiosemicarbazones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORDANA VUCKOVIC

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new Cu(II mixed-ligand complexes with octadentate N,N’,N”,N’”-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (tpmc and potentially pentadentate ligands 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(semicarbazone (DAPsc2 or 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(thiosemicarbazone (DAPtsc2 were prepared. The general formulas: [Cu4 DAPsc2(tpmc2]ClO48·5CH3COCH3·H2O and [Cu2 DAPtsc2(tpmc](ClO44·7C2H5OH were proposed on the basis of elemental analyses and conductometric measurements. The complexes were characterized by magnetic measurement, electronic absorption and IR spectroscopy. For the dinuclear complex, an exo coordination of Cu(II with four nitrogens from tpmc and m-bonded DAPtsc2 through sulfurs and possibly terminal hydrazinic (azomethine nitrogens is assumed. For the tetranuclear complex, it is supposed that one DAPsc2 bridges two [Cu2 tpmc]4+ units using oxygens and terminal hydrazinic nitrogens as ligators. Finally, some antibacterial activity of the complexes was found.

  2. Preparation and third-order nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce: BaTiO3 quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师文生; 陈正豪; 刘宁宁; 吕惠宾; 周岳亮; 崔大复; 杨国桢

    2000-01-01

    Pulsed laser ablation epitaxial Strancky-Krastanow growth of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots on MgO(100) substrates is demonstrated. Atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction are used to observe the structure and the growth process of the self-organized complex oxide quantum dots. The average dimension, height, and the density of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots are given. The nonlinear refractive indexes of the wetting layer and the self-organized ordered quantum dots are determined by the single beam Z-scan method. The mechanisms of the nonlinear effect enhancement for these low-dimensional structure are discussed.

  3. Preparation and third-order nonlinear optical properties of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Pulsed laser ablation epitaxial Strancky-Krastanow growth of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots on MgO(100) substrates is demonstrated.Atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction are used to observe the structure and the growth process of the self-organized complex oxide quantum dots.The average dimension,height,and the density of self-organized complex oxide Ce:BaTiO3 quantum dots are given.The nonlinear refractive indexes of the wetting layer and the self-organized ordered quantum dots are determined by the single beam Z-scan method.The mechanisms of the nonlinear effect enhancement for these low-dimensional structure are discussed.

  4. Fluorescence-excitation and emission spectra from LH2 antenna complexes of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila as a function of the sample preparation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Ralf; Timpmann, Kõu; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J; Köhler, Jürgen; Freiberg, Arvi

    2013-10-10

    The high sensitivity of optical spectra of pigment-protein complexes to temperature and pressure is well known. In the present study, we have demonstrated the significant influence of the environments commonly used in bulk and single-molecule spectroscopic studies at low temperatures on the LH2 photosynthetic antenna complex from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila. A transfer of this LH2 complex from a bulk-buffer solution into a spin-coated polymer film results in a 189 cm(-1) blue shift of the B850 excitonic absorption band at 5 K. Within the molecular exciton model, the origin of this shift could be disentangled into three parts, namely to an increase of the local site energies, a contraction of the exciton band, and a decrease of the displacement energy.

  5. Thermochemolysis: A New Sample Preparation Approach for the Detection of Organic Components of Complex Macromolecules in Mars Rocks via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry in SAM on MSL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenbrode, J.; Glavin, D.; Dworkin, J.; Conrad, P.; Mahaffy, P.

    2011-01-01

    Organic chemicals, when present in extraterrestrial samples, afford precious insight into past and modern conditions elsewhere in the Solar System . No single technology identifies all molecular components because naturally occurring molecules have different chemistries (e.g., polar vs. non-polar, low to high molecular weight) and interface with the ambient sample chemistry in a variety of modes (i.e., organics may be bonded, absorbed or trapped by minerals, liquids, gases, or other organics). More than 90% of organic matter in most natural samples on Earth and in meteorites is composed of complex macromolecules (e.g. biopolymers, complex biomolecules, humic substances, kerogen) because the processes that tend to break down organic molecules also tend towards complexation of the more recalcitrant components. Thus, methodologies that tap the molecular information contained within macromolecules may be critical to detecting extraterrestrial organic matter and assessing the sources and processes influencing its nature.

  6. Structural Characteristics and Prospecting Significance of the Xitian Tin-Tungsten Polymetallic Deposit, Hunan Province, China%湖南锡田锡钨多金属矿床成矿构造特征及其找矿意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍式崇; 龙自强; 徐辉煌; 周云; 蒋英; 潘传楚

    2012-01-01

    The Xitian tin-tungsten deposit,an important deposit discovered recently in the Nanling ore-forming province,occurs in the contact zone of the Late Devonian dolomitic limestone and Jurassic to Cretaceous ( Yans-hanian) granitoids.The main ore types of the deposit are skan-,structural skan-,structural altered rock- and quartz-greisen vein types.There is a SN-trending extensional structure of granite dome,a series of NE-trending multiple folds and NE or NEE-trending strike-slip tectonic system developed in the Xitian deposit.The dome structure is composed of Indosian and Yanshanian granites,Paleozoic strata and Mesozoic discontinuous ring detachment faults,which controls the distribution of skarn orebodies.The complex fold is a NE-trending complicated synclines,which consists of Palaeozoic strata,and is cut by strike-slip faults in the anticlinal core.Some structural fracture zone type ore bodies are controlled by both the coaxial overprinted fold of two periods,which belong to Yantang and Xiaotian complicated syncline,and the ductile brittle shear faults.The strike-slip system consists of the first-order NE-trending right lateral strike-slip faults,secondary P-orientation shear faults,SN-trending left laterial strike-slip faults and NW-trending stretch faults.The strike-slip system controls the distribution of quartz-vein- and greisen vein type tin-tungsten polymetallic orebodies.Zircon SHRIMP and LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating of the Xitian granites and 40A-39Ar ages of muscovites from the greisenization type tungsten-tin orebodies as well as Re-Os isochron age of molybdenites from the quartz-vein type tin-tungsten ore bodies demonstrate that the time of tectonic activity,mag-matism and metallogenesis in Xitian tin- tungsten deposit is basically consistent with those of the large-scale metal-logeny in Nanling ore-forming province ( ISO Ma ~ 160 Ma).There exist many metallogenic areas favorable for future exploration,such as contact zones of granites and limestones,NEE- or NE

  7. Preparation, Physical and Chemical Properties of Enteromorpha Prolifera Polysaccharide Iron Complex%浒苔多糖铁的制备及其理化性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜峻; 余腾飞; 张忠山

    2012-01-01

    Enteromorpha prolifera polysaccharide iron complex was synthesized and its physical and chemical properties was studied. Enteromorpha prolifera polysaccharide was reacted with ferric chloride to obtain polysaccharide iron complex. The structure of polysaccharide iron complex was identified by infrared spectroscopy. Complete the qualitative identification of polysaccharide iron complex by comparing with ferric hydroxide sol; conduct the reduction experiment via phenanthroline colorimetric. The iron content of polysaccharide iron complex was 2.53%; polysaccharide iron remained stable in pH 6-10; at 37℃, Fe3+ in the complex was completely reduced to Fe2+ by ascorbic acid. The results showed Enteromorpha prolifera polysaccharide iron was expected to be a good iron agent.%人工合成浒苔多糖铁复合物并研究其理化性质。用浒苔多糖与氯化铁反应制得浒苔多糖铁复合物;利用红外光谱法确定浒苔多糖铁复合物的结构;通过体外溶出试验测定浒苔多糖铁复合物中的铁含量;通过水解试验,考察浒苔多糖铁在不同pH时的稳定情况。通过邻菲罗啉比色法,对浒苔多糖铁进行还原性试验。硒浒苔多糖铁中铁含量为2.53%;浒苔多糖铁在pH6~10性质稳定;37℃时,Fe3+被抗坏血酸完全还原为Fe2+。浒苔多糖铁将来有望发展成为优良的补铁剂。

  8. 槲皮素包合物微球的制备及其体外释放研究%Study on the Preparation of Quercetin Inclusion Complex Microsphere and Its Drug Release in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡英; 孙宝莹; 高珊

    2012-01-01

    目的:制备槲皮素β-环糊精包合物-壳聚糖微球(QT-CD-CM),并考察其理化性质和药物体外释放性能.方法:采用有机溶剂挥发法制备槲皮素β-环糊精包合物,再用乳化分散-离子交联法、以三聚磷酸钠为交联剂制备壳聚糖微球,并考察其形态、粒径、包封率、载药量和体外释放情况.结果:制备的QT-CD-CM形态规则、均质、无粘连,平均粒径(3.327±0.124)μm,包封率为32.4%,载药量为12.3%,在5%乙醇-磷酸盐缓冲液介质中72 h可以达到完全释药,释药过程符合一级动力学模型.结论:QT-CD-CM理化性质及体外释药性能良好,制备工艺简单,有望成为理想的槲皮素给药系统.%OBJECTIVE: To prepare Quercetin-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex-chitosan microspheres (QT-CD-CM), and to investigate their physiochemical property and release characteristics in vitro. METHODS: The quercetin-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes were prepared by organic solvent evaporation methods, and then formed chitosan microspheres which were prepared using emulsion-linking technique with sodium tripolyphosphate as the cross-linker. The morphology, particle size, encapsulation efficiency, drug-loading amount and release kinetics of microspheres were investigated. RESULTS: Prepared QT-CD-CM were regular, discrete and uniform spheres with mean particle size of (3.327 ± 0.124) μm, encapsulation efficiency of 32.4% and drug-loading amount of 12.3%. Prepared microspheres released completely in 5% ethanol-PBS in 72 h, which was in line with first-order kinetic model. CONCLUSION: QT-CD-CM are sound in physicochemical and release property and simple in preparation technology, and can be used as ideal drug delivery system for quercetin.

  9. 紫菜多糖Fe(Ⅲ)配合物的制备及其理化性质%STUDY ON PREPARATION AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF IRON(Ⅲ)—PORPHYRA POLYSACCHARIDE COMPLEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡德; 赵全芹; 刘学启; 李明霞; 刘洛生

    2001-01-01

    目的:从紫菜中提取多糖,然后与Fe(Ⅲ)合成一种新型的营养补铁剂。方法:合成紫菜多糖Fe(Ⅲ)配合物(PTC),并测定其相应的理化性质。结果:PTC的水溶液中不存在游离的Fe(Ⅲ),表明Fe(Ⅲ)与紫菜多糖形成了稳定的配合物。PTC在pH 7.34的生理盐水中不沉、不水解;动力学实验表明PTC中的Fe(Ⅲ)易被还原。经红外光谱分析,PTC是以β-(FeOOH)n为微核,紫菜多糖在核表面形成化合物。结论:PTC有望成为较好生物利用度的营养型补铁剂。%OBJECTIVE:Porphyra polysaccharide isolated from Porphyra,then iron(Ⅲ)-porphyra polysaccharide(PTC)complex was synthesized with FeCl3 and porphyra polysaccharied.METHODS:A new kind of iron-supplementary drug has been prepared.RESULTS:Experiment showed that porphyra polysaccharied iron(Ⅲ)complex was able to be dissolve in water and its solution assumed neutral,and this complex has no precipitate at pH to 11,therefore,this complex was very stable.The investigation by infrared spectra indicated that the structure of porphyra polysaccharide iron(Ⅲ)had been an interfacial complex with β-(FeOOH)ncore.Because this complex was not precipitated and dissociated at the physiological pH=7.34.CONCLUSION:Porphyra polysaccharide iron(Ⅲ) complex was able to become higher bioavailability and nutrition iron-supplementary.

  10. 藏南扎西康铅锌多金属矿床控矿因素及找矿预测%Ore-controlling Factors and Prospecting Prediction of Zhaxikang Pb-Zn Polymetallic Deposit,Southern Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪梁; 李光明; 张志; 付建刚; 梁生贤

    2016-01-01

    扎西康铅锌多金属矿床是藏南锑金成矿带内最重要的热液脉型矿床之一,在野外详细地质调查及室内综合分析的基础上,系统分析了矿床控矿因素以及已发现的隐伏矿体的地质、地球化学、地球物理特征,认为扎西康铅锌多金属矿床矿体的产出严格受近SN、NW—SE向高角度正断层控制,陆热组( J1-2 l)地层及矿区南部的错那洞淡色花岗岩穹窿共同为成矿提供了物质来源。在上述分析的基础上,根据已成功勘查出隐伏矿体的特征归纳了综合找矿预测标志,即地表铁帽露头、土壤地球化学强异常( Pb+Zn强异常)、音频大地电磁测深( Audio-frequency magnetotel-luric sounding,AMT)剖面上明显的电性突变界面(含矿断裂构造),并进行了大比例尺找矿预测工作,在40#勘探线以东发现了类似的综合异常带,并圈定了找矿靶区。研究结果表明:扎西康矿床是以断裂构造为主控因素的热液脉型铅锌多金属矿床,地质、地球化学、地球物理综合找矿预测方法在隐伏矿体勘查过程中成效显著,所圈定的找矿靶区可作为矿区下一步找矿勘查的重点工作区。%Zhaxikang Pb-Zn polymetallic deposit is one of the most important hydrothermal vein type deposits in southern Tibet gold antimony metallogenic belt. Based on the detailed filed geological survey and indoor comprehensive analysis,the ore-controlling factors and the geological characteristics,geophysical characteristics and geochemical characteristics of the concealed ore-bodies that have been found in the mining area are analyzed synthetically,it is show that output of the ore-bodies of Zhaxi-kang Pb-Zn polymetallic deposit are strictly constrained by the two normal fault of high angle,which trending direction is SN and NW-SE,the metallogenic materials of Zhaxikang Pb-Zn polymetallic deposit are derived from lower-middle Jurassic Lure forma-tion ( J1-2 l) and the Cuonadong leucogranite

  11. Red (Eu{sup 3+}), green (Tb{sup 3+}) and ultraviolet (Gd{sup 3+}) emitting nitrilotriacetate complexes prepared by one-step synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ivan G.N.; Brito, Hermi F.; Souza, Ernesto R.; Mustafa, Danilo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental; Felinto, Maria C.F.C. [Cidade Univ., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares; Carlos, Luis D. [Aveiro Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Physics; Malta, Oscar L. [Universidade Federal da Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental

    2014-02-15

    The [RE(NTA)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].(H{sub 2}O) rare-earth complexes (RE{sup 3+}: Eu, Gd, Tb and NTA: nitrilotriacetate) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. The complexes show high crystallinity and thermostability. The photoluminescence behavior was studied based on the excitation and emission spectra, and luminescence decay curves. The compounds exhibit red (Eu{sup 3+}), green (Tb{sup 3+}) and UV (Gd{sup 3+}) monochromatic emissions under UV excitation. The NTA ligand acts as luminescence sensitizer in the ligand-to-RE{sup 3+} intramolecular energy transfer process, owing to the fact that the first excited triplet state (T{sub 1}: 29000 cm{sup -1}) is located above of the {sup 5}D{sub 0} (Eu{sup 3+}) and {sup 5}D{sub 4} (Tb{sup 3+}) emitting levels. The experimental intensity parameters Ω{sub λ} (λ: 2 and 4) for the Eu{sup 3+} NTA complex were calculated, and the results are discussed. The Gd{sup 3+}-NTA complex exhibits a high-intensity emission band in the UV region (32000 cm{sup -1}) assigned to the {sup 6}P{sub 7/2} → {sup 8}S{sub 7/2} intraconfigurational transition. (orig.)

  12. Preparation of the Crystal Complex of Phosphopantetheine Adenylyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis with Coenzyme A and Investigation of Its Three-Dimensional Structure at 2.1-Å Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, V. I.; Smirnova, E. A.; Chupova, L. A.; Esipov, R. S.; Kuranova, I. P.

    2010-11-01

    Recombinant phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (PPAT Mt), which was produced by a high-producing strain and purified to 99%, was used for the crystal growth of the complex of the enzyme with coenzyme A (CoA). Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction study were obtained by cocrystallization. The crystals belong to sp. gr. R32 and have the unit-cell parameters a = b = 98.840 Å, c = 112.880 Å, α = β = 90.00°, and γ = 120.00°. The three-dimensional structure of the complex was determined based on X-ray diffraction data collected from the crystals to 2.1 Å resolution and refined to Rf = 22.7% and Rfree = 25.93%. Active-site bound coenzyme A was found, and its nearest environment was described. The conformational changes of the enzyme due to ligand binding were revealed. The binding of CoA by tuberculosis phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase was characterized by comparing the structures of the title complex to a similar complex of PPAT from E. coli (PPAT Ec).

  13. Luminescence response of an osmium(II) complex to macromolecular polyanions for the detection of heparin and chondroitin sulfate in biomedical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Wu, Jain; Saez, Christopher; Campana, Maria; Megehee, Elise G; Wang, Enju

    2013-12-04

    Heparin, dextran sulfate (DS), chondroitin sulfate (CS), and carrageenan are found to enhance the luminescence intensity of an osmium(II) carbonyl complex with phenanthroline (phen) and 4-phenylpyridine (4-phpy) ligands in aqueous and ethanol solutions. The enhancing effect of the polyanions on the luminescence of the complex is heavily dependent on the sulfate content and other factors such as structure, solubility, and counter ions of the polyanion. The highly sulfated dextran and ι-carrageenan have the most profound effect, while the low charged κ-carrageenan and CS have the least response in aqueous solution. All polyanions exhibited enhanced luminescence intensity of the complex in ethanol solutions, and even the low charged CS and κ-carrageenan enhanced the luminescence more than 4 times. DS contamination of the sodium heparin at 5% can show a significant increase in luminescence response. The osmium complex is found to be highly successful in the fast and sensitive detection of heparin in commercial injectable samples with various backgrounds as well as the detection of CS in over the counter food supplement tablets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation, Characterization, and Pharmacological Activity of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor (Poaceae Leaf Essential Oil of β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila L. Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the orofacial antinociceptive effect of the Cymbopogon winterianus essential oil (LEO complexed in β-cyclodextrin (LEO-CD and to assess the possible involvement of the central nervous system (CNS. The LEO was extracted, chromatographed, and complexed in β-cyclodextrin. The complex was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetry derivative (TG/DTG. Male Swiss mice (2-3 months were treated with LEO-CD (50–200 mg/kg, p.o., vehicle (distilled water, p.o., or standard drug (i.p. and subjected to the orofacial nociception formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced. After the formalin test, the animals were perfused and the brains subjected to immunofluorescence for Fos. The rota-rod test (7 rpm/min was carried out. Geraniol (37.57% was the main compound of LEO. DSC and TG/DTG proved the complexation. The orofacial nociceptive behavior was significantly (p<0.05 reduced. The number of Fos-positive cells was significantly changed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (p<0.01, locus coeruleus (p<0.001, trigeminal nucleus (p<0.05, and trigeminal thalamic tract (p<0.05. LEO-CD did not cause changes in motor coordination in the rota-rod test. Thus, our results suggested that LEO-CD has an orofacial antinociceptive profile, probably mediated by the activation of the CNS without changing the motor coordination.

  15. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of a well-ordered layered sodium aluminoalcoholate complex: a useful precursor for the preparation of porous Al2O3 particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, XS; Michaelis, VK; Ong, TC; Smith, SJ; McKay, I; Muller, P; Griffin, RG; Wang, EN

    2014-01-01

    One-pot solvothermal synthesis of a robust tetranuclear sodium hexakis(glycolato)tris(methanolato)aluminate complex Na-3[Al-4(OCH3)(3)(OCH2CH2O)(6)] via a modified yet rigorous base-catalyzed transesterification mechanism is presented here. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) studies indicate that this unique Al complex contains three pentacoordinate Al3+ ions, each bound to two bidentate ethylene glycolate chelators and one monodentate methanolate ligand. The remaining fourth Al3+ ion is octahedrally coordinated to one oxygen atom from each of the six surrounding glycolate chelators, effectively stitching the three pentacoordinate Al moieties together into a novel tetranuclear Al complex. This aluminate