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Sample records for prepare derivative works

  1. Integrated Work Management: Preparer, Course 31883

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-07

    The preparer (also called the “planner”) plays a key role in the integrated work management (IWM) process at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This course, Integrated Work Management: Preparer (COURSE 31883), describes the IWM roles and responsibilities of the preparer. This course also discusses IWM requirements that must be met by the preparer.

  2. Preparation of 7-substituted ginkgolide derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogensen, Stine Byskov; Strømgaard, Kristian; Shindou, Hideo

    2003-01-01

    of these derivatives as assayed by cloned PAF receptors. In two cases nucleophilic attack on a 7beta-O-triflate ginkgolide B did not lead to the expected products, but gave rise to two unprecedented ginkgolide derivatives, one with a novel rearranged skeleton. Furthermore, standard reduction of 7alpha-azido ginkgolide...... B did not give the expected primary amine, but instead yielded alkylated amines depending on the solvent employed. Pharmacological testing with cloned PAF receptors showed that ginkgolides with 7alpha-substitutents had increased affinity compared to 7beta-substituents, in particular 7alpha...

  3. Preparation of amidated derivatives of carboxymethylcellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubner, Tomáš; Synytsya, Andriy; Čopíková, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was selected as substrate for amidation based on previous results described for monocarboxy cellulose (MCC) with the aim to prepare highly substituted products. In comparison with MCC containing uronic carboxyl groups at C-6 position, O-carboxymethyl groups in CMC should be more accessible for reagents because they are more distant from the polysaccharide chain. Two-step way of amidation was based on the esterification of CMC carboxyls by reaction with methanol and further amino-de-alkoxylation (aminolysis) of the obtained methyl ester with amidation reagents (n-alkylamines, hydrazine and hydroxylamine). Purity and substitution degree of the products were monitored by the vibration spectroscopic methods (FTIR and Raman) and organic elemental analysis. Analytical methods confirmed the preparation of highly or moderately substituted N-alkylamides, hydrazide and hydroxamic acid of CMC.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section 184.1685 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1) Rennet and bovine rennet are... clear solution containing the active enzyme chymosin (E.C. 3.4.23.4). It is derived, via fermentation...

  5. Preparation of radioiodine labelled thiouracil derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, T.J.; Klootwijk, W. (Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands))

    1981-05-01

    2-Thiouracil and 6-propyl-2-thiouracil are radioiodinated with high yield using the chloramine-T method at low pH to prevent oxidation of the sulfur. The radioiodine-labelled derivatives are purified by adsorption chromatography on Sephadex G-10. The identity and purity of the products obtained are demonstrated by both normal- and reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography. The specific activity of the tracers amounts to approximately 1750 Ci mmol/sup -1/. Conditions for storage are described as well. These radioactive compounds may be used in the investigation of the mechanism of action of thyroid peroxidase as well as of iodothyronine deiodinases.

  6. Preparation and characterization of amidated derivatives of alginic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubner, Tomáš; Marounek, Milan; Synytsya, Andriy

    2017-10-01

    Alginic acid is a suitable material for modification to prepare new derivatives because of presence of its carboxyl groups. The high content of carboxyl groups over the entire length of its chain renders it an easily modifiable material with a possibility of achieving a high degree of substitution in the prepared derivatives. The salt of alginic acid (sodium alginate) is readily commercially available and is widely used in many branches of chemistry. Alginic acid was thus selected as the substrate for amidation. The amidation used two-steps: methyl esterification followed by amino-de-alkoxylation. The aim of this study was to prepare highly substituted derivatives with different polysaccharide chain characteristics. As such, the alginic acid was modified by the two-step amidation based on the esterification of the alginic acid carboxyl groups by reaction with methanol and further amino-de-alkoxylation (aminolysis) of the obtained methyl ester with amidation reagents (n-alkylamines, hydrazine and hydroxylamine). The purity and substitution degree of the prepared derivatives were monitored by vibration spectroscopic methods (FTIR and FT Raman) and organic elemental analysis. These analytical methods confirmed the preparation of highly or moderately substituted N-alkylamides, hydrazide and hydroxamic acid of alginic acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Vocational Assessment and Work Preparation Centres for the Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The purpose of this manual is to provide a basic guide for governments and other organizations in developing countries who want to either establish vocational assessment and preparation centers or develop training facilities for disabled persons. Contents include: (1) Establishing a Vocational Assessment and Work Preparation Center, (2) Staffing…

  8. Application of product modelling - seen from a work preparation viewpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars

    Manufacturing companies spends an increasing amount of the total work resources in the manufacturing planning system with the activities of e.g. specifying products and methods, scheduling, procurement etc. By this the potential for obtaining increased productivity moves from the direct costs...... the specification work. The theoretical fundament of the project include four elements. The first element (work preparation) consider methods for analysing and preparing the direct work in the production, pointing to an analogy between analysing the direct work in the production and the work in the planning systems......, over building a model, and to the final programming of an application. It has been stressed out to carry out all the phases in the outline of procedure in the empirical work, one of the reasons being to prove that it is possible, with a reasonable consumption of resources, to build an application...

  9. Developing concepts for improved efficiency of robot work preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, M.S.; Vaneker, Thomas H.J.

    2013-01-01

    SInBot[1] is a large research project that focuses on maximizing the efficient use of mobile industrial robots during medium sized production runs. The system that will be described in this paper will focusses on the development and validation of concepts for efficient work preparation for cells of

  10. Developing concepts for improved efficiency of robot work preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, M.S.; Vaneker, T.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    SInBot[1] is a large research project that focuses on maximizing the efficient use of mobile industrial robots during medium sized production runs. The system that will be described in this paper will focusses on the development and validation of concepts for efficient work preparation for cells of

  11. Social Work Preparation to Compete in Today's Scientific Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurius, Paula S.

    2017-01-01

    As the scientific marketplace rapidly evolves, we must keep revisiting strategic preparation of our doctoral students and early career scholars to be successful innovators in these contexts. As an inherently integrative, change-oriented, community-engaged, and context-sensitive discipline, social work has enormous potential as a value-added…

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Silica Aerogels Derived from Ambient Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun SHEN; Zhihua ZHANG; Guangming WU; Bin ZHOU; Xingyuan NI; Jue WANG

    2006-01-01

    Silica aerogels were prepared by sol-gel technique from industrial silicon derivatives (polyethoxydisiloxanes, E40), followed by silylation and drying under ambient pressure. The specific surface area, pore size distribution and thermal conductivity of the silica aerogels were investigated and the results showed that the diameter of the silica particles is about 6 nm and the average pore size of the silica aerogels is 14.7 nm. The specific temperature and pressure of 1.01×105 Pa. The Si-CH3 groups were also detected on the internal surface of the silica aerogels, which show hydrophobic. Silica aerogels derived by this technique is low cost and have wide applications.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1150 - Bacterially-derived protease enzyme preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Bacterially-derived protease enzyme preparation... RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1150 Bacterially-derived protease enzyme preparation. (a) Bacterially-derived protease enzyme preparation is obtained from the...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1420 - Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus... preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus. (a) Lipase enzyme preparation contains lipase enzyme (CAS Reg. No... nonpathogenic and nontoxigenic strain of Rhizopus niveus. The enzyme preparation also contains...

  15. Hierarchical ZnO particles grafting by fluorocarbon polymer derivative: Preparation and superhydrophobic behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Dahai; Jia, Mengqiu, E-mail: jiamq@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The hierarchical particles were prepared by a simple, mild hydrothermal process. • The obtained “chestnut” ZnO particles show dual-scale morphology with high roughness. • FEVE derivative was creatively imported to graft onto hierarchical particles. • Superhydrophobic surfaces were obtained, on which the contact angles surpass 150°. • A special model was proposed to explain the wetting state in this work. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces on the basis of hierarchical ZnO particles grafted by fluoroethylene-vinylether (FEVE) polymer derivative were prepared using a facile, mild and low-cost method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the resulting ZnO particles via hydrothermal process exhibit micro–nano dual-scale morphology with high purity under a suitable surfactant amount and alkali concentration. The grafting of FEVE derivative was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), suggesting that hierarchical surface of ZnO particles was an imported monomolecular layer of fluorocarbon polymer. The obtained surface fabricated by drop-casting shows considerably high contact angle and good resistance to water immersion. The wetting behavior in this work was furthermore analyzed by theoretical wetting model. This work demonstrates that the sufficient low-wettable surface and high roughness both take a vital role in the superhydrophobic behavior.

  16. Preparation and Preliminary Characterization of Crystallizing Fluorescent Derivatives of Chicken Egg White Lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, John; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence is one of the most versatile and powerful tools for the study of macromolecules. While most proteins are intrinsically fluorescent, working at crystallization concentrations require the use of covalently prepared derivatives added as tracers. This approach requires derivatives that do not markedly affect the crystal packing. We have prepared fluorescent derivatives of chicken egg white lysozyme with probes bound to one of two different sites on the protein molecule. Lucifer yellow and 5-(2-aminoethyl)aminonapthalene-1-sulfonic acid (EDANS) have been attached to the side chain carboxyl of Asp(sup 101) using a carbodiimide coupling procedure. Asp(sup 101) lies within the active site cleft, and it is believed that the probes are "buried" within that cleft. Lucifer yellow and MANS probes with iodoacetamide reactive groups have been bound to His(sup 15), located on the "back side" of the molecule relative to the active site. All the derivatives fluoresce in the solution and the crystalline states. Fluorescence characterization has focused on determination of binding effects on the probe quantum yield, lifetime, absorption and emission spectra, and quenching by added solutes. Quenching studies show that, as postulated, the Asp(sup 101)-bound probes are partially sheltered from the bulk solution by their location within the active site cleft. Probes bound to His(sup 15) have quenching constants about equal to those for the free probes, indicating that this site is highly exposed to the bulk solution.

  17. Residual baculovirus in insect cell-derived influenza virus-like particle preparations enhances immunogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Margine

    Full Text Available Influenza virus-like particles are currently evaluated in clinical trials as vaccine candidates for influenza viruses. Most commonly they are produced in baculovirus- or mammalian- expression systems. Here we used different vaccination schemes in order to systematically compare virus-like particle preparations generated in the two systems. Our work shows significant differences in immunogenicity between the two, and indicates superior and broader immune responses induced by the baculovirus-derived constructs. We demonstrate that these differences critically influence protection and survival in a mouse model of influenza virus infection. Finally, we show that the enhanced immunogenicity of the baculovirus-derived virus-like particles is caused by contamination with residual baculovirus which activates the innate immune response at the site of inoculation.

  18. The Preparation of Some Novel Indazole Derivatives by Using Chalcones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javad Safaei-Ghomi; Zohreh Alishahi

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Indazole and its derivatives have little biological significance and have not been found in natural products due to the difficulty for living organisms to construct an N - N bond. Indazole derivatives exhibit variety of pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, antitumor, antiarthritic and analgesic activities[1]. Different synthetic pathways generate these compounds. For instance, ring closure of pyrazole moiety, addition of hydrazine derivatives to carbonyl compounds[2] and cycloaddition reaction[3]. Herein, we report the synthesis of some new indazole derivatives by using chalcones as starting materials.

  19. Teacher Preparation and Student Achievement. NBER Working Paper No. 14314

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Donald; Grossman, Pamela; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2008-01-01

    There are fierce debates over the best way to prepare teachers. Some argue that easing entry into teaching is necessary to attract strong candidates, while others argue that investing in high quality teacher preparation is the most promising approach. Most agree, however, that we lack a strong research basis for understanding how to prepare…

  20. Teacher Preparation and Student Achievement. Working Paper 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Donald; Grossman, Pamela; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2008-01-01

    There are fierce debates over the best way to prepare teachers. Some argue that easing entry into teaching is necessary to attract strong candidates, while others argue that investing in high quality teacher preparation is the most promising approach. Most agree, however, that we lack a strong research basis for understanding how to prepare…

  1. Preparation of Solid Derivatives by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, E. W.; Pennington, Maxine

    1980-01-01

    Describes the preparation of selected aldehydes and ketones, alcohols, amines, phenols, haloalkanes, and tertiaryamines by differential scanning calorimetry. Technique is advantageous because formation of the reaction product occurs and the melting point of the product is obtained on the same sample in a short time with no additional purification…

  2. Preparation of Solid Derivatives by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, E. W.; Pennington, Maxine

    1980-01-01

    Describes the preparation of selected aldehydes and ketones, alcohols, amines, phenols, haloalkanes, and tertiaryamines by differential scanning calorimetry. Technique is advantageous because formation of the reaction product occurs and the melting point of the product is obtained on the same sample in a short time with no additional purification…

  3. When Working in Cold, Be Prepared and Be Aware

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... does not restrict your movement or block your eyesight. Be prepared by wearing warm clothing. Be aware ... to cold temperatures could cause you to make poor decisions or react more slowly than normal. Tell ...

  4. Preparing meals under time stress. The experience of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshara, Monica; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2010-12-01

    The present study quantitatively explored the effects of mothers' perceived time pressure, as well as meal-related variables including mothers' convenience orientation and meal preparation confidence, on the healthiness of evening meals served to school-aged children (5-18 years old) over a 7-day period. A sample of 120 employed mothers, who identified themselves as the chief meal-preparers in their households, completed a brief, self-report, meal-related questionnaire. Results revealed that mothers' perceived time pressure did not significantly predict meal healthiness. Mothers' confidence in their ability to prepare a healthy meal was the only unique, significant predictor of a healthy evening meal. Mothers who were more confident in their ability to prepare a healthy meal served healthier evening meals than those who were less confident. In addition, mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation were negatively related to healthy meal preparation confidence. Results suggest that mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation, may indirectly compromise meal healthiness, by decreasing mothers' meal preparation confidence. Practical and theoretical implications of the study's findings are discussed.

  5. Continuous-flow thermolysis for the preparation of vinylglycine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamborelle, Nicolas; Simon, Justine F; Luxen, André; Monbaliu, Jean-Christophe M

    2015-12-28

    Syn sulfoxide elimination was carried out under continuous-flow conditions in a mesofluidic thermolysis reactor. The design of the reactor enabled accurate control of reaction time and conditions, affording a convenient scale-independent procedure for the production of N,C-protected vinylglycine derivatives. Thermolysis at 270 °C under 1000 psi of pressure in superheated toluene enabled typical daily outputs ranging from 11 to 46 g per day with excellent selectivities and ee (>97%). The various competitive reaction pathways were studied and rationalized according to a computational study.

  6. Hanford Engineer Works technical manual: Section A, Metal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-01-01

    Metal is used in the Hanford process in the form of short cylinders, or slugs, which are bonded to aluminum jackets. the jackets are necessary to prevent corrosion and the escape of radioactive materials. The bonding is required to provide adequate heat transfer. This section of the manual deals with the preparation of the jacketed slugs. 6 figs.

  7. Refuse-derived fuels and fuel preparation plants of proven quality from REMONDIS; Guetegesicherte Sekundaerbrennstoffe und Brennstoffanlagen von REMONDIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendel, A. [Remondis AG und Co. KG, Luenen (Germany); Glorius, T. [Remondis Trade and Sales, Essen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Efforts to conserve resources have been reinvigorated by a number of factors, including the interest of various waste-producing industries in reutilisation and, initially on the part of the cement and lime industry but later also power plant operators, the search for a quantitatively and qualitatively reliable source of less expensive refuse-derived fuels of the greatest possible homogeneity. Other factors that have stimulated the demand for partially biogenic refuse-derived fuels have been the requirements imposed for the purpose of reducing climatically harmful emissions in accordance with the Kyoto Treaty and the now established market for CO{sub 2} emission trading. Rising primary energy prices are a powerful incentive for operators of power plants and industrial firing installations to lower their energy costs through the use of refuse-derived fuels. The refuse-derived fuel must be brought to a quality level where it can substitute fossil fuels without operational or technical constraints. This applies in particular to power plants and cement and lime works, since these depend on cocombustion. Refuse-derived fuels are therefore subject to very stringent quality requirements. In the ideal case this will result in a refuse-derived fuel whose properties come very close to those of the fuel being substituted. Novel preparation technologies have facilitated the breakthrough of two new generations of refuse-derived fuels, namely BPG registered and SBS registered. The quality requirements agreed upon with the purchasers of these fuels necessitate very extensive and involved preparation processes.

  8. Medical graduates feel well-prepared for clinical work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørcke, Anne Mette; Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Kjeldsen, Inge Trads

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to assess the coherence between the undergraduate medical program at Aarhus University and the foundation year. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional questionnaire survey included 503 doctors graduated from Aarhus University from the winter of 2007....../2008 to the summer of 2009. RESULTS: The response rate was 73%. Approximately 73% of the respondents were in their foundation year or their first year of specialist training and 83% generally felt well-prepared. Respondents found that most of the learning outcomes of the undergraduate medical curriculum at Aarhus...... University are important for junior doctors. More than 90% of the respondents estimated that they were sufficiently prepared when it came to core outcomes such as history taking and physical examination. Five issues diverged considerably in importance stated and preparedness experienced: suggestion...

  9. The Preparation of Professional School Counselors for Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Sam; Bauman, Sheri; Smith, Julie

    2008-01-01

    An online survey about the group work training experiences of school counselors was completed by 802 members of the American School Counseling Association (ASCA). Most respondents had one course in group work; a minority had the opportunity to observe or co-lead groups with children and/or adolescents as part of their training. Qualitative…

  10. Educational Preparation of Hygienists Working with Special Populations in Nontraditional Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Leonard; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The results of a study of the employment patterns, academic preparation, and work characteristics of dental hygienists working with special populations (including the physically handicapped, mentally and emotionally handicapped, geriatric, mentally compromised, homebound, low income, and children) are reported. (MSE)

  11. Preparation for Computer Usage in Social Work: Student Consumer Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurius, Paula S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A survey of students in a large master's program in social work investigated student training in and experience with computers and attitudes about computer applications for human service activities. The value of the findings in curriculum planning, practica development, computer resources management, and faculty and agency involvement are…

  12. Teams That Work: Preparing Student Teams for the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Diane D.; Webb, Fred L.

    2013-01-01

    Organizations today often require collaboration in the form of work teams. Many tasks completed within organizations, whether in the workplace or in academia, however, can be beyond the capabilities of individuals alone. Productive teamwork and cooperative activities in business are expected and can begin very early in a person's career. The…

  13. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  14. Collective Leadership Works: Preparing Youth & Adults for Community Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Dawson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Collective Leadership Works is the latest resource kit developed by the Innovation Center for Community and Youth Development. The 181 page tool kit is filled with detailed lesson plans designed for youth and adult leadership activities. The resources will benefit groups at any stage of development. Contents have been divided into eight sections including Team Building, Youth-Adult Partnerships, Knowing Community and Place, Creating Ways to Come Together, Leadership and Relationship Development, Planning for Action, Reflection and Spreading the Word. Youth professionals will appreciate this well designed, interactive resource as they engage youth and adults in community building efforts.

  15. Tunable multicolor carbon dots prepared from well-defined polythiophene derivatives and their emission mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Ge, Jiechao; Liu, Weimin; Niu, Guangle; Jia, Qingyan; Wang, Hui; Wang, Pengfei

    2016-01-14

    Various functional precursors based on polythiophene derivatives are designed to prepare carbon dots (C-dots) with tunable emissions ranging from blue to near-infrared (NIR) at a single excitation wavelength (400 nm). The as-prepared C-dots demonstrate homogeneous size, superior optical properties, excellent water solubility, and low cytotoxicity. Thus, the C-dots are candidates for bio-imaging. A tunable photoluminescence mechanism is proposed to result from variations in the surface state and N content.

  16. Sample Preparation for Headspace GC Analysis of Residual Solvents in Hyaluronic Acid Derivative Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hoon Joo; Kim, Dong Min; Yang, Jeong Soo [LG life Sciences, Ltd./R and D Park, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Wha [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    The aim of this study is to develop efficient sample preparation method for HS-GC analysis of residual solvents in HA derivative fiber. Compared to direct extraction of residual solvents from HA derivative fiber, the extraction through the hydrolysis of HA derivative fiber by HAse gave more complete and higher reproducible quantification of residual solvent. To validate HS-GC analysis method of residual solvents, specificity, limits of detection and quantification, linearity, accuracy and precision are investigated in the study. HA derivative fiber was hydrolyzed using HAse for headspace gas chromatographic analysis of residual solvents of ethanol, acetone and isopropanol in HA derivative fiber. This study showed that the developed method had specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision. In addition, it demonstrated that HS-GC coupled with matrix-breaking method such as hydrolysis was available for the determination of residual solvents in a matrix like HA derivative fiber.

  17. Preparing for Interaction : A comparative study on the different ways dutch actors prepare themself to work in the comprehensive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thönissen, F.H.; Homberg, M.J.C. van den; Pieneman, R.B.J.; Rjetjens, B.; Berg, P. van den

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an overview on how Dutch military and civilian professionals prepare themselves for a comprehensive approach in conflict-affected areas. What works for the different actors and what can be improved? The study addresses these and other questions.

  18. Preparation and structural characterisation of novel and versatile amphiphilic octenyl succinic anhydride-modified hyaluronic acid derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eenschooten, Corinne Diane; Guillaumie, Fanny; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to prepare amphiphilic hyaluronic acid (HA) derivatives and to study the influence of a selection of reaction parameters on the degree of substitution (DS) of the derivatives. Octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)–modified HA (OSA–HA) derivatives were prepared...

  19. Preparing PhD-Level Clinical Social Work Practitioners for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzoff, Joan; Drisko, James

    2015-01-01

    Social work doctoral programs are not adequately preparing students to educate future clinical practitioners. Social work is predominantly a practice profession. Social work's PhD programs must continue the education of excellent researchers while also educating for excellence in practice, teaching, field liaison, and the supervision of practice.…

  20. 21 CFR 184.1250 - Cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Trichoderma longibrachiatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the... Trichoderma longibrachiatum. 184.1250 Section 184.1250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT....1250 Cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Trichoderma longibrachiatum. (a) Cellulase...

  1. Preparation and evaluation of glycosylated arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) derivatives for integrin targeting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, B.H.M.; Groothuys, S.; Soede, A.C.; Laverman, P.; Boerman, O.C.; Delft, F.L. van; Rutjes, F.P.J.T.

    2007-01-01

    Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) derivatives were prepared by a combination of solid-phase and solution-phase synthesis for selective targeting of alpha vbeta 3 integrin expressed in tumors. In order to evaluate the value of a triazole moiety as a proposed amide isostere, the side chain glycosylated

  2. Preparing Ohio's Youth through Occupational Work Adjustment and Occupational Work Experience Programs: Prospects for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aaron J.; Bragg, Debra D.

    A study undertaken to aid administrators in considering program alternatives for administering Occupational Work Adjustment (OWA) and Occupational Work Experience (OWE) programs in Ohio examined the Ohio Department of Education's certification of OWA and OWE teachers in light of the state's new minimum standards for elementary and secondary…

  3. Antibacterial Characteristics and Activity of Water-Soluble Chitosan Derivatives Prepared by the Maillard Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chien Chung

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan derivatives prepared by Maillard reactions against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, and Salmonella typhimurium was examined. Relatively high antibacterial activity against various microorganisms was noted for the chitosan-glucosamine derivative as compared to the acid-soluble chitosan. In addition, it was found that the susceptibility of the test organisms to the water-soluble chitosan derivative was higher in deionized water than in saline solution. Metal ions were also found to reduce the antibacterial activity of the water-soluble chitosan derivative on S. aureus. The marked increase in glucose level, protein content and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity was observed in the cell supernatant of S. aureus exposed to the water-soluble chitosan derivative in deionized water. The results suggest that the water-soluble chitosan produced by Maillard reaction may be a promising commercial substitute for acid-soluble chitosan.

  4. Milk-derived ribonuclease 5 preparations induce myogenic differentiation in vitro and muscle growth in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Matthew I; Tester, Angus M; McDonagh, Matthew B; Brown, Andrew; Cottrell, Jeremy; Wang, Jianghui; Hobman, Peter; Cocks, Benjamin G

    2014-12-01

    Ribonuclease 5, also known as angiogenin, is a stable and abundant ribonuclease in milk whey protein, which is able to regulate several cellular functions, including capillary formation, neuron survival, and epithelial cell growth. Ribonuclease 5 is important for protein synthesis directly stimulating rRNA synthesis in the nucleolus. Here, we show that biologically active RNase5 can be purified from bovine milk. Furthermore, we show that milk-derived RNase5 directly stimulates muscle cell differentiation in vitro, inducing C2C12 cell differentiation and myogenesis. When supplemented into the diet of healthy adult mice, milk-derived RNase5 preparations promoted muscle weight gain and grip strength. Collectively, these data indicate that milk-derived RNase5 preparations exhibit a novel role in skeletal muscle cell function.

  5. Classic Bernoulli’s principle derivation and its working hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciotto, Edson R.

    2016-07-01

    The Bernoulli’s principle states that the quantity p+ρ gz+ρ {{v}2}/2 must be conserved in a streamtube if some conditions are matched, namely: steady and irrotational flow of an inviscid and incompressible fluid. In most physics textbooks this result is demonstrated invoking the energy conservation of a fluid material volume at two different positions of a pipe whose cross-section and height vary along its way. Although the final result is correct the right justifications presented in textbooks are usually unclear or absent. The main problem rests on the work done by pressure, which are not found to be fully justified via free-body diagrams as depicted in many general physics textbooks, not to mention plenty of videos on YouTube that incur in similar omissions. In this article I will discuss this issue and how it is solved without resorting to alternative demonstrations. In addition, I discuss the needs of the assumptions to get the Bernoulli’s principle in a way viable to introductory physics courses.

  6. Sample preparation for thermo-gravimetric determination and thermo-gravimetric characterization of refuse derived fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T; Bronson, B; Gogolek, P; Mehrani, P

    2016-02-01

    Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) is a useful method for characterizing fuels. In the past it has been applied to the study of refuse derived fuel (RDF) and related materials. However, the heterogeneity of RDF makes the preparation of small representative samples very difficult and this difficulty has limited the effectiveness of TGA for characterization of RDF. A TGA method was applied to a variety of materials prepared from a commercially available RDF using a variety of procedures. Applicability of TGA method to the determination of the renewable content of RDF was considered. Cryogenic ball milling was found to be an effective means of preparing RDF samples for TGA. When combined with an effective sample preparation, TGA could be used as an alternative method for assessing the renewable content of RDF.

  7. The preparation of new functionalized [2.2]paracyclophane derivatives with N-containing functional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Hopf

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The two isomeric bis(isocyanates 4,12- and 4,16-di-isocyanato[2.2]paracyclophane, 16 and 28, have been prepared from their corresponding diacids by simple routes. The two isomers are versatile intermediates for the preparation of various cyclophanes bearing substituents with nitrogen-containing functional groups, e.g., the pseudo-ortho diamine 8, the bis secondary amine 23, and the crownophanes 18 and 19. Several of these new cyclophane derivatives (18, 19, 22, 26, 28 have been characterized by X-ray structural analysis.

  8. Suicide Prevention in Social Work Education: How Prepared Are Social Work Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteen, Philip J.; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sharpe, Tanya L.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of suicide suggests social workers will encounter clients at risk for suicide, but research shows social workers receive little to no training on suicide and suicide prevention and feel unprepared to work effectively with clients at risk. Baseline results from a randomized intervention study of the Question, Persuade, and Refer…

  9. Suicide Prevention in Social Work Education: How Prepared Are Social Work Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteen, Philip J.; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sharpe, Tanya L.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of suicide suggests social workers will encounter clients at risk for suicide, but research shows social workers receive little to no training on suicide and suicide prevention and feel unprepared to work effectively with clients at risk. Baseline results from a randomized intervention study of the Question, Persuade, and Refer…

  10. Simultaneous quantitative resolution of atorvastatin calcium and fenofibrate in pharmaceutical preparation by using derivative ratio spectrophotometry and chemometric calibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj; Vipul, Kalamkar; Rajshree, Mashru

    2007-04-01

    In the present work, five different spectrophotometric techniques for simultaneous determination of formulations containing atorvastatin calcium (ATOR) and fenofibrate (FENO) in various combinations are described. In ratio spectra derivative spectrophotometry, analytical signals were measured at wavelengths corresponding to either maximums or minimums for both drugs in first derivative spectra of ratio spectra obtained by using either spectrum as divisor. For the remaining four methods using chemometric techniques, namely, classical least squares (CLS), inverse least squares (ILS), principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS), the calibrations were constructed by using the absorption data matrix corresponding to the concentration data matrix, with measurements in the range of 231 - 310 nm (Deltalambda = 1 nm) in their zero-order spectra. The linearity range was found to be 4 - 22 and 2 - 20 microg/ml for ATOR and FENO, respectively. The validity of the proposed methods was successfully assessed for analyses of both drugs in laboratory-prepared mixtures and in commercial tablet formulations.

  11. Optimized methods for preparation of 6I-(ω-sulfanyl-alkylene-sulfanyl-β-cyclodextrin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Bednářová

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A general high-yielding method for the preparation of monosubstituted β-cyclodextrin derivatives which have attached a thiol group in position 6 is described. The thiol group is attached through linkers of different lengths and repeating units (ethylene glycol or methylene. The target compounds were characterized by IR, MS and NMR spectra. A simple method for their complete conversion to the corresponding disulfides as well as a method for the reduction of the disulfides back to the thiols is presented. Both, thiols and disulfides are derivatives usable for well-defined covalent attachment of cyclodextrin to gold or polydopamine-coated solid surfaces.

  12. A simple pressure cell and delivery system for the preparation of Xe derivatives for protein crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowell, M.H.; Soltis, S.M.; Kisker, C.; Peters, J.W.; Schindelin, H.; Rees, D.C.; Cascio, D.; Beamer, L.; Hart, J.; Whitby, F.G. [Carl F. and Winifred H. Braun Laboratories, Mail Stop 147-75CH, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)]|[Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, SLAC, P. O. Box 4349, Bin 69, Stanford University, CA 94309 (United States)]|[University of California Los Angeles, Institute of Molecular Biology, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States)]|[University of Utah Medical Center, Department of Biochemistry, 50 North Medical Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84132 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    We have developed a simple device for preparing Xe derivatives under moderate gaseous pressure (1{endash}100 atm). The device employs a Cajon ultra-torr fitting to ensure a gas-tight seal around a standard x-ray capillary. As such, the cell can accommodate standard x-ray capillaries up to 1.5 mm in diameter without any modification. The device is straightforward to utilize, and samples can be mounted and pressurized in a matter of seconds. In addition, a simple and safe purging and pressurization system has been designed and constructed for the use at beamline 7-1 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). We describe the construction of both the pressure cell and the delivery system and present results on the cells use in the preparation of xenon derivatives. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. 21 CFR 173.115 - Alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (α-ALDC) enzyme preparation derived from a recombinant Bacillus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... preparation derived from a recombinant Bacillus subtilis. 173.115 Section 173.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Bacillus subtilis. The food additive alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (α-ALDC) enzyme preparation, may be... derived from a modified Bacillus subtilis strain that contains the gene coding for α-ALDC from...

  14. Altered regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein in hippocampus following slice preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzer, S C; Pan, E; Nef, S; Parada, L F; McNamara, J O

    2004-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its cognate receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) play important roles in regulating survival, structure, and function of CNS neurons. One method of studying the functions of these molecules has utilized in vitro hippocampal slice preparations. An important caveat to using slices, however, is that slice preparation itself might alter the expression of BDNF, thereby confounding experimental results. To address this concern, BDNF immunoreactivity was examined in rodent slices using two different methods of slice preparation. Rapid and anatomically selective regulation of BDNF content followed slice preparation using both methodologies; however, different patterns of altered BDNF immunoreactivity were observed. First, in cultured slices, BDNF content decreased in the dentate molecular layer and increased in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer and the mossy fiber pathway of the hippocampus after 30 min. Furthermore, an initially "punctate" pattern of BDNF labeling observed in the mossy fiber pathway of control sections changed to homogenous labeling of the pathway in vitro. In contrast to these findings, slices prepared as for acute slice physiology exhibited no change in BDNF content in the molecular layer and mossy fiber pathway 30 min after slicing, but exhibited significant increases in the dentate granule and CA3 pyramidal cell layers. These findings demonstrate that BDNF protein content is altered following slice preparation, that different methods of slice preparation produce different patterns of BDNF regulation, and raise the possibility that BDNF release and TrkB activation may also be regulated. These consequences of hippocampal slice preparation may confound analyses of exogenous or endogenous BDNF on hippocampal neuronal structure or function.

  15. Derivation of quantum work equalities using a quantum Feynman-Kac formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei

    2012-07-01

    On the basis of a quantum mechanical analog of the famous Feynman-Kac formula, we present a method to derive nonequilibrium work equalities for isolated quantum systems, which include the Jarzynski equality and Bochkov-Kuzovlev equality. Compared with other methods in the literature, our method shows a higher similarity in form to the method deriving the fluctuation relations in the classical systems.

  16. Work measurement for estimating food preparation time of a bioregenerative diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabi, Ammar; Hunter, Jean; Jackson, Peter; Segal, Michele; Spies, Rupert; Wang, Carolyn; Lau, Christina; Ong, Christopher; Alexander, Conor; Raskob, Evan; Plichta, Jennifer; Zeira, Ohad; Rivera, Randy; Wang, Susan; Pottle, Bill; Leung, Calvin; Vicens, Carrie; Tao, Christine; Beers, Craig; Fung, Grace; Levine, Jacob; Yoo, Jaeshin; Jackson, Joanna; Saikkonen, Kelly; Zimmerman, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    During space missions, such as the prospective Mars mission, crew labor time is a strictly limited resource. The diet for such a mission (based on crops grown in a bioregenerative life support system) will require astronauts to prepare their meals essentially from raw ingredients. Time spent on food processing and preparation is time lost for other purposes. Recipe design and diet planning for a space mission should therefore incorporate the time required to prepare the recipes as a critical factor. In this study, videotape analysis of an experienced chef was used to develop a database of recipe preparation time. The measurements were highly consistent among different measurement teams. Data analysis revealed a wide variation between the active times of different recipes, underscoring the need for optimization of diet planning. Potential uses of the database developed in this study are discussed and illustrated in this work.

  17. Work measurement for estimating food preparation time of a bioregenerative diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabi, Ammar; Hunter, Jean; Jackson, Peter; Segal, Michele; Spies, Rupert; Wang, Carolyn; Lau, Christina; Ong, Christopher; Alexander, Conor; Raskob, Evan; hide

    2003-01-01

    During space missions, such as the prospective Mars mission, crew labor time is a strictly limited resource. The diet for such a mission (based on crops grown in a bioregenerative life support system) will require astronauts to prepare their meals essentially from raw ingredients. Time spent on food processing and preparation is time lost for other purposes. Recipe design and diet planning for a space mission should therefore incorporate the time required to prepare the recipes as a critical factor. In this study, videotape analysis of an experienced chef was used to develop a database of recipe preparation time. The measurements were highly consistent among different measurement teams. Data analysis revealed a wide variation between the active times of different recipes, underscoring the need for optimization of diet planning. Potential uses of the database developed in this study are discussed and illustrated in this work.

  18. Nanocellulose 3, 5-Dimethylphenylcarbamate Derivative Coated Chiral Stationary Phase: Preparation and Enantioseparation Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Litao; Dong, Shuqing; Zhang, Xia; Wu, Qi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yanping

    2016-05-01

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) with high surface area and high ordered crystalline structure was prepared from microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) under the hydrolysis of sodium hypochlorite. NCC was further reacted with 3,5-dimethylphenyl isocyanate to obtain the nanocellulose derivative, and then coated successfully on the surface of silica gel to a prepared NCC-coated chiral stationary phase (CSP) as a new kind of chiral separation material. Similarly, MCC derivative-coated CSP was also prepared as contrast. The chiral separation performance of NCC-based CSP was evaluated and compared with MCC-based CSP by high-performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, the effects of the alcohol modifiers, mobile phase additives, and flow rates on chiral separations were investigated in detail. The results showed that 10 chiral compounds were separated on NCC-based CSP with better peak shape and higher column efficiency than MCC-based CSP, which confirmed that NCC-based CSP was a promising packing material for the resolution of chiral compounds.Chirality 28:376-381, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Anisotropic surface hole-transport property of triphenylamine-derivative single crystal prepared by solution method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Minoru; Katagiri, Mitsuhiko; Shironita, Sayoko; Nagayama, Norio

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports the anisotropic hole transport at the triphenylamine-derivative single crystal surface prepared by a solution method. Triphenylamine derivatives are commonly used in a hole-transport material for organic photoconductors of laser-beam printers, in which the materials are used as an amorphous form. For developing organic photovoltaics using the photoconductor's technology, preparation of a single crystal seems to be a specific way by realizing the high mobility of an organic semiconductor. In this study, a single crystal of 4-(2,2-diphenylethenyl)-N,N-bis(4-methylphenyl)-benzenamine (TPA) was prepared and its anisotropic hole-transport property measured. First, the hole-transport property of the TPA was investigated based on its chemical structure and electrochemical redox characteristics. Next, a large-scale single crystal formation at a high rate was developed by employing a solution method based on its solubility and supersolubility curves. The grown TPA was found to be a single crystal based on the polarization micrograph observation and crystallographic analysis. For the TPA single crystal, an anisotropic surface conduction was found, which was well explained by its molecular stack structure. The measured current in the long-axis direction is one order of magnitude greater than that of amorphous TPA.

  20. Preparing Early Childhood Teachers to Work With Young Dual Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Marlene; Castro, Dina C; Cronin, Sharon

    2011-03-01

    Teacher preparation is clearly linked to the quality of early childhood programs. In order for young dual language learners (DLLs) to be academically successful, teacher preparation should focus on those skills and abilities relevant to students' particular needs. This article reviews the content of professional preparation for early educators working with young DLLs and briefly discusses the importance of developing the cultural and linguistic diversity of the early childhood workforce. It identifies 6 content areas: (a) understanding language development, (b) understanding the relationship between language and culture, (c) developing skills and abilities to effectively teach DLLs, (d) developing abilities to use assessment in meaningful ways for DLLs, (e) developing a sense of professionalism, and (f) understanding how to work with families.

  1. 78 FR 37242 - Draft Report and Recommendations Prepared by the Research Committee of the Scientific Working...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... of Justice Programs Draft Report and Recommendations Prepared by the Research Committee of the Scientific Working Group on Medicolegal Death Investigation AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, DOJ..., the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, Scientific...

  2. Flexible Pedagogies: Employer Engagement and Work-Based Learning. Flexible Pedagogies: Preparing for the Future Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettle, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This publication focuses on national and international policy initiatives to develop a better understanding of work-based learners and the types of flexibility that may well enhance their study especially pedagogically. As part of our five-strand research project "Flexible Pedagogies: preparing for the future" it: (1) highlights the…

  3. Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of ranitidine and bismuth derived from two compound preparations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan Zhou; Zou-Rong Ruan; Hong Yuan; Bo Jiang; Dong-Hang Xu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the bioequivalence of ranitidine and bismuth derived from two compound preparations.METHODS: The bioavailability was measured in 20healthy male Chinese volunteers following a single oral dose (equivalent to 200 mg of ranitidine and 220 mg of bismuth) of the test or reference products in the fasting state. Then blood samples were collected for 24 h.Plasma concentrations of ranitidine and bismuth were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS), respectively. The non-compartmental method was used for pharmacokinetic analysis. Log-transformed Cmax,AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-∞) were tested for bioequivalence using ANOVA and Schuirmann two-one sided t-test. Tmax was analyzed by Wilcoxon's test.RESULTS: Various pharmacokinetic parameters of ranitidine derived from the two compound preparations,including Cmax, AUC(0-t), AUC(0-∞), Tmax and T1/2, were nearly consistent with previous observations. These parameters derived from test and reference drug were as follows: Cmax(0.67 ± 0.21 vs 0.68 ± 0.22mg/L), AUC(0-t)(3.1 ± 0.6 vs 3.0 ± 0.7 mg/L per hour),AUC(0-∞)(3.3 ± 0.6 vs 3.2 ± 0.8 mg/L per hour),Tmax (2.3 ± 0.9 vs 2.1 ± 0.9 h) and T1/2 (2.8 ± 0.3 vs 3.1± 0.4 h). In addition, double-peak absorption profiles of ranitidine were found in some Chinese volunteers.For bismuth, those parameters derived from test and reference drug were as follows: Cmax (11.80 ± 7.36 vs 11.40 ± 6.55 μg/L),AUC(0-t) (46.65 ± 16.97 vs 47.03 ±21.49 μg/L per hour), Tmax (0.50 ± 0.20 vs 0.50 ± 0.20 h)and T1/2 (10.2 ± 2.3 vs 13.0 ± 6.9 h). Ninety percent of confidence intervals for the test/reference ratio of Cmax,AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-∞) derived from both ranitidine and bismuth were found within the bioequivalence acceptable range of 80%-125%. No significant difference was found in Tmax derived from both ranitidine and bismuth.CONCLUSION: The two compound preparations are bioequivalent and may be prescribed

  4. Preparation and characterization of liposomes containing a lipophilic cisplatin derivative for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Soler, R; Francis, K; al-Baker, S; Pilkiewicz, F; Khokhar, A R

    1994-01-01

    Cis-bis-neodecanoato-trans-R,R-1,2 diaminocyclohexane platinum(II) (NDDP) is a lipophilic cisplatin derivative that has been formulated entrapped in multilamellar liposomes composed of dimyristoylphosphatidyl choline (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidyl glycerol (DMPG). A phase I clinical study with liposome-entrapped NDDP (L-NDDP) administered i.v. every 4 weeks has been recently completed. L-NDDP was synthesized, manufactured, and reconstituted for clinical use in our laboratories. L-NDDP was prepared as a lyophilized powder containing the NDDP and the phospholipids (NDDP-lipid weight ratio 1:15; DMPC-DMPG molar ratio 7:3). The liposome suspension was obtained on the day of use just before administration to the patients by adding normal saline (final concentration 1 mg NDDP/ml) and shaking in a water-bath shaker at room temperature according to an established protocol. A total of 54 batches of lyophilized L-NDDP were prepared. Physical appearance, phospholipid content and integrity, and elemental platinum content were determined in all batches and found to be reproducible. All batches contained 90 per cent, and the proportion of liposomes measuring > 5 microns was liposomal preparations of new compounds can be prepared in the laboratory facilities of academic institutions, thus allowing for early clinical trials with novel therapeutic agents.

  5. NADH changes during hypoxia, ischemia, and increased work differ between isolated heart preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengrowski, Anastasia M; Kuzmiak-Glancy, Sarah; Jaimes, Rafael; Kay, Matthew W

    2014-02-15

    Langendorff-perfused hearts and working hearts are established isolated heart preparation techniques that are advantageous for studying cardiac physiology and function, especially when fluorescence imaging is a key component. However, oxygen and energy requirements vary widely between isolated heart preparations. When energy supply and demand are not in harmony, such as when oxygen is not adequately available, the imbalance is reflected in NADH fluctuations. As such, NADH imaging can provide insight into the metabolic state of tissue. Hearts from New Zealand white rabbits were prepared as mechanically silenced Langendorff-perfused hearts, Langendorff-perfused hearts, or biventricular working hearts and subjected to sudden changes in workload, instantaneous global ischemia, and gradual hypoxia while heart rate, aortic pressure, and epicardial NADH fluorescence were monitored. Fast pacing resulted in a dip in NADH upon initiation and a spike in NADH when pacing was terminated in biventricular working hearts only, with the magnitude of the changes greatest at the fastest pacing rate. Working hearts were also most susceptible to changes in oxygen supply; NADH was at half-maximum value when perfusate oxygen was at 67.8 ± 13.7%. Langendorff-perfused and mechanically arrested hearts were the least affected by low oxygen supply, with half-maximum NADH occurring at 42.5 ± 5.0% and 23.7 ± 4.6% perfusate oxygen, respectively. Although the biventricular working heart preparation can provide a useful representation of mechanical in vivo heart function, it is not without limitations. Understanding the limitations of isolated heart preparations is crucial when studying cardiac function in the context of energy supply and demand.

  6. Preparation of a Cyclomaltoheptaose (β-cyclodextrin) Cross-linked Chitosan Derivative via Glyoxal or Glutaraldehyde

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A cyclomaltoheptaose-β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) crosslinked chitosan derivative via glyoxal or glutaraldehyde was prepared. The structures of β-CD crosslined chitosan with glyoxal or glutaraldehyde were characterized by IR spectra. The surface morphology of the β-CD crosslinked chitosan particles was examined using a scanning electron microscope. The immobilization capacity of β-CD on chitosan was affected on the weight ratio of β-CD/chitosan, the utilization amount of crosslinking agent, the acidity of the reaction system and the temperature. The adsorption for nicotine indicated that the chitosan-β-CD was a good adsorbent.

  7. Direct Preparation of 2-Benzothiazolylzinc Bromide and its Applications: A Facile Synthetic Route to the Preparation of 2-Substituted Benzothiazole Derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sooyoul [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyuhyuk; Kim, Seunghoi [Dankook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    We have developed a novel approach for the direct preparation of 2-benzothiazolylzinc bromide and its application in organic synthesis. This protocol is a new tool for the convenient synthesis of 2-substituted benzothiazole derivatives. The resulting products obtained from this work can be utilized for further applications in the synthesis of many biologically active compounds. The benzothiazole moiety has been found in a variety of natural products and pharmaceuticals and demonstrates efficient biological activities. Specifically, 2-substituted benzothiazole derivatives have attracted considerable attention in a wide spectrum of chemical applications due to their unique structural properties. Therefore, the diversity of synthetic protocols has been an extensively discussed topic among scientists involved in organic synthesis for the past decades. In general, to build up the 2-substituted benzothiazole complexes, the strategic tools can be categorized as shown in Scheme 1: cross-coupling of benzothiazolylmetallic complexes (method A), coupling reaction of benzothiazole via direct oxidative C-H activation, cross-coupling of organometallic with halobenzothiazole, and ring-construction of N and S-containing compounds with the appropriate substrates.

  8. Simultaneous determination of acetylsalicylic and salicylic acids by first derivative spectrometry in pharmaceutical preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogić, Dunja

    1993-03-01

    A multicomponent first derivative UV spectrometric procedure for determination of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and salicylic acid in the solution containing 1 % (w/v) of citric acid in some pharmaceutical preparations is presented. The method is based on the use of the first derivative minimum spectrometric measurements at 286 nm for aspirin and at 318 nm for salicylic acid. Four kinds of cmmercial Aspirin tablets were assayed without a long pretreatment of the pharmaceuticals from the tablet additives. Beer's law is obeyed from 13.62-68.1 μg ml -1 of aspirin and from 2.723-13.616 μg ml -1 of salicylic acid. Detection limits at the 0.05 level of significance were calculated to be 1.24 and 0.25 μg ml -1 with relative standard deviations of 1.09 % and 1.2 % of aspirin and salicylic acid, respectively.

  9. An unexpected reaction of cyanothioacetamide: Novel preparation of pyrazolo[3,4-b]-pyridine derivatives under MWI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Sen Fan; Xia Wang; Xiao Yan Li

    2008-01-01

    An unexpected multi-component reaction of cyanothioacetamide with aldehyde and aminopyrazole under MWI was reported. Through this reaction, a series of pyrazolo[3,4-b]-pyridine derivatives was prepared in high yields via simple operational procedure.

  10. Biophysical inhibition of synthetic vs. naturally-derived pulmonary surfactant preparations by polymeric nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Ruppert, Clemens; Schmehl, Thomas; Günther, Andreas; Seeger, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Reasonable suspicion has accumulated that inhaled nano-scale particulate matter influences the biophysical function of the pulmonary surfactant system. Hence, it is evident to provide novel insights into the extent and mechanisms of nanoparticle-surfactant interactions in order to facilitate the fabrication of safe nanomedicines suitable for pulmonary applications. Negatively- and positively-charged poly(styrene) nanoparticles (diameters of ~100nm) served as model carriers. Nanoparticles were incubated with several synthetic and naturally-derived pulmonary surfactants to characterize the sensitivity of each preparation to biophysical inactivation. Changes in surface properties (i.e. adsorption and dynamic surface tension behavior) were monitored in a pulsating bubble surfactometer. Both nanoparticle formulations revealed a dose-dependent influence on the biophysical behavior of all investigated pulmonary surfactants. However, the surfactant sensitivity towards inhibition depended on both the carrier type, where negatively-charged nanoparticles showed increased inactivation potency compared to their positively-charged counterparts, and surfactant composition. Among the surfactants tested, synthetic mixtures (i.e. phospholipids, phospholipids supplemented with surfactant protein B, and Venticute®) were more susceptible to surface-activity inhibition as the more complex naturally-derived preparations (i.e. Alveofact® and large surfactant aggregates isolated from rabbit bronchoalveolar lavage fluid). Overall, nanoparticle characteristics and surfactant constitution both influence the extent of biophysical inhibition of pulmonary surfactants.

  11. Preparation and supercapacitive behaviors of the ordered mesoporous/microporous chromium carbide-derived carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun; Gao, Jiao; Zhao, Qinglan; Zhang, Youwei; Bai, Yansong; Wang, Xingyan; Wang, Xianyou

    2014-12-01

    A series of ordered mesoporous/microporous carbon materials derived from chromium carbide-derived carbons (CDCs) are prepared by nanocasting the chromic acetate and furfuryl alcohol precursor into SBA-15 and subsequent chlorination. The structure and morphology of the CDCs are characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that all of the synthesized CDCs present large specific surface area and pore volume. Especially, the CDCs-2 prepared at the mass ratio of 1/1 (chromic acetate/furfuryl alcohol) exhibits the chain-like morphology with high surface area (1236 m2 g-1), large pore volume (0.76 cm3 g-1), and the good mesopore size centered at 3.43 nm. The electrochemical properties of all the CDCs are studied by cyclic voltammetry, constant current charge/discharge, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cycle life measurements in 6 M KOH electrolyte. The results display that the sample CDCs-2 exhibits a high capacitance of 242.7 F g-1 at the current density of 1 A g-1 and good cycling stability with coulombic efficiency of 100% over 10000 cycles.

  12. Carbohydrate-auxiliary assisted preparation of enantiopure 1,2-oxazine derivatives and aminopolyols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Jasiński

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An approach to enantiopure hydroxylated 2H-1,2-oxazine derivatives is presented utilizing the [3 + 3] cyclisation of lithiated alkoxyallenes and an L-erythrose-derived N-glycosyl nitrone as precursors. This key step proceeded only with moderate diastereoselectivity, but allowed entry into both enantiomeric series of the resulting 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,2-oxazines. Their enol ether double bond was then subjected to a hydroboration followed by an oxidative work-up, and finally the auxiliary was removed. The described three-step procedure enabled the synthesis of enantiopure hydroxylated 1,2-oxazines. Typical examples were treated with samarium diiodide leading to enantiopure acyclic aminopolyols. We also report on our attempts to convert these compounds into enantiopure hydroxylated pyrrolidine derivatives.

  13. [Phenolic foam prepared by lignin from a steam-explosion derived biorefinery of corn stalk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanhua; Chen, Hongzhang

    2014-06-01

    To increase the integral economic effectiveness, biorefineries of lignocellulosic materials should not only utilize carbohydrates hydrolyzed from cellulose and hemicellulose but also use lignin. We used steam-exploded corn stalk as raw materials and optimized the temperature and alkali concentration in the lignin extraction process to obtain lignin liquor with higher yield and purity. Then the concentrated lignin liquor was used directly to substitute phenol for phenolic foam preparation and the performances of phenolic foam were characterized by microscopic structure analysis, FTIR, compression strength and thermal conductivity detection. The results indicated that, when steam-exploded corn stalk was extracted at 120 degrees C for 2 h by 1% NaOH with a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10, the extraction yield of lignin was 79.67%. The phenolic foam prepared from the concentrated lignin liquor showed higher apparent density and compression strength with the increasing substitution rate of lignin liquor. However, there were not significant differences of thermal conductivity and flame retardant properties by the addition of lignin, which meant that the phenolic foam substituted by lignin liquor was approved for commercial application. This study, which uses alkali-extracted lignin liquor directly for phenolic foam preparation, provides a relatively simple way for utilization of lignin and finally increases the overall commercial operability ofa lignocellulosic biorefinery derived by steam explosion.

  14. Preparation and characterization of controlled-release fertilizers coated with marine polysaccharide derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Song; Qin, Yukun; Chen, Xiaolin; Xing, Rong'e.; Yu, Huahua; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2017-09-01

    Encapsulation of water-soluble nitrogen fertilizers by membranes can be used to control the release of nutrients to maximize the fertilization effect and reduce environmental pollution. In this research, we formulated a new double-coated controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) by using food-grade microcrystalline wax (MW) and marine polysaccharide derivatives (calcium alginate and chitosan-glutaraldehyde copolymer). The pellets of water-soluble nitrogen fertilizer were coated with the marine polysaccharide derivatives and MW. A convenient and eco-friendly method was used to prepare the CRF. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the morphology and composition of the products. The nitrogen-release properties were determined in water using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The controlled-release properties of the fertilizer were improved dramatically after coating with MW and the marine polysaccharide derivatives. The results show that the double-coated CRFs can release nitrogen in a controlled manner, have excellent controlled-release features, and meet the European Standard for CRFs.

  15. Preparation and characterization of controlled-release fertilizers coated with marine polysaccharide derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Song; Qin, Yukun; Chen, Xiaolin; Xing, Rong'e.; Yu, Huahua; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-10-01

    Encapsulation of water-soluble nitrogen fertilizers by membranes can be used to control the release of nutrients to maximize the fertilization effect and reduce environmental pollution. In this research, we formulated a new double-coated controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) by using food-grade microcrystalline wax (MW) and marine polysaccharide derivatives (calcium alginate and chitosan-glutaraldehyde copolymer). The pellets of water-soluble nitrogen fertilizer were coated with the marine polysaccharide derivatives and MW. A convenient and eco-friendly method was used to prepare the CRF. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the morphology and composition of the products. The nitrogen-release properties were determined in water using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The controlled-release properties of the fertilizer were improved dramatically after coating with MW and the marine polysaccharide derivatives. The results show that the double-coated CRFs can release nitrogen in a controlled manner, have excellent controlled-release features, and meet the European Standard for CRFs.

  16. Derivation of Plastic Work Rate Done per Unit Volume for Mean Yield Criterion and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dewen ZHAO; Yingjie XIE; Xiaowen WANG; Xianghua LIU

    2005-01-01

    In Haigh Westergaard stress space linear combination of twin shear stress and Tresca yield functions is called the mean yield (MY) criterion. The mathematical relationship of the criterion and its plastic work rate done per unit volume were derived. A generalized worked example of slab forging was analyzed by the criterion and its corresponding plastic work rate done per unit volume. Then, the precision of the solution was compared with those by Mises and Twin shear stress yield criterions, respectively. It turned out that the calculated results by MY criterion were in good agreement with those by Mises criterion.

  17. Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentecost, E.D.; Vinikour, W.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods.

  18. The simultaneous assay of triprolidine, pseudoephedrine and dextromethorphan in combined preparations by derivative-difference spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, A G; Mkoji, L M

    1988-01-01

    Difference spectrophotometric procedures are described for the assay of triprolidine hydrochloride, dextromethorphan hydrobromide and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride in Actifed preparations. Triprolidine is assayed by the measurement of the difference absorbance at 301 nm between equimolar solutions of the sample extract in 0.1 M sulphuric acid and 0.1 M sodium hydroxide in ethanol (20% v/v). Dextromethorphan and pseudoephedrine are assayed by measurement of the amplitudes in the second and fourth derivative spectra of the difference absorption spectrum of the sample solutions. The measured values are proportional to the concentrations of the drugs. The accuracy, precision and selectivity of the procedures are discussed. Applications of the assay are described for Actifed Compound Linctus, Actifed Syrup and Actifed Tablets.

  19. Preparation and antibacterial activity of the oligosaccharides derived from Rhizoma Phragmites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhi-Gang; Jiang, Long-Fa

    2014-10-13

    In this study, we prepared Rhizoma Phragmites derived oligosaccharides (ROs) by hydrolysis with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The ROs yield was affected by reaction time, temperature, and H2O2 concentration. Too long reaction time and too high temperature decreased the ROs yield. Maximum ROs yield (11.26%) was obtained at reaction time 4h, temperature 75 °C, and H2O2 concentration 3.5% (v/v). The oligosaccharides sample contained 93.16% sugar, of which the average degree was approximately 11, was water-soluble, and showed white. The ROs had the highest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli at the concentration of 100 μg/mL.

  20. New Lipophilic Piceatannol Derivatives Exhibiting Antioxidant Activity Prepared by Aromatic Hydroxylation with 2-Iodoxybenzoic Acid (IBX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Bernini

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Piceatannol (E-3,5,3’,4’-tetrahydroxystilbene is a phytoalexin synthesized in grapes in response to stress conditions. It exhibits strong antioxidant and antileukaemic activities due to the presence of the catechol moiety. To modify some physical properties like solubility, and miscibility in non-aqueous media some new previously unreported piceatannol derivatives having lipophilic chains on the A-ring were prepared in good yields by a simple and efficient procedure. The key step was a chemo- and regioselective aromatic hydroxylation with 2-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX. The new compounds showed antioxidant activity and seemed promising for possible applications as multifunctional emulsifiers in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical fields.

  1. Preparation of Fluorescent Microcystin Derivatives by Direct Arginine Labelling and Their Biological Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundler, Verena; Faltermann, Susanne; Fent, Karl; Gademann, Karl

    2015-07-27

    Microcystin is the most prevalent toxin produced by cyanobacteria and poses a severe threat to livestock, humans and entire ecosystems. We report the preparation of a series of fluorescent microcystin derivatives by direct arginine labelling of the unprotected peptides at the guanidinium side chain. This new method allows a simple late-stage diversification strategy for native peptides devoid of protecting groups under mild conditions. A series of fluorophores were conjugated to microcystin-LR in good to very good yield. The fluorescent probes displayed biological activity comparable to that of unlabelled microcystin, in both phosphatase inhibition assays and toxicity tests on the crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus. In addition, we demonstrate that the fluorescent probes penetrated Huh7 cells. Whole-animal imaging was performed on T. platyurus: labelled compound was mainly observed in the digestive tract.

  2. Influence of Ethics Education on Moral Reasoning among Pre-Service Teacher Preparation and Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salopek, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This comparative case study examines the influence of ethics education on moral reasoning among pre-service teacher preparation and social work students. This study specifically investigates the ethical values of students enrolled in a teacher preparation and social work education program by their fourth year of study; the degree of ethical…

  3. Facile preparation of SERS and catalytically active Au nanostructures using furfuryl derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Jung; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Park, Minsun; Huh, Seong

    2017-08-01

    Six different types of Au nanostructures with rough surfaces were readily prepared through the redox reactions between Au precursor, AuCl4-, and furfuryl derivatives without extra metal surface capping ligands, in deionized water at room temperature. Furfuryl alcohol (FA) or furfurylamine (FFA) was used as a sole reducing agent for the reduction of Au precursor. Both FA and FFA effectively polymerized during the redox reactions to form polyfuran polymers. These polymers are thought to act as surface capping ligands during the formation of Au nanostructures. Experiments were conducted with three different concentrations of each furfuryl derivative. Interestingly, Au particles prepared from the reaction with varying concentration of FA or FFA showed large differences in size, and revealed that the higher the ratios of [FA]/[AuCl4-] or [FFA]/[AuCl4-], the smaller the size of Au particles. The size of Au particles was in the range of 1 μm to under 30 nm. Among these samples, two nanostructured Au particles, AuFA-4 and AuFFA-1, deposited on a Si wafer by a simple drop-casting method, were revealed as highly active surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates for the detection of methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV). High SERS enhancement factors (EFs) of 106 ∼ 108 for MB and CV were observed. Small size Au nanoparticles (AuFFA-2 and AuFFA-4) were also found to be very active for the catalytic hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of NaBH4 at room temperature. AuFFA-2 could be recycled eight times, without losing its activity.

  4. Nanosuspension for parenteral delivery of a p-terphenyl derivative: preparation, characteristics and pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaona; Li, Han; Zhang, Dianrui; Liu, Guangpu; Jia, Lejiao; Zheng, Dandan; Shen, Jingyi; Shen, Yuemao; Zhang, Qiang

    2013-08-01

    Recently, nanosuspension technology has evolved into a mature drug delivery system, which can enhance the saturation solubility and dissolution velocity of poorly soluble drugs. In this study, nanosuspensions of a p-terphenyl derivative (H2) were prepared by combining microfluidization and precipitation method and transformed into dry powder by lyophilization. The resultant nanosuspensions had a mean particle size of 201.7±5.87nm and a zeta potential of -21.07±0.57mV. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis verified that the crystalline state of H2 was not transformed when it was prepared to nanosuspensions. An increased saturation solubility (1.46ug/ml) and accelerated dissolution velocity were achieved. The percent drug release of bulk H2 and H2 nanosuspension dried powder was 7.16% and 93.5% at 120min point, respectively. The pharmacokinetic test in rats indicated that the area under plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0~∞) value of H2 nanosuspension (5.183mg/Lh) was about 5-fold higher than that of H2 solution (1.094mg/Lh). Additionally, the mean retention time (MRT) value of H2 nanosuspension (2.832h) was significantly longer than that of H2 solution (0.997h).

  5. Polyelectrolyte multilayers prepared from water-soluble poly(alkoxythiophene) derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukkari, J; Salomäki, M; Viinikanoja, A; Aäritalo, T; Paukkunen, J; Kocharova, N; Kankare, J

    2001-06-27

    Electronically conducting polyanion and polycation based on poly(alkoxythiophene) derivatives, poly-3-(3'-thienyloxy)propanesulfonate (P3TOPS) and poly-3-(3'-thienyloxy)propyltriethylammonium (P3TOPA) have been synthesized. Both polymers are water-soluble and exhibit high conjugation length in solution and in the solid state. These polyelectrolytes were used to prepare conducting and electroactive polyelectrolyte multilayers by the sequential layer-by-layer adsorption technique. In aqueous solutions multilayers of P3TOPS with inactive polyelectrolytes (e.g., poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), PDADMA) displayed electrochemical and optical behavior similar to polythiophene films prepared in organic media. Their in-plane conductivity was low (ca. 1.6 x 10(-)(5) S cm(-)(1)). The conductivity could, however, be increased by a factor of ca. 40 in "all-thiophene" films, in which P3TOPA was substituted for the inactive polycation (PDADMA). The interpenetration of layers is of prime importance in films containing conducting components. The interpenetration of P3TOPS was studied by measuring the charge-transfer rate across an insulating polyelectrolyte multilayer between the substrate and the P3TOPS layer with modulated electroreflectance. The extent of interpenetration was 8-9 polyelectrolyte layers, the length scale (7-15 nm) depending on the nature of the insulating layer and, especially, on the ionic strength of the solution used for the adsorption of P3TOPS.

  6. Preparation and characterization of hierarchical porous carbons derived from solid leather waste for supercapacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikkara, Niketha; Kennedy, L John; Vijaya, J Judith

    2016-11-15

    Utilization of crust leather waste (CLW) as precursors for the preparation of hierarchical porous carbons (HPC) were investigated. HPCs were prepared from CLW by pre-carbonization followed by chemical activation using KOH at relatively high temperatures. Textural properties of HPC's showed an extent of micro-and mesoporosity with maximum BET surface area of 716m(2)/g. Inducements of graphitic planes in leather waste derived carbons were observed from X-ray diffraction and HR-TEM analysis. Microstructure, thermal behavior and surface functional groups were identified using FT-Raman, thermo gravimetric analysis and FT-IR techniques. HPCs were evaluated for electrochemical properties by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) by three electrode system. CLC9 sample showed a maximum capacitance of 1960F/g in 1M KCl electrolyte. Results achieved from rectangular curves of CV, GCD symmetric curves and Nyquist plots show that the leather waste carbon is suitable to fabricate supercapacitors as it possess high specific capacitance and electrochemical cycle stability. The present study proposes an effective method for solid waste management in leather industry by the way of converting toxic leather waste to new graphitic porous carbonaceous materials as a potential candidate for energy storage devices.

  7. Preparation of Titanium Nitride Nanoparticles from a Novel Refiuxing Derived Precursor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fei; LIANG Xiaofeng; LI Yongdi; YAO Yadong; ZHANG Hao; SHAO Wei; KANG Yunqing; YIN Guangfu; HUANG Zhongbing; LIAO Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) nanoparticles were prepared from a novel refiuxing-derived precursor.The organic/inorganic hybrid precursor was prepared by a two-stage refluxing method using hydrous TiO2 as titania source and n-dodecane as carbon source. The precursor was heat-treated to 1 200 ℃ in flowing ammonia (NH3) to get TiN nanoparticles. The phase and chemical compositions were investigated by means of XRD,Raman spectroscopy and XPS. Samples microstructure was studied by means of SEM, TEM and SEAD. XRD pattern indicated that the product was face-centered cubic TiN with a lattice constant a = 4.236(A) and average crystallite sizes of 35.2 nm. Raman spectra indicated that long time refluxing results in Alkane dehydrogenation and the formation of coke on TiO2 nanoparticles. Oxygen presence in TiN lattice was confirmed by XPS investigation. The particle size that was showed by Electron microscopy photographs ranged from 20 to 60 nm.

  8. CuO Nano-structures Prepared in Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaves Extract Medium: Efficient Catalysts for the Aqueous Media Preparation of Dihydropyrano[3, 2-c]chromene Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghashang, Majid; Kargar, Mahboubeh; Shafiee, Mohammad R M; Mansoor, Syed S; Fazlinia, Abbas; Esfandiari, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    CuO nano-structures were prepared in Rosmarinus Officinalis leaves extract medium via a green bio-chemical method and were used for the one-pot synthesis of dihydropyrano [3,2-c] chromene derivatives. This procedure is very simple and the products were synthesized in high to excellent yields.

  9. Preparation and characterisation of the oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnut polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-Jun; Yu, Lin

    2015-08-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a strong oxidant that cleaves glycosidic bonds in polysaccharides. In this study, the oligosaccharides were prepared by removing the starch from Chinese water chestnuts through hydrolysis using α-amylase and then hydrolysing the remaining polysaccharides with H2O2, during which the oligosaccharide yield was monitored. The yield of oligosaccharide was affected by reaction time, temperature, and H2O2 concentration. Extended reaction times, high temperatures, and high H2O2 concentrations decreased oligosaccharide yield. Under optimum conditions (i.e., reaction time of 4h, reaction temperature of 80°C, and 2.5% H2O2 concentration), the maximum oligosaccharide yield was 3.91%. The oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnuts polysaccharides exhibited strong hydroxyl and 2,2-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity when applied at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The results indicate that the oligosaccharides derived from Chinese water chestnuts polysaccharides possessed good antioxidant properties and can be developed as a new dietary supplement and functional food.

  10. Activated carbons prepared from refuse derived fuel and their gold adsorption characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buah, William K; Williams, Paul T

    2010-02-01

    Activated carbons produced from refuse derived fuel (RDF), which had been prepared from municipal solid waste have been characterized and evaluated for their potential for gold adsorption from gold chloride solution. Pyrolysis of the RDF produced a char, which was then activated via steam gasification to produce activated carbons. Steam gasification of the char at 900 degrees C for 3 h yielded 73 wt% activated carbon. The derived activated carbon had a surface area of 500 m2 g(-1) and a total pore volume of 0.19 cm3 g(-1). The gold adsorption capacity of the activated carbon was 32.1 mg Au g(-1) of carbon when contacted with an acidified gold chloride solution. The gold adsorption capacity was comparable to that of a commercial activated carbon tested under the same conditions and was well in the range of values of activated carbons used in the gold industry. Demineralization of the RDF activated carbon in a 5 M HCl solution resulted in enhancement of its textural properties but a reduction in the gold adsorption rate, indicating that the metal content of the RDF activated carbon influenced its gold adsorption rate.

  11. Nanocellulose Derivative/Silica Hybrid Core-Shell Chiral Stationary Phase: Preparation and Enantioseparation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Core-shell silica microspheres with a nanocellulose derivative in the hybrid shell were successfully prepared as a chiral stationary phase by a layer-by-layer self-assembly method. The hybrid shell assembled on the silica core was formed using a surfactant as template by the copolymerization reaction of tetraethyl orthosilicate and the nanocellulose derivative bearing triethoxysilyl and 3,5-dimethylphenyl groups. The resulting nanocellulose hybrid core-shell chiral packing materials (CPMs were characterized and packed into columns, and their enantioseparation performance was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that CPMs exhibited uniform surface morphology and core-shell structures. Various types of chiral compounds were efficiently separated under normal and reversed phase mode. Moreover, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran as mobile phase additives could obviously improve the resolution during the chiral separation processes. CPMs still have good chiral separation property when eluted with solvent systems with a high content of tetrahydrofuran and chloroform, which proved the high solvent resistance of this new material.

  12. Views of junior doctors about whether their medical school prepared them well for work: questionnaire surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Kathryn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transition from medical student to junior doctor in postgraduate training is a critical stage in career progression. We report junior doctors' views about the extent to which their medical school prepared them for their work in clinical practice. Methods Postal questionnaires were used to survey the medical graduates of 1999, 2000, 2002 and 2005, from all UK medical schools, one year after graduation, and graduates of 2000, 2002 and 2005 three years after graduation. Summary statistics, chi-squared tests, and binary logistic regression were used to analyse the results. The main outcome measure was the level of agreement that medical school had prepared the responder well for work. Results Response rate was 63.7% (11610/18216 in year one and 60.2% (8427/13997 in year three. One year after graduation, 36.3% (95% CI: 34.6, 38.0 of 1999/2000 graduates, 50.3% (48.5, 52.2 of 2002 graduates, and 58.2% (56.5, 59.9 of 2005 graduates agreed their medical school had prepared them well. Conversely, in year three agreement fell from 48.9% (47.1, 50.7 to 38.0% (36.0, 40.0 to 28.0% (26.2, 29.7. Combining cohorts at year one, percentages who agreed that they had been well prepared ranged from 82% (95% CI: 79-87 at the medical school with the highest level of agreement to 30% (25-35 at the lowest. At year three the range was 70% to 27%. Ethnicity and sex were partial predictors of doctors' level of agreement; following adjustment for them, substantial differences between schools remained. In years one and three, 30% and 34% of doctors specified that feeling unprepared had been a serious or medium-sized problem for them (only 3% in each year regarded it as serious. Conclusions The vast knowledge base of clinical practice makes full preparation impossible. Our statement about feeling prepared is simple yet discriminating and identified some substantial differences between medical schools. Medical schools need feedback from graduates about

  13. The management of advanced practitioner preparation: a work-based challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesley, Joan; Waters, Karen; Tarbuck, Paul

    2009-07-01

    This paper explores the collaborative development of a Master's level advanced practice programme in the context of the radical reform and remodelling of the UK's National Health Service. Some of the educational, managerial and practice challenges are discussed. Changes to education and training in response to key strategic reviews undertaken by the Greater Manchester Strategic Health Authority (North West of England) established a need to develop nurses and allied health care practitioners to advanced practitioner level. This paper considers how employers, commissioners and educationalists worked together to produce a Master's level programme to prepare nurses and other health care practitioners for sustainable advanced practice roles. Developing innovative and effective curricula to meet the needs of post graduate students from varied backgrounds preparing to practice in different contexts with different client groups is challenging. However, the development of individual learning pathways and work-based learning ensures that the student's work and intended advanced practice role remains at the centre of their learning. Analysis of each student's knowledge and skill deficits alongside an analysis of the organization's readiness to support them as qualified advanced practitioners (APs) is instrumental in ensuring that organizations are ready to support practitioners in new roles. Work-based learning and collaboration between students, employers and higher education institutions can be used to enable managers and students to unravel the network of factors which affect advanced practice in health and social care. Additionally, collaborative working can help to create opportunities to develop strategies that will facilitate change. Implications for nursing management Sustainable change concerned with the introduction of advanced practitioner roles present a real challenge for managers at a strategic and operational level. Commissioning flexible, collaborative and

  14. The preparation of the deaf instructor and the work market: a necessary relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia T. Dornelles

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The work market is a field of extreme importance and concern towards the society, such being the case, the training of the worker must be constantly present in the labor life of this worker. Before this, we question ourselves about the existing relation between the training of the instructor and the work market for the deaf and how this occurs. By means of the investigation of the speech about the identity, the deafness and the work we seek to understand the constitution of the deaf workers performing a semi - structured interview with a deaf adult. This study allowed us a better clearing about the professional preparation of the deaf people, making such as inquiries about the relationship existing between the training of the deaf instructor and the market of work to be best exemplified. Through the interview we could elucidate our personal and academic questionings and realize the importance of this insertion and of its pairs in the work market, just as the methods that could and/ or should be used for this to occur.

  15. Disaster preparation and the functioning of a hospital social work department during the Gulf War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Shahar, I

    1993-01-01

    The nature of the Gulf War and its consequences for the public at the personal and community levels, called for considerable alterations in organization and management at the Chaim Sheba Medical Center, the largest government general hospital in Israel, with constant adaptation to the changing situation. The preparations and exercises preceding the state of emergency, combined with the knowledge and experience gained in similar situations in the past, equipped the staff of the Social Work Department to function adequately and to make appropriate decisions and changes in the face of moral and ethical dilemmas, as well as immediate physical threat. This article presents the rationale for the model of intervention that guided the hospital during the Gulf War in offering services to casualty victims and their families. Also discussed are the process of developing an organizational framework and its content that meets wartime demands, and the implications for social work practice in dealing with a war crisis.

  16. Preparation of tertiary amines by the reaction of iminium ions derived from unsymmetrical aminals with zinc and magnesium organometallics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Veronika; Ellwart, Mario; Wagner, Andreas J; Knochel, Paul

    2015-04-17

    We report a convenient one-pot preparation of polyfunctional tertiary amines, including various biorelevant phenethylamines or ephedrine derivatives, via the reaction of new functionalized iminium ions with a variety of zinc and magnesium organometallic reagents. These iminium ions were generated from unsymmetrical aminals, obtained by the in situ addition of various amides to Tietze's iminium salt [Me2NCH2(+)CF3COO(-)]. A functionalized aniline, prepared by this method, was converted to a quinolidine via an intramolecular Heck reaction.

  17. Preparation and preliminary bioevaluation of {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-11{beta}-progesterone derivative prepared via click chemistry route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhyani, Manish V.; Satpati, Drishty; Korde, Aruna [Radiopharmaceuticals Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sarma, Haladhar Dev [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kumar, Chandan [Radiopharmaceuticals Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Banerjee, Sharmila, E-mail: sharmila@barc.gov.i [Radiopharmaceuticals Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2010-11-15

    Introduction: Progesterone receptors (PRs) overexpressed in breast cancers serve as potential targets for developing radiotracers for use in nuclear medicine. Hence, suitably derivatized progesterone can be envisaged as a potential vector for targeting overexpression of receptors in breast cancer. In the present article, we report the preparation of a {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-progesterone triazole using the Cu(I)-catalyzed novel click chemistry route. Preliminary evaluation of the radiolabeled derivative has been carried out in binding studies with MCF 7 cell lines. Methods: 11-Hydroxyprogesterone has been synthetically derivatized to 11-azidoprogesterone. Subsequently, the cycloaddition reaction between progesterone azide and propargyl glycine was carried out to prepare 1,4-bifunctionalized progesterone triazole analogue. The clicked progesterone triazole derivative was radiolabeled with {sup 99m}Tc and characterized by HPLC. The chemical characterization of {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-progesterone triazole has been carried out by preparing its corresponding rhenium complex using the [NEt{sub 4}]{sub 2}[Re(CO){sub 3}Br{sub 3}] precursor. While in vitro studies were carried out in MCF7 cell lines, in vivo distribution studies were performed in female Swiss mice. Results: The radiolabeled complex could be prepared in >95% radiochemical yield as determined by HPLC. In vitro studies of {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-progesterone complex in MCF7 cell lines overexpressing receptors for breast cancer showed binding up to 30%. In vivo distribution studies in female Swiss mice have shown uterine uptake of 0.41 (0.06) % ID/g at 3 h postinjection (pi) and retention therein till 24 h pi. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates a novel and facile route for preparation of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled progesterone complex using click chemistry. This strategy can be further extended towards preparation of radiolabeled complexes of other steroidal derivatives.

  18. Preparing Science Teachers: Strong Emphasis on Science Content Course Work in a Master's Program in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajhar, Edward A.; Blackwell, E.; Quesada, D.

    2010-05-01

    In South Florida, science teacher preparation is often weak as a shortage of science teachers often prompts administrators to assign teachers to science classes just to cover the classroom needs. This results is poor preparation of students for college science course work, which, in turn, causes the next generation of science teachers to be even weaker than the first. This cycle must be broken in order to prepare better students in the sciences. At St. Thomas University in Miami Gardens, Florida, our School of Science has teamed with our Institute for Education to create a program to alleviate this problem: A Master of Science in Education with a Concentration in Earth/Space Science. The Master's program consists of 36 total credits. Half the curriculum consists of traditional educational foundation and instructional leadership courses while the other half is focused on Earth and Space Science content courses. The content area of 18 credits also provides a separate certificate program. Although traditional high school science education places a heavy emphasis on Earth Science, this program expands that emphasis to include the broader context of astronomy, astrophysics, astrobiology, planetary science, and the practice and philosophy of science. From this contextual basis the teacher is better prepared to educate and motivate middle and high school students in all areas of the physical sciences. Because hands-on experience is especially valuable to educators, our program uses materials and equipment including small optical telescopes (Galileoscopes), several 8-in and 14-in Celestron and Meade reflectors, and a Small Radio Telescope installed on site. (Partial funding provided by the US Department of Education through Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program grant P120A050062.)

  19. 信息动态%Preparation of Polysaccharide Derivatives-based Composite Chiral Stationary Phases and Their Chiral Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Two coated-type composite chiral stationary phases (CSPs) were prepared based on cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (CDMPC) and amylose tris (3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate)(ADMPC) by coating the corresponding derivatives onto 3-aminopropyl silica gel separately and then mixing or by coating the mixed derivatives onto silica gel. The CSPs containing only CDMPC or ADMPC were also prepared for comparison. The mixing method does not significantly influence the enantioselectivities. The composite CSPs generally show chiral recognition abilities intermediate between those of the two individual phases, while some racemates were poorer and at the same time one was better resolved on the composite CSPs.

  20. Isorhamnetin and Quercetin Derivatives as Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Principles of Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Flowers and Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashchenko, Nina I.; Chirikova, Nadezhda K.; Akobirshoeva, Anzurat; Zilfikarov, Ifrat N.; Vennos, Cecile

    2017-01-01

    Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) is one of the most common and widespread plants used medicinally all over the world. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of marigold flowers, detect the compounds responsible and perform chemical analysis of marigold commercial products. Analysis of 23 varieties of C. officinalis flowers introduced into Siberia allowed us to select the Greenheart Orange variety due to the superior content of flavonoids (46.87 mg/g) and the highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (IC50 63.52 µg/mL). Flavonoids, isorhamnetin and quercetin derivatives were revealed as potential inhibitors with the application of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) activity-based profiling. Investigation of the inhibitory activity of isorhamnetin glycosides demonstrated the maximal potency for isorhamnetin-3-O-(2′′,6′′-di-acetyl)-glucoside (IC50 51.26 μM) and minimal potency for typhaneoside (isorhamnetin-3-O-(2′′,6′′-di-rhamnosyl)-glucoside; IC50 94.92 µM). Among quercetin derivatives, the most active compound was quercetin-3-O-(2′′,6′′-di-acetyl)-glucoside (IC50 36.47 µM), and the least active component was manghaslin (quercetin-3-O-(2′′,6′′-di-rhamnosyl)-glucoside; IC50 94.92 µM). Some structure-activity relationships were discussed. Analysis of commercial marigold formulations revealed a reduced flavonoid content (from 7.18–19.85 mg/g) compared with introduced varieties. Liquid extract was the most enriched preparation, characterized by 3.10 mg/mL of total flavonoid content, and infusion was the least enriched formulation (0.41 mg/mL). The presented results suggest that isorhamnetin and quercetin and its glycosides can be considered as potential anti-acetylcholinesterase agents. PMID:28767066

  1. Studies on CdIn2O4 derived from CdIn2S4 prepared by flux method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L A Patil; M D Mahanubhav

    2007-04-01

    Stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric powders of cadmium indium oxide were derived from calcination of cadmium indium sulphide prepared by flux method. The materials were confirmed by XRD. Thick films of above prepared powders were prepared on glass substrates using screen printing technique. The thick films were characterized by SEM and EDAX. The electrical conductivity of CdIn2O4 thick films was calculated. The gas sensing performance of stoichiometric thick films of CdIn2O4 was tested for various gases. The films showed good response to LPG.

  2. Preparation of porous carbon nanofibers derived from PBI/PLLA for supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Hye; Ferraris, John P.

    2016-10-01

    Porous carbon nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning blend solutions of polybenzimidazole/poly-L-lactic acid (PBI/PLLA) and carbonization. During thermal treatment, PLLA was decomposed, resulting in the creation of pores in the carbon nanofibers. From SEM images, it is shown that carbon nanofibers had diameters in the range of 100-200 nm. The conversion of PBI to carbon was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, and the surface area and pore volume of carbon nanofibers were determined using nitrogen adsorption/desorption analyses. To investigate electrochemical performances, coin-type cells were assembled using free-standing carbon nanofiber electrodes and ionic liquid electrolyte. cyclic voltammetry studies show that the PBI/PLLA-derived porous carbon nanofiber electrodes have higher capacitance due to lower electrochemical impedance compared to carbon nanofiber electrode from PBI only. These porous carbon nanofibers were activated using ammonia for further porosity improvement and annealed to remove the surface functional groups to better match the polarity of electrode and electrolyte. Ragone plots, correlating energy density with power density calculated from galvanostatic charge-discharge curves, reveal that activation/annealing further improves energy and power densities.

  3. Preparation of porous carbon nanofibers derived from PBI/PLLA for supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Hye; Ferraris, John P

    2016-10-21

    Porous carbon nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning blend solutions of polybenzimidazole/poly-L-lactic acid (PBI/PLLA) and carbonization. During thermal treatment, PLLA was decomposed, resulting in the creation of pores in the carbon nanofibers. From SEM images, it is shown that carbon nanofibers had diameters in the range of 100-200 nm. The conversion of PBI to carbon was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, and the surface area and pore volume of carbon nanofibers were determined using nitrogen adsorption/desorption analyses. To investigate electrochemical performances, coin-type cells were assembled using free-standing carbon nanofiber electrodes and ionic liquid electrolyte. cyclic voltammetry studies show that the PBI/PLLA-derived porous carbon nanofiber electrodes have higher capacitance due to lower electrochemical impedance compared to carbon nanofiber electrode from PBI only. These porous carbon nanofibers were activated using ammonia for further porosity improvement and annealed to remove the surface functional groups to better match the polarity of electrode and electrolyte. Ragone plots, correlating energy density with power density calculated from galvanostatic charge-discharge curves, reveal that activation/annealing further improves energy and power densities.

  4. [Professor Buytendijk's miracle drug. The vitamin preparation Eviunis and the risks of scientists doing publicity work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijnen, Pim

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of vitamins at the start of the 20th century not only stimulated new areas of scientific research in the field of nutrition and pharmacy; vitamins also turned out to be profitable products for new or existing industries. Consequently, vitamins drove scientists and commercial vitamin producers into each others' arms during the first decades of the century. Several publications--by Harmke Kamminga and Sally Horrocks for instance--deal with the causes and effects of forms of co-operation between science and industry in the nutritional and pharmaceutical sector. They mostly stress--using examples from Great-Britain--the interconnected interests from which both profited: industry-sponsored vitamin research made vitamins available to a larger public of consumers, with scientists authorizing the health claims of the products these companies tried to sell. This article shows how Dutch scientists and vitamin producers were concerned with the same issue in the inter-war period. Not only does it focus on the interconnected interests, but particularly on the conflicts of interests scientists were experiencing whilst performing advisory or research work for the industry. The article singles out E.J.J. Buytendijk, nowadays remembered for his pioneering research in the field of phenomenological psychology after the Second World War, and his involvement with the Swiss vitamin preparation Eviunis at the end of the nineteen-twenties. Buytendijk actively promoted the introduction of this particular preparation on the Dutch market. He was confronted with a growing number of critics, however, after tests demonstrated how the preparation could hardly sustain any of the claims that had been made with regard to its vitamin-like performance. Buytendijk's strongest critics accused him of misusing his scientific authority to sell a fraudulent product--after all, he that maintained his own tests had confirmed Eviunis' claims. A final, state-ordered counter test of Eviunis

  5. A Commentary on Innovation and Emerging Scientific Careers: Is Social Work Prepared to Compete in Today's Scientific Marketplace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Jaih B.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to address some of the questions Dr. Paula S. Nurius presents in her article, "Innovation and Emerging Scientific Careers: Is Social Work Prepared to Compete in Today?s Scientific Marketplace?" Specifically, this article will focus on what we can do to better prepare our emerging research scholars to be…

  6. 21 CFR 184.1985 - Aminopeptidase enzyme preparation derived from lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) and other peptidases that hydrolyze milk proteins. The preparation is produced by pure culture... manufacture of cheddar cheese, in accordance with § 133.113 of this chapter, and in the preparation of...

  7. Preparation and characterization of polymer-derived amorphous silicon carbide with silicon-rich stoichiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Takashi, E-mail: mtakashi@jaist.ac.jp [School of Material and Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Iwasaka, Akira [School of Material and Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Takagishi, Hideyuki [Faculty of Symbiotic System Science, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima-shi, Fukushima 960-1296 (Japan); Shimoda, Tatsuya [School of Material and Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)

    2016-08-01

    Polydihydrosilane with pendant hexyl groups was synthesized to obtain silicon-rich amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) films via the solution route. Unlike conventional polymeric precursors, this polymer requires neither catalysts nor oxidation for its synthesis and cross-linkage. Therefore, the polymer provides sufficient purity for the fabrication of semiconducting a-SiC. Here, we investigated the correlation of Si/C stoichiometry between the polymer and the resultant a-SiC film. The structural, optical, and electrical properties of the films with various carbon contents were also explored. Experimental results suggested that the excess carbon that did not participate in Si−C configurations was decomposed and was evaporated during polymer-to-SiC conversion. Consequently, the upper limit of the carbon in resultant a-SiC film was < 50 at.%; namely, the polymer provided silicon-rich a-SiC, whereas the conventionally used polycarbosilane inevitably provides carbon-rich one. These features of this unusual polymer open up a frontier of polymer-derived SiC and solution-processed SiC electronics. - Highlights: • Polymeric precursor solution for silicon carbide (SiC) is synthesized. • Semiconducting amorphous SiC is prepared via solution route. • The excess carbon is decomposed during cross-linking resulting in Si-rich SiC films. • The grown SiC films contain substantial amount of hydrogen atoms as SiH{sub n}/CH{sub n} entities. • Presence of CH{sub n} entities induces dangling bonds, causing poor electrical properties.

  8. Career Skills Said to Get Short Shrift: U.S. Seen Lagging in Melding Preparation for College, Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cech, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    In education and workforce-training circles, a frequent mantra is that students must graduate from high school prepared for both college and work. This article reports that amid the calls for "college for all" and the clamor for more rigorous academics, the "work" part of that imperative may be muffled to the point that high-wage jobs not…

  9. Understanding the Needs of All the Stakeholders: Issues of Training and Preparation for Health Work Students and Their Clinical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmanshof, Louise; Moore, Keri

    2016-01-01

    Work-integrated learning (WIL) is vital for preparing health-work students for practice. WIL activities have multiple stakeholders, each with their own set of expectations and requirements, both explicit and implicit. Negotiations to provide these learning experiences for students happen at many levels and those at the coalface are often unaware…

  10. The assessment of the level of knowledge and the use of plant-derived preparations among people reporting to the Rehabilitation Clinic in Lublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Amarowicz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant-derived compounds in medicine arouses more and more interest. Most plants contain numerous active ingredients that may have therapeutic effects on the human body. For many years, herbs have been used as medicinal agents. However, it is necessary to learn about the chemical content of the plant as well as how they work on the human body. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of preparations containing plant extracts and the assessment of respondents’ knowledge about plant resources with medicinal properties. The study group consisted of people who visited the Rehabilitation Department in Lublin. Respondents voluntarily filled out the questionnaire consisting of 21 questions. 33 persons were examined in total. More than 77% of those who participated in the study have ever applied preparations of plant origin. More than half rated their level of knowledge about medicinal plants as small. Respondents gained knowledge about data on herbs and herbal supplements from several sources. None of the respondents considers preparations containing plant extracts as fully safe for the body and no one would use it without consulting a doctor first. The majority of respondents (over 63% rated the effectiveness of the plant-derived compounds as good. Over 90% of respondents noticed positive effects of the use of plant supplements. Most respondents did not use compounds of plant origin which might slow down the body’s aging process or improve memory and concentration. However, more than half of the respondents applied preparations containing sedative plant extracts. As seen in the studies and the discussion above, the prevalence of the use of plant-derived compounds among respondents is relatively large. Respondents do not have sufficient knowledge of these substances. Almost all respondents notice the positive impact of plant compounds on the body. There is a need for educational campaigns among society to enrich the knowledge on the

  11. Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers using anacardic acid monomers derived from cashew nut shell liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Joseph Y N; Buchweishaija, Joseph; Mkayula, Lupituko L; Ye, Lei

    2007-10-31

    The objective of this work was to use monomers from cashew ( Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shells to develop molecularly imprinted polymers. Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is a cheap and renewable agro byproduct consisting of versatile monomers. Solvent-extracted CNSL contains over 80% anacardic acid (AnAc) with more than 90% degree of unsaturation in its C 15 side chain. From AnAc monomer, anacardanyl acrylate (AnAcr) and anacardanyl methacrylate (AnMcr) monomers were synthesized and their chemical structures were characterized by Fourier transform IR and NMR. Different imprinted bulk polymers based on AnAc, AnAcr, and AnMcr functional monomers have been prepared. In the present study, each functional monomer was separately copolymerized in toluene with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and divinylbenzene as cross-linkers, using racemic propranolol as a model template. While the AnAc based polymer revealed a meager rebinding ability, the imprinted polymers made from AnAcr and AnMcr displayed highly specific propranolol binding. At a polymer concentration of 2 mg/mL, AnAcr and AnMcr based imprinted polymers were able to bind over 50% of trace propranolol (initial concentration 1.2 nM). Under the same condition propranolol uptake by the two nonimprinted control polymers was less than 20%. Chiral recognition properties of these polymers were further confirmed using tritium-labeled (S)-propranolol as a tracer in displacement experiments, suggesting that the apparent affinity of the imprinted chiral sites for the correct enantiomer is at least 10 times that of the mismatched (R)-propranolol. Moreover, cross reactivity studies of these polymers showed that the (S)-imprinted sites have higher cross-reactivity toward (R, S)-metoprolol than (R)-propranolol and (R)-timolol.

  12. Preparation of Dis-Azo Dyes Derived from p-Aminophenol and Their Fastness Properties for Synthetic Polymer-Fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otutu, J. O.; Okoro, D.; Ossai, E. K.

    The preparation and properties of a series of dis-azo dyes derived from p-aminophenol is described. The influence on colour, dyeing fastness properties of the dyes on synthetic polymer-fibres is reported. Most of the dyes synthesized afford better light fastness and better wet (wash, perspiration) fastness on PET than on nylon 6 fabric. The structure of each compound was confirmed by using infrared, UV-VIS and elemental analysis.

  13. Syntheses of alkenylated carbohydrate derivatives toward the preparation of monolayers on silicon surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smet, de L.C.P.M.; Pukin, A.V.; Stork, G.A.; Vos, de C.H.; Visser, G.M.; Zuilhof, H.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2004-01-01

    This note describes the synthesis of different alkenylated carbohydrate derivatives suitable for direct attachment to hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces. The derivatives were alkenylated at the C-1 position, while the remaining hydroxyl groups were protected. The development of such new carbohydra

  14. Revisiting catechol derivatives as robust chromogenic hydrogen donors working in alkaline media for peroxidase mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Marcin; Pietrzak, Mariusz; Pytlos, Jakub; Malinowska, Elżbieta

    2016-12-15

    Colloidal noble metal-based nanoparticles are able to catalyze oxidation of chromogenic substrates by H2O2, similarly to peroxidases, even in basic media. However, lack of robust chromogens, which work in high pH impedes their real applications. Herein we demonstrate the applicability of selected catechol derivatives: bromopyrogallol red (BPR) and pyrogallol (PG) as chromogenic substrates for peroxidase-like activity assays, which are capable of working over wide range of pH, covering also basic values. Hyperbranched polyglycidol-stabilized gold nanoparticles (HBPG@AuNPs) were used as model enzyme mimetics. Efficiency of several methods of improving stability of substrates in alkaline media by means of selective suppression of their autoxidation by molecular oxygen was evaluated. In a framework of presented studies the impact of borate anion, applied as complexing agent for PG and BPR, on their stability and reactivity towards oxidation mediated by catalytic AuNPs was investigated. The key role of high concentration of hydrogen peroxide in elimination of non-catalytic oxidation of PG and improvement of optical properties of BPR in alkaline media containing borate was underlined. Described methods of peroxidase-like activity characterization with the use of BPR and PG can become universal tools for characterization of nanozymes, which gain various applications, among others, they are used as catalytic labels in bioassays and biosensors.

  15. Hybrid micro-/nano-structures derived from metal-organic frameworks: preparation and applications in energy storage and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiehong; Tan, Chaoliang; Sindoro, Melinda; Zhang, Hua

    2017-05-22

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), an important class of inorganic-organic hybrid crystals with intrinsic porous structures, can be used as versatile precursors or sacrificial templates for preparation of numerous functional nanomaterials for various applications. Recent developments of MOF-derived hybrid micro-/nano-structures, constructed by more than two components with varied functionalities, have revealed their extensive capabilities to overcome the weaknesses of the individual counterparts and thus give enhanced performance for energy storage and conversion. In this tutorial review, we summarize the recent advances in MOF-derived hybrid micro-/nano-structures. The synthetic strategies for preparing MOF-derived hybrid micro-/nano-structures are first introduced. Focusing on energy storage and conversion, we then discuss their potential applications in lithium-ion batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries, supercapacitors, lithium-oxygen batteries and fuel cells. Finally, we give our personal insights into the challenges and opportunities for the future research of MOF-derived hybrid micro-/nano-structures.

  16. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of overlapping spectra of paracetamol and caffeine in laboratory prepared mixtures and pharmaceutical preparations using continuous wavelet and derivative transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ashour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, two spectrophotometric methods were used for the simultaneous analysis of paracetamol (PCT and caffeine (CAF in their laboratory prepared mixtures and pharmaceutical preparations. Simple spectrophotometric analysis of PCT and CAF is not possible due to their complete spectral overlap. The proposed methods are based on the application of continuous wavelet transform (CWT and derivative transform (using Savitsky–Golay filters on the ratio spectra to predict each of CAF and PCT. Several wavelet families were tested. Coif1 and Sym2 were found to give best results under optimum conditions. The transformed signals of ratio spectra were used to plot the calibration curves for both components. The predictability of the built calibrations was validated through their application on several synthetic mixtures of both drugs. The proposed methods were used for the prediction of CAF and PCT in pharmaceutical preparation. The obtained results were statistically compared to a reference HPLC method. No significant differences were found between the obtained results and those from the reference method. Being simple, rapid, cheap and sensitive, the proposed methods are recommended for the routine daily analysis of these two drugs in their mixtures in quality control laboratories.

  17. Preparative separation of arsenate from phosphate by IRA-400 (OH) for oxygen isotopic work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaohui; Berner, Zsolt; Khelashvilli, Pirimze; Norra, Stefan

    2013-02-15

    The paper reports about a series of tests carried out to find out the optimal conditions for the preparative separation of arsenate and phosphate from natural waters, using the anion exchange resin Amberlite IRA-400 (OH). Freundlich isotherms have been constructed on basis of data obtained by stirring different amounts of resin (0.05-1.00 g) with solutions containing 1mg/L As and 10mg/L P in form of arsenate and phosphate and the effect of pH and P/As ratio on adsorption was investigated. It was found that at these concentrations 0.5 g of IRA-400 (OH) can adsorb quantitatively arsenate and phosphate within 1h. In a range of 3.6-11.1, pH seems to have no influence on the adsorption behavior of the resin, but at pH 1.5 the adsorption of both arsenate and phosphate drops to values close to zero. Experiments with solutions with P/As ratios in a range between 1 and 30 have shown that the concentration ratios have also little effect on adsorption. An efficient selective desorption of the anions could be achieved with 2 mol/L HNO3 or HCl, but the use of HCl is impracticable if the separation aims at precipitating arsenate for oxygen isotopic work. The reported adsorption/ desorption properties of the resin are supported also by data obtained by investigating the resin particles with a scanning electron microscope equipped with a fluorescence detection device.

  18. 'Working' cardiomyocytes exhibiting plateau action potentials from human placenta-derived extraembryonic mesodermal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kazuma; Miyoshi, Shunichiro; Toyoda, Masashi; Hida, Naoko; Ikegami, Yukinori; Makino, Hatsune; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Tsuji, Hiroko; Cui, Chang-Hao; Segawa, Kaoru; Uyama, Taro; Kami, Daisuke; Miyado, Kenji; Asada, Hironori; Matsumoto, Kenji; Saito, Hirohisa; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Ogawa, Satoshi; Aeba, Ryo; Yozu, Ryohei; Umezawa, Akihiro

    2007-07-15

    The clinical application of cell transplantation for severe heart failure is a promising strategy to improve impaired cardiac function. Recently, an array of cell types, including bone marrow cells, endothelial progenitors, mesenchymal stem cells, resident cardiac stem cells, and embryonic stem cells, have become important candidates for cell sources for cardiac repair. In the present study, we focused on the placenta as a cell source. Cells from the chorionic plate in the fetal portion of the human placenta were obtained after delivery by the primary culture method, and the cells generated in this study had the Y sex chromosome, indicating that the cells were derived from the fetus. The cells potentially expressed 'working' cardiomyocyte-specific genes such as cardiac myosin heavy chain 7beta, atrial myosin light chain, cardiac alpha-actin by gene chip analysis, and Csx/Nkx2.5, GATA4 by RT-PCR, cardiac troponin-I and connexin 43 by immunohistochemistry. These cells were able to differentiate into cardiomyocytes. Cardiac troponin-I and connexin 43 displayed a discontinuous pattern of localization at intercellular contact sites after cardiomyogenic differentiation, suggesting that the chorionic mesoderm contained a large number of cells with cardiomyogenic potential. The cells began spontaneously beating 3 days after co-cultivation with murine fetal cardiomyocytes and the frequency of beating cells reached a maximum on day 10. The contraction of the cardiomyocytes was rhythmical and synchronous, suggesting the presence of electrical communication between the cells. Placenta-derived human fetal cells may be useful for patients who cannot supply bone marrow cells but want to receive stem cell-based cardiac therapy.

  19. Preparation of Novel Derivatives Containing Bi-Perfluorooctane-Sulfonamide Groups and Their Surface Properties on Paper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Kong-liang; SHI Ya-qi; WU Zhong-jie

    2007-01-01

    Novel derivatives containing bi-perfluorooctane-sulfonamide group were designed and synthesized. The19FNMR, FTIR were used to characterize derivativesstructures. The compounds were applied to paper for oil-repellency. The results show that treated paper hadexcellent oil-repellency at very low concentration of bi-perfluorooctane-sulfonamide derivatives. When novelcompounds, polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) and oxidized starchwere applied together as coat sizing, the oxidized starch andPVA did not affect the oil repellency properties of paper.

  20. Polymerization in Liquid Crystal Medium: Preparation of Polythiophene Derivatives Bearing a Bulky Pyrimidine Substituent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromasa Goto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We carried out polycondensation of monomers bearing a bulky pyrimidine substituent in a liquid crystal solvent. The resultant polymers formed nematic liquid crystals. The polymers prepared in liquid crystals had higher coplanarity than the polymers prepared in toluene. This can be due to the fact that the ordered medium of the liquid crystal produces an aggregated structure with well-developed π-stacking between the main chains. The present results demonstrated that polymerization of bulky monomers is possible in liquid crystal solvents.

  1. Preparation and properties of gem-dichlorocyclopropane derivatives of long-chain fatty esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, M S; Wong, C F

    1992-01-01

    Methyl oleate (18:1) and linoleate (18:2) were readily transformed to the corresponding gem-dichlorocyclopropane derivatives in high yield, using triethylbenzylammonium chloride as the phase-transfer catalyst in the presence of aqueous NaOH and CHCl3. Reaction of dichlorocarbene with methyl 12-hydroxystearate furnished methyl 12-chlorostearate (49%) and 12-O-formylstearate (19%). The hydroxy group in methyl ricinoleate was protected (O-tetrahydropyran-2'-yl) prior to dichlorocyclopropanation of the ethylenic bond. Removal of the protecting group allowed the hydroxy group to be converted to a chloride, O-acetyl, azido or O-formyl function. Treatment of methyl ricinoleate with thionyl chloride, followed by the reaction with dichlorocarbene gave the corresponding 12-chloro-dichlorocyclopropane derivative. The dichlorocyclopropane derivative of oleic acid was transformed to a C19 allenic fatty acid when treated with t-butyl lithium. However, the remaining dichlorocyclopropane derivatives containing an additional functional group in the alkyl chain, failed to yield the corresponding allenic derivatives. All derivatives were characterized by a combination of spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques, including infrared, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and 13C NMR spectroscopy.

  2. Nazareth College: Specialty Preparation for Speech-Language Pathologists to Work with Children Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paula M.; Quenin, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    The specialty preparation program within the speech-language pathology master's degree program at Nazareth College in Rochester, New York, was designed to train speech-language pathologists to work with children who are deaf and hard of hearing, ages 0 to 21. The program is offered in collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology,…

  3. Long-term stability of Vero cell-derived inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine prepared using serum-free medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriniwa, Hiroko; Komiya, Tomoyoshi

    2008-07-04

    We established a method of producing a Vero cell-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine using serum-free medium, and tested its stability using various stabilizers during the inactivation process and storage at 4 degrees C and 28 degrees C. Similar to previously reported results of cell culture in serum-containing medium, Vero cells were cultured in a serum-free medium multiplied well, and the viral yield was successfully increased to about 10(9)PFU/ml. Following formalin-inactivation and purification via ethanol precipitation and sucrose density ultracentrifugation of the virus solution, the vaccine had the same quality as, and higher immunogenicity, the mouse brain-derived vaccine in current use. Testing of several stabilizers showed that the addition of 0.5% glycine during the virus inactivation process facilitated the maintenance of immunogenicity for a long period of time. Furthermore, the addition of 0.5% glycine and 1.0% sorbitol as vaccine stabilizers after purification led to the maintenance of immunogenicity for 1 year, not dependent on the storage temperature (4 degrees C or 28 degrees C). These results indicate that, in contrast to the current mouse brain-derived vaccine, the Vero cell-derived vaccine can be prepared using serum-free medium containing no animal-derived components, and that the vaccine can be stored at room temperature by adding stabilizers, suggesting the possibility of producing room temperature-stable vaccines.

  4. Curatorial Works for the Hayabusa-Returned Sample and Preparation for Hayabusa2 Sample Curation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yada, T.; Abe, M.; Okada, T.; Yurimoto, H.; Uesugi, M.; Karouji, Y.; Nakato, A.; Hashiguchi, M.; Nishimura, M.; Kumagai, K.; Matsui, S.; Yoshitake, M.; Sakamoto, K.; Nakano, Y.; Kawasaki, N.; Fujimoto, M.

    2016-08-01

    We continue describing Hayabusa-returned samples after its return in 2010. The number of described particles reaches around 650 and >540 of them are identified as Itokawa origin. We also start preparation for Hayabusa2 sample curation.

  5. 75 FR 18848 - Preparation for International Conference on Harmonisation Steering Committee and Expert Working...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Preparation for International Conference on Harmonisation... International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) as well as the upcoming meetings in Tallinn, Estonia. The topics... associations to promote international harmonization of regulatory requirements. FDA has participated in...

  6. Preparation of substituted quaternized arylfuran chitosan derivatives and their antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chethan, P D; Vishalakshi, B; Sathish, L; Ananda, K; Poojary, Boja

    2013-08-01

    Heterocyclic modification of chitosan has been achieved through the formation of a Schiff base intermediate by the reaction of chitosan with substituted arylfurfural. The Schiff bases were further reacted with 10% sodium borohydride followed by reaction with methyl iodide to get the quaternized products. The formation of the Schiff bases and quaternized derivatives has been confirmed by elemental analysis, FTIR, (1)H NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. The compounds are also characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis. The parent compound and quaternized derivatives were compared for their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The results indicated that quaternized derivatives possess better inhibitory property than chitosan. Further this study confirms that heterocyclic aromatic substituent containing 'Cl' and 'NO2' are effective in enhancing the antimicrobial activity of Chitosan.

  7. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of benzylsulfanyl benzoxazole derivatives as potential antituberculosis agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimesová, Vera; Kocí, Jan; Waisser, Karel; Kaustová, Jarmila; Möllmann, Ute

    2009-05-01

    A set of 2-benzylsulfanyl derivatives of benzoxazole was synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, non-tuberculous mycobacteria and multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis. The activities were expressed as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in mmol/L. The substances showed similar activity against all tested strains. The lead compounds in the set, dinitro derivatives exhibited significant activity against both sensitive and resistant strains of M. tuberculosis and also against non-tuberculous mycobacteria. To facilitate drug design of benzoxazole as potential antituberculosis agent, we have explored the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR). We demonstrated that lower lipophilicity has significant contribution to activity. Dinitrobenzylsulfanyl derivative of benzoxazole represents the promising small-molecule synthetic antimycobacterials.

  8. Preparing MSW Students for Social Work Licensure: A Curricular Case Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. Jay; Grise-Owens, Erlene; Escobar-Ratliff, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Licensing has been a dynamic tension for the social work profession for many years, specifically in social work education. Increasingly, social work programs are using factors related to social work licensing (pass rates, number of test takers, etc.) as an indicator of programmatic success. Yet few, if any, published papers examine curricular…

  9. Preparation and tribology properties of water-soluble fullerene derivative nanoball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guichang Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble fullerene derivatives were synthesized via radical polymerization. They are completely soluble in water, yielding a clear brown solution. The products were characterized by FTIR, UV–Vis, 1H-NMR, 13CNMR, GPC, TGA, and SEM. Four-ball tests show that the addition of a certain concentration of the fullerene derivatives to base stock (2 wt.% triethanolamine aqueous solution can effectively increase both the load-carrying capacity (PB value, and the resistance to wear. SEM observations confirm the additive results in a reduced diameter of the wear scar and decreased wear.

  10. Usage of Working Time for Preparation and Cutting of Cloth in Garments’ Production

    OpenAIRE

    Beļakova, Dana; Ziemele, Inese

    2014-01-01

    Production working time expenditure management and standardizing is vital in the present global apparel production market to be able to compete in the market.Working time expenditure is connected with production quality, costs and productivity and by using appropriate working time expenditure determinationmethods, it is possible to find production margins, improve working methods and to find a midway between production costs and worker salaries. Therefore it isimportant to carry out working t...

  11. Preparation, characterization, and potential application of chitosan, chitosan derivatives, and chitosan metal nanoparticles in pharmaceutical drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed TA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tarek A Ahmed1,2 Bader M Aljaeid11Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: Naturally occurring polymers, particularly of the polysaccharide type, have been used pharmaceutically for the delivery of a wide variety of therapeutic agents. Chitosan, the second abundant naturally occurring polysaccharide next to cellulose, is a biocompatible and biodegradable mucoadhesive polymer that has been extensively used in the preparation of micro- as well as nanoparticles. The prepared particles have been exploited as a potential carrier for different therapeutic agents such as peptides, proteins, vaccines, DNA, and drugs for parenteral and nonparenteral administration. Therapeutic agent-loaded chitosan micro- or nanoparticles were found to be more stable, permeable, and bioactive. In this review, we are highlighting the different methods of preparation and characterization of chitosan micro- and nanoparticles, while reviewing the pharmaceutical applications of these particles in drug delivery. Moreover, the roles of chitosan derivatives and chitosan metal nanoparticles in drug delivery have been illustrated.Keywords: nanoparticles, microparticles, preparation, characterization, pharmaceutical application

  12. Conversion of furan derivatives for preparation of biofuels over Ni-Cu/C catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Zhaolin; Wang, Z.; Lin, Weigang

    2017-01-01

    Conversions of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural as model components in bio-oil were investigated over Ni-Cu/C catalyst with formic acid as hydrogen donor in isopropanol solvent to produce biofuels. The effects of reaction temperature, feed ratio, and reaction time were studied. A high yield...... biofuels from furan derivatives....

  13. Preparing Social Work Students for International Interdisciplinary Practice: A Teaching Model and Its Impact on Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Zubaroglu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To promote international social work education and prepare MSW graduates for international careers, several teaching models have been developed, including intensive teaching in international settings, hybrid teaching with study abroad components, and applied learning through service learning and international internships. Benefits of international social work education range from increased knowledge and skills in addressing global issues through policy and advocacy, to significant improvements in multi-cultural competence and awareness upon participation in structured cultural immersion programs. Current challenges for social workers in international development careers point to the need for an interdisciplinary approach to best address complex global social issues. This paper proposes an international interdisciplinary teaching model that aims to prepare social work students for international development practice. Based on a pilot study of the proposed model, students showed significant increases in the self-efficacy of interdisciplinary international knowledge and skills.

  14. Preparing to Understand Feminism in the Twenty-First Century: Global Social Change, Women's Work, and Women's Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torry Dickinson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The history of women's non-wage work, women's wage labor, and contemporary women's movements can be understood with greater clarity if studies of "globalization", feminism, and the capitalist world-economy are examined in relationship to each other. Today many women's movements clearly reflect, respond to, and attempt to shape changes in wage (employer-organized and non-wage (labor-organized work relations. This paper is a conceptual, theoretical and historical exploration of how scholars, who study inter-related global areas, can prepare to do research on women's work and women's movements that will contribute to the development of "globalization", feminist, and world-economy scholarship.

  15. Long SiC nanowires synthesized from off-gases of the polycarbosilane-derived SiC preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gong-Yi; Li, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Hao [National University of Defense Technology, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramic Fibers and Composites, College of Aerospace and Materials Engineering, Changsha (China); Liu, Lin [Wuhan Mechanical Technology College, Wuhan (China)

    2010-02-15

    In this communication, we report on the attempt to make full use of the off-gases from polycarbosilane-derived SiC preparation, and we successfully synthesized long SiC nanowires in large areas with Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} as catalyst. The nanowires have diameters of about 80-300 nm and lengths of millimeters, and they are identified as single crystals {beta}-SiC along the left angle 111 right angle direction. The VLS mechanism was employed to interpret the nanowire growth. (orig.)

  16. Preparation for meaningful work and life: Urban high school youth’s reflections on work-based learning one year post-graduation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen E Kenny

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The challenges confronted by low-income high school students throughout school and across the transition to higher education and employment are well-documented in the United States and many other nations. Adopting a positive youth development (PYD perspective (Lerner, Almerigi, Theokas, and Lerner, 2005, this study reports findings from interviews with 18 low-income, racially and ethnically diverse graduates of an urban Catholic high school in the U.S. The interviews were designed to shed light on the post-high school experiences of urban high school graduates and to understand how students construct meaning about the value of school and work-based learning (WBL in their preparation for meaningful work and life. The interviews highlight the perceived value of the academic and noncognitive preparation students experienced through high school and WBL in relation to the challenges they encountered along the pathway to post-high school success and decent work. Overall, the findings suggest the potential of WBL for low-income youth in facilitating access to resources that build academic and psychological/noncognitive assets, while also illustrating the role of structural and contextual factors in shaping post-high school transitions and access to meaningful work and life opportunities.

  17. Application of TLC- Densitometry, First Derivative and Ratio Derivative Spectrophotometry for the Determination of Eprosartan Mesylate and Hydrochlorothiazide in Pharmaceutical Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad M Hussien

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Three sensitive and accurate methods are described for the direct determination of eprosartan mesylate (EPM and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT in bulk powder and combined dosage form without prior separation. The first method is a first derivative spectrophotometry (1D using a zerocrossing technique of measurement at 240.7 nm for EPM and at 233.4 nm for HCT. The second method is the first derivative of ratio spectrophotometry (1DD where the amplitudes were measured at 237.0 nm for EPM and at 277.0 nm for HCT. The third method is based on TLC separation of the two drugs followed by densitometric measurements of their spots at 290 and 270 nm for EPM and HCT, respectively. The separation was carried out on silica gel 60 F254 using n-butyl acetate-ethanol-waterammonia 33% (40:40:10:1, v/v/v/v as mobile phase. The calibration curves were linear in the range 1.0-18.0, 2.0- 18.0 μg mL-1 and 2.0-20.0 μg/spot for EPM and 1.0-9.0, 1.0-9.0 μg mL-1 and 2.0-9.0 μg/ spot for HCT using 1D, 1DD and TLC methods, respectively. The suggested methods were tested using laboratory-prepared mixtures and were successfully applied for the analysis of pharmaceutical preparations. The methods retained their accuracy and precision when the standard addition technique was applied. The results obtained by applying the proposed methods were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by the manufacturer’s and USP methods for EPM and HCT, respectively.

  18. Preparation of the selenome-thionine derivative of tab- toxin resistance protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to obtain phase information for the X-ray diffraction of tabtoxin resistance protein (TTR) crystal using the MAD phasing method, a selenomethionine (Se- Met) derivative of TTR was overexpressed in E. coli strain M15, with pQE-30 plasmid, through IPTG induction in M9 medium containing Se-Met. The product was purified to an estimated homogeneity of greater than 95% according to SDS-PAGE, by a Ni-NTA metal affinity followed by a Mono Q anion exchange column chromatography. The successful substitution of Se-Met for methionine (Met) was confirmed by MALDI-TOF and ESI-Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry analysis. The derivative crystal was obtained using similar conditions as those for the native.

  19. Dodecenylsuccinic Anhydride Derivatives of Gum Karaya (Sterculia urens): Preparation, Characterization, and Their Antibacterial Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Padil, V.V.T.; Senan, Chandra; Cernik, M

    2015-01-01

    Esterifications of the tree-based gum, gum karaya (GK), using dodecenylsuccinic anhydride (DDSA) were carried out in aqueous solutions. GK was deacetylated using alkali treatment to obtain deacetylated gum karaya (DGK). The DGK and its DDSA derivative were characterized using gel permeation chromatography/multiangle laser light scattering (GPC/MALLS), attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), proton nuclear magnetic re...

  20. Preparation and Properties of New Inorganic Glasses and Gel-Derived Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    application of halide glass fibers. We have therefore performed P accurate annealing temperatures on ZBLA and ZBLAN glass fibers. Figure 11 shows the length...New Inorganic Glasses and Gel-Derived Solids . .2. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) ’/ J. D. Mackenzie 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT...necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP , Sol-gel methods, --Halide glasses , Porous glass -polymer composites, Fluorozirconate glasses

  1. Understanding Academic Work as Practical Activity--and Preparing (Business-School) Academics for Praxis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasanen, Keijo

    2009-01-01

    This text suggests a way of framing academic work and outlines a design for a preparatory event based on this understanding. It conceives academic work as "practical activity" and potential "praxis" in emergence by focusing on four issues: how can I do this work (tactical stance), what can I accomplish and achieve in it…

  2. Understanding Academic Work as Practical Activity--and Preparing (Business-School) Academics for Praxis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasanen, Keijo

    2009-01-01

    This text suggests a way of framing academic work and outlines a design for a preparatory event based on this understanding. It conceives academic work as "practical activity" and potential "praxis" in emergence by focusing on four issues: how can I do this work (tactical stance), what can I accomplish and achieve in it…

  3. Understanding Academic Work as Practical Activity--and Preparing (Business-School) Academics for Praxis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasanen, Keijo

    2009-01-01

    This text suggests a way of framing academic work and outlines a design for a preparatory event based on this understanding. It conceives academic work as "practical activity" and potential "praxis" in emergence by focusing on four issues: how can I do this work (tactical stance), what can I accomplish and achieve in it (political), why are my…

  4. Preparation and properties evaluation of biolubricants derived from canola oil and canola biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajesh V; Somidi, Asish K R; Dalai, Ajay K

    2015-04-01

    This study demonstrates the evaluation and comparison of the lubricity properties of the biolubricants prepared from the feed stocks such as canola oil and canola biodiesel. Biolubricant from canola biodiesel has a low cloud and pour point properties, better friction and antiwear properties, low phase transition temperature, is less viscous, and has the potential to substitute petroleum-based automotive lubricants. Biolubricant from canola oil has high thermal stability and is more viscous and more effective at higher temperature conditions. This study elucidates that both the biolubricants are attractive, renewable, and ecofriendly substitutes for the petroleum-based lubricants.

  5. Preparation and adsorption behavior for metal ions and humic acid of chitosan derivatives crosslinked by irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the determination of the adsorption properties of metal ions and humic acid in water on crosslinked chitosan derivatives (carboxymethylchitosan) which were formed using the irradiation technique without any additives. The solubility test of these crosslinked materials were investigated in acidic, alkaline media,distilled water, and certain organic solvents. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images showed that the crosslinked chitosan derivatives possessed a porous morphological structure. Charged characteristic analyses demonstrated typically pH-dependent properties of the crosslinked materials. The adsorption studies were carried out by the batch method at room temperature. Adsorption of heavy metal ions (such as Cu2+, Cd2+) and humic acid onto crosslinked samples was found to be strongly pH-dependent. Adsorption kinetic studies indicated the rapid removal of metal ions, and humic acid from the aqueous solutions. Moreover, isothermal adsorption data revealed that Cu2+, Cd2+,and humic acid were removed by these crosslinked materials with high efficiency. Adsorption isothermal data were interpreted well by the Langmuir equation. These crosslinked carboxymethylated chitosan derivatives indicate favorable adsorption of metal ions and humic acid.

  6. Dodecenylsuccinic anhydride derivatives of gum karaya (Sterculia urens): preparation, characterization, and their antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padil, Vinod Vellora Thekkae; Senan, Chandra; Černík, Miroslav

    2015-04-15

    Esterifications of the tree-based gum, gum karaya (GK), using dodecenylsuccinic anhydride (DDSA) were carried out in aqueous solutions. GK was deacetylated using alkali treatment to obtain deacetylated gum karaya (DGK). The DGK and its DDSA derivative were characterized using gel permeation chromatography/multiangle laser light scattering (GPC/MALLS), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, and rheological studies. The degree of substitution was found to be 10.25% for DGK using (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The critical aggregation concentration of DDSA-DGK was determined using dye solubilization and surface tension methods. The antibacterial activity of the DDSA-DGK derivative was then investigated against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. The DDSA-DGK derivative has the potential for use as a stabilizing agent in food and nonfood applications. It can also be developed as an antibacterial agent.

  7. Preparation and physiological activities of carboxymethylated derivative purified from corn bran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linghui; Fang, Miaoli; Ma, Jianjun; Mo, Qing

    2017-06-01

    Two water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from corn bran were chemically modified to obtain their carboxymethylated derivatives (C-CBP1, C-CBP2). Theresults of degree of substitution and FT-IR analysis showed the carboxymethylation of polysaccharides were successful. The average molecular weight (Mw) of C-CBP1 and C-CBP2 were 368 and 263kDa, respectively. The degree of substitution (DS) of C-CBP1 and C-CBP2 were determined to be 0.44 and 0.46. The results showed that derivatives were effective in antioxidant and bile acidbinding activityin a dose dependent way. And C-CBP2 had the higher activity for hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion scavenging activities and bile acid capacity, as lower molecular weight plays a critical role in antioxidant activities and bile acid capacity. The results suggest that the carboxymethylated derivatives are potential natural antioxidant and blood fat reduce agent that can be used as drugs or functional food ingredients.

  8. Chitosan Derivatives/Calcium Carbonate Composite Capsules Prepared by the Layer-by-Layer Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sasaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Core/shell capsules composed of calcium carbonate whisker core (rod-like shape and chitosan/chitosansulfate shell were prepared by the layer-by-layer deposition technique. Two chitosan samples of different molecular weights (Mw=9.7×104 and 1.09×106g·mol-1 were used as original materials. Hollow capsules were also obtained by dissolution of the core in hydrochloric acid. Electron microscopy revealed that the surface of the shell is rather ragged associated with some agglomerates. The shell thickness l obeys a linear relation with respect to the number of deposited layers m as l=md+a(a>0. The values of d (thickness per layer were 4.0 and 1.0 nm for the higher and lower Mw chitosan materials, respectively, both of which are greater than the thickness of the monolayer. The results suggest that the feature of the deposition does not obey an ideal homogeneous monolayer-by-monolayer deposition mechanism. Shell crosslinked capsules were also prepared via photodimerization reaction of cinnamoyl groups after a deposition of cinnamoyl chitosan to the calcium carbonate whisker core. The degree of crosslink was not enough to stabilize the shell structure, and hollow capsule was not obtained.

  9. Preparation and characteristics of biosilica derived from marine diatom biomass of Nitzschia closterium and Thalassiosira

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yarong; Wang, Xin; Cheng, Jay Jiayang

    2017-05-01

    In this study, biosilica of high purity was successfully prepared from marine diatom ( Nitzschia closterium and Thalassiosira) biomass using an optimized novel method with acid washing treatment followed by thermal treatment of the biomass. The optimal condition of the method was 2% diluted HCl washing and baking at 600°C. The SiO2 contents of N. closterium biosilica and Thalassiosira biosilica were 92.23% and 91.52%, respectively, which were both higher than that of diatomite biosilica. The SiO2 morphologies of both biosilica are typical amorphous silica. Besides, N. closterium biosilica possessed micropores and fibers with a surface area of 59.81m2/g. And Thalassiosira biosilica possessed a mesoporous hierarchical skeleton with a surface area of 9.91m2/g. The results suggest that the biosilica samples obtained in this study present highly porous structures. The prepared porous biosilica material possesses great potential to be used as drug delivery carrier, biosensor, biocatalyst as well as adsorbent in the future.

  10. Preparative purification of plasmin activity stimulating phenolic derivatives from Gastrodia elata using centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Je-Seung; Kim, Jeeyoung; Park, Soyoung; Ryou, Chongsuk; Kim, Chul Young

    2016-06-01

    Gastrodia rhizome, a dried and steamed tuber of Gastrodia elata Blume (Orchidaceae), has been traditionally used in Korea, China and Japan for the treatment of neurological and nervous disorders such as headaches, dizziness, vertigo and convulsive illnesses. The ethyl acetate and water extracts of G. elata stimulated plasmin activity. The active ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) with a two-phase solvent system, composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:7:4:6, v/v) followed by semi-preparative HPLC purification to separate active compounds and the water fraction was purified by Diaion HP-20 resin and semi-preparative HPLC. In ethyl acetate extract, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (1), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3), 4-ethoxymethylphenol (4), 4,4'-oxybis(methylene)diphenol (5) and 4,4'-methylenediphenol (6) were obtained with high purities. Parishin (7) and parishin B (8) were isolated from water extract. Among isolated compounds, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (1), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3) and 4-ethoxymethylphenol (4) significantly stimulated plasmin activity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Pathologizing the Poor: Implications for Preparing Teachers to Work in High-Poverty Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullucci, Kerri; Howard, Tyrone

    2015-01-01

    The recent economic downturn highlights that poverty continues to be a significant social problem. Mindful of this demographic reality, it is imperative for teacher educators to pay close attention to the manner in which teachers are prepared to educate students from impoverished backgrounds. Given the number of frameworks that offer reductive…

  12. Preparing Graduates for Work in the Creative Industries: A Collaborative Learning Approach for Design Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Morag; Littlejohn, Allison; Allan, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    Interest in the use of collaborative learning strategies in higher education is growing as educators seek better ways to prepare students for the workplace. In design education, teamwork and creativity are particularly valued; successful collaborative learning depends on knowledge sharing between students, and there is increasing recognition that…

  13. Preparing Graduates for Work in the Creative Industries: A Collaborative Learning Approach for Design Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Morag; Littlejohn, Allison; Allan, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    Interest in the use of collaborative learning strategies in higher education is growing as educators seek better ways to prepare students for the workplace. In design education, teamwork and creativity are particularly valued; successful collaborative learning depends on knowledge sharing between students, and there is increasing recognition that…

  14. Engaging and Working in Solidarity with Local Communities in Preparing the Teachers of Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeichner, Ken; Bowman, Michael; Guillen, Lorena; Napolitan, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes a programmatic effort in teacher education, "The Community Teaching Strand" (CTS), to engage local community members as mentors of teacher candidates (TCs) in two postgraduate teacher preparation programs in a large research university. Three different conceptions of the nature and purpose of…

  15. Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Annette M.

    2003-01-01

    Draws upon Maria Montessori's writings to examine work as a universal human tendency throughout life. Discusses the work of adaptation of the infant, work of "psycho-muscular organism" for the preschooler, work of the imagination for the elementary child, community work of the adolescent, and work of the adult. Asserts that…

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Carbon Foam Derived from Fine Coal and Phenolic Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodi Irwandi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon foam from fine coal and phenolic resin mixture had been prepared by heating in nitrogen atmosphere. The composition of fine coal in a mixture was 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50%. Physical and mechanical characters of carbon foam that were determined from each of these compositions were density, porosity, compressive strength, and oxidation resistance and thermal insulation. Microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Thermal insulation was tested using an insulation index approach with Styrofoam for comparison. The result showed that the density and compressive strength were proportional to the composition, otherwise, the porosity. Oxidation resistance that was up to 45% composition still showed proportional value. Microstructure observations showed an irregular distribution of pore and uninform diameter. Insulation index of 34 to 50 °C showed almost the same values of all compositions and greater than styrofoam up to 50-150% which mean carbon foam had a better thermal insulation properties than styrofoam.

  17. Facile preparation of biodegradable chitosan derivative having poly(butylene glycol adipate) side chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meifang; Fang, Yue'e

    2006-08-15

    Various modes are being explored for the construction of functional materials from nanoparticles. Despite these efforts, the assembly of nanoparticles remains challenging with respect to the requirement of multiple component organization on varying dimensions and length scales. The graft copolymers of chitosan with poly(butylene glycol adipate) (PBGA) were prepared due to the esterification reaction between PBGA and 6-O-succinate-N-phthaloyl-chitosan (PHCSSA) in the presence of toluene as a swelling agent. The graft copolymers are nanoparticles with the size of few hundred nanometers as observed from TEM. It is a potential method to combine chitosan with the hydrophobic synthetic polymers. The grafting reactions were conducted with various PBGA/PHCSSA feed ratios to obtain chitosan-g-PBGA copolymers with various PBGA contents. FT-IR, NMR, XRD, spectrofluorophotometer, and TEM were detected to characterize the copolymers. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Preparation, characterization, physical properties, and photoconducting behaviour of anthracene derivative nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jinchong; Yin, Zongyou; Yang, Bo; Liu, Yi; Ji, Li; Guo, Jun; Huang, Ling; Liu, Xuewei; Yan, Qingyu; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Qichun

    2011-11-01

    Organic nanowires of 9,10-dibromoanthracene (DBA) and 9,10-dicyanoanthracene (DCNA) were obtained by adding the THF solution of DBA/DCNA into water containing P123 surfactants. The as-prepared nanowires were characterized by UV-vis, fluorescence spectra, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). We found that DBA and DCNA nanowires emitted green light rather than blue light for molecules in THF solution. The red-shift UV and fluorescent spectra of DBA and DCNA nanowires implied that these nanowires were formed through J-aggregation. The photoconducting study of DBA/DCNA nanowire-based network on rGO/SiO2/Si shows different photocurrent behaviors upon irradiation, which displayed that electron transfer from DCNA nanowire to rGO was stronger than that of DBA nanowires to rGO.Organic nanowires of 9,10-dibromoanthracene (DBA) and 9,10-dicyanoanthracene (DCNA) were obtained by adding the THF solution of DBA/DCNA into water containing P123 surfactants. The as-prepared nanowires were characterized by UV-vis, fluorescence spectra, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). We found that DBA and DCNA nanowires emitted green light rather than blue light for molecules in THF solution. The red-shift UV and fluorescent spectra of DBA and DCNA nanowires implied that these nanowires were formed through J-aggregation. The photoconducting study of DBA/DCNA nanowire-based network on rGO/SiO2/Si shows different photocurrent behaviors upon irradiation, which displayed that electron transfer from DCNA nanowire to rGO was stronger than that of DBA nanowires to rGO. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD patterns and simulations, and FT-IR spectra. CCDC reference numbers 840471. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10655d

  19. Preparation and evaluation of coal-derived activated carbons for removal of mercury vapor from simulated coal combustion flue fases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, H.-C.; Chen, S.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Richardson, C.F.; Carey, T.R.; Chang, R.

    1998-01-01

    Coal-derived activated carbons (CDACs) were tested for their suitability in removing trace amounts of vapor-phase mercury from simulated flue gases generated by coal combustion. CDACs were prepared in bench-scale and pilot-scale fluidized-bed reactors with a three-step process, including coal preoxidation, carbonization, and then steam activation. CDACs from high-organicsulfur Illinois coals had a greater equilibrium Hg0 adsorption capacity than activated carbons prepared from a low-organic-sulfur Illinois coal. When a low-organic-sulfur CDAC was impregnated with elemental sulfur at 600 ??C, its equilibrium Hg0 adsorption capacity was comparable to the adsorption capacity of the activated carbon prepared from the high-organicsulfur coal. X-ray diffraction and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure examinations showed that the sulfur in the CDACs was mainly in organic forms. These results suggested that a portion of the inherent organic sulfur in the starting coal, which remained in the CDACs, played an important role in adsorption of Hg0. Besides organic sulfur, the BET surface area and micropore area of the CDACs also influenced Hg0 adsorption capacity. The HgCl2 adsorption capacity was not as dependent on the surface area and concentration of sulfur in the CDACs as was adsorption of Hg0. The properties and mercury adsorption capacities of the CDACs were compared with those obtained for commercial Darco FGD carbon.

  20. Improvement to Maize Growth Caused by Biochars Derived From Six Feedstocks Prepared at Three Different Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yu; JIAO Yu-jie; ZHAO Xiao-rong; LI Gui-tong; ZHAO Li-xin; MENG Hai-bo

    2014-01-01

    Biochar is increasingly proposed as a soil amendment, with reports of benefits to soil physical, chemical and biological properties. In this study, different biochars were produced from 6 feedstocks, including straw and poultry manure, at 3 pyrolysis temperatures (200, 300 and 500°C) and then added separately to a calcareous soil. Their effects on soil properties and maize growth were evaluated in a pot experiment. The biochars derived from crop straw had much higher C but smaller N concentrations than those derived from poultry manure. Carbon concentrations, pH and EC values increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Biochar addition resulted in increases in mean maize dry matter of 12.73%and NPK concentrations of 30, 33 and 283%, respectively. Mean soil pH values were increased by 0.45 units. The biochar-amended soils had 44, 55, 254 and 537%more organic C, total N, Olsen-P and available K, respectively, than the control on average. Both feedstocks and pyrolysis temperature determined the characteristics of the biochar. Biochars with high mineral concentrations may act as mineral nutrient supplements.

  1. Effective connectivity among the working memory regions during preparation for and during performance of the n-back task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eManelis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that working memory (WM task difficulty can be decoded from patterns of brain activation in the WM network during preparation to perform those tasks. The inter-regional connectivity among the WM regions during task preparation has not yet been investigated. We examined this question using the graph modeling methods IMaGES and LOFS, applied to the previously published fMRI data of Manelis and Reder (2013. In that study, subjects performed 1-, 2-, and 3-back tasks. Each block of n-back was preceded by a preparation period and followed by a rest period. The analyses of task-related brain activity identified a network of 18 regions that increased in activation from 1- to 3-back (Increase network and a network of 17 regions that decreased in activation from 1- to 3-back (Decrease network. The graph analyses revealed two types of connectivity sub-networks within the Increase and Decrease networks: default and preparation-related. The default connectivity was present not only during task performance, but also during task preparation and during rest. We propose that this sub-network may serve as a core system that allows one to quickly activate cognitive, perceptual and motor systems in response to the relevant stimuli. The preparation-related connectivity was present during task preparation and task performance, but not at rest, and depended on the n-back condition. The role of this sub-network may be to pre-activate a connectivity road map in order to establish a top-down and bottom-up regulation of attention prior to performance on WM tasks.

  2. Effective connectivity among the working memory regions during preparation for and during performance of the n-back task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manelis, Anna; Reder, Lynne M

    2014-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that working memory (WM) task difficulty can be decoded from patterns of brain activation in the WM network during preparation to perform those tasks. The inter-regional connectivity among the WM regions during task preparation has not yet been investigated. We examined this question using the graph modeling methods IMaGES and LOFS, applied to the previously published fMRI data of Manelis and Reder (2013). In that study, subjects performed 1-, 2-, and 3-back tasks. Each block of n-back was preceded by a preparation period and followed by a rest period. The analyses of task-related brain activity identified a network of 18 regions that increased in activation from 1- to 3-back (Increase network) and a network of 17 regions that decreased in activation from 1- to 3-back (Decrease network). The graph analyses revealed two types of connectivity sub-networks within the Increase and Decrease networks: "default" and "preparation-related." The "default" connectivity was present not only during task performance, but also during task preparation and during rest. We propose that this sub-network may serve as a core system that allows one to quickly activate cognitive, perceptual and motor systems in response to the relevant stimuli. The "preparation-related" connectivity was present during task preparation and task performance, but not at rest, and depended on the n-back condition. The role of this sub-network may be to pre-activate a connectivity "road map" in order to establish a top-down and bottom-up regulation of attention prior to performance on WM tasks.

  3. NMR study of the preparation of 6 {alpha}, 7 {beta}-dihydroxyvouacapan-17 beta-oic acid mannich base derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Flavio Jose Leite dos; Pilo-Veloso, Dorila [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. Quimica]. E-mail: dorila@zeus.qui.ufmg.br; Ferreira-Alves, Dalton L. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Farmacologia

    2007-07-01

    This work presents four new Mannich base compounds obtained by the Mannich reaction of a {delta}-keto-lactone derivative of 6{alpha}, 7{beta}-dihydroxyvouacapan- 17{beta}-oic acid, a furano diterpene isolated from the hexane extract of Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth fruits, which shows anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. The use of 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, DEPT-135, HMBC, HMQC) spectroscopy made it possible to characterize the new compounds. (author)

  4. Silylaryl triflates in the formation of arynes with application in the preparation of N,N-diarylamino acid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Y. Albuquerque

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Through this work we are developing our research involving the formation of arynes from 2-(trimethylsilylaryl triflates, under relatively mild reaction conditions. Thus, esters of amino acids are being subjected to the reaction with 2-(trimethylsilylaryl triflates, using cesium fluoride in acetonitrile at 80oC for 24 h, resulting in the formation of N,N-diarylamino acid derivatives, important chiral intermediates in the construction of peptides and drugs.

  5. Differential recall of derived and inflected word forms in working memory: Examining the role of morphological information in simple and complex working memory tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet eService

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Working memory has been described as an interface between cognition and action, or a system for access to a limited amount of information needed in complex cognition. Access to morphological information is needed for comprehending and producing sentences. The present study probed working memory for morphologically complex word forms in Finnish, a morphologically rich language. We studied monomorphemic (boy, inflected (boy+’s and derived (boy+hood words in three tasks. Simple span, immediate serial recall of words, in Experiment 1, is assumed to mainly rely on information in the focus of attention. Sentence span, a dual task combining sentence reading with recall of the last word (Experiment 2 or of a word not included in the sentence (Experiment 3 is assumed to involve establishment of a search set in long-term memory for fast activation into the focus of attention. Recall was best for monomorphemic and worst for inflected word forms with performance on derived words in between. However, there was an interaction between word type and experiment, suggesting that complex span is more sensitive to morphological complexity in derivations than simple span. This was explored in a within-subjects Experiment 4 combining all three tasks. An interaction between morphological complexity and task was replicated. Both inflected and derived forms increased load in working memory. In simple span, recall of inflectional forms resulted in form errors. Complex span tasks were more sensitive to morphological load in derived words, possibly resulting from interference from morphological neighbors in the mental lexicon. The results are best understood as involving competition among inflectional forms when binding words from input into an output structure, and competition from morphological neighbors in secondary memory during cumulative retrieval-encoding cycles. Models of verbal recall need to be able to represent morphological as well as phonological and

  6. From natural products to polymeric derivatives of "eugenol": a new approach for preparation of dental composites and orthopedic bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Luis; Vazquez, Blanca; Parra, Juan; López Bravo, Antonio; Deb, Sanjukta; San Roman, Julio

    2006-10-01

    Polymers with eugenol moieties covalently bonded to the macromolecular chains were synthesized for potential application in orthopedic and dental cements. First, eugenol was functionalized with polymerizable groups. The synthetic methods employed afforded two different methacrylic derivatives, where the acrylic and eugenol moieties were either directly bonded, eugenyl methacrylate (EgMA), or separated through an oxyethylene group, ethoxyeugenyl methacrylate (EEgMA). A typical Fisher esterification reaction was used for the synthesis of EgMA and EEgMA, affording the desired monomers in 80% yields. Polymerization of each of the novel monomers, at low conversion, provided soluble polymers consisting of hydrocarbon macromolecules with pendant eugenol moieties. At high conversions only cross-linked polymers were obtained, attributed to participation of the allylic double bonds in the polymerization reaction. In addition, copolymers of each eugenol derivative with ethyl methacrylate (EMA) were prepared at low conversion, with the copolymerization reaction studied by assuming the terminal model and the reactivity ratios determined according to linear and nonlinear methods. The values obtained were r(EgMA) = 1.48, r(EMA) = 0.55 and r(EEgMA) = 1.22, r(EMA) = 0.42. High molecular weight polymers and copolymers were obtained at low conversion. Analysis of thermal properties revealed a T(g) of 95 degrees C for PEgMA and of 20 degrees C for PEEgMA and an increase in the thermal stability for the eugenol derivatives polymers and copolymers with respect to that of PEMA. Water sorption of the copolymers was found to decrease with the eugenol derivative content. Both monomers EgMA and EEgMA showed antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, producing inhibition halos of 7 and 21 mm, respectively. Finally, cell culture studies revealed that the copolymers did not leach any toxic eluants and showed good cellular proliferation with respect to PEMA. This study thus indicates

  7. The Preparation of Pre-Service Student Teachers' Competence to Work in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sylvia Y. F.; Cheng, May M. H.; Wong, Angel K. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Competence to work in schools is an important dimension of professional competence, although it is often a neglected dimension of teacher development. This article reports a qualitative study that examined student teachers' learning experiences in initial teacher education (ITE) in relation to competence to work in schools. In-depth interviews…

  8. Preparing School Social Work for the Future: An Update of School Social Workers' Tasks in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckover, Christopher A.; Vasquez, Matthew L.; Van Housen, Stephanie L.; Saunders, Jeanne A.; Allen, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The authors begin this article by highlighting clinical social casework as a historic trend in school social work practice. They then identify two major shifts in current education policy related to school social work practice. One shift is an emphasis on a multilevel intervention approach, and the other is the differentiation between academic and…

  9. Engineering as a Social Activity: Preparing Engineers to Thrive in the Changing World of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Fredricka F.; Mann, Derek T. Y.; Harris, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Key macro-trends are combining to create a new work context for the practice of engineering. Telecommuting and virtual teams create myriad possibilities and challenges related to managing work and workers. Social network technology tools allow for unprecedented global, 24/7 collaboration. Globalization has created hyper-diverse organizations,…

  10. The 'switch on-switch off model': Strategies used by nurses to mentally prepare and disengage from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manomenidis, Georgios; Panagopoulou, Efharis; Montgomery, Anthony

    2016-08-01

    There is considerable research on the experience of nurses during both their work and non-work time. However, we know relatively little about the strategies nurses use immediately before and immediately after their shift. This crossover period, from one shift to another, has critical impact for patient outcomes. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore strategies nurses employ to mentally prepare for their shift (switch on), and mentally disengage after the end of it (switch off). Eleven Greek hospital nurses were recruited for the study. Interviews were audio-taped and analysed using a content analysis approach. Five themes were identified as strategies nurses use to mentally prepare and disengage from their shift: (i) personal care/grooming; (ii) religious rituals; (iii) nicotine/caffeine; (iv) social interaction; and (v) listening to music. Nurses reported using the same strategies before and after their shift, but for different purposes. The authors propose a 'switch on-switch off' model to describe the process of mental preparation and mental disengagement from work. The switch-on/off approach represents an opportunity to increase nurses' resilience and identify individual and organizational factors that contribute to patient outcomes.

  11. Biomass Vanillin-Derived Polymeric Microspheres Containing Functional Aldehyde Groups: Preparation, Characterization, and Application as Adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanyu; Yong, Xueyong; Zhou, Jinyong; Deng, Jianping; Wu, Youping

    2016-02-03

    The contribution reports the first polymeric microspheres derived from a biomass, vanillin. It reacted with methacryloyl chloride, providing monomer vanillin methacrylate (VMA), which underwent suspension polymerization in aqueous media and yielded microspheres in high yield (>90 wt %). By controlling the N2 bubbling mode and by optimizing the cosolvent for dissolving the solid monomer, the microspheres were endowed with surface pores, demonstrated by SEM images and mercury intrusion porosimetry measurement. Taking advantage of the reactive aldehyde groups, the microspheres further reacted with glycine, thereby leading to a novel type of Schiff-base chelating material. The functionalized microspheres demonstrated remarkable adsorption toward Cu(2+) (maximum, 135 mg/g) which was taken as representative for metal ions. The present study provides an unprecedented class of biobased polymeric microspheres showing large potentials as adsorbents in wastewater treatment. Also importantly, the reactive aldehyde groups may enable the microspheres to be used as novel materials for immobilizing biomacromolecules, e.g. enzymes.

  12. Alternative route for the preparation of CoSb3 and Mg2Si derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewska, E.; Mars, K.; Zawadzka, K.

    2012-09-01

    An alternative manufacturing route has been developed for cobalt triantimonide and magnesium disilicide derivatives. Elemental powders were mixed in stoichiometric proportions, cold pressed into cylindrical preforms and heated in oxygen-free environment to initiate the exothermic reaction. According to DTA/TG measurements and observations under high-temperature microscope, the onset of reaction occurred at a temperature not exceeding the melting point of the more volatile component, i.e. antimony in the case of CoSb3 and magnesium in the case of Mg2Si. The reaction products were additionally heat treated to secure homogenization. Dense sinters were obtained by hot uniaxial pressing of the obtained powders in moderate temperature-and-pressure conditions. Several advantages were identified in the proposed technology: absence of liquid phases, relatively short time of the synthesis, possibility of in-situ or ex-situ doping and grain size control.

  13. Preparation and Physical Properties of Chitosan Benzoic Acid Derivatives Using a Phosphoryl Mixed Anhydride System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Yun Chai

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Direct benzoylation of the two hydroxyl groups on chitosan was achieved using a phosphoryl mixed anhydride system, derived from trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA, benzoic acids (BAs, and phosphoric acid (PA. The reaction is operated as a one pot process under mild conditions that does not require neither an inert atmosphere nor dry solvents. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by NMR and IR spectroscopy. Solubility tests on the products revealed that they were soluble in organic solvents such as N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, and acetone. In the meantime, a morphological study by scanning electron microscopy (SEM evidently indicated that the chitosan benzoates underwent significant structural changes after the benzoylation.

  14. Preparation and structural characterization of turbostratic-carbon/graphene derived from amylose film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazali, N. E. S.; Deraman, M.; Omar, R.; Othman, M. A. R.; Suleman, M.; Shamsudin, S. A.; Tajuddin, N. S. M.; Hanappi, M. F. Y. M.; Hamdan, E.; Nor, N. S. M.; Basri, N. H.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we report the preparation of turbostratic-carbon/graphene from biomass amylose film by carbonization (N2 gas) and activation (CO2 gas) over different temperatures 600, 700, 800, 900, and 1000 °C, respectively. The Raman spectroscopy results of the produced samples show that the values of the ID/IG ratio ranging from 0.75 to 0.99 are comparable to that of the commercial multilayer graphene and KOH treated multilayer graphene. The X-ray diffraction results of the produced samples show that a small decrease in the d002 (˜0.62 %) and d100 (˜0.57 %) values and a larger decrease in Lc (˜8.6 %) and La (˜27.2 %) values occurs as the carbonization and activation temperature increases, indicating that the increase in temperature has an effect on the growth of microcrystallites during carbonization and activation. This study demonstrates the potential of the amylose film to be used as a precursor for producing graphene flakes.

  15. A fast and facile synthetic route toward the preparation of nanoparticles of polythiophene and its derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozukova, Dimitriya, E-mail: d_bozukova@abv.bg; Jerome, Robert, E-mail: rjerome@ulg.ac.be; Jerome, Christine, E-mail: c.jerome@ulg.ac.be [Center for Education and Research on Macromolecules (CERM), University of Liege (Belgium)

    2013-04-15

    A novel photochemical water-based approach for the preparation of nanoparticles of polymerized thiophene (Th), thiophene methanol (ThM), or their mixtures (Th-co/or-ThM) was developed. The influence of 3-[(2-acryloyloxy)methyl] thiophene (ATh) as cross-link agent on the stability of the nanoparticles and on their performances was investigated. The occurrence of a polymerization process was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV and fluorescence emission spectroscopies. Nanoparticles with very narrow size distribution (0.0092-0.105 ATh cross-linked, 0.0635-0.272 uncross-linked) and ideal spherical shape (radius 35-47 nm ATh cross-linked, 49-109 nm uncross-linked) were obtained whatever the reaction composition. The size of the particles was found to depend strongly on the level of ATh-stabilization and to diminish upon increase of the ATh content. In contrast, in the same order, their thermal stability shifted toward higher temperatures. Thermal decomposition of the nanoparticles led to formation of carbon-nanoobjects, as observed by transmission electron microscopy, FT-IR, and RAMAN spectroscopies. The re-dispersibility of the dry Th-co/or-ThM nanoparticles in some conventional monomers and solvents has been estimated.Graphical Abstract.

  16. [Handbook for the preparation of evidence-based documents. Tools derived from scientific knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión-Camacho, M R; Martínez-Brocca, M A; Paneque-Sánchez-Toscano, I; Valencia-Martín, R; Palomino-García, A; Muñoz-Durán, C; Tamayo-López, M J; González-Eiris-Delgado, C; Otero-Candelera, R; Ortega-Ruiz, F; Sobrino-Márquez, J M; Jiménez-García-Bóveda, R; Fernández-Quero, M; Campos-Pareja, A M

    2013-01-01

    This handbook is intended to be an accessible, easy-to-consult guide to help professionals produce or adapt Evidence-Based Documents. Such documents will help standardize both clinical practice and decision-making, the quality always being monitored in such a way that established references are complied with. Evidence-Based Health Care Committee, a member of "Virgen del Rocío" University Hospital quality structure, proposed the preparation of a handbook to produce Evidence-Based Documents including: a description of products, characteristics, qualities, uses, methodology of production, and application scope of every one of them. The handbook consists of seven Evidence-Based tools, one chapter on critical analysis methodology of scientific literature, one chapter with internet resources, and some appendices with different assessment tools. This Handbook provides general practitioners with a great opportunity to improve quality and as a guideline to standardize clinical healthcare, and managers with a strategy to promote and encourage the development of documents in an effort to reduce clinical practice variability, as well as giving patients the opportunity of taking part in planning their own care. Copyright © 2011 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation and li storage properties of hierarchical porous carbon fibers derived from alginic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xing-Long; Chen, Li-Li; Xin, Sen; Yin, Ya-Xia; Guo, Yu-Guo; Kong, Qing-Shan; Xia, Yan-Zhi

    2010-06-21

    One-dimensional (1D) hierarchical porous carbon fibers (HPCFs) have been prepared by controlled carbonization of alginic acid fibers and investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, and electrochemical tests toward lithium storage. The as-obtained HPCFs consist of a 3D network of nanosized carbon particles with diameters less than 10 nm and exhibit a hierarchical porous architecture composed of both micropores and mesopores. Electrochemical measurements show that HPCFs exhibit excellent rate capability and capacity retention compared with commercial graphite when employed as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. At the discharge/charge rate of 45 C, the reversible capacity of HPCFs is still as high as 80 mA h g(-1) even after 1500 cycles, which is about five times larger than that of commercial graphite anode. The much improved electrochemical performances could be attributed to the nanosized building blocks, the hierarchical porous structure, and the 1D morphology of HPCFs.

  18. Preparation of municipal procurement subjects to work in the contract system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Knyazevа

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to analysis of readiness of municipal servants and employees of budgetary institutions to work in contractual system. The author offers the number of tools, helping to improve the quality of their training.

  19. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL CHITOSAN DERIVATIVES:ADSORPTION EQUILIBRIUM OF IRON(Ⅲ)ION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption of Fe(Ⅲ)ions from aqueous solution by chitosan alpha-ketoglutaric acid(KCTS)and hydroxamated chitosan alpha-ketoglutaric acid(HKCTS)was studied in a batch adsorption system.Experiments were carried out as function of pH,temperature,agitation rate and concentration of Fe(Ⅲ)ions.The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms and isotherm constants were determined.The Langmuir model agrees very well with experimental data.The pseudo-first-order and second-order kinetic models were used to describe the kinetic data and the rate constants were evaluated.The dynamical data fit well with the second-order kinetic model.The pseudo second-order kinetic model was indicated with the activation energy of 19.61 and 7.98 KJ/mol for KCTS and HKCTS,respectively.It is suggested that the overall rate of Fe(Ⅲ)adsorption is likely to be controlled by the chemical process.Results also showed that novel chitosan derivatives(KCTS and HKCTS)were favorable adsorbents.

  20. Formulating blackberry leaf mixtures for preparation of infusions with plant derived sources of sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komes, Draženka; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Ljubičić, Ivan; Durgo, Ksenija; Cindrić, Iva Juranović; Bušić, Arijana; Vojvodić, Aleksandra

    2014-05-15

    Herbal mixtures composed of blackberry leaf and natural sweeteners (dried apples, prunes, figs, raisins, apricots, carrot and sweet potato, stevia leaves and liquorice root) were developed. Their nutritive and bioactive profile, biological activity and sensory properties were determined. Formulated mixtures exhibited lower total polyphenol content (259.09-350.00 mg GAE/L) when compared to plain blackberry leaf, but contained higher content of chlorogenic, ferulic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic acids and quercetin, as well as some macroelements (Ca, K, Mg) and microelements (Ba, Na). Stevia addition to formulated mixtures ensured higher polyphenolic content. Dried carrot exhibited the highest (0.988 g/g) and liquorice the lowest (0.087 g/g) content of total sugars but it contributed to the sweetness with 574.48 mg/L of glycyrrhizic acid derivatives. Plain blackberry leaf extract exhibited cytotoxic and antioxidative activity on human colon cancer cells. Formulated mixtures exhibited improved flavour profile and balanced sweetness in relation to plain blackberry leaf infusion.

  1. Preparation of metal-organic decomposition-derived strontium zirconate dielectric thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Changhong; Zhu Weiguang; Yu Ting; Chen Xiaofeng; Yao Xi

    2003-04-30

    Metal-organic decomposition-derived SrZrO{sub 3} dielectric thin films were investigated using differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared reflectivity spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy to study the mechanism of phase transformation and crystallinity, and were characterized by electric and dielectric properties as well. The phase transformation and crystallinity results show that the film has amorphous structure with carbonate existing when annealed at 550 deg. C; while when annealed at 600 deg. C and above, the carbonate is decomposed and those films crystallize into perovskite phase without preferred orientation. In addition, the electric properties show these films exhibit very low leakage current density and high breakdown strength. Typically, the film annealed at 600 deg. C has the lowest leakage current density of 4.2x10{sup -10} A cm{sup -2} at the field strength of 580 kV cm{sup -1} and the breakdown strength is close to 1.3 MV cm{sup -1}. Moreover, the dielectric properties show that, at room temperature, these films have their dielectric constants higher than 22.0 with very little dispersion in a frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz and are nearly independent of applied dc bias.

  2. The preparation and susceptibility to hydrolysis of novel O-galacturonoyl derivatives of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J A; Fry, S C

    1993-02-24

    D-Galacturonic acid or (1-->4)-alpha-D-galacturonan reacted in aqueous pyridine in the presence of 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide with alcohols to yield esters. The alcohols that gave high yields of D-galacturonoyl derivatives were primary and included methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, D-glucose, D-galactose, methyl beta-D-glucopyranoside, methyl beta-D-galactopyranoside, and cellulose. D-Galacturonic acid itself readily gave an O-D-galacturonoyl-D-glacturonic acid. The proposed structure of one compound, methyl 6-O-D-galacturonoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, was supported by 1H and 13C NMR data and the FAB mass-spectral data. Each ester was hydrolysed at pH 11 and 25 degrees C within 1 h. O-D-Galacturonoyl-D-glucose was considerably more alkali labile than O-polygalacturonoyl-D-glucose, and O-D-galacturonoylcellulose had an intermediate stability. The esters were relatively stable to cold acid, but could be hydrolysed by M trifluoroacetic acid at 100 degrees C for 1 h. The esters tested were resistant to digestion by 'Driselase', although the glycosidic bonds of O-polygalacturonoyl-D-glucose were hydrolysed to yield O-oligogalacturonoyl-D-glucoses of low molecular weight. The possible application of these analytical methods to the detection of O-uronoyl-type cross-links in cell-wall polysaccharides is discussed.

  3. Antifungal quinazolinones from marine-derived Bacillus cereus and their preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhihong; Zhang, Yapeng; Fu, Haichao; Zhong, Huimin; Hong, Kui; Zhu, Weiming

    2011-07-01

    Two new quinazolinones alkaloids, R(+)-2-(heptan-3-yl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (1) and (2R,3'R)+(2S,3'R)-2-(heptan-3-yl)-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one (2) (a pair of epimers), as well as seven known analogues, 2-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one (3), 2-benzylquinazolin-4(3H)-one (4), cyclo-(Pro-Ile), cyclo-(Pro-Leu), cyclo-(Pro-Val), cyclo-(Pro-Phe), and cyclo-(Tyr-Pro) were isolated from the n-butyl alcohol extract of the marine-derived bacterium Bacillus cereus 041381. The new compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis and chemical synthesis. Four optical isomers 5-8 were also synthesized. Compounds 1-8 all showed moderate antifungal activity against Candida albicans with MIC values of 1.3-15.6 μM. Compound 5 exhibits the most powerful antifungal activity, which may reveal that S-configuration and 2,3-double bond were necessary for antifungal activity, and the racemization at C-2 and C-3' reduced the antifungal activity.

  4. Selecting the process arrangement for preparing the gas turbine working fluid for an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhkov, A. F.; Gordeev, S. I.; Bogatova, T. F.

    2015-11-01

    Introduction of a combined-cycle technology based on fuel gasification integrated in the process cycle (commonly known as integrated gasification combined cycle technology) is among avenues of development activities aimed at achieving more efficient operation of coal-fired power units at thermal power plants. The introduction of this technology is presently facing the following difficulties: IGCC installations are characterized by high capital intensity, low energy efficiency, and insufficient reliability and availability indicators. It was revealed from an analysis of literature sources that these drawbacks are typical for the gas turbine working fluid preparation system, the main component of which is a gasification plant. Different methods for improving the gasification plant chemical efficiency were compared, including blast air high-temperature heating, use of industrial oxygen, and a combination of these two methods implying limited use of oxygen and moderate heating of blast air. Calculated investigations aimed at estimating the influence of methods for achieving more efficient air gasification are carried out taking as an example the gasifier produced by the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) with a thermal capacity of 500 MW. The investigation procedure was verified against the known experimental data. Modes have been determined in which the use of high-temperature heating of blast air for gasification and cycle air upstream of the gas turbine combustion chamber makes it possible to increase the working fluid preparation system efficiency to a level exceeding the efficiency of the oxygen process performed according to the Shell technology. For the gasification plant's configuration and the GTU working fluid preparation system be selected on a well-grounded basis, this work should be supplemented with technical-economic calculations.

  5. Preparing Students for a World of Work in Cross-Cultural Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    Essential cross-cultural competencies for future work include the following: self-awareness about culture, language skills, cross-cultural communication, decision-making in multicultural contexts, conflict resolution skills, management of culture shock, and openness to cultural learning. (Contains 27 references.) (SK)

  6. Preparing Writing Centers and Tutors for Literacy Mediation for Working Class Campus-Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslund, Christy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study grew out of the realization that implicit literacy expectations between working class United Auto Workers (UAW) staff and professional class staff were complicating the filling out and filing of a position audit form. Professional class supervisors had designed the form as a measure of fairness, in that each UAW employee on campus was…

  7. Spirituality and Counselling: Are Counsellors Prepared to Integrate Religion and Spirituality into Therapeutic Work with Clients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    An online survey of 341 Registered Clinical Counsellors in British Columbia was used to understand how therapists view and integrate spirituality and religion in their practice. Therapists were asked about their education and training in this realm, and about their perceived abilities, comfort, and competence when working with religious and/or…

  8. Transdisciplinarity and Translation: Preparing Social Work Doctoral Students for High Impact Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurius, Paula S.; Kemp, Susan P.

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary research models are becoming increasingly transdisciplinary (TD), multilevel, community-connected, and bent on expediting the movement of research to impact. This requires not only fresh thinking about the science of social work but an educational architecture that fosters both cross-disciplinary understanding of complex underlying…

  9. Preparation and Characterization of LiTaO3 Films Derived by an Improved Sol-Gel Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun GOU; Jun WANG; Ming YANG; Zehua HUANG; Weizhi LI; Yadong JIANG

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,an improved sol-gel method was suggested to obtain high-concentration LiTaO3 precursor solution for simplified experimental conditions and thicker films,by mixing lithium acetate and tantalum ethoxide in a 1,2-Propylene glycol solution.Compared to traditional methods,the process was done without weak acidic solution and absolute dry experimental condition.Results of a comparative study of LiTaO3 thin films derived by the improved sol-gel process and a traditional process using 2-methoxy ethanol as solvent were presented.Nano-crystalline LiTaO3 films with rhombohedral structures were formed in both methods after annealing at 650 ° for 5 min.The thickness of each LiTaO3 layer coated onto the substrate increased from 25 nm to 110 nm when 2-methoxy ethanol was replaced by 1,2-Propylene glycol.LiTaO3 films with a stronger preferential orientation were obtained in 1,2-Propylene glycol due to its higher boiling point and slower volatilization rate.On the other hand,the diffraction peak intensity of LiTaO3 thin films prepared using 1,2-Propylene glycol was weaker than that of the films prepared using 2-methoxy ethanol due to decreased times of annealing.

  10. InCl3·4H2O Promoted Green Preparation of Xanthenedione Derivatives in Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xue-yuan; ZHANG Xin-ying; FAN Xue-sen; WANG Jian-ji

    2004-01-01

    Xanthenediones derivatives have attracted considerable interests in recent times because they constitute a structural unit in a number of natural products1 and have been used as versatile synthons due to the inherent reactivity of the inbuilt pyran ring2. The conventional syntheses of xanthenediones were acid or base catalyzed condensation of appropriate active methylene carbonyl compounds with aldehydes3. However, many of these procedures involved longer reaction times,low yields and side reactions of aldehydes. In recent years, room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have been used as novel green reaction media4. Considering that InCl3 is an efficient Lewis acid catalyst used in promoting many organic reactions, especially in several condensation processes, we herein wish to report a very simple and green method for the preparation of poly-hydrogenated xanthenediones through InCl3·4H2O promoted cascade reaction of aldehydes and 5,5-dimethyl-l,3-cyclohexanedione in ionic liquid,1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4]). The preparative process presented here is operationally simple, environmentally benign and has the advantage of enhanced atom utilization. Furthermore, the solvent and the catalyst used can be recovered easily and reused efficiently.

  11. Mesoporous activated coconut shell-derived hydrochar prepared via hydrothermal carbonization-NaOH activation for methylene blue adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Azharul; Ahmed, M J; Khanday, W A; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2017-12-01

    Mesoporous activated carbon was prepared using a hydrochar derived from coconut shell waste through hydrothermal carbonization and NaOH chemical activation process (COSHTC). Three sets of activated carbons were obtained with different hydrochar:NaOH impregnation ratios (1:1, 1:2, and 1:3). Among these ratios, 1:3 (COSHTC3) exhibited the optimum adsorption for methylene blue (MB). COSHTC3 adsorbed MB with an initial concentration of 25-250 mg/L at pH 3-11 and 30 °C. The adsorption isotherm of MB on COSHTC3 demonstrated that Langmuir isotherm could be better applied at a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 200.01 mg/g at 30 °C. The data was well fitted to the pseudo-second-order (PSO) kinetic model. These results show that the COSHTC3 prepared from low-cost agricultural waste (coconut shell) with average pore diameter 28.6 Å and surface area 876.14 m(2)/g acts as a better adsorbent for removal of cationic dyes and could pave the way for more low-cost adsorbents for dye removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation, statistical optimization, and in vitro characterization of insulin nanoparticles composed of quaternized aromatic derivatives of chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjub, Reza; Dorkoosh, Farid Abedin; Amini, Mohsen; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Rafiee-Tehrani, Morteza

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was the preparation, optimization, and in vitro characterization of insulin nanoparticles composed of methylated N-(4-N,N-dimethylaminobenzyl), methylated N-(4-pyridinyl), and methylated N-(benzyl) chitosan. Three types of derivatives were synthesized by the Schiff base reaction followed by quaternization. Nanoparticles were prepared by the polyelectrolyte complexation method. Experimental design D-optimal response surface methodology was used for the optimization of the nanoparticles. Independent variables were pH of polymer solution, concentration ratio of polymer/insulin, and also polymer type. Dependent variables include size, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PdI), and entrapment efficiency (EE%). Optimized nanoparticles were studied morphologically by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and in vitro release of insulin from nanoparticles were determined under phosphate buffer (pH = 6.8) condition. Although a quadratic model has been chosen to fit the responses for size, PdI, and EE%, the zeta potential of the particles has been best fitted to 2-FI model. The optimized nanoparticles were characterized. The size of the particles were found to be 346, 318, and 289 nm; zeta potentials were 28.5, 27.7, and 22.2 mV; PdI of particles were 0.305, 0.333, and 0.437; and calculated EE% were 70.3%, 84.5%, and 69.2%, for methylated (aminobenzyl), methylated (pyridinyl), and methylated (benzyl) chitosan nanoparticles, respectively. TEM images show separated and non-aggregated nanoparticles with sub-spherical shapes and smooth surfaces. An in vitro release study of the prepared nanoparticles showed that the cumulative percentage of insulin released from the nanoparticles were 47.1%, 38%, and 68.7% for (aminobenzyl), (pyridinyl), and (benzyl) chitosan, respectively, within 300 min.

  13. The preparation and use of metal salen complexes derived from cyclobutane diamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Smita

    The helix is an important chiral motif in nature, there is increasing development in field of helical transition metal complexes and related supramolecular structures. Hence, the goals of this work are to apply the principles of helicity in order to produce metal complexes with predictable molecular shapes and to study their properties as asymmetric catalysts. Computational studies suggest that the (1R,2 R)-cyclobutyldiamine unit can produce highly twisted salen complexes with a large energy barrier between the M and P helical forms. To test this prediction, the tartrate salt of (1R,2R)-cyclobutyldiamine was synthesized and condensed with a series of saliclaldehydes to produce novel salen ligands. The salicylaldehydes chosen have extended phenanthryl or benz[a]anthryl sidearms to encourage formation of helical coordination complexes. These ligands were metallated with zinc, iron and manganese salts to produce salen metal complexes which were characterized by NMR analysis, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and IR spectroscopy. A second ligand type, neutral bis(pyridine-imine) has also been synthesized from (1R,2R)-cyclobutyldiamine and quinolylaldehydes. The synthesis of bis(pyridine-imine) ligands was conducted using greener method, solvent assisted grinding. These ligands, in-situ with nickel metal salts, showed good catalytic activity for asymmetric Diels-Alder reactions. The third ligand type studied was chiral acid-functionalized Schiff-base ligands. These were synthesized by the condensation of 3-formyl-5-methyl salicylic acid and (1R,2R)-cyclobutyldiamine. With this type of ligand, there is possibility of producing both mono and dinuclear metal complexes. In our studies, we were only able to synthesize mononuclear complexs. These were tested as catalysts for asymmetric direct Mannich-type reaction, but were found to be ineffective.

  14. Task-based lead exposures and work site characteristics of bridge surface preparation and painting contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virji, M Abbas; Woskie, Susan R; Pepper, Lewis D

    2009-02-01

    This study of bridge painters working for small contractors in Massachusetts investigated the causes of elevated blood lead levels and assessed their exposure to lead. Bridge work sites were evaluated for a 2-week period during which personal and area air samples and information on work site characteristics and lead abatement methods were gathered. Short-duration personal inhalable samples collected from 18 tasks had geometric means (GM) of 3 microg/m(3) to 7286 microg/m(3). Full-shift, time-weighted average (TWA) inhalable samples (>or=6 hours) collected from selected workers and work sites had GMs of 2 microg/m(3) to 15,704 microg/m(3); 80% of samples exceeded the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 50 microg/m(3), on average by a factor of 30. Area inhalable samples collected from three locations ranged from 2 microg/m(3) to 40,866 microg/m(3) from inside the containment, 2 microg/m(3) to 471 microug/m(3) from a distance of 6 meters from the containment. Seventy nine percent of the area samples from inside the containment exceeded the PEL on average by a factor of 140. Through observations of work site characteristics, opportunities for improving work methods were identified, particularly the institution of engineering controls (which were only occasionally present) and improvement in the design and construction of the containment structure. The high levels of airborne lead exposures indicate a potential for serious exposure hazard for workers and environmental contamination, which can be mitigated through administrative and engineering controls. Although these data were collected over 10 years ago, a 2005 regulatory review by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) of its lead in construction standard reported that elevated lead exposures and blood lead levels, high occurrence of noncompliance with the lead standard, and nonimplementation of newer technology especially among small painting firms employing <10 workers are still widespread. As a

  15. Determination of losartan potassium, quinapril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical preparations using derivative spectrophotometry and chromatographic-densitometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarczyk, Mariusz; Maślanka, Anna; Apola, Anna; Krzek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Two methods, spectrophotometric and chromatographic-densitometric ones, were developed for determination of losartan potassium, quinapril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical preparations. Spectrophotometric method involved derivative spectrophotometry and zero order spectrophotometry. The measurements were carried out at lambda = 224.0 nm for quinapril, lambda = 261.0 nm for hydrochlorothiazide and lambda = 270.0 nm for losartan when the derivative spectrophotometry was applied and lambda = 317.0 nm when zero order spectrophotometry was applied for the determination of hydrochlorothiazide. In chromatographic-densitometric studies high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) plates were used as stationary phase and a mixture of solvents n-butanol : acetic acid : water (15 : 5 : 1, v/v/v) as mobile phase. Under the established conditions good resolution of examined constituents was obtained. Retardation factor for quinapril hydrochloride was R(f) - 0.70, for losartan potassium R(f) - 0.85 and for hydrochlorothiazide R(f) - 0.78. The developed methods are characterized by high sensitivity and accuracy. For quantitative analysis, densitometric measurements were carried out at lambda = 218.0 nm for quinapril, lambda = 275.0 nm for hydrochlorothiazide and = 232.0 nm for losartan.

  16. Preparation and characterization of a novel aspirin derivative with anti-thrombotic and gastric mucosal protection properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-E Zhen

    Full Text Available The use of acetylsalicylic acid (ASP is limited by its adverse effects, especially the effect on the gastric mucosa. To address this problem, we synthesized a derivative form of ASP, prepared by modification of ASP with nano-hydroxyapatite (a kind of inorganic particle containing Ca(2+. The derivative was named Ca-ASP. Structural study showed that Ca-ASP was a kind of carboxylate containing intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Rats given a high dose of Ca-ASP (5 mmol per kg body weight showed similar anti-thrombotic activity as those given the same dose of ASP, but had much lower gastric mucosal damage than ASP (UI: 2 versus UI: 12.5. These rats also showed reduced expression of COX-2, but their COX-1 expression was similar to that of control rats, but significantly higher than that of ASP-administered rats. Furthermore, the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 was up-regulated in Ca-ASP-administered rats compared to ASP-administered rats. Taken together, the results showed that Ca-ASP possessed similar antithrombotic activity as ASP but without the side effect associated with ASP, and the underlying mechanism may center on inhibiting COX-2 without inhibiting COX-1, and thus favouring the production of PGE2, the prostaglandin that plays a vital role in the suppression of platelet aggregation and thrombosis, as well as in the repair of gastric damage.

  17. Chemical composition and genotoxic activity of petroleum derivatives collected in two working environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquini, R.; Taningher, M.; Monarca, S.; Pala, M.; Angeli, G.

    1989-01-01

    Pitch and bitumen, two complex petroleum derivative mixtures, were studied for both their chemical composition and their mutagenic/DNA damaging activity. While bitumen revealed no genotoxic effect and low polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentration, petroleum pitch showed a high concentration of mutagenic/carcinogenic PAHs, and also an elevated mutagenic activity when assayed by the Ames test, in the presence of postmitochondrial rat liver fractions. The in vitro mutagenic activity was detectable as frameshift mutation by assaying the pitch both as an in toto mixture and after HPLC fractionation, the most polar fractions being the most active. In contrast, both derivatives showed no in vivo DNA damage in rat liver, using the DNA alkaline elution technique and the fluorometric assay of DNA unwinding.

  18. Differential recall of derived and inflected word forms in working memory: examining the role of morphological information in simple and complex working memory tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Service, Elisabet; Maury, Sini

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) has been described as an interface between cognition and action, or a system for access to a limited amount of information needed in complex cognition. Access to morphological information is needed for comprehending and producing sentences. The present study probed WM for morphologically complex word forms in Finnish, a morphologically rich language. We studied monomorphemic (boy), inflected (boy+’s), and derived (boy+hood) words in three tasks. Simple span, immediate serial recall of words, in Experiment 1, is assumed to mainly rely on information in the focus of attention. Sentence span, a dual task combining sentence reading with recall of the last word (Experiment 2) or of a word not included in the sentence (Experiment 3) is assumed to involve establishment of a search set in long-term memory for fast activation into the focus of attention. Recall was best for monomorphemic and worst for inflected word forms with performance on derived words in between. However, there was an interaction between word type and experiment, suggesting that complex span is more sensitive to morphological complexity in derivations than simple span. This was explored in a within-subjects Experiment 4 combining all three tasks. An interaction between morphological complexity and task was replicated. Both inflected and derived forms increased load in WM. In simple span, recall of inflectional forms resulted in form errors. Complex span tasks were more sensitive to morphological load in derived words, possibly resulting from interference from morphological neighbors in the mental lexicon. The results are best understood as involving competition among inflectional forms when binding words from input into an output structure, and competition from morphological neighbors in secondary memory during cumulative retrieval-encoding cycles. Models of verbal recall need to be able to represent morphological as well as phonological and semantic information. PMID:25642181

  19. Preparing students to work effectively in interprofessional health and social care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Keith; Seenan, Chris; Morlan, Gordon; Smith, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) has 'learning to work effectively in interprofessional teams' as one of its central learning outcomes. Whilst much is made in IPE of allocating health and social care students into interprofessional teams and setting them a task to complete, it has proved difficult to find a fair and equitable method of assessing how effective each individual has been in contributing to the task. This difficulty is compounded when the module is delivered predominantly online. This paper describes the recent push to establish meaningful educational outcomes for those involved in delivering IPE to pre-registration health and social care students. It then describes the use of a web-based peer assessment tool (Web PA) developed at Loughborough and Hull Universities (UK) which has been adapted by Glasgow Caledonian University (UK) for assessing the outcome of contributing effectively to IPE-related online group tasks. The paper outlines how the process of web-based peer assessment operates in theory and how it has been received in practice. An illustration is given that shows how the process successfully discriminates between those that are working effectively in interprofessional teams and those that are not. The value of the process is discussed.

  20. Preparation, characterization and technological evaluation of CMC derived from rice-straw as thickening agents in discharge, discharge-resist and burn-out printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragheb, A A; Nassar, S H; Abd El-Thalouth, I; Ibrahim, M A; Shahin, A A

    2012-08-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose samples of different D.S. values were prepared from rice straw via pulping followed by etherification with monochloroacetic acid under the catalytic action of sodium hydroxide. The prepared derivatives were assessed for D.S., rheological properties as well as suitability as thickening agents in different printing styles. It was found that carboxymethyl cellulose derived from rice straw is characterized by a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior and its apparent viscosity at any specific rate of shear depends on the D.S. All the prepared derivatives could be used successfully as thickening agents in discharge and/or discharge/resist printing of cotton fabrics. Furthermore, they could be used also as thickening agent for burn-out printing style of wool/polyester blended fabrics using sodium hydroxide. Attractive samples could be obtained via using these techniques.

  1. Primal scene derivatives in the work of Yukio Mishima: the primal scene fantasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Ronald N

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the preoccupation with fire, revenge, crucifixion, and other fantasies as they relate to the primal scene. The manifestations of these fantasies are demonstrated in a work of fiction by Yukio Mishima. The Temple of the Golden Pavillion. As is the case in other writings of Mishima there is a fusion of aggressive and libidinal drives and a preoccupation with death. The primal scene is directly connected with pyromania and destructive "acting out" of fantasies. This article is timely with regard to understanding contemporary events of cultural and national destruction.

  2. The preparation and performance of calcium carbide-derived carbon/polyaniline composite electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liping; Wang, Ying; Wang, Xianyou; Li, Na; An, Hongfang; Chen, Huajie; Guo, Jia

    Calcium carbide (CaC 2)-derived carbon (CCDC)/polyaniline (PANI) composite materials are prepared by in situ chemical oxidation polymerization of an aniline solution containing well-dispersed CCDC. The structure and morphology of CCDC/PANI composite are characterized by Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N 2 sorption isotherms. It has been found that PANI was uniformly deposited on the surface and the inner pores of CCDC. The supercapacitive behaviors of the CCDC/PANI composite materials are investigated with cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and cycle life measurements. The results show that the CCDC/PANI composite electrodes have higher specific capacitances than the as grown CCDC electrodes and higher stability than the conducting polymers. The capacitance of CCDC/PANI composite electrode is as high as 713.4 F g -1 measured by cyclic voltammetry at 1 mV s -1. Besides, the capacitance retention of coin supercapacitor remained 80.1% after 1000 cycles.

  3. The preparation and performance of calcium carbide-derived carbon/polyaniline composite electrode material for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liping; Wang, Xianyou; Li, Na; An, Hongfang; Chen, Huajie [School of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Minister of Education, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Wang, Ying; Guo, Jia [School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmacy, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Hubei 430073 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Calcium carbide (CaC{sub 2})-derived carbon (CCDC)/polyaniline (PANI) composite materials are prepared by in situ chemical oxidation polymerization of an aniline solution containing well-dispersed CCDC. The structure and morphology of CCDC/PANI composite are characterized by Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N{sub 2} sorption isotherms. It has been found that PANI was uniformly deposited on the surface and the inner pores of CCDC. The supercapacitive behaviors of the CCDC/PANI composite materials are investigated with cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and cycle life measurements. The results show that the CCDC/PANI composite electrodes have higher specific capacitances than the as grown CCDC electrodes and higher stability than the conducting polymers. The capacitance of CCDC/PANI composite electrode is as high as 713.4 F g{sup -1} measured by cyclic voltammetry at 1 mV s{sup -1}. Besides, the capacitance retention of coin supercapacitor remained 80.1% after 1000 cycles. (author)

  4. Variations of secretome profiles according to conditioned medium preparation: The example of human mesenchymal stem cell-derived adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clabaut, Aline; Grare, Céline; Léger, Thibaut; Hardouin, Pierre; Broux, Odile

    2015-10-01

    One challenging point in analyzing cellular secretome collected as conditioned medium is cross-contamination by cell culture media components, especially bovine serum proteins. A common approach for serum removal is to wash the cells, an alternative is to grow cells using serum-free conditions. Given that the sample processing may influence the phenotype of cells and thus the secretome, it is important to establish the optimal protocol for each cell type. In this study, we compared two methods for preparing conditioned medium from human adipocytes derived from mesenchymal stem cells. Cells were either washed twice with PBS or cultured the last four days of differentiation in serum-free adipogenic medium. Gene expression of the cells was evaluated by using real-time PCR and 1D LC-MS/MS was used to compare secreted proteins present in the culture supernatants. Surprisingly, results showed significant differences in gene expression patterns of the cells and in protein content of the conditioned media and suggested that PBS washes induced severe modifications of the phenotype of cells and thus changes in protein secretion profiles. These data emphasize the significant variations in protein species related to cell manipulations and underline the importance of procedure optimization prior to any proteomic investigation.

  5. Cultivation of corneal endothelial cells on a pericellular matrix prepared from human decidua-derived mesenchymal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Numata

    Full Text Available The barrier and pump functions of the corneal endothelium are essential for the maintenance of corneal transparency. Although corneal transplantation is the only current therapy for treating corneal endothelial dysfunction, the potential of tissue-engineering techniques to provide highly efficient and less invasive therapy in comparison to corneal transplantation has been highly anticipated. However, culturing human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs is technically difficult, and there is no established culture protocol. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using a pericellular matrix prepared from human decidua-derived mesenchymal cells (PCM-DM as an animal-free substrate for HCEC culture for future clinical applications. PCM-DM enhanced the adhesion of monkey CECs (MCECs via integrin, promoted cell proliferation, and suppressed apoptosis. The HCECs cultured on the PCM-DM showed a hexagonal morphology and a staining profile characteristic of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and ZO-1 at the plasma membrane in vivo, whereas the control HCECs showed a fibroblastic phenotype. The cell density of the cultured HCECs on the PCM-DM was significantly higher than that of the control cells. These results indicate that PCM-DM provides a feasible xeno-free matrix substrate and that it offers a viable in vitro expansion protocol for HCECs while maintaining cellular functions for use as a subsequent clinical intervention for tissue-engineered based therapy of corneal endothelial dysfunction.

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Refuse Derived Fuel for Pyrolysis and Gasification by Bindless High Pressure Briquetting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宪生; 解强; 厉伟; 沈吉敏

    2004-01-01

    A new type of refuse derived fuel (RDF) for pyrolysis and gasification was prepared from municipal solid waste (MSW) in the presence of a small quantity of coal by bindless high pressure technology at room temperature. The physicochemical property of RDF was tested. Orthogonal experiment method was used to optimize the process parameters using dropping strength (mechanical strength) and thermal stability of the RDF as indices for quality of RDF. The result shows that the mixture of MSW and coal with a total moisture ranging from 5% to 17% can be easily compressed into RDF briquettes at a pressure above 70 MPa. When the briquetting pressure is higher than 100 kN and moisture content is about 10%, the qualified RDF can be obtained. The orthogonal experiment shows that the moisture can greatly affect the mechanical strength of RDF, while all the technique parameters have no obvious influence on thermal stability of RDF. The optimal parameters are a shaping pressure of 106 MPa, a moisture content of 10%, and a coal content of 20%.

  7. Ni-Co/Mg-Al catalyst derived from hydrotalcite-like compound prepared by plasma for dry reforming of methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huali; Long; Yan; Xu; Xiaoqing; Zhang; Shijing; Hu; Shuyong; Shang; Yongxiang; Yin; Xiaoyan; Dai

    2013-01-01

    Ni-Co bimetallic catalysts with different Ni/Co content were derived from cold plasma jet decomposition and reduction of hydrotalcite-like compounds containing Ni,Co,Mg and Al,and their catalytic performance was investigated with dry reforming of methane.Experimental results showed that the hydrotalcite-like precursors could be completely decomposed and partly reduced by cold plasma jet,and the Nicontained catalysts exhibited much higher activity than the catalyst without Ni.Especially,the catalyst with Ni/Co ratio of 8/2 achieved not only the highest conversions of 80.3%and 69.3%for CH4 and CO2,respectively,but also the best stability in 100 h testing.The catalysts were characterized by XRD,XPS,TEM and N2 adsorption techniques,and the results showed that the better performance of the 8Ni2Co bimetallic catalyst was attributed to its higher metal dispersion,smaller metal particle size,as well as the interaction effect between Ni and Co,which were brought by the special catalyst preparation method.

  8. Cultivation of corneal endothelial cells on a pericellular matrix prepared from human decidua-derived mesenchymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Ryohei; Okumura, Naoki; Nakahara, Makiko; Ueno, Morio; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Kanematsu, Daisuke; Kanemura, Yonehiro; Sasai, Yoshiki; Koizumi, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    The barrier and pump functions of the corneal endothelium are essential for the maintenance of corneal transparency. Although corneal transplantation is the only current therapy for treating corneal endothelial dysfunction, the potential of tissue-engineering techniques to provide highly efficient and less invasive therapy in comparison to corneal transplantation has been highly anticipated. However, culturing human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) is technically difficult, and there is no established culture protocol. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using a pericellular matrix prepared from human decidua-derived mesenchymal cells (PCM-DM) as an animal-free substrate for HCEC culture for future clinical applications. PCM-DM enhanced the adhesion of monkey CECs (MCECs) via integrin, promoted cell proliferation, and suppressed apoptosis. The HCECs cultured on the PCM-DM showed a hexagonal morphology and a staining profile characteristic of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and ZO-1 at the plasma membrane in vivo, whereas the control HCECs showed a fibroblastic phenotype. The cell density of the cultured HCECs on the PCM-DM was significantly higher than that of the control cells. These results indicate that PCM-DM provides a feasible xeno-free matrix substrate and that it offers a viable in vitro expansion protocol for HCECs while maintaining cellular functions for use as a subsequent clinical intervention for tissue-engineered based therapy of corneal endothelial dysfunction.

  9. Derivation of the work expression and discussion on the effective principle and the phase separation theorem in unsaturated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO ChengGang; ZHANG XueDong

    2008-01-01

    Based on the balance equations for mass, linear momentum, energy in porous media theory and some hypotheses in unsaturated soil mechanics, an expression of the total deformation work W is derived, and with the help of the specific ex- pression of the work, the effective stress conjugated with the displacement of the soil skeleton is suggested by the authors, which has the similar form as the expressions proposed by Wheeler (2003) and some other researchers according to their experience and intuition, but the effective stress presented in this paper is derived on the basis of porous media theory and its assumptions, whose premise and hypothesis are clean It is also pointed out that due to the complexity of the physical mechanism and various influencing factors, it is impossible in unsatu- rated soil mechanics to determine the deformation of solid skeleton by the effective stress only, like in the saturated soil mechanics. Besides, by using the expression of the deformation work and the free energy Aα for each phase, the applicability of the Phase Separation Principle proposed by Passman (1984) in unsaturated soil is discussed, and it is considered that the principle should not strictly apply to un- saturated soil mechanics.

  10. Derivation of the work expression and discussion on the effective principle and the phase separation theorem in unsaturated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the balance equations for mass, linear momentum, energy in porous media theory and some hypotheses in unsaturated soil mechanics, an expression of the total deformation work W is derived, and with the help of the specific ex-pression of the work, the effective stress conjugated with the displacement of the soil skeleton is suggested by the authors, which has the similar form as the expressions proposed by Wheeler (2003) and some other researchers according to their experience and intuition, but the effective stress presented in this paper is derived on the basis of porous media theory and its assumptions, whose premise and hypothesis are clear. It is also pointed out that due to the complexity of the physical mechanism and various influencing factors, it is impossible in unsatu-rated soil mechanics to determine the deformation of solid skeleton by the effective stress only, like in the saturated soil mechanics. Besides, by using the expression of the deformation work and the free energy Aα for each phase, the applicability of the Phase Separation Principle proposed by Passman (1984) in unsaturated soil is discussed, and it is considered that the principle should not strictly apply to un-saturated soil mechanics.

  11. Preparation of heterocyclic amines by an oxidative amination of zinc organometallics mediated by Cu(I): a new oxidative cycloamination for the preparation of annulated indole derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Marcel; Wagner, Andreas J; Dunst, Cora; Knochel, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Functionalized heterocyclic zinc reagents are easily aminated by an oxidative amination reaction of zinc amidocuprates prepared from various lithium amides. For the oxidation step, PhI(OAc)(2) proved to be the best reagent. The required heterocyclic zinc organometallics can be prepared either by direct metalation, by magnesium insertion in the presence of ZnCl(2), or by transmetalation of a suitable magnesium reagent. Furthermore, we report a new ring-closing reaction involving an intramolecular oxidative amination reaction. This reaction allows the preparation of tetracyclic heterocycles containing furan, thiophene, or indole rings.

  12. THE IMPROVEMENT OF LOW-WASTE TECHNOLOGIES OF WORKING BODY OF WATER PREPARATION AT THERMAL AND NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Rymasheuskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the main directions of water desalination technologies improving have been analyzed. Possible techniques of high-quality treatment of water that enable the reduction of amounts of environmentally hazardous substances to be discharged into the hydrosphere are indicated. The purpose of the work was to improve the ecological efficiency and the effectiveness of water treatment equipment at heat power plants when designing new and the modernizing existing water treatment schemes. In order to achieve this goal the following problems have been solved: the one of analyzing the main directions of the improvement of technologies of working body of water preparation at thermal and nuclear power plants; of analyzing the main directions of reduction of total volume of highly mineralized power plant wastewaters; of developing the technological scheme of recycling of concentrate of membrane installations and regenerants of ionite filters in acid and alkali; of developing the technological scheme of transformation of the sludge in pre-processing waste into valuable commodity products. The results of research can be applied for the design of new and the modernization of existing water treatment installations of thermal and nuclear power plants. It will enable to reduce considerably the use of natural water and the amount of chemicals added as well as the volume of wastewater and the concentration of dissolved solids in it. As a consequence, the negative impact of thermal and nuclear power plants on the hydrosphere will be reduced. 

  13. Binding energy and work function of organic electrode materials phenanthraquinone, pyromellitic dianhydride and their derivatives adsorbed on graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang-Xin

    2014-09-24

    Electroactive organic compounds are a novel group of green cathode materials for rechargeable metal-ion batteries. However, the organic battery life is short because the organic compounds can be dissolved by nonaqueous electrolytes. Here a comparative investigation of phenanthraquinone (PQ), pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and their derivatives, i.e., benzo[1,2-b:4,3-b']difuran-4,5-dione (BDFD), benzo[1,2-b:4,3-b']dithiophene-4,5-quinone (BDTQ), 3,8-phenanthroline-5,6-dione (PAD), pyromellitic dithioanhydride (PMDT), pyromellitic diimide (PMDI) and 1,4,5,8-anthracenetetrone (ATO), adsorbed on graphene is performed using a density functional theory (DFT) with a van der Waals (vdW) dispersion-correction. The computed results show a strong physisorption with the binding energies between 1.10 and 1.56 eV. A sequence of the calculated binding energies from weak to strong is found to be BDFD work functions for the nanocomposites are found to be strongly affected by the work function of each organic compound. To understand the DFT results, a novel simple expression is proposed to predict the work function of the nanocomposites from the interfacial dipole and the work functions of the isolated graphene nanosheet and organic molecules. The predicted work functions for the nanocomposites from the new equation agree quite well with the values calculated from the vdW dispersion-corrected DFT.

  14. A New Iterative Approach for the Synthesis of Oligo(phenyleneethynediyl) Derivatives and Its Application for the Preparation of Fullerene-Oligo(phenyleneethynediyl) Conjugates as Active Photovoltaic Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nierengarten, Jean-François; Gu, Tao; Hadziioannou, Georges; Tsamouras, Dimitris; Krasnikov, Victor

    2004-01-01

    Disymmetrically substituted oligo(phenyleneethynediyl) (OPE) derivatives were prepared from 2,5-bis(octyloxy)-4-[(triisopropylsilyl)ethynyl]benzaldehyde (5) by an iterative approach using the following reaction sequence: i) Corey-Fuchs dibromoolefination, ii) treatment with an excess of lithium diis

  15. Mono-Fluorinated Alkyne-Derived SAMs on Oxide-Free Si(III) Surfaces: Preparation, Characterization and Tuning of the Si Workfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pujari, S.P.; Andel, van E.; Yaffe, O.; Cahen, D.; Weidner, T.; Rijn, van C.J.M.; Zuilhof, H.

    2013-01-01

    Organic monolayers derived from ¿-fluoro-1-alkynes of varying carbon chain lengths (C(10)-C(18)) were prepared on Si(111) surfaces, resulting in changes of the physical and electronic properties of the surface. Analysis of the monolayers using XPS, Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy, ellips

  16. Solid-liquid work of adhesion of coarse-grained models of n-hexane on graphene layers derived from the conditional reversible work method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardham, Vikram Reddy; Deichmann, Gregor; van der Vegt, Nico F A; Leroy, Frédéric

    2015-12-28

    We address the question of how reducing the number of degrees of freedom modifies the interfacial thermodynamic properties of heterogeneous solid-liquid systems. We consider the example of n-hexane interacting with multi-layer graphene which we model both with fully atomistic and coarse-grained (CG) models. The CG models are obtained by means of the conditional reversible work (CRW) method. The interfacial thermodynamics of these models is characterized by the solid-liquid work of adhesion WSL calculated by means of the dry-surface methodology through molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the CRW potentials lead to values of WSL that are larger than the atomistic ones. Clear understanding of the relationship between the structure of n-hexane in the vicinity of the surface and WSL is elucidated through a detailed study of the energy and entropy components of WSL. We highlight the crucial role played by the solid-liquid energy fluctuations. Our approach suggests that CG potentials should be designed in such a way that they preserve the range of solid-liquid interaction energies, but also their fluctuations in order to preserve the reference atomistic value of WSL. Our study thus opens perspectives into deriving CG interaction potentials that preserve the thermodynamics of solid-liquid contacts and will find application in studies that intend to address materials driven by interfaces.

  17. Solid-liquid work of adhesion of coarse-grained models of n-hexane on graphene layers derived from the conditional reversible work method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardham, Vikram Reddy; Leroy, Frédéric, E-mail: vandervegt@csi.tu-darmstadt.de, E-mail: f.leroy@theo.chemie.tu-darmstadt.de [Eduard-Zintl-Institut für Anorganische und Physikalische Chemie, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Strasse 4, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Deichmann, Gregor; Vegt, Nico F. A. van der, E-mail: vandervegt@csi.tu-darmstadt.de, E-mail: f.leroy@theo.chemie.tu-darmstadt.de [Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Strasse 10, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-12-28

    We address the question of how reducing the number of degrees of freedom modifies the interfacial thermodynamic properties of heterogeneous solid-liquid systems. We consider the example of n-hexane interacting with multi-layer graphene which we model both with fully atomistic and coarse-grained (CG) models. The CG models are obtained by means of the conditional reversible work (CRW) method. The interfacial thermodynamics of these models is characterized by the solid-liquid work of adhesion W{sub SL} calculated by means of the dry-surface methodology through molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the CRW potentials lead to values of W{sub SL} that are larger than the atomistic ones. Clear understanding of the relationship between the structure of n-hexane in the vicinity of the surface and W{sub SL} is elucidated through a detailed study of the energy and entropy components of W{sub SL}. We highlight the crucial role played by the solid-liquid energy fluctuations. Our approach suggests that CG potentials should be designed in such a way that they preserve the range of solid-liquid interaction energies, but also their fluctuations in order to preserve the reference atomistic value of W{sub SL}. Our study thus opens perspectives into deriving CG interaction potentials that preserve the thermodynamics of solid-liquid contacts and will find application in studies that intend to address materials driven by interfaces.

  18. Deriving Requirements for Pervasive Well-Being Technology From Work Stress and Intervention Theory: Framework and Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koldijk, Saskia; Kraaij, Wessel; Neerincx, Mark A

    2016-07-05

    Stress in office environments is a big concern, often leading to burn-out. New technologies are emerging, such as easily available sensors, contextual reasoning, and electronic coaching (e-coaching) apps. In the Smart Reasoning for Well-being at Home and at Work (SWELL) project, we explore the potential of using such new pervasive technologies to provide support for the self-management of well-being, with a focus on individuals' stress-coping. Ideally, these new pervasive systems should be grounded in existing work stress and intervention theory. However, there is a large diversity of theories and they hardly provide explicit directions for technology design. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive and concise framework that can be used to design pervasive technologies that support knowledge workers to decrease stress. Based on a literature study we identify concepts relevant to well-being at work and select different work stress models to find causes of work stress that can be addressed. From a technical perspective, we then describe how sensors can be used to infer stress and the context in which it appears, and use intervention theory to further specify interventions that can be provided by means of pervasive technology. The resulting general framework relates several relevant theories: we relate "engagement and burn-out" to "stress", and describe how relevant aspects can be quantified by means of sensors. We also outline underlying causes of work stress and how these can be addressed with interventions, in particular utilizing new technologies integrating behavioral change theory. Based upon this framework we were able to derive requirements for our case study, the pervasive SWELL system, and we implemented two prototypes. Small-scale user studies proved the value of the derived technology-supported interventions. The presented framework can be used to systematically develop theory-based technology-supported interventions to address work stress. In

  19. Deriving Requirements for Pervasive Well-Being Technology From Work Stress and Intervention Theory: Framework and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koldijk, Saskia; Kraaij, Wessel

    2016-01-01

    Background Stress in office environments is a big concern, often leading to burn-out. New technologies are emerging, such as easily available sensors, contextual reasoning, and electronic coaching (e-coaching) apps. In the Smart Reasoning for Well-being at Home and at Work (SWELL) project, we explore the potential of using such new pervasive technologies to provide support for the self-management of well-being, with a focus on individuals' stress-coping. Ideally, these new pervasive systems should be grounded in existing work stress and intervention theory. However, there is a large diversity of theories and they hardly provide explicit directions for technology design. Objective The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive and concise framework that can be used to design pervasive technologies that support knowledge workers to decrease stress. Methods Based on a literature study we identify concepts relevant to well-being at work and select different work stress models to find causes of work stress that can be addressed. From a technical perspective, we then describe how sensors can be used to infer stress and the context in which it appears, and use intervention theory to further specify interventions that can be provided by means of pervasive technology. Results The resulting general framework relates several relevant theories: we relate “engagement and burn-out” to “stress”, and describe how relevant aspects can be quantified by means of sensors. We also outline underlying causes of work stress and how these can be addressed with interventions, in particular utilizing new technologies integrating behavioral change theory. Based upon this framework we were able to derive requirements for our case study, the pervasive SWELL system, and we implemented two prototypes. Small-scale user studies proved the value of the derived technology-supported interventions. Conclusions The presented framework can be used to systematically develop theory

  20. The integrated model for interprofessional education: a design for preparing health professions' students to work in interprofessional teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapczynski, Cynthia A; Schuurman, Shelley; Booth, Andrew D; Bambini, Deborah; Beel-Bates, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    An important element in the process of helping students learn to work interprofessionally is figuring out how to design high-impact learning experiences that engage students in meaningful learning that is collaborative and experiential and can transform students understanding of their own and others' roles in the health care process. In this article, a model for interprofessional education, the Integrated Model for Interprofessional Education (IMIPE), is shared for introducing students in the health professions to the roles and responsibilities of some of the other healthcare professionals with whom they will work in practice. The IMIPE is a process model developed by an interprofessional faculty team used as the focal point of a pilot educational event for students from nursing, occupational therapy, physician assistant studies, and social work. The IMIPE is a derived model that combines concepts of holism, participation, and practical education, grounded in the adult educational philosophy of progressivism. Progressive adult education is focused on practical knowledge and problem-solving skills. The model uses collaborative, experiential, and transformative learning approaches to foster outcomes of communication, critical reflection, teamwork, ethics, and recognition of patient-client needs. These outcomes represent those identified by the World Health Organization and the Interprofessional Education Collaborative Expert Panel.

  1. PREPARATION AND STRUCTURE OF FIVE DERIVATIVES OF β-(1→3)-D-GLUCAN ISOLATED FROM PORIA COCOS SCLEROTIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-feng Wang; Li-na Zhang; Dong Ruan

    2004-01-01

    A new solvent of cellulose (1.5 mol/L NaOH/0.5 mol/L urea aqueous solution) was used as one of the homogeneous reaction media of polysaccharides for methylation, hydroxyethylation and hydroxypropylation. A water insoluble β-(l→3)-D-glucan, sample PCS3-II, isolated from fresh sclerotium of Poria cocos was sulfated in dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), carboxymethylated in NaOH, isopropanol solution, as well as methylated, hydroxyethylated and hydroxypropylated in the new solvent system, respectively, to obtain five water-soluble derivatives coded as S-PCS3-Ⅱ, C-PCS3-Ⅱ, M-PCS3-Ⅱ, HE-PCS3-Ⅱ and HP-PCS3-Ⅱ. Their chemical structure and distribution of substitution were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), elementary analysis (EA), 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 2D-COSY, 2D-TOCSY and 2D-1H-detected 1H 13C HMQC spectra. The results reveal that the relative reactivity of hydroxyl groups of the β-(l→3)-D-glucan is in the order C-6 > C-4 > C-2 on the whole. The substitution of the samples S-PCS3-Ⅱ, C-PCS3-Ⅱ and M-PCS3-Ⅱoccurred mainly at C-6 position and secondly at C-4 and C-2 positions, and that of HE-PCS3-II occurred at C-6 and C-4positions and of HP-PCS3-II almost completely occurred at C-6 position. The degrees of substitution (DS) obtained from 13C-NMR range from 0.23 to 1.27. The water solubility of the derivatives is in the order S-PCS3-Ⅱ> C-PCS3-Ⅱ> M-PCS3-Ⅱ> HE-PCS3-Ⅱ> HP-PCS3-Ⅱ. This work provides a novel and nonpolluting process for the methylation, hydroxyethylation and hydroxypropylation ofβ-(1→3)-D-glucan.

  2. Preparing the Next Generation of Environmental Scientists to Work at the Frontier of Data-Intensive Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    The science necessary to unravel complex environmental problems confronts severe computational challenges - coping with huge volumes of heterogeneous data, spanning vast spatial scales at high resolution, and requiring integration of disparate measurements from multiple disciplines. But as cyberinfrastructure advances to support such work, scientists in many fields lack sufficient computational skills to participate in interdisciplinary, data-intensive research. In response, we developed innovative training workshops for early-career scientists, in order to explore both the needs and solutions for training next-generation scientists in skills for data-intensive environmental research. In 2013 and 2014 we ran intensive 3-week training workshops for early-career researchers. One of the workshops was run concurrently in California and North Carolina, connected by virtual technologies and coordinated schedules. We attracted applicants to the workshop with the opportunity to pursue data-intensive small-group research projects that they proposed. This approach presented a realistic possibility that publishable products could result from 3 weeks of focused hands-on classroom instruction combined with self-directed group research in which instructors were present to assist trainees. Instruction addressed 1) collaboration modes and technologies, 2) data management, preservation, and sharing, 3) preparing data for analysis using scripting, 4) reproducible research, 5) sustainable software practices, 6) data analysis and modeling, and 7) communicating results to broad communities. The most dramatic improvements in technical skills were in data management, version control, and working with spatial data outside of proprietary software. In addition, participants built strong networks and collaborative skills that later resulted in a successful student-led grant proposal, published manuscripts, and participants reported that the training was a highly influential experience.

  3. An "Aufbau" Approach to Understanding How the King-Altman Method of Deriving Rate Equations for Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    The King-Altman method of deriving rate equations for enzymatic reactions is applied to the derivation of the Michaelis-Menten equation, along with an explanation for how (or why) the King-Altman method works in this case. The slightly more complicated cases of competitive inhibition and a two-substrate enzyme-catalyzed reaction are then treated…

  4. An "Aufbau" Approach to Understanding How the King-Altman Method of Deriving Rate Equations for Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    The King-Altman method of deriving rate equations for enzymatic reactions is applied to the derivation of the Michaelis-Menten equation, along with an explanation for how (or why) the King-Altman method works in this case. The slightly more complicated cases of competitive inhibition and a two-substrate enzyme-catalyzed reaction are then treated…

  5. Preparation and application of nanocrystalline cellulose derived from sugarcane waste as filler modified alkanolamide on crosslink of natural rubber latex film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harahap, Hamidah; Hayat, Nuim; Lubis, Marfuah

    2017-07-01

    Sugarcane waste is abundant sources of cellulose and it has potential to reutilize. Cellulose from sugarcane waste can be derived into nanocystalline cellulose (NCC) from crystalline region. The NCC as a filler has capability to reinforce natural rubber latex product. The crosslink in vulcanized natural rubber latex film influences several properties of product. In this work, we extracted NCC from sugarcane waste then added into natural rubber latex as filler modified alkanolamide (ALK) and also studied the crosslink of natural rubber latex films. NCC were produced from sugarcane waste by hydrolysis process with sulfuric acid 45%. The obtained NCC was characterized by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and fourier transform infra red (FTIR). NCC was modified by alkanolamide and dispersed in water with filler concentration of 10%. Then the dispersion were added into latex system followed by pre-vulcanization at 70 °C. The films were prepared by coagulant dipping method and dried at 100 °C and 120 °C for 20 minutes. Characterization of NCC from sugarcane waste by using FTIR was done, it clearly showed the functional groups of cellulose. TEM showed the obtained NCC were rod-shaped with about 40-160 nm in diameter and several hundred nm in length, and XRD showed that the degree of crystalinity of NCC from sugarcane waste is 92.33%. The crosslink of natural rubber films were studied by measure the crosslink density for different filler loading by using swelling measurement with toluene solution. The result show that the crosslink density increased in line with amount of filler which added into the system, and also the crosslink density that obtained from vulcanization at 120 °C were higher than 100 °C.

  6. Preparation, spectroscopic characterization and antimicrobial activities of mixed metal (Sb and Bi) bridged derivatives with mixed sulfur donor ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sapana; Chauhan, H. P. S.; Carpenter, Nitin

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the syntheses of six mixed metal derivatives of antimony(III) and bismuth(III) by the reaction of ethane-1,2-dithiol and metal bis derivatives of dithiocarbamates and/or dithiophosphates ligands in 1:1:1 M stoichiometry. These derivatives have been characterized by physicochemical [elemental analysis (C, H, N, S, Sb and Bi), molecular weight and melting point determinations], spectral [UV-Visible, FTIR, NMR (1H, 13C and 31P)], powder X-ray diffraction studies. These derivatives have nano-ranged crystallite size (8.18-18.04 nm) with monoclinic crystal system. All the synthesized derivatives have two metal centers (Sb and Bi) which elevate the zone of inhibition against four bacterial and two fungal species as compared to single metal species (metal precursors) as well as standard drugs.

  7. Supramolecular Assembly of pH-Sensitive Triphenylene Derived π-Gelators and Their Application as Molecular Template for the Preparation of Silica Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Muñoz Resta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The gelation properties and mode of self-assembly of six asymmetrical hexaether triphenylene derivatives mono-functionalized with carboxylic and primary amine groups were investigated. The presence of a carboxylic and amine group attached to the triphenylene core generated stable, thermo- and pH-sensitive supramolecular π-organogels with a reversible response to both stimuli. In order to understand the gelation process, we studied the effect of the spacer length and found a different gelation scope for the acid and basic derivatives that accounts for a different supramolecular self-assembly. The presence of the basic group on the amino derivatives was used to guide and catalyze the templated in situ sol-gel polymerization of TEOS and allowed us, under controlled hydrolytic conditions, to prepare an entangled fibrillar network of silica nanotubes.

  8. Preparation of a 6-OH quaternized chitosan derivative through click reaction and its application to novel thermally induced/polyelectrolyte complex hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Fengju; Zhang, Na; Li, Yi; Cheng, Bin; Zheng, Yongfa

    2017-07-11

    In the present study, a chitosan derivative with long chain quaternary ammonium locating grafted at 6-OH (CTS-6-QAS) was designed and prepared via a novel click reaction. The structure and thermal stability of the products of each step were determined with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Rheological tests indicate that CTS-6-QAS possesses excellent thermally induced hydrogel formation property in the presence of β-glycerophosphate (β-GP). Based on these results, a novel thermally induced/polyelectrolyte complex CTS-6-QAS/alginate (SA)/β-GP dual-network hydrogel was designed. This controllable preparation method can avoid the disadvantages of the preparation methods for single thermo-induced hydrogels and polyelectrolyte complex hydrogels, and promote the homogeneity of the hydrogel. Porous sponges were prepared by freeze-drying the CTS-6-QASSA/β-GP hydrogels. The effects of hydrogel preparation conditions on the porous structure and swelling property of the sponges were quantitatively investigated. Tea tree oil (TTO), a natural antibacterial agent, was successfully embedded in the hydrogel due to the lipophilicity of the long chain quaternary ammonium grafted at 6-OH of chitosan. The sustained release of TTO from the hydrogel was studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Preparation of zwitterionic hydroquinone-fused [1,4]oxazinium derivatives via a photoinduced intramolecular dehydrogenative-coupling reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chenyi; Liu, Shi-Xia; Neels, Antonia; Renaud, Philippe; Decurtins, Silvio

    2009-12-03

    A simple and efficient photochemical reaction can be performed to construct functionalized [1,4]oxazinium derivatives via a direct dehydrogenative coupling between sp(3)- and sp(2)-hybridized C-atoms, starting from easily accessible stable semiquinone radicals.

  10. Preparation work for the replacement of a process computer: user vision; Trabajos de preparacion para la sustitucion de un ordenador de proceso: Vision de usuario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florit Diaz, C.

    2011-07-01

    The present paper describes the work needed to prepare the plant for its adaptation to the new system of mechanized operation support. In particular, it focuses on changes to different types of plant signals that reach the computer to conform to the requirements of the new data acquisition system.

  11. From the Great State to the Great Beyond: A Case Study of How the Study Abroad Experience Prepares Accounting Students to Work in a Global Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernsteiner, Aimee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the study abroad experience, as it relates to employment, from multiple perspectives in order to gain insight into how the study abroad experience prepares accounting students to work in a global economy. Studying abroad has been recognized at the national level as an important component to…

  12. From the Great State to the Great Beyond: A Case Study of How the Study Abroad Experience Prepares Accounting Students to Work in a Global Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernsteiner, Aimee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the study abroad experience, as it relates to employment, from multiple perspectives in order to gain insight into how the study abroad experience prepares accounting students to work in a global economy. Studying abroad has been recognized at the national level as an important component to…

  13. Lipase-catalyzed Regioselective Synthesis of Vinyl Ester Derivatives of Thiamphenicol: Novel Thiamphenicol Monomers for Preparation of Macromolecular Antibiotic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Zhen SHI; Zhi Chun CHEN; Na WANG; Qi WU; Xian Fu LIN

    2005-01-01

    Three polymerizable vinyl thiamphenicol esters with different acyl donor carbon chain length (C4, C6, C10) were regioselectivly synthesized by Lipozyme(R) (immobilized from mucor miehei) in acetone at 50 ℃ for 12 h to give 73%, 81%, 63% yield, respectively. The products were valuable monomers for preparation of macromolecular antibiotic.

  14. Determination of guaiphenesin in anti-tussive pharmaceutical preparations containing dextromethorphan by first- and second-derivative ultraviolet spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A R; Hu, T M

    1994-06-01

    Rapid, simple and direct assay procedures based on selective first (D1)- and second (D2)-derivative spectrophotometry, using a zero-crossing technique of measurement at 279.2 and 280.0 nm, respectively, have been developed for the specific determination of guaiphenesin in the presence of dextromethorphan, drugs with closely overlapping absorption spectra, in synthetic admixtures and in pharmaceutical dosage forms (tablets and syrups). The methods do not require extraction with organic solvents and are easier to perform than their conventional counterparts. Calibration graphs were linear (r = 0.99999 for D1 and 0.99969 for D2, respectively). Good selectivity, accuracy and precision were found. However, the performance of the analysis of guaiphenesin by the second-derivative mode deteriorated when the ratio of dextromethorphan to guaiphenesin was greater than one. Thus, the first-derivative spectrophotometry is the method of choice for the assay of tablets and syrups containing the two drugs.

  15. Preparation of Biotubes with vascular cells component by in vivo incubation using adipose-derived stromal cell-exuding multi-microporous molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Ryosuke; Tsujinaka, Takahiro; Nakayama, Yasuhide

    2015-12-01

    Biotubes, prepared using in-body tissue architecture (IBTA) technology, have adequate mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility for vascular grafts. However, they have thin walls, lack vascular constructing cells, and are composed of subcutaneous connective tissues consisting mainly of collagen and fibroblasts. This study aimed to prepare Biotubes with a vascular-like structure including an endothelial cell lining and a smooth muscle cell by IBTA using adipose-derived vascular stromal cell (ADSCs)-exuding specially designed multiporous tubes (outer diameter 5 mm, length 24 mm, pore size 500 μm, pore number 180, cell number/tube >3.0 × 10(6)). ADSCs were separated from rat subcutaneous fat, suspended in a Matrigel™ solution at 4 °C, and then filled into the tubes. After the tubes were embedded into dorsal subcutaneous pouches of the same rats for 2 weeks, robust Biotubes with a wall thickness of >600 μm were formed surrounding the tubes. The luminal layer of the obtained Biotubes was dominated by the cells positive for an endothelial marker. Almost the entire intima, with a thickness of about 400 μm, was occupied with cells positive for a smooth muscle marker. Both cells were derived from ADSCs. Biotube walls were constructed by fusing ADSC-derived vascular constructing cells exuded from the tubes and fibroblasts and collagen from the surrounding connective tissue. A robust Biotubes with vascular cells component, were formed after only 2 weeks of subcutaneous incubation of ADSCs-exuding multiporous tubes.

  16. Bioreducible branched polyethyleneimine derivatives physically loaded with hydrophobic pheophorbide A: preparation, characterization, and light-induced cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hana; Li, Li; Bae, You Han; Huh, Kang Moo; Kang, Han Chang

    2014-10-01

    Branched-type hydrophilic polyethyleneimine derivatives (i.e., bPEI derivatives) are developed polymeric carriers for photodynamic therapy. Their chemical structures which contain pH-tunable hydrophobic/hydrophilic cavities enable efficient loading of hydrophobic drugs in basic pH environments. Intracellular stimuli trigger the release of the loaded drugs in bPEI derivatives. As expected, the hydrophobic photosensitizer known as pheophorbide A (PheoA) is solubilized by physical loading in the inner hydrophobic spaces of bPEI derivatives in environments with basic pH values. Interestingly, acidic pH environments induce aggregation, resulting in poor release of the loaded PheoA as well as in quenched photo-activity of the PheoA-loaded polymers. However, when reducible polycation derivatives of bPEI are used (i.e., RPC-bPEI), intracellular thiols degrade the disulfide linkages in the polymers, resulting in rapid PheoA release. Particularly, a RPC-bPEI containing 6 wt% PheoA (i.e., RPC-bPEI(0.8 kDa)-PheoA(6%)) respond remarkably well to light exposure and display large differences between dark toxicity and light-induced toxicity. Cellular uptake of RPC-bPEI(0.8 kDa)-PheoA(6%) is approximately sevenfold to ninefold lower than that of free PheoA. Nevertheless, the photo-toxicity of RPC-bPEI(0.8 kDa)-PheoA(6%) was only two- to sixfold less potent than that of free PheoA. These results suggest that reducible bPEI materials may act as potential solubilizers and carriers for low-molecular-weight hydrophobic anti-cancer drugs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A General Synthetic Procedure for 2-chloromethyl-4(3H-quinazolinone Derivatives and Their Utilization in the Preparation of Novel Anticancer Agents with 4-Anilinoquinazoline Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Lan Zhao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In our ongoing research on novel anticancer agents with 4-anilinoquinazoline scaffolds, a series of novel 2-chloromethyl-4(3H-quinazolinones were needed as key intermediates. An improved one-step synthesis of 2-chloromethyl-4(3H-quinazolinones utilizing o-anthranilic acids as starting materials was described. Based on it, 2-hydroxy-methyl-4(3H-quinazolinones were conveniently prepared in one pot. Moreover, two novel 4-anilinoquinazoline derivatives substituted with chloromethyl groups at the 2-position were synthesized and showed promising anticancer activity in vitro.

  18. Effective and novel enantioselective preparation of pyranopyrazoles and pyranocoumarins that is catalyzed by a quinine-derived primary amine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sai; Shen, Liu-lan; Kim, Yoon-Jung; Jeong, Jin-Hyun

    2016-01-14

    In this study, we executed an effective and novel enantioselective Michael/cyclodehydration sequential reaction between pyrazolin-5-one (or 4-hydroxy-2-pyrone) and chalcones that is catalyzed by a quinine-derived primary amine L7 in the presence of Boc-D-Phg-OH. Chiral pyranopyrazoles and pyranocoumarins were obtained in excellent enantioselectivities (up to 93%) with moderate yields and moderate enantioselectivities with high yields (up to 84%).

  19. Phenylethynylcobalamin: a light-stable and thermolysis-resistant organometallic vitamin B(12) derivative prepared by radical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetz, Markus; Salchner, Robert; Wurst, Klaus; Fedosov, Sergey; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2013-10-18

    Don't take this antivitamin! 2-Phenylethynylcobalamin was prepared in a newly developed radical reaction using cob(II)alamin and 1-iodo-2-phenylethyne. It has an exceptionally short organometallic bond and is a remarkably light-stable and heat-resistant organometallic cobalamin. It is bound well by two important proteins of the human B12 transport system and has properties that are as expected for a new type of an "antivitamin B12 ". Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Double-Mesopore V-MSU-X Silica and its Pure Siliceous Derivative Prepared by One Synthesis System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Non-ionically templated organo-modified MSU-2 mesoporous silicas have been prepared in neutral medium by co-condensation TEOS and vinyltriexoylsiloxane (VTES) and exhibit highly symmetric bimodal mesopore systems. A bromination reaction of V-MSU-2 provides evidence for attachment of most vinyl groups to the accessible surface within the channels. Further, siliceous MSU-2 materials with double pore size have been obtained from calcination of so-produced organo-modified MSU-2 and demonstrate the immense flexibility of the non-ionic templating system.

  1. Preparation of 16β-Estradiol Derivative Libraries as Bisubstrate Inhibitors of 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Using the Multidetachable Sulfamate Linker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Poirier

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Combinatorial chemistry is a powerful tool used to rapidly generate a large number of potentially biologically active compounds. In our goal to develop bisubstrate inhibitors of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17β-HSD1 that interact with both the substrate (estrone or estradiol and the cofactor (NAD(PH binding sites, we used parallel solid-phase synthesis to prepare three libraries of 16β-estradiol derivatives with two or three levels of molecular diversity. From estrone, we first synthesized a sulfamate precursor that we loaded on trityl chloride resin using the efficient multidetachable sulfamate linker strategy recently developed in our laboratory. We then introduced molecular diversity [one or two amino acid(s followed by a carboxylic acid] on steroid nucleus by Fmoc peptide chemistry. Finally, after a nucleophilic cleavage, libraries of 30, 63 and 25 estradiol derivatives were provided. A library of 30 sulfamoylated estradiol derivatives was also generated by acidic cleavage and its members were screened for inhibition of steroid sulfatase. Biological evaluation on homogenated HEK-293 cells overexpressing 17β-HSD1 of the estradiol derivatives carrying different oligoamide-type chains at C-16 first revealed that three levels of molecular diversity (a spacer of two amino acids were necessary to interact with the adenosine part of the cofactor binding site. Second, the best inhibition was obtained when hydrophobic residues (phenylalanine were used as building blocks.

  2. Preparing History Teachers to Work with English Learners through a Focus on the Academic Language of Historical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall-Leckrone, Laura; McQuillan, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports empirical evidence about the influence of embedding language-based strategies into a history methods course to prepare novice history teachers to teach English learners (ELs). Mixed methods were used in an action research cycle to analyze participants' attitudes and preparedness to teach ELs history before and after being…

  3. Preparing History Teachers to Work with English Learners through a Focus on the Academic Language of Historical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall-Leckrone, Laura; McQuillan, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports empirical evidence about the influence of embedding language-based strategies into a history methods course to prepare novice history teachers to teach English learners (ELs). Mixed methods were used in an action research cycle to analyze participants' attitudes and preparedness to teach ELs history before and after being…

  4. The Overwhelmed Generation and Foreign Language Teacher Preparation: Developing Strategies to Work with the Mental Health Challenges of Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrier, Leslie L.

    2008-01-01

    For the last two decades the foreign language education profession has spent considerable energy establishing professional guidelines for foreign language teacher preparation. This article discusses research that suggests that the profession should now direct its energies toward developing protocols to assist preservice teachers whose mental…

  5. Perspectives of Preservice and In-Service Teachers on Their Preparation to Work with Parents in Elementary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Zafer; Unal, Aslihan

    2014-01-01

    This study examines preservice and in-service teachers' perspectives on their preparation in learning parental involvement strategies and explores their opinions on what kind of experiences regarding parental involvement they think teacher education programs should provide. The data from the study suggested that the preservice teachers held…

  6. Preparation for Social Service Leadership: Field Work and Virtual Organizations that Promote Critical Thinking in Administration Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Gray, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how to prepare professional social workers for real-world nonprofit leadership roles. A pilot course assignment that incorporates a quasi-organization fieldwork simulation developed by the author is described. Development and application of critical thinking skills are reviewed, the course objective is explained, and methods…

  7. Transcending Rainbow Flags and Pride Parades: Preparing Special Education Preservice Educators to Work with Gay and Lesbian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Educators are often at a loss in handling lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) issues in the classroom. tvOften this is attributable to a lack of training during the preservice program at the university level. This article suggests that special education teacher preparation programs are uniquely positioned to promote sexual diversity…

  8. Research on the preparation of antioxidant peptides derived from egg white with assisting of high-intensity pulsed electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Songyi; Jin, Yan; Liu, Mingyuan; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Meishuo; Guo, Yang; Jones, Gregory; Liu, Jingbo; Yin, Yongguang

    2013-08-15

    Egg white protein powder, one of the main egg products, was hydrolysed by Alcalase, Trypsin, and Pepsin respectively to prepare antioxidant peptides. All hydrolysates were assayed by determination of reducing power (RP) ability. Three kinds of hydrolysates were prepared under optimal enzymatic parameters that were obtained from the preliminary one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) and response surface methodology (RSM) experiments. The results showed that the Alcalase hydrolysates exerted the best RP ability. Thereafter, the Alcalase hydrolysates were sequentially fractionated by ultra filtration membranes in cut-off molecular weight (MW) of 30, 10, and 1 kDa, and tested their antioxidant activities in terms of RP ability, DPPH radical scavenging ability, ABTS radical scavenging ability, and FRAP assay. Effects of high intensity pulsed electric field treatment were further investigated on antioxidant peptides to improve their activities. The results showed that Alcalase hydrolysates possessed the strongest antioxidant ability compared with the other two hydrolysates, particularly for the Fraction-3 with MW <1 kDa. After PEF treatment, this fraction showed a significant improvement of RP ability within 5 h (P<0.05).

  9. Preparation and characterisation of raw chars and physically activated carbons derived from marine Posidonia oceanica (L.) fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ncibi, M.C., E-mail: ncibi_mc@yahoo.com [Laboratoire de chimie, Institut Superieur Agronomique, Chott Meriem 4042, Sousse (Tunisia); Unite de Recherche ' Chimie Appliquee et Environnement' , EPAM Sousse 4000 (Tunisia); Laboratoire COVACHIMM, EA 3592 Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, BP 250, 97157 Pointe a Pitre Cedex, Guadeloupe (France); Jeanne-Rose, V. [Laboratoire COVACHIMM, EA 3592 Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, BP 250, 97157 Pointe a Pitre Cedex, Guadeloupe (France); Mahjoub, B. [Laboratoire de chimie, Institut Superieur Agronomique, Chott Meriem 4042, Sousse (Tunisia); Unite de Recherche ' Chimie Appliquee et Environnement' , EPAM Sousse 4000 (Tunisia); Jean-Marius, C. [Laboratoire COVACHIMM, EA 3592 Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, BP 250, 97157 Pointe a Pitre Cedex, Guadeloupe (France); Lambert, J.; Ehrhardt, J.J. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, UMR 7564 CNRS, Universites de Nancy, 405, rue de Vandoeuvre, F 56600 Villers-les-Nancy cedex (France); Bercion, Y. [Groupe de Technologie des Surfaces et Interfaces (GTSI), EA 2432, Faculte des Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, BP 250, 97157 Pointe a Pitre Cedex, Guadeloupe (France); Seffen, M. [Laboratoire de chimie, Institut Superieur Agronomique, Chott Meriem 4042, Sousse (Tunisia); Unite de Recherche ' Chimie Appliquee et Environnement' , EPAM Sousse 4000 (Tunisia); Gaspard, S. [Laboratoire COVACHIMM, EA 3592 Universite des Antilles et de la Guyane, BP 250, 97157 Pointe a Pitre Cedex, Guadeloupe (France)

    2009-06-15

    Industrial valorisation of low cost and renewable biomass as raw precursor of activated carbon for environmental applications is an interesting alternative to costly commercial activated carbons. In this study, the possible use of Mediterranean, Posidonia oceanica fibrous biomass, as a precursor for chars and physically activated carbons, is investigated. Firstly, the raw marine material was chemically and biochemically characterised throughout dry-basis elemental, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Then, several P. oceanica chars were prepared and characterised under different pyrolysis times and temperatures. In addition, physically activated carbons (PACs) were produced via water steam flow under various activation periods. The results showed that the pyrolysis induces the creation of pores at different levels with respect to the involved temperature. Thereafter, the physical activation tends to enhance the development of the porous structure. In that issue, the performed Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda (BJH) analysis revealed that the prepared PACs have a mainly mesoporous inner morphology with a varying fraction of micropores.

  10. Preparation of a sol-gel-derived carbon nanotube ceramic electrode by microwave irradiation and its application for the determination of adenine and guanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbaspour, Abdolkarim, E-mail: abbaspour@chem.susc.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Fars 71456-85464 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaffarinejad, Ali [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Fars 71456-85464 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    In this study, microwave irradiation was used for the fast preparation (min) of a sol-gel-derived carbon nanotube ceramic electrode (MW-CNCE). For confirmation of the preparation of the ceramic by MW irradiation, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction spectra and scanning electron microscopy images of the produced ceramic were compared with those of conventional ceramic (which is produced by drying the ceramic in air for 48 h). The electrochemical behavior of MW-CNCE in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, L-cysteine, adenine and guanine was compared with that of a conventional sol-gel-derived carbon nanotube ceramic electrode (CNCE). In all systems, similar peak potentials and lower background currents were obtained with respect to CNCE. Finally, the MW-CNCE was used for the simultaneous determination of adenine and guanine using differential pulse voltammetry. The linear ranges of 0.1-10 and 0.1-20 muM were obtained for adenine and guanine, respectively. These results are comparable with some modified electrodes that have recently been reported for the determination of adenine and guanine, with the advantage that the proposed electrode did not contain modifier. In addition, the proposed electrode was successfully used for the oxidation of adenine and guanine in DNA, and the detection limit for this measurement was 0.05 mug mL{sup -1} DNA.

  11. Providing the Caribbean community with VIIRS-derived weather satellite and dust model output in preparation for African dust impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuciauskas, A. P.; Xian, P.; Hyer, E. J.; Oyola, M. I.; Campbell, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory Marine Meteorology Division (NRL-MMD) predicts, monitors, and trains Caribbean agencies in preparing for and mitigating unhealthy episodes of Saharan-based dust. Of critical concern is the Saharan Air Layer (SAL), an elevated air mass of hot, dry, and often very dusty conditions that can be environmentally persistent and dangerous to the downstream Caribbean populace, resulting in respiratory illnesses; some of the world's highest asthma rates and associated premature deaths have been documented within the Caribbean islands. The SAL not only impacts the greater Caribbean, but also the Gulf of Mexico, northern South America, and southern and central US. One of the major responsibilities of the National Weather Service forecast office at San Juan, Puerto Rico (NWS-PR) is preparing the public within their area of responsibility for such events. The NRL-MMD has been at the forefront of implementing and demonstrating the positive impact of Suomi-VIIRS during SAL events. In preparation for SAL events, NRL-MMD is currently supporting the NWS-PR with near real time web-based products, primarily from VIIRS datasets. Preliminary studies have shown that VIIRS has demonstrated improvements in the assessment and prediction of dust intensities related to SAL passages. The upcoming launches of JPSS-1 and GOES-R are eagerly anticipated in possibly revolutionizing the R&D related toward further improvements in understanding Saharan dust dynamics and characteristics. Besides NWS-PR, NRL-MMD also collaborates with the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH) in both providing and gathering in-situ measurements that stretch from the French Guyana northward through the West Indies island chain. Finally, NRL-MMD is involved with the Caribbean Aerosol Health Network (CAHN),an international network of health and environmental agencies whose mission is to improve the understanding of the impacts (e.g., air quality, health, climate, weather

  12. Hydrolysis of solubilized hemicellulose derived from wet-oxidized wheat straw by a mixture of commercial fungal enzyme preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skammelsen Schmidt, Anette; Thomsen, Alle Belinda; Woidemann, Anders [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Tenkanen, Maija [VTT Biotechnology and Food Research (Finland)

    1998-04-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of the solubilized hemicellulose fraction from wet-oxidized wheat straw was investigated for quantification purposes. An optimal hydrolysis depends on factors such as composition of the applied enzyme mixture and the hydrolysis conditions (enzyme loading, hydrolysis time, pH-value, and temperature). A concentrated enzyme mixture was used in this study prepared at VTT Biotechnology and Food Research, Finland, by mixing four commercial enzyme preparations. No distinctive pH-value and temperature optima were identified after a prolonged incubation of 24 hours. By reducing the hydrolysis time to 2 hours a temperature optimum was found at 50 deg. C, where a pH-value higher than 5.2 resulted in reduced activity. An enzyme-substrate-volume-ratio of 0.042, a pH-value of 5.0, and a temperature of 50 deg. C were chosen as the best hydrolysis conditions due to an improved monosaccharide yield. The hydrolysis time was chosen to be 24 hours to ensure equilibrium and total quantification. Even under the best hydrolysis conditions, the overall sugar yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis was only 85% of that of the optimal acid hydrolysis. The glucose yield were approximately the same for the two types of hydrolyses, probably due to the high cellulase activity in the VTT-enzyme mixture. For xylose and arabinose the enzymatic hydrolysis yielded only 80% of that of the acid hydrolysis. As the pentoses existed mainly as complex polymers their degradation required many different enzymes, some of which might be missing from the VTT-enzyme mixture. Furthermore, the removal of side-choins from the xylan backbone during the wet-oxidation pretreatment process might enable the hemicellulosic polymers to interact and precipitate, hence, reducing the enzymatic digestibility of the hemicellulose. (au) 8 tabs., 10 ills., 65 refs.

  13. [Preparation and immunological evaluation of oral solution of egg yolk-derived hepatitis B virus-specific transfer factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanping; Zhang, Qing; Zhan, Xuejun; Xie, Daze; Dai, Ge; Yang, Hui

    2013-12-01

    To prepare the oral solution of egg yolk hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific transfer factor (EYHBV-TF) and evaluate its immunological activity as an immune regulator against hepatitis B. From hens immunized with the Hepatitis B vaccine the egg yolk was isolated to extract the specific transfer factor EYHBV-TF, and its physicochemical properties were examined. Leukocyte adhesion inhibition test (LAI) was performed to detect the immunogenic activity of EYHBV-TF. The solution of EYHBV-TF was then administered orally in normal mice, and the specific cellular immune activity induced was assayed with delayed type skin hypersensitivity test (DTH), with the non-specific immune activity assessed with immune organ index. The immune responses induced by oral EYHBV-STF solution were compared with those by EYHBV-STF injection and by different dosages (injection and oral) of porcine spleen HBV-specific transfer factor (PSHBV-STF), porcine spleen nonspecific transfer factor, and egg yolk extracts from non-immunized hens. The prepared EYHBV-STF oral solution, which met the standards for biological products, could inhibit leukocyte adhesion in vitro and significantly enhance mouse foot pad swelling, demonstrating its capability of transferring antigen-specific delayed type hypersensitivity reactions to naive recipient. EYHBV-STF oral solution also significantly improved the immune organ index in mice (P<0 01) with similar effects to those caused by EYHBV-STF injections and by PSHBV-STF injection and oral solution. Orally administered EYHBV-STF and EYHBV-STF injection both possess hepatitis B antigen-specific cellular immune activity and can significantly enhance specific cellular immune responses.

  14. Design, synthesis, and anticancer activity of novel berberine derivatives prepared via CuAAC "click" chemistry as potential anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Yan, Tian-Hua; Yan, Lan; Li, Qian; Wang, Rui-Lian; Hu, Zhen-Lin; Jiang, Yuan-Ying; Sun, Qing-Yan; Cao, Yong-Bing

    2014-01-01

    A series of novel derivatives of phenyl-substituted berberine triazolyls has been designed and synthesized via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition click chemistry in an attempt to develop antitumor agents. All of the compounds were evaluated for anticancer activity against a panel of three human cancer cell lines, including MCF-7 (breast), SW-1990 (pancreatic), and SMMC-7721 (liver) and the noncancerous human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) cell lines. The results indicated that most of the compounds displayed notable anticancer activities against the MCF-7 cells compared with berberine. Among these derivatives, compound 16 showed the most potent inhibitory activity against the SW-1990 and SMMC-7721 cell lines, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 8.54±1.97 μM and 11.87±1.83 μM, respectively. Compound 36 exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity against the MCF-7 cell line, with an IC50 value of 12.57±1.96 μM. Compound 16 and compound 36 exhibited low cytotoxicity in the HUVEC cell line, with IC50 values of 25.49±3.24 μM and 30.47±3.47 μM. Furthermore, compounds 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 32, and 36 exhibited much better selectivity than berberine toward the normal cell line HUVEC.

  15. Examining Preschool Teachers' Attitudes, Comfort, Action Orientation and Preparation to Work with Children Reared by Gay and Lesbian Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Archana V.; Averett, Paige; Parker White, Carmel; Deese, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    The present study assessed preschool teachers' attitudes towards homosexuality, their comfort levels in working with same sex parents and their children, their action orientation and preparedness to work on this topic. Twenty teachers from public schools and 20 from private child care settings in North Carolina, USA, participated in the study. Two…

  16. Different behavior of 3-nitrotyrosine and tyrosine toward perfluorinated reagents suitable for one-step preparation of volatile derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Radmila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In view to develop a gas-chromatographic (GC determination of the 3-nitrotyrosine (NY/tyrosine (Y ratio as a marker of nitro-oxidative stress, different reagents were tested with the objective of obtaining a single volatile fluorinated product for each amino acid by a one-step derivatization procedure. The heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA /heptafluorobutanol (HFBOH mixture proved unsuccessful for NY and Y simultaneous analysis. The reaction with different chloroformates [isobutyl chlorofomate (iBuCF and ethyl chloroformate (EtCF] in the presence of different perfluorinated alcohols such as trifluoroethanol (TFEOH and HFBOH was investigated. Combination EtCF/fluorinated alcohols yielded derivatives of NY and Y as single peaks suitable to the GC determination of the NY/Y ratio. The different behaviour of two amino acids in the used reaction mixtures and the parameters influencing the results were discussed.

  17. Preparation and ectopic osteogenesis in vivo of scaffold based on mineralized recombinant human-like collagen loaded with synthetic BMP-2-derived peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Bin; Zheng Qixin; Guo Xiaodong; Wu Yongchao [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Wang Yu; Cui Fuzai [Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: gxdwh@yahoo.com.cn

    2008-12-15

    The ideal bone graft material must be biocompatible, biodegradable, osteoconductive and osteoinductive. In this study, a new biomimetic scaffold based on mineralized recombinant collagen, nano-hydroxyapatite/recombinant human-like collagen/poly(lactic acid) (nHA/RHLC/PLA), was prepared and the synthetic P24 peptide derived from BMP-2 was introduced into the porous nHA/RHLC/PLA scaffold to improve its osteoinductive property. The nHA/RHLC/PLA implants loaded with 3 mg, 2 mg, 1 mg and 0 mg P24 peptide were implanted subcutaneously into rats. At the 4th, 8th and 12th weeks after implantation, the rats were sacrificed in batch and the samples were harvested. Their osteogenic capability was detected by CT scan and histological observation. The results indicated that the osteogenic capability of 3 mg, 2 mg and 1 mg of the P24 peptide was superior to the implants without the P24 peptide. There was no significant difference between implants with 3 mg and 2 mg P24 peptide, but the osteogenic capability of the two dosage groups was significantly better than that of the 1 mg group. It was concluded that BMP-2-derived peptide can increase the osteoinduction of nHA/RHLC/PLA scaffold and the P24 peptide induced new bone formation in a dose-dependent manner. The nHA/RHLC/PLA scaffold loaded with the synthetic BMP-2-derived peptide is a kind of ideal scaffold material for bone tissue engineering.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Sol-Gel Derived Au Nanoparticle Dispersed Y2O3:Eu Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Hai; Zhang Weiping; Dong Ning; Lou Liren; Yin Min; Tillement O; Mugnier J; Bernstein E; Brevet P F

    2005-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles dispersed Y2O3 films were prepared through a sol-gel method by using yttrium acetate and Au nanoparticles colloid as precursors. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-VIS absorption spectra. XRD patterns and TEM images of Y2O3+Au films give the same results on structure and particle size as that of pure Y2O3 films. The surface plasma resonance (SPR) of Au nanoparticles in Y2O3+Au film was observed around 550 nm in the absorption spectrum and its position shifts to red with increasing annealing temperature is caused by the increase of dielectric constant of Y2O3 matrix and the size of Au nanoparticles. The second and third order nonlinear optical effects of Y2O3+Au films were also observed. The photoluminescent properties of Y2O3:Eu+Au films were investigated and results indicate that there exist an energy transfer from Eu3+ to Au nanoparticles and this energy transfer decreases the emission of Eu3+ in Y2O3:Eu+Au film.

  19. Activated biochar derived from cactus fibres--preparation, characterization and application on Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjittofi, Loukia; Prodromou, Melpomeni; Pashalidis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    The adsorption efficiency of activated biochar prepared from cactus fibres regarding the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions has been investigated as a function of various physicochemical parameters (e.g. pH, initial metal concentration, ionic strength, temperature and contact time). Activation of the biochar took place using nitric acid oxidation and characterisation was performed by SEM analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, N2 adsorption and acid-base titrations. The results show that laminar structures constitute the material and carboxylic moieties are the predominant binding sites. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption models and the monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 3.5 mol kg(-1). The effect of ionic strength and temperature on the adsorption efficiency indicates that at low pH outer-sphere and at near neutral pH inner-sphere complexes are the predominant surface species and the kinetic data obtained were fitted very well by the Lagergren rate expression.

  20. Husbandry, working practices and field performance when using draught oxen in land preparation in Shambat, Nile Valley, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, Elsamawal Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Little quantitative information is available on animal power in the Nile Valley in Sudan, despite that it is being used in the area for centuries and playing an important role in agriculture in the present day. A survey was conducted to assess draught oxen management and its association with field capacity and efficiency at the farm level and to identify potential areas for intervention. A sample of 50 farmers was selected for this purpose using the systematic random sampling technique. The main management parameters discussed were animal health, feeding, housing, work strategy and care for yoke and plough. The results showed that most of the farmers poorly manage their animals, and this was reflected in low working speeds and field efficiencies. The main dimensions of poor management were in veterinary care (78 % did not take their animals to the veterinary centre), feeding (66 % feed their animals shortly before work) and care for yoke (80 % did not follow daily care measures for their yokes) and plough (74 % did not follow plough care measure before and after work). Low working speeds (0.90–2.0 km/h) were recorded by the majority of the farmers (64 %). The majority of the farmers (70 %) recorded field capacities between 0.06 and 0.10 ha/h, while all of them worked at high field efficiencies of >86 %. The only parameter that significantly affected field capacity was the yoke-related wounds (p = 0.019). Extension advice and capacity building in husbandry and working practices were identified as principal entry points for intervention.

  1. Skin and surface lead contamination, hygiene programs, and work practices of bridge surface preparation and painting contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virji, M Abbas; Woskie, Susan R; Pepper, Lewis D

    2009-02-01

    A 2005 regulatory review of the lead in construction standard by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) noted that alternative pathways of exposure can be as significant as inhalation exposure and that noncompliance with the standard pertaining to hygiene facilities and practices was the second most commonly violated section of the standard. Noncompliance with provisions of the standard and unhealthy work and hygiene practices likely increase the likelihood of take-home lead via contaminated clothing, automobiles, and skin, thus contributing to elevated blood lead levels (BLL) among construction workers and their family members. We performed a cross-sectional study of bridge painters working for small contractors in Massachusetts to investigate causes of persistent elevated BLLs and to assess lead exposures. Thirteen work sites were evaluated for a 2-week period during which surface and skin wipe samples were collected and qualitative information was obtained on personal hygiene practices, decontamination and hand wash facilities, and respiratory protection programs. Results showed lead contamination on workers' skin, respirators, personal automobiles, and the decontamination unit, indicating a significant potential for take-home lead exposure. Overall, the geometric mean (GM) skin lead levels ranged from 373 microg on workers' faces at end of shift to 814 microg on hands at break time. The overall GM lead level inside respirators was 143 microg before work and 286 microg after work. Lead contamination was also present inside workers' personal vehicles as well as on surfaces inside the clean side of the decontamination unit. Review of the respiratory protection programs, work site decontamination and hand wash facilities, and personal hygiene practices indicated that these factors had significant impact on skin and surface contamination levels and identified significant opportunities for improving work site facilities and personal practices

  2. Alternative route for the preparation of CoSb{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}Si derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godlewska, E., E-mail: godlewsk@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Krakow (Poland); Mars, K.; Zawadzka, K. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Krakow (Poland)

    2012-09-15

    An alternative manufacturing route has been developed for cobalt triantimonide and magnesium disilicide derivatives. Elemental powders were mixed in stoichiometric proportions, cold pressed into cylindrical preforms and heated in oxygen-free environment to initiate the exothermic reaction. According to DTA/TG measurements and observations under high-temperature microscope, the onset of reaction occurred at a temperature not exceeding the melting point of the more volatile component, i.e. antimony in the case of CoSb{sub 3} and magnesium in the case of Mg{sub 2}Si. The reaction products were additionally heat treated to secure homogenization. Dense sinters were obtained by hot uniaxial pressing of the obtained powders in moderate temperature-and-pressure conditions. Several advantages were identified in the proposed technology: absence of liquid phases, relatively short time of the synthesis, possibility of in-situ or ex-situ doping and grain size control. - Graphical abstract: (1) Manufacturing flow sheet for CoSb{sub 3} (milling included) and Mg{sub 2}Si (no milling). (2) Micrographs of CoSb{sub 3} product. (3) Micrographs of Mg{sub 2}Si product. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The combustion synthesis followed by HP was used for the manufacturing of CoSb{sub 3} or Mg{sub 2}Si. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The time of reaction is shorter compared with many other synthesis methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The process is scalable and practically wasteless.

  3. How should we prepare rehabilitation sciences students to work with low English-proficient Spanish-speaking patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Connie; Gonzalez, Eugenia; Pechak, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Misinterpretations or lack of compliance with national standards established to guide health professionals working with low-English-proficient (LEP) patients continue to negatively impact patient care. Most of the literature on training health professionals to work with interpreters focuses on physicians. We reviewed this current literature and propose an interprofessional educational module to extend the interpreter training to other health professions. Our module trains rehabilitation science students from different health disciplines (physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology) using strategies from the literature. The educational module is tailored to student's bilingual proficiency, suggests relevant outcomes measures, and highlights unanswered questions and areas for future research.

  4. Catalytic Graphitization for Preparation of Porous Carbon Material Derived from Bamboo Precursor and Performance as Electrode of Electrical Double-Layer Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubota, Toshiki; Maguchi, Yuta; Kamimura, Sunao; Ohno, Teruhisa; Yasuoka, Takehiro; Nishida, Haruo

    2015-12-01

    The combination of addition of Fe (as a catalyst for graphitization) and CO2 activation (a kind of gaseous activation) was applied to prepare a porous carbon material from bamboo powder (a waste product of superheated steam treatment). Regardless of the heat treatment temperature, many macropores were successfully formed after the heating process by removal of Fe compounds. A turbostratic carbon structure was generated in the Fe-added sample heated at 850°C. It was confirmed that the added Fe acted as a template for pore formation. Moreover, it was confirmed that the added Fe acted as a catalyst for graphitization. The resulting electrochemical performance as the electrode of an electrical double-layer capacitor, as demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and charge-discharge testing, could be explained based on the graphitization and activation effects. Addition of Fe could affect the electrical properties of carbon material derived from bamboo.

  5. Studies on resistive hysteresis characteristics of metal organic decomposition-derived BaTiO3 thin films prepared under various annealing conditions and related switching endurance properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugie, Toshiyuki; Maejima, So; Yamashita, Kaoru; Noda, Minoru

    2016-10-01

    We have prepared metal organic decomposition (MOD)-derived BaTiO3 (BT) thin films under various annealing conditions, especially in nitrogen, and investigated the properties of bipolar-type resistive switching, focusing on the relation between oxygen vacancies and the behavior of resistive hysteresis. BT thin film with both pre annealing and final annealing in nitrogen (layer-by-layer annealing) showed the resistive hysteresis of bipolar-type switching with current ON/OFF ratios of 2 orders of magnitude for both bias polarities. Moreover, it showed the endurance property with the 104 switching cycles. It is possible that the non-filament bipolar-type resistive switching has origins not only at the metal electrode/oxide interface but also the inside of the oxide films, that is, the presence of the oxygen vacancies inside of BT thin films would play an important role in the bipolar-type resistive switching and in improving the switching endurance properties.

  6. Biocatalytic preparation and absolute configuration of enantiomerically pure fungistatic anti-2-benzylindane derivatives. Study of the detoxification mechanism by Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-Rivilla, Cristina; Aleu, Josefina; Grande Benito, Manuel; Collado, Isidro G

    2010-08-21

    Enantiomerically pure 2-benzylindane derivatives were prepared using biocatalytic methods and their absolute configuration determined. (1R,2S)-2-Benzylindan-1-ol ((1R,2S)-2) and (S)-2-benzylindan-1-one ((S)-3) were produced by fermenting baker's yeast. Lipase-mediated esterifications and hydrolysis of the corresponding racemic substrates gave rise to the enantiopure compounds (1S,2R)-2-benzylindan-1-ol ((1S,2R)-2) and (1R,2S)-2-benzylindan-1-ol ((1R,2S)-2), respectively. The antifungal activity of these products against two strains of the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea was tested. The metabolism of anti-(+/-)-2-benzylindan-1-ol (anti-(+/-)-2) by B. cinerea as part of the fungal detoxification mechanism is also described and revealed interesting differences in the genome of both strains.

  7. Preparation and In Vitro and In Vivo Performance of Magnesium Ion Substituted Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Spherical Microscaffolds as Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Microcarriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hyun Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium ion substituted biphasic calcium phosphate (Mg-BCP bioceramic microscaffolds with spherical and porous morphology were successfully prepared using in situ coprecipitation and rotary spray drying atomization process for application of tissue engineering combined with human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAT-MSCs. After 4 weeks of immersion in Hanks’ balanced salt solution (HBSS, Mg-BCP micro-scaffolds showed the enhanced biodegradation and bioactivity due to the substituted Mg2+ ion present in the BCP structure. In this study, it was observed that hAT-MSCs have clearly attached on the surface of Mg-BCP micro-scaffolds. In addition, Mg-BCP micro-scaffolds exhibited the improved biocompatibility and osteoconductivity via in vitro and in vivo biological tests with hAT-MSCs. Therefore, these bioceramic micro-scaffolds had potential to be used as hAT-MSCs microcarriers for biomedical applications.

  8. What Do 1st Year Japanese EFL Students Learn by Preparing and Presenting a Group Work Oriented Oral Presentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichsenring, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This small-scale qualitative study aimed at identifying factors and the extent of their influence upon the learning experiences of first year Japanese undergraduate students in a group work oriented oral presentation using English as their second language (ESL). Research findings were obtained from students through their participation in written…

  9. Preparation of Mental Health Clinicians to Work with Children with Co-Occurring Autism Spectrum Disorders and Mental Health Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Marian E.; Haranin, Emily C.

    2016-01-01

    Up to 70% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a co-occurring mental health disorder; however, many clinicians feel unprepared to serve children with complex co-occurring conditions. This study surveyed 64 mental health clinicians working in 21 publically-funded mental health agencies in a large urban setting to explore their…

  10. The Next Step: Partnering with K-12 Schools to Prepare Students for the Rigors of College Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Teachers dedicate their lives to working with students, but also in learning from each other. In programs around the Spokane, Washington area of the U.S., teachers have been meeting with the intention of strengthen connections and smooth transitions between K-12 schools and institutions of higher education in alignment with expectations for the…

  11. Preparation Femtosecond Laser Prevention for the Cold-Worked Stress Corrosion Crackings on Reactor Grade Low Carbon Stainless Steel

    CERN Document Server

    John Minehara, Eisuke

    2004-01-01

    We report here that the femtosecond lasers like low average power Ti:Sapphire lasers, the JAERI high average power free-electron laser and others could peel off and remove two stress corrosion cracking (SCC) origins of the cold-worked and the cracking susceptible material, and residual tensile stress in hardened and stretched surface of low-carbon stainless steel cubic samples for nuclear reactor internals as a proof of principle experiment except for the third origin of corrosive environment. Because a 143 °C and 43% MgCl2 hot solution SCC test was performed for the samples to simulate the cold-worked SCC phenomena of the internals to show no crack at the laser-peered off strip on the cold-worked side and ten-thousands of cracks at the non-peeled off on the same side, it has been successfully demonstrated that the femtosecond lasers could clearly remove the two SCC origins and could resultantly prevent the cold-worked SCC.

  12. Microstructural changes in NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics prepared with powders derived from different fuels in sol-gel auto-combustion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Lalita, E-mail: chauhan.lalita5@gmail.com; Sreenivas, K. [Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Bokolia, Renuka

    2016-05-23

    Structural properties of Nickel ferrite (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) ceramics prepared from powders derived from sol gel auto-combustion method using different fuels (citric acid, glycine and Dl-alanine) are compared. Changes in the structural properties at different sintering temperatures are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of single phase material with cubic structure. Ceramics prepared using the different powders obtained from different fuels show that that there are no significant changes in lattice parameters. However increasing sintering temperatures show significant improvement in density and grain size. The DL-alanine fuel is found to be the most effective fuel for producing NIFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders by the sol-gel auto combustion method and yields highly crystalline powders in the as-burnt stage itself at a low temperature (80 °C). Subsequent use of the powders in ceramic manufacturing produces dense NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics with a uniform microstructure and a large grain size.

  13. Herbal preparation (HemoHIM) enhanced functional maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells mediated toll-like receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Ju; Kim, Jong-Jin; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Hwang, Yun-Ho; Jeong, Gil-Yeon; Jo, Sung-kee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae-Ran; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2016-02-19

    HemoHIM, which is an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelicam gigas Nakai, Cnidium offinale Makino, and Peaonia japonica Miyabe), is known to have various biological and immunological activities, but the modulatory effects of this preparation on dendritic cells (DCs)-mediated immune responses have not been examined previously. DCs are a unique group of white blood cells that initiate primary immune responses by capturing, processing, and presenting antigens to T cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HemoHIM on the functional and phenotypic maturation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) both in vitro and in vivo. The expression of co-stimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC I, and MHC II) and the production of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p70, and TNF-α) were increased by HemoHIM in BMDCs. Furthermore, the antigen-uptake ability of BMDCs was decreased by HemoHIM, and the antigen-presenting ability of HemoHIM-treated mature BMDCs increased TLR4-dependent CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses. Our findings demonstrated that HemoHIM induces TLR4-mediated BMDCs functional and phenotypic maturation through in vivo and in vitro. And our study showed the antigen-presenting ability that HemoHIM-treated mature BMDCs increase CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses by in vitro. These results suggest that HemoHIM has the potential to mediate DC immune responses.

  14. Preparation and surface active properties of a-acyloxysuccinic acid derivatives from malic acid and fatty acids of crude rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sawy, A. A.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface active compounds were prepared from malic acid by esterification with acyl chloride (IIa-d, of [palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and mixed fatty acids of rice bran oil (RBO (IIe], in the presence of pyridine as catalyst, forming (IIIa-e ,  which are  converted to anionic disodium salt (IVa-e . The prepared a-acyl-oxysuccinic acid derivatives (IIIa-e was oxypropenoxylated with various moles of propylene oxide (n= 2, 4, 6 and 8 to give (V-IXa-d . These compounds were converted to nonionic surfactants with two terminal amide oxime groups  (XV-XIXa-d as molecular aggregations and surface active agents in aqueous media. The structures were confirmed by micro analysis, IR and 1H NMR spectra. The surface active properties of the prepared compounds revealed excellent results.Se han preparado compuestos de tensión superficial a partir de ácido málico por esterificación con cloruro de acilo (IIa-d de [palmítico, esteárico, oleico, linoleico y ácidos grasos mezclados de aceite de gérmen de arroz (RBO (IIe], en presencia de piridina como catalizador, formando (IIIa-e, los cuales son convertidos a sales disódicas aniónicas (IVa-e. El derivado del ácido a-acil-oxisuccínico preparado (IIIa-e fue oxipropenoxilado con varios moles de óxido de propileno (n=2, 4, 6 y 8 para dar (V-IXa-d. Estos compuestos fueron convertidos en tensioactivos no iónicos con dos grupos amida oxima terminal (XV-XIXa-d como agregaciones moleculares y agentes tensioactivos en medio acuoso. Las estructuras se confirmaron por microanálisis, IR y espectros de 1H NMR. Las propiedades tensioactivas de los compuestos preparados revelaron excelentes resultados.

  15. 2-(Dimethylaminoethyl Methacrylate/(2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate/α-Tricalcium Phosphate Cryogels for Bone Repair, Preparation and Evaluation of the Biological Response of Human Trabecular Bone-Derived Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Volkmer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the potential of cryogels to be used as scaffolds in tissue engineering. Scaffolds based on the α-tricalcium phosphate reinforced PDMAEMA (Poly(dimethyl aminoethyl methacrylate/PHEMA (poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate system were prepared and human trabecular bone-derived cells (HTBs and bone marrow derived-mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs cultured on them. Several features, such as porosity, pore shape, molecular weight between crosslinks and mesh size, are studied. The most suitable PDMAEMA/PHEMA ratio for cell proliferation has been assessed and the viability, adhesion, proliferation and expression of osteoblastic biochemical markers are evaluated. The PDMAEMA/PHEMA ratio influences the scaffolds porosity. Values between 53% ± 5.7% for a greater content in PHEMA and 75% ± 5.5% for a greater content in PDMAEMA have been obtained. The polymer ratio also modifies the pore shape. A greater content in PDMAEMA leads also to bigger network mesh size. Each of the compositions were non-cytotoxic, the seeded cells remained viable for both BM-MSCs and HTBs. Thus, and based on the structural analysis, specimens with a greater content in PDMAEMA seem to provide a better structural environment for their use as scaffolds for tissue engineering. The α-tricalcium phosphate incorporation into the composition seems to favor the expression of the osteogenic phenotype.

  16. Working Pressure Dependence of Properties of Al2O3 Thin Films Prepared by Electron Beam Evaporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Mei-Qiong; Wu Zhong-Lin; FAN Zheng-xiu

    2008-01-01

    The effects of working pressure of Al2O3 thin films are investigated.Transmittance of the Al2Oa thin film is measured by a Lambda 900 spectrometer.Laser-induced damage threshold(LIDT)is measured by a Nd:YAG laser at 355nm with 8 pulse width of 7ns.Microdefects were observed under a Nomarski microscope.The samples are characterized by optical properties and defect,as well as LIDT under the 355nm Nd:YAG laser radiation.It js found that the working pressure has fundamental effect on the LIDT.It is the absorption rather than the microdefect that plays an important role on the LIDT of Al2O3 thin film.

  17. Data on daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption prepared by household desalinators working by reverse osmosis process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Noroozi Karbasdehi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, we evaluated the daily fluoride contents in 20 household desalinators working by reverse osmosis (RO1 Reverse Osmosis. process in Bushehr, Iran. The concentration levels of fluoride in inlet and outlet waters were determined by the standard SPADNS method using a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK. The fluoride content in outlet waters were compared with EPA and WHO guidelines for drinking water.

  18. Data on daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption prepared by household desalinators working by reverse osmosis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasdehi, Vahid Noroozi; Dobaradaran, Sina; Esmaili, Abdolhamid; Mirahmadi, Roghayeh; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Faraji; Keshtkar, Mozhgan

    2016-09-01

    In this data article, we evaluated the daily fluoride contents in 20 household desalinators working by reverse osmosis (RO) process in Bushehr, Iran. The concentration levels of fluoride in inlet and outlet waters were determined by the standard SPADNS method using a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK). The fluoride content in outlet waters were compared with EPA and WHO guidelines for drinking water.

  19. Effect of contaminations and surface preparation on the work function of single layer MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochedowski, Oliver; Marinov, Kolyo; Scheuschner, Nils; Poloczek, Artur; Bussmann, Benedict Kleine; Maultzsch, Janina; Schleberger, Marika

    2014-01-01

    Thinning out MoS2 crystals to atomically thin layers results in the transition from an indirect to a direct bandgap material. This makes single layer MoS2 an exciting new material for electronic devices. In MoS2 devices it has been observed that the choice of materials, in particular for contact and gate, is crucial for their performance. This makes it very important to study the interaction between ultrathin MoS2 layers and materials employed in electronic devices in order to optimize their performance. In this work we used NC-AFM in combination with quantitative KPFM to study the influence of the substrate material and the processing on single layer MoS2 during device fabrication. We find a strong influence of contaminations caused by the processing on the surface potential of MoS2. It is shown that the charge transfer from the substrate is able to change the work function of MoS2 by about 40 meV. Our findings suggest two things. First, the necessity to properly clean devices after processing as contaminations have a great impact on the surface potential. Second, that by choosing appropriate materials the work function can be modified to reduce contact resistance.

  20. Simple preparation of new [(18) F]F-labeled synthetic amino acid derivatives with two click reactions in one-pot and SPE purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Cheol-Min; Lee, Sang Ju; Oh, Seung Jun; Ha, Hyun-Joon; Lee, Jong Jin

    2015-06-30

    New [(18) F]fluorinated 1,2,3-triazolyl amino acid derivatives were efficiently prepared from Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions, well known as click reaction. We developed two simultaneous click reactions in one-pot with a simple solid-phase extraction (SPE) purification method. [(18) F]fluoro-1-propyne was obtained at a 45% non-decay corrected radiochemical yield based on the [(18) F]fluoride ion. The one-pot and simultaneous two click reactions were performed with unprotected azido-alkyl amino acid, [(18) F]fluoro-1-propyne, and lipophilic additive alkyne to produce three synthetic amino acid derivatives, AMC-101 ([(18) F]-6a), AMC-102 ([(18) F]-6b), and AMC-103 ([(18) F]-6c) with 29%, 28%, and 24% of non-decay corrected radiochemical yields, respectively. All radiotracers indicated that radiochemical purities were >95% without any residual organic solvent. Our new method involving two click reactions in one-pot showed high radiochemical and chemical purity by easy removal of the residual precursor from the simultaneous two click reactions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. 可溶性富勒烯衍生物的制备与表征%Preparation and characterization of soluble Fullerene derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉翠; 卢骏安; 郭立敏; 崔冬辉; 张健; 韩爱鸿

    2013-01-01

    随着近些年世界对能源和环境问题的关注,新能源利用技术特别是太阳能的利用得到了快速的发展,其中在有机聚合物太阳能电池研究方面,设计并制备出了多种电子供体和受体材料,用以改善光电转化效率.设计出一种可溶的富勒烯衍生物(受体材料)的简单合成路线,采用丙二酸亚异丙酯和十二醇为初始原料,通过二者的酯化反应得到中间体丙二酸十二醇单酯,再与叔丁醇进行酯化反应,得到了不对称的丙二酸双酯中间体,最后与富勒烯C60进行Bingel反应制备出含C60的富勒烯衍生物,该目标化合物的电化学性质已被表征.%With the attention to energy and environment problem, new energy technology, especially solar energy, has developed rapidly. Many donors and acceptors have been designed and prepared in the field of organic polymer solar cells to improve the power conversion efficiency. In this paper, an easy route to prepare a soluble fullerene derivative (acceptor) was presented. The malonic acid mono twelve alcohol ester was synthesized by Meldrum's acid and twelve alcohol under a solvent-free condition by esterification reaction, then reacted with t-butanol, asymmetric malonic acid di-ester was prepared, finally a fullerene derivative was synthesized by Bingle reaction, to that of electrochemical property was characterized by cyclic-voltammetry (CV).

  2. Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, E.; Duguid, J.; Henry, R.; Karell, E.; Laidler, J.; McDeavitt, S.; Thompson, M.; Toth, M.; Williamson, M.; Willit, J.

    1999-08-12

    In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD&D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years.

  3. A literature review exploring the preparation of mental health nurses for working with people with learning disability and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adshead, Stephanie; Collier, Elizabeth; Kennedy, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this literature review is to explore whether mental health nurses are being appropriately prepared to care for learning disabled patients who also suffer from mental ill health. A systematic approach was adopted in order to identify relevant literature for review on the topic. Five electronic databases were searched; CINAHL, Medline, ERIC, PubMed and Scopus. Searches were limited to the years 2001-2013. A total of 13 articles were identified as relevant to the topic area for review. Three main themes were identified relating to (a) attitudes (b) practice and (c) education. There appears to be a lack of research that directly addresses this issue and the existing literature suggests that there are considerable deficits in the ability of mental health nurses to be able to provide appropriate care for those with both a learning disability and mental ill health. The findings of this review would suggest that this topic area is in urgent need of further investigation and research. Further research into this area of practice could possibly help to inform education regarding this subject at pre-registration and post qualifying levels, which could therefore in turn, improve the delivery of mental health nursing care to this particular client group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Two Training-Load Paradoxes: Can We Work Harder and Smarter, Can Physical Preparation and Medical be Team-Mates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J; Whiteley, Rod

    2016-10-13

    We have observed that in professional sporting organisations the staff responsible for physical preparation and medical care typically practice in relative isolation and display tension in regards their attitudes toward training load prescription (much more, and much less training respectively). Recent evidence shows that relatively high chronic training loads, when they are appropriately reached, are associated with reduced injury risk and better performance. Understanding this link between performance and training loads removes this tension, but requires a better understanding of the relationship between the acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR), and it's association with performance and injury. However there remain many questions to be answered in the area of ACWR, and we are likely at an early stage of our understanding of these parameters and their inter-relationships. This opinion paper explores these themes and makes recommendations for improving performance through better synergies within support staff approaches. Further, aspects of the ACWR which remain to be clarified, the role of shared decision-making, risk:benefit estimation, and clearer accountability are discussed.

  5. A STUDY OF THE SYNTHESIS OF VERATRYL CYANIDE REQUIRED AS AN INTERMEDIATE FOR THE PREPARATION OF C-9154 ANTIBIOTIC DERIVATIVE FROM VANILIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila Rosilawati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of veratryl cyanide [1-(3,4-dimethoxy phenyl acetonitril] required as an intermediate for the preparation of C-9154 antibiotic derivative was carried out. The starting material used was vanilin, while the reaction steps consisted of (1 methylation of vanilin, (2 reduction of veratraldehyde, (3 synthesis of veratryl bromide, and (4 treatment of this bromide with KCN. The analysis of the products was carried out using IR, 1H NMR and GC-MS spectrophotometers.             The methylation of vanilin was conducted using dimethylsulfate and NaOH at 100  oC for 2 hours to give 79.3% yield of veratraldehyde. The reduction of veratraldehyde with LiBH4 in ethanol - THF mixture (1:1 v/v at reflux for 4 hours afforded veratryl alcohol in 85.3% yield. This veratryl alcohol was treated with red phosphorous and Br2 in CCl4 at 60 oC for 2 hours to give 1-(2-bromo-4,5-dimethoxy-phenyl bromomethane in 67.4% yield, instead of the desired veratryl bromide [1-3,4-dimethoxy-phenyl bromomethane]. This benzyl bromide derivative was then treated with KCN in the presence of tween 80 as a phase catalyst transsfer in benzene-water solvent system at reflux for 2 hours to yield 1-(2-bromo-4,5-dimethoxyphenyl acetonitril in 58.5%.   Keywords: Vanilin, veratryl cyanide, C-9154 antibiotic derivative

  6. [The establishment of the MPEL for carboxylic acid derivatives in the air of a work area by using mathematical models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurova, A I; Smoliar, N Ia; Drozhzhina, N A

    1992-01-01

    Reports of MACs for carboxylic acid derivatives as sodium methoxyacetate (SMOA), methyl chlorpropionate (MCP) and acetoacetic ether (AAE). SMOA shows low toxicity, no cumulation and specific action MCP demonstrates moderate toxicity, low cumulation no specific action in concentrations close to Limac. AAE presents toxicity low in oral usage and moderate when inhaled, low cumulation, no irritation and sensitization. Tentative safe level of injury and MAC estimated for the aforesaid substances together with toxicity parameters compared with the substances studied before allowed the authors to set the MAC of SMOA--10, MCP--2, AAE--10 mg/m3.

  7. Comparison of the electron work function, hole concentration and exciton diffusion length for P3HT and PT prepared by thermal or acid cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tousek, J.; Touskova, J.; Ludvík, J.

    2016-01-01

    The electron work function, hole concentration and diffusion length were compared for poly(3-hexylthiophene) polymer (P3HT) that is commonly used for construction of solar cells, and two types of native polythiophene (PT) samples which are prospective candidates for this purpose. The polythiophene...... samples were prepared from 2 different precursors by thermal or chemical treatment at room temperature. Cyclic voltammetry and work function measurements were used for estimating the concentration of holes. The measured data were evaluated assuming the validity of band theory based on the tight...... of conjugated polymer materials in solar cells, was measured by a modified surface photovoltage method. The approach allowed us to identify the differences in the material properties related to the processing method. Morphology of the samples determined by AFM was another tool showing these differences...

  8. Carbon nanofibers with radially grown graphene sheets derived from electrospinning for aqueous supercapacitors with high working voltage and energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Qiu, Yejun; Yu, Jie; Deng, Xianyu; Dai, Chenglong; Bai, Xuedong

    2013-06-07

    Improvement of energy density is an urgent task for developing advanced supercapacitors. In this paper, aqueous supercapacitors with high voltage of 1.8 V and energy density of 29.1 W h kg(-1) were fabricated based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and Na2SO4 electrolyte. The CNFs with radially grown graphene sheets (GSs) and small average diameter down to 11 nm were prepared by electrospinning and carbonization in NH3. The radially grown GSs contain between 1 and a few atomic layers with their edges exposed on the surface. The CNFs are doped with nitrogen and oxygen with different concentrations depending on the carbonizing temperature. The supercapacitors exhibit excellent cycling performance with the capacity retention over 93.7% after 5000 charging-discharging cycles. The unique structure, possessing radially grown GSs, small diameter, and heteroatom doping of the CNFs, and application of neutral electrolyte account for the high voltage and energy density of the present supercapacitors. The present supercapacitors are of high promise for practical application due to the high energy density and the advantages of neutral electrolyte including low cost, safety, low corrosivity, and convenient assembly in air.

  9. Doing it for Real: Designing Experiential Journalism Curricula that Prepare Students for the New and Uncertain World of Journalism Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanti St Clair

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The world of journalism in the digital age is changing faster than university curricula can keep up. News is now produced in forms and on platforms that were nonexistent 10 years ago. Journalists may increasingly generate their own work opportunities in entrepreneurial news outlets and start-ups, rather than as employees in legacy newsprint and broadcast media. Substantial workforce contraction has also occurred since 2012 as revenue in print and other traditional media has found new homes in social media and search engines, and over 1000 journalists (or 15 percent of the journalism workforce were made redundant. Journalism graduates therefore need to be flexible, innovative and enterprising to survive professionally in this evolving setting. Additionally, financial and funding pressures on universities are leading them to reduce course costs and deliver more courses online. Elongated unpaid internships provide real world experience but access to these will likely reduce as workforces continue to contract. This article considers student feedback from three authentic experiential journalism projects in light of these changing times in journalism. It explores how the performative and very practical nature of traditional and digital journalism skills may be developed through a learning-centred curriculum anchored in authentic and experiential activities and settings. The article briefly considers some of the challenges facing journalism educators in delivering such a curriculum in e-learning settings, and sets out a simple framework for supporting the development of digital media workforce readiness.

  10. Rhodanineacetic Acid Derivatives as Potential Drugs: Preparation, Hydrophobic Properties and Antifungal Activity of (5-Arylalkylidene-4-oxo-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-ylacetic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Jampilek

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Some [(5Z-(5-arylalkylidene-4-oxo-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acids were prepared as potential antifungal compounds. The general synthetic approach to all synthesized compounds is presented. Lipophilicity of all the discussed rhodanine-3-acetic acid derivatives was analyzed using a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC method. The procedure was performed under isocratic conditions with methanol as an organic modifier in the mobile phase using an end-capped non-polar C18 stationary RP column. The RP-HPLC retention parameter log k (the logarithm of the capacity factor k is compared with log P values calculated in silico. All compounds were evaluated for antifungal effects against selected fungal species. Most compounds exhibited no interesting activity, and only {(5Z-[4-oxo-5-(pyridin-2- ylmethylidene-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]}acetic acid strongly inhibited the growth of Candida tropicalis 156, Candida krusei E 28, Candida glabrata 20/I and Trichosporon asahii 1188.

  11. Effects of a quaternary lidocaine derivative, QX-314, on the respiratory activity in brainstem-spinal cord preparation from newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenichi; Hayakawa, Chikara; Onimaru, Hiroshi

    2016-04-21

    In the clinical setting, the use of QX-314 (a quaternary derivative of lidocaine) has been proposed to achieve the selective inhibition of nociceptors that express transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels with fewer motor deficits. However, it has been also reported that QX-314 may produce systemic CNS toxicities with relative potencies that are approximately twice as high as those of lidocaine. There are no reports concerning the effects of extracellular QX-314 on the rhythm-generating neurons in the respiratory center. In the present study, we examined the effects of QX-314 on respiratory rhythm generation in brainstem-spinal cord preparations from newborn rats. The extracellular application of QX-314 (200μM) decreased the C4 burst rate, amplitude and slope during the initial rising phase, and the effects slowly developed with a half-decay time of approximately 20min. The combined application of capsaicin (10 or 100μM) with QX-314 (100μM) showed no additional effect. The intracellular application of QX-314 (100μM) to respiratory neurons depressed the action potentials with a half-decay time of around 5min. Our findings could explain one of the mechanisms underlying the central toxicities that occur after the systemic application of QX-314.

  12. Hybrid Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of a viologen derivative and TCNQ in a mixed valence state: preparation route and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Santiago; Cea, Pilar; Lafuente, Carlos; Royo, Félix M.; López, María. C.

    2004-08-01

    Hybrid Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films containing two moieties of great chemical and electrochemical interest, namely a viologen derivative and tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) in a mixed valence state, were fabricated. To do so, positively ionized monolayers of 1,1 '-dioctadecyl 4,4 '-bipyridilium were prepared onto aqueous solutions of tetracyanoquinodimethane in a mixed valence state. Surface pressure vs. area ( π- A), surface potential vs. area (Δ V- A), and Brewster angle microscope (BAM) images were recorded and interpreted in terms of molecular interactions as well as the incorporation of the hydrophobic anions into the monolayer. After a comprehensive study, a 10 -6 M TCNQ aqueous solution was chosen as the best one to build hybrid LB films. Thus, the floating films were transferred onto solid substrates that were characterized using several techniques including ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), infrared (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) proving the incorporation of the TCNQ onto the film. These films show a good optical conductivity as well as a high degree of order and layers with a constant architecture.

  13. Clumping and Viability of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells under Different Preparation Procedures: A Flow Cytometry-Based In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-li Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Complications of microocclusions have been reported after intra-arterial delivery of mesenchymal stromal cells. Hence, quantification and efficient limitation of cell clumps in suspension before transplantation is important to reduce the risk. We used a flow cytometry-based pulse-width assay to assess the effects of different cell suspension concentrations (0.2–2.0 × 106/mL, storage solutions (complete growth medium, Dulbecco’s phosphate-buffered saline, and normal saline, storage time in suspension (0–9 h, and freeze-thawing procedure on the clumping of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMMSCs and also evaluated cell viability at the same time. Surprisingly, increasing the cell concentration did not result in more cell clumps in vitro. Freshly harvested (fresh cells in normal saline had significantly fewer cell clumps and also displayed high viability (>90%. A time-dependent reduction in viability was observed for cells in all three storage solutions, without any significant change in the clumping tendency except for cells in medium. Fresh cells were more viable than their frozen-thawed counterparts, and fresh cells in normal saline had fewer cell clumps. In conclusion, cell clumping and viability could be affected by different cell preparation procedures, and quantification of cell clumping can be conducted using the flow cytometry-based pulse-width assay before intra-arterial cell delivery.

  14. Teacher Education that Works: Preparing Secondary-Level Math and Science Teachers for Success with English Language Learners Through Content-Based Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margo Elisabeth DelliCarpini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Little research exists on effective ways to prepare secondary mathematics and science teachers to work with English language learners (ELLs in mainstream mathematics and science (subsequently referred to as STEM classrooms. Given the achievement gap that exists between ELLs and their native-speaking counterparts in STEM subjects, as well as the growing numbers of ELLs in US schools, this becomes a critical issue, as academic success for these students depends on the effectiveness of instruction they receive not only in English as a second language classes (ESL, but in mainstream classrooms as well. This article reports on the effects of a program restructuring that implemented coursework specifically designed to prepare pre-service and in-service mathematics, science, and ESL teachers to work with ELLs in their content and ESL classrooms through collaboration between mainstream STEM and ESL teachers, as well as effective content and language integration. We present findings on teachers’ attitudes and current practices related to the inclusion of ELLs in the secondary-level content classroom and their current level of knowledge and skills in collaborative practice. We further describe the rationale behind the development of the course, provide a description of the course and its requirements as they changed throughout its implementation during two semesters, and present findings from the participants enrolled. Additionally, we discuss the lessons learned; researchers’ innovative approaches to implementation of content-based instruction (CBI and teacher collaboration, which we term two-way CBI (DelliCarpini & Alonso, 2013; and implications for teacher education programs.

  15. Pegylated derivatives of recombinant human arginase (rhArg1 for sustained in vivo activity in cancer therapy: preparation, characterization and analysis of their pharmacodynamics in vivo and in vitro and action upon hepatocellular carcinoma cell (HCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wheatley Denys N

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein used in medicine, e.g. interferon, are immunogenic and quickly broken down by the body. Pegylation is a recognized way of preserving their integrity and reducing immune reactions, and works well with enzymes used to degrade amino acids, a recent focus of attention in controlling cancer growth. Of the two arginine-degrading enzymes being explored clinically, arginine deiminase is a decidedly foreign mycoplasm-derived enzyme, whereas human arginase 1 is a native liver enzyme. Both have been pegylated, the former with adjuncts of 20 kD, the latter with 5 kD PEG. Pegylation is done by several different methods, not all of which are satisfactory or desirable. Methods The preparation of novel polyethylene glycol (PEG derivatives for modifying proteins is described, but directed specifically at pegylation of recombinant human arginase 1 (rhArg1. rhArg1 expressed in Escherichia coli was purified and coupled in various ways with 5 different PEG molecules to compare their protective properties and the residual enzyme activity, using hepatocellular cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. Results Methoxypolyethylene glycol-succinimidyl propionate (mPEG-SPA 5,000 coupled with very high affinity under mild conditions. The resulting pegylated enzyme (rhArg1-peg5,000 mw had up to 6 PEG chains of 5K length which not only protected it from degradation and any residual immunogenicity, but most importantly let it retain >90% of its native catalytic activity. It remained efficacious in depleting arginine in rats after a single ip injection of 1,500 U of the conjugate as the native enzyme, plasma arginine falling to >0.05 μM from ~170 μM within 20 min and lasting 6 days. The conjugate had almost the same efficacy as unpegylated rhArg1 on 2 cultured human liver cancer (HCC cell lines. It was considerably more effective than 4 other pegylated conjugates prepared. Conclusion Valuable data on the optimization of the pegylation procedure and

  16. Preparation of pH-sensitive poly(glycidol) derivatives with varying hydrophobicities: their ability to sensitize stable liposomes to pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Naoki; Kojima, Chie; Harada, Atsushi; Kono, Kenji

    2008-05-01

    We have previously shown that modification with succinylated poly(glycidol) (SucPG) provides stable egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC) liposomes with pH-sensitive fusogenic property. Toward production of efficient pH-sensitive liposomes, in this study, we newly prepared three carboxylated poly(glycidol) derivatives with varying hydrophobicities by reacting poly(glycidol) with glutaric anhydride, 3-methylglutaric anhydride, and 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride, respectively, designated as GluPG, MGluPG, and CHexPG. Correlation between side-chain structures of these polymers and their respective abilities to sensitize stable liposomes to pH was investigated. These polymers are soluble in water at neutral pH but became water-insoluble in weakly acidic conditions. The pH at which the polymer precipitated was higher in the order SucPG < GluPG < MGluPG < CHexPG, which is consistent with the number of carbon atoms of these polymers' side chains. Although CHexPG destabilized EYPC liposomes even at neutral pH, attachment of other polymers provided pH-sensitive properties to the liposomes. The liposomes bearing polymers with higher hydrophobicity exhibited more intense responses, such as content release and membrane fusion, at mildly acidic pH and achieved more efficient cytoplasmic delivery of membrane-impermeable dye molecules. As a result, modification with appropriate hydrophobicity, MGluPG, produced highly potent pH-sensitive liposomes, which might be useful for efficient cytoplasmic delivery of bioactive molecules, such as proteins and genes.

  17. Surface enhanced Raman scattering activity of TiN thin film prepared via nitridation of sol-gel derived TiO2 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhanliang; Wei, Hengyong; Chen, Ying; Wang, Ruisheng; Zhao, Junhong; Lin, Jian; Bu, Jinglong; Wei, Yingna; Cui, Yi; Yu, Yun

    2015-10-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful and non-destructive analytical technique tool for chemical and biological sensing applications. Metal-free SERS substrates have recently been developed by using semiconductor nanostructures. The optical property of TiN film is similar to that of gold. Besides that, its good chemical inertness and thermodynamic stability make TiN thin film an excellent candidate for SERS. In order to investigate its SERS activity, the TiN thin film was successfully prepared via direct nitridation of the sol-gel derived TiO2 thin film on the quartz substrate using ammonia gas as reducing agent. The crystallite structures and morphology of TiN thin film were determined by XRD, RAMAN and FE-SEM. The results show that the thin film obtained is cubic titanium nitride with a lattice parameter of 4.2349 Å. The surface of TiN thin film is rough and with the particles of 50 nm in average sizes. The thickness of TiN thin film is about 130 nm. The TiN thin film displays a surface Plasmon resonance absorption peak at around 476 nm, which can lead to a strong enhancement of the EM field on the interface. The Raman signal of the probe molecule R6G was greatly enhanced through TiN thin film substrates. The enhancement factor is about 4.1×103 and the detection limit achieves 10-6 M for R6G. The TiN thin film substrate also shows a good reproducibility of SERS performance. The results indicate that TiN thin film is an attractive material with potential application in SERS substrates.

  18. Bottom-up derivation of conservative and dissipative interactions for coarse-grained molecular liquids with the conditional reversible work method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deichmann, Gregor; Marcon, Valentina; Vegt, Nico F. A. van der, E-mail: vandervegt@csi.tu-darmstadt.de [Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Straße 10, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-12-14

    Molecular simulations of soft matter systems have been performed in recent years using a variety of systematically coarse-grained models. With these models, structural or thermodynamic properties can be quite accurately represented while the prediction of dynamic properties remains difficult, especially for multi-component systems. In this work, we use constraint molecular dynamics simulations for calculating dissipative pair forces which are used together with conditional reversible work (CRW) conservative forces in dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. The combined CRW-DPD approach aims to extend the representability of CRW models to dynamic properties and uses a bottom-up approach. Dissipative pair forces are derived from fluctuations of the direct atomistic forces between mapped groups. The conservative CRW potential is obtained from a similar series of constraint dynamics simulations and represents the reversible work performed to couple the direct atomistic interactions between the mapped atom groups. Neopentane, tetrachloromethane, cyclohexane, and n-hexane have been considered as model systems. These molecular liquids are simulated with atomistic molecular dynamics, coarse-grained molecular dynamics, and DPD. We find that the CRW-DPD models reproduce the liquid structure and diffusive dynamics of the liquid systems in reasonable agreement with the atomistic models when using single-site mapping schemes with beads containing five or six heavy atoms. For a two-site representation of n-hexane (3 carbons per bead), time scale separation can no longer be assumed and the DPD approach consequently fails to reproduce the atomistic dynamics.

  19. Preparation and identification of a whole kidney decellularized bio-derived scaffold%去细胞全肾生物支架的制备与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建色; 王辉; 邵培刚; 林贤丰; 彭蒙蒙; 薛向阳; 梅劲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To prepare a whole kidney decellularized extracellular matrix bio-derived scaffold and to perform preliminary identification. Methods The kidney with ureters and renal vessels was harvested from adult SD rats. Intravenous catheters were inserted through the renal arteries to establish channels for whole-kidney perfusion successively with heparinized PBS,0.05% trypsin, 1 % Sodium dodecyl sulfate ( SDS ) , 1 % Triton X-100 and antibiotic-containing PBS under a pressure of 3. 6 tnmHg in 37℃. After decellularization,the scaffold and native kidney were observed through genomic DNA content analysis, transmission electron microscopy, HE staining, immunofluorescence and vascular cast. Results Quantitative analysis of DNA content within the scaffold showed a 97% decrease compared to the native kidney. The agarose gel electrophoresis showed no DNA bands associated with the decellularized scaffold. Transmission electron microscope, HE and immunohistochemistry showed a lot of collagen fibers but no visible cell nuclei remained after decellularization. Cast specimen showed that renal arteries were more sparse, but still full and clear compared with the native kidney. Conclusion The method of combined enzymatic digestion and detergent washing,soaking through the infusion is a simple,ideal preparation for the bioengineering scaffold of the kidney,which enables the quick and consistent removal of all the cellular components of the tissue, leaving behind mostly intact the extracellular matrix elements and an integrated vascular network.%目的 通过灌注加浸泡法制备全肾细胞外基质支架,并对该生物支架进行鉴定. 方法 健康成年SD大鼠20只,取肾,行肾动脉留置针插管,灌注压3.6mmHg,恒温37℃依次浸泡灌注肝素化PBS溶液、0.05%胰蛋白酶溶液、1%十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)溶液、1%Trition X-100溶液以及含青、链霉素的PBS溶液.处理后,行DNA定量与定性分析,透射电镜、HE染色及免疫荧光

  20. The anti-malarial drug Mefloquine disrupts central autonomic and respiratory control in the working heart brainstem preparation of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lall Varinder K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mefloquine is an anti-malarial drug that can have neurological side effects. This study examines how mefloquine (MF influences central nervous control of autonomic and respiratory systems using the arterially perfused working heart brainstem preparation (WHBP of the rat. Recordings of nerve activity were made from the thoracic sympathetic chain and phrenic nerve, while heart rate (HR and perfusion pressure were also monitored in the arterially perfused, decerebrate, rat WHBP. MF was added to the perfusate at 1 μM to examine its effects on baseline parameters as well as baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes. Results MF caused a significant, atropine resistant, bradycardia and increased phrenic nerve discharge frequency. Chemoreceptor mediated sympathoexcitation (elicited by addition of 0.1 ml of 0.03% sodium cyanide to the aortic cannula was significantly attenuated by the application of MF to the perfusate. Furthermore MF significantly decreased rate of return to resting HR following chemoreceptor induced bradycardia. An increase in respiratory frequency and attenuated respiratory-related sympathetic nerve discharge during chemoreceptor stimulation was also elicited with MF compared to control. However, MF did not significantly alter baroreceptor reflex sensitivity. Conclusions These studies indicate that in the WHBP, MF causes profound alterations in autonomic and respiratory control. The possibility that these effects may be mediated through actions on connexin 36 containing gap junctions in central neurones controlling sympathetic nervous outflow is discussed.

  1. Design, synthesis, and anticancer activity of novel berberine derivatives prepared via CuAAC “click” chemistry as potential anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin X

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Xin Jin1,2,* Tian-Hua Yan,3,* Lan Yan,1 Qian Li,4 Rui-Lian Wang,1 Zhen-Lin Hu,1 Yuan-Ying Jiang,1 Qing-Yan Sun,1 Yong-Bing Cao1 1School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, FuJian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China; 4Diakite Biological Technology Co., Ltd, Shanghai, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A series of novel derivatives of phenyl-substituted berberine triazolyls has been designed and synthesized via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition click chemistry in an attempt to develop antitumor agents. All of the compounds were evaluated for anticancer activity against a panel of three human cancer cell lines, including MCF-7 (breast, SW-1990 (pancreatic, and SMMC-7721 (liver and the noncancerous human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC cell lines. The results indicated that most of the compounds displayed notable anticancer activities against the MCF-7 cells compared with berberine. Among these derivatives, compound 16 showed the most potent inhibitory activity against the SW-1990 and SMMC-7721 cell lines, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 8.54±1.97 µM and 11.87±1.83 µM, respectively. Compound 36 exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity against the MCF-7 cell line, with an IC50 value of 12.57±1.96 µM. Compound 16 and compound 36 exhibited low cytotoxicity in the HUVEC cell line, with IC50 values of 25.49±3.24 µM and 30.47±3.47 µM. Furthermore, compounds 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 32, and 36 exhibited much better selectivity than berberine toward the normal cell line HUVEC. Keywords: berberine, anticancer, click chemistry, structure–activity relationship

  2. Synthesis of a cardanol-amine derivative using an ionic liquid catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardanol is a biobased raw material derived from cashew nut shell liquid. In order to extend its utility, new derivatives and additional applications are useful. In this work cardanol was first epoxidized, and a novel aniline derivative prepared from it under mild reaction conditions with the help o...

  3. Efficient synthesis of 1-azadienes derived from alpha-aminoesters. Regioselective preparation of alpha-dehydroamino acids, vinylglycines, and alpha-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Francisco; Vicario, Javier; Aparicio, Domitila

    2006-09-29

    An efficient synthesis of 1-azadienes derived from alpha-aminoesters is achieved through an aza-Wittig reaction of phosphazenes with beta,gamma-unsaturated alpha-ketoesters. Regioselective 1,2-reduction of these functionalized 1-azadienes affords vinylglycine derivatives, while conjugative 1,4-reduction gives alpha-dehydroamino acid compounds. Reduction of both the carbon-carbon and the imine-carbon-nitrogen double bonds leads to the formation of alpha-amino acid derivatives.

  4. Herbal preparation (HemoHIM) enhanced functional maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells mediated toll-like receptor 4

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung-Ju; Kim, Jong-Jin; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Hwang, Yun-Ho; Jeong, Gil-Yeon; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae-Ran; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Background HemoHIM, which is an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelicam gigas Nakai, Cnidium offinale Makino, and Peaonia japonica Miyabe), is known to have various biological and immunological activities, but the modulatory effects of this preparation on dendritic cells (DCs)-mediated immune responses have not been examined previously. DCs are a unique group of white blood cells that initiate primary immune responses by capturing, processing, and presenting antigens to T cells. R...

  5. Herbal preparation (HemoHIM) enhanced functional maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells mediated toll-like receptor 4

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung-Ju; Kim, Jong-Jin; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Hwang, Yun-Ho; Jeong, Gil-Yeon; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae-Ran; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Background HemoHIM, which is an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelicam gigas Nakai, Cnidium offinale Makino, and Peaonia japonica Miyabe), is known to have various biological and immunological activities, but the modulatory effects of this preparation on dendritic cells (DCs)-mediated immune responses have not been examined previously. DCs are a unique group of white blood cells that initiate primary immune responses by capturing, processing, and presenting antigens to T cells. R...

  6. A new synthetic methodology for the preparation of biocompatible and organo-soluble barbituric- and thiobarbituric acid based chitosan derivatives for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahzad, Sohail [Interdisciplinary Research Center in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Shahzadi, Lubna [Interdisciplinary Research Center in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Mahmood, Nasir [Department of Allied Health Sciences and Chemical Pathology, Department of Human Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore (Pakistan); Siddiqi, Saadat Anwar [Interdisciplinary Research Center in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Rauf, Abdul [Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Manzoor, Faisal; Chaudhry, Aqif Anwar [Interdisciplinary Research Center in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Rehman, Ihtesham ur [Interdisciplinary Research Center in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Kroto Research Institute, The University of Sheffield, North Campus, Broad Lane, Sheffield, S3 7HQ (United Kingdom); Yar, Muhammad, E-mail: drmyar@ciitlahore.edu.pk [Interdisciplinary Research Center in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

    2016-09-01

    Chitosan's poor solubility especially in organic solvents limits its use with other organo-soluble polymers; however such combinations are highly required to tailor their properties for specific biomedical applications. This paper describes the development of a new synthetic methodology for the synthesis of organo-soluble chitosan derivatives. These derivatives were synthesized from chitosan (CS), triethyl orthoformate and barbituric or thiobarbituric acid in the presence of 2-butannol. The chemical interactions and new functional motifs in the synthesized CS derivatives were evaluated by FTIR, DSC/TGA, UV/VIS, XRD and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. A cytotoxicity investigation for these materials was performed by cell culture method using VERO cell line and all the synthesized derivatives were found to be non-toxic. The solubility analysis showed that these derivatives were readily soluble in organic solvents including DMSO and DMF. Their potential to use with organo-soluble commercially available polymers was exploited by electrospinning; the synthesized derivatives in combination with polycaprolactone delivered nanofibrous membranes. - Highlights: • Development of a new synthetic methodology • Synthesis of organo-soluble chitosan (CS) derivatives • VERO cells proliferation • Nanofibrous membranes from the synthesized chitosan derivatives and polycaprolactone.

  7. Development of potential manufacturing routes for substituted thiophenes – Preparation of halogenated 2-thiophenecarboxylic acid derivatives as building blocks for a new family of 2,6-dihaloaryl 1,2,4-triazole insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John W; Romer, Duane R; Podhorez, David E; Ash, Mezzie L; Brady, Christine H

    2007-01-01

    Background Dow AgroSciences has been investigating a new family of functionalized 2,6-dihaloaryl 1,2,4-triazole insecticides featuring specifically targeted insecticidal activities coupled with low mammalian toxicity. With broad spectrum control of both chewing and sap-feeding pests in mind, this family of compounds has been under investigation for aphid, mite, and whitefly control in food crop protection as well as ornamental applications. Two specific targets for development have been the 2,6-dihalo 1,2,4-triazoles XR-693 and XR-906, which require a supply of the halogenated 2-thiophenecarboxylic acid derivatives 1, 2, and 3 for assembly of the C-ring portion of the triazole products. Results Potential manufacturing routes to three halogenated 2-thiophenecarboxylic acid derivatives 4-bromo-3-methyl-2-thiophenecarbonyl chloride 1, 3,4,5-trichloro-2-thiophenecarbonyl chloride 2, and 3,4,5-trichloro-2-thiophenecarbonitrile 3 from commercially available thiophene raw materials have been developed and demonstrated on a laboratory scale. A one-pot bromination/debromination procedure developed for 3-methylthiophene gave 2,4-dibromo-3-methylthiophene. Carboxylic acid functionality was then introduced either by a Grignard metallation followed by carbonation with CO2, or by a palladium catalyzed carbonylation procedure under CO pressure. The vapor phase chlorination of 2-thiophenecarbonitrile with chlorine gas at 500°C with an average residence time of 6 seconds gave 3,4,5-trichloro-2-thiophenenitrile 3 in a 69% distilled yield, a process that was carried out on a multi-kilogram scale in the laboratory. Finally, a route for the preparation of 3,4,5-trichloro-2-thiophenecarbonyl chloride 2 was developed from tetrachlorothiophene via either a lithiation reaction with n-butyllithium in MTBE solvent, or by a previously reported Grignard method using 1,2-dibromoethane as activator, followed by carbonation of the anion with CO2 to give the trichloro-2-thiophenecarboxylic acid

  8. Rhodanineacetic acid derivatives as potential drugs: preparation, hydrophobic properties and antifungal activity of (5-arylalkylidene-4-oxo-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl)acetic acids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dolezel, Jan; Hirsova, Petra; Opletalova, Veronika; Dohnal, Jiri; Marcela, Vejsova; Kunes, Jiri; Jampilek, Josef

    2009-01-01

    .... The general synthetic approach to all synthesized compounds is presented. Lipophilicity of all the discussed rhodanine-3-acetic acid derivatives was analyzed using a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method...

  9. [Can ICF core sets be helpful in preparing a social-medical expert report due to incapacity to work?--a first proposal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschneck, M; Legner, R; Armbrust, W; Nowak, D; Cieza, A

    2015-04-01

    Social-medical expert reports from the German statutory pension insurance are essential for the German statutory pension regulatory authority to decide whether to grant services regarding participation as well as retirement pensions due to incapacity to work.The objective of this investigation is to determine whether the ICF Core Sets and other international approaches, such as the EUMASS Core Sets or ICF Core Set for vocational rehabilitation cover the content of the social-medical expert reports as well as to propose an approach how the ICF can be economically used by the social medicine practitioner when writing a social-medical expert report. A retrospective quantitative study design was used to translate a total of 294 social-medical expert reports from patients with low back pain (LBP) or chronic widespread pain (CWP) into the language of the ICF (linking) by 2 independent health professionals and compare the results with the ICF Core Sets for specific health conditions and other international approaches. The content of social-medical expert reports was largely reflected by the condition specific brief ICF Core Sets, brief ICF Core Sets for vocational rehabilitation and EUMASS Core Sets. The weighted Kappa statistic for the agreement between the 2 health professionals who translated the expert reports were in CWP 0.69 with a bootstrapped confidence interval of 0.67-0.71 and in LBP 0.73 (0.71-0.74). The analyses show that the content of social-medical expert reports varies enormously. A combination of a condition specific brief ICF Core Set as well as vocational rehabilitation and EUMASS ICF Core Sets as well as all ICF-categories from the expert reports that were named at least in 50% of it can largely provide a basis for preparing expert reports. Within the scope of implementation the need for a specific ICF Core Set for expert reports of the German statutory pension insurance should be further analyzed and discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart

  10. Synthesis of D-mannitol and L-iditol derivatives as monomers for the preparation of new regioregular AABB-type polyamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancera, Manuel; Roffé, Isaac; Rivas, Manuel; Silva, Carmen; Galbis, Juan A

    2002-04-02

    1,6-Diamino-1,6-dideoxy-2,3,4,5-tetra-O-methyl-D-mannitol (and its L-iditol analogue) suitable for their utilization as monomers in the preparation of linear polyamides are described. Regio- and stereoregular polyamides of the AABB-type have been prepared by the active ester polycondensation method from these C(2) symmetric monomers and suberic and dodecanedioic acids. The resulting polyamides were obtained in fair yields (70-60%) and were characterized by elemental analyses and infrared and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies. Their M(w) and M(w)/M(n) were determined by GPC relative to polystyrene standards. All of them were gummy non-crystalline solids.

  11. THE PREPARATION OF LIPOSOMES DERIVED FROM MIXED MICELLES OF LECITHIN ADDED BY SODIUM CHOLATE, FOLLOWED BY DIALYSING USING HEMOFLOW HIGH FLUX F60S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Schubert

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Liposomes are used for drug carriers meaning that drugs are incorporated in the membrane or the vesicle of the liposomes. In this study, liposomes were prepared from mixed micelles, consisting of phosphatidylcholine, without or with cholesterol and sodium cholate was added in several ratios namely 0.44; 0.55; 0.63; 0.70; 0.90 and 1.10. After the preparation, the sodium cholate has been removed by a dialysis membrane, using the Hemoflow High Flux, which is generally used for haemodialysis. The Hemoflow High Flux is a tool in an effort to obtain a simple, quick, effective method for removing sodium cholate in the process of preparing liposomes. The effectiveness of this tool was proved by the particle size of the liposome which was measured by the Malvern Particle Sizer. The particle size of the liposome consisting of phosphatidylcholine (PC without cholesterol and with cholesterol was 63-68 nm at all ratios and approximately 125 nm at the ratio of 0.55; 0.63; 0.70, respectively. The particle size of the liposome tended to be smaller after dialyzing, although the concentration of lipids tended to increase. However, a large amount of buffer solution has to be used with this method.

  12. PREPARATION OF URETHANE AND UREA DERIVATIVES OF (NPCL2)3 - CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE OF A SPIROCYCLIC PHOSPHAZENE WITH A PHOSPHACYANURIC LOOP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERHUIZEN, AA; BUWALDA, PL; WILTING, T; JEKEL, AP; MEETSMA, A; VANDEGRAMPEL, JC

    1994-01-01

    Reactions of (NPCl2)3 with NaNCO in the presence of aliphatic alcohols have been investigated. Using an equimolar amount of NaNCO in refluxing acetonitrile, high yields of mono(urethane) derivatives N3P3Cl5(NHCO2R) were obtained. Disubstitution is mainly non-geminal. Reactions of (NPCl2)3 with AgNCO

  13. Products deriving from microbial fermentation are linked to insulinaemic response in pigs fed breads prepared from whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Serena, Anja;

    2011-01-01

    The effects of wheat and rye breads made from whole-wheat grain (WWG), wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on net portal absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients (glucose, SCFA and lactate) and apparent insulin secretion were studied in a model experiment with catheterised...

  14. Sodium Hydrogen Sulfate as Effective and Reusable Heterogeneous Catalyst for the One-pot Preparation of 14H-[(Un)substituted phenyl]-dibenzo[a,j]xanthene Leuco-dye Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHATERIAN Hamid Reza; DOOSTMOHAMMADI Razieh; GHASHANG Majid

    2008-01-01

    NaHSO4·H2O has been used as an efficient catalyst for the one-pot preparation of 14H-[(un)substituted phenyl]-dibenzo[a,j]xanthene leuco-dye derivatives by condensation of β-naphthol with substituted benzaldehydes under microwave and thermal conditions.This method has the advantages of high yields,a green reaction,an efficient and cost-effective method,simple procedures,short reaction time,and easy workup.

  15. Preparation of a new chiral stationary phase for HPLC based on the (R)- 1-phenyl-2-(4-methylphenyl)ethylamine amide derivative of (S)-valine and 2-chloro-3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid: enantioseparation of amino acid derivatives and pyrethroid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xulin; Hou, Shicong; Jiang, Jingli; Wang, Min

    2007-08-01

    A novel chiral stationary phase (CSP) for HPLC was prepared by bonding (R)-1-phenyl-2-(4-methylphenyl)ethylamine amide derivative of (S)-valine to aminopropyl silica gel through a 2-amino-3,5-dinitro-1-carboxamido-benzene unit. The CSP was used for the separation of some amino acid derivatives and pyrethroid insecticides by chiral HPLC. Satisfactory baseline separation required optimization of the variables of mobile phase composition. Use of dichloromethane as modifier in the mobile phase gave baseline separations of amino acid derivatives. The two enantiomers of fenpropathrin and four stereoisomers of fenvalerate were baseline separated using hexane-dichloromethane-ethanol as mobile phase. The results show that the enantioselectivity of the new CSP is better than Pirkle type 1-A column for these compounds. Only partial separations were observed for the stereoisomers of cypermethrin and cyfluthrin, which gave even and eight peaks, respectively.

  16. A Conclusive View on Charge Generation, Recombination, and Extraction in As-Prepared and Annealed P3HT : PCBM Blends: Combined Experimental and Simulation Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kniepert, Juliane; Lange, Ilja; van der Kaap, Niels J.; Koster, L. Jan Anton; Neher, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Time-delayed collection field (TDCF) and bias-amplified charge extraction (BACE) are applied to as-prepared and annealed poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C-71 butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) blends coated from chloroform. Despite large differences in fill factor, short-circuit current, and

  17. Preparation and Crystal Structure of 5-Azido-3-nitro-1H-1,2,4-triazole, Its Methyl Derivative and Potassium Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Klapötke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 5-Azido-3-nitro-1H-1,2,4-triazole, its methyl derivative and potassium salt were synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic methods. The crystal structures were determined by low temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction. The interactions between the molecules or ions were analyzed and discussed. Furthermore, all compounds were tested according to BAM (Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung methods.

  18. 维生素C衍生物的制备及其在化妆品中的应用%Preparation of L-ascorbic acid derivatives and their application in cosmetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷雪贤

    2011-01-01

    维生素C衍牛物克服了维生素C易被氧化不稳定的缺点,被广泛用于化妆品中.阐述了维生素C衍生物围内外的研究情况,主要对维生素C的磷酸酯盐、糖苷、棕榈酸酯、乙基醚、甲基硅基等衍生物的制备方法进行了总结.介绍了其在化妆品中的应用情况,指出了维生素C衍生物的发展趋势.%The L-ascorbic acid derivatives overcomes the shortcoming of L-ascorbic acid which is easy to be oxidized,and has been broadly applied in cosmetics.The recent development situation of L-ascorbic acid derivatives is reviewed,and the preparation methods and the application on cosmetics of the L-ascorbic acid derivatives such as L-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate, ascorbic acid glucoside, ascorbyl palmitate were summarized.The trendency of the L-ascorbic acid derivatives is proposed also.

  19. Origin of osteoclasts: Mature monocytes and macrophages are capable of differentiating into osteoclasts under a suitable microenvironment prepared by bone marrow-derived stromal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Akatsu, Takuhiko; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Takahisa; Suda, Tatsuo (Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Nishihara, Tatsuji; Koga, Toshihiko (National Inst. of Health, Tokyo (Japan)); Martin, T.J. (Saint Vincent' s Inst. of Medical Research, Melbourne (Australia))

    1990-09-01

    The authors previously reported that osteoclast-like cells were formed in cocultures of a mouse marrow-derived stromal cell line (ST2) with mouse spleen cells in the presence of 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} and dexamethasone. In this study, they developed a new coculture system to determine the origin of osteoclasts. When relatively small numbers of mononuclear cells obtained from mouse bone marrow, spleen, thymus, or peripheral blood were cultured for 12 days on the ST2 cell layers, they formed colonies with a linear relationship between the number of colonies formed and the number of hemopoietic cells inoculated. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAPase)-positive monoculear and multinucleated cells appeared in the colonies (TRAPase-positive colonies) in response to 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} and dexamethasone. When hemopoietic cells suspended in a collagen-gel solution were cultured on the ST2 cell layers to prevent their movement, TRAPase-positive colonies were similarly formed, indicating that each colony originated from a single cell. Salmon {sup 125}I-labeled calcitonin specifically bound to the TRAPase-positive cells. Resorption lacunae were formed on dentine slices on which cocultures were performed. These results indicate that osteoclasts are also derived from the mature monocytes and macrophages when a suitable microenvironment is provided by bone marrow-derived stromal cells.

  20. Preparing clinical-grade myeloid dendritic cells by electroporation-mediated transfection of in vitro amplified tumor-derived mRNA and safety testing in stage IV malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allred Jacob B

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic cells (DCs have been used as vaccines in clinical trials of immunotherapy of cancer and other diseases. Nonetheless, progress towards the use of DCs in the clinic has been slow due in part to the absence of standard methods for DC preparation and exposure to disease-associated antigens. Because different ex vivo exposure methods can affect DC phenotype and function differently, we studied whether electroporation-mediated transfection (electrotransfection of myeloid DCs with in vitro expanded RNA isolated from tumor tissue might be feasible as a standard physical method in the preparation of clinical-grade DC vaccines. Methods We prepared immature DCs (IDCs from CD14+ cells isolated from leukapheresis products and extracted total RNA from freshly resected melanoma tissue. We reversely transcribed the RNA while attaching a T7 promoter to the products that we subsequently amplified by PCR. We transcribed the amplified cDNA in vitro and introduced the expanded RNA into IDCs by electroporation followed by DC maturation and cryopreservation. Isolated and expanded mRNA was analyzed for the presence of melanoma-associated tumor antigens gp100, tyrosinase or MART1. To test product safety, we injected five million DCs subcutaneously at three-week intervals for up to four injections into six patients suffering from stage IV malignant melanoma. Results Three preparations contained all three transcripts, one isolate contained tyrosinase and gp100 and one contained none. Electrotransfection of DCs did not affect viability and phenotype of fresh mature DCs. However, post-thaw viability was lower (69 ± 12 percent in comparison to non-electroporated cells (82 ± 12 percent; p = 0.001. No patient exhibited grade 3 or 4 toxicity upon DC injections. Conclusion Standardized preparation of viable clinical-grade DCs transfected with tumor-derived and in vitro amplified mRNA is feasible and their administration is safe.

  1. The determination of Fukushima-derived cesium-134 and cesium-137 in Japanese green tea samples and their distribution subsequent to simulated beverage preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Matthew C; Stukel, Matthew J; Zhang, Weihua; Mercier, Jean-Francois; Cooke, Michael W

    2016-03-01

    Health Canada's Radiation Protection Bureau has identified trace quantities of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in commercially available green tea products of Japanese origin. Referenced to March 11, 2011, the activity ratio ((134)Cs/(137)Cs) has been determined to be 1:1, which supports an origin from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The upper limits of typical tea beverage preparation conditions were applied to the most contaminated of these green tea samples to determine the proportion of radiocesium contamination that would be available for human consumption. The distribution of radiocesium among the components of the extraction experiments (water, residual tea solid, and filter media) was determined by both conventional and Compton-suppressed gamma spectroscopy. The latter aided tremendously in providing a more complete radiocesium distribution profile, particularly for the shorter-lived (134)Cs. Cesium extraction efficiencies of 64 ± 7% and 64 ± 5% were determined based on (134)Cs and (137)Cs, respectively. Annual, effective dose estimates from ingestion of (137)Cs and (134)Cs (1.8-3.7 μSv), arising from the consumption of tea beverages prepared from the most contaminated of these samples, are insignificant relative to both total (∼ 2.4 mSv) and ingested (∼ 0.28 mSv) annual effective doses received from naturally occurring radioactive sources. As such, there is no health concern arising from the consumption of green tea beverages contaminated with radiocesium at the levels encountered in this study.

  2. A Review on the Preparation of Borazine-derived Boron Nitride Nanoparticles and Nanopolyhedrons by Spray-pyrolysis and Annealing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Salles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron nitride (BN nanostructures (= nanoBN are struc‐ tural analogues of carbon nanostructures but display different materials chemistry and physics, leading to a wide variety of structural, thermal, electronic, and optical applications. Proper synthesis routes and advanced structural design are among the great challenges for preparing nanoBN with such properties. This review provides an insight into the preparation and characteriza‐ tion of zero dimensional (0D nanoBN including nanopar‐ ticles and nanopolyhedrons from borazine, an economically competitive and attractive (from a technical point of view molecule, beginning with a concise intro‐ duction to hexagonal BN, followed by an overview on the past and current state of research on nanoparticles. Thus, a review of the spray-pyrolysis of borazine to form BN nanoparticles is firstly presented. The use of BN nanopar‐ ticles as precursors of BN nanopolyhedrons is then de‐ tailed. Applications and research perspectives for these 0D nanoBN are discussed in the conclusion.

  3. Development of potential manufacturing routes for substituted thiophenes – Preparation of halogenated 2-thiophenecarboxylic acid derivatives as building blocks for a new family of 2,6-dihaloaryl 1,2,4-triazole insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ash Mezzie L

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dow AgroSciences has been investigating a new family of functionalized 2,6-dihaloaryl 1,2,4-triazole insecticides featuring specifically targeted insecticidal activities coupled with low mammalian toxicity. With broad spectrum control of both chewing and sap-feeding pests in mind, this family of compounds has been under investigation for aphid, mite, and whitefly control in food crop protection as well as ornamental applications. Two specific targets for development have been the 2,6-dihalo 1,2,4-triazoles XR-693 and XR-906, which require a supply of the halogenated 2-thiophenecarboxylic acid derivatives 1, 2, and 3 for assembly of the C-ring portion of the triazole products. Results Potential manufacturing routes to three halogenated 2-thiophenecarboxylic acid derivatives 4-bromo-3-methyl-2-thiophenecarbonyl chloride 1, 3,4,5-trichloro-2-thiophenecarbonyl chloride 2, and 3,4,5-trichloro-2-thiophenecarbonitrile 3 from commercially available thiophene raw materials have been developed and demonstrated on a laboratory scale. A one-pot bromination/debromination procedure developed for 3-methylthiophene gave 2,4-dibromo-3-methylthiophene. Carboxylic acid functionality was then introduced either by a Grignard metallation followed by carbonation with CO2, or by a palladium catalyzed carbonylation procedure under CO pressure. The vapor phase chlorination of 2-thiophenecarbonitrile with chlorine gas at 500°C with an average residence time of 6 seconds gave 3,4,5-trichloro-2-thiophenenitrile 3 in a 69% distilled yield, a process that was carried out on a multi-kilogram scale in the laboratory. Finally, a route for the preparation of 3,4,5-trichloro-2-thiophenecarbonyl chloride 2 was developed from tetrachlorothiophene via either a lithiation reaction with n-butyllithium in MTBE solvent, or by a previously reported Grignard method using 1,2-dibromoethane as activator, followed by carbonation of the anion with CO2 to give the trichloro

  4. Stabilisation of SWNTs by alkyl-sulfate chitosan derivatives of different molecular weight: towards the preparation of hybrids with anticoagulant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatouros, Dimitrios G.; Power, Kieron; Kadir, Omar; Dékány, Imre; Yannopoulos, Spyros N.; Bouropoulos, Nikolaos; Bakandritsos, Aristides; Antonijevic, Milan D.; Zouganelis, George D.; Roldo, Marta

    2011-03-01

    We have previously demonstrated that chitosan derivative N-octyl-O-sulfate chitosan (NOSC), which presents important pharmacological properties, can suspend single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) up to 20 times more effectively than other chitosan derivatives in an aqueous environment. In an attempt to further investigate the impact of different molecular weights of chitosan to the solubilization and anticoagulant properties of these hybrids an array of NOSC derivatives varying their molecular weight (low, medium and high respectively) was synthesised and characterised by means of FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Microwave and nitric acid purified SWNTs, characterised by FT-IR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy, were colloidally stabilised by these polymers and their anticoagulant activity was assessed. The results revealed that the low molecular weight NOSC coated SWNTs exhibit the highest activity when 0.5 mg mL-1 NOSC solutions are used, activity which is similar to that of the free polymer. Preliminary studies by exposure of these hybrids to Brine Shrimp (Artemia) cysts revealed no effect on the viability of sub-adult Artemia. Our findings suggest the possibility of tailoring these nanomaterials to bear the required properties for application as biocompatible building blocks for nanodevices including biosensors and biomaterials.We have previously demonstrated that chitosan derivative N-octyl-O-sulfate chitosan (NOSC), which presents important pharmacological properties, can suspend single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) up to 20 times more effectively than other chitosan derivatives in an aqueous environment. In an attempt to further investigate the impact of different molecular weights of chitosan to the solubilization and anticoagulant properties of these hybrids an array of NOSC derivatives varying their molecular weight (low, medium and high respectively) was synthesised

  5. [The analysis of possibility to apply new preparations in serologic diagnostic of agent of cholera in working activity of specialized anti-epidemic brigades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazrukho, A B; Tatarenko, O A; Alekseyeva, L P; Agafonova, V V; Shaly, O A; Pisanov, R V; Aiydinov, G V; Stupina, N A

    2013-05-01

    The approbation of diagnostic preparations on the substrate of monoclonal antibodies developed in the institute was carried out during tactical specialized exercise with building up of units on the basis of mobile complex of specialized anti-epidemic brigades. It is established that diagnostic agglutinating and fluorescent monoclonal immunoglobulins by their sensitivity are equal to polyclonal commercial preparations and can be used at the stages of laboratory diagnostic of cholera both in conditions of stationary laboratory and mobile complex of specialized anti-epidemic brigades. The method of dot immunoanalysis on the substrate of monoclonal antibodies can, on a par with such common methods as immunofluorescence, slide-agglutination and polymerase chain reaction, be applied in complex of methods of express-diagnostic of cholera.

  6. Allogeneic Platelet Releasate Preparations Derived via a Novel Rapid Thrombin Activation Process Promote Rapid Growth and Increased BMP-2 and BMP-4 Expression in Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Michael; Gagnet, Paul; Cunningham, Elizabeth; Yeager, Randi; D'Amico, Michael; Guski, Katie; Scarpone, Michael; Kuebler, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The administration of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) represents a promising regenerative therapy for the treatment of orthopedic injuries. While ASCs can be easily isolated from liposuction-derived adipose tissue, most clinical applications will likely require in vitro culture expansion of these cells using nonxenogeneic components. In this study, platelet releasate was generated using a novel rapid thrombin activation method (tPR). ASCs grown in media supplemented with tPR proliferated much faster than ASCs grown in media supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. The cells also retained the ability to differentiate along chondrogenic, adipogenic, and osteogenic lineages. The tPR cultured ASCs displayed elevated expression of BMP-4 (5.7 ± 0.97-fold increase) and BMP-2 (4.7 ± 1.3-fold increase) and decreased expression of PDGF-B (4.0 ± 1.4-fold decrease) and FGF-2 (33 ± 9.0-fold decrease). No significant changes in expression were seen with TGF-β and VEGF. This pattern of gene expression was consistent across different allogeneic tPR samples and different ASC lines. The use of allogeneic rapidly activated tPR to culture ASCs is associated with both an increased cell yield and a defined gene expression profile making it an attractive option for cell expansion prior to cell-based therapy for orthopedic applications.

  7. Allogeneic Platelet Releasate Preparations Derived via a Novel Rapid Thrombin Activation Process Promote Rapid Growth and Increased BMP-2 and BMP-4 Expression in Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McLaughlin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The administration of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs represents a promising regenerative therapy for the treatment of orthopedic injuries. While ASCs can be easily isolated from liposuction-derived adipose tissue, most clinical applications will likely require in vitro culture expansion of these cells using nonxenogeneic components. In this study, platelet releasate was generated using a novel rapid thrombin activation method (tPR. ASCs grown in media supplemented with tPR proliferated much faster than ASCs grown in media supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. The cells also retained the ability to differentiate along chondrogenic, adipogenic, and osteogenic lineages. The tPR cultured ASCs displayed elevated expression of BMP-4 (5.7 ± 0.97-fold increase and BMP-2 (4.7 ± 1.3-fold increase and decreased expression of PDGF-B (4.0 ± 1.4-fold decrease and FGF-2 (33 ± 9.0-fold decrease. No significant changes in expression were seen with TGF-β and VEGF. This pattern of gene expression was consistent across different allogeneic tPR samples and different ASC lines. The use of allogeneic rapidly activated tPR to culture ASCs is associated with both an increased cell yield and a defined gene expression profile making it an attractive option for cell expansion prior to cell-based therapy for orthopedic applications.

  8. Chemoenzymatic preparation of optically active trans-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine derivatives: an efficient synthesis of the analgesic U-(-)-50,488.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sabín, Javier; Gotor, Vicente; Rebolledo, Francisca

    2004-11-05

    Stereoespecific syntheses of (+/-)-trans-N,N-cyclohexane-1,2-diamines ((+/-)-4 a-g) were carried out from the corresponding (+/-)-trans-N,N-dialkylaminocyclohexanols by successive treatment with mesyl chloride and aqueous ammonia. The stereochemical outcome indicates the formation of a meso-aziridinium ion intermediate. Kinetic resolutions of diamines (+/-)-4 were efficiently accomplished in aminolysis reactions catalyzed by lipase B from Candida antarctica with ethyl acetate as the solvent and acyl donor. Acetamides and the remaining diamines, isolated as the benzyloxycarbonyl derivatives, were obtained with very high ee values (92-99%). One of the carbamates was used as a precursor of the analgesic U-(-)-50,488.

  9. Rising to the Challenge: Are High School Graduates Prepared for College and Work? A Study of Recent High School Graduates, College Instructors, and Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieve, Inc., 2005

    2005-01-01

    As many as two in five recent high school graduates say that there are gaps between the education they received in high school and the overall skills, abilities, and work habits that are expected of them today in college and in the work force. The majority of college students and high school graduates without a college degree say that they have…

  10. Preparation of Scratch-Resistant Nano-Porous Silica Films Derived by Sol-Gel Process and Their Anti-reflective Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangming WU; Jun SHEN; Tianhe YANG; Bin ZHOU; Jue WANG

    2003-01-01

    Structural strengthening of the nano porous silica films has been reported. The films were prepared with a base/acid two-step catalyzed TEOS-based sol-gel processing and dip-coating, and then baked in the mixed gas of ammonia and water vapor. The silica films were characterized with TEM, AFM, FTIR, spectrophotometer, ellipsometer, and abrasion test, respectively. The experimental results have shown that the films have a nanostructure with a low refractive index and can form an excellent scratch-resistant broadband anti-reflectance. The two-step catalysis noticeably strengthens the films, and the mixed gas treatment further improves mechanical strength of the silica network. Finally the strengthening mechanism has been discussed.

  11. Preparation and characterization of Bis-GMA free dental resin system with synthesized dimethacrylate monomer TDDMMA derived from tricyclo[5.2.1.0(2,6)]-decanedimethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Mei; Liu, Fang; He, Jingwei

    2016-04-01

    As a substitute for 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3- methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl] propane (Bis-GMA) in dental materials, a new dimethacrylate monomer TDDMMA without bisphenol-A structure was synthesized through the reaction between tricyclo[5.2.1.0(2,6)]- decanedimethanol and 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate. The TDDMMA was mixed with triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) to prepare Bis-GMA free dental resin. Physicochemical properties, such as double bond conversion (DC), polymerization shrinkage (VS), water sorption (WS) and solubility (SL), flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM) and fracture energy of TDDMMA/TEGDMA resin system were investigated. Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin system was used as a control. The results showed that, compared with Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin system, TDDMMA/TEGDMA resin system had comparable VS and several advantages like higher DC, lower SL and better mechanical properties after water immersion.

  12. Preparation and Evaluation of Enteric-Coated Chitosan Derivative-Based Microparticles Loaded with Salmon Calcitonin as an Oral Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Onishi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The production of protein drugs has recently increased due to advances in biotechnology, but their clinical use is generally limited to parenteral administration due to low absorption in non-parenteral administration. Therefore, non-parenteral delivery systems allowing sufficient absorption draw much attention. Methods: Microparticles (MP were prepared using chitosan-4-thio-butylamidine conjugate (Ch-TBA, trimethyl-chitosan (TMC, and chitosan (Ch. Using salmon calcitonin (sCT as a model protein drug, Ch-TBA-, Ch-TBA/TMC (4/1-, and Ch-based MP were produced, and their Eudragit L100 (Eud-coated MP, named Ch-TBA-MP/Eud, Ch-TBA/TMC-MP/Eud, and Ch-MP/Eud, respectively, were prepared as oral delivery systems. These enteric-coated microparticles were examined in vitro and in vivo. Results: All microparticles before and after enteric coating had a submicron size (600–800 nm and micrometer size (1300–1500 nm, respectively. In vitro release patterns were similar among all microparticles; release occurred gradually, and the release rate was slower at pH 1.2 than at pH 6.8. In oral ingestion, Ch-TBA-MP/Eud suppressed plasma Ca levels most effectively among the microparticles tested. The relative effectiveness of Ch-TBA-MP/Eud to the intramuscular injection was 8.6%, while the sCT solution showed no effectiveness. Conclusion: The results suggest that Eud-coated Ch-TBA-based microparticles should have potential as an oral delivery system of protein drugs.

  13. Comparison of alpha-Type-1 polarizing and standard dendritic cell cytokine cocktail for maturation of therapeutic monocyte-derived dendritic cell preparations from cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trepiakas, Redas; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Met, Ozcan

    2008-01-01

    polarized dendritic cells (alphaDC1) in serum-free medium was published based on maturation of monocyte-derived DCs with TNF-alpha/IL-1-beta/polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly-I:C)/interferon (IFN)-alpha and IFN-gamma. This DC maturation cocktail was described to fulfill the criteria for optimal DC......The current "gold standard" for generation of dendritic cell (DC) used in DC-based cancer vaccine studies is maturation of monocyte-derived DCs with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)/IL-1beta/IL-6 and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). Recently, a protocol for producing so-called alpha-Type-1...... of alphaDC1 maturation cocktail to a protocol for clinical grade DC generation from cancer patients performed in X-VIVO 15 medium. We showed that alphaDC1 in this protocol induce lower up-regulation of CD83 and several other maturation markers, co-stimulatory molecules and CCR7 together with higher up...

  14. Preparation and optical and electrical evaluation of bulk SiO{sub 2} sonogel hybrid composites and vacuum thermal evaporated thin films prepared from molecular materials derived from (Fe, Co) metallic phthalocyanines and 1,8 dihydroxiantraquinone compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Vergara, Maria Elena [Coordinacion de Ingenieria Mecatronica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Anahuac Mexico Norte. Avenida Universidad Anahuac 46, Col. Lomas Anahuac, 52786 Huixquilucan, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Morales-Saavedra, Omar G. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, CCADET-UNAM, A.P. 70-186, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: omar.morales@ccadet.unam.mx; Ontiveros-Barrera, Fernando G.; Torres-Zuniga, Vicente; Ortega-Martinez, Roberto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, CCADET-UNAM, A.P. 70-186, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ortiz Rebollo, Armando [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, IIM-UNAM, A.P. 70-360, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-02-25

    Semiconducting molecular material of PcFe(CN)L1 and PcCo(CN)L1 (L1 = 1,8 dihydroxianthraquinone), PcFe(CN)L2 and PcCo(CN)L2 (L2 = double potassium salt of 1,8 dihydroxianthraquinone) have been successfully used to prepare thin film and bulk sol-gel hybrid optical materials. These samples were developed according to the vacuum thermal evaporation technique and the catalyst-free sonogel route, respectively. Thin films samples were deposited on Corning glass substrates and crystalline silicon wafers and were characterized by infrared (FTIR), Raman and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies. IR-spectroscopy and Raman studies unambiguously confirmed that the molecular material thin films exhibit the same intra-molecular bonds, which suggests that the thermal evaporation process does not alter these bonds significantly. These results show that it is possible to deposit molecular materials of PcFe(CN)L2 and PcCo(CN)L2 on Corning glass substrates and silicon wafers. From the UV-vis studies the optical band gap (E{sub g}) was evaluated. The effect of temperature on conductivity was also evaluated in these samples. Finally, the studied molecular systems dissolved at different concentrations in tetrahydrofuran (THF) were successfully embedded into a highly pure SiO{sub 2} sonogel network generated via sonochemical reactions to form several solid state, optically active sol-gel hybrid glasses. By this method, homogeneous and stable hybrid monoliths suitable for optical characterization can be produced. The linear optical properties of these amorphous bulk structures were determined by the Brewster angle method and by absorption-, Raman- and photoluminescent (PL)-spectroscopies, respectively.

  15. Preparation, surface characteristics, and electrochemical double-layer capacitance of KOH-activated carbon aerogels and their O- and N-doped derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Benabithe, Zulamita; Carrasco-Marín, Francisco; Moreno-Castilla, Carlos

    2012-12-01

    Carbon aerogels are obtained by carbonizing organic aerogels prepared by polycondensation reaction of resorcinol or pyrocatechol with formaldehyde. They are KOH-activated at two KOH/carbon ratios to increase pore volume and surface area. Selected samples are also surface-treated to introduce oxygen and nitrogen functionalities. The objectives are to investigate the effect of porosity and surface functionalities on the electrochemical capacitance of the carbon and activated carbon aerogels. Samples are characterized by N2 and CO2 adsorption at -196 and 0 °C, respectively, immersion calorimetry, temperature-programmed desorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to determine their surface area, porosity, and surface chemistry. Two series of samples are obtained: one micro-mesoporous and the other basically microporous. A surface area up to 1935 m2 g-1 was obtained after KOH activation. Electrochemical double-layer capacitance was studied by cyclovoltammetry and chronopotentiometry with a three-electrode cell, using Ag/AgCl as reference electrode. Gravimetric capacitance at 0.125 A g-1 is related to N2 adsorption-measured micropore volume and mean size and to particle density. The highest gravimetric capacitance, 220 F g-1, is obtained with two O- and N-doped samples. Volumetric capacitance of 123 F cm-3, double the value generally needed for applications in small-volume systems, is obtained with a largely microporous oxygen-doped activated carbon aerogel.

  16. Preparation, morphologies and thermal behavior of high nitrogen compound 2-amino-4,6-diazido-s-triazine and its derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Qi-Long, E-mail: terry.well@163.com [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Musil, Tomáš [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Zeman, Svatopluk, E-mail: svatopluk.zeman@upce.cz [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Matyáš, Robert [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Shi, Xiao-Bing [Xi‘an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, 710065 Xi’an (China); Vlček, Milan [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 12006 Prague (Czech Republic); Pelikán, Vojtěch [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-20

    Graphical abstract: High nitrogen compound 2-amino-4,6-diazido-s-triazine (DAAT) can be substituted by different function groups, forming many other new energetic materials. Such materials that have very close molecular structure may be very different in terms of crystal structure, thermal behavior, as well as performances (e.g., TAAT vs. TAHT). Generally, the increase of the molecular weight results in better thermal stability. - Highlights: • The crystal morphologies of azido-triazine derivatives are examined using SEM. • The thermal stability and decomposition processes are compared by TGA and DSC. • The effect of function group on the thermal behavior of title compounds is clarified. - Abstract: The crystal morphologies, thermal behavior, sensitivity and performance of 2-amino-4,6,-diazido-s-triazine and its derivatives have been investigated using SEM, DSC, TG techniques and related theories. It has been shown that the DANT crystal is in 1–5 μm thickness layered regular hexagon structure with severe agglomeration. DAAT crystal is very hydrophobic and can be dispersed in water, which has layered rectangle structure with thickness less than 0.5 μm. The TAHT materials exist in a form of amorphous irregular particles with diameters of more than 200 μm while its analogue TAAT can be crystallized in needle shape with a length of 30 μm. TNADAzT crystal has a shape of regular polyhedron with average size of about 120 μm. The thermal analysis indicates that there is only one complex step for decomposition of DAAT, while at least three steps are included for the other materials. DAAT started to decompose at around 148.4 °C with a peak temperature of 197.0 °C, while TAHT started to decompose at 167.2 °C with shoulder-peak of 193.4–206.7 °C at the heating rate of 2.0 °C min{sup −1}. DANT decomposes with a heat release of 2420–2721 J g{sup −1}, which is much higher than that of DAAT indicating that the heat and its release rate are greatly

  17. Temperature Fields of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MgF{sub 2} HR Coatings Prepared at Different Working Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan Meiqiong; Wu Zhonglin, E-mail: hbzmq@126.com [Shanghai second polytechnic university, No.2360 Jinhai Road, Shanghai (China)

    2011-02-01

    A series of samples were deposited by electron beam evaporation using the same deposition process at different working pressure. Transmittance of the HR coatings was measured by Lambda 900 spectrometer. Laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) was measured by a 355 nm Nd:YAG laser with a pulse width of 7 ns. The LIDT results range from 2.69 J/cm{sup 2} to 11.03 J/cm{sup 2} with the working pressure changing. It was found that working pressure has important effects on the absorption and LIDT of 355nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MgF{sub 2} HR coatings. The temperature rise of HR coatings under laser irradiation was calculated by interfaces absorption model based on the theory of temperature fields. The results of temperature fields agree with the results of LIDT.

  18. Enzyme-catalyzed preparation of supramolecular structured hydrogel of polypseudorotaxanes derived from the self-assembly of α-CDs with 3-arm p-hydroxyphenylpropionate terminated PEG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Zhiguo; HOU Dandan; YE Lin; ZHANG Aiying; FENG Zengguo

    2007-01-01

    A kind of novel 3-D cross-1inked supramolecular structured hydrogels has been fabricated via enzymatic oxidative coupling of polypseudorotaxanes (PPRs) derived from the self-assembly of α-cyclodextrins (α-CDs) with 3-arm p-hydroxyphenylpropionate terminated PEG (3-HPPP) as a macromer by using horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/H2O2 catalytic system.The enzymatic cross-1inking of the macromer or PPRs made with a smaller amount of α-CDs was found to be much faster than that by ordinary chemical pathways,showing the promise to be used as the surgical adhesive and sealant which are needed to rapidly function in vivo.The gelation time was highly extended and the gel content was considerably decreased by increasing the α-CDs to macromer feeding molar ratio.Thereby these hydrogels exhibited a decreasing trend in dynamical mechanical properties with increasing the amount of α-CDs in regard to the blank hydrogel made without α-CD addition.

  19. Diorganotin(IV Derivatives of N-Methyl p-Fluorobenzo-Hydroxamic Acid: Preparation, Spectral Characterization, X-ray Diffraction Studies and Antitumor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theng Choon Ooi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Three diorganotin(IV complexes of the general formula R2Sn[RcC(ON(RNO] (Rc = aryl, RN = Alkyl have been synthesized by refluxing in toluene the corresponding diorganotin(IV oxides with the free ligand N-methyl p-fluorobenzohydroxamic acid, using a Dean and Stark water separator. The ligand was derived from the reaction of the corresponding p-fluorobenzoyl chloride and N-methylhydroxylamine hydrochloride in the presence of sodium hydrogen carbonate. The isolated free ligand and its respective diorganotin compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR and 1H-, 13C-, 119Sn-NMR spectroscopies. The crystal structures of the diorganotin complexes have been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The investigations carried out on the diorganotin(IV complexes of N-methyl p-fluorobenzohydroxamic acid confirmed a 1:2 stoichiometry. The complex formation took place through the O,O-coordination via the carbonyl oxygen and subsequent deprotonated hydroxyl group to the tin atom. The crystal structures of three diorganotin complexes were determined and were found to adopt six coordination geometries at the tin centre with coordination to two ligand moieties.

  20. Enhanced Adipogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in an In Vitro Microenvironment: The Preparation of Adipose-Like Microtissues Using a Three-Dimensional Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yoshitaka; Ikeuchi, Masashi; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Yagi, Tohru; Hayashi, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    The application of stem cells for cell therapy has been extensively studied in recent years. Among the various types of stem cells, human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be obtained in large quantities with relatively few passages, and they possess a stable quality. ASCs can differentiate into a number of cell types, such as adipose cells and ectodermal cells. We therefore focused on the in vitro microenvironment required for such differentiation and attempted to induce the differentiation of human stem cells into microtissues using a microelectromechanical system. We first evaluated the adipogenic differentiation of human ASC spheroids in a three-dimensional (3D) culture. We then created the in vitro microenvironment using a 3D combinatorial TASCL device and attempted to induce the adipogenic differentiation of human ASCs. The differentiation of human ASC spheroids cultured in maintenance medium and those cultured in adipocyte differentiation medium was evaluated via Oil red O staining using lipid droplets based on the quantity of accumulated triglycerides. The differentiation was confirmed in both media, but the human ASCs in the 3D cultures contained higher amounts of triglycerides than those in the 2D cultures. In the short culture period, greater adipogenic differentiation was observed in the 3D cultures than in the 2D cultures. The 3D culture using the TASCL device with adipogenic differentiation medium promoted greater differentiation of human ASCs into adipogenic lineages than either a 2D culture or a culture using a maintenance medium. In summary, the TASCL device created a hospitable in vitro microenvironment and may therefore be a useful tool for the induction of differentiation in 3D culture. The resultant human ASC spheroids were “adipose-like microtissues” that formed spherical aggregation perfectly and are expected to be applicable in regenerative medicine as well as cell transplantation.

  1. Enhanced Adipogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in an In Vitro Microenvironment: The Preparation of Adipose-Like Microtissues Using a Three-Dimensional Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yoshitaka; Ikeuchi, Masashi; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Yagi, Tohru; Hayashi, Shuji

    2017-01-08

    The application of stem cells for cell therapy has been extensively studied in recent years. Among the various types of stem cells, human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be obtained in large quantities with relatively few passages, and they possess a stable quality. ASCs can differentiate into a number of cell types, such as adipose cells and ectodermal cells. We therefore focused on the in vitro microenvironment required for such differentiation and attempted to induce the differentiation of human stem cells into microtissues using a microelectromechanical system. We first evaluated the adipogenic differentiation of human ASC spheroids in a three-dimensional (3D) culture. We then created the in vitro microenvironment using a 3D combinatorial TASCL device and attempted to induce the adipogenic differentiation of human ASCs. The differentiation of human ASC spheroids cultured in maintenance medium and those cultured in adipocyte differentiation medium was evaluated via Oil red O staining using lipid droplets based on the quantity of accumulated triglycerides. The differentiation was confirmed in both media, but the human ASCs in the 3D cultures contained higher amounts of triglycerides than those in the 2D cultures. In the short culture period, greater adipogenic differentiation was observed in the 3D cultures than in the 2D cultures. The 3D culture using the TASCL device with adipogenic differentiation medium promoted greater differentiation of human ASCs into adipogenic lineages than either a 2D culture or a culture using a maintenance medium. In summary, the TASCL device created a hospitable in vitro microenvironment and may therefore be a useful tool for the induction of differentiation in 3D culture. The resultant human ASC spheroids were "adipose-like microtissues" that formed spherical aggregation perfectly and are expected to be applicable in regenerative medicine as well as cell transplantation.

  2. Planar chiral (η6-arene)Cr(CO)3 containing carboxylic acid derivatives: synthesis and use in the preparation of organometallic analogues of the antibiotic platensimycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Malay; Merz, Klaus; Metzler-Nolte, Nils

    2012-01-07

    With more and more organometallic compounds receiving attention for applications in medicinal organometallic chemistry, the need arises for stereoselective syntheses of more complicated structures containing organometallic moieties, for example as isosteric substitutes for organic drug candidates. Herein, the synthesis and characterization of both diastereomers of a planar chiral (η(6)-arene)Cr(CO)(3) containing carboxylic acid derivative, namely, 3-{η(6)-(1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-1-endo/exo-methyl-2-oxonaphthalen-1-yl)-tricarbonylchromium(0)}propanoic acid (7 and 8) is reported. The molecular structures of both were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The degree of diastereoselectivity in Cr(CO)(3) complexation with methyl/tert-butyl-3-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-2-oxonaphthalen-1-yl)propanoate (4a/4b) vs. the Michael addition of methyl/tert-butyl acrylate to (η(6)-1-methyl-2-tetralone)Cr(CO)(3) (9) was also examined. In the latter case the alkylation was found to be completely diastereoselective and gave methyl/tert-butyl-3-{η(6)-(1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-1-endo-methyl-2-oxonaphthalen-1-yl)-tricarbonylchromium (0)}propanoate (5a and 5b) in excellent yield. Both the carboxylic acids 7 and 8 were coupled with the aminoresorcyclic acid core to achieve diastereomeric bioorganometallics 15a and 15b based on the naturally occurring antibiotic platensimycin lead structure (1a, see Fig. 1). The newly synthesized bioorganometallics were tested against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains but show no promising antibacterial activity.

  3. Preparation and characterization of different liposomal formulations containing P5 HER2/neu-derived peptide and evaluation of their immunological responses and antitumor effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheida Shariat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Tumor-associated antigen (TAA subunit-based vaccines constitute promising tools for anticancer immunotherapy. However, a major limitation in the development of such vaccines is the poor immunogenicity of peptides when used alone.The aim of this study was to develop an efficient vaccine delivery system and adjuvant to enhance anti-tumor activity of a synthetic HER2/neu derived peptide (P5. Materials and Methods: P5 peptide was encapsulated with different liposomal formulations composed of DMPC:DMPG:Chol:DOPE and loaded with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL. All formulations were characterized for their physicochemical properties. To evaluate vaccine efficacy, BALB/c mice were first immunized with free peptide or liposomal formulations, then, inoculated with a subcutaneous injection of TUBO tumor cells. Enzyme-linked immunospot, cytotoxicity and intracellular cytokine assays, as well as tumor size and animal survival analysis, were performed to evaluate the immune responses. Results: The results demonstrated that P5 encapsulated into liposomal formulations was not able to induce CD8 and CD4 T cells to produce IFN-γ. That is why, a potent CTL response and antitumor immunity was not induced. Conclusion: The Lip-DOPE-P5-MPL formulation in spite of using pH-sensitive lipid to direct intracellular trafficking of peptide to MHC I presentation pathway and MPL to enhance peptide adjuvanticity was interesting. The failure in inducing anti-tumor immunity may be attributed to low uptake of anionic conventional liposomes by dendritic cells (DCs that have negative surface charge.

  4. Mature dendritic cells generated from patient-derived peripheral blood monocytes in one-step culture using streptococcal preparation OK-432 exert an enhanced antigen-presenting capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Kei; Ueda, Yuji; Itoh, Tsuyoshi; Fuji, Nobuaki; Shimizu, Keiji; Yano, Yutaro; Yamamoto, Yoshiki; Imura, Kenichiro; Kohara, Junji; Iwamoto, Arihiro; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Tamai, Hidemasa; Shimizu, Takeshi; Mazda, Osam; Yamagishi, Hisakazu

    2006-06-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) have been shown to be potent in inducing cytotoxic T cell (CTL) response leading to the efficient anti-tumor effect in active immunotherapy. Myeloid DCs are conventionally generated from human peripheral blood monocytes in the presence of interleukin (IL)-4 and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Streptococcal preparation OK-432, which is known to be a multiple cytokine inducer, has been extensively studied as to its maturation effects on immature DCs using an in vitro culture system. The purpose of this study was to examine whether it could be possible to generate mature DCs directly from peripheral monocytes using OK-432. We specifically focused on the possibility that recombinant cytokines, which are considered to be essential for in vitro DC generation, could be substituted by OK-432. Human peripheral monocytes, which were obtained from patients with advanced cancer, were cultured with IL-4 and OK-432 for 7 days. Cultured cells were compared with DCs generated in the presence of IL-4 and GM-CSF with or without OK-432 with regard to the surface phenotype as well as the antigen-presenting capacity. As a result, the culture of monocytes in the presence of IL-4 followed by the addition of OK-432 on day 4 (IL-4/OK-DC) induced cells with a fully mature DC phenotype. Functional assays also demonstrated that IL-4/OK-DCs had a strong antigen-presenting capacity determined by their enhanced antigen-specific CTL response and exerted a Th1-type T cell response which is critical for the induction of anti-tumor response. In conclusion, human peripheral blood monocytes cultured in the presence of IL-4 and OK-432 without exogenous GM-CSF demonstrated a fully mature DC phenotype and strong antigen-presenting capacity. This one-step culture protocol allows us to generate fully mature DCs directly from monocytes in 7 days and thus, this protocol can be applicable for DC-based anti-tumor immunotherapy.

  5. Saccharide-derived microporous spherical biochar prepared from hydrothermal carbonization and different pyrolysis temperatures: synthesis, characterization, and application in water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hai Nguyen; Lee, Chung-Kung; Nguyen, Tien Vinh; Chao, Huan-Ping

    2017-08-24

    Three saccharides (glucose, sucrose, and xylose) were used as pure precursors for synthesizing spherical biochars (GB, SB, and XB), respectively. The two-stage synthesis process comprised: (1) the hydrothermal carbonization of saccharides to produce spherical hydrochar' and (2) pyrolysis of the hydrochar at different temperatures from 300°C to 1200°C. The results demonstrated that the pyrolysis temperatures insignificantly affected the spherical morphology and surface chemistry of biochar. The biochar' isoelectric point ranged from 2.64 to 3.90 (abundant oxygen-containing functionalities). The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)-specific surface areas (SBET) and total pore volumes (Vtotal) of biochar increased with the increasing pyrolysis temperatures. The highest SBET and Vtotal were obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 900°C for GB (775 m(2)/g and 0.392 cm(3)/g), 500°C for SB (410 m(2)/g and 0.212 cm(3)/g), and 600°C for XB (426 m(2)/g and 0.225 cm(3)/g), respectively. The spherical biochar was a microporous material with approximately 71-98% micropore volume. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the biochar' structure was predominantly amorphous. The spherical biochar possessed the graphite structure when the pyrolysis temperature was higher than 600°C. The adsorption capacity of GB depended strongly on the pyrolysis temperature. The maximum Langmuir adsorption capacities ([Formula: see text]) of 900GB exhibited the following selective order: phenol (2.332 mmol/g) > Pb(2+) (1.052 mmol/g) > Cu(2+) (0.825 mmol/g) > methylene green 5 (0.426 mmol/g) > acid red 1 (0.076 mmol/g). This study provides a simple method to prepare spherical biochar - a new and potential adsorbent for adsorbing heavy metals and aromatic contaminants.

  6. 'When you visit a man you should prepare yourself': male community care worker approaches to working with men living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittings, Lesley

    2016-08-01

    Caring is typically constructed as a feminised practice, resulting in women shouldering the burden of care-related work. Health-seeking behaviours are also constructed as feminine and men have poorer health outcomes globally. Employing men as carers may not only improve the health of the men they assist but also be transformative with regards to gendered constructions of caring. Using semi-structured interviews and observational home visits, this study explored the techniques that community care workers employ when working with male clients. The empirical analysis draws on the perspectives of eight care workers and three of their male clients from the Cape Town area. Interviews reveal how care workers and clients perform and negotiate masculinities as they navigate hegemonic masculine norms that require men to act tough, suppress emotions and deny weakness and sickness. Both parties bump up against ideals of what it means to be a man as they strive to provide care and receive support. Community care workers avoid rupturing client performances of hegemonic masculinities which inhibit confession and support. To do this, they use techniques of indirectly broaching sensitive subjects, acting in a friendly way and being clear about the intention of their work.

  7. Preparing a community hospital to manage work-related exposures to infectious agents in BioSafety level 3 and 4 laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risi, George F; Bloom, Marshall E; Hoe, Nancy P; Arminio, Thomas; Carlson, Paul; Powers, Tamara; Feldmann, Heinz; Wilson, Deborah

    2010-03-01

    Construction of new BioSafety Level (BSL) 3 and 4 laboratories has raised concerns regarding provision of care to exposed workers because of healthcare worker (HCW) unfamiliarity with precautions required. When the National Institutes of Health began construction of a new BSL-4 laboratory in Hamilton, Montana, USA, in 2005, they contracted with St. Patrick Hospital in Missoula, Montana, for care of those exposed. A care and isolation unit is described. We developed a training program for HCWs that emphasized the optimal use of barrier precautions and used pathogen-specific modules and simulations with mannequins and fluorescent liquids that represented infectious body fluids. The facility and training led to increased willingness among HCWs to care for patients with all types of communicable diseases. This model may be useful for other hospitals, whether they support a BSL-4 facility, are in the proximity of a BSL-3 facility, or are interested in upgrading their facilities to prepare for exotic and novel infectious diseases.

  8. Safety and efficacy trial of adipose-tissue derived oral preparation V-6 Immunitor (V-6: results of open-label, two-month, follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirathitikal Vichai

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic inflammations, atherosclerosis and obesity, are major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Immune modulation of the inflammatory response has shown promise in animal models of atherogenesis and metabolic disease. Tableted dietary supplement, V-6, containing pooled antigens derived from pig adipose tissue has been administered daily to 12 volunteers for 2 months. Results No significant changes were observed in liver ALT and AST enzymes, i.e., 28 vs 23.8 IU and 22.6 vs 24.8 IU, with p = 0.07 and p = 0.49, respectively. Creatinine decreased; 0.88 vs 0.84 mg/dL (p = 0.05 while BUN moved upward; 14.5 vs 17.5 mg/dL (p = 0.01, but both values remained within normal range. Blood glucose remained within normal range; 96.1 vs 101.1 mg/dL (p = 0.04. Complete blood cell analysis has not revealed any change except slight increase in hemoglobin; 13.13 to 13.96 g/dL (p = 0.0002; hematocrit and red blood cells count 40.3 to 42.3% (p = 0.02 and 5.15 to 5.35 × 106 cells/mm3 (p = 0.03 respectively. Blood pressure systolic and diastolic values were not affected, i.e., 116.1 vs 116.3 (p = 0.12 and 76.8 vs 76.6 (p = 0.99. Body weight and body mass index (BMI remained same; 66.4 vs 66.3 kg (p = 0.47 and 25.7 vs 25.6 kg/m2 (p = 0.2. Body fat deposit indices, such as abdomen; mid-arm; and thigh circumferences declined by 3.5 cm (p = 0.008; 1.2 cm (p = 0.004; and 3.0 cm (p = 0.0007 respectively. The total cholesterol and LDL levels did not change; 195.5 vs 195.1 (-0.2%; p = 0.8 and 113.4 vs 120.3 (6.1%; p = 0.08 respectively. Triglycerides have been reduced but not statistically significant; 168.1 vs 118 mg/dL (-29.8%; p = 0.2. In contrast, HDL content had risen by 29.7% from 39.4 to 51.1 mg/dL in all 12 patients (p = 0.000003. TG/HDL ratio - a marker of insulin resistance - was reduced from 4.78 to 2.56 (-46.5%; p = 0.04. Conclusions These results demonstrate that V-6 is safe and has a potential as an anti-atherogenic and overweight

  9. DDSA酯化法制备胭脂虫红色素衍生物%Preparation Cochineal Dye Derivative by DDSA Esterification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Oil-soluble cochineal dye derivative was obtained through molecule esterification of carminic acid with dodecyl succinicanhydride ( DDSA) . Based on the results of the single factor experiments, response surface methodology was applied to further optimize the pretreatment conditions. The obtained optimal conditions were raw materials 0. 5 g, the quality ratio of DDSA and cochineal dye 2. 3, the dosage of the catalyst triethylamine 1. 8 mL, temperature 67 ℃, reaction time 6 h, and solvent N, N-dimethyl formamide 20 mL. Under these conditions, the product yield was 41. 59%. The structure of the product was characterized by FT-IR and UV-Vis. The results showed that esterification reaction happened between DDSA and cochineal dye. The λmax and color of target product was strongly influenced by pH in alkaline solution. The product presented good solubility in corn oil, dyeing effect and stability with the solubility of 6. 53 in oil (20 ℃). The solubility of cochineal red pigment was improved effectively.%以十二烯基丁二酸酐( DDSA)作酯化剂,对胭脂虫红色素的主要成分胭脂红酸分子进行改性修饰,制得了油溶性较好的胭脂虫红色素衍生物。通过单因素及响应曲面优化试验确定了反应的最佳条件:0.5 g原料,DDSA与胭脂虫红色素的质量比值为2.3,催化剂三乙胺( Et3 N)的用量为1.8 mL,温度为67℃,反应时间为6 h,溶剂N,N-二甲基甲酰胺20 mL,此条件下,产物得率为41.59%。通过FT-IR及UV-Vis对目标产物的结构进行表征,表明DDSA与胭脂虫红色素发生了酯化反应,制得的胭脂虫红色素衍生物的λmax及颜色在碱性溶液中受pH值影响较大;其可溶于食用玉米油,有较好的染色效果且稳定性良好,溶解度(20℃)为6.53,有效改良了胭脂虫红色素的油溶性。

  10. 浅析BPM系统上线准备工作%Analysis of On-line Preparation Work of the BPM System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄新华

    2013-01-01

      在了解清楚BPM想解决的问题基础上选择性的进行分析,研究,最终做好项目上线前的准备工作,确保BPM项目顺利上线。%Based on a clear understanding of problems BPM want to solve, this paper conducted selective analysis and research, to do well the on-line preparatory work of project and ensure the success on-line of BPM project.

  11. Being prepared to work in Gynecology Medicine: evaluation of an intervention to promote junior gynecologists professionalism, mental health and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mache, Stefanie; Baresi, Lisa; Bernburg, Monika; Vitzthum, Karin; Groneberg, David

    2017-01-01

    Dealing with work-related stress is highly prevalent for employees in Gynecology Medicine. Junior physicians, in particular, have to face high working demands and challenges while starting their medical career after graduation. Job resources (i.e., social support) and personal resources (coping skills) might reduce job strain. The evidence for supportive and effective mental health interventions for clinicians is limited. Offering psychosocial skill training for entrants in Gynecology Medicine is expected to be highly beneficial. Following this, the present pilot study focused on strengthening physicians' psychosocial skills and analyzed the effects of innovative training for junior gynecologists working in German hospitals. Coping skills training for junior gynecologists was offered as group training for 12 weekly sessions over a time period of 3 months. Physicians were randomized to either an intervention group (IG) receiving the training (n = 38) or a control group (CG; n = 40). Training content involved developing and learning coping skills as well as solution-focused and cognitive behavioral counselling for junior gynecologists. Study outcomes were (1) perceived occupational stress, (2) emotional exhaustion, (3) resilience coping behavior, (4) emotion regulation skills and (5) job satisfaction. Surveys were distributed at baseline (T0), after the training (T1), after 3 (T2) and 6 months (T3). Junior gynecologists (IG) reported a significant decrease in perceived job stress and emotional exhaustion from baseline to all follow-ups, whereas the control group did not show any comparable results. A clear positive value of the mental health promotion program was also noticeable with regard to job satisfaction and increased coping skills (i.e., emotion regulation). Overall satisfaction with the skill training was high: gynecologists reported high scores for training design, content, received outcome and overall satisfaction with the training. In this pilot

  12. Online Business Games in the Insurance Industries – An Attempt to Prepare Attendees for their Later Working Life as Self-employed Workers (doi: 10.3991/ijac.v1i2.605

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Blum

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, the basic education for sales personnel in the insurance industries is regulated by law to guarantee a secure customer oriented sales process. This education mainly targets insurance-knowledge, -law, -conditions and the sales process. It does not prepare the attendees for their working life as a self-employed worker. To overcome this problem online business games are used because of their abilities to master complexity, to achieve higher cognitive objectives, to learn from mistakes without risk through trial and error, and to learn from operating experience through time-lapse. On the basis of the online business game “SiVA” – a simulation of an insurance agency – the impact on the future working life of a self-employed worker in the insurance industries is discussed and documented through a survey in one of the leading insurance companies in Germany.

  13. Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (UseIT): Preparing Students for the Twenty-First Century Work Force via a Multidisciplinary and Collaborative Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroot, R. M.; Jordan, T. H.; Benthien, M. L.; Ihrig, M.; Berti, R.

    2009-12-01

    UseIT is one of the three undergraduate research programs sponsored by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). The program allows students to work in multi-disciplinary collaborative teams to tackle a scientific “Grand Challenge.” The topic varies each year but it always entails performing computer science research that is needed by earthquake scientists, educators, and other target audiences. The program allows undergraduates to use the advanced tools of information technology to solve important problems in interdisciplinary earthquake research. Since the program began in 2002, 145 students have participated in UseIT. The program stresses problem solving and interdisciplinary cross training. A key aspect of the UseIT program is its flexible, yet structured, team approach. Students share their diverse skills and interests, creating a powerful synergy through this peer mentoring. The majority of UseIT interns have considerable computer science skill or aptitude, but successful UseIT interns have hailed from nearly three-dozen disciplines, all class levels, and all skill levels. Successful UseIT interns have in common a willingness to step outside their comfort zones and try new things. During the 2009 internship the focus of the program was to deliver SCEC Virtual Display of Objects (VDO) images and animations of faults and earthquake sequences to SCEC, the Earthquake Country Alliance, and other virtual organizations via a content management system that captures the metadata and guides the user. SCEC-VDO is the SCEC intern-developed visualization software that allows the user to see earthquake related phenomena in three and four dimensions. The 2009 Grand Challenge had special relevance for the interns because the products they created were used for The Great California ShakeOut. This talk will discuss lessons learned from this program, how it addresses the needs of the 21st century STEM work force, and highlights of the 2009 internship.

  14. Comparing of two technologies in preparing working channel for percutaneous nephroscopy%两种方法建立操作通道行PCNL的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雷振; 许海峰; 闫兵; 陈树波; 魏俊利; 姬东辉; 赵海臣

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of total urinary tract breaking-through combined with ultrasonic guidance for the establishment of working channel for percutaneous nephroscopy, compared with singly ultrasonic guidance. Method: One hundred and fifteen patients accepted minimally invasive percutaneous nephro-lithotomy during 2008. 10 to 2011. 10. Based on the different guidances of punctures, the patients were divided randomly into two groups. A group: 61 cases, 40 male and 21 female, 27 patients with left side, 24 patients with right side, and 10 patients with bilateral calculi. The average size of calculi was 2. 9 cm. All the patients accepted punctures by singly ultrasonic guidance. B group: 54 cases, 34 male and 20 female, 20 patients with left side, 22 patients with right side and 12 patients with bilateral calculi. The average size of calculi was 2. 8 cm. All the patients accepted punctures by ultrasonic guidance combined with total urinary tract breaking-through. In both groups, FZ4 Working channel for percutaneous nephroscopy was established,then put in F22 working sheath, used F20.8 nephrolithotomy to carry out pneumatic lithotripsy or ultrasonic lithotripsy. Result .-Puncture time: A group 9. 4(10. 4 ± 4. 2)min, B group 6. 6(6. 2 ± 3. 8)min(P<0. 05); Once puncture success rate: A group 73. 7 % (45/ 61), B group 94. 4% (51/54)(P<0. 05); Complication rate.- A group 16. 4% (10/61), B group 5. 0% (2/54) (P <0.05); Clearance rate: A group 80. 3%(49/61), B group 92. 5%(50/54)(P<0. 05). Conclusion:Total urinary tract breaking-through combined with ultrasonic guidance for establishing working channel for percutaneous nephroscopy can improve the efficacy of PCNL and reduce complication rate.%目的:比较B超引导及B超引导+全尿路会师贯通技术建立操作通道行PCNL治疗肾结石的疗效,探讨全尿路会师贯通技术建立操作通道行PCNL的优势.方法:2008年10月~2011年10月行PCNL治疗肾结石患者115例,依据穿

  15. 薯蓣皂苷元氨基酸衍生物的制备及其抗肿瘤作用研究%Research on the preparation of amino acid derivatives of diosgenin and its anti-tumor effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何忠梅; 徐冰芳; 李阔; 杨鹤; 祝洪艳; 郜玉钢; 赵岩; 张连学

    2015-01-01

    Objective To synthesize the amino acid derivates of diosgenin, investigate the effect of derivates on inhibition of human tumor cell growth and study its antitumor mechanism preliminarily. Methods The derivates of amino acid from diosgenin were prepared by esterification reaction. The chemical structure of derivatives was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The inhibitive effect of cell growth of derivatives was measured by MTT assay. Flow cytometic analysis was used to detect cell phase distribution of Caco-2 cell. Results Four amino acid derivatives from diosgenin were synthesized successfully, including phenylalanine, alanine, proline and valine diosgenin ester. Valine diosgenin ester was a new compound, and it had a clear growth inhibition in 4 tumor cell lines including Caco-2, MGC-709, SPC-A-1and SH-SY5Y in vitro, but the others had not. Caco-2 cells treated with valine diosgenin ester showed an obvious effect on the cell cycle, and an increase of cell in S phase and a decrease in G2/M phase were found.Conclusions Novel derivatives-valine diosgenin ester synthesized has an obvious growth inhibition effect to tumor cell lines in vitro, and it also has an effect on the cell cycle of Caco-2.%目的:制备薯蓣皂苷元氨基酸衍生物,考查衍生物的抗肿瘤作用,并初步探讨其作用机制。方法利用酯化反应制备衍生物,核磁检测确定衍生物化学结构,噻唑蓝(MTT)法检测衍生物对人肿瘤细胞增殖的抑制作用,利用流式细胞术检测缬氨酸薯蓣皂苷元酯对人结肠癌 Caco-2肿瘤细胞周期影响。结果成功制备了4个衍生物,分别为苯丙氨酸薯蓣皂苷元酯、丙氨酸薯蓣皂苷元酯、脯氨酸薯蓣皂苷元酯和缬氨酸薯蓣皂苷元酯,其中缬氨酸薯蓣皂苷元酯为新化合物,其对培养的人结肠癌 Caco-2、人胃腺癌 MGC-709、人肺腺癌细胞SPC-A-1和人神经母细胞瘤SH-SY5Y 4种细胞增殖均表现出明

  16. Preparation and application of the sol-gel-derived acrylate/silicone co-polymer coatings for headspace solid-phase microextraction of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingming; Zeng, Zhaorui; Fang, Huaifang

    2005-05-27

    Three types of novel acrylate/silicone co-polymer coatings, including co-poly(methyl acrylate/hydroxy-terminated silicone oil) (MA/OH-TSO), co-poly(methyl methacrylate/OH-TSO) (MMA/OH-TSO) and co-poly(butyl methacrylate/OH-TSO) (BMA/OH-TSO), were prepared for the first time by sol-gel method and cross-linking technology and subsequently applied to headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a surrogate of mustard, in soil. The underlying mechanisms of the coating process were discussed and confirmed by IR spectra. The selectivity of the three types of sol-gel-derived acrylate/silicone coated fibers was studied, and the BMA/OH-TSO coated fibers exhibited the highest extraction ability to CEES. The concentration of BMA and OH-TSO in sol solution was optimized, and the BMA/OH-TSO (3:1)-coated fibers possessed the highest extraction efficiency. Compared with commercially available polyacrylate (PA) fiber, the sol-gel-derived BMA/OH-TSO (3:1) fibers showed much higher extraction efficiency to CEES. Therefore, the BMA/OH-TSO (3:1)-coated fibers were chosen for the analysis of CEES in soil matrix. The reproducibility of coating preparation was satisfactory, with the RSD 2.39% within batch and 3.52% between batches, respectively. The coatings proved to be quite stable at high temperature (to 350 degrees C) and in different solvents (organic or inorganic), thus their lifetimes (to 150 times) are longer than conventional fibers. Extraction parameters, such as the volume of water added to the soil, extraction temperature and time, and the ionic strength were optimized. The linearity was from 0.1 to 10 microg/g, the limit of detection (LOD) was 2.7 ng/g, and the RSD was 2.19%. The recovery of CEES was 88.06% in agriculture soil, 92.61% in red clay, and 101.95% in sandy soil, respectively.

  17. Minimising street work disruption by mapping cavities derived from 3D GPR-data: a new sewerage project in Torrente (Valencia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Ana; Garcia, Francisco; Ramirez, Manuel; Benlloch, Javier

    2015-04-01

    Ground penetrating radar is usually employed for non-destructive detection of cavities in karst areas and road maintenance. This paper describes the inspection for cavity detection in a street located in Torrente (Valencia, Spain) where a new sewerage project was planned. Torrente population growth (more than 80,000 inhabitants last year) has caused urban development southwards from its downtown. According to municipality geologic configuration, new urbanized areas are located in mountains composed of limestone with presence of karst systems. During excavation work for a sewerage system installation, a 4 x 2 x 1.5 m shallow cave was found in one planned street. For this reason, digging activities were stopped and a GPR survey was carried out on the street. A 1x1 m grid was collected using a GSSI SIR-3000 equipment. A 400 MHz frequency antenna was used for reaching 2.5 m approx. depth, attending the characteristics of the discovered cave and the excavation project depth. GPR records were calibrated in situ, thanks to the unearthed cavity. The 3D GPR-data interpretation mapped several caves only on one side of the street. The detected cavities coincided with the sewerage system layout. These underground spaces were isolated from each other, as small individual karst caves. The outcomes of this study allowed the modification of the sewerage project. Therefore, the sewerage system layout was moved to the other side of the street where no cavities were detected with the GPR survey. GPR is proved to be an efficient tool to be taken into consideration by civil engineers and architects for designing new infrastructures (e.g. sewerage systems) in urban planning areas. We conclude GPR helps minimising cost, time and inconveniences to neighbourhood during excavation works, especially in cities.

  18. Work-Function and Surface Energy Tunable Cyanoacrylic Acid Small-Molecule Derivative Interlayer on Planar ZnO Nanorods for Improved Organic Photovoltaic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambade, Swapnil B; Ambade, Rohan B; Bagde, Sushil S; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2016-12-28

    The issue of work-function and surface energy is fundamental to "decode" the critical inorganic/organic interface in hybrid organic photovoltaics, which influences important photovoltaic events like exciton dissociation, charge transfer, photocurrent (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc), etc. We demonstrate that by incorporating an interlayer of cyanoacrylic acid small molecular layer (SML) on solution-processed, spin-coated, planar ZnO nanorods (P-ZnO NRs), higher photovoltaic (PV) performances were achieved in both inverted organic photovoltaic (iOPV) and hybrid organic photovoltaic (HOPV) devices, where ZnO acts as an "electron-transporting layer" and as an "electron acceptor", respectively. For the tuned range of surface energy from 52.5 to 33 mN/m, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) iOPVs based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM) increases from 3.16% to 3.68%, and that based on poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene)-2-carboxylate-2-6-diyl)] (PTB7:Th):[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) photoactive BHJ increases from 6.55% to 8.0%, respectively. The improved PV performance in iOPV devices is majorly attributed to enhanced photocurrents achieved as a result of reduced surface energy and greater electron affinity from the covalent attachment of the strong electron-withdrawing cyano moiety, while that in HOPV devices, where PCE increases from 0.21% to 0.79% for SML-modified devices, is ascribed to a large increase in Voc benefitted due to reduced work function effected from the presence of strong dipole moment in SML that points away from P-ZnO NRs.

  19. 改良白膜法制备浓缩血小板及回收率的影响因素%Improved preparation of buffy-coat-derived platelet concentrates and factors affecting platelet recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单泓; 王姣杰; 别立莉; 刘敏; 戚正; 段艳丽

    2014-01-01

    背景:白膜法和富含血浆法制备的浓缩血小板有无效输注发生率高和不良反应发生率高的缺点。  目的:观察改良白膜法制备浓缩血小板的实验研究,分析制备浓缩血小板回收率的影响因素。  方法:随机抽取126例站内采集后4-6 h的400 mL血液,随机分成改良白膜法组、白膜法组和富含血浆法组。改良白膜法采用3步离心,第1次采用次重离心,离心转速2300 r/min,离心时间12 min,降速5,离心温度(22±2)℃;第2次采用轻离心,离心转速910 r/min,离心时间10 min,离心温度(22±2)℃;第3次离心转速2800 r/min,离心时间12 min,离心温度(22±2)℃,离心后,挤去上层含血小板较少的血浆,袋中留30 mL血浆悬浮血小板,即为浓缩血小板。通过数据库文献检索的方法分析制备浓缩血小板回收率的影响因素。  结果与结论:改良白膜法、白膜法以及富含血浆法制备的手工浓缩血小板中,制备前各组血小板总数差别无统计学意义(P >0.05);富含血浆法组和改良白膜法组较白膜法组血小板回收率高,差异有显著性意义(P 0.05);白膜法组和改良白膜法组较富含血浆法组残留红细胞和残留白细胞的量少,差异有显著性意义(P0.05)。制备浓缩血小板的回收率受到全血量、离心转速、离心时间、离心方法等因素的影响。改良白膜法制备浓缩血小板减少红细胞和白细胞的残留量,提高了血小板的回收率,可在血液中心或中心血站推广应用。%BACKGROUND:Buffy-coat-derived platelet concentrates and plasma-rich platelet concentrates have a high incidence of invalid infusion and adverse reactions. OBJECTIVE:To observe the improved preparation of buffy-coat-derived platelet concentrates and to analyze the influential factors relevant to platelet recovery. METHODS:400 mL of blood sample extracted from 126 cases were randomly

  20. 蓖麻油及其衍生物的制备与应用研究进展%Research advance in preparation and application of castor seed oil and its derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓义; 路遥

    2011-01-01

    As a kind of cheap and essential reproducible bio - resource, castor seed oil is used widely in the chemical field, medicine and national defense. The research progresses of castor seed oil and its derivatives in polyurethane materials, biodiesel, coating, lubricants, nylon and medicine were introduced.Castor seed oil could be used as raw stuff to prepare many materials which could solve the problem of absent petroleum and extend its application fields, and promote the development of castor seed oil deep -processing industrial.%蓖麻油作为一种价格低廉的可再生资源,在化工、医药、国防等领域有着广泛应用.介绍了蓖麻油及其衍生物在聚氨醋材料、生物柴油、涂料、润滑油、尼龙材料、药物等方面的应用研究进展,指出以蓖麻油为原料改性和制备各种产品不仅可缓解对日趋紧缺的石油资源的依赖,而且拓宽了蓖麻油的应用领域,对于推动我国蓖麻油深加工的发展有着重要意义.

  1. Preparation and characterization of ZrO2 supported Fe3O4 MNPs as an effective and reusable superparamagnetic catalyst for the riedländer synthesis of quinoline derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hejazi Seyyedeh Zoha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a convenient, appropriate and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of quinoline derivatives via Friedländer reaction has been developed by using ZrO2/Fe3O4-MNPs as an effective and reusable heterogeneous catalyst. The morphology of ZrO2/Fe3O4-MNPs has been studied by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, TEM and VSM techniques. Green procedure, straight and easy work-up, high yields of the products and good reaction times are the benefits of this procedure. Further, the catalyst can be recovered by external magnetic field and reused at least for three times without a considerable decrease in its catalytic activity.

  2. Preparation and characterization of polymer blends based on recycled PET and polyester derived by terephthalic acid; Preparacao e caracterizacao de blendas polimericas a base de PET reciclado e poliester derivado do acido tereftalico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohara, L.; Miranda, C.S.; Fiuza, R.P.; Luporini, S.; Carvalho, R.F.; Jose, N.M., E-mail: leandro.ohara@gmail.co [Universidade Federal da Bahia (GECIM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Grupo de Energia e Ciencias dos Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Environmentally friendly materials, made from industrial waste, are being increasingly used as a solution to the growing amount of waste generated by society, but also as a cheaper alternative to replace conventional materials for use in construction. In this work were investigated the properties of polymer blends based on recycled PET and a polyester derived from terephthalic acid and glycerin, a co-product of biodiesel. The samples were characterized by XRD, TGA, DSC, FTIR and SEM. The polyester synthesized showed a degradation event near 300 deg C. The blends with higher ratio of PET showed thermal behavior similar to pure PET. The X-ray diffraction showed that the polymer blends are semicrystalline materials. The micrographs presents the presence of a smooth surface, indicating the possibility of miscibility between the arrays. Therefore, the blending makes possible the fabrication of low-cost materials with applications in several areas. (author)

  3. Preparing Urban Special Education Leaders: What Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Suzanne M.; Little, Joyce; Miller, Katie; Gourwitz, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    Special education administrators play a critical role in the implementation of successful inclusion in diverse, standards-based environments. They provide the vision and leadership necessary to guide educators in both general and special education as they deliver instructional programs to meet the needs of diverse students with disabilities.…

  4. Lanthanide nitrates as Lewis acids in the one-pot synthesis of 1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vale, Juliana A.; Faustino, Wagner M., E-mail: julianadqf@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Zampieri, Davila de S.; Moran, Paulo J.S.; Rodrigues, Jose A.R. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Sa, Gilberto F. de [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, CCEN, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    In this work we report the use of lanthanide nitrates [Ln(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}] acting as catalyst in direct one pot synthesis of 3-benzoyl- and 3-acetyl-1,2,4-oxadiazoles derivatives from ketones, nitriles and nitric acid. This is the first example of one-pot synthesis of benzoyl- and acetyl 1,2,4-oxadiazoles derivatives preparation using acetophenones derivates with electron-donator groups. (author)

  5. 脐带来源间充质干细胞的制备及其质量检定%Preparation and qualification of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙瑞婷; 陈瑶瑶; 王华; 靳继德; 汪劲松; 刘冬梅; 王立生; 吴祖泽

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish a practical quality control standard of the product of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) for clinical research. Methods Fresh umbilical cord from donors was obtained. After amnion and blood vessel was removed, the Wharton Jelly was minced into 1-2 mm3 fragments and then suspended in an animal serum-free MSC growth medium and incubated in a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2 at 37 ℃. Cells at passage 3 were used for experiments. According to guideline of quality control and preclinical research of stem cells, UC-MSCs were performed overall examination. The examined contents contained sterility detection, mycoplasma detection, human-derived and swine-derived virus screening, endotoxin detection, cell morphology observation, cell number and cell viability assay, chromatosome karyotype analysis, immunophenotype assay, short tandem repeat profiling, immuno-supress activity and differentiation assay. Results UC-MSCs from donors were prepared according to the standard operation procedure for cell isolation, purification and culture. Through overall quality arbitration, the quality of UC-MSCs could be controlled. The cell viability was more than or equal to 90 percent before preservation and more than or equal to 80 percent after preservation. UC-MSCs was sterile, mycoplasma-free, endotoxin-free and non-specific human- and swine-derived virus. The UC-MSCs were positive for CD90 and CD105, whereas negative for CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR. Chromatosome karyotype was in the form of 46XX or 46XY, no deletion and insertion mutation. STR profiling verified that UC-MSCs showed characteristic human STR profiles and no cross contamination. UC-MSCs possessed multi-differentiation potential and suppressed heterogenous lymphocyte proliferation. Conclusion We have established the quality-control standard and supplied experimental data for preparation and examination procedure of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells.%目的:研究脐

  6. 骨髓来源富血小板血浆制备的初步研究%Preparation of bone marrow-derived platelet-rich plasma: a preliminary study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永涛; 金丹

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨BM-PRP制备的可行性并比较BM-PRP与PB-PRP中PLT数量的差异.方法 成年新西兰白兔8只,BM组和PB组分别采用骨髓穿刺和耳中央动脉穿刺抽取标本各10ml/只(含1.5ml4.7%的枸橼酸钠作为抗凝剂),采用二次离心的方法制备新西兰白兔的BM-PRP和PB-PRP,手工计数其中的血小板数量,采用t检验进行统计学分析.结果 BM-PRP中的的PLT数量(2296.76±148.80)×103/μl是PB-PRP中PLT浓度(1633.26±89.64)×103/μl的1.41倍(P <0.001).结论 骨髓穿刺是获取PRP的一种有效方法,并可获得较PB-PRP更高浓度的PRP.%Objective To discuss the preparation of bone marrow-derived platelet-rich plasma ( BM-PRP) and to compare the differences in the number of platelets between BM-PRP and peripheral blood derived platelet-rich plasma (PB-PRP). Methods 10 ml (containing 1. 5 ml 4. 7% sodium citrate as an anticoagulant ) of BM were obtained using bone marrow aspirate techniques and peripheral blood (PB) was drawn from ear central artery of eight adult New Zealand white rabbits. BM-PRP and PB-PRP were obtained using two cen-trifugation techniques. The platelets in samples were counted manually and the data were statistically analyzed by t-test. Results The number of platelets increased 1. 41-fold in samples of BM-PRP (2296. 76 ± 148.80) ×l03/ml compared to PB-PRP (1633.26 ±89.64) ×10-3/ml ( P<0.001). Conclusion Bone marrow aspirate is one of an effective method to obtain BM-PRP ,the number of platelets in BM-RPR samples was significantly higher than PB-PRP samples.

  7. Prepared for the future? Evaluating the costs and benefits of voluntary work for natural disaster management under a changing climate - data on recent flood events, stakeholder needs and policy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfurtscheller, Clemens; Brucker, Anja; Seebauer, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Voluntary emergency and relief services, such as fire brigades or rescue organisations, form the backbone of disaster management in most of European countries. In Austria, disaster management relies on the cooperation between governmental and non-governmental institutions: When a disaster occurs, the volunteer organizations act as auxiliaries to the responsible disaster management authority. The assessment of costs and benefits of these emergency services is a crucial component of risk and disaster management strategies, since public means are getting scarcer and these costs can reach critical levels for low-income municipalities. As extreme events and emergency operations are likely to increase due to climate change, the efficient allocation of public budgets for risk and disaster management becomes more important. Hence, both, the costs and the benefits must be known, but voluntary and professional work is hardly documented and assessed comprehensively. Whereas the costs of emergency services can be calculated using market values and an analysis of public and institutional budgets, the benefits of voluntary efforts cannot be assessed easily. We present empirical data on costs of voluntary and professional emergency services during the floods of 2002, 2005 and 2013 in Austria and Germany on different scales, obtained from public authorities, fire brigades and by means of public surveys. From these results, we derive a calculation framework and data requirements for assessing costs of emergency services. To consider the different stakeholders needs of administration, emergency institutions and voluntary members, we carried out workshops, first to identify future challenges in voluntary work for disaster management instigated by climate change and second, to develop approaches how the voluntary system can be uphold when facing increasing adverse impacts of natural hazards. The empirical results as well as the workshop outcome shall be translated into policy

  8. 三种垃圾筛上物的衍生燃料(RDF)制备%PREPARATION OF REFUSE DERIVED FUEL ( RDF ) FROM THREE SCREENING RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春萍

    2012-01-01

    对适合焚烧处理的3种垃圾筛上物的RDF制备工艺进行了探讨。结果表明:垃圾筛上物在制备RDF前必须要经过破碎处理,破碎粒度越小,越有利于RDF成型和抗压强度的增加。堆肥垃圾筛上物成型率在80%以上,其次为原生垃圾筛上物,矿化垃圾筛上物单独制备RDF的成型率仅为5%,添加30%以上的餐厨垃圾利于RDF成型率和抗压强度的增加。利于RDF成型的最佳垃圾含水率为25%,其次为30%,成型率分别达到75.3%和70.4%。%The preparation process of refuse derived fuel (RDF) from three screening residues was discussed. The results showed the screening residues must be crushed before handling and the smaller the particle size, the better granulating and compressive strength of RDF products. Granulating rate of screening residues from composting plant was 80% , followed by products screened from transfer station. As for products screened from aged-refuse landfill, the granulating rate was only 5% of organic matter. The granulating rate and compressive strength could be increased if more than 30% of food waste were added. The optimized moisture content of RDF is 25% , followed by 30% , with granulating rate of 75.3% and 70.4% respectively.

  9. Research on Preparation of Derived Hydroxyapatite Layer on Surface of Magnesium Substrate%镁表面制备羟基磷灰石涂层方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕; 林金辉; 李辉; 陈善华; 邓苗; 李峻峰; 龙剑平

    2013-01-01

    镁及其合金由于具有良好的生物学特性,成为潜在的可生物降解的植入材料;但是其低的抗腐蚀能力会导致植入失败.在镁基体表面获得羟基磷灰石(HA)涂层用以改善镁及其合金的抗腐蚀能力.以硝酸钙和五氧化二磷为前躯体,使用溶胶-凝胶法制备出羟基磷灰石,并使用旋涂法在工业纯镁表面合成羟基磷灰石(HA)涂层.样品利用X射线衍射仪(XRD)、扫描电镜(SEM)进行了表征,并探讨了热处理温度对涂层的影响以及涂层的生成机理.%Magnesium and its alloys are potential biodegradable implant materials due to their attractive biological property. But their poor corrosion resistance may result in the sudden failure of the implants. The hydroxyapatite ( HA) coating was derived on magnesium surface to improve its corrosion resistance. The calcium nitrate and phosphorus pentoxide were used as precursor to prepare hydroxyapatite layer by sol-gel method, followed by a spin-coating method to coat hydroxyapatite layer onto commercial pure Mg. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) , scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of heat temperature on the coatings and water-solution mechanism are discussed.

  10. Does "grief work" work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, M; Stroebe, W

    1991-01-01

    This article challenges the long-standing belief in the necessity of "grief work" for adjustment to bereavement. Evidence is offered from a prospective study of 30 widows and 30 widowers that indicates that grief work is not always as essential for adjustment to bereavement as theorists and clinicia

  11. 菜籽油直接胺解法制备咪唑啉衍生物的缓蚀性能研究%Preparation of imidazoline derivatives from rapeseed oil by way of direct aminolysis and its inhibition behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊国栋; 崔梦雅; 林振宇

    2012-01-01

    The paper intends to introduce a new method of preparing imidazoline derivatives from rapeseed oil by way of direct aminolysis and its inhibition behavior. As is known, imidazoline derivative is a kind of environment-friendly corrosion-inhibitors, widely used in rust-removing of metal pickling, descaling by acid pickling of industrial e-quipmem and technology for acidulating oil extraction. In hoping to reduce the cost of raw materials and reduce the environmental pollution , this paper would like to introduce a new approach to synthesizing imidazoline intermediate (1M-1) by solvent method with rape- seed oil and 2-(aminoethylamino) ethanol. And next, we have modified the 1M - 1 by adding benzyl chloride and sulfamic acid to obtain cationic and arnphoteric derivate IM 2 and IM - 3, respectively. When the improved products were analyzed with IR spectrum and HNMR spectrum, it would be possible to select optimal inhibitor from the two said products by way of static weight-loss measurement. And then the amphoteric derivative IM - 3 can also be selected out of the original product through the following tests. Since the addition of inorganic anions 1- can help to raise the corrosion inhibition efficiency, it would be possible to gain finally a complex system (IM - 4) through selecting from and mixing them with KI (20:1) . Its inhibition behavior can be evaluated by static weight-loss measurement and dynamic weight-loss measurement. And, now, we can explore the film-forming behavior on the surface of A3 steel in different concentrations and different times with the newly prepared inhibitor IM - 4. Afterwards, we can apply the scanning electron microscope to the investigation of the shape patterns Dn the surface of A3 steel in hydrochloric acid before and after the corrosion. Comparing IM - 4 with other common inhibitors, such as thiourea and hexam-ethylenetetramine in inhibiting behavior, we can get the results that the IM - 4 has stronger corrosion inhibiting ability

  12. An Efficient Method for the Preparative Isolation and Purification of Flavonoid Glycosides and Caffeoylquinic Acid Derivatives from Leaves of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Using High Speed Counter-Current Chromatography (HSCCC and Prep-HPLC Guided by DPPH-HPLC Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daijie Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the n-butanol extract from leaves of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (L. japonica was reacted with DPPH and subjected to a HPLC analysis for the guided screening antioxidants (DPPH-HPLC experiments. Then, nine antioxidants, including flavonoid glycosides and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, were isolated and purified from leaves of L. japonica using high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC and prep-HPLC. The n-butanol extract was firstly isolated by HSCCC using methyl tert-butyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/water (0.5% acetic acid (2:2:1:5, v/v, yielding five fractions F1, F2 (rhoifolin, F3 (luteoloside, F4 and F5 (collected from the column after the separation. The sub-fractions F1, F4 and F5 were successfully separated by prep-HPLC. Finally, nine compounds, including chlorogenic acid (1, lonicerin (2, rutin (3, rhoifolin (4, luteoloside (5, 3,4-Odicaffeoylquinic acid (6, hyperoside (7, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (8, and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (9 were obtained, respectively, with the purities over 94% as determined by HPLC. The structures were identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, 1H- and 13C-NMR. Antioxidant activities were tested, and the isolated compounds showed strong antioxidant activities.

  13. Hemoglobin derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003371.htm Hemoglobin derivatives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemoglobin derivatives are altered forms of hemoglobin . Hemoglobin is ...

  14. Solution preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results.

  15. BINOL Macrocycle Derivatives: Synthesis of New Dinaphthyl Sulfide Aza Oxa Thia Crowns (Lariats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Shockravi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, dinaphthyl sulfide diester was prepared from the reaction of 1,1′-thiobis (2-hydroxy naphthalene and methylchloroacetate. Its aza-macrocyclic derivative was synthesized from the reaction of dinaphthyl sulfide diester and diethylenetriamine. Lariats were prepared from the reaction of chloroamides (four derivatives and initial macrocycle. Chloroamides were synthesized from the reaction of amines (aniline, benzylamine, 8-amino quinoline and 4-amino azobenzene and chloroacetyl chloride. All the materials were identified by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectroscopies, and elemental analysis.

  16. Microscopical characterization of carbon materials derived from coal and petroleum and their interaction phenomena in making steel electrodes, anodes and cathode blocks for the Microscopy of Carbon Materials Working Group of the ICCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predeanu, G.; Panaitescu, C.; Bălănescu, M.; Bieg, G.; Borrego, A.G.; Diez, M. A.; Hackley, Paul C.; Kwiecińska, B.; Marques, M.; Mastalerz, Maria; Misz-Kennan, M.; Pusz, S.; Suarez-Ruiz, I.; Rodrigues, S.; Singh, A. K.; Varma, A. K.; Zdravkov, A.; Zivotić, D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of petrographic textures representing the structural organization of the organic matter derived from coal and petroleum and their interaction phenomena in the making of steel electrodes, anodes and cathode blocks.This work represents the results of the Microscopy of Carbon Materials Working Group in Commission III of the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology between the years 2009 and 2013. The round robin exercises were run on photomicrograph samples. For textural characterization of carbon materials the existing ASTM classification system for metallurgical coke was applied.These round robin exercises involved 15 active participants from 12 laboratories who were asked to assess the coal and petroleum based carbons and to identify the morphological differences, as optical texture (isotropic/anisotropic), optical type (punctiform, mosaic, fibre, ribbon, domain), and size. Four sets of digital black and white microphotographs comprising 151 photos containing 372 fields of different types of organic matter were examined. Based on the unique ability of carbon to form a wide range of textures, the results showed an increased number of carbon occurrences which have crucial role in the chosen industrial applications.The statistical method used to evaluate the results was based on the “raw agreement indices”. It gave a new and original view on the analysts' opinion by not only counting the correct answers, but also all of the knowledge and experience of the participants. Comparative analyses of the average values of the level of overall agreement performed by each analyst in the exercises during 2009–2013 showed a great homogeneity in the results, the mean value being 90.36%, with a minimum value of 83% and a maximum value of 95%.

  17. Preparing Students for Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbourd, Richard; Peterson, Amelia; Weinstein, Emily

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important aspects in our lives is learning how to have mutual, caring romantic relationships. Yet while schools and many other industries in this country devote tremendous attention and resources to preparing the young for work, they do remarkably little to prepare them for generous, self-respecting sex and love. Educators and…

  18. Financial Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded and inheren...... and inherently static, capital itself is unprecedentedly mobile, fluid and fungible. As such derivatives raise the specter of ‘financial weapons of mass destruction’....

  19. Difluoromethane preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, A.; Sandt, E.J.A.; Van Bekkum, H.; Makkee, M.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract of NL 9401574 (A) The invention relates to a method for preparing difluoromethane, wherein dichlorodifluoromethane or monochlorodifluoromethane is brought into contact with hydrogen in the presence of palladium on activated carbon, wherein the loading of the palladium on the activated c

  20. Financial Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded...

  1. Preparation for Physics Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelson, Edward

    2006-12-01

    The textbook for our preparation for physics course has been rewritten ab initio. Like its predecessor, it adapts a spiral approach to dealing with preconceptions, but this version encourages work at higher levels in Bloom's taxonomy and makes students sensitive to how p-prims affect their understanding. As its title: "All in Proportion: Preparation for Physics" indicates, it emphasizes how far proportional reasoning will take the student. Classwork is mainly group work, and various techniques are used to encourage students to complete the learning cycle on material that has not been mastered. Both the FCI and the Lawson "Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning" have been given to gauge student progress. Preliminary results will be reported and sample materials will be shown.

  2. Preparation of mullite fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.; Wang, B.; Liu, S.; Yan, Y. [Xiamen Univ. (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-06-01

    Transparent mullite fibers have been prepared using aluminum carboxylates (ACs) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as starting materials. The ACs are derived from the catalyzed dissolution of elemental aluminum in a mixture of formic acid and acetic acid. The solubility of aluminum in the acids is influenced by the concentrations of the acids, water, and additives and the preparation temperature. A 1:4:3:24 molar ratio of aluminum, formic acid, acetic acid, and water dissolves the aluminum completely to give a colorless, clear solution suitable for fiber synthesis. The mixture of the ACs and TEOS, in the presence of ethyl alcohol as a mutual solvent at 50--60 C, is concentrated to give a spinnable dope, from which mullite precursor fibers can be drawn. Heat treatment of the precursor at 1,250 C yields crystallized and transparent mullite fibers.

  3. Derivative Chameleons

    CERN Document Server

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field \\phi, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants. Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(\\phi,X), where X is the canonical kinetic term for \\phi. The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for \\phi. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning...

  4. How Prepared is Prepared Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter-Levy; Macleod; Rickert

    1996-10-01

    A 17-year-old female was in the final stage in treatment of right unilateral cleft lip and palate. She had undergone a number of previous surgeries. Hearing and speech were good on evaluation, and her social and family situation were deemed excellent. After preparatory orthodontics she underwent a Lefort I maxillary advancement. Surgery was successful and she was admitted into postoperative recovery. However, the lack of adequate preoperative preparation caused traumatic reaction from the patient and her parents: anxiety over appearance, crying, refusal of oral fluids and oral care, refusal of analgesia, and refusal to mobilize. The patience and persistence of hospital staff slowly overcame all adversities and the patient moved on to full and successful recovery, but this case prompted changes in preoperative procedures and involvement of patients and their families in postoperative meal selection, planing, and preparation.

  5. Conditions of contract for construction for building and engineering works designed by the employer : general conditions : guidance for the preparation of particular conditions forms of letter of tender, contract agreement and dispute adjudication agreement

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    Conditions of Contract for Construction, which are recommended for building or engineering works designed by the Employer or by his representative, the Engineer. Under the usual arrangements for this type of contract, the Contractor constructs the works in accordance with a design provided by the Employer. However, the works may include some elements of Contractor-designed civil, mechanical, electrical and/or construction works.

  6. Work at Building 513

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2006-01-01

    As part of IT's preparations to meet the challenge of LHC computing, a new chilled water production unit is being constructed for the Computer Centre. The air conditioning work will start in mid-January and last until June 2006. During this period, access to the car park of Building 513 will be restricted. Please consult the plan for details of the area affected by the work. With apologies for the inconvenience. IT Department

  7. Work at Building 513

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2006-01-01

    As part of IT's preparations to meet the challenge of LHC computing, a new chilled water production unit is being constructed for the Computer Centre. The air conditioning work will start in mid-January and last until June 2006. During this period access to the car park of Building 513 will be restricted. Please consult the plan for details of the area affected by the work. With apologies for the inconvenience, IT Department

  8. Parton Distributions Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Barbaro, L.; Keller, S. A.; Kuhlmann, S.; Schellman, H.; Tung, W.-K.

    2000-07-20

    This report summarizes the activities of the Parton Distributions Working Group of the QCD and Weak Boson Physics workshop held in preparation for Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron. The main focus of this working group was to investigate the different issues associated with the development of quantitative tools to estimate parton distribution functions uncertainties. In the conclusion, the authors introduce a Manifesto that describes an optimal method for reporting data.

  9. Framing Doctoral Education for a Science of Social Work: Positioning Students for the Scientific Career, Promoting Scholars for the Academy, Propagating Scientists of the Profession, and Preparing Stewards of the Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Rowena

    2014-01-01

    Social work education grounded in social work practice has been recently challenged to examine the role of science in its history, core constructs and domains, philosophical underpinnings, and graduate curriculum. Doctoral education has been added to the scrutiny at the recent Science in Social Work Roundtable in Doctoral Education. Based on Lev…

  10. Derivative chameleons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noller, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field phi, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂μphi∂μphi,squphi,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(phi,∂μphi∂μphi). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for phi → phi+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.

  11. PREPARATION AND NUCLEOPHILIC SUBSTITUTION OF THE 2,4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. Three methods for preparation of D-amino acids by nucleophilic substitution on derivatives of ... In recent years, the preparation of non- ... 1998). DME and THF were distilled under ... methanol/dichloromethane) to yield a white.

  12. An Analysis of Section 529 College Savings and Prepaid Tuition Plans. A Report Prepared by the Department of Treasury for the White House Task Force on Middle Class Working Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of the Treasury, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Making college education more affordable is a central goal of the Obama Administration and has been a focus of Vice-President Biden's Taskforce on the Middle Class. To that end, the Task Force asked U.S. Treasury Department to prepare this report on how to make Section 529 college savings plans a more effective and reliable tool for families to…

  13. Mobility Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    We posit the concept of Mobility Work to describe efforts of moving about people and things as part of accomplishing tasks. Mobility work can be seen as a spatial parallel to the concept of articulation work proposed by the sociologist Anselm Strauss. Articulation work describes efforts...... of coordination necessary in cooperative work, but focuses, we argue, mainly on the temporal aspects of cooperative work. As a supplement, the concept of mobility work focuses on the spatial aspects of cooperative work. Whereas actors seek to diminish the amount of articulation work needed in collaboration...... by constructing Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs), actors minimise mobility work by constructing Standard Operation Configurations (SOCs). We apply the concept of mobility work to the ethnography of hospital work, and argue that mobility arises because of the need to get access to people, places, knowledge and...

  14. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    ." - Steen Parsholt, Chairman and CEO, Aon Nordic Region. "Andersen has done a wonderful job of developing a comprehensive text that deals with risk management in global markets. I would recommend this book to any student or businessman who has a need to better understand the risks and risk management...... management practice. Of particular note is the global and integrated approach chosen in this book which should be of special interest to aspiring managers active in global and international markets." - Dr Jean-Pierre Zigrand, Lecturer in Finance, London School of Economics, UK. More than 90 per cent...... management situations. Its key features include: derivatives are introduced in a global market perspective; describes major derivative pricing models for practical use, extending these principles to valuation of real options; practical applications of derivative instruments are richly illustrated...

  15. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  16. Preparation of γ-Butenolide Derivatives via Dye-sensitized Photooxygenation%γ-羟基丁烯酸内酯类化合物的光敏氧化合成方法探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 张焱; 李文霞; 桑安国; 贺寻

    2012-01-01

    5-hydroxy-2-(5H) -furanone derivatives is a key constituent of many biomedical products. In this research, the rose bengal(RB) dyes were applied in the organic synthesis as photosensitizer. Furan derivatives were used as the substrates for the photooxygenation reaction. The desired γ-butenolide and its derivatives were obtained. The yields were up to 85% . And the reaction conditions such as the substrate, polarity of the solvent, the oxygen flow rate and the concentration of sen-sitizer were further explored.%γ-羟基丁烯酸内酯是具有生物活性的多种药物的重要组成部分,以呋喃衍生物(糠醛等)为原料,在光敏剂玫瑰红存在下,可见光照射,发生单重态氧光敏氧化反应,制得γ-羟基丁烯酸内酯类化合物,产率可达85%,并进一步探讨了不同底物、溶剂极性、氧气流速、光敏剂浓度对光敏氧化反应的影响.

  17. Synthesis and Antibacterial Properties of New 8-Nitrofluoroquinolone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Abu-Dahab

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was the preparation of new 8-nitrofluoroquinolone models and investigation of their antibacterial properties. The work initially involved large scale preparation of the synthon 7-chloro-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-8-nitro-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (3, followed by introduction of substituted primary amine appendages at the C-7 position to give derivatives 9a-g, in which the amino group is appended to substituted benzenes or aromatic heterocycles, is part of a primary α-amino acid or just a simple primary aliphatic amine. This nucleophilic aromatic substitution step was a very simple procedure since the 8-nitro group of the above synthon facilitated the addition of weak nucleophiles at C-7. All compounds prepared were fully identified and characterized using NMR, IR, EA and MS, and were consistent with expected structures. The prepared targets and the intermediates have shown interesting antibacterial activity against gram positive and/or gram negative strains. In particular, the p-toluidine, p-chloroaniline and aniline derivatives showed good activity against S. aureus with MIC range ≈ 2-5 μg/mL. In conclusion, more lipophilic groups seem to enhance activity against gram positive strains.

  18. Meaning in Work Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    meaningful is still lacking (Harpaz & Fu, 2002), as are definitions of key terms. Here, I define meaning as the experience that something fits into a wider context or coheres within a larger whole.     I conceptualize meaning in work life as deriving from four factors, each of which helps us contribute...... to something larger than ourselves (Seligman, 2002) through our work. Thus, a person experiences meaning in work life when she... A. is able to use her signature strengths at work (Peterson and Seligman, 2004), B. makes an important contribution to the workplace (Drucker, 1999), C. participates in a productive...

  19. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the main auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via ...

  20. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place in the afternoons of 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via Ind...

  1. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance ...

  2. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register ...

  3. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register ...

  4. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance ...

  5. Outsourcing of experimental work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    With the development of new technologies for simultaneous analysis of many genes, transcripts, or proteins (the "omics" revolution), it has become common to outsource parts of the experimental work. In order to maintain the integrity of the research projects, it is important that the interphase between the researcher and the service is further developed. This involves robust protocols for sample preparation, an informed choice of analytical tool, development of standards for individual technologies, and transparent data analysis. This chapter introduces some of the problems related to analysis of RNA samples in the "omics" context and gives a few hints and key references related to sample preparation for the non-specialist.

  6. Clearing and settlement of exchange traded derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    John McPartland

    2009-01-01

    Derivatives are a class of financial instruments that derive their value from some underlying commodity, security, index, or other asset. Futures and options are common forms of derivatives. This article explains how clearing and settlement systems for exchange traded derivatives work.

  7. Succesful Aging at Work

    OpenAIRE

    Bruni, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    As the context of work and the age composition of the workforce are changing, this raises several issues to the work capacity and participation of the older age groups in the workforce. With the growth of positive psychology researchers have begun to focus not only on the problems that mature workers encounter in the workplace, such as cognitive loss and discrimination deriving from stereotypes, but also on the potential strengths and resources. Despite the attention paid to this subject, the...

  8. A New Synthetic Approach to Coumestan Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG, Deng-Huang; LI, Chao-Zhong; YUAN, Cheng-Ye

    2001-01-01

    A new method for the preparation of coumestan derivatives was described involving an intramolecular palladium-catalyzed ring closure reaction of coumarins obtained from condensation of substituted o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and o-hydroxybenzaldehyde.

  9. Agricultural waste derived fuel from oil meal and waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Ko, Chun-Han

    2017-05-27

    Oil meal is a by-product of the oil industry (peanut meal, sesame meal, and camellia meal). Oil is extracted from seeds, and the leftover meal is then pelletized, and this process generates a large amount of waste oil meal in Taiwan. In this study, peanut meal, sesame meal, and camellia meal derived fuels were prepared from the waste oil meal with waste cooking oil. The combustion behaviors of the oil meal derived fuels were also investigated. The characteristics of the derived fuel made from oil meal with waste cooking oil showed that the ash content is less than 10% and its calorific value reached 5000 kcal/kg. Additionally, the activation energy of the oil meal and waste cooking oil was analyzed by the Kissinger method. The results show that the fuel prepared in this work from the oil meal mixed with waste cooking oil is suitable for use as an alternative fuel and also avoids food safety issues.

  10. On the fluorescence of pyrrole derivative oligomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Jeconias Rocha; Amazonas, Jarlesson Gama; Alberto Brito Silva Junior, Carlos [Pos-Graduacao em Fisica, Universidade Federal do Para, 66075-110 Belem, Para (Brazil); Melo, Celso P. de [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-020 Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Laks, Bernardo [Instituto de Fisica, UNICAMP, 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Nero, Jordan del [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Para, 66075-110 Belem, Para (Brazil)], E-mail: jordan@ufpa.br

    2008-08-01

    In this work we have investigated the ground state and others eletronic properties of the biosensor 3-methyl pyrrole-4-carboxilic acid (MPC) oligomers and related compounds. We considered the systems described by a DFT/B3LYP/6-31G* type Hamiltonian and explored the effects due to the presence of conformational defects. Furthermore the excited states have been determined by a post Hartree-Fock CI methodology. The results revealed the existence of different electronic patterns for the MPC if compared to the ones existing for the oligopyrrole derivative systems. The response of one of investigated polymers (MPC) was found to be critically dependent on the radicals linked to the studied oligomer chain structure so that the electronic structure analyses should be easily improved by choosing a proper set of preparation parameters to design conducting polymers with desirable properties.

  11. Phosphorus derivatives of salicylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chvertkina, L. V.; Khoklov, P. S.; Mironov, Vladimir F.

    1992-10-01

    The present state of work on the methods of synthesis, chemical properties, and practical applications of phosphorus-containing derivatives of salicylic acid has been reviewed. The characteristics of the chemical transformations of cyclic and acyclic phosphorus derivatives of salicylic acid related to the coordination state of the phosphorus atom have been examined. The bibliography includes 158 references.

  12. Work Practice Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Jens Kaaber; Simonsen, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    and work practice. To understand these issues a framework of characteristics is identified and termed work practice characteristics to describe important aspects of the hybrid configuration of groupware and situated work practices. Drawing on concepts and work practice studies in the field of computer......Integrating groupware in work practices poses a range of interrelated problems comprising organisational and technological issues. These are complex issues, since they derive from the combined influence of a range of heterogeneous elements and emergent phenomena in the intersection of groupware...... supported cooperative work (CSCW) the paper argues that the interrelations of heterogeneous elements and emergent phenomena arising from the integration of groupware in practice should be made visible from a perspective encompassing both the social and the technical. Two cases from an empirical...

  13. Work Practice Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Jens Kaaber; Simonsen, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    and work practice. To understand these issues a framework of characteristics is identified and termed work practice characteristics to describe important aspects of the hybrid configuration of groupware and situated work practices. Drawing on concepts and work practice studies in the field of computer......Integrating groupware in work practices poses a range of interrelated problems comprising organisational and technological issues. These are complex issues, since they derive from the combined influence of a range of heterogeneous elements and emergent phenomena in the intersection of groupware...... supported cooperative work (CSCW) the paper argues that the interrelations of heterogeneous elements and emergent phenomena arising from the integration of groupware in practice should be made visible from a perspective encompassing both the social and the technical. Two cases from an empirical...

  14. Mobility Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    by constructing Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs), actors minimise mobility work by constructing Standard Operation Configurations (SOCs). We apply the concept of mobility work to the ethnography of hospital work, and argue that mobility arises because of the need to get access to people, places, knowledge and....../or resources. To accomplish their work, actors have to make the right configuration of these four aspects emerge....

  15. EFFECTIVE PROCEDURES FOR EXECUTIVE'S PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Martínez Mondéjar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this article is to present methodological procedure that facilitates the executives  work with teachers that are preparing themselves to by promoting post from their  workplace from  a manual directed towards counseling executives  on how to develop the focalization, the selection and the evaluation and promotion of its teachers that are preparing themselves to by promoting post  from the work system itself  of the different levels of management from the University of Pedagogical Sciences " Felix Varela Morales " of Villa Clara.

  16. Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...

  17. Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard;

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...

  18. Synthesis of (-)-arctigenin derivatives and their anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui-Rong, Chen; Li-Ping, Cai; De-Qiang, Dou; Ting-Guo, Kang; Hong-Fu, Li; Fu-Rui, Li; Ning, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    The natural dibenzylbutyrolactone type lignanolide (-)-arctigenin, which was prepared from fructus arctii, showed obvious anticancer activity. The synthesis of four new (-)-arctigenin derivatives and their anticancer bioactivities were examined. The structures of the four new synthetic derivatives were elucidated.

  19. Preparation and Separation Performance of Three New Gas Chromatography Capillary Columns Coated with Cyclodextrin Derivatives%环糊精衍生物涂渍毛细管柱的制备及分离性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜霞; 方智利; 林纯; 王国梁; 范军; 郑盛润; 贾成俊; 章伟光

    2013-01-01

    以3种环糊精衍生物分别涂覆在毛细管内壁制得气相色谱毛细管柱,以正十二烷为溶质,测得理论塔板数均在2800/m以上,柱效较高.研究了它们对一系列苯系物位置异构体的分离性能,探讨了硝基氯苯、硝基苯胺和苯二胺等化合物在不同柱上的拆分机理.底物分子和固定相之间的弱相互作用(如氢键、偶极相互作用和π-π堆积作用)等直接影响毛细管柱对底物的分离性能.对于苯二胺的位置异构体,在全对氯苯异氰酸酯化β-CD涂覆的毛细管柱(ACD)上的分离因子为1.88,在多叠氮β-CD衍生物涂覆的毛细管柱(NMCD)上的分离因子为1.41,但在单叠氮β-CD衍生物涂覆的毛细管柱(NSCD)上无法分开;对于硝基氯苯,在NMCD柱和ACD柱上的分离因子相近(前者为1.13/1.11;后者为1.08/1.15),在NSCD柱上则无分离趋势;对于硝基苯胺,在NMCD柱上无分离趋势.同时,苯环上不同取代基间电子效应则影响了异构体在气相色谱中出峰顺序.%Three kinds of capillary columns were obtained by coating cyclodextrin derivatives onto inner surface of fused capillary.According to the literature's method,all the theoretical plate numbers are over 2800/m by using n-dodecane,indicating that they have high column efficiencies.Then,separation and mechanism of isomeric benzene derivatives,such as nitrochlorobenzene,nitroaniline,and phenylenediamine by capillary column gas chromatography have been investigated in detail.The interactions such as hydrogen bonding,dipolar-dipolar attraction and π-π stacking between analytes and stationary phases have significant effect on the separation performances of these capillary columns.For phenylenediamine,separation factors on the heptakis (6-azido-6-deoxy-2,3-di-O-p-chlorophenylcarbamoylated)-b-CD (NMCD) and per(pchlorophenylcarbamoylated)-b-CD(ACD) columns are 1.41 and 1.88,respectively,however the positional isomers can not be separated on the NSCD column

  20. Preparation and Spectrum Progress in the Study of Metal Chlorophyll Derivatives%金属叶绿素衍生物的制备及光谱研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑萍; 刘岩

    2014-01-01

    过渡金属Cu、Fe、Co、Ni、Zn、Mn的可溶性盐类以及稀土金属La、Ce、Pr、Nd、Sm氧化物在HClO 4中溶解后在一定条件下与脱镁叶绿素合成过渡/稀土金属叶绿素。过渡金属叶绿素皂化可形成可溶性过渡金属叶绿酸盐,可溶性过渡金属叶绿酸盐又可与某些金属离子反应形成难溶性的过渡金属叶绿酸盐。通过研究这些金属叶绿素配合物的Fourier变换红外光谱、紫外可见光谱( UV-Vis)并与脱镁叶绿素或脱镁叶绿酸对比,对其谱图的数据进行了分析。%Transition metal of Cu ,Fe,Co,Ni,Zinc,Mn soluble salts and rare earth metal of La ,Ce,Pr,Nd,Sm oxide dissolved in t HClO 4 which can react with phoeophytin and form the transition or rare earth metal chlorophyll deriva-tives under certain conditions .Transition metal chlorophyll can form soluble metal chlorophyllin salts after saponi-fied,while soluble transition metal chlorophyllin salt can react with some metal ions form difficult soluble transition metal chlorophyllin salt .By studying the metal chlorophyll derivatives of Fourier transform infrared spectra ,ultravio-let-visible spectra ( UV Vis) and compared with pheophytin and chlorophyllin to analyses their spectra datas .

  1. 金属叶绿素衍生物的制备及光谱研究进展%The Preparation and Spectrum Progress in the Study of Metal Chlorophyll Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑萍; 刘岩

    2014-01-01

    Transition metal soluble salts of Cu, Fe, Co, Ni, Zinc, Mn and rare earth metal of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm oxide dissolved in HClO4 can react with phaeophytin under certain conditions to form the transition or rare earth metal chlorophyll derivatives. Transition metal chlorophyll can turn to soluble metal chlorophyllin salts after saponified, while soluble transition metal chlorophyllin salt can react with some metal ions forming difficult soluble transition metal chlorophyllin salt. By studying the metal chlorophyll derivatives of Fourier transform infrared spectra, ultraviolet-visible spectra and compared with pheophytin and chlorophyllin to analyze its spectra data.%过渡金属Cu、Fe、Co、Ni、Zn、Mn的可溶性盐类以及稀土金属La、Ce、Pr、Nd、Sm氧化物在HClO4中溶解后在一定条件下与脱镁叶绿素合成过渡/稀土金属叶绿素;过渡金属叶绿素皂化可形成可溶性过渡金属叶绿酸盐;可溶性过渡金属叶绿酸盐又可与某些金属离子反应形成难溶性的过渡金属叶绿酸盐。通过研究这些金属叶绿素配合物的Fourier变换红外光谱、紫外可见光谱(UV-Vis)并与脱镁叶绿素或脱镁叶绿酸对比,对其谱图的数据进行了分析。

  2. Preparation and the antibacterial property test of derivatives of needle mushroom polysaccharide%金针菇多糖衍生物的制备及其抗菌性的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莹; 许琳; 赵杰

    2013-01-01

    以金针菇为材料,采用微波辅助法提取金针菇多糖,采用浓硫酸法和乙酸酐-吡啶法对金针菇多糖进行化学修饰,结果表明,产物经红外光谱表征证明多糖已成功被硫酸化和乙酰化.抗菌活性实验显示硫酸化和乙酰化后的金针菇多糖衍生物抗菌活性较弱,对供试的大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌的最小抑菌浓度MIC在25~50mg/mL之间.对同一菌株而言,抑菌效果随衍生物质量浓度的增大而增强.%We chose needle mushroom as the research material. Polysaccharides in needle mushroom were extracted by microwave and then modified by sulfuric acid and acetic anhydride-pyridine method. The result showed that they were successfully sulfated and acetylated by infrared spectroscopy. At the meantime, antibacterial activity test showed that the sulfated and acetylated derivatives of polysaccharides had a weaker antibacterial effect. The minimum inhibitory concentration for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was between 25mg/mL and 50mg/mL. For one strain,the antibacterial effect got stronger with the growing of mass concentration of the derivatives.

  3. Relaxation versus adiabatic quantum steady-state preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, Lorenzo Campos; Albash, Tameem; Marvian, Milad; Lidar, Daniel; Zanardi, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Adiabatic preparation of the ground states of many-body Hamiltonians in the closed-system limit is at the heart of adiabatic quantum computation, but in reality systems are always open. This motivates a natural comparison between, on the one hand, adiabatic preparation of steady states of Lindbladian generators and, on the other hand, relaxation towards the same steady states subject to the final Lindbladian of the adiabatic process. In this work we thus adopt the perspective that the goal is the most efficient possible preparation of such steady states, rather than ground states. Using known rigorous bounds for the open-system adiabatic theorem and for mixing times, we are then led to a disturbing conclusion that at first appears to doom efforts to build physical quantum annealers: relaxation seems to always converge faster than adiabatic preparation. However, by carefully estimating the adiabatic preparation time for Lindbladians describing thermalization in the low-temperature limit, we show that there is, after all, room for an adiabatic speedup over relaxation. To test the analytically derived bounds for the adiabatic preparation time and the relaxation time, we numerically study three models: a dissipative quasifree fermionic chain, a single qubit coupled to a thermal bath, and the "spike" problem of n qubits coupled to a thermal bath. Via these models we find that the answer to the "which wins" question depends for each model on the temperature and the system-bath coupling strength. In the case of the "spike" problem we find that relaxation during the adiabatic evolution plays an important role in ensuring a speedup over the final-time relaxation procedure. Thus, relaxation-assisted adiabatic preparation can be more efficient than both pure adiabatic evolution and pure relaxation.

  4. χ measurements in Schiff’s base derivatives: Effect of metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheesh, P.; Chandrasekharan, K.

    2012-02-01

    The third-order nonlinear optical properties of Schiff's base derivatives and the effect of metal nanoparticles (Ag & Au) on their nonlinear optical response were studied. Colloidal metal nanoparticles were prepared by laser ablation. Z-scan technique with a 7ns Nd:YAG laser pulses at 532 nm were employed for the measurements. The compounds exhibit good optical limiting properties at the wavelength used. The materials used in the present work indicate that these materials are promising candidates for photonics applications.

  5. Systems of integrable derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Bonanzinga

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Let A be a commutative k-algebra, with k a subring of A. We give the definition of n-dimensional differentiation of A over k which formally extends the known one of unidimensional differentiation and we study the group of all n-dimensional differentiation of A over k. In the second part of the work we give some theorems of strong integrability for systems of derivations in terms of n-dimensional differentiation.

  6. Recovery of neurological function of ischemic stroke by application of conditioned medium of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells derived from normal and cerebral ischemia rats

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) release bioactive factors and provide neuroprotection for CNS injury. However, it remains elusive whether BM-MSC derived from healthy donors or stroke patients provides equal therapeutic potential. The present work aims to characterize BM-MSC prepared from normal healthy rats (NormBM-MSC) and cerebral ischemia rats (IschBM-MSC), and examine the effects of their conditioned medium (C...

  7. Preparing Students for Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesel, Anna

    2010-01-01

    : USA, China, Korea, Mexico, Chile and others. We describe our experiences of working on industrial projects with international teams and analyse the development and trends in student mobility. The growing popularity of these programmes and the increasing number of the students joining our international......A. Friesel. Preparing Students for Globalization Working with International Teams with Projects // Electronics and Electrical Engineering. - Kaunas: Technologija, 2019. - No. 6(102). - P. 111-114. This paper summarizes the activities, contents and overall outcomes of our experiences...... with international students studying at the Copenhagen University College of Engineering (in short - IHK); in particular students coming for one semester exchange program under Erasmus-programme. IHK's participation in EU-supported programmes like EIE-Surveyor and ELLEIEC, both ERASMUS thematic networks, have...

  8. Pentafluorophenylammonium triflate: An effective and reusable organocatalyst for the one-pot preparation of 2,4-diaryl-5H-indeno[1,2-b]pyridin-5-one derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohammed Hussain

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new one-pot and efficient three-component condensation of 1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-ones (chalcones, 1,3-indandione, and ammonium acetate using pentafluorophenylammonium triflate (PFPAT as catalyst for the synthesis of substituted 2,4-diaryl-5H-indeno[1,2-b]pyridin-5-one is described. The present methodology offers several advantages, such as good yields, atom economy, short reaction times and a recyclable catalyst with a very easy work up.

  9. Preparation of Propanedioic Acid Derivative and its Modification of Collagen Membrane%一种丙二酸衍生物的制备及其对胶原膜的改性应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢树忠; 李国英

    2011-01-01

    Propanedioic acid-NHS ester was prepared by modifying propanedioic acid with N-hydroxysuccinimide(NHS) in the presence of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide(DCC). Propanedioic acid-NHS ester was used as a crosslinking agent for collagen membrane, and the effect of crosslinking agent dosage on the physicochemical properties of collagen membrane was investigated. The physicochemical properties of the collagen membrane, such as denaturation temperature, water absorption, pancreatin resistance and mechanical strength were tested before and after crosslinking. The results demonstrate that after crosslinking, the thermal stability, morphological stability, enzymatic resistance and mechanical strength of collagen membrane are all improved. It is suggested that propanedioic acid-NHS ester could improve the physicochemical properties of collagen membrane as a crosslinking agent.%将丙二酸与N-羟基琥珀酰亚胺(NHS)在二环己基碳二亚胺(DCC)催化下反应得到丙二酸NHS酯。以丙二酸NHS酯为交联剂对胶原膜进行交联改性,考察不同交联剂浓度对胶原膜物理化学性能的影响,通过测试其变性温度、吸水率、酶解率和机械强度等,来表征交联前后膜性能的改变。结果表明:经过丙二酸NHS酯交联改性后的胶原膜热稳定性、形态稳定性增强,抵抗酶解的能力增加,机械强度有所提高。说明丙二酸NHS酯作为一种交联剂,可有效改善胶原膜的物理化学性能。

  10. Preparation and Characterization of a Homoleptic Vanadium(III) Amide Complex and Its Transformation into Terminal Chalcogenide Derivatives [(3,5-Me(2)Ph)AdN](3)V=E (E = S, Se; Ad = Adamantyl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppa, Kamalesh B. P.; Desmangles, Nathalie; Gambarotta, Sandro; Yap, Glenn; Rheingold, Arnold L.

    1997-03-12

    Reaction of VCl(3)(THF)(3) with (3,5-Me(2)Ph)AdNLi.Et(2)O (Ad = adamantyl) yields the homoleptic vanadium complex [(3,5-Me(2)Ph)AdN](3)V (1), which reacts with chalcogens E (E = S, Se) to yield diamagnetic terminal chalcogenide derivatives [(3,5-Me(2)Ph)AdN](3)V=E [E = S (3a), Se (3b)] Crystal data for 1 and 3a are as follows. 1: C(54)H(72)N(3)V, fw 814.09, triclinic P&onemacr;, a = 10.441(1) Å, b = 11.648(4) Å, c = 19.321(2) Å, alpha = 83.69(2) degrees, beta = 83.89(1) degrees, gamma = 82.42(2) degrees, Z = 2. 3a: C(54)H(72)N(3)VS.(1)/(2)Et(2)O, fw 883.25, monoclinic C2/c, a = 43.400(9) Å, b = 11.744(3) Å, c = 20.705(4) Å, beta = 113.05(1) degrees, Z = 8.

  11. Synthesis of (1R,2S)-1-amino-2-vinylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid vinyl-ACCA) derivatives: key intermediates for the preparation of inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Pierre L; Gillard, James; Bailey, Murray D; Boucher, Colette; Duceppe, Jean-Simon; Simoneau, Bruno; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Li; Grozinger, Karl; Houpis, Ioannis; Farina, Vittorio; Heimroth, Heidi; Krueger, Thomas; Schnaubelt, Jürgen

    2005-07-22

    (1R,2S)-1-Amino-2-vinylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (vinyl-ACCA) is a key building block in the synthesis of potent inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease such as BILN 2061, which was recently shown to dramatically reduce viral load after administration to patients infected with HCV genotype 1. We have developed a scalable process that delivers derivatives of this unusual amino acid in >99% ee. The strategy was based on the dialkylation of a glycine Schiff base using trans-1,4-dibromo-2-butene as an electrophile to produce racemic vinyl-ACCA, which was subsequently resolved using a readily available, inexpensive esterase enzyme (Alcalase 2.4L). Factors that affect diastereoselection in the initial dialkylation steps were examined and the conditions optimized to deliver the desired diastereomer selectively. Product inhibition, which was encountered during the enzymatic resolution step, initially resulted in prolonged cycle times. Enrichment of racemic vinyl-ACCA through a chemical resolution via diastereomeric salt formation or the use of forcing conditions in the enzymatic reaction both led to improvements in throughput and the development of a viable process. The chemistry described herein was scaled up to produce multikilogram quantities of this building block.

  12. Grupo de Trabajo Para la Preparacion del Proyecto Sobre el Desarrolo de Servicias de Bibliotecas y de Informacion Cientifica y Tecnica (Working Group for the Preparation of the Proposal on the Development of Library Services and Scientific and Technical Information).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oficina de Educacion Iberoamericana, Madrid (Spain).

    The Office of Iberoamerican Education, an intergovernmental body based on educational and cultural cooperation for the purpose of disseminating information, documentation, advice, and assistance in the field of education, co-sponsors (with UNESCO) the work represented in this study of library and information planning and facilities in the Andean…

  13. Study of low resistivity and high work function ITO films prepared by oxygen flow rates and N2O plasma treatment for amorphous/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shahzada Qamar; Oh, Woong-Kyo; Kim, Sunbo; Ahn, Shihyun; Le, Anh Huy Tuan; Park, Hyeongsik; Lee, Youngseok; Dao, Vinh Ai; Velumani, S; Yi, Junsin

    2014-12-01

    Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited on glass substrates with lowest resistivity of 2.62 x 10(-4) Ω x cm and high transmittance of about 89% in the visible wavelength region. We report the enhancement of ITO work function (Φ(ITO)) by the variation of oxygen (O2) flow rate and N2O surface plasma treatment. The Φ(ITO) increased from 4.43 to 4.56 eV with the increase in O2 flow rate from 0 to 4 sccm while surface treatment of N2O plasma further enhanced the ITO work function to 4.65 eV. The crystallinity of the ITO films improved with increasing O2 flow rate, as revealed by XRD analysis. The ITO work function was increased by the interfacial dipole resulting from the surface rich in O- ions and by the dipole moment formed at the ITO surface during N2O plasma treatment. The ITO films with high work functions can be used to modify the front barrier height in heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) solar cells.

  14. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  15. Case work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Ian Frank

    2016-01-01

    Answers to the question just what is the ?case? partly defined the fields of sociology and social work in early 20th century Chicago. Drawing on the archives of the University of Chicago, I describe and appraise the way the ?case? figured in social work at Chicago and elsewhere. I ask...... the corresponding question of sociology. Finally, I briefly consider why not much came of social work and sociology ploughing similar territory in ways that served for a time to hallmark their identities. This analysis opens up ways of rethinking how social work and sociological research are distinctive...

  16. Phase Transfer Catalyzed Synthesis of Thiosemicarbazide Derivatives of 2-ethoxybenzoic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; TaiBao

    2001-01-01

    A series of 1,4-disubstitued thiosemicarbazides and their related heterocyclic compounds have been found to possess important biological activities[1]. Some thiosemicarbazides have been found to be useful as herbicides, insecticides and plant-growth regulators [1]. In view of these and in continuation of our earlier work on the synthesis and biological activity of thiosemicarbaides derivatives [2], we now report a convenient and efficient method for the preparation of thiosemicarbazides derivatives of 2-ethoxybenzoic acid under the condition of solid-liquid phase transfer catalysis using PEG-400 as the catalyst.  ……

  17. Phase Transfer Catalyzed Synthesis of Thiosemicarbazide Derivatives of 2-ethoxybenzoic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI TaiBao; ZHANG YouMing; WU JiaWei

    2001-01-01

    @@ A series of 1,4-disubstitued thiosemicarbazides and their related heterocyclic compounds have been found to possess important biological activities[1]. Some thiosemicarbazides have been found to be useful as herbicides, insecticides and plant-growth regulators [1]. In view of these and in continuation of our earlier work on the synthesis and biological activity of thiosemicarbaides derivatives [2], we now report a convenient and efficient method for the preparation of thiosemicarbazides derivatives of 2-ethoxybenzoic acid under the condition of solid-liquid phase transfer catalysis using PEG-400 as the catalyst.

  18. 超支化咪唑酰胺化衍生物固化剂的制备与性能%Preparation and properties of hyperbranched imidazole amidate derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝华; 翁燕青; 崔后礼; 薛兴旺; 谈惠洁

    2011-01-01

    合成了不同层数的端羧基超支化聚合物(HBPs-COOH),其与2-甲基咪唑(2-MI),苯甲醇(BP)分别进行酰胺化反应和酯化反应得到了超支化咪唑酰胺化衍生物(HBPIAD)并将其用作环氧树脂中温固化剂。通过红外(FTIR)、动态力学热分析(DMA)、热重分析(TGA)、扫描电镜(SEM)、力学性能测试等方法对固化剂结构及环氧树脂固化物的性能进行了研究。结果表明,超支化咪唑酰胺化衍生物降低了咪唑的固化反应活性,提高了其与环氧树脂的相容性,HBPIAD-1改性后的环氧树脂固化物的力学性能有所提高,拉伸强度可达40.44 MPa,弯曲强度91.44 MPa,冲击强度12.13 kJ/m2,但是随着超支化层数的增加,环氧树脂固化物的力学性能和耐热性有所下降。%The carboxyl-terminated hyperbranched polymers with different generations(HBPs-COOH) were synthesized and then the hyperbranched imidazole amidate derivatives(HBPIAD) were prepared by the amidating reaction of HBPs-COOH and 2-methylimidazole(2-MI) and esterification reaction of HBPs-COOH and phenylcarbinol(BP).The structures and properties of HBPIAD and the cured products were investigated by FT-IR,DMA,TGA,SEM and mechanical property testings.The results showed that HBPIAD could reduce the curing reactivity of imidazole and improve the compatibility with epoxy resin.The mechanical properties of epoxy cured by HBPIAD were improved and the tensile strength,bending strength and impact strength were 40.44 MPa,91.44 MPa and 12.13 kJ/m2,respectively.But the mechanical properties and heat resistance of cured product were decreased with the increasing of hyperbranched layers.

  19. Working with horses: an OWAS work task analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfqvist, L; Pinzke, S

    2011-01-01

    Most work in horse stables is performed manually in much the same way as a century ago. It is the least mechanized sector dealing with large animals. People working with horses are exposed to several types of risk for developing musculoskeletal problems, but the work tasks and workload have not been investigated in detail. The aim of this study was to estimate the postural load of the work tasks performed around horses to find those that were harmful and required measures to be taken to reduce physical strain. Altogether, 20 subjects (stable attendants and riding instructors) were video recorded while carrying out their work in the stable, and preparing and conducting riding lessons. The work was analyzed with the Ovako Working posture Analysis System (OWAS) to determine the postural load and to categorize the potential harmfulness of the work postures. Three work tasks involved about 50% of the work positions in the three OWAS categories (AC2 to AC4) where measures for improvement are needed: "mucking out" (50%), "bedding preparation" (48%), and "sweeping" (48%). These work tasks involved over 60% work postures where the back was bent, twisted, or both bent and twisted. Therefore, it is important to find preventive measures to reduce the workload, which could include improved tools, equipment, and work technique.

  20. Professional Preparation in Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Charles E.; Fisher, Shirley P.

    1992-01-01

    Colleges and universities must develop curricula to prepare health promotion specialists to work with persons of all ages. Program core should include self-care, consumer awareness, nutrition, weight control, stress management, and substance abuse. Health and physical educators should learn to facilitate change of negative health behaviors into…

  1. Preparing Teachers for Parent Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Daniel

    This paper examines the potential impact of parent involvement in the formal education of their children and suggests ways that teacher education can be restructured to prepare teachers to work with parents. This paper attempts to answer five questions: (1) Why should parents be involved in the formal education of their children? (2) Why should…

  2. Paper works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2017-01-01

    of their land and natural resources, but also of labor and territorial sovereignty. This case shows how an Andean campesino community counters such movements by a wide repertoire of legal and social actions that works simultaneously in legal and extra-legal domains. Paper works mediate claims to territorial...

  3. Works Councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne; Markey, Ray

    2002-01-01

    The article outlines the operation of works councils in Europe and in the context of disscussing their viability in Austalia.......The article outlines the operation of works councils in Europe and in the context of disscussing their viability in Austalia....

  4. Sedentary work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Dorte; Rosthøj, Susanne; Burr, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between five-year changes in occupational sitting and body mass index (BMI) in working adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from The Danish Work Environment Cohort Study (2005 and 2010, n=3.482). Data on occupational sitting, weight...

  5. 应用术前准备间对手术室工作效率的影响%Application of Preoperative Preparation Between Affect Working Efficiency of the Operating Room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶; 李淑兰

    2013-01-01

    the operating room is to provide patients with surgery and rescue sites, is an important technology division hospital, the hospital operating room al surgical department is directly related to the work ef iciency of the overal work ef iciency. If the operating ef iciency is not high, not only operation team to bring huge pressure, also af ect the quality of medical care security hidden danger, af ects the hospital economic benefit and social benefit. Even the surgery is to improve the work ef iciency, solve, inadequate surgery between key measures to ensure the surgical system running smoothly.%手术室是为患者提供手术及抢救场所,是医院重要技术部门,医院手术室的工作效率直接关系到所有外科科室的整体工作效率。如果手术室工作效率不高,不仅给术组人员带来巨大压力,同时影响医疗护理质量产生安全隐患,影响医院经济效益和社会效益。进行连台手术是提高工作效率、解决手术间不足,保证外科系统顺。运转的关键措施。

  6. Preparation of Hybrid Fucoidan-derived Oligosaccharides and Their Structural Analysis by Negative-ion Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry%杂合褐藻糖胶寡糖的制备及结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培培; 吕友晶; 曹欢; 赵小亮; 李广生; 吴建东; 于广利

    2012-01-01

    采用热水提取法从海蒿子(Sargassum pallidum)中得到一个杂合的褐藻糖胶(SPF);采用稀酸水解和低压凝胶渗透色谱(LPGPC)分离得到一系列杂合硫酸寡糖.结合单糖组成、甲基化和电喷雾碰撞诱导串联质谱(ES-CID-MS/MS)分析表明,所得21个寡糖属于杂化岩藻寡糖硫酸酯,主要由α1→3连接的Fuc及少量β1→4连接的Xyl和β1→6连接的Gal组成;硫酸基取代位点主要存在于Fuc的C4或C2位、Xyl的C2位和Gal的C4位;Fuc主要存在于寡糖的非还原端.实验结果表明,ES-CID-MS/MS技术可用于各种杂合褐藻糖胶寡糖的结构序列分析.这些结构多样的硫酸寡糖可进一步点印到糖芯片上,研究其与蛋白相互作用.%Acomplex sulfated fucoidan(SPF) was obtained by hot water extraction from Sargassum pallidum. A series of hybrid oligosaccharides were acquired by mild acid hydrolysis with low pressure gel permeation chromatography(LPGPC). Based on the monosaccharides composition, methylation and electrospray collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry(ES-CID-MS/MS) analysis, 21 kinds of oligosaccharides were sulfated hybrid fucoidan-derived oligosaccharides. The resulted oligosaccharides were mainly composed of α1→3 linked Fuc, β1→4 linked Xyl and β1 →6 linked Gal. The sulfation occurred at C4 or C2 of fucose, C2 of xylose and C4 of galactose residue, respectively. Most of fucose residues were present in nonreducing terminal of oligosaccharides. The technique of ES-CID-MS/MS was suitable for the sequences analysis of other hybrid oligosaccharides of various fucoidans. More importantly, all these diverse sulfated oligosaccharides can be printed onto the glycol-chip, and studying their interactions with proteins.

  7. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  8. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  9. Current Issues in Social Work Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of doctoral programs in social work is to prepare research-scientists who contribute to knowledge that guides professional practice and educators competent to teach new cohorts of social work practitioners. In grooming stewards of the profession, doctoral programs also must prepare their graduates to support the larger contemporary…

  10. Work extraction from quantum systems with bounded fluctuations in work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richens, Jonathan G.; Masanes, Lluis

    2016-11-01

    In the standard framework of thermodynamics, work is a random variable whose average is bounded by the change in free energy of the system. This average work is calculated without regard for the size of its fluctuations. Here we show that for some processes, such as reversible cooling, the fluctuations in work diverge. Realistic thermal machines may be unable to cope with arbitrarily large fluctuations. Hence, it is important to understand how thermodynamic efficiency rates are modified by bounding fluctuations. We quantify the work content and work of formation of arbitrary finite dimensional quantum states when the fluctuations in work are bounded by a given amount c. By varying c we interpolate between the standard and minimum free energies. We derive fundamental trade-offs between the magnitude of work and its fluctuations. As one application of these results, we derive the corrected Carnot efficiency of a qubit heat engine with bounded fluctuations.

  11. Work Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Roeters, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Most of us agree that stress is a growing problem within organizations. We hear about the postal workers who had killed fellow employees and supervisors, and then hear that a major cause of tension is at work. Friends tell us that they are stressed due to increased workload and he has to work overtime because the company is restructured. We read the polls that employees complain about the stress in trying to balance family life with the work. Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individu...

  12. Facile access to highly fluorescent nanofibers and microcrystals via reprecipitation of 2-phenyl-benzoxazole derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodbane, Abdelhamid; D'Altério, Sébastien; Saffon, Nathalie; McClenaghan, Nathan D; Scarpantonio, Luca; Jolinat, Pascale; Fery-Forgues, Suzanne

    2012-01-10

    2-Phenyl-benzoxazole and five derivatives bearing an alkyl or alkoxy substituent on the phenyl ring were used to prepare aqueous suspensions of particles via a solvent-exchange method. In these conditions, the methyl and methoxy derivatives spontaneously gave nanofibers, while the other compounds led to microcrystals. This shows that minor chemical changes are enough to direct the formation of a given type of particle. From a spectroscopic viewpoint, all compounds strongly emit blue light in the solid state, with spectra much broader than those registered in n-heptane and ethanol solutions. The photoluminescence quantum yields reached 38% and were slightly affected in aqueous suspension by the polarity of the environment. The molecular arrangement, deduced from X-ray analysis for the methyl and methoxy derivatives, was used to explain the fluorescence properties in the solid state. This work shows that 2-phenyl-benzoxazole derivatives are interesting candidates for applications as fluorescent nanomaterials, including in aqueous and biological media.

  13. Work function characterization of solution-processed cobalt silicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihab Ullah, Syed; Robinson, Matt; Hoey, Justin; Sky Driver, M.; Caruso, A. N.; Schulz, Douglas L.

    2012-06-01

    Cobalt silicide thin films were prepared by spin-coating liquid cyclohexasilane-based inks onto silicon substrates followed by a thermal treatment. The work function of the solution-processed Co-Si was determined by both capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures as well as by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). Variable frequency C-V of MOS structures with silicon oxide layers of variable thickness showed that solution-processed metal silicide films exhibit a work function of 4.36 eV with one Co-Si film on Si giving a UPS-derived work function of 4.80 eV. Similar work function measurements were collected for vapor-deposited MOS capacitors where Al thin films were prepared according to standard class 100 cleanroom handling techniques. In both instances, the work function values established by the electrical measurements were lower than those measured by UPS and this difference appears to be a consequence of parasitic series resistance.

  14. Voltammetric characterization of montmorillonite-based organo derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Navrátilová, Zuzana; Turčíková, Lenka; Plačková, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Organo derivatives of clay mineral montmorillonite were prepared by modification of montmorillonite (type SAz-1) with three alkylammonium cations – hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTM), benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium (BDH), and hexadecylpyridinium bromide (HDP). The prepared organo-montmorillonites were characterized by X-Ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy to test the alkylammonium cations presence in the organo derivatives. Multisweep cyclic voltammetry of copper at carbon paste e...

  15. A Facile Synthesis of Indole-based Conjugated Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI, Qian-Qian; ZHU, Zhi-Chao; LI,Zhen; QIN, Jin-Gui

    2007-01-01

    A novel synthetic method was developed for the preparation of indole-based conjugated derivatives with satisfied yields. By applying this strategy, a series of new compounds were prepared conveniently. All the obtained new indole derivatives were characterized by spectroscopic analyse s, giving satisfactory data corresponding to their expected molecular structures.

  16. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  17. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  18. CITA works

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin; Ayres, Phil;

    2015-01-01

    CITA works documents over 40 projects, events and research collaborations conducted between 2005 and 2014 by the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA). Through individual project descriptions accompanied by photographic documentation and design drawings, CITA works provides...... readers with insights into our design-led practice-based architectural research which queries how computation challenges the way we think, design and build architecture. With essays by Professor Mette Ramsgaard Thomsen (Head of CITA), and Dr. Jane Burry (Head of the Spatial Information Architecture...... Laboratory, RMIT) the work is contextualised within the field of digital architectural design practice. These essays also identify the emerging questions and maturing methods that continue to inform CITA’s research within this territory. CITA works marks the first 10 years of our research effort...

  19. Nanoarchitectures for Metal-Organic Framework-Derived Nanoporous Carbons toward Supercapacitor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunkhe, Rahul R; Kaneti, Yusuf Valentino; Kim, Jeonghun; Kim, Jung Ho; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-12-20

    The future advances of supercapacitors depend on the development of novel carbon materials with optimized porous structures, high surface area, high conductivity, and high electrochemical stability. Traditionally, nanoporous carbons (NPCs) have been prepared by a variety of methods, such as templated synthesis, carbonization of polymer precursors, physical and chemical activation, etc. Inorganic solid materials such as mesoporous silica and zeolites have been successfully utilized as templates to prepare NPCs. However, the hard-templating methods typically involve several synthetic steps, such as preparation of the original templates, formation of carbon frameworks, and removal of the original templates. Therefore, these methods are not favorable for large-scale production. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with high surface areas and large pore volumes have been studied over the years, and recently, enormous efforts have been made to utilize MOFs for electrochemical applications. However, their low conductivity and poor stability still present major challenges toward their practical applications in supercapacitors. MOFs can be used as precursors for the preparation of NPCs with high porosity. Their parent MOFs can be prepared with endless combinations of organic and inorganic constituents by simple coordination chemistry, and it is possible to control their porous architectures, pore volumes, surface areas, etc. These unique properties of MOF-derived NPCs make them highly attractive for many technological applications. Compared with carbonaceous materials prepared using conventional precursors, MOF-derived carbons have significant advantages in terms of a simple synthesis with inherent diversity affording precise control over porous architectures, pore volumes, and surface areas. In this Account, we will summarize our recent research developments on the preparation of three-dimensional (3-D) MOF-derived carbons for supercapacitor applications. This Account will be

  20. 工作过程导向课程体系开发对药物制剂专业建设的启示%Implications of Work Process-oriented Curriculum System Development for Pharmaceutical Preparations Professional Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晟盛

    2014-01-01

    自以工作过程为导向的职业教育理论被引入我国以来,以此为理论依据的课程体系开发被诸多职业院校采用和尝试实施。本文借鉴了两所职业学校工作过程导向课程体系开发的实践案例,研究其一般特点和过程,并以此为依据探索中职药物制剂专业课程体系的建设思路。%Since the theory of vocational education to the process-oriented work was introduced into China in order to de-velop a theoretical basis for the curriculum system is adopted many vocational schools and try to implement. This paper draws on the practical case of two vocational schools work process-oriented curriculum system developed to study the general char-acteristics and processes, and as a basis to explore the construction of a pharmaceutical formulation vocational curriculum system of thought.

  1. METALLOGRAPHIC SAMPLE PREPARATION STATION-CONSTRUCTIVE CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AVRAM Florin Timotei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to present the issues involved in the case of the constructive conception of a station for metallographic sample preparation. This station is destined for laboratory work. The metallographic station is composed of a robot ABB IRB1600, a metallographic microscope, a gripping device, a manipulator, a laboratory grinding and polishing machine. The robot will be used for manipulation of the sample preparation and the manipulator take the sample preparation for processing.

  2. SolidWorks Administration Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Lombard, Matt

    2009-01-01

    What you need to prepare, install, and maintain SolidWorks. It's not enough to know how to use SolidWorks, if your job also requires you to install or maintain it, train new users, and implement standards. This in-depth guide was written for those of you who have to actually manage your company's SolidWorks system. From hardware selection to helping users to licensing and more, this is the everyday, bread-and-butter SolidWorks administration resource that IT and CAD managers have been seeking.:; SolidWorks is a powerful 3D solid modeling system that is popular with CAD users everywhere, but of

  3. Preparation of quinolinium salts differing in the length of the alkyl side chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Jan; Buchta, Vladimir; Soukup, Ondrej; Stodulka, Petr; Cabal, Jiri; Ghosh, Kallol K; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil

    2012-05-25

    Quaternary quinolinium salts differing in alkyl chain length are members of a widespread group of cationic surfactants. These compounds have numerous applications in various branches of industry and research. In this work, the preparation of quinoline-derived cationic surface active agents differing in the length of the side alkyl chains (from C₈ to C₂₀) is described. An HPLC method was successfully developed for distinction of all members of the series of prepared long-chain quinolinium derivatives. In conclusion, some possibilities of intended tests or usage have been summarized. In vitro testing using a microdilution broth method showed good activity of a substance with a C12 chain length against Gram-positive cocci and Candida species.

  4. On $n$-derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Sattari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the notion of $n-$derivation is introduced for all integers $ngeq 2$. Although all derivations are $n-$derivations,  in general these notions are not equivalent. Some properties of ordinary derivations are  investigated for $n-$derivations. Also, we show that under certain mild condition  $n-$derivations are derivations.

  5. Paid work and unpaid work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    Time-use information is preferably obtained from diaries, as this method is considered more reliable than information from questionnaires. The diary-technique seems to be unique in catching the rhythm of every day life and thereby the structuring of work and leisure during a well......-questions are asked about the time spent on paid work and unpaid/household work. The advantage of the latter technique is that it can easily be integrated into surveys. Thus the American National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) already contains two waves, and a new wave for 2001-2002, which allows...

  6. 40 CFR 35.107 - Work plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work plans. 35.107 Section 35.107... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.107 Work plans. (a) Bases for negotiating work plans. The work plan is negotiated between the applicant and the Regional Administrator...

  7. 40 CFR 35.507 - Work plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work plans. 35.507 Section 35.507... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Preparing An Application § 35.507 Work plans. (a) Bases for negotiating work plans. The work plan is negotiated between the applicant and the...

  8. Preparing Instructional Objectives: Agony or Ecstasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Wesley K.

    This paper 1) discusses the problems encountered in preparing objectives for instructional programs; 2) describes an informal research project in which seven instructional designers working on the same project attempted to determine agreement on an objective; and 3) suggests how to prepare objectives so that difficulties can be minimized. One…

  9. Preparation of Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Hydrogenated nitrile rubber is an oil and solvent resistant rubber and particularly give more resistant to heat, ozone, light. It is generally prepared from nitrile rubber by selective hydrogenation using a suitable catalyst system. In the present work a prepared method was adapted for the hydrogenation reaction of nitrile rubber using homogeneous tris(tri-phenlphosphine)chlorhodium(I) catalyst (RhCl(PPh3)) system. The hydrogenation reaction was carriedout at different temperature, pressure, time and catalyst concentration, the concentration, the conditions of hydrogenation are stated in table 1.

  10. Preparation of Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; ZhiCai

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogenated nitrile rubber is an oil and solvent resistant rubber and particularly give more resistant to heat, ozone, light. It is generally prepared from nitrile rubber by selective hydrogenation using a suitable catalyst system. In the present work a prepared method was adapted for the hydrogenation reaction of nitrile rubber using homogeneous tris(tri-phenlphosphine)chlorhodium(I) catalyst (RhCl(PPh3)) system.  The hydrogenation reaction was carriedout at different temperature, pressure, time and catalyst concentration, the concentration, the conditions of hydrogenation are stated in table 1.  ……

  11. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Human Resources is organising a preparation for retirement seminar which will take place on the four successive afternoons of 2 to 5 October 2007. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of one’s working life and the start of a new period of life. This period of transition and change is experienced differently from one individual to another. In any case, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above as well as those who have retired during the year have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of th...

  12. Preparation for retirement seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

      The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via Indico. &a...

  13. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a Preparation for Retirement Seminar, which will take place on 18 and 21 October 2011 in the afternoon in the Main Auditorium and on 19 October and 15 and 16 November 2011 in the afternoon in the Council Chamber. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned, you are ...

  14. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a Preparation for Retirement Seminar, which will take place on 18 and 21 October 2011 in the afternoon in the Main Auditorium and on 19 October and 15 and 16 November 2011 in the afternoon in the Council Chamber. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned, you are r...

  15. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    27 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 28 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 29 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 30 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 4.45 p.m. Auditorium (Main Building) After the success of the preparation seminars held in recent years, it has been decided that the programme should continue. The forthcoming seminar has been prepared in close collaboration with the CERN Pensioners' Association. The programme will be organised over several half-day sessions. Once again this year, a special session will be devoted to the 10th revision of the Swiss state pension scheme, the 'AVS' (Assurance-Vieillesse et Survivants), and the consequences for international civil servants. A talk will be given by Mrs Danièle Siebold, Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation, aimed mainly at those residing in or intending to move to Switzerland, or who worked in Switzerland before joining CERN. To enable Mrs Siebold to respond to your concerns as effectively as possible, please ...

  16. Preparing Students for the Electronic Cottage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navin, Sally L.; Burdin, Joel

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on Alvin Toffler's "electronic cottage" concept as a way of helping counselors become aware of futuristic thinking patterns, changing work roles and patterns in society, and techniques for preparing students for these changes. (Author/ABB)

  17. Working Collaboratively

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holder, Anna; Lovett, George

    2009-01-01

    Working collaboratively is arguably an essential skill in architectural practice as the complexity of contemporary projects involves multiple agents in the conception, construction and use of architecture. This has been emphasised by recent government rhetoric. Mass collaboration has been...... identified as a transformative global force of the last decade, most notably in knowledge and information publishing, communication and creation. This paper presents a structured conversation on changing understandings of collaboration, and the realities of collaborative methodology in architectural work....... Ideas of the platforms and structures necessary to support ‘creative’ collaborations are advanced and tested, and a vocabulary of key terms is developed. The conversation extends to reflect on the role of the architecture profession in supporting or enabling collaboration in architectural works....

  18. Preparing for faster filling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the programmed technical stop last week, operators focussed on preparing the machine for faster filling, which includes multibunch injection and a faster pre-cycle phase.   The LHC1 screen shot during the first multibunch injection operation. The LHC operational schedule incorporates a technical stop for preventive maintenance roughly every six weeks of stable operation, during which several interventions on the various machines are carried out. Last week these included the replacement of a faulty magnet in the SPS pre-accelerator, which required the subsequent re-setting of the system of particle extraction and transfer to the LHC. At the end of last week, all the machines were handed back for operation and work could start on accommodating all the changes made into the complex systems in order for normal operation to be resumed. These ‘recovery’ operations continued through the weekend and into this week. At the beginning of this week, operators succeeded in pro...

  19. Preparation of SnO 2 /Carbon Composite Hollow Spheres and Their Lithium Storage Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Lou, Xiong Wen

    2008-10-28

    In this work, we present a novel concept of structural design for preparing functional composite hollow spheres and derived double-shelled hollow spheres. The approach involves two main steps: preparation of porous hollow spheres of one component and deposition of the other component onto both the interior and exterior surfaces of the shell as well as in the pores. We demonstrate the concept by preparing SnO2/carbon composite hollow spheres and evaluate them as potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. These SnO2/carbon hollow spheres are able to deliver a reversible Li storage capacity of 473 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles. Unusual double-shelled carbon hollow spheres are obtained by selective removal of the sandwiched porous SnO2 shells. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  20. Flexible scope for ISO 15189 accreditation: a guidance prepared by the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Working Group Accreditation and ISO/CEN standards (WG-A/ISO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Marc H M; Vanstapel, Florent J L A; Kroupis, Christos; Vukasovic, Ines; Boursier, Guilaime; Barrett, Edward; Bernabeu Andreu, Francisco; Brguljan, Pika Meško; Brugnoni, Duilio; Lohmander, Maria; Sprongl, Ludek; Vodnik, Tatjana; Ghita, Irina; Vaubourdolle, Michel; Huisman, Willem

    2015-07-01

    The recent revision of ISO15189 has further strengthened its position as the standard for accreditation for medical laboratories. Both for laboratories and their customers it is important that the scope of such accreditation is clear. Therefore the European co-operation for accreditation (EA) demands that the national bodies responsible for accreditation describe the scope of every laboratory accreditation in a way that leaves no room for doubt about the range of competence of the particular laboratories. According to EA recommendations scopes may be fixed, mentioning every single test that is part of the accreditation, or flexible, mentioning all combinations of medical field, examination type and materials for which the laboratory is competent. Up to now national accreditation bodies perpetuate use of fixed scopes, partly by inertia, partly out of fear that a too flexible scope may lead to over-valuation of the competence of laboratories, most countries only use fixed scopes. The EA however promotes use of flexible scopes, since this allows for more readily innovation, which contributes to quality in laboratory medicine. In this position paper, the Working Group Accreditation and ISO/CEN Standards belonging to the Quality and Regulation Committee of the EFLM recommends using an approach that has led to successful introduction of the flexible scope for ISO15189 accreditation as intended in EA-4/17 in The Netherlands. The approach is risk-based, discipline and competence-based, and focuses on defining a uniform terminology transferable across the borders of scientific disciplines, laboratories and countries.

  1. Luminescent liquid crystalline materials based on palladium(II) imine derivatives containing the 2-phenylpyridine core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micutz, Marin; Iliş, Monica; Staicu, Teodora; Dumitraşcu, Florea; Pasuk, Iuliana; Molard, Yann; Roisnel, Thierry; Cîrcu, Viorel

    2014-01-21

    In this work we report our studies concerning the synthesis and characterisation of a series of imine derivatives that incorporate the 2-phenylpyridine (2-ppy) core. These derivatives were used in the cyclometalating reactions of platinum(II) or palladium(II) in order to prepare several complexes with liquid crystalline properties. Depending on the starting materials used as well as the solvents employed, different metal complexes were obtained, some of them showing both liquid crystalline behaviour and luminescence properties at room temperature. It was found that, even if there are two competing coordination sites, the cyclometalation process takes place always at the 2-ppy core with (for Pt) or without (for Pd) the imine bond cleavage. We successfully showed that it is possible to prepare emissive room temperature liquid crystalline materials based on double cyclopalladated heteroleptic complexes by varying the volume fraction of the long flexible alkyl tails on the ancillary benzoylthiourea (BTU) ligands.

  2. Work sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Bacalla, julio; FII-UNMSM

    2014-01-01

    Work sampling is a method of indirect measurement, which means instantaneous observations, to determine the amount of uptime or downtime in a production process El muestreo de trabajo es un método de medición indirecto, que mediante observaciones instantaneas, permite determinar la cantidad de tiempo en actividad o inactividad en un proceso productivo

  3. Hard work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myra Keizer; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Moeilijk werken More than one in ten women say they are not available for the labour market because of health complaints. That is almost twice as many as the figure for men. Migrant women, in particular, often cite health as a reason for not being able to work. Are there

  4. Demolition work

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Because of demolition work inside Bldg. 251, two containers will be placed on the route Démocrite. For security reasons, the part of this road in front of barrack 553 will be closed to circulation from 5 to 12 November. Thank you, in advance for your understanding. PH-SMI

  5. Road works

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    From Monday 11 October until Friday 29 October 2010, the flow of traffic will be disrupted by road works at the roundabout in front of Restaurant No. 2; The number of spaces available in the car park in front of Rest. No. 2 will be reduced. Thank you for your understanding during this period. GS/SEM Group

  6. Wetlands Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Linda; Blanchard, Pamela Borne

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how a biology teacher's search for a cross-curricular project in science, math, history, and environmental science, that would help her students connect what they were learning in the classroom to their everyday life, resulted in an ongoing stewardship project. Working together with the Louisiana Sea Grant College Program…

  7. Wetlands Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Linda; Blanchard, Pamela Borne

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how a biology teacher's search for a cross-curricular project in science, math, history, and environmental science, that would help her students connect what they were learning in the classroom to their everyday life, resulted in an ongoing stewardship project. Working together with the Louisiana Sea Grant College Program…

  8. Working Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on your time and energy. For example, the family can work together to clean up the kitchen after dinner; with everyone's help it will get done much quicker and free up some time for you in the evening. Do the same on the ... build family cohesiveness while finishing the job faster, thus leaving ...

  9. Construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Construction work on building 179 will start on the 16th February 2004 and continue until November 2004. The road between buildings 179 and 158 will temporarily become a one way street from Route Democrite towards building 7. The parking places between buildings 179 and 7 will become obsolete. The ISOLDE collaboration would like to apologize for any inconveniences.

  10. Work and minor work contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The Work and Minor Work contracts are all of the result-oriented type. The work is specified by CERN and the contractor is given full responsibility for its performance. The contracts are thus very similar to supply contracts. The re-tendering of the existing contracts is almost complete, except for some building maintenance contracts. A new cycle of re-tendering for some activities will be launched in the next twelve months. The total estimated expenditure in the year 2000 for the contracts referred to in this document is 27 750 000 Swiss francs at 1999 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to approve the proposed expenditure for the extension of contracts for which the estimated amount for the year 2000 exceeds 750 000 Swiss francs, namely those under references 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 23, highlighted in Table I; - to take note that all Work and Minor Work contracts have been tendered since 1 January 1994, except the small contracts shown under references 12 and 16 in Table I; - to take note that the ...

  11. Working overtime hours: Relations with fatigue, work motivation, and the quality of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, D.G.J.; Linden, D. van der; Smulders, P.G.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Veldhoven, M.J.P.M. van; Yperen, N.W. van

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to better understand the relationship between overtime and mental fatigue by taking into account work motivation and the quality of overtime work and studying theoretically derived subgroups. Methods: We conducted a survey-study among a representative sample of the Dutch full-

  12. Working overtime hours: Relations with fatigue, work motivation, and the quality of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, D.G.J.; Linden, D. van der; Smulders, P.G.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Veldhoven, M.J.P.M. van; Yperen, N.W. van

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to better understand the relationship between overtime and mental fatigue by taking into account work motivation and the quality of overtime work and studying theoretically derived subgroups. Methods: We conducted a survey-study among a representative sample of the Dutch full-t

  13. Working overtime hours: Relations with fatigue, work motivation, and the quality of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, D.G.J.; Linden, D. van der; Smulders, P.G.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Veldhoven, M.J.P.M. van; Yperen, N.W. van

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to better understand the relationship between overtime and mental fatigue by taking into account work motivation and the quality of overtime work and studying theoretically derived subgroups. Methods: We conducted a survey-study among a representative sample of the Dutch

  14. Remote preparation of quantum states

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, C H; Leung, D W; Shor, P W; Winter, A; Bennett, Charles H; Hayden, Patrick; Leung, Debbie W.; Shor, Peter W.; Winter, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Remote state preparation is the variant of quantum state teleportation in which the sender knows the quantum state to be communicated. The original paper introducing teleportation established minimal requirements for classical communication and entanglement but the corresponding limits for remote state preparation have remained unknown until now: previous work has shown, however, that it not only requires less classical communication but also gives rise to a trade-off between these two resources in the appropriate setting. We discuss this problem from first principles, including the various choices one may follow in the definitions of the actual resources. Our main result is a general method of remote state preparation for arbitrary states of many qubits, at a cost of 1 bit of classical communication and 1 bit of entanglement per qubit sent. In this "universal" formulation, these ebit and cbit requirements are shown to be simultaneously optimal by exhibiting a dichotomy. This then yields the exact trade-off c...

  15. Ophthalmic use of blood-derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Ryan B; Lee, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    There is a wide spectrum of blood-derived products that have been used in many different medical and surgical specialties with success. Blood-derived products for clinical use can be extracted from autologous or allogeneic specimens of blood, but recombinant products are also commonly used. A number of blood derivatives have been used for a wide range of ocular conditions, from the ocular surface to the retina. With stringent preparation guidelines, the potential risk of transmission of blood-borne diseases is minimized. We review blood-derived products and how they are improving the management of ocular disease.

  16. Works at building 513

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    As part of IT's preparation to meet the challenges of LHC computing, a new substation is being constructed for the Computer Centre. The civil engineering work for this substation will start in mid-August and last until March 2004. During this period access to the Les Merisiers car park, between B513 (the Computer Centre) and B504 (Restaurant 2) will be restricted. Please see the diagram for details and for the location of alternative parking space. With apologies for the incovenience, IT Division

  17. RESUMING WORK

    CERN Multimedia

    Service Médical

    2000-01-01

    In application of the Staff Rules and Regulations, every member of the CERN personnel is required to undergo a medical examination on resuming work after sick leave: - if the medical absence has been for 21 calendar days or longer, - if absent more than 48 hours due to professional accident. It is incumbent upon the member of the personnel himself/herself to contact the Medical Service 73186, without awaiting its summons.

  18. Works notice

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    We would like to inform you that renovation work on the road lighting equipment will take place on the Meyrin site between 19 October and 18 December 2009. During this period, traffic will be disrupted on the Schrödinger, Perrin and Siegbahn roads, ie from Building 274 to Building 188. We request that you comply with the road signs and thank you for your understanding. GS-SEM Group

  19. RESUMING WORK

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2001-01-01

    In application of the Staff Rules and Regulations, every member of the CERN personnel is required to undergo a medical examination on resuming work after sick leave: if the medical absence has been for 21 calendar days or longer, if absent more than 48 hours due to professional accident. It is incumbent upon the member of the personnel himself/herself to contact the Medical Service 73186, without awaiting its summons.

  20. RESUMING WORK

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    In application of the Staff Rules and Regulations, every member of the CERN personnel is required to undergo a medical examination on resuming work after sick leave: if the medical absence has been for 21 calendar days or longer, if absent more than 48 hours due to professional accident. It is incumbent upon the member of the personnel himself/herself to contact the Medical Service 73186, without awaiting its summons. Medical Service