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Sample records for preparative polyacrylamide gel

  1. Preparation of Barley Storage Protein, Hordein, for Analytical Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Andersen, Bente

    1981-01-01

    The extraction, reduction, and alkylation of barley hordein for routine electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were studied to set up a simple preparation procedure giving well-resolved bands in the electrophoresis gel. Hordein was extracted from single crushed seeds or flour...... by aqueous 50% propan-2-ol containing a Tris-borate buffer, pH 8.6. The presence of the buffer facilitates the consecutive complete reduction of the extracted protein in the alcohol. Reduction and alkylation in the buffer containing propan-2-ol give sharper bands in the electrophoresis than reduction...

  2. Characterization of immunoreactive proteins of Setaria cervi isolated by preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshi, Priyanka; Dravid, Piyush; Sheikh, Inayat Hussain; Saxena, Sunita; Tandon, Ashish; Kaushal, Deep C; Ali, Shakir; Kaushal, Nuzhat A

    2017-03-01

    Filarial parasites are complex mixtures of antigenic proteins and characterization of these antigenic molecules is essential to identify the diagnostically important filaria-specific antigens. In the present study, we have fractionated the somatic extracts from adults of Setaria cervi (bovine filarial parasite) on preparative SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and tested the immunoreactivity of the separated gel fractions with polyclonal antibodies against filarial excretory-secretory antigens as well as filarial patients sera. The SDS-PAGE analysis of gel eluted fractions revealed 1 protein band in F-1 fraction, 2 protein bands in F-2 fraction and 2-3 protein bands in all other fractions (F3- F11). Seven gel eluted fractions (F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6 and F11) showed high ELISA reactivity with the polyclonal antibody (against excretory-secretory antigen) and four of these fractions (F-1, F-2, F3 and F6) exhibited high ELISA reactivity with antibodies present in filarial patient sera. The reactivities of the gel fractions (F1 and F2), recognized by filarial patients sera, were also tested with the monoclonal antibody (detecting the filarial circulating antigen). The F1 and F2 gel eluted fractions were found to have the target antigen of monoclonal antibody as evident by high reactivity with the monoclonal antibody in ELISA and immunoblotting. The S. cervi gel eluted F1 fraction (containing single antigen) could detect antibodies in filarial patients sera and not in non-filarial sera thereby suggesting its usefulness for specific serodiagnosis of human filariasis.

  3. Preparation of polyacrylamide gel-filled capillaries with step gradients and low UV-detection background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈义

    1997-01-01

    Polyacrylamide- filled capillaries with step gradients were designed and prepared with a newly established method,which is also suitable for producing other sorts of capillaries.The resulting capillaries allow the use of any UV light to approach the most sensitive detection and have the features of fast running speed and high separation efficiency In addition,the capillaries can he used continuously for more than two weeks.

  4. Electrically induced gel-sol transition of polyvinyl alcohol/ polyacrylamide semi-interpenetrated hydrogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Chao Jin; Yong Min Huang; Hong Lai Liu

    2009-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol/polyacrylamide semi-interpenetrated hydrogels were prepared via freeze-thaw process. When a 20 V of DC was applied across the gels, the gels with lower polyacrylamide content underwent a contraction or partly turned into solution, while for the gels with higher polyacrylamide concentration, a complete gel-sol transition was observed in a short time.

  5. Sample Preparation and Staining Methods for Two-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of Proteins from Animal Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente Czegledi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteomics in animal science as well as in other biological sciences is a significant tool in the post-genomic era. In proteomic studies the presence and relative abundance of expressed proteins of a cell, tissue or biological fluid is studied. Recently, the whole genome of more and more domestic animal species is known, but genes and the transcribed mRNA have no direct effect on biological systems as they are regulated by proteins, which explain the importance of proteomics. The most common tool in proteomic approach is the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE, when proteins are separated by their isoelectric point followed by their mass separation as a second dimension. In this study authors used different sample preparation and protein staining methods on meat,  liver and blood plasma and carried out 2D PAGE experiments. The most appropriate sample preparation methods are described in this paper. We concluded that depletion of major proteins in plasma is required but not necessary for meat and liver samples.

  6. Western Blot of Stained Proteins from Dried Polyacrylamide Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Claudia; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1996-01-01

    Western blotting of proteins is customarily performed following their separation on polyacrylamide gels, either prior to staining (1) or, as recently reported, following staining (2). We describe here Western blotting with stained gels, which had been dried and some of which had been stored for years. This procedure permits immunological analysis of proteins, to which antisera may have become available only later, or where the application of newly developed sensitive detection methods is desired. Once rehydration of the gels is achieved, proteins can be-transferred to blotting membranes by any appropriate protocol. Proteins stained with Coomassie Blue have to be detected with a non-chromogenic method, such as the film-based enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL)2) procedure (3). Silver stained proteins, which transfer in the colorless form, may be visualized by any detection method, although, because of the usually very low amounts of proteins, detection by ECL is preferable. Blotting of stained proteins from rehydrated gels is as rapid and as quantitative as from freshly prepared gels, in contrast to blotting from wet stained gels, which requires extensive washing and results in low transfer efficiency (2). Together with a photographic record of the gel pattern, unambiguous identification of immunoreactive proteins from complex mixtures is possible. Some further applications of this work are discussed.

  7. Scalable lithography from Natural DNA Patterns via polyacrylamide gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jiehao; Hou, Xianliang; Fan, Wanchao; Xi, Guanghui; Diao, Hongyan; Liu, Xiangdon

    2015-12-01

    A facile strategy for fabricating scalable stamps has been developed using cross-linked polyacrylamide gel (PAMG) that controllably and precisely shrinks and swells with water content. Aligned patterns of natural DNA molecules were prepared by evaporative self-assembly on a PMMA substrate, and were transferred to unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) to form a negative replica. The negative was used to pattern the linear structures onto the surface of water-swollen PAMG, and the pattern sizes on the PAMG stamp were customized by adjusting the water content of the PAMG. As a result, consistent reproduction of DNA patterns could be achieved with feature sizes that can be controlled over the range of 40%-200% of the original pattern dimensions. This methodology is novel and may pave a new avenue for manufacturing stamp-based functional nanostructures in a simple and cost-effective manner on a large scale.

  8. A technique for detecting antifungal activity of proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, M F; Goderis, I J; Terras, F R; Cammue, B P; Broekaert, W F

    1991-06-01

    A technique was developed for the detection of antifungal activity of proteins after discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under native conditions. The antifungal activity is detected as growth inhibition zones in a homogeneous fungal lawn, grown in an agar layer spread on top of the polyacrylamide gel. The position of proteins with antifungal activity can be determined on a diffusion blot prepared from the same gel. The technique is illustrated for three antifungal plant proteins, i.e. alpha-purothionin, Urtica dioica agglutinin, and tobacco chitinase.

  9. Electrophoresis of DNA in agarose gels, polyacrylamide gels and in free solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellwagen, Nancy C.

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the electrophoresis of curved and normal DNA molecules in agarose gels, polyacrylamide gels and in free solution. These studies were undertaken to clarify why curved DNA molecules migrate anomalously slowly in polyacrylamide gels but not in agarose gels. Two milestone papers are cited, in which Ferguson plots were used to estimate the effective pore size of agarose and polyacrylamide gels. Subsequent studies on the effect of the electric field on agarose and polyacrylamide gel matrices, DNA interactions with the two gel matrices, and the effect of curvature on the free solution mobility of DNA are also described. The combined results suggest that the anomalously slow mobilities observed for curved DNA molecules in polyacrylamide gels are due primarily to preferential interactions of curved DNAs with the polyacrylamide gel matrix; the restrictive pore size of the matrix is of lesser importance. In free solution, DNA mobilities increase with increasing molecular mass until leveling off at a plateau value of (3.17 ± 0.01) × 10-4 cm2/Vs in 40 mM Tris-acetate-EDTA buffer at 20°C. Curved DNA molecules migrate anomalously slowly in free solution as well as in polyacrylamide gels, explaining why the Ferguson plots of curved and normal DNAs containing the same number of base pairs extrapolate to different mobilities at zero gel concentration. PMID:19517510

  10. Evaluation of wheat by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... SDS-PAGE gels cluster analysis was performed to check the ... It is concluded that SDS-PAGE analysis of wheat endosperm protein is useful for evaluation of ..... Comparison of phenotypic and molecular marker-based.

  11. Maltodextrin hydrolysis with glucoamylase immobilized in polyacrylamide gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yankov, D.; Peeva, L.; Beschkov, V. (Inst. of Chemical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    1992-08-01

    The immobilization of glucoamylase by entrapping in a polyacrylamide gel has been studied. The optimum values of pH and temperature for the immobilized enzyme have been determinated. The influence of worked off cycles, substrate concentration and initial degree of hydrolysis on the final conversion of starch have been investigated. (orig.).

  12. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of isoenzymes from Entamoeba species.

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews, H M; Moss, D M; Healy, G R; Visvesvara, G S

    1983-01-01

    In this preliminary report, we describe a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique for the resolution of isoenzyme patterns of four isolates of Entamoeba histolytica and one isolate of Entamoeba coli. Our findings were similar to previous findings for three enzyme systems: maleic enzyme (malate dehydrogenase [EC 1.1.1.40]), hexokinase (EC 2.7.1.1), and phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1). We found preliminary evidence that glucosephosphate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.9) may also differentiate invasiv...

  13. Basics and recent advances of two dimensional- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Gel- based proteomics is one of the most versatile methods for fractionating protein complexes. Among these methods, two dimensional- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) represents a mainstay orthogonal approach, which is popularly used to simultaneously fractionate, identify, and quantify proteins when coupled with mass spectrometric identification or other immunological tests. Although 2-DE was first introduced more than three decades ago, several challenges and limitations to its utility still exist. This review discusses the principles of 2-DE as well as both recent methodological advances and new applications. PMID:24735559

  14. Silver and Cyanine Staining of Oligonucleotides in Polyacrylamide Gel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhong Tang

    Full Text Available To explore why some oligonucleotides in denaturing polyacrylamide gel could not be silver-stained, 134 different oligonucleotides were analyzed using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis stained with silver and asymmetric cyanine. As a result, we found that the sensitivity of oligos (dA, (dC, (dG and (dT to silver staining could be ranged as (dA > (dG > (dC > (dT from high to low. It was unexpected that oligo (dT was hard to be silver-stained. Moreover, the silver staining of an oligonucleotide containing base T could be partially or completely inhibited by base T. The inhibition of silver staining by base T was a competitive inhibition which could be affected by the amounts of the argyrophil nucleobase and base T, the cis-distance between the argyrophil nucleobase and base T, and the gel concentration. The changes of the intensity of an oligonucleotide band caused by the changes of DNA base composition were diverse and interesting. The intensity of some oligonucleotide bands would significantly change when the changes of DNA base composition accumulated to a certain extent (usually ≥ 4 nt. The sensitivity of cyanine staining of ≤ 11-nt long oligonucleotides could be enhanced about 250-fold by fixing the gels with methanol fixing solution.

  15. Tris-acetate polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis for the analysis of protein oligomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos-Rojas, Monica; Schneider, Taiane; Sánchez-Tena, Susana; Bartrons, Ramon; Ventura, Francesc; Rosa, Jose Luis

    2016-02-01

    Here we report a new approach for studying protein oligomerization in cells using a single electrophoresis gel. We combined the use of a crosslinking reagent for sample preparation, such as glutaraldehyde, with the analysis of oligomers by Tris-acetate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The use of a 3-15% Tris-acetate polyacrylamide gradient gel allows for the simultaneous analysis of proteins of masses ranging from 10 to 500 kDa. We showed the usefulness of this method for analyzing endogenous p53 oligomerization with high resolution and sensitivity in human cells. Oligomerization analysis was dependent on the crosslinker concentration used. We also showed that this method could be used to study the regulation of oligomerization. In all experiments, Tris-acetate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis proved to be a robust, manageable, and cost- and time-efficient method that provided excellent results using a single gel. This approach can be easily extrapolated to the study of other oligomers. All of these features make this method a highly useful tool for the analysis of protein oligomerization.

  16. Study on preparation and performance of removing fluorine of grafted and modified polyacrylamide-gel%接枝改性聚丙烯酰胺凝胶的制备与除氟性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡莉; 刘建; 胡希华

    2012-01-01

    A new material, with ligand exchange properties, of removing fluoride from the fluorine-containing water was obtained. This material was prepared, according to Mannich reaction, from polyacrylamide gel ( PAM-Gel) , formaldehyde and iminodiacetic acid (IDA). With that, it was modified by chelating Fe3+ ions in (NH4) Fe(SO4)2 solution. Preparation conditions and performance of using this modified gel to remove fluoride from high fluoride water was studied. The results showed that the synthetic process of the gel was easy to operate,and its capability of removing fluorine was obvious and rapid. In the fluorine-containing water of 100 mg/L F- concentration, the saturated adsorption capacity was up to 31. 70 mgF-/g-gel. As 5 mg/L F- concentration, through in twice adsorption, total removal rate of fluoride was up to 83. 43% and the rest concentration of F- can meet with China national standards for drinking water. The test results showed as well, common-ions in water did not make affect on adsorbing fluor ions by the gel,and high selection in process of removing flours has been demonstrated.%以聚丙烯酰胺凝胶(PAM-Gel)为骨架,以氨基二乙酸(IDA)为接枝螯合剂,在甲醛参与下,依据Mannich反应,制得螯合基团接枝凝胶,并通过在( NH4) Fe( SO4)2溶液中螯合Fe3+离子,使凝胶获得改性,得到一种新的具有配体交换性能的从含氟水中除氟材料.研究了该种改性凝胶除氟材料制备条件及在高氟水中除氟的效率,结果表明,该除氟剂具有良好的除氟性能,在含氟100 mg/L溶液中,饱和吸附量可达31.70 mgF -/g-gel;对含氟5 mg/L的含氟水,经二次除氟,总除氟率可达83.43%,水中剩余氟离子浓度可达国家饮用水标准.实验表明,水中常见共存离子对氟的吸附率无影响,表现出该种材料对氟吸附的高度选择性.

  17. Characteristics of polyacrylamide gel with THPC and Turnbull Blue gel dosimeters evaluated using optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilařová (Vávrů), Kateřina; Kozubíková, Petra; Šolc, Jaroslav; Spěváček, Václav

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare characteristics of radiochromic gel - Turnbull Blue gel (TB gel) with polymer gel - polyacrylamide gel and tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride (PAGAT) using optical tomography. Both types of gels were examined in terms of dose sensitivity, dose response linearity and background value of spectrophotometric absorbance. The calibration curve was obtained for 60Co irradiation performed on Gammacell 220 at predefined gamma dose levels between 0 and 140 Gy for TBG and 0-15 Gy for PAGAT. To measure relative dose distributions from stereotactic irradiation, dosimeters were irradiated on Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion. The cylindrical glass housings filled with gel were attached to the stereotactic frame. They were exposed with single shot and 16 mm collimator by 65 Gy to a 50% prescription isodose for TB gel and 4 Gy to a 50% prescription isodose for PAGAT. Evaluations of dosimeters were performed on an UV-vis Spectrophotometer Helios β and an optical cone beam homemade tomography scanner with a 16-bit astronomy CCD camera with a set of color filters. The advantages and potential disadvantages for both types of gel dosimeters were summarized. Dose distribution in central slice and measured profiles of 16 mm shot shows excellent correspondence with treatment planning system Leksell GammaPlan® for both PAGAT and Turnbull Blue gels. Gel dosimeters are suitable for steep dose gradient verification. An optical tomography evaluation method is successful. Dose response characteristics of TB gel and PAGAT gel are presented.

  18. 双连续相微乳液制备连续孔聚丙烯酰胺凝胶%Preparation and properties of continuous porous polyacrylamide gels from bicontinuous microemulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周应学; 范晓东; 孙乐; 陈卫星; 于德海

    2011-01-01

    Organogel, hydrogel and an organo/hydro hybrid gel were prepared by bicontinuous microemulsion (BME) template of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/toluene/ 2-butanol/saline. 12-Hydroxystearic acid (12-HA)was organogeltor. These gels were self-supported, and aqueous and oil microphases bicontinuously coexisted and were immobilized in the gels. Particles dimenters and polydispersion of BME solution were detected by static light scattering (SLS) and dimenter was 8-800nm. Morphology constructure of gels were observated by scanning electrinic microscopy (SEM) and was continuous porous networks. Several peaks were measured of gels tested by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravity (TG) for thermal properties due to bicontinuous microemulsion composites. Compared to pure cross-linked polyacrylamide, the swelling ratio and swelling saturated times of BME hydrogel were instrictly decreased.%以十二烷基硫酸钠/甲苯/2-丁醇/盐水双连续微乳液相为模板,制备了3种组分双连续有机凝胶,水凝胶和有机/水杂化凝胶.12-羟基硬脂酸(12-HA)为有机凝胶剂.它们固定了水和油并使水和油微相共存于凝胶中.以静态光散射(SLS)测定了各双连续相微乳液的粒径,结果显示值在8~80nm.扫描电子显微镜观察了各凝胶的形貌,表明凝胶为连续孔网络结构.差示扫描量热(DSC)和热重(TG)研究了凝胶的热性能,由于双连续结构3种凝胶显示多个吸热和失重峰.与纯的闭孔聚丙烯酰胺相比,双连续水凝胶的溶胀率明显降低,饱和溶胀所需时间大大减小.

  19. Improved recovery of DNA from polyacrylamide gels after in situ DNA footprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Keulen, G; Meijer, WG

    Methods used to date for the isolation of DNA from polyacrylamide gels are elution based, time-consuming and with low yield in DNA. This paper describes an improved system employing polyacrylamide gels made of a meltable matrix. The new system was successfully applied to in situ DNA footprinting

  20. Improved recovery of DNA from polyacrylamide gels after in situ DNA footprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Keulen, G; Meijer, WG

    2003-01-01

    Methods used to date for the isolation of DNA from polyacrylamide gels are elution based, time-consuming and with low yield in DNA. This paper describes an improved system employing polyacrylamide gels made of a meltable matrix. The new system was successfully applied to in situ DNA footprinting fol

  1. Non-Gradient Blue Native Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoting; Wu, Jinzi; Jin, Zhen; Yan, Liang-Jun

    2017-02-02

    Gradient blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) is a well established and widely used technique for activity analysis of high-molecular-weight proteins, protein complexes, and protein-protein interactions. Since its inception in the early 1990s, a variety of minor modifications have been made to this gradient gel analytical method. Here we provide a major modification of the method, which we call non-gradient BN-PAGE. The procedure, similar to that of non-gradient SDS-PAGE, is simple because there is no expensive gradient maker involved. The non-gradient BN-PAGE protocols presented herein provide guidelines on the analysis of mitochondrial protein complexes, in particular, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLDH) and those in the electron transport chain. Protocols for the analysis of blood esterases or mitochondrial esterases are also presented. The non-gradient BN-PAGE method may be tailored for analysis of specific proteins according to their molecular weight regardless of whether the target proteins are hydrophobic or hydrophilic. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Combined alcian blue and silver staining of subnanogram quantities of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H J; Heinegård, D; Poulsen, J H

    1993-01-01

    Proteoglycans stain weakly in polyacrylamide gels by traditional protein stains such as coomassie brilliant blue or silver. In the present work preparations of large aggregating proteoglycan from human articular cartilage were used to evaluate a convenient staining method based on successive stai...

  3. A versatile polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis based sulfotransferase assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prather Brittany

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfotransferases are a large group of enzymes that regulate the biological activity or availability of a wide spectrum of substrates through sulfation with the sulfur donor 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS. These enzymes are known to be difficult to assay. A convenient assay is needed in order to better understand these enzymes. Results A universal sulfotransferase assay method based on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE is described. This assay has been successfully applied to substrates as small as α-naphthol and as big as proteoglycans. As examples, we present the assays for recombinant human CHST4, TPST1, CHST3 and HS6ST1. In order to assess whether a small molecule can be applicable to this type of assay, a method to estimate the relative mobility of a molecule to PAPS is also presented. The estimated relative mobilities of various sulfated small molecules generated by SULT1A1, SULT1E1, SULT2A1 and CHST4 are in the range of ± 0.2 of the actual relative mobilities. Conclusion The versatility of the current method comes from the ability that SDS-PAGE can separate proteins and small molecules according to different parameters. While mobilities of proteins during SDS-PAGE are inversely related to their sizes, mobilities of small molecules are positively related to their charge/mass ratios. The predicted relative mobility of a product to PAPS is a good indicator of whether a sulfotransferase can be assayed with SDS-PAGE. Because phosphorylation is most similar to sulfation in chemistry, the method is likely to be applicable to kinases as well.

  4. 高分子网络凝胶法制备Nd∶YAG纳米粉体及其表征%Preparation and Characterization of Nd ∶ YAG Nano-powders by Polyacrylamide Gel Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晶晶; 冯欢欢; 孙丛立; 陈寰; 罗建勇; 晋勇; 焦志峰; 龚敏; 孙小松

    2013-01-01

    以Al(NO3)3·9H2O、Y(NO3)3·6H2O和Nd(NO3)3·6H2O为原材料,丙烯酰胺和N'N-亚甲基双丙烯酰胺为单体和网络剂,采用高分子网络凝胶法制备了Nd∶YAG纳米粉体.分别用热重-差热分析、X射线衍射、扫描电子显微镜、透射电子显微镜和荧光分光光度计对所得样品进行表征.结果表明,钇铝石榴石晶相的形成温度为880℃,粉体呈珊瑚虫状,粒径随着温度的升高而增大.Nd∶YAG纳米粉在401 nm处有强烈的发光峰,可以作为紫光光源的考虑对象;另外在研究中还发现了Nd3+在YAG中的浓度猝灭现象.%Using Al(NO3)3 · 9H2O,Y(NO3)3 · 6H2O and Nd(NO3)3 · 6H2O,acrylamide and N' N-methylene-bis-acrylamide as the starting materials,monomer and lattice reagent,respectively,the Nd ∶ YAG powders were prepared by polyacrylamide gel method.The prepared samples were characterized by thermo-gravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry,XRD,scanning electron microscopy,transmission electron microscopy,and photoluminescence spectroscopy.The results indicate that the formation temperature of pure YAG phase is 880 ℃.The YAG powders exhibit coral shape,and the particle size increases with the rise of temperature.The luminescence spectrum of YAG ∶ Nd3+ exhibits the strongest emission peak at 401 nm.Concentration quenching effect of Nd3+ in YAG was observed in the study.

  5. Agarose gel electrophoresis and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for visualization of simple sequence repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James; Wright, Drew; Meksem, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    In the modern age of genetic research there is a constant search for ways to improve the efficiency of plant selection. The most recent technology that can result in a highly efficient means of selection and still be done at a low cost is through plant selection directed by simple sequence repeats (SSRs or microsatellites). The molecular markers are used to select for certain desirable plant traits without relying on ambiguous phenotypic data. The best way to detect these is the use of gel electrophoresis. Gel electrophoresis is a common technique in laboratory settings which is used to separate deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) by size. Loading DNA and RNA onto gels allows for visualization of the size of fragments through the separation of DNA and RNA fragments. This is achieved through the use of the charge in the particles. As the fragments separate, they form into distinct bands at set sizes. We describe the ability to visualize SSRs on slab gels of agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  6. 聚丙烯酰胺凝胶法制备NiFe2O4纳米颗粒及性能%Preparation and Properties of NiFe2O4 Nanoparticles by a Polyacrylamide Gel Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东方; 杨华; 县涛; 王伟鹏; 魏智强; 李瑞山; 冯旺军; 姜金龙

    2013-01-01

    采用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶法制备了NiFe2O4纳米颗粒,利用XRD、SEM、紫外-可见漫反射光谱、FTIR、XPS、VSM等对样品进行了表征分析.结果表明:分别以EDTA和乙酸作络合剂时,在600℃烧结温度下可制得单相NiFe2O4纳米颗粒;两个样品的颗粒形貌较为规整,主要以类球形为主,粒度分布较为均匀,平均粒径分别为55 nm和75nm.根据紫外-可见漫反射光谱求得样品的带隙为1.85 eV.Fe2p3/2和Ni2p3/2的XPS谱分析表明:样品为反尖晶石型结构,其化学通式可表示为(Fe3+)[Ni2+ Fe3+]O4.磁滞回线测量结果表明:样品具有良好的软磁特性,颗粒尺寸较小的样品其饱和磁化强度、剩余磁化强度和矫顽力相对较小.%A polyacrylamide gel route was used to prepare NiFe2O4 nanoparticles. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) , scanning electron microscope (SEM) , ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) , X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) , and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). It is demonstrated that single-phase NiFe2O4 nanoparticles can be prepared separately using ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and acetic acid as the chelating agent at a calcining temperature of 600 ℃. The two as-prepared samples have regular spherical particle shapes and uniform particle sizes with an average diameter of 55 run and 75 nm, respectively. The energy bandgap of the samples is estimated to be 1.85 eV by ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Fe 2p3/2 and Ni 2p3/2 XPS spectra reveal that the samples have an inverse spinel-type structure with the chemical formula (Fe3+ ) [Ni2+Fe3+ ]O4. Magnetic hysteresis loop measurements indicate that the samples exhibit good soft magnetic properties, and their saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity have a decrease with decrease in particle size.

  7. A continuous acetic acid system for polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of gliadins and other prolamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, R L

    1988-02-01

    A polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system buffered by acetic acid alone was developed for electrophoresis of prolamines. When applied to gliadin electrophoresis, the acetic acid system produces more bands than does a conventional aluminum lactate-lactic acid system (using 12% acrylamide gels). The acetic acid system is relatively simple, requiring a single buffer component that is universally available in high purity.

  8. Preparation of chitosan gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerge S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerogel conditioning of the chitosan makes it possible to prepare porous solids of significant specific surface. The increase in the chitosan concentration or the degree of acetylation decreases the specific surface of the synthesized chitosan gel. Whereas drying with supercritical CO2 more effectively makes it possible to preserve the volume of the spheres of gel and to have a more significant specific surface in comparison with evaporative drying.

  9. An improved silver staining procedure for schizodeme analysis in polyacrylamide gradient gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. Gonçalves

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple protocol is described for the silver staining of polyacrylamide gradient gels used for the separation of restriction fragments of kinetoplast DNA [schizodeme analysis of trypanosomatids (Morel et al., 1980]. The method overcomes the problems of non-uniform staining and strong background color which are frequently encountered when conventional protocols for silver staining of linear gels. The method described has proven to be of general applicability for DNA, RNA and protein separations in gradient gels.

  10. Two previously undetected variants of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase found by acidic polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    McLellan, T

    1982-01-01

    Two new electrophoretic variants of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) have been found by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at acidic pH. They appeared to represent a single allele, GPT 2, by the standard method of starch gel electrophoresis. Studies in families show that they are inherited as codominant alleles at the GPT locus. Population frequencies are about the same as those of other rare GPT variants. Their behavior on gels is consistent with both of them having substitutions of histi...

  11. Congruence between starch gel and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in detecting allozyme variation in pulmonate land slugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenen, Sofie; Jordaens, Kurt; Castilho, Rita; Backeljau, Thierry

    2003-02-01

    The predominantly selfing slug species Arion (Carinarion) fasciatus, A. (C.) silvaticus and A. (C.) circumscriptus are native in Europe and have been introduced into North America, where each species consists of a single, homozygous multilocus genotype (strain), as defined by starch gel electrophoresis (SGE) of allozymes. In Europe, the "one strain per species" hypothesis does not hold since polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of allozymes uncovered 46 strains divided over the three species. However, electrophoretic techniques may differ in their ability to detect allozyme variation. Therefore, several Carinarion populations from both continents were screened by applying the two techniques simultaneously on the same individual slugs and enzyme loci. SGE and PAGE yielded exactly the same results, so that the different degree of variation in North American and European populations cannot be attributed to differences in resolving power between SGE and PAGE. We found four A. (C.) silvaticus strains in North America indicating that in this region the "one strain per species" hypothesis also cannot be maintained. Hence, the discrepancies between previous electrophoretic studies on Carinarion are most likely due to sampling artefacts and possible founder effects.

  12. [Effect of physico-chemical properties of polyacrylamide gel media on the growth of Escherichia coli colonies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, V B; Bulatova, R F; Domotenko, L V; Inkovskaia, T E; Artiukhin, V I

    1992-01-01

    We studied the growth of Escherichia coli LE-392 colonies on polyacrylamide gels (PAAG) depending on the physico-chemical properties of the latter, i.e. polymer concentration in the gel, swelling degree, bound water content (fm), spin-lattice relaxation and spin-spin relaxation times of water molecule protons, and modulus of elasticity (G0). S- or R-type colonies formed depending on gel properties; the diametral growth rate of S colonies was 3 times less compared with that on the control agar medium (Tryptose broth). The procedure is proposed for preparation of PAAG which rules out syneresis. Functional relations between the polymer concentrations in uniformly swelling gels and concentrations of copolymers in the reaction mixture, fm and G0 were revealed. The fm and G0 parameters can be used for controlling the quality of PAAG.

  13. A Novel Method for Detection of Glycoproteins on Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Using Radio-Iodinated Tyrosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalla, Amarnadh; Draz, Hossam M.; Dole, Anita;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a novel method for detection of glycoproteins on polyacrylamide gel. In this method, radio-iodinated-tyrosine (125I-tyrosine) was conjugated to glycoprotein by schiff's base mechanism on the sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel. Ovalbumin and Concanavalin...

  14. One-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D SDS-PAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Julie L; Green, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes a denaturing polyacrylamide gel system utilizing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to separate protein molecules based on size as first described by Laemmli (1970). SDS-PAGE can be used to monitor protein purifications, check the purity of samples, and to estimate molecular weights for unknown proteins. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Wide frequency rheological modeling of crosslinked polyacrylamide gels

    CERN Document Server

    Abidine, Yara; Michel, Richard; Duperray, Alain; Palade, Liviu Iulian; Verdier, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Gels are known to behave as viscoelastic materials but only a small amount of data is usually provided in the glassy transition. Results concerning the dynamic moduli G′ and G′′ are presented here using AFM in contact oscillatory mode and show good agreement with classical rheological data. Different gels are studied with increasing polymer concentration. G0N, the plateau modulus, is measured at low frequencies, but interestingly another one, G1, is found at high frequencies. A model based on fractional derivatives is proposed, covering the whole frequency range. The relaxation spectrum is recovered, and the physical parameters contain interesting information about the local dynamics of crosslinks.

  16. Polyacrylamide gels with selective recognition of the tetrameric molecular form of human growth hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kublickas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Networks of polyacrylamide were studied for the possibility of imprinting of the oligomeric form of human growth hormone. The tetrameric molecular form of human growth hormone was molecularly imprinted for the first time. The results show that approximately 50–70% (w/w of the templates (depending on polymerization conditions could be extracted from the molecularly imprinted acrylamide polymers. The resulting ‘gel antibodies’ against this form of human growth hormone in the form of granules of polyacrylamide were compared with granules of non-imprinted polymer. The selectivity of the artificial gel antibodies was studied. Investigation of the binding to imprinted polymer of the template hormone, other molecular forms of the hormone and other proteins shows the selectivity of the developed artificial gel antibodies.

  17. Scalable lithography from Natural DNA Patterns via polyacrylamide gel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qu, JieHao; Hou, XianLiang; Fan, WanChao; Xi, GuangHui; Diao, HongYan; Liu, XiangDon

    2015-01-01

    ...) that controllably and precisely shrinks and swells with water content. Aligned patterns of natural DNA molecules were prepared by evaporative self-assembly on a PMMA substrate, and were transferred to unsaturated polyester resin (UPR...

  18. Using in situ rheology to characterize the microstructure in photopolymerized polyacrylamide gels for DNA electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Ugaz, Victor M

    2006-09-01

    Photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide hydrogels are attractive sieving matrix formulations for DNA electrophoresis owing to their rapid polymerization times and the potential to locally tailor the gel pore structure through spatial variation of illumination intensity. This capability is especially important in microfluidic systems, where photopolymerization allows gel matrices to be precisely positioned within complex microchannel networks. Separation performance is also directly related to the nanoscale gel pore structure, which is in turn strongly influenced by polymerization kinetics. Unfortunately, detailed studies of the interplay among polymerization kinetics, mechanical properties, and structural morphology are lacking in photopolymerized hydrogel systems. In this paper, we address this issue by performing a series of in situ dynamic small-amplitude oscillatory shear measurements during photopolymerization of cross-linked polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels to investigate the relationship between rheology and parameters associated with the gelation environment including UV intensity, monomer and cross-linker composition, and reaction temperature. In general, we find that the storage modulus G' increases with increasing initial monomer concentration, cross-linker concentration, and polymerization temperature. The steady-state value of G', however, exhibits a more complex dependence on UV intensity that varies with gel concentration. A simple model based on rubber elasticity theory is used to obtain estimates of the average gel pore size that are in surprisingly good agreement with corresponding data obtained from analysis of DNA electrophoretic mobility in gels cast under identical polymerization conditions.

  19. [THE USE OF THE COMMERCIAL APPARATUS DUAL GEL MODULE FOR THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL POLYACRYLAMIDE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evteeva, I N; Starkova, T Yu; Artemov, A V; Barlev, N A

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, continues to be one of the fundamental methods to study the biological protein diversity. This method described by O'Farrell in 1975 includes two following steps: isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic fractionation of proteins according to their molecular weight in the second dimension. In this manuscript we described several technical parameters of the commercial apparatus Dual Gel Module for the gel electrophoresis by means of which it is possible to accomplish the electrophoretic protein fractionation in both dimensions. The distribution of the highly purified commercial proteins used as molecular standards in the detection system of the apparatus Dual Gel Module was identical to the commercial strips of the device GE Healthcare, USA.

  20. Polyacrylamide gels for invadopodia and traction force assays on cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrell, Rachel J; Parekh, Aron

    2015-01-04

    Rigid tumor tissues have been strongly implicated in regulating cancer cell migration and invasion. Invasive migration through cross-linked tissues is facilitated by actin-rich protrusions called invadopodia that proteolytically degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM). Invadopodia activity has been shown to be dependent on ECM rigidity and cancer cell contractile forces suggesting that rigidity signals can regulate these subcellular structures through actomyosin contractility. Invasive and contractile properties of cancer cells can be correlated in vitro using invadopodia and traction force assays based on polyacrylamide gels (PAAs) of different rigidities. Invasive and contractile properties of cancer cells can be correlated in vitro using invadopodia and traction force assays based on polyacrylamide gels (PAAs) of different rigidities. While some variations between the two assays exist, the protocol presented here provides a method for creating PAAs that can be used in both assays and are easily adaptable to the user's specific biological and technical needs.

  1. Highly sensitive fluorescent stain for detecting lipopolysaccharides in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Zhou, Ayi; Cai, Wanhui; Yu, Dongdong; Zhu, Zhongxin; Jiang, Chengxi; Jin, Litai

    2015-08-01

    A sensitive and simple technique was developed for the visualization of gel-separated lipopolysaccharides by using a hydrazide derivative, UGF202. As low as 0.5-1 ng total LPS could be detected by UGF202 stain, which is 2- and 16-fold more sensitive than that of the commonly used Pro-Q Emerald 300 and Keenan et al. developed silver stain, respectively. The results indicated that UGF202 stain could be a good choice for LPS determination in polyacrylamide gels. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Detection of connexins in liver cells using sodiumdodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willebrords, Joost; Maes, Michaël; Yanguas, Sara Crespo; Cogliati, Bruno; Vinken, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Summary Since connexin expression is partly regulated at the protein level, immunoblot analysis represents a frequently addressed technique in the connexin research field. The present chapter describes the set-up of an immunoblot procedure, including protein extraction and quantification from biological samples, gel electrophoresis, protein transfer and immunoblotting, which is optimized for analysis of connexins in liver tissue. In essence, proteins are separated on a polyacrylamide gel using sodiumdodecylsulfate followed by transfer of proteins on a nitrocellulose membrane. The latter allows specific detection of connexins with antibodies combined with revelation through enhanced chemiluminescence. PMID:27207285

  3. Resolving Acetylated and Phosphorylated Proteins by Neutral Urea Triton-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, NUT-PAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehl, Christopher J.; Deng, Xiexiong; Liu, Mengyu; Hovde, Stacy; Xu, Xinjing; Kuo, Min-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Protein acetylation and phosphorylation can be key modifications that regulate both normal and pathological protein functions. Current gel systems used to analyze modified proteins require either expensive reagents or time–consuming second dimension electrophoresis. In this manuscript, we present a neutral pH gel system that allows the analysis of acetylated and phosphorylated proteins. This neutral pH urea Triton-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system, or NUT-PAGE, separates proteins based on their charge at pH 7 and generates discrete bands from each acetylated and phosphorylated species. In addition, the gel is composed of common and inexpensive laboratory reagents, and requires only a single dimension of electrophoresis. We are able to demonstrate the effectiveness of this system by analyzing phosphorylated species of an acidic protein, α-synuclein, and both acetylated and phosphorylated species of a basic protein, histone H3. NUT-PAGE thus provides a cost-effective alternative to resolving acetylated and phosphorylated proteins, and potentially proteins with other post-translational modifications that alter net charge. Method Summary Here we present a single-dimension neutral pH urea Triton-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (NUT-PAGE) system affording high-resolution separation of acetylated and phosphorylated proteins. PMID:25109292

  4. Analysis of mucosal mucins separated by SDS-urea agarose polyacrylamide composite gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Samah M A; Schulz, Benjamin L; Packer, Nicolle H; Karlsson, Niclas G

    2011-12-01

    Efficient separation of mucins (200 kDa-2 MDa) was demonstrated using gradient SDS agarose/polyacrylamide composite gel electrophoresis (SDS-AgPAGE). Inclusion of urea (SDS-UAgPAGE) in the gels casting were shown to have no effect on the migration of mucins in the gel and allowed casting of gel at room temperature. This simplified the procedure for multiple casting of agarose polyacrylamide gradients and increased reproducibility of these gels. Hence, the implementation of urea makes the technique applicable for high throughput isolation and screening of mucin oligosaccharides by LC-MS after releasing the oligosaccharides from isolated, blotted mucin subpopulations. It was also shown that the urea addition had no effect on other supporting applications such as western and lectin blotting. In addition, identification of the mucin protein after tryptic digestion and LC-MS was possible and no protein carbamylation due to the presence of urea in the gel was detected. LC-MS software developed for metabolomic analysis was used for O-linked oligosaccharide detection and differential display of various mucin samples. Using this method, heterogeneous glycosylation of mucins and mucin-type molecules isolated by SDS-AgPAGE and SDS-UAgPAGE was shown to consist of more than 80 different components in a single band, and in the extreme cases, up to 300-500 components (MUC5B/AC from saliva and sputum and). Metabolomic software was also used to show that the migration of mucin isoforms within the gel is due to heterogeneous size distribution of the oligosaccharides, with the slower migrating bands enriched in high-molecular-weight oligosaccharides. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-SDS as a tool to study myofibrillar proteins. A review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez-Chabela, M. Lourdes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Miofibrillar proteins are part of land and sea animals’ muscle. Nonetheless, even when muscle proteins are the same type of proteins, their structure, rigor mortis time, and biochemical process associated to muscle to meat conversion, are different among animal species. This review has the aim to describe the advantages of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE in the study of myofibrillar proteins structure, besides the influence of many parameters on this technique to obtain an electrophoretic profile. Applications of this technique as a diagnostic tool in the food science, ecology and health are described as well.

  6. Electrostatic protein immobilization using charged polyacrylamide gels and cationic detergent microfluidic Western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyun; Karns, Kelly; Tia, Samuel Q; He, Mei; Herr, Amy E

    2012-03-06

    We report a novel protein immobilization matrix for fully integrated microfluidic Western blotting (WB). The electrostatic immobilization gel (EIG) enables immobilization of all proteins sized using cetyl trimethylammonium bromide polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (CTAB-PAGE), for subsequent electrophoretic probing with detection affinity reagents (e.g., labeled antibodies). The "pan-analyte" capture strategy introduced here uses polyacrylamide gel grafted with concentrated point charges (zwitterionic macromolecules), in contrast to existing microfluidic WB strategies that rely on a sandwich immunoassay format for analyte immobilization and detection. Sandwich approaches limit analyte immobilization to capture of only a priori known targets. A charge interaction mechanism study supports the hypothesis that electrostatic interaction plays a major role in analyte immobilization on the EIG. We note that protein capture efficiency depends on both the concentration of copolymerized charges and ionic strength of the gel buffer. We demonstrate pan-analyte immobilization of sized CTAB-laden model proteins (protein G, ovalbumin, bovine serum albumin, β-galactosidase, lactoferrin) on the EIG with initial capture efficiencies ranging from 21 to 100%. Target proteins fixed on the EIG (protein G, lactoferrin) are detected using antibody probes with signal-to-noise ratios of 34 to 275. The approach advances protein immunoblotting performance through 200× reduction on sample consumption, 12× reduction in assay duration, and automated assay operation, compared to slab-gel WB. Using the microfluidic WB assay, assessment of lactoferrin in human tear fluid is demonstrated with a goal of advancing toward nonbiopsy-based diagnosis of Sjögren's Syndrome, an autoimmune disease.

  7. Deciphering metabolic networks by blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: A functional proteomic exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Auger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolism is the consortium of reactions within a cell which directs a variety of processes including energy synthesis, signalling and the behaviour of a biological system. Metabolic networks, and more specifically the activity of enzymes within them, provide an accurate status of how cellular information is being executed. The performance of these networks and their ability to siphon metabolites in a number of directions may be the difference between a healthy and diseased state. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE, owing to its simplicity and wide-ranging applications, permits the inspection of these nodules. The separation of proteins and enzyme complexes in their native format enables the exploration of enzymatic activity in metabolic networks via in-gel assays. These are quick, specific, and amenable to further studies. This electrophoretic technology not only enables the visualization of enzymatic efficacy but reveals the crosstalk among enzymes and their interactions with other organellar partners.

  8. Polyacrylamide Gel Treatment of Antiretroviral Therapy-induced Facial Lipoatrophy in HIV Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansor, Samreen; Breiting, Vibeke Bro; Dahlstrøm, Karin

    2011-01-01

    been used successfully in HIV patients abroad. This article describes the results of a Danish study. METHODS: Forty HIV patients recruited from two major referral hospitals in the capitol area of Copenhagen, Denmark, each received a series of PAAG gel injections (small deposits in several sessions......) with a 14-day interval. Patient satisfaction, injector's evaluation, evaluation by an external specialist in plastic surgery, and long-term aesthetic effect and complications were registered with follow-up until 2 years. RESULTS: All patients were very satisfied or satisfied with the result. The injector......BACKGROUND: Today, highly active antiretroviral therapy is lifesaving for most HIV-infected patients, but the treatment can result in facial lipoatrophy, which changes the face so radically that patients may develop severe psychological and social problems. Since 2001 polyacrylamide gel (PAAG) has...

  9. Improved detection of amylase activity by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with copolymerized starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, T F; Alarcón, F J; Díaz-López, M; Moyano, F J

    2000-08-01

    An improved method, based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for detection of amylase activity is described. This method will allow better characterization of certain amylases than that obtained by the Davis technique. The main features of the technique are: (i) identification of amylase bands and molecular mass determination are possible in the same gel; (ii) the hydrolysis of copolymerized substrate during electrophoretic separation is prevented using very low temperatures instead of inactivating agents such as chelating agents; and (iii) the technique is applicable to reveal amylase activity in a wide range of biological samples. The method is not useful for enzymes sensitive to SDS and for high molecular mass amylases.

  10. MALDI analysis of proteins after extraction from dissolvable ethylene glycol diacrylate cross-linked polyacrylamide gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasotiriou, Dimitrios G; Markoutsa, Stavroula; Gorka, Jan; Schleiff, Enrico; Karas, Michael; Meyer, Bjoern

    2013-09-01

    Although the extraction of intact proteins from polyacrylamide gels followed by mass spectrometric molecular mass determination has been shown to be efficient, there is room for alternative approaches. Our study evaluates ethylene glycol diacrylate, a cleavable cross-linking agent used for a new type of dissolvable gels. It attains an ester linkage that can be hydrolyzed in alkali conditions. The separation performance of the new gel system was tested by 1D and 2D SDS-PAGE using the outer chloroplast envelope of Pisum sativum as well as a soluble protein fraction of human lymphocytes, respectively. Gel spot staining (CBB), dissolving, and extracting were conducted using a custom-developed workflow. It includes protein extraction with an ammonia-SDS buffer followed by methanol treatment to remove acrylamide filaments. Necessary purification for MALDI-TOF analysis was implemented using methanol-chloroform precipitation and perfusion HPLC. Both cleaning procedures were applied to several standard proteins of different molecular weight as well as 'real' biological samples (8-75 kDa). The protein amounts, which had to be loaded on the gel to detect a peak in MALDI-TOF MS, were in the range of 0.1 to 5 μg, and the required amount increased with increasing mass.

  11. Deposition of Ibuprofen Crystals on Hydroxypropyl Cellulose/Polyacrylamide Gel: Experimental and Mathematic Modeling Releasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alicia Castillo-Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug [2-(4-isobutyl-phenyl propionic acid] ibuprofen (IBP on a hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC and polyacrylamide (PAAm gel was studied as well as the release kinetics of the drug. The IBP was crystallized on the gel surface of HPC/PAAm. It had a prismatic shape and the growth was made in an aqueous medium; the crystallinity grade of the gels HPC/PAAm and HPC/PAAm-IBU increased to 68% and to 58%, respectively. The release of IBP is performed by two means: by a non-Fickian diffusion process and by relaxation of the chains of the gel; without regard to temperature and the diffusion media, this correlates with the lower critical solution temperature (LCST of the proposed gel. This polymer matrix provides an option for releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in a temperature range of 35–39°C. Korsmeyer and Peppas mathematical model was simulated for data releases, statistically significant at 95% confidence level.

  12. Synthesis of YAG:Ce3+ Phosphor by Polyacrylamide Gel Method and Promoting Action of α-Al2O3 Seed Crystal on Phase Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yongxiu; Li Yinyi; Min Yulin; Wu Yanli; Cheng Changming; Zhou Xuezhen; Gu Ziying

    2005-01-01

    YAG:Ce3+ phosphor particles were prepared using polyacrylamide gel method. The structure evolution of powders during annealing process was followed by X-ray diffraction determination. It is found that some intermediate phases, including θ-Al2O3, YAM and YAP, are formed when calcining polyacrylamide gel, however, the pure YAG phase can be formed directly when calcining polyacrylamide gel with α-Al2O3 as seed crystal. These facts show that the existence of α-Al2O3 seed crystal can block the formation of θ-Al2O3, YAM and YAP, and accelerate its reaction with Y2O3 to form YAG phase directly at lower temperature. The emission peak of prepared YAG:Ce3+ phosphor is wide with maximum at 550 nm and the exitation band has two peaks, the major one is around at 460 nm, which matches the blue emission of GaN LED and is suitable for the assemble of white LED. Some fluxes can enhance the photoluminescence intensity of phosphor particles, that can be attributed both to the improvement of crystallization processes of YAG and to the stabilization of trivalence cerium ion in YAG:Ce3+.

  13. Purification of Peptide Components including Melittin from Bee Venom using gel filtration chromatography and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Chon Choi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was conducted to carry out Purification of Melittin and other peptide components from Bee Venom using gel filtration chromatography and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis Methods : Melittin and other peptide components were separated from bee venom by using gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-50 column in 0.05M ammonium acetate buffer. Results : Melittin and other peptide components were separated from bee venom by using gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-50 column in 0.05M ammonium acetate buffer. The fractions obtained from gel filtration chromatography was analyzed by using SDS-PAGE and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The melittin obtained from the gel filtration contained residual amount of phospholipase A2 and a protein with molecular weight of 6,000. The contaminating proteins were removed by the second gel filtration chromatography. Conclusion : Gel filtration chromatography and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are useful to separate peptide components including melittin from bee venom.

  14. Rheological and mechanical behavior of polyacrylamide hydrogels chemically crosslinked with allyl agarose for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriano, R; Griffini, G; Chiari, M; Levi, M; Turri, S

    2014-02-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis currently represents one of the most standard techniques for protein separation. In addition to the most commonly employed polyacrylamide crosslinked hydrogels, acrylamide-agarose copolymers have been proposed as promising systems for separation matrices in 2-D electrophoresis, because of the good resolution of both high and low molecular mass proteins made possible by careful control and optimization of the hydrogel pore structure. As a matter of fact, a thorough understanding of the nature of the hydrogel pore structure as well as of the parameters by which it is influenced is crucial for the design of hydrogel systems with optimal sieving properties. In this work, a series of acrylamide-based hydrogels covalently crosslinked with different concentrations of allyl agarose (0.2-1%) is prepared and characterized by creep-recovery measurements, dynamic rheology and tensile tests, in the attempt to gain a clearer understanding of structure-property relationships in crosslinked polyacrylamide-based hydrogels. The rheological and mechanical properties of crosslinked acrylamide-agarose hydrogels are found to be greatly affected by crosslinker concentration. Dynamic rheological tests show that hydrogels with a percentage of allyl agarose between 0.2% and 0.6% have a low density of elastically effective crosslinks, explaining the good separation of high molecular mass proteins in 2-D gel electrophoresis. Over the same range of crosslinker concentration, creep-recovery measurements reveal the presence of non-permanent crosslinks in the hydrogel network that justifies the good resolution of low molecular mass proteins as well. In tensile tests, the hydrogel crosslinked with 0.4% of allyl agarose exhibits the best results in terms of mechanical strength and toughness. Our results show how the control of the viscoelastic and the mechanical properties of these materials allow the design of mechanically stable hydrogels with improved

  15. Polyacrylamide Gel-Entrapped Maltase: An Excellent Design of Using Maltase in Continuous Industrial Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Muhammad Asif; Aman, Afsheen; Rehman, Haneef Ur; Bibi, Zainab; Ansari, Asma; Islam, Ziaul; Khan, Ishtiaq Ahmad; Qader, Shah Ali Ul

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial maltase catalyzes the hydrolysis of maltose and is known as one of the most significant hydrolases. It has several applications in different industrial processes but widely used in food fermentation technology and alcohol production. In the current study, entrapment technique was comprehensively examined using polyacrylamide gel as a matrix support to improve the stability and catalytic efficiency of maltase for continuous use. Maximum entrapment yield of maltase was achieved at 10 % polyacrylamide concentration with 3.0-mm bead size. Optimized conditions indicated an increase in the reaction temperature from 45 to 55 °C after maltase entrapment while no change was observed in the reaction time and pH. An increase in the K m value of entrapped maltase was attained whereas V max value decreased from 8411.0 to 6813.0 U ml(-1) min(-1) with reference to its free counterpart. Entrapped maltase showed remarkable thermal stability and retained 16 % activity at 70 °C even after 120.0 min. Entrapped maltase also exhibited excellent recycling efficiency up to eight consecutive reaction cycles. With respect to economic feasibility, entrapped maltase indicates its high potential to be used in various biotechnological applications.

  16. Synthesis, Characterization and Electromagnetic Studies on Nanocrystalline Nickel Zinc Ferrite by Polyacrylamide Gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiting MA; Yi WANG; Yanwen TIAN; Chunli ZHANG; Xikun LI

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline nickel zinc ferrite powders (NixZn1-xFe2O4, A for x=0, B for x=0.2, C for x=0.5, D for x= 0.8 and E for x= 1) were synthesized by polyacrylamide gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and wave-guide were used to characterize the composition. The XRD results show that the dried gel powders are amorphous, and the characteristic peaks of the spinel Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 appear after the gel is calcined at 400℃ for 1 h. When the calcining temperatures are 600 and 800℃, the average grain sizes are identified by TEM to be 10 and 30 nm, respectively. The NixZn1-xFe2O4 powders have both.dielectric loss and magnetic loss in the frequency range of 8.2-11.0GHz. With the increase of Ni2+ ions content, the dielectric parameters (ε′) and permeability (u′) of the NixZn1-xFe2O4 powders decrease while the dielectric loss (ε″), magnetic loss (u″) and the reflection loss increase.

  17. Functional Characterization of Reductive Dehalogenases by Using Blue Native Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shuiquan; Chan, Winnie W. M.; Fletcher, Kelly E.; Seifert, Jana; Liang, Xiaoming; Löffler, Frank E.; Adrian, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    Dehalococcoides mccartyi strains are obligate organohalide-respiring bacteria harboring multiple distinct reductive dehalogenase (RDase) genes within their genomes. A major challenge is to identify substrates for the enzymes encoded by these RDase genes. We demonstrate an approach that involves blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) followed by enzyme activity assays with gel slices and subsequent identification of proteins in gel slices using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). RDase expression was investigated in cultures of Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain BAV1 and in the KB-1 consortium growing on chlorinated ethenes and 1,2-dichloroethane. In cultures of strain BAV1, BvcA was the only RDase detected, revealing that this enzyme catalyzes the dechlorination not only of vinyl chloride, but also of all dichloroethene isomers and 1,2-dichloroethane. In cultures of consortium KB-1, five distinct Dehalococcoides RDases and one Geobacter RDase were expressed under the conditions tested. Three of the five RDases included orthologs to the previously identified chlorinated ethene-dechlorinating enzymes VcrA, BvcA, and TceA. This study revealed substrate promiscuity for these three enzymes and provides a path forward to further explore the largely unknown RDase protein family. PMID:23204411

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging on complications of breast augmentation with injected hydrophilic polyacrylamide gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li-ying; KONG Xiang-quan; TIAN Zhi-xiong; QIU Da-sheng

    2006-01-01

    @@ The injection augmentation mammaplasty for cosmetic purpose has been popular recently in China. Two kinds of injectable material are used clinically, autologous fat and biomaterial. The fat injection for breast augmentation is in question with the major problems of progressive fat re-absorption,microcalcification, and fat liquefaction.1 Now, the principal alloplastic biomaterial for injection augmentation mammaplasty in China is hydrophilic polyacrylamide gel (HPAAG). Although thousands of breasts have been augmented with HPAAG and it seems to be a good biocompatible material, some complications develop after HPAAG injection augmentation mammaplasty.2-4 The patients had to undergo surgery to remove the injected HPAAG and associated lesions. Ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be taken preoperatively to demonstrate the distribution of injected HPAAG and associated lesions.5 In this report, the diagnostic value and clinical significance of MRI on the complications of HPAAG breast augmentation were discussed.

  19. Antigenic profile of heat-killed versus thimerosal-treated Leishmania major using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Arjmand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leishmania is a parasitic protozoan of trypanosomatidae family which causes a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from self-healing cutaneous lesions to deadly visceral forms. In endemic areas, field trials of different preparations of Leishmania total antigen were tested as leishmaniasis vaccine. Two preparations of killed Leishmania major were produced In Iran, which were heat-killed vaccine called autoclaved L. major (ALM and thimerosal-treated freeze-thawed vaccine called killed L. major (KLM. In this study, the protein content of both ALM and KLM were compared with that of freshly harvested intact L. major promastigotes using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Materials and Methods: L. major (MRHO/IR/75/ER from pre-infected Balb/c mice was isolated with modified Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN medium and then subcultured in liquid RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS 20% for mass production. Two preparations of KLM and ALM were produced by Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Iran, under WHO/TDR supervision. Electrophoresis was performed by SDS-PAGE method and the gel was stained by Coomassie brilliant blue dye. The resultant unit bands were compared using standard molecular proteins. Results: Electrophoresis of the two preparations produced many bands from 10 kDa to 100 kDa. KLM bands were much like those of freshly harvested intact L. major. Conclusion: It is concluded that although there are similar bands in the three forms of Leishmania antigens, there are some variations which might be considered for identification and purification of protective immunogens in a total crude antigen, and detection of their stability is essential for the production and marketing of a putative vaccine.

  20. Breast Fibromatosis after Hydrophilic Polyacrylamide Gel Injection for Breast Augmentation: a Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Long; Qun Qiao

    2011-01-01

    @@ BREAST fibromatosis is a rare kind of lesion.The average incidence is about 2-4 per million every year.1 So far there have been about 100 cases reported altogether.2 In this report, we describe a case of breast fibromatosis developed after hydrophilic polyacrylamide gel (HPG) injection for breast augmenta-Received for publication December 10, 2010.

  1. Imaging findings of breast augmentation with injected hydrophilic polyacrylamide gel: Patient reports and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khedher, Najoua Ben, E-mail: nbenkhedher@gmail.com [Centre d' Investigation et de Recherche Diagnostique des maladies du sein (CRID), Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Hotel-Dieu, 3840 rue Saint-Urbain, Montreal (Quebec), H2W 1T8 (Canada); David, Julie, E-mail: jdavid@vl.videotron.ca [Centre d' Investigation et de Recherche Diagnostique des maladies du sein (CRID), Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Hotel-Dieu, 3840 rue Saint-Urbain, Montreal (Quebec), H2W 1T8 (Canada); Trop, Isabelle, E-mail: itrop@yahoo.com [Centre d' Investigation et de Recherche Diagnostique des maladies du sein (CRID), Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Hotel-Dieu, 3840 rue Saint-Urbain, Montreal (Quebec), H2W 1T8 (Canada); Drouin, Suzanne, E-mail: suedrouin@sympatico.ca [Clinique Radiologique Leger et associees, 1851 rue Sherbrooke Est, Bureau 201, Montreal (Quebec), H2K 4L5 (Canada); Peloquin, Laurence, E-mail: laurence.peloquin@gmail.com [Centre d' Investigation et de Recherche Diagnostique des maladies du sein (CRID), Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Hotel-Dieu, 3840 rue Saint-Urbain, Montreal (Quebec), H2W 1T8 (Canada); Lalonde, Lucie, E-mail: lalucie@sympatico.ca [Centre d' Investigation et de Recherche Diagnostique des maladies du sein (CRID), Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Hotel-Dieu, 3840 rue Saint-Urbain, Montreal (Quebec), H2W 1T8 (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    Hydrophilic polyacrylamide gel (PAAG) is a nonresorbable soft tissue filler that has been used as implant material for breast augmentation in some countries, particularly from the Asian continent. Many complications associated with hydrogel use have been reported in the clinical literature including inflammation, persistent mastodynia, formation of multiple lumps, poor cosmetic results, glandular atrophy, and significant spread of hydrogel into the surrounding tissue. Data on long-term toxicity is currently unavailable. The radiologic features of PAAG injection mammoplasty frequently constitute a diagnostic challenge for radiologists. Indeed, the imaging appearances of uncomplicated PAAG implants may mimic conventional implants on mammography, sonography and MRI, with some distinguishing features. The location and local spread of the injected PAAG, and the eventual detection of local inflammation, are best evaluated by ultrasonography and especially MRI, considered the most sensitive technique for assessment of PAAG mammoplasty. MRI clearly depicts the volume and the distribution of gel within the breast; contrast medium enhancement allows delineation of areas of inflammation and infection. It is important to be familiar with the spectrum of imaging findings in order to make an accurate diagnosis and offer proper management. This paper aims to review the normal and abnormal mammographic, sonographic, and MR imaging characteristics of PAAG augmentation mammoplasty through presented patient reviews of three women having undergone direct PAAG injection.

  2. Growth of BeO Nanograins Synthesized by Polyacrylamide Gel Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng Wang; Richu Wang; Chaoqun Peng; Tingting Li; Bing Liu

    2011-01-01

    BeO nanoparticles were synthesized by polyacrylamide gel route. The effects of the processing parameters on the morphology and size of the synthesized BeO nanoparticles were investigated. The calcination temperature of the gel precursor containing beryllium sulfate was determined by thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), which is around 690℃ and 160℃ lower than the general temperature. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and specific surface area measurements (BET) showed that the synthesized nanoparticles under 700℃ were pure, globular and about ~5-20 nm with narrow distribution. Interestingly, the nanograins coalesced and grew under higher calcination temperatures and longer calcination time. The influence of calcination temperature on the morphology and growth behavior is greater than that of its duration. The activation energy for grain growth was estimated to be 24.53 kJ/mol, and the dominant growth mechanism was most likely to be related to the vapor transport in pore control mode and grain-rotation-induced grain coalescence (GRIGC) mechanism.

  3. SU-E-T-105: Development of 3D Dose Verification System for Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Using Improved Polyacrylamide-Based Gel Dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, K; Fujimoto, S; Akagi, Y; Hirokawa, Y [Hiroshima Heiwa Clinic, Hiroshima (Japan); Hayashi, S [Hiroshima International University, Hiroshima (Japan); Miyazawa, M [R-TECH.INC, Toukyo (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this dosimetric study was to develop 3D dose verification system for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using polyacrylamide-based gel (PAGAT) dosimeter improved the sensitivity by magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}). Methods: PAGAT gel containing MgCl{sub 2} as a sensitizer was prepared in this study. Methacrylic-acid-based gel (MAGAT) was also prepared to compare the dosimetric characteristics with PAGAT gel. The cylindrical glass vials (4 cm diameter, 12 cm length) filled with each polymer gel were irradiated with 6 MV photon beam using Novalis Tx linear accelerator (Varian/BrainLAB). The irradiated polymer gel dosimeters were scanned with Signa 1.5 T MRI system (GE), and dose calibration curves were obtained using T{sub 2} relaxation rate (R{sub 2} = 1/T{sub 2}). Dose rate (100-600 MU min{sup −1}) and fractionation (1-8 fractions) were varied. In addition, a cubic acrylic phantom (10 × 10 × 10 cm{sup 3}) filled with improved PAGAT gel inserted into the IMRT phantom (IBA) was irradiated with VMAT (RapidArc). C-shape structure was used for the VMAT planning by the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS). The dose comparison of TPS and measurements with the polymer gel dosimeter was accomplished by the gamma index analysis, overlaying the dose profiles for a set of data on selected planes using in-house developed software. Results: Dose rate and fractionation dependence of improved PAGAT gel were smaller than MAGAT gel. A high similarity was found by overlaying the dose profiles measured with improved PAGAT gel dosimeter and the TPS dose, and the mean pass rate of the gamma index analysis using 3%/3 mm criteria was achieved 90% on orthogonal planes for VMAT using improved PAGAT gel dosimeter. Conclusion: In-house developed 3D dose verification system using improved polyacrylamide-based gel dosimeter had a potential as an effective tool for VMAT QA.

  4. Serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in laboratory beagle dogs detected by polyacrylamide-gel disk electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatayama, Kazuhisa; Nishihara, Yoshito; Kimura, Sayaka; Goto, Ken; Nakamura, Daichi; Wakita, Atsushi; Urasoko, Yoshinaka

    2011-10-01

    Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is frequently measured in toxicity studies. Itoh et al. (2002) reported that a commercially available polyacrylamide-gel (PAG) disk electrophoresis kit used in humans (AlkPhor System, Jokoh Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) for identifying serum ALP isoenzymes was useful for veterinary clinicopathological diagnosis in mongrel dogs. In the present study, based on the report of Itoh et al. (2002), we tried to expand the application range of this kit to laboratory beagle dogs which are commonly used in toxicity studies. In order to identify the origin of each ALP isoenzyme, tissue ALP extracts from the liver, bone and small intestine and serum samples were treated with neuraminidase, anti-small intestinal ALP antibody, ALP inhibitor levamisole and/or wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). The main serum ALP isoenzymes in 5-month-old intact beagle dogs were bone-derived (bone and atypical ALP: corresponding to human variant bone ALP) and they tended to decrease with age. However, liver-derived ALP isoenzyme greatly increased in the serum of cholestasis model dogs. The cholestasis model dogs also had a large molecular ALP detected in the resolving gel. This ALP could be originated from intestinal ALP or corticosteroid-induced ALP (CALP), because the activity remained even after levamisole inhibition. CALP was observed in intact laboratory beagle dogs with individual differences. These results suggest that the present method is a useful tool for detecting serum ALP isoenzymes in laboratory beagle dogs and concomitant levamisole inhibition with another gel is applicable for the evaluation of organ toxicity.

  5. Agarose and Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Methods for Molecular Mass Analysis of 5–500 kDa Hyaluronan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhilocha, Shardul; Amin, Ripal; Pandya, Monika; Yuan, Han; Tank, Mihir; LoBello, Jaclyn; Shytuhina, Anastasia; Wang, Wenlan; Wisniewski, Hans-Georg; de la Motte, Carol; Cowman, Mary K.

    2011-01-01

    Agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis systems for the molecular mass-dependent separation of hyaluronan (HA) in the size range of approximately 5–500 kDa have been investigated. For agarose-based systems, the suitability of different agarose types, agarose concentrations, and buffers systems were determined. Using chemoenzymatically synthesized HA standards of low polydispersity, the molecular mass range was determined for each gel composition, over which the relationship between HA mobility and logarithm of the molecular mass was linear. Excellent linear calibration was obtained for HA molecular mass as low as approximately 9 kDa in agarose gels. For higher resolution separation, and for extension to molecular masses as low as approximately 5 kDa, gradient polyacrylamide gels were superior. Densitometric scanning of stained gels allowed analysis of the range of molecular masses present in a sample, and calculation of weight-average and number-average values. The methods were validated for polydisperse HA samples with viscosity-average molecular masses of 112, 59, 37, and 22 kDa, at sample loads of 0.5 µg (for polyacrylamide) to 2.5 µg (for agarose). Use of the methods for electrophoretic mobility shift assays was demonstrated for binding of the HA-binding region of aggrecan (recombinant human aggrecan G1-IGD-G2 domains) to a 150 kDa HA standard. PMID:21684248

  6. Preparation of a Novel Coal Gangue-Polyacrylamide Hybrid Flocculant and Its Flocculation Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangao Quan; Huiyun Wang

    2014-01-01

    A novel flocculant based on hybrid coal gangue-polyacrylamide (HCGPAM) has been prepared by using modified coal gangue and polyacrylamide. Factors related to the preparation such as reaction time, temperature, concentration of the polymer monomer and ratio of initiators are investigated. The product is characterized by infrared spectra (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), aswell as viscometry. The flocculating tests on oilfield drilling wastewater show that the removal efficiency is 85.5% and the light transmittance is 53.6%. The results indicate that the coal gangue could be used for the preparation of inorganic-organic hybrid flocculant and the removal efficiency is much higher than that of commercial polyacrylamide (PAM) or PAM/ coal gangue blend.

  7. Separation of Native Allophycocyanin and R-Phycocyanin from Marine Red Macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata by the Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Performed in Novel Buffer Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Wang; Xueqin Gong; Shumei Wang; Lixue Chen; Li Sun

    2014-01-01

    Three buffer systems of Imidazole-Acetic acid, HEPES-Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris-HEPES-MES were designed based on the principle of discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for the native PAGE which could be performed in pH 7.0 and 6.5 in order to analyze and prepare the minor components of allophycocyanin (AP) and R-phycocyanin (R-PC) from marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata. These AP and R-PC phycobiliproteins are easily denatured in alkaline environments. The obta...

  8. Detection of enzymes active on various beta-1,3-glucans after denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudel, J; Grenier, J; Asselin, A

    1998-07-01

    Enzymes were assayed for glucanase activity after denaturing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in gels containing beta-1,3-glucans embedded as substrate. Lentinan, curdlan, paramylon, baker's yeast alkali-insoluble glucan, baker's yeast alkali-soluble glucan and carboxymethyl (CM)-pachyman were compared to oligomeric laminarin, which is the usual substrate for assaying beta-1,3-glucanase activities. Detecting enzyme activities by aniline blue fluorescent staining was also compared with the staining of released reducing sugars by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC). For the nonreduced proteins, the Driselase extract exhibited one major band at 32.5 kDa and one less intense band at 23 kDa for most substrates with the two detection procedures. No Lyticase enzyme was detected in either detection procedures for all tested substrates. For barley enzymes, no activity was revealed after aniline blue staining while one undescribed 19 kDa glucanase activity was best shown after TTC staining with curdlan, paramylon and CM-pachyman as substrates. In the case of reduced proteins, the Lyticase extract yielded three bands (33, 36 and 46 kDa) on several substrates with both detection procedures. This was the same for the barley leaf extract (32, 36 and 39 kDa). The Driselase extract showed one 42 kDa band. Many enzymes active on beta-1,3-glucans are thus best revealed when proteins are denatured and reduced and when protein renaturation after SDS-PAGE involves a pH 8.0 treatment and the inclusion of 1 mM cysteine in buffers. However, some enzymes are only detected when proteins are denatured without reduction. Finally, the use of various polymeric beta-1,3-glucan substrates different from oligomeric laminarin is necessary to detect new types of enzymes such as the 19 kDa barley glucanase.

  9. Polyacrylamide Gel-Entrapped Fungal Manganese Peroxidase with Enhanced Catalytic, Stability and Reusability Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Asgher, Muhammad; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2016-07-19

    In the present study, polyacrylamide gel (PAG) was utilized as bolster material for the immobilization of in-house extracted and partially purified manganese peroxidase (MnP) through entrapment technique. The entrapment technique impelled incredibly compelling MnP immobilization (87.3±3.3%) and conferred remarkable stability to the enzyme (37.2±2.4%) following two months of storage at 4°C. The PAG-assisted immobilization expanded the reaction time of MnP after 10 min of response when contrasted with a partially purified free MnP counterpart, which demonstrated the highest activity after 5.0 min. Following PAG-assisted immobilization, an improvement in the optimal temperature and a chemical (an alkaline) shift in the pH optima of MnP were recorded. Moreover, a significant enhancement in the thermo-stability was also observed after immobilization. After 72 h, PAG-entrapped-MnP exhibited 41.2% residual activity at 50°C, whereas the free counterpart lost its activity completely under the same conditions. Furthermore, the PAG-entrapped-MnP also showed an excellent recycling efficiency and retained more than 50% of its initial activity after five consecutive reaction cycles. In conclusion, owing to the economic feasibility, carrier-supported MnP may be a promising candidate for various applications in different sectors of the modern world.

  10. Mechanosensitivity of astrocytes on optimized polyacrylamide gels analyzed by quantitative morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshayedi, Pouria; Costa, Luciano da F.; Christ, Andreas; Lacour, Stephanie P.; Fawcett, James; Guck, Jochen; Franze, Kristian

    2010-05-01

    Cells are able to detect and respond to mechanical cues from their environment. Previous studies have investigated this mechanosensitivity on various cell types, including neural cells such as astrocytes. In this study, we have carefully optimized polyacrylamide gels, commonly used as compliant growth substrates, considering their homogeneity in surface topography, mechanical properties, and coating density, and identified several potential pitfalls for the purpose of mechanosensitivity studies. The resulting astrocyte response to growth on substrates with shear storage moduli of G' = 100 Pa and G' = 10 kPa was then evaluated as a function of coating density of poly-D-lysine using quantitative morphometric analysis. Astrocytes cultured on stiff substrates showed significantly increased perimeter, area, diameter, elongation, number of extremities and overall complexity if compared to those cultured on compliant substrates. A statistically significant difference in the overall morphological score was confirmed with an artificial intelligence-based shape analysis. The dependence of the cells' morphology on PDL coating density seemed to be weak compared to the effect of the substrate stiffness and was slightly biphasic, with a maximum at 10-100 µg ml - 1 PDL concentration. Our finding suggests that the compliance of the surrounding tissue in vivo may influence astrocyte morphology and behavior.

  11. Fiber based optical tweezers for simultaneous in situ force exertion and measurements in a 3D polyacrylamide gel compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Chaoyang; Thomas, Gawain M; Ren, Yundong; Zhang, Rui; Wen, Qi; Liu, Yuxiang

    2015-07-01

    Optical tweezers play an important role in biological applications. However, it is difficult for traditional optical tweezers based on objective lenses to work in a three-dimensional (3D) solid far away from the substrate. In this work, we develop a fiber based optical trapping system, namely inclined dual fiber optical tweezers, that can simultaneously apply and measure forces both in water and in a 3D polyacrylamide gel matrix. In addition, we demonstrate in situ, non-invasive characterization of local mechanical properties of polyacrylamide gel by measurements on an embedded bead. The fiber optical tweezers measurements agree well with those of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The inclined dual fiber optical tweezers provide a promising and versatile tool for cell mechanics study in 3D environments.

  12. Method for the typing of Clostridium difficile based on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabaqchali, S.; O' Farrell, S.; Holland, D.; Silman, R.

    1986-01-01

    A typing method for Clostridium difficile based on the incorporation of (/sup 35/S)methionine into cellular proteins, their separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their visualization by autoradiography is described. On analysis of the radiolabeled-protein profiles, nine distinct groups were observed (A to E and W to Z). The method, which is simple, reproducible, and readily expandable, has been applied in epidemiological studies to demonstrate cross-infection and hospital acquisition of C. difficile.

  13. Preparation and Photochromic Properties of Hybrid Thin Films Based on Heteropolyoxometallate and Polyacrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    series of photochromic hybrid films were prepared through entrapping Dawson type tungsten heteropolyoxometallates (P2W18O626-) and molybdenum heteropolyoxometallate (P2Mo18O626-) into polyacrylamide matrix. FTIR results showed that the Dawson geometry of heteropolyoxometallates is still preserved inside the composites and strong coulombic interaction is built between heteropolyoxometallates and polyacrylamide via hydrogen bonding. Irradiated with ultraviolet light, the transparent films change from colorless to blue and show reversible photochromism.The bleaching process occurs when the films are in contact with air or O2 in the dark. The molybdenum heteropolyoxometallate hybrid film has higher photochromic efficiency and slower bleaching reaction than tungsten heteropolyoxometallate hybrid film. ESR results indicated that polyacrylamide is a hydrogen donor and the photoreduced process is in accordance with the radical mechanism.

  14. Simple and Specific Dual-Wavelength Excitable Dye Staining for Glycoprotein Detection in Polyacrylamide Gels and Its Application in Glycoproteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsuan Chiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a commercially available fluorescent dye, Lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl hydrazine (LRSH, was designed to specifically stain the glycoproteins in polyacrylamide gels. Through the periodate/Schiff base mechanism, the fluorescent dye readily attaches to glycoproteins and the fluorescence can be simultaneously observed under either 305 nm or 532 nm excitation therefore, the dye-stained glycoproteins can be detected under a regular UV transilluminator or a more elegant laser-based gel scanner. The specificity and detection limit were examined using a standard protein mixture in polyacrylamide gels in this study. The application of this glycoprotein stain dye was further demonstrated using pregnancy urine samples. The fluorescent spots were further digested in gel and their identities confirmed through LC-MS/MS analysis and database searching. In addition, the N-glycosylation sites of LRSH-labeled uromodulin were readily mapped via in-gel PNGaseF deglycosylation and LC-MS/MS analysis, which indicated that this fluorescent dye labeling does not interfere with enzymatic deglycosylation. Hence, the application of this simple and specific dual-wavelength excitable dye staining in current glycoproteome research is promising.

  15. Linear dichroism studies of tryptophanase and its quasisubstrate complexes oriented in polyacrylamide gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakomirdina, L N; Sakharova, I S; Torchinsky, Y M

    1990-10-01

    Tryptophanase from Escherichia coli was oriented in a compressed slab of polyacrylamide gel and its linear dichroism (LD) and absorption spectra have been measured. The free enzyme displays four LD bands at 305, 340, 425 and 490 nm. Two bands at 340 and 425 nm belong to the internal coenzyme-lysine aldimine. The 305-nm band apparently belongs to an aromatic amino acid residue. The 490-nm band disappears after treatment with NaBH4 or after incubation with L-alanine and subsequent dialysis. It is suggested that the 490-nm band belongs to a quinonoid enzyme subform. The reaction of tryptophanase with threo-3-phenyl-DL-serine, L-threonine and D-alanine leads to formation of an external aldimine with an intense absorption band at 420-425 nm. The values of reduced LD (delta A/A) in this band strongly differ from that in the 420-nm band of the free enzyme. The LD value of the complex with D-alanine is intermediate between those of the free enzyme and the complex with 3-phenylserine. In the presence of indole the complex with D-alanine displays the same LD as that observed with 3-phenylserine. The reaction of tryptophanase with L-alanine or oxindolyl-L-alanine leads to formation of a quinonoid intermediate with an absorption band near 500 nm. The LD value in this band is close to that of an external aldimine with L-threonine. It is concluded that reorientations of the coenzyme occur in the course of the tryptophanase reaction.

  16. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE of urinary protein in acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufi M Suhail

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and clinical studies have shown the importance of urinary proteomics in acute kidney injury (AKI. We analyzed the protein in urine of patients with clinical AKI using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE for its diagnostic value, and followed them up for 40 months to evaluate prognosis. Urine from 31 consecutive cases of AKI was analyzed with SDS-PAGE to determine the low, middle and high molecular weight proteins. Fractional excretion of sodium (FENa was estimated from serum and urine creatinine and sodium (Na. The cases were followed-up for 40 months from the end of the recruitment of study cases. Glomerular protein was higher in the hematuria group when compared with the non-hematuria group (P <0.04 and in the AKI group than in the acute on chronic renal failure (AKI-on-CRF group (P <0.002. Tubular protein was higher in the AKI-on-CRF group (P <0.003 than in the AKI group. Tubular protein correlated with FENa in groups with diabetes mellitus (DM, AKI-on-CRF, and without hematuria (P <0.03, P <0.02 and P <0.004, respectively. Pattern of protein did not differ between groups with and without DM and clinical acute tubular necrosis (ATN. At the end of 40 months follow-up, category with predominantly glomerular protein progressed to chronic renal failure (CRF or end-stage renal failure in higher proportion (P <0.05. In clinical AKI, we observed that glomerular protein dominated in cases with glomerular insult, as indicated by hematuria. Tubular protein was common in the study cases with CRF, DM and cases without hematuria. This indicates tubulo-interstitial injury for AKI in these cases. Patients with predominantly glomerular protein had an adverse outcome.

  17. A comparative study of the 'rhodochrous' complex and related taxa by delayed-type skin reactions on guinea pigs and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, I S; Chaparas, S D

    1977-06-01

    Cell extracts prepared by ultrasonic disruption of 17 strains of the 'rhodochrous' complex and related taxa were compared by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and for immunologic relatedness, by skin test reactions. Two organisms, Jensenia canicruria and Nocardia calcarea, gave similar gel patterns and skin test reactions, and are considered to be identical. Extracts of nocardia rubra showed a strong antigenic relationship with those of three Nocardia pellegrino organisms (N325, N324 and N420) previously assigned to the 'rhodochrous' complex. Two Gordona organisms appeared to be less antigenically related to the 'rhodochrous' complex. Extracts of three of four organisms designated Lspi (Rhodococcus coprophilus Rowbotham & Cross 1976) elicited skin test reactions similar to those of the 'rhodochrous' strains. One Lspi strain, N650, showed striking similarities to the 'rhodochrous' complex strain N420 (Nocardia pellegrino).

  18. Polyacrylamide Gel Preparation and Properties of La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 Nanoparticles%La0.7Ca0.3MnO3纳米颗粒的聚丙烯酰胺凝胶法制备及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱彦虎; 杨华; 县涛; 魏智强; 马金元; 冯旺军

    2011-01-01

    采用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶法制备La0.7Ca0.3MnO3纳米颗粒。通过X射线衍射和扫描电镜研究不同pH值和不同络合剂对制备La0.7Ca0.3MnO3纳米颗粒形貌及性能的影响。结果表明:合成La0.7Ca0.3MnO3钙钛矿相的最佳pH=2;分别以醋酸、草酸、柠檬酸和乙二胺四乙酸为络合剂,在600℃煅烧温度制备的高纯La0.7Ca0.3MnO3纳米颗粒的形貌规整、呈类球形,尺寸分布较窄,平均粒径分别为30、37、45、50nm;以酒石酸为络合剂,在900℃煅烧制备的单相La0.7Ca0.3MnO3颗粒的形貌不甚规整,颗粒间出现明显的煅烧粘连现象,颗粒尺寸较大,平均粒径为170nm。磁滞回线测量结果表明:制得的La0.7Ca0.3MnO3颗粒在室温均表现为顺磁性,其顺磁磁化率随样品颗粒尺寸的减小而减小。%A polyacrylamide gel route was used to fabricate La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 nanoparticles. Influence of pH values and chelating agents on particle morphology and properties of the prepared La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 nanoparticles were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The optimal pH value for synthesis of perovskite La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 was obtained to be 2. Using acetic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid, and ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid as chelating agents, single-phase La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 nanoparticles were prepared at a calcination temperature of 600 ℃. The particles prepared using the four chelating agents are uniform and regu- larly-shaped spheres, and have an average size of 30, 37, 45 nm, and 50 nm, respectively. When using tartaric acid as the chelating agent, a much higher calcination temperature at 900 ℃ was required to produce single-phase La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 particles. The obtained particles exhibit an irregular morphology and an obvious adhesive behavior, and have a relatively large average size of 170 nm. Mag- netic hysteresis loop measurements indicate that the prepared La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 samples exhibit paramagnetism at room temperature, but their

  19. Simple and cost effective apparatus for silver staining of polyacrylamide gels with sequential reagents addition and real time monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurye, Praveen; Basu, Arpita; Gupta, Angshuman

    2014-06-01

    Highly reproducible results in molecular biology depend a lot on effective staining and destaining methods. Silver staining of polyacrylamide DNA and protein gel has been adopted widely in the molecular biology laboratories for detecting a very low nanogram range of sample. An efficient staining of a polyacrylamide gel requires a number of well controlled and highly sensitive steps that often becomes tiresome when done manually or when there are a number of gels to be stained simultaneously. Since, silver staining is a multistep procedure that requires proper fixation and exchange of substance, a reliable protocol is necessary and a simple apparatus may be an added advantage to carry out the steps with ease and safety. Here, we describe a simple and cost effective device made from off-the-shelf components for some established silver staining protocols. Staining is done on a tray while six graduated bottles with a liquid delivery stopcock each, is connected to the tray through silicon tubing. The used up solution is drained off completely from the staining tray through a liquid outlet stopcock using vacuum pressure. The system is fixed with a camera connected to a computer for effective control of the staining process in each step. The apparatus provides the researchers with efficient staining and real time monitoring of gels without the need for handling toxic chemicals.

  20. IMMOBILIZATION OF Saccharomyces Cerevisiae USING POLY(ACRYLAMIDE) GEL FOR ASYMMETRIC SYNTHESIS OF R(-)-MANDELIC ACID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongqin; GUO Daiping; HUANG Xinghua; YANG Kai; XU Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the poly(acrylamide) hydrogel used to immobilize saccharomyces cerevisiae for asymmetric synthesis of R(-)-mandelic acid was prepared with free radical ploymerization in deionized water at room temperature under nitrogen atmosphere. The influence of the composition of hydrogel, loading amount of cells and culture conditions on the asymmetric synthesis was investigated. Results show that PAAm hydrogel is a feasible carrier for immobilization of cells which is a potential alternative method to prepare enantiomerically pure R(-)-mandelic acid.

  1. Preparation of Dysprosium Ferrite/Polyacrylamide Magnetic Composite Microsphere and Its Characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidehiro Kumazawa; Wang Zhifeng; Zhou Lanxiang; Zhang Hong; Li Yourong; Zhang Ming

    2005-01-01

    Using the technique of microemulsion polymerization with nano-reactor, dysprosium ferrite/polyacrylamide magnetic composite microsphere was prepared by one-step method in a single inverse microemulsion. The structure, average particle size, morphology of composite microsphere were characterized by FTIR, XRD, TEM and TGA. The magnetic responsibility of composite microsphere was also investigated. The results indicate that the magnetic composite microsphere possess high magnetic responsibility and suspension stability.

  2. Separation and recovery of nucleic acids with improved biological activity by acid-degradable polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Kyung; Kwon, Young Jik

    2010-05-01

    One of the fundamental challenges in studying biomacromolecules (e.g. nucleic acids and proteins) and their complexes in a biological system is isolating them in their structurally and functionally intact forms. Electrophoresis offers convenient and efficient separation and analysis of biomacromolecules but recovery of separated biomacromolecules is a significant challenge. In this study, DNAs of various sizes were separated by electrophoresis in an acid-degradable polyacrylamide gel. Almost 100% of the nucleic acids were recovered after the identified gel bands were hydrolyzed under a mildly acidic condition and purified using anion exchange resin. Further concentration by centrifugal filtration and a second purification using ion exchange column chromatography yielded 44-84% of DNA. The second conventional (non-degradable) gel electrophoresis confirmed that the nucleic acids recovered from acid-degradable gel bands preserved their electrophoretic properties through acidic gel hydrolysis, purification, and concentration processes. The plasmid DNA recovered from acid-degradable gel transfected cells significantly more efficiently than the starting plasmid DNA (i.e. improved biological activity via acid-degradable PAGE). Separation of other types of nucleic acids such as small interfering RNA using this convenient and efficient technique was also demonstrated.

  3. An Alternative Way towards Preparation of Hydrophobically Associating Polyacrylamide:Chemical Post-Modification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yu-jun

    2004-01-01

    Hydrophobically associating polyacrylamides (HAPAMs) are derivatives from polyacrylamides by incorporating a small amount of hydrophobic moieties along the water-soluble mainchain. They are now becoming a class of promising candidates as thickeners or rheology modifiers in the formulations where rheology is necessary to be regulated, such as tertiary oil recovery, drilling fluids, hydraulic fracturing and coatings. Due to association of hydrophobes in nano-domains, their aqueous solutions exhibit very interesting rheological properties and better stability against salts than the unmodified precursor, polyacrylamide.Generally, there are two synthetic routes to introduce hydrophobic portion onto water-soluble polymer chains; i.e., direct copolymerization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic monomers, and post-polymerization functionalization[1]. In the case of HAPAM polymers, a commonly accepted method is micellar copolymerization in which an appropriate surfactant is employed to solubilize both monomers. However, it is widely reported[2] that the obtained polymers via micellar polymerization are characterized by: (i) blocky distribution of the hydrophobes; (ii) compositional inhomogeneity and (iii) strong dependence of solution properties on the block length.In this work, the alternative process, i.e., chemical post-modification, is employed to synthesize HAPAM polymers by direct N-alkylation of parent polyacrylamide (Figure 1) in dimethyl sulfoxide[3,4].PAM HAPAMFig. 1 Schematic route to prepare HAPAM by direct N-alkylation of PAMIt is found that the final incorporation of hydrophobic groups is in good agreement with the feed ratio[4], in contrast with that from micellar copolymerization which always brings about composition drift. Furthermore, unique rheological responses to shear rate, salt, temperature are also evidenced[5].

  4. Detection of low-molecular weight allergens resolved on two-dimensional electrophoresis with acid-urea polyacrylamide gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitta, Kazumi; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Ogawa, Tadashi; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2006-04-15

    Two-dimensional electrophoresis with immobilized pH gradient (IPG) followed by acetic acid/urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (AU-PAGE) was developed for the detection of low-molecular weight food allergens. Wheat proteins were used to test the applicability of AU-PAGE for the analysis of food allergens. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) for first dimension was performed with IPG pH 3-10. AU-PAGE was performed as a second-dimensional electrophoresis and high resolution was obtained, especially for proteins below 15 kDa. For immunodetection, the proteins resolved on AU gel were transferred to a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane. The assembly of semidry electroblotting for AU gel was set reversed as for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE gel. The electroblotted membrane was immunolabeled with serum from a radio-allergosorbent test-positive individual for wheat to identify allergenic proteins. Protein spots strongly recognized by the patient's serum were chosen for further analysis. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that these proteins were alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors and lipid transfer protein. The system developed in this study was shown to be useful as a standard protocol for the separation of low-molecular weight proteins. Moreover, the IPG strips on which IEF was performed could be used either for SDS-PAGE or AU-PAGE by only changing equilibrating conditions, allowing for a wide range of allergen analysis.

  5. Production of lignocellulolytic enzymes by Trametes gallica and detection of polysaccharide hydrolase and laccase activities in polyacrylamide gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xun; Zhang, Renhuai; Zhang, Yizheng

    2004-01-01

    White rot fungus Trametes gallica was studied for the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes: cellulase, xylanase, laccase, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP), and lignin peroxidase (LiP). The results demonstrated that low-nitrogen (2.2 mM N) and surface stationary cultivation favored production of extracellular MnP. MnP activity reached 118.1 UL(-1) while T. gallica was grown in a low-nitrogen culture containing phenylalanine. However, laccase levels observed in high-nitrogen (22 mM N) agitated cultures were much greater than those seen in low-nitrogen. The N source experiments seemed to reveal that NH4+ plays an important role in inducing MnP and laccase of the fungus. Results showed that T. gallica produces a series of the lignocellulolytic enzymes, and needs high N to produce all the enzymes during solid-state fermentation of wheat straw. This paper also presents a modified zymogram procedure to detect xylanase and laccase of T. gallica in polyacrylamide gel. Xylanase in crude enzyme of T. gallica was displayed by contacting protein gel strips with xylan substrate gels and by staining with iodine. By immersing the protein gel strips in o-tolidine solution, the blue-green zones representing laccase activity were visualized against a colorless background. Copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  6. Isoelectric focusing of human hair keratins: correlation with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns and effect of cosmetic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Calvo, M S; Carracedo, A; Muñoz, I; Concheiro, L

    1992-03-01

    A new isoelectric focusing (IEF) technique in polyacrylamide gels with 6M urea and 1.5% Nonidet P40 has been developed to characterize human hair samples. The phenotypes demonstrated with this procedure has been correlated with the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns described by other authors. The method described can be applied in the forensic science analysis of a single human hair. Using the same IEF technique we have studied the changes in electrophoretic patterns of cosmetically treated hair. The characteristics of the modifications observed and its utility in forensic science work are also discussed in this paper.

  7. ISOLATION OF EGG DROP SYNDROME VIRUS AND ITS MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION USING SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE POLYACRYLAMIDE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Rasool, S. U. Rahman and M. K. Mansoor

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Six isolates of egg drop syndrome (EDS virus were recovered from five different outbreaks of EDS in commercial laying hens in and around Faisalabad. The aberrant eggs were fed to the susceptible laying hens for experimental induction of infection. The samples from infected birds (egg washing, cloacal swabs, oviducts and spleens were collected, processed and inoculated into 11-day old duck embryos. The presence of virus in harvested allanto-amniotic fluid was monitored by spot and microhaemagglutination tests and confirmed by haemagglutination inhibition and agar gel precipitation tests. The EDS virus grew well in duck embryos and agglutinated only avian but not mammalian red blood cells. These isolates were purified through velocity density gradient centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined through Lowry method and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE was conducted by loading 300 µg protein concentration on 12.5% gel using discontinuous buffer system. All the six isolates showed 13 polypeptides, which were identical to those described in the referral EDS-76 virus (strain-127. The molecular weights of the polypeptides ranged from 6.5 KDa to 126 KDa.

  8. Optimization of a reliable, fast, cheap and sensitive silver staining method to detect SSR markers in polyacrylamide gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mergeai G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliable, fast, cheap and sensitive silver staining method to detect nucleic acids in polyacrylamide gels was developed from two standard stain procedures. The main differences between the three methods concerned (i the preexposure with formaldehyde during silver nitrate impregnation, (ii the addition of sodium thiosulfate and sodium carbonate instead of sodium hydroxide during development; (iii the removal of the stop reaction or the inclusion of absolute ethanol with acetic acid in the stop solution and (iv the duration of the different reaction steps. All methods allowed the detection of similar polymorphisms for single sequence repeats with different cotton genotypes but important differences regarding the contrast, background and conservation duration of the gels were observed. Two methods gave superior sensitivity. The improved method was sensitive, fast (20 min, gave lower backgrounds, produced gels with long-term conservation ability, and allowed a reutilization of all the solutions used in the staining procedure from fi ve to seven times, making it quite cheap.

  9. Swelling/deswelling of polyacrylamide gels in aqueous NaCl solution: Light scattering and macroscopic swelling study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sivanantham; B V R Tata

    2012-09-01

    Swelling kinetics of water-swollen polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels (WSG) was investigated in various concentrations of aqueous NaCl by macroscopic swelling measurements. For lower concentration of NaCl, WSG showed exponential swelling whereas at higher concentration of NaCl it underwent deswelling at short times and exponential swelling at long times. From these studies, collective diffusion coefficient, , of the polymer network and polymer–solvent interaction parameter, , were calculated and found to decrease with increase in [NaCl]. Collective diffusion coefficients measured from dynamic light scattering (DLS) and that obtained from macroscopic swelling measurements are found to agree well. Measured ensemble-averaged dynamic structure factor (, ) for WSG and salt-swollen gels (SSG) showed an initial decay followed by a plateau at long times and it can be described by harmonically bound Brownian particle (HBBP) model. Enhanced scattering intensity at low scattering angles using static light scattering (SLS) measurements revealed the presence of inhomogeneities in PAAm gels. The reasons for increased scattering intensity of SSG over WSG gel and the linear decrease of with increase in NaCl concentration are explained.

  10. Assessing CMT cell line stability by two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry based proteome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Kelan; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Fey, Stephen J;

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) followed by mass spectrometric identification of the proteins in the protein spots has become a central tool in proteomics. CMT167(H), CMT64(M) and CMT170(L) cell lines, selected from a spontaneous mouse lung adenocarcinoma, with high......-, middle- or low-metastatic potential have been characterized in vivo. In this study, the comprehensive protein expression profiles of the CMT cell lines were analyzed at passages 5, 15 and 35 in order to assess the cell line stability. During the passages 5 to 15, the expression profiles of CMT cells...... to be a useful tool for assessing differences in cell line stability. This approach provided a tool to select the best cell line and optimal subculture period for studies of cancer related phenomena and for testing the effect of potential anticancer drugs....

  11. Quantitation of yeast total proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis sample buffer for uniform loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Hyukho

    2016-04-01

    Proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) sample buffer are difficult to quantitate due to SDS and reducing agents being in the buffer. Although acetone precipitation has long been used to clean up proteins from detergents and salts, previous studies showed that protein recovery from acetone precipitation varies from 50 to 100% depending on the samples tested. Here, this article shows that acetone precipitates proteins highly efficiently from SDS-PAGE sample buffer and that quantitative recovery is achieved in 5 min at room temperature. Moreover, precipitated proteins are resolubilized with urea/guanidine, rather than with SDS. Thus, the resolubilized samples are readily quantifiable with Bradford reagent without using SDS-compatible assays.

  12. A case of alcoholic liver injury with an unusual polyacrylamide-gel disc-electrophoretic pattern of serum lipoproteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe,Makoto

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available An unusual lipoprotein pattern on polyacrylamide-gel disc-electrophoresis was observed in 37 year-old male diagnosed as alcoholic liver injury. The electrophoretic lipoprotein pattern consisted of a major band of pre-beta mobility and minor intermediate, fast-beta and slow-alpha bands. The normal beta band was virtually absent and the alpha band was diminished. The abnormal lipoprotein pattern was observed one week after discontinuing alcohol consumption when marked hypertriglyceridemia demonstrated earlier had already normalized leaving a moderate hypercholesterolemia with reduced esterified cholesterol and abnormal liver function tests. The lipoprotein abnormalities were completely normal one month later. The appearance of a major pre-beta band with normal triglyceride and high cholesterol levels is discussed in relation to the formation of larger triglyceride-rich LDL particles in recovery from alcoholic hepatitis.

  13. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic method for assessing the quaternary state and comparative thermostability of avidin and streptavidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, E A; Ehrlich-Rogozinski, S; Wilchek, M

    1996-08-01

    Avidin, a positively charged egg-white protein, aggregates extensively when mixed at ambient temperatures with anionic detergents, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The resultant aggregates fail to penetrate the stacking gel during polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To prevent the formation of such aggregates, avidin was acetylated and the pI was thus reduced. Acetylated avidin was found to behave in a manner similar to that of streptavidin; under nondenaturing conditions (i.e., incubation of samples at room temperature), both proteins normally migrated mainly as tetramers with a tendency to form oligomers of the tetramer. When samples were boiled, both proteins migrated mainly as the monomer. The comparative stability properties of avidin and streptavidin were also examined using SDS-PAGE by heating samples and determining the extent of dissociation of tetramers to monomers as a function of temperature. A distinctive transition temperature could be defined for individual samples. Using this assay, it was determined that, in the absence of biotin, the quaternary structure of streptavidin is more stable than that of avidin. Biotin appears to stabilize structures of both avidin and streptavidin to a similar degree. Acetylation of avidin thus provides a simple means to analyze the quaternary structure of the molecule using SDS-PAGE.

  14. Separation of Native Allophycocyanin and R-Phycocyanin from Marine Red Macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata by the Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Performed in Novel Buffer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Gong, Xueqin; Wang, Shumei; Chen, Lixue; Sun, Li

    2014-01-01

    Three buffer systems of Imidazole−Acetic acid, HEPES−Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris−HEPES−MES were designed based on the principle of discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for the native PAGE which could be performed in pH 7.0 and 6.5 in order to analyze and prepare the minor components of allophycocyanin (AP) and R-phycocyanin (R-PC) from marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata. These AP and R-PC phycobiliproteins are easily denatured in alkaline environments. The obtained results demonstrated that the PAGE modes performed in the buffer systems of HEPES−Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris−HEPES−MES gave the satisfactory resolution and separation of AP and R-PC proteins. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the AP and R-PC proteins which were prepared by the established PAGE modes proved that they maintained natural spectroscopic characteristics. The established PAGE modes may also provide useful references and selections for some other proteins that are sensitive to alkaline environments or are not effectively separated by the classical PAGE modes performed normally in alkaline buffer systems. PMID:25166028

  15. Separation of native allophycocyanin and R-phycocyanin from marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata by the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis performed in novel buffer systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Three buffer systems of Imidazole-Acetic acid, HEPES-Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris-HEPES-MES were designed based on the principle of discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE for the native PAGE which could be performed in pH 7.0 and 6.5 in order to analyze and prepare the minor components of allophycocyanin (AP and R-phycocyanin (R-PC from marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata. These AP and R-PC phycobiliproteins are easily denatured in alkaline environments. The obtained results demonstrated that the PAGE modes performed in the buffer systems of HEPES-Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris-HEPES-MES gave the satisfactory resolution and separation of AP and R-PC proteins. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the AP and R-PC proteins which were prepared by the established PAGE modes proved that they maintained natural spectroscopic characteristics. The established PAGE modes may also provide useful references and selections for some other proteins that are sensitive to alkaline environments or are not effectively separated by the classical PAGE modes performed normally in alkaline buffer systems.

  16. Separation of native allophycocyanin and R-phycocyanin from marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata by the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis performed in novel buffer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Gong, Xueqin; Wang, Shumei; Chen, Lixue; Sun, Li

    2014-01-01

    Three buffer systems of Imidazole-Acetic acid, HEPES-Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris-HEPES-MES were designed based on the principle of discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for the native PAGE which could be performed in pH 7.0 and 6.5 in order to analyze and prepare the minor components of allophycocyanin (AP) and R-phycocyanin (R-PC) from marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata. These AP and R-PC phycobiliproteins are easily denatured in alkaline environments. The obtained results demonstrated that the PAGE modes performed in the buffer systems of HEPES-Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris-HEPES-MES gave the satisfactory resolution and separation of AP and R-PC proteins. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the AP and R-PC proteins which were prepared by the established PAGE modes proved that they maintained natural spectroscopic characteristics. The established PAGE modes may also provide useful references and selections for some other proteins that are sensitive to alkaline environments or are not effectively separated by the classical PAGE modes performed normally in alkaline buffer systems.

  17. Viscoelasticity of mixed polyacrylamide solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽娜

    2008-01-01

    The viscoelastic behavior of polyacrylamide solution is crucial for its application in various industries.The mixed polyacrylamide solution was prepared by mixing polyacrylamide with different relative molecular masses according to the defined mass fraction.The viscosity and elasticity of mixed polyacrylamide solution were separately tested with RS150 rheometer and capillary breakup extensional rheometer and compared with those of the single polyacrylamide solution which is directly provided by manufacturer without any mixing.The results indicate that the mixed and single polyacrylamide solutions have the same shear viscosity and intrinsic viscosity.However,some mixed polyacrylamide solutions have higher elasticity than single polyacrylamide solution.The flow resistance of mixed polyacrylamide with higher elasticity is also greater than that of single polyacrylamide solution in porous medium.This paper presents an effective method of mixing polyacrylamides with different relative molecular masses,which can enhance the elasticity of polyacrylamide solution and flowing resistance through porous medium.

  18. Polyacrylamide preparations for protection of water quality threatened by agricultural runoff contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entry, J.A.; Sojka, R.E.; Watwood, Maribeth; Ross, Craig

    2002-12-01

    Polyacrylamide preparations show promise in reducing flow of sediments, nutrients and microorganisms from animal production facilities. - Waste streams associated with a variety of agricultural runoff sources are major contributors of nutrients, pesticides and enteric microorganisms to surface and ground waters. Water soluble anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) was found to be a highly effective erosion-preventing and infiltration-enhancing polymer, when applied at rates of 1-10 g m{sup -3} in furrow irrigation water. Water flowing from PAM treated irrigation furrows show large reductions in sediment, nutrients and pesticides. Recently PAM and PAM+CaO and PAM+Al(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} mixtures have been shown to filter bacteria, fungi and nutrients from animal wastewater. Low concentrations of PAM [175-350 g PAM ha{sup -1} as PAM or as PAM+CaO and PAM+Al(SO{sub 4}) mixture] applied to the soil surface, resulted in dramatic decreases (10 fold) of total, coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria in cattle, fish and swine wastewater leachate and surface runoff. PAM treatment also filtered significant amounts of NH{sub 4}, PO{sub 4} and total P in cattle and swine wastewater. This points to the potential of developing PAM as a water quality protection measure in combination with large-scale animal feeding operations. Potential benefits of PAM treatment of animal facility waste streams include: (1) low cost, (2) easy and quick application, (3) suitability for use with other pollution reduction techniques. Research on the efficacy of PAM for removal of protozoan parasites and viruses and more thorough assessment of PAM degradation in different soils is still needed to completely evaluate PAM treatment as an effective waste water treatment. We will present analysis and feasibility of using PAM, PAM+Al(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, and PAM+CaO application for specific applications. Our results demonstrate their potential efficacy in reducing sediment, nutrients and microorganisms from animal

  19. Electrochemical characterizations on MnO2 supercapacitors with potassium polyacrylate and potassium polyacrylate-co-polyacrylamide gel polymer electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kuang-Tsin

    2009-11-01

    MnO2·nH2O supercapacitors with potassium polyacrylate (PAAK) and potassium polyacrylate-co-polyacrylamide (PAAK-co-PAAM) gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) having the weight compositions of polymer:KCl:H2O = 9%:6.7%:84.3% have been characterized for their electrochemical performance. Compared with the liquid electrolyte (LE) counterpart, the GPE cells exhibit remarkable (∼50-130%) enhancement in specific capacitance of the oxide electrode, and the extent of the enhancement increases with increasing amount of the carboxylate groups in the polymers as well as with increasing oxide/electrolyte interfacial area. In situ X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis indicates that the oxide electrodes of the GPE cells possess higher Mn-ion valences and are subjected to greater extent of valence variation than that of the LE cell upon charging/discharging over the same potential range. Copolymerization of PAAK with PAAM greatly improves the cycling stability of the MnO2·nH2O electrode, and the improvement is attributable to the alkaline nature of the amino groups. Both GPEs exhibit ionic conductivities greater than 1.0 × 10-1 S cm-1 and are promising for high-rate applications. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Polyacrylamide Gel-Entrapped Fungal Manganese Peroxidase from Ganoderma lucidum IBL-05 with Enhanced Catalytic, Stability, and Reusability Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Asgher, Muhammad; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, polyacrylamide gel (PAG) was utilized as bolster material for the immobilization of in-house extracted and partially purified manganese peroxidase (MnP) through an entrapment technique yielding significant MnP immobilization (87.3±3.3 %) and remarkable stability of the enzyme (37.2±2.4 %) after a storage period of two months at 4°C. The immobilization also increased the optimal temperature by 10 °C and provided an alkaline shift of the pH optimum. Moreover, a significant enhancement in the thermo-stability was observed. After an incubation period of 72 h at 50°C, the PAG-entrapped-MnP still exhibited 41.2 % of the initial activity, whereas the free enzyme was completely inactive. Furthermore, PAG-entrapped-MnP showed an excellent recycling efficiency and retained more than 50% of its initial activity after five consecutive reaction cycles. In conclusion, owing to the economic feasibility, carrier-supported MnP may be a promising candidate for various applications in different industrial sectors.

  1. Characterization of Multi-subunit Protein Complexes of Human MxA Using Non-denaturing Polyacrylamide Gel-electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Patricia E; Pavlovic, Jovan

    2016-10-28

    The formation of oligomeric complexes is a crucial prerequisite for the proper structure and function of many proteins. The interferon-induced antiviral effector protein MxA exerts a broad antiviral activity against many viruses. MxA is a dynamin-like GTPase and has the capacity to form oligomeric structures of higher order. However, whether oligomerization of MxA is required for its antiviral activity is an issue of debate. We describe here a simple protocol to assess the oligomeric state of endogenously or ectopically expressed MxA in the cytoplasmic fraction of human cell lines by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in combination with Western blot analysis. A critical step of the protocol is the choice of detergents to prevent aggregation and/or precipitation of proteins particularly associated with cellular membranes such as MxA, without interfering with its enzymatic activity. Another crucial aspect of the protocol is the irreversible protection of the free thiol groups of cysteine residues by iodoacetamide to prevent artificial interactions of the protein. This protocol is suitable for a simple assessment of the oligomeric state of MxA and furthermore allows a direct correlation of the antiviral activity of MxA interface mutants with their respective oligomeric states.

  2. Identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and rRNA restriction patterns.

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington, T. H.; Harker, C.; Thomson-Carter, F

    1991-01-01

    A total of 1,417 staphylococcal and micrococcal strains were collected from the beards and scalps of 10 subjects over a period of 8 months. Sixteen strains identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis with an API system had distinctive yellow colonies on nutrient agar plates and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis whole-cell polypeptide profiles similar to those of Staphylococcus capitis; this identification was confirmed by analysis of rRNA gene restriction patterns.

  3. Serum sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of patients with membranous nephropathy and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya Pant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of membranous nephropathy (MN and focal and segmental glomerulo- sclerosis (FSGS needs a renal biopsy, which is an invasive procedure with potentially serious complications. Proteomics may be applied for the development of a biomarker for these diseases which will obviate the need of biopsy. Serum sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis gives an idea of the various proteins with different molecular weights (MWs in a given sample. This study was conducted to analyze proteins with different MWs in patients with MN and FSGS and to compare the two groups with regard to their protein profile. This was a comparative, experimental study performed from June 2013 to July 2014 in the Department of Nephrology, Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Twenty-three histologically diagnosed cases of primary MN and 25 cases of FSGS were included in the study. Patients were categorized as having mild, moderate, and severe proteinuria with 24 h urinary protein levels of <4, 4- 8 and ≥8 g/24 h, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis was performed by the method of Laemmli and revealed a significantly higher number of patients with FSGS (80% having a protein corresponding to 29 kDa MW, than those with MN (39.1% (P = 0.004. Protein of 5 kDa MW was present in a significantly higher number of patients with moderate (80% and severe (100% proteinuria than those with mild proteinuria (25% (P <0.001. Thus, protein of MW 29 kDa may be a marker for FSGS and needs further characterization. Similarly, 5 kDa protein, present in patients with moderate and severe proteinuria, might be either contributing to or be a marker of severe illness.

  4. Serum sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of patients with membranous nephropathy and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Pragya; Singh, R G; Singh, Santosh K; Singh, Vijay P; Doley, Prodip K; Sivasankar, M

    2016-05-01

    Diagnosis of membranous nephropathy (MN) and focal and segmental glomerulo- sclerosis (FSGS) needs a renal biopsy, which is an invasive procedure with potentially serious complications. Proteomics may be applied for the development of a biomarker for these diseases which will obviate the need of biopsy. Serum sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis gives an idea of the various proteins with different molecular weights (MWs) in a given sample. This study was conducted to analyze proteins with different MWs in patients with MN and FSGS and to compare the two groups with regard to their protein profile. This was a comparative, experimental study performed from June 2013 to July 2014 in the Department of Nephrology, Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Twenty-three histologically diagnosed cases of primary MN and 25 cases of FSGS were included in the study. Patients were categorized as having mild, moderate, and severe proteinuria with 24 h urinary protein levels of <4, 4- 8 and ≥8 g/24 h, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis was performed by the method of Laemmli and revealed a significantly higher number of patients with FSGS (80%) having a protein corresponding to 29 kDa MW, than those with MN (39.1%) (P = 0.004). Protein of 5 kDa MW was present in a significantly higher number of patients with moderate (80%) and severe (100%) proteinuria than those with mild proteinuria (25%) (P <0.001). Thus, protein of MW 29 kDa may be a marker for FSGS and needs further characterization. Similarly, 5 kDa protein, present in patients with moderate and severe proteinuria, might be either contributing to or be a marker of severe illness.

  5. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the International Conference on Harmonisation Regions; Annex 10 on Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis General Chapter; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions; Annex 10: Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis General Chapter. The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance provides the results of the ICH Q4B evaluation of the Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis General Chapter harmonized text from each of the three pharmacopoeias (United States, European, and Japanese) represented by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group (PDG). The guidance conveys recognition of the three pharmacopoeial methods by the three ICH regulatory regions and provides specific information regarding the recognition. The guidance is intended to recognize the interchangeability between the local regional pharmacopoeias, thus avoiding redundant testing in favor of a common testing strategy in each regulatory region. In the Federal Register of February 21, 2008 (73 FR 9575), FDA made available a guidance on the Q4B process entitled "Q4B Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopoeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions."

  6. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous hafnium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L; Hunt, Rodney D; Montgomery, Frederick C

    2013-08-06

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous hafnium oxide gels contain a metal salt including hafnium, an acid, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous hafnium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including hafnium, an acid, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  7. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  8. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous cerium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L; Chi, Anthony

    2013-05-07

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous cerium oxide gels contain a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous cerium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  9. Preparation and characterization of polyacrylamide-modified kaolinite containing poly [acrylic acid-co-methylene bisacrylamide] nanocomposite hydrogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaharia, Anamaria; Sarbu, Andrei; Radu, Anita-Laura

    2015-01-01

    Novel nanocomposite hydrogel structures based on cross-linked poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and kaolinite (Kaol), modified with different loadings of polyacrylamide (PAAm), were prepared by inverse dispersion polymerization. Ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator in the presence of nitric acid was used...... to graft PAAm from the Kaol surface. The surface-modified Kaol showed enhanced interactions between the filler and the PAA matrix, through interactions between amino (-NH2) from PAAm and carboxylic groups (-COOH) from PAA. The XRD and TEM measurements confirmed the exfoliated nanocomposites with the Kaol...... filler. The swelling degree (SD) of the swollen hydrogel nanocomposite was increased following the addition of polyacrylamide-modified Kaol particles into the hydrogel structures. Rheological characterization showed that an increase in the storage modulus (G') could be a consequence of a good dispersion...

  10. Analysis of Soluble Proteins in Natural Cordyceps sinensis from Different Producing Areas by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis and Two-dimensional Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Hong; Zuo, Hua-Li; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Feng-Qin; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Jia; Xia, Zhi-Ning; Yang, Feng-Qing

    2017-01-01

    As one of the bioactive components in Cordyceps sinensis (CS), proteins were rarely used as index components to study the correlation between the protein components and producing areas of natural CS. Protein components of 26 natural CS samples produced in Qinghai, Tibet, and Sichuan provinces were analyzed and compared to investigate the relationship among 26 different producing areas. Proteins from 26 different producing areas were extracted by Tris-HCl buffer with Triton X-100, and separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The SDS-PAGE results indicated that the number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 CS samples was a bit different. However, the 2-DE results showed that the numbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obviously different and showed certain association with producing areas. Based on the expression values of matched protein spots, 26 batches of CS samples can be divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by hierarchical cluster analysis. The number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 Cordyceps sinensis samples were a bit different on the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profilesNumbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obvious different on two-dimensional electrophoresis mapsTwenty-six different producing areas of natural Cordyceps sinensis samples were divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by Hierarchical cluster analysis based on the values of matched protein spots. Abbreviations Used: SDS-PAGE: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-DE: Two-dimensional electrophoresis, Cordyceps sinensis: CS, TCMs: Traditional Chinese medicines.

  11. Determination of amino acid compositions and NH2-terminal sequences of peptides electroblotted onto PVDF membranes from tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, M; Jensen, A L; Barkholt, V.

    1989-01-01

    The combination of high-resolution Tricine-Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (H. Schägger and G. von Jagow (1987) Anal. Biochem. 166, 368-379) and electroblotting onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes represents a powerful technique for the isolation of small...... amounts of peptides and protein fragments (Mr 1000-20,000) in a suitable form for amino acid sequencing, directly on the blotting membrane. Conditions for electrophoresis and electroblotting were optimized with respect to high transfer yield and suitability for both amino acid analysis and sequence...

  12. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to study the dissociation of the p53·MDM2/X complex by potentially anticancer compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgammato, Roberta; Desiderio, Doriana; Lamberti, Anna; Raimo, Gennaro; Novellino, Ettore; Carotenuto, Alfonso; Masullo, Mariorosario

    2015-12-01

    A new analytical method to study the dissociation of the complexes between the oncosuppressor p53 and its negative modulators murine double-minute protein 2 (MDM2) or MDMX, is proposed. This technique is reliable to determine the dissociative power exerted by small molecules on the complex taking advantage of the appearance of migrating MDM2 or MDMX in a native polyacrylamide gel, when inhibitors are added to the complex mixture. Therefore, we propose this new approach to easily screen library of compounds, with potential pharmacological anticancer activity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Characterization of the aerosol produced by infrared femtosecond laser ablation of polyacrylamide gels for the sensitive inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection of selenoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claverie, Fanny [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Materiaux, UMR 5254 CNRS- Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Helioparc Pau-Pyrenees, 2 Avenue du President Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France); Novalase SA, Z.I de la Briqueterie, 6 Impasse du bois de la Grange, 33610 Canejan (France); Pecheyran, Christophe [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Materiaux, UMR 5254 CNRS- Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Helioparc Pau-Pyrenees, 2 Avenue du President Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: Christophe.pecheyran@univ-pau.fr; Mounicou, Sandra [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Materiaux, UMR 5254 CNRS- Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Helioparc Pau-Pyrenees, 2 Avenue du President Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France); Ballihaut, Guillaume [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Materiaux, UMR 5254 CNRS- Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Helioparc Pau-Pyrenees, 2 Avenue du President Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France); Laboratoire d' Ecologie Moleculaire (Microbiologie), UMR 5254 CNRS- Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, avenue de l' Universite, B.P. 1155, F-64013 Pau (France); Fernandez, Beatriz [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Materiaux, UMR 5254 CNRS- Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Helioparc Pau-Pyrenees, 2 Avenue du President Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France); Alexis, Joel [Laboratoire Genie de Production, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Tarbes, 47 avenue d' Azereix BP 1629, 65016 Tarbes (France)] (and others)

    2009-07-15

    A 2D high repetition rate femtosecond laser ablation strategy (2-mm wide lane) previously developed for the detection of selenoproteins in gel electrophoresis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was found to increase signal sensitivity by a factor of 40 compared to conventional nanosecond ablation (0.12-mm wide lane) [G. Ballihaut, F. Claverie, C. Pecheyran, S. Mounicou, R. Grimaud and R. Lobinski, Sensitive Detection of Selenoproteins in Gel Electrophoresis by High Repetition Rate Femtosecond Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, Anal. Chem. 79 (2007) 6874-6880]. Such improvement couldn't be explained solely by the difference of amount of material ablated, and then, was attributed to the aerosol properties. In order to validate this hypothesis, the characterization of the aerosol produced by nanosecond and high repetition rate femtosecond laser ablation of polyacrylamide gels was investigated. Our 2D high repetition rate femtosecond laser ablation strategy of 2-mm wide lane was found to produce aerosols of similar particle size distribution compared to nanosecond laser ablation of 0.12-mm wide lane, with 38% mass of particles < 1 {mu}m. However, at high repetition rate, when the ablated surface was reduced, the particle size distribution was shifted toward thinner particle diameter (up to 77% for a 0.12-mm wide lane at 285 {mu}m depth). Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy was employed to visualize the morphology of the aerosol. In the case of larger ablation, the fine particles ejected from the sample were found to form agglomerates due to higher ablation rate and then higher collision probability. Additionally, investigations of the plasma temperature changes during the ablation demonstrated that the introduction of such amount of polyacrylamide gel particles had very limited impact on the ICP source ({delta}T{approx} 25 {+-} 5 K). This suggests that the cohesion forces between the thin particles composing these large

  14. Preparation and characterization of lidocaine rice gel for oral application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonogi, Siriporn; Kaewpinta, Adchareeya; Yotsawimonwat, Songwut; Khongkhunthian, Sakornrat

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to prepare buccal anesthetic gels using rice as gelling agent. Rice grains of four rice varieties, Jasmine (JM), Saohai (SH), Homnil (HN), and Doisket (DS) were chemically modified. Buccal rice gels, containing lidocaine hydrochloride as local anesthetic drug were formulated using the respective modified rice varieties. The gels were evaluated for outer appearance, pH, color, gel strength, foaming property, adhesion, in vitro drug release and in vivo efficacy. It was found that the developed rice gels possessed good texture. Rice varieties showed influence on gel strength, color, turbidity, adhesive property, release property, and anesthetic efficacy. JM gel showed the lowest turbidity with light transmission of 86.76 ± 1.18% whereas SH gel showed the highest gel strength of 208.78 ± 10.42 g/cm(2). Lidocaine hydrochloride can cause a decrease in pH and adhesive property but an increase in turbidity of the gels. In vitro drug release profile within 60 min of lidocaine SH gel and lidocaine HN gel showed that lidocaine could be better released from SH gel. Evaluation of in vivo anesthetic efficacy in 100 normal volunteers indicates that both lidocaine rice gels have high efficacy but different levels. Lidocaine SH gel possesses faster onset of duration and longer duration of action than lidocaine HN gel.

  15. Gel-forming reagents and uses thereof for preparing microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golova, Julia; Chernov, Boris; Perov, Alexander

    2010-11-09

    New gel-forming reagents including monomers and cross-linkers, which can be applied to gel-drop microarray manufacturing by using co-polymerization approaches are disclosed. Compositions for the preparation of co-polymerization mixtures with new gel-forming monomers and cross-linker reagents are described herein. New co-polymerization compositions and cross-linkers with variable length linker groups between unsaturated C.dbd.C bonds that participate in the formation of gel networks are disclosed.

  16. Species identification of cooked fish by urea isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis : a collaborative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehbein, H.; Kundiger, R.; Yman, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    of gels to be run in the same flat bed electrophoresis chamber. By strictly following optimised standard operation procedures (SOPs), five unknown cooked samples had to be identified with each technique using a set of 10 raw reference samples. With urea IEF, only one out of 35 identifications......The suitability and reliability of urea IEF and SDS-PAGE for the identification of cooked fish flesh was tested by a collaborative study among nine laboratories. Urea IEF was performed with CleanGels as well as with ImmobilineGels, and ExcelGels were used for SDS-PAGE, enabling all three types...

  17. Simplified sample preparation method for protein identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: in-gel digestion on the probe surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, A; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2001-01-01

    Identification and detailed characterization of complex mixtures of proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) require optimized and robust methods for interfacing electrophoretic techniques to mass spectrometry. Peptide mapping by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-......Identification and detailed characterization of complex mixtures of proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) require optimized and robust methods for interfacing electrophoretic techniques to mass spectrometry. Peptide mapping by matrix-assisted laser desorption...... for protein identification similar to that obtained by the traditional protocols for in-gel digestion and MALDI peptide mass mapping of human proteins, i.e. approximately 60%. The overall performance of the novel on-probe digestion method is comparable with that of the standard in-gel sample preparation...

  18. Rheological Properties in Aqueous Solution for Hydrophobically Modified Polyacrylamides Prepared in Inverse Emulsion Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Carro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse emulsion polymerization technique was employed to synthesize hydrophobically modified polyacrylamide polymers with hydrophobe contents near to feed composition. Three different structures were obtained: multisticker, telechelic, and combined. N-Dimethyl-acrylamide (DMAM, n-dodecylacrylamide (DAM, and n-hexadecylacrylamide (HDAM were used as hydrophobic comonomers. The effect of the hydrophobe length of comonomer, the initial monomer, and surfactant concentrations on shear viscosity was studied. Results show that the molecular weight of copolymer increases with initial monomer concentration and by increasing emulsifier concentration it remained almost constant. Shear viscosity measurements results show that the length of the hydrophobic comonomer augments the hydrophobic interactions causing an increase in viscosity and that the polymer thickening ability is higher for combined polymers.

  19. Preparation and swelling behavior of polyvinyl alcohol physiological saline gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) physiological saline gel was prepared using physiological saline solution of the polymer by freezing and thawing method. The influences of the concentration of PVA, freezing and thawing cycle times and solvent swelling media on the swelling properties of PVA saline gel were investigated. The result show that the electrolytical ions have great effect on the swelling behavior of PVA saline gel. The equilibrium swelling ratio of PVA saline gel in aqueous swelling media is larger than that in saline swelling media. Also, the equilibrium swelling ratios of PVA saline gel in aqueous and in saline media decrease with the increase of gel concentration and the increase of freezing and thawing cycle times. The decreasing speed of equilibrium swelling ratio with the increase of freezing and thawing cycle times of PVA gel in distilled water is faster than that in physiological saline. The swelling kinetic equation can sufficiently describe the swelling behavior of PVA physiological saline gel.

  20. Mesoporous silica/polyacrylamide composite: Preparation by UV-graft photopolymerization, characterization and use as Hg(II) adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, Ali, E-mail: ali.saad8803@gmail.com [Laboratory of Materials, Molecules and Applications, IPEST, University of Carthage, Sidi Bou Said road, B.P. 51, 2070 La Marsa (Tunisia); Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université El Manar, PO Box 248, El Manar II, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS, UMR 7086, CNRS, F-75013 Paris (France); Bakas, Idriss [Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS, UMR 7086, CNRS, F-75013 Paris (France); Laboratoire AQUAMAR, Equipe Matériaux Photocatalyse et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences, Université Ibn Zohr, B.P. 8106, Cité Dakhla, Agadir (Morocco); Piquemal, Jean-Yves; Nowak, Sophie [Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS, UMR 7086, CNRS, F-75013 Paris (France); Abderrabba, Manef, E-mail: abderrabbamanef@gmail.com [Laboratory of Materials, Molecules and Applications, IPEST, University of Carthage, Sidi Bou Said road, B.P. 51, 2070 La Marsa (Tunisia); Chehimi, Mohamed M., E-mail: chehimi@icmpe.cnrs.fr [Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS, UMR 7086, CNRS, F-75013 Paris (France); Université Paris Est, ICMPE (UMR7182), CNRS, UPEC, F-94320 Thiais (France)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mesoporous silica/polyacrylamide nanocomposite adsorbent was prepared by UV-graft polymerization. • Polyacrylamide was successfully grafted onto the silanized mesoporous silica. • The Hg(II) adsorption capacity of the nanocomposite was as high as 177 mg g{sup −1} after 1 h at RT. • Adsorption process was found to fit pseudo second order kinetics and exothermic. - Abstract: MCM-41 ordered mesoporous silica was prepared, aminosilanized and grafted with polyacrylamide (PAAM) through in situ radical photopolymerization process. The resulting composite, denoted PAAM-NH{sub 2}-MCM-41, the calcined and silanized reference MCM-41s were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and N{sub 2} physisorption at 77 K. These complementary techniques brought strong supporting evidence for the silanization process followed by PAAM grafting. The surface composition was found to be PAAM-rich as judged by XPS. The composite was then employed for the uptake of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions. Adsorption was monitored versus pH, time, and temperature. The maximum adsorption capacity at 25 °C and pH 5.2 was 177 mg g{sup −1}. Kinetically, the equilibrium was reached within 60 min for a 100 mg L{sup −1} mercury solution. The adsorption of Hg(II) on PAAM-NH{sub 2}-MCM-41 composites followed second order kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters suggested that the favorable adsorption process is exothermic in nature and the adsorption is ascribed to a decrease in the degree of freedom of adsorbed ions which results in the entropy change. This work conclusively shows that mesoporous silica–polymer hybrid metal ion adsorbents (with robust silica–polymer interface) can be prepared in a simple way by in situ radical photopolymerization in the presence of

  1. Preparation of continuous alumina gel fibres by aqueous sol–gel process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hongbin Tan; Xiaoling Ma; Mingxing Fu

    2013-02-01

    Continuous alumina gel fibres were prepared by sol–gel method. The spinning sol was prepared by mixing aluminum nitrate, lactic acid and polyvinylpyrrolidone with a mass ratio of 10:3:1.5. Thermogravimetry–differential scanning calorimetry (TG–DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the properties of the gel and ceramic fibres. The Al2O3 fibres with a uniform diameter can be obtained by sintering gel fibres at 1200 °C.

  2. Characterization of Sm14 related components in different helminths by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Thaumaturgo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Sm14 was the first fatty acid-binding protein homologue identified in helminths. Thereafter, members of the same family were identified in several helminth species, with high aminoacid sequence homology between them. In addition, immune crossprotection was also reported against Fasciola hepatica infection, in animals previously immunized with the Schistosoma mansoni vaccine candidate, r-Sm14. In the present study, data on preliminary sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis of nine different helminth extracts focusing the identification of Sm14 related proteins, is reported. Out of these, three extracts - Ascaris suum (males and females, Echinostoma paraensei, and Taenia saginata - presented components that comigrated with Sm14 in SDS-PAGE, and that were recognized by anti-rSm14 policlonal serum, in Western blotting tests.

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and Electromagnetic Studies on Nanocrystalline Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 Synthesized by Polyacrylamide Gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiting MA; Yanwen TIAN; Haitao ZHAO; Gang ZHANG; Hui ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite was synthesized by polyacrylamide gel method. The electromagnetic and microwave absorption properties of the ferrite were investigated. The results indicated that calcining temperature of the ferrite had a significant influence on the effective properties of the ferrite. When the calcining temperature was 500,600 and 700℃, the average size of particles was 10, 30 and 80 nm, respectively. The dielectric loss (ε") and magnetic loss (u") of the ferrite was around 0.65 and 0.29 at 8.2 GHz, respectively. Microwave absorption properties of the ferrites were simultaneously influenced due to the strong correlation between reflection loss and electromagnetic parameters of the ferrite.

  4. Studies on middle silkgland proteins of cocoon colour sex-limited silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuan-Xiang Jin; Yu-Yin Chen; Meng-Kui Xu; Yong-Huang Jiang

    2004-03-01

    Qualitative and quantitative differences in proteins expressed in the middle silkglands of male and female silkworm larvae that differ in silk colour were investigated by high resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE), followed by computer assisted image analysis. About 1000 protein spots were resolved in both the sexes and most proteins were shown to be distributed in the area from 15 kDa to 70 kDa and pH 4–8. It was found that some proteins displayed higher expression in yellow cocoon, while two proteins were only expressed in female silkworm silkgland tissue through the comparison and analysis by two-D software. These proteins especially existed in female silkworm middle silkgland tissue of yellow cocoon. Furthermore, these proteins might be involved in the expression of cocoon colour phenotype.

  5. Micelle-induced curvature in a water-insoluble HIV-1 Env peptide revealed by NMR dipolar coupling measurement in stretched polyacrylamide gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, James J; Kaufman, Joshua D; Stahl, Stephen J; Wingfield, Paul T; Bax, Ad

    2002-03-20

    The structure of a water-insoluble fragment encompassing residues 282-304 of the HIV envelope protein gp41 is studied when solubilized by dihexanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) and by small bicelles, consisting of a 4:1 molar ratio of DHPC and dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC). Weak alignment with the magnetic field was accomplished in a stretched polyacrylamide gel, permitting measurement of one-bond (1)H-(15)N, (13)Ca-(13)C', and (13)C'-(15)N dipolar couplings, which formed the basis for determining the peptide structure. In both detergent systems, the peptide adopts an alpha-helical conformation from residue 4 through 18. In the presence of the DHPC micelles the helix is strongly curved towards the hydrophobic surface, whereas in the presence of bicelles a much weaker curvature in the opposite direction is observed.

  6. Efficacy and compatibility with mass spectrometry of methods for elution of proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and polyvinyldifluoride membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C.S.; Jagd, M.; Sørensen, B.K.;

    2004-01-01

    for recovering intact proteins from polyacrylamide gels and electroblotting membranes to define efficient methods compatible with MS. These methods complement in situ digestion protocols and allow determination of the molecular mass of whole proteins separated by SDS-PAGE. Passive elution of proteins from SDS...... acid (TFA) or combinations of 8 M urea and 1% Triton X-100, 1% Tween 20, or 40% isopropanol. The same result was obtained using nitrocellulose membranes, except that these were incompatible with organic solvent and TFA. Elution by TFA was compatible with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization MS...... (MALDI-MS) but was complicated by a high degree of trifluoroacetylation of the proteins. Alternatively, elution by 8 M urea + 1% Triton X-100, 1% Tween 20, or 40% isopropanol was compatible with both SELDI-MS and MALDI-MS. Eluted proteins were identified in MS experiments by intact mass determination...

  7. Analysis of polyacrylamide gels for trace metals using diffusive gradients in thin films and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnken, Kent W; Zhang, Hao; Davison, William

    2004-10-15

    A simple method for the analysis of polyacrylamide diffusive gradients in thin film (DGT) gels by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS), employing a novel use of (115)In internal standardization, has been developed. This method allows the determination of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations (at the DGT filter face) or fluxes in sediments at a spatial resolution of 100 microm. Single-layered gels, using an optimized laser defocus of 4000 microm at 400 mJ power, showed high precision (generally approximately 10%) and a linear response during solution deployment. Of the elements Sc, In, Ba, La, Ce, and Tb, Ba most closely tracked variations in laser energy and showed the highest analytical precision but could not be used as an internal standard due to its elevated presence in natural sediments. Therefore, internal standardization, necessary to normalize data collected on different days, was carried out using (115)In contained within a second layer of backing gel and dried along with the analyte layer as a dual-gel disk. This multilayered gel standard required a laser defocus setting of 1000 microm and a laser power of approximately 800 mJ. Analytical precision for a 64-spot ablation grid at 100-microm spacing was approximately 10%. Verification of this method was carried out on DGT sediment probes deployed in Priest Pot (English Lake District). Results obtained by conventional slicing techniques and aqueous elution agreed with laser ablation results when the different sampling areas were considered. The elution results varied by a factor of laser ablation technique showed a variability of approximately 4, indicating localized elevated concentrations of Co. This higher resolution LA-ICPMS method could ultimately lead to an improved understanding of the geochemical processes responsible for metal uptake and release in sediments.

  8. Detection of metals in proteins by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: application to selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chéry, Cyrille C; Günther, Detlef; Cornelis, Rita; Vanhaecke, Frank; Moens, Luc

    2003-10-01

    The capabilities of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for the detection of trace elements in a gel after gel electrophoresis were systematically studied. Figures of merit, such as limit of detection, linearity, and repeatability, were evaluated for various elements (Li, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, Pt, Tl, Pb). Two ablation strategies were followed: single hole drilling, relevant for ablation of spots after two-dimensional (2-D) separations, and ablation with translation, i.e., on a line, relevant for one-dimensional (1-D) separations. This technique was applied to the detection of selenoproteins in red blood cells extracts after a 1-D separation (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and the detection of selenium-containing proteins in yeast after 2-D electrophoresis (2-DE). The detection procedure was further improved by using the dynamic reaction cell technology, which allowed the removal of the Ar_2(+) interference and hence the use of the most abundant Se isotope, (80)Se. Reaction gases were compared (methane, carbon monoxide, ammonia, oxygen and the combination of argon (collision gas) and hydrogen (reaction gas)). In each instance, the reaction cell parameters were optimized in order to obtain the lowest detection limit for Se (as (80)Se(+), (82)Se(+) or (77)Se(+); and as (80)Se(16)O(+), (82)Se(16)O(+) or (77)Se(16)O(+) with O(2) as the reaction gas). Carbon monoxide was found to offer the best performance. The detection limit with the use of DRC and He as transport gas was 0.07 microg Se g(-1) gel with single hole drilling and 0.15 microg Se g(-1) gel for ablation with translation.

  9. Evaluation of polyacrylamide gels with accelerator ammonium salts for water shutoff in ultralow temperature reservoirs: Gelation performance and application recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water shutoff in ultralow temperature reservoirs has received great attention in recent years. In previous study, we reported a phenol-formaldehyde-based gel formula with ammonium salt which can provide a gelation time between 2 hrs and 2 days at 25 °C. However, systematic evaluation and field recommendations of this gel formula when encountering complex reservoirs environment are not addressed. In this paper, how and why such practical considerations as water composition, temperature, pH, weight ratio of formaldehyde to resorcinol and contaminant Fe3+ to affect the gelation performance are examined. Brookfield DV-III and scanning electron microscopy (SEM are employed respectively for viscosity measurement and microstructure analysis. SEM results further illustrate the mechanism of the effect of salinity on gelation performance. It reveals that crosslinking done by covalent bond has great advantage for gel stability under high salinity environment. The target gel formula can provide desirable gelation time below 60 °C, perfect for 15–45 °C, while it is unfeasible to use high salinity to delay gelation at 60 °C. We summarized the effect of salinity on gelation performance of different gel formulas from the present study and published literature. The summarized data can provide important guideline for gel formula design before conducting any kinds of experiments. The variation of gelation performance at different salinity may be dominated by the interaction between crosslinker-salt-polymer, not only limited to “charge-screening effect” and “ion association” proposed by several authors. We hope the analysis encouraging further investigations. Some recommendations for field application of this gel are given in the end of this paper.

  10. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF ANIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDES CONTAINING DIRECT DYE WITH A HIGH AFFINITY FOR CELLULOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Yokota

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct dye with a high affinity for cellulose substrate was utilized as a cellulose anchor to promote retention of paper strengthening additives under various conditions associated with the wet end of a paper machine. Direct Red 28 (DR was covalently linked to anionic polyacrylamide (A-PAM via a condensation reaction using water-soluble carbodiimide. The DR-conjugated A-PAM (DR-A-PAM demonstrated good retention efficiency, resulting in strength enhancement of handsheets. Anionic trash showed no interference with the performance of DR-A-PAM in the wet end, while the additive performance was sensitive to calcium ions. Surface plasmon resonance analysis gave useful information on the cellulose-anchoring ability of DR-A-PAM. Dye molecules were irreversibly adsorbed onto the cellulose substrate under aqueous conditions, while A-PAM possessed no significant affinity for cellulose. These results suggest that anionic DR moieties in DR-A-PAM molecules served as a cellulose-anchor, possibly due to multiple CH-π interaction between hydrophobic face of cellulose substrate and π-conjugated system of dye molecules. Such a unique interaction of direct dye and cellulose provides a new insight into the wet end system, and does not depend on conventional electrostatic attraction.

  11. An optical comparator for measuring two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis records using an on-line microcomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spragg, S P; Jones, M I; Hill, B J

    1983-03-01

    A comparator which makes it possible to compare two wet gels or photographic negatives or autoradiograms through a flickering light system has been built. The system consists of two special-purpose projectors which combine the images on a digitizing platform. When the lights are switched On and off out of phase, the positions of the common components remain unchanged, whereas those that are spatially displaced appear to jump from side to side and those present in one image but not the other switch on and off. This produces a flickering image in which differences are readily seen. Commercial camera lenses were used to construct the projectors and the overall specifications for the system are given. The coordinates of both the displaced components, as well as the selected standards from the two images, are digitized and entered automatically into an on-line microcomputer. By using an iterative procedure for collecting records from several superimposable records of the gel, it is possible to compensate for the lack of total reproducibility over the whole gels. These coordinates are then normalized and superimposed on a master map through a television display using a curser to adjust the coordinates. The whole procedure can be repeated for many gels using a common reference gel in the comparator, and the result is a set of normalized coordinates which can be plotted on a single map to provide a final record of the experiments.

  12. Development of a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reference method for the analysis and identification of fish species in raw and heat-processed samples : A collaborative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineiro, C.; Barros-Velazquez, J.; Perez-Martin, R.I.;

    1999-01-01

    A collaborative study was carried out in seven European labs with the aim of achieving a sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) standard operation procedure to identify fish species in raw and cooked samples. Urea and SDS-containing solutions were evaluated as extra...

  13. Development of a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reference method for the analysis and identification of fish species in raw and heat-processed samples : A collaborative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineiro, C.; Barros-Velazquez, J.; Perez-Martin, R.I.

    1999-01-01

    A collaborative study was carried out in seven European labs with the aim of achieving a sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) standard operation procedure to identify fish species in raw and cooked samples. Urea and SDS-containing solutions were evaluated as extra...

  14. Comparison of diazo-coupling, formazan, and silver staining techniques for visualizing alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes after electrophoresis in homogeneous-pore and gradient-pore polyacrylamide gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, A W; Skillen, A W

    1988-03-01

    Three techniques for visualization of alkaline phosphatase after polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis are compared. These are diazo-dye simultaneous coupling with the substrate sodium naphthyl phosphate and 5-chloro-2-toluene diazonium chloride; formazan precipitation with the substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; and silver staining with the substrate sodium glycerophosphate. Each staining technique was tested with gradient-pore and homogeneous-pore acrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The main factors assessed are sensitivity; separation of the human serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes of the liver, bone, and intestinal types; and differences in substrate affinity, as well as the complexity of each technique. Using the three techniques only minor differences in substrate affinity are evident. There is some nonspecific staining with the diazo-coupling technique but not with the formazan and silver staining techniques. The differences, in the mobility of the liver, bone, and intestinal isoenzymes achieved by homogeneous-pore gel electrophoresis are sufficient to allow them to be clearly distinguished. However, only very small differences in mobility are found with gradient-pore gel electrophoresis, but the sharper bands in this medium allow much smaller amounts of activity to be detected. As little as 160 microU of enzyme can be visualized by the diazo technique. Silver staining gives an approximately fourfold increase in sensitivity over the formazan technique, which in turn gives a fourfold increase over the diazo technique. An important aspect of the silver staining technique is the potential of increasing sensitivity much further by improvements in the photographic physical development stage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Species identification of cooked fish by urea isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis : a collaborative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehbein, H.; Kundiger, R.; Yman, I.M.;

    1999-01-01

    of gels to be run in the same flat bed electrophoresis chamber. By strictly following optimised standard operation procedures (SOPs), five unknown cooked samples had to be identified with each technique using a set of 10 raw reference samples. With urea IEF, only one out of 35 identifications...

  16. Investigations of rheological properties of diclofenac sodium gel preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firuza Maksudova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that the majority of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are ulcerogenic. Gel or ointment preparations of NSAIDs are free from this side-effect, which is a prerequisite for the increase of aforementioned forms of NSAIDs. A major quality indicator of gels and ointments are rheological properties. Along with determining the quality of preparation, they influence manufacturing, expiration date and terms of storage. This article demonstrates the results of investigation of rheological indices of 3% gel preparation of diclofenac sodium such as plasticity, structural viscosity, and thixotropy. Obtained results confirm that the developed gel preparation has thixotropy, plasticity and is classified as a Bingham system.

  17. Further development of an electroosmotic medium pump system for preparative disk gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Mitsuo; Hosogi, Yumiko; Takiguchi, Hisashi; Shiroza, Teruaki; Shibata, Yasuko; Hiratsuka, Koichi; Kiyama-Kishikawa, Michiko; Hamajima, Susumu; Abiko, Yoshimitsu

    2003-02-01

    A simple and practical 6.8-cm-diameter (36.30-cm(2) cross-sectional-area) preparative disk gel electrophoresis device, based on the design of M. Hayakawa et al. (Anal. Biochem. 288 (2001) 168), in which the elution buffer is driven by an electroosmotic buffer flow through the membrane into the elution chamber from the anode chamber was constructed. We have found that the dialysis membranes employed provide suitable flow rates for the elution buffer, similar to those of an earlier 3.6-cm-diameter device, resulting in the prevention of excess eluate dilution. The efficiency of this device was demonstrated by the fractionation of a bovine serum albumin (BSA) Cohn V fraction into monomer, dimer, and oligomer components using nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native-PAGE). The maximum protein concentration of the eluate achieved was 133 mg/ml of BSA monomer, which required a dilution of the eluate for subsequent analytical PAGE performance. As a practical example, the two-dimensional fractionation of soluble dipeptidyl peptidase IV (sDPP IV) from 50 ml fetal bovine serum (3.20 g protein) per gel is presented. The sDPP IV enzyme protein was recovered in a relatively short time, utilizing a 6.5% T native-PAGE and subsequential sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE system. This device enhances the possibility of continuous electrophoretic fractionation of complex protein mixtures on a preparative scale.

  18. Concentration of acrylamide in a polyacrylamide gel affects VP4 gene coding assignment of group A equine rotavirus strains with P[12] specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background It is universally acknowledged that genome segment 4 of group A rotavirus, the major etiologic agent of severe diarrhea in infants and neonatal farm animals, encodes outer capsid neutralization and protective antigen VP4. Results To determine which genome segment of three group A equine rotavirus strains (H-2, FI-14 and FI-23) with P[12] specificity encodes the VP4, we analyzed dsRNAs of strains H-2, FI-14 and FI-23 as well as their reassortants by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) at varying concentrations of acrylamide. The relative position of the VP4 gene of the three equine P[12] strains varied (either genome segment 3 or 4) depending upon the concentration of acrylamide. The VP4 gene bearing P[3], P[4], P[6], P[7], P[8] or P[18] specificity did not exhibit this phenomenon when the PAGE running conditions were varied. Conclusions The concentration of acrylamide in a PAGE gel affected VP4 gene coding assignment of equine rotavirus strains bearing P[12] specificity. PMID:20573245

  19. Method for preparing hydrous zirconium oxide gels and spherules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L.

    2003-08-05

    Methods for preparing hydrous zirconium oxide spherules, hydrous zirconium oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous zirconium oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent having a desired crystallinity, zirconium oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, hydrous zirconium oxide fiber materials, zirconium oxide fiber materials, hydrous zirconium oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, zirconium oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite and spherules of barium zirconate. The hydrous zirconium oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process are useful as inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters and ceramics.

  20. Benchmarking sample preparation/digestion protocols reveals tube-gel being a fast and repeatable method for quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Leslie; Fornecker, Luc; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Cianférani, Sarah; Carapito, Christine

    2016-12-01

    Sample preparation, typically by in-solution or in-gel approaches, has a strong influence on the accuracy and robustness of quantitative proteomics workflows. The major benefit of in-gel procedures is their compatibility with detergents (such as SDS) for protein solubilization. However, SDS-PAGE is a time-consuming approach. Tube-gel (TG) preparation circumvents this drawback as it involves directly trapping the sample in a polyacrylamide gel matrix without electrophoresis. We report here the first global label-free quantitative comparison between TG, stacking gel (SG), and basic liquid digestion (LD). A series of UPS1 standard mixtures (at 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, and 25 fmol) were spiked in a complex yeast lysate background. TG preparation allowed more yeast proteins to be identified than did the SG and LD approaches, with mean numbers of 1979, 1788, and 1323 proteins identified, respectively. Furthermore, the TG method proved equivalent to SG and superior to LD in terms of the repeatability of the subsequent experiments, with mean CV for yeast protein label-free quantifications of 7, 9, and 10%. Finally, known variant UPS1 proteins were successfully detected in the TG-prepared sample within a complex background with high sensitivity. All the data from this study are accessible on ProteomeXchange (PXD003841).

  1. A rapid and simple 8-quinolinol-based fluorescent stain of phosphoproteins in polyacrylamide gel after electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Hwang, Sun-Young; Cong, Wei-Tao; Jin, Li-Tai; Choi, Jung-Kap

    2015-10-01

    In order to obtain an easy and rapid protocol to visualize phosphoproteins in SDS-PAGE, a fluorescent detection method named 8-Quinolinol (8-Q) stain is described. 8-Q can form ternary complexes in the gel matrix contributed by the affinity of aluminum ion (Al(3+) ) to the phosphate groups on the proteins and the metal chelating property of 8-Quinolinol, exhibiting strong fluorescence in ultraviolet light. It can visualize as little as 4∼8 ng of α-casein and β-casein, 16∼32 ng of ovalbumin and κ-casein which is more sensitive than Stains-All but less sensitive than Pro-Q Diamond. The protocol of 8-Q requires only 70 min in 0.75 mm mini-size or 1.0 mm large-size gels with five changes of solutions without destaining step; Pro-Q takes at least 250 min with 11 changes of solutions. In addition, the new method was confirmed by the study of dephosphorylation and LC-MS/MS, respectively. The approach to visualize phosphoprotein utilizing 8-Q could be an alternative to simplify the analytical operations for phosphoproteomics research. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Evaluation of the electroosmotic medium pump system for preparative disk gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, M; Hosogi, Y; Takiguchi, H; Saito, S; Shiroza, T; Shibata, Y; Hiratsuka, K; Kiyama-Kishikawa, M; Abiko, Y

    2001-01-15

    This paper describes an improved electroosmotic elution system for preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) based on the epochal idea of H. V. Tan et al. (Nucleic Acids Res. 1988, 16, 1921-1930). In this elution system, a semipermeable membrane, mounted under the gel terminal end, works as the elution pump as well as the partition of the elution chamber. We refer to this system as the "electroosmotic medium pump system." Operation of the constructed apparatus (3.6 cm i.d. disk gel column) and resolution of the protein bands were examined by separation of the model protein mixture (bovine serum albumin (BSA), ovalbumin, bovine carbonic anhydrase, soybean trypsin inhibitor) and purification of the membrane protein, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV). The Spectra/Por 7 dialysis membrane provided a better flow profile for the elution buffer. The four model proteins of the protein mixture were able to be completely separated from each other and recovered without dilution. The maximum protein concentration of eluate achieved was 93 mg/ml, when applying a single component, BSA fraction V, as a sample. Furthermore, the multifunctional ectoenzyme, DPP IV, was purified in a single step.

  3. Preparation of chitosan-graft-polyacrylamide magnetic composite microspheres for enhanced selective removal of mercury ions from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Wang, Yawen; Huang, Mu; Yan, Han; Yang, Hu; Xiao, Shoujun; Li, Aimin

    2015-10-01

    A novel magnetic composite microsphere based on polyacrylamide (PAM)-grafted chitosan and silica-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (CS-PAM-MCM) was successfully synthesized by a simple method. The molecular structure, surface morphology, and magnetic characteristics of the composite microsphere were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared CS-PAM-MCM was applied as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of copper(II), lead(II), and mercury(II) ions from aqueous solutions in respective single, binary, and ternary metal systems. Compared with chitosan magnetic composite microsphere (CS-MCM) without modification, CS-PAM-MCM showed improved adsorption capacity for each metal ion and highly selective adsorption for Hg from Pb and Cu. This improvement is attributed to the formation of stronger interactions between Hg and the amide groups of PAM branches for chelating effects. The adsorption isotherms of Hg/Cu and Hg/Pb binary metal systems onto CS-PAM-MCM are both well-described by extended and modified Langmuir models, indicating that the removal of the three aforementioned metal ions may follow a similar adsorption manner; that is, through a homogeneous monolayer chemisorption process. Furthermore, these magnetic adsorbents could be easily regenerated in EDTA aqueous solution and reused virtually without any adsorption capacity loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a low-cost, high-throughput native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (N-PAGE) protocol for lipoprotein sub-fractionation using Quality by Design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Mili; Chaudhary, Neha; Rathore, Anurag S

    2014-04-01

    Ratio of low density to high density lipoprotein concentration is critical for normal functioning of human body. Deviation in this ratio has been linked to various diseases, many of which are fatal if not diagnosed at early stages. For example, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been linked to the level of low density lipoprotein (LDL). Henceforth, detection of the lipoprotein subtractions is crucial for health of an individual. To date, methods like ultracentrifugation, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gradient gel electrophoresis (GGE) have been used for separation and identification of lipoprotein types and subtypes. However, these methods are expensive, time consuming and require specialized equipments and expertise. This paper aims to propose a low-cost, high-throughput native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (N-PAGE) based protocol for analysis of lipoproteins. Quality by Design (QbD) based approach has been utilized. The initial screening of parameters was followed by a fractional factorial design to optimize the protocol. The lipoprotein subtractions obtained by the optimized protocol were compared with the commercially available and commonly used Lipoprint(®) Lipoprotein Subfractions Testing System from Quantimetrix. The proposed method gave comparable results to those obtained with the commercial system. The proposed method is capable of analysis of up to forty different samples in two hours at a cost of approximately 2$/sample. This is an order of magnitude better than the present cost of 265$/sample when using the commercial system. We think that the proposed method would be of particular interest to the developing and under-developed economies of the world, where this cost differential would be deemed quite significant and would make testing affordable to the majority of the population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis and electrical field-assisted sintering behaviour of yttria-stabilized tetragonal ZrO$_2$ nanopowders by polyacrylamide gel method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    XINGHUA SU; BENPAN WANG; JIE ZHOU; HAOYU SUN

    2016-06-01

    The tetragonal ZrO$_2$ nanopowders stabilized with 3 mol% Y$_2$O$_3$ (3YSZ) were synthesized using a polyacrylamide gel method. The mean particle size of the 3YSZ nanopowders was found to decrease with increasing molecular ratio of monomer to the precursor salt. The 3YSZ nanopowders with mean particle size of 12 nm can be densified in 1 h at 800$^{\\circ}$C, by the application of a d.c. electrical field. Under a constant d.c. electrical field, the current density through the specimen of 3YSZ rose rapidly when the temperature increased to a certain value. In the sintering process, the current density was restricted when the sharp increase occurred. By limiting current density to different values for one hour, it was found that current density was the most important factor in electrical field assisted sintering process. The grain size of 3YSZ bulk increased with the enhanced current density. The stable stageof electrical field-assisted sintering process can be explained by Joule heating. Corresponding real temperature of specimens is estimated by applying black body radiation theory.

  6. Novel macroporous amphoteric gels: Preparation and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kudaibergenov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Macroporous amphoteric gels based on allylamine, methacrylic acid and acrylamide crosslinked by N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide were synthesized by radical copolymerization of monomers in cryoconditions. The composition of cryogels was determined by combination of potentiometric and conductimetric titrations. The morphology of cryogels was evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Cryogels exhibited sponge-like porous structure with pore size ranging from 50 to 200 μm. The values of the isoelectric points (IEPs determined from the swelling experiments arranged between 3.5 and 4.3. The high adsorption-desorption capacity of amphoteric cryogels with respect to mM and trace concentrations of copper, nickel, and cobalt ions was demonstrated. It was shown that the macroporous amphoteric cryogels are able to adsorb up to 99.9% of copper, nickel, and cobalt ions from 10–3 mol•L–1 aqueous solution.

  7. Preparation of cationic chitosan-polyacrylamide flocculant and its properties in wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ben; Zhang, Yulian; Miao, Chunbao

    2011-03-01

    Chitosan derived from crab shells, was used to prepare the graft polymer in aqueous solution with acrylamide (AM) and methacrylatoethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DMC) as raw materials and ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as initiator. The flocculation ability of the resulting polymer (PCAD) was studied in waste water treatment experiments. Its properties were determined on the basis of the transmittance of waste water after flocculation. The effects of chitosan and DMC content on PCAD's flocculation ability were studied. Flocculation experiments were also undertaken under various pH conditions. According to the experimental data, the flocculation ability could be improved when chitosan content decreased in the raw material, but the monomer conversion would decrease obviously. When the chitosan's content was more than 65%, AM and DMC groups were less on each chitosan molecule. So PCAD's flocculation ability was poor. Similarly, high content of DMC would result in low monomer conversion and high flocculation ability. PCAD molecules with more DMC group had more positive charges. It was favorable to flocculation. However, monomer conversion would decrease with the increase of DMC content. The suitable conditions were that chitosan and DMC contents were 65% and 15-20%, respectively. The experiment data showed that PCAD had good flocculation ability under weak acidic condition. Its ability would be weakened by strong acidic or alkaline condition. The flocculation efficiency was the best at pH of 5.5 when PCAD's dosage was 8mg·L-1. Compared with cationic polymer (the copolymer of AM and DMC, PAD), PCAD showed better flocculation ability under acid and neutral conditions, but worse ability under alkaline condition.

  8. Preparation of Cationic Chitosan-Polyacrylamide Flocculant and Its Properties in Wastewater Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ben; ZHANG Yulian; MIAO Chunbao

    2011-01-01

    Chitosan derived from crab shells, was used to prepare the graft polymer in aqueous solution with acrylamide (AM) and methacrylatoethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DMC) as raw materials and eerie ammonium nitrate (CAN) as initiator. The flocculation ability of the resulting polymer (PCAD) was studied in waste water treatment experiments. Its properties were determined on the basis of the transmittance of waste water after flocculation. The effects of chitosan and DMC content on PCAD's flocculation ability were studied. Flocculation experiments were also undertaken under various pH conditions. According to the experimental data, the flocculation ability could be improved when chitosan content decreased in the raw material, but the monomer conversion would decrease obviously. When the chitosan's content was more than 65%, AM and DMC groups were less on each chitosan molecule. So PCAD's flocculation ability was poor. Similarly, high content of DMC would result in low monomer conversion and high flocculation ability. PCAD molecules with more DMC group had more positive charges. It was favorable to flocculation. However, monomer conversion would decrease with the increase of DMC content. The suitable conditions were that chitosan and DMC contents were 65% and 15-20%, respectively. The experiment data showed that PCAD had good flocculation ability under weak acidic condition. Its ability would be weakened by strong acidic or alkaline condition. The flocculation efficiency was the best at pH of 5.5 when PCAD's dosage was 8mg·L-1. Compared with cationic polymer (the copolymer of AM and DMC, PAD), PCAD showed better flocculation ability under acid and neutral conditions, but worse ability under alkaline condition.

  9. Mesoporous silica/polyacrylamide composite: Preparation by UV-graft photopolymerization, characterization and use as Hg(II) adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Ali; Bakas, Idriss; Piquemal, Jean-Yves; Nowak, Sophie; Abderrabba, Manef; Chehimi, Mohamed M.

    2016-03-01

    MCM-41 ordered mesoporous silica was prepared, aminosilanized and grafted with polyacrylamide (PAAM) through in situ radical photopolymerization process. The resulting composite, denoted PAAM-NH2-MCM-41, the calcined and silanized reference MCM-41s were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and N2 physisorption at 77 K. These complementary techniques brought strong supporting evidence for the silanization process followed by PAAM grafting. The surface composition was found to be PAAM-rich as judged by XPS. The composite was then employed for the uptake of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions. Adsorption was monitored versus pH, time, and temperature. The maximum adsorption capacity at 25 °C and pH 5.2 was 177 mg g-1. Kinetically, the equilibrium was reached within 60 min for a 100 mg L-1 mercury solution. The adsorption of Hg(II) on PAAM-NH2-MCM-41 composites followed second order kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters suggested that the favorable adsorption process is exothermic in nature and the adsorption is ascribed to a decrease in the degree of freedom of adsorbed ions which results in the entropy change. This work conclusively shows that mesoporous silica-polymer hybrid metal ion adsorbents (with robust silica-polymer interface) can be prepared in a simple way by in situ radical photopolymerization in the presence of aminosilanized silica acting as a support and a macro-hydrogen donor simultaneously.

  10. Preparation and evaluation of soft gellan gum gel containing paracetamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gohel M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop soft paracetamol gel using gellan gum as a gelling agent and sodium citrate as a source of cation. Different batches were prepared using three different concentrations of gellan gum (0.1, 0.3, and 0.5%, each with two different sodium citrate concentrations (0.3 and 0.5%. The consistency of the paracetamol gel was dependent on the concentration of gellan gum, sodium citrate and co-solute. The results of dissolution study of soft gel containing 0.3% gellan gum and 0.3% sodium citrate revealed that paracetamol was completely released in 30 min. Polyethylene glycol 400 worked as a solubilizer for paracetamol. All the gels possessed acceptable sensory characteristics when evaluated by human volunteers. Short term stability study carried out for four weeks at different temperatures revealed no considerable changes in performance characteristics of developed optimized formulation.

  11. Antimicrobial efficacy of an indigenously prepared caries removing gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Priya; Gilhotra, K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the anti-microbial efficacy of an indigenously prepared caries removing gel, in primary molars. Twenty teeth with broad occlusal cavitated lesions that fulfilled the clinical and radiographic criteria formed the study group. These teeth were subjected to chemomechanical method of caries removal, using an indigenously prepared caries removing gel. Prior to and following caries removal, the dentin samples were analyzed for total viable count and lactobacilli count. The percentage of reduction in the total viable count was 92.4% and in the lactobacilli count it was 94.1%, which was statistically highly significant. Removal of carious tissue with a caries removing gel, a natural plant extract, proved to be efficient, easy to perform, and comfortable for the patient.

  12. Antimicrobial efficacy of an indigenously prepared caries removing gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Subramaniam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the anti-microbial efficacy of an indigenously prepared caries removing gel, in primary molars. Materials and Methods: Twenty teeth with broad occlusal cavitated lesions that fulfilled the clinical and radiographic criteria formed the study group. These teeth were subjected to chemomechanical method of caries removal, using an indigenously prepared caries removing gel. Prior to and following caries removal, the dentin samples were analyzed for total viable count and lactobacilli count. Results: The percentage of reduction in the total viable count was 92.4% and in the lactobacilli count it was 94.1%, which was statistically highly significant. Conclusion: Removal of carious tissue with a caries removing gel, a natural plant extract, proved to be efficient, easy to perform, and comfortable for the patient.

  13. Microchannel gel electrophoretic separation systems and methods for preparing and using

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Amy; Singh, Anup K; Throckmorton, Daniel J

    2013-09-03

    A micro-analytical platform for performing electrophoresis-based immunoassays was developed by integrating photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels within a microfluidic device. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic separation and quantifying analyte concentration based upon conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To retain biological activity of proteins and maintain intact immune complexes, native PAGE conditions were employed. Both direct (non-competitive) and competitive immunoassay formats are demonstrated in microchips for detecting toxins and biomarkers (cytokines, c-reactive protein) in bodily fluids (serum, saliva, oral fluids). Further, a description of gradient gels fabrication is included, in an effort to describe methods we have developed for further optimization of on-chip PAGE immunoassays. The described chip-based PAGE immunoassay method enables immunoassays that are fast (minutes) and require very small amounts of sample (less than a few microliters). Use of microfabricated chips as a platform enables integration, parallel assays, automation and development of portable devices.

  14. Microchannel gel electrophoretic separation systems and methods for preparing and using

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Amy E; Singh, Anup K; Throckmorton, Daniel J

    2015-02-24

    A micro-analytical platform for performing electrophoresis-based immunoassays was developed by integrating photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels within a microfluidic device. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic separation and quantifying analyte concentration based upon conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To retain biological activity of proteins and maintain intact immune complexes, native PAGE conditions were employed. Both direct (non-competitive) and competitive immunoassay formats are demonstrated in microchips for detecting toxins and biomarkers (cytokines, c-reactive protein) in bodily fluids (serum, saliva, oral fluids). Further, a description of gradient gels fabrication is included, in an effort to describe methods we have developed for further optimization of on-chip PAGE immunoassays. The described chip-based PAGE immunoassay method enables immunoassays that are fast (minutes) and require very small amounts of sample (less than a few microliters). Use of microfabricated chips as a platform enables integration, parallel assays, automation and development of portable devices.

  15. Microchannel gel electrophoretic separation systems and methods for preparing and using

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Amy; Singh, Anup K; Throckmorton, Daniel J

    2013-09-03

    A micro-analytical platform for performing electrophoresis-based immunoassays was developed by integrating photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels within a microfluidic device. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic separation and quantifying analyte concentration based upon conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To retain biological activity of proteins and maintain intact immune complexes, native PAGE conditions were employed. Both direct (non-competitive) and competitive immunoassay formats are demonstrated in microchips for detecting toxins and biomarkers (cytokines, c-reactive protein) in bodily fluids (serum, saliva, oral fluids). Further, a description of gradient gels fabrication is included, in an effort to describe methods we have developed for further optimization of on-chip PAGE immunoassays. The described chip-based PAGE immunoassay method enables immunoassays that are fast (minutes) and require very small amounts of sample (less than a few microliters). Use of microfabricated chips as a platform enables integration, parallel assays, automation and development of portable devices.

  16. Method for preparing hydrous iron oxide gels and spherules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L.; Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.

    2003-07-29

    The present invention is directed to methods for preparing hydrous iron oxide spherules, hydrous iron oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form composite sorbents and catalysts, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite of hydrous iron oxide fiber materials, iron oxide fiber materials, hydrous iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, dielectric spherules of barium, strontium, and lead ferrites and mixtures thereof, and composite catalytic spherules of barium or strontium ferrite embedded with oxides of Mg, Zn, Pb, Ce and mixtures thereof. These variations of hydrous iron oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters, dielectrics, and ceramics.

  17. Comparasion of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE, immuno-electron microscopy (IEM and enzyme immunoassay (EIA for the rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Pereira

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of rotavirus RNA by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE proved to be a highly sensitive and rapid diagnostic test. A comparison of this assay with immuno-electron microscopy (IEM and enzyme immunoassay (EIA in 245 faeces from children with gastroenteritis revealed complete agreement between the three assays in 238 (97.14% samples. Among 75 samples positive in at least one of the three assays, negative results were observed in 5 (6.48% by PAGE, in 6 (6.76% by EIA and in none by IEM. Silver staining greatly increased the sensitivity of the PAGE assay. We conclude that although IEM remains the most sensitive and rapid rotavirus diagnostic assay, the PAGE technique has many advantages in its favour, including the non-requirement of expensive equipment, the use of only chemically defined reagents and the capacity to distinguish virus subgroup and variants and to detect non-crossreactive rotaviruses which are missed in serological assays.A evidenciação da presença de ácido ribonucleico (ARN viral por eletroforese em gel de policrilamida (EGPA foi comprovada como um método altamente sensível e rápido para o diagnóstico de infecções por rotavirus. Uma comparação desta prova com a imunomicroscopia eletrônica (IEM e com o ensaio imunoenzimático (EIE no exame de 245 fezes de crianças com gastroenterite revelou completa concordancia entre os três ensaios em 238 (97.14% amostras. Entre 75 amostras positivas pelo menos em um dos três ensaios, resultados negativos foram observados em 5 (6.48% por EGPA, em 6 (6.76% por EIE e em nenhum por IEM. Coloração pela prata aumentou consideravelmente a sensibilidade do ensaio por EGPA. Concluímos que embora a IEM ainda seja a prova mais sensível e rápida para o diagnóstico de infecções por rotavirus, o ensaio por EGPA tem muitas vantagens em seu favor, sendo as principais as de não necessitar equipamentos caros, de empregar exclusivamente reagentes quimicamente definidos, de

  18. Optimizing Human Bile Preparation for Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Tsai Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Bile is an important body fluid which assists in the digestion of fat and excretion of endogenous and exogenous compounds. In the present study, an improved sample preparation for human bile was established. Methods and Material. The method involved acetone precipitation followed by protein extraction using commercially available 2D Clean-Up kit. The effectiveness was evaluated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE profiling quality, including number of protein spots and spot distribution. Results. The total protein of bile fluid in benign biliary disorders was 0.797 ± 0.465 μg/μL. The sample preparation method using acetone precipitation first followed by 2D Clean-Up kit protein extraction resulted in better quality of 2DE gel images in terms of resolution as compared with other sample preparation methods. Using this protocol, we obtained approximately 558 protein spots on the gel images and with better protein spots presentation of haptoglobin, serum albumin, serotransferrin, and transthyretin. Conclusions. Protein samples of bile prepared using acetone precipitation followed by 2D Clean-Up kit exhibited high protein resolution and significant protein profile. This optimized protein preparation protocol can effectively concentrate bile proteins, remove abundant proteins and debris, and yield clear presentation of nonabundant proteins and its isoforms on 2-dimensional electrophoresis gel images.

  19. Bacterial infection as a likely cause of adverse reactions to polyacrylamide hydrogel fillers in cosmetic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lise; Breiting, Vibeke; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background. The etiology of long-lasting adverse reactions to gel fillers used in cosmetic surgery is not known. Bacterial infection and immunological reaction to the product have been suggested. Methods. We performed a case-control study, with 77 biopsies and 30 cytology specimens originating from...... in the presence of polyacrylamide filler in cosmetic surgery, possibly due to a biofilm mode of growth. Adequate skin preparation and use of sterile technique in these procedures are mandatory, but antibiotic prophylaxis prior to injection of nondegradable gels like polyacrylamide should be explored as well....

  20. Preparation of silica by sol-gel method using formamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F.S. Lenza

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we obtained microporous and mesoporous silica gels by sol-gel processing. Tetraethylortosilicate (TEOS was used as precursor. Nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid were used as catalysts. In order to study the affect of formamide as drying additive, we used a molar ratio alkoxide/formamide of 1/1. The performance of formamide in obtaining crack-free gels was evaluated through monolithicity measurements. The structural evolution occurring in the interconnected network of the gels during thermal treatment was monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, shrinkage and density measurements and nitrogen gas sorption. We noted that in the presence of formamide, the Si-O-Si bonds are stronger and belong to a more cross-linked structure. The samples obtained in the presence of formamide have larger pore volume and its pore structure is in the range of mesoporosity. The samples obtained without additive are microporous. Formamide allowed the preparation of crack-free silica gels stabilized at high temperatures.

  1. [Magistral prepared lidocaine-gel for topical aplication on skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklenár, Zbynĕk; Horácková, Katerína; Bakhouche, Hana; Slanar, Ondrej

    2012-08-01

    Due to a limited availability of industrially manufactured products containing local anesthetics for skin application and an increased demand for lidocaine-containing gel applicable prior to a product containing capsaicin for neuropathic pain treatment, it is necessary to prepare a topical semi-solid preparation containing the local anesthetic in pharmacies. Our aim was to create a mixed system of a hydrophilic gel with the emulsified drug, using excipients to decrease the lidocaine melting point, thereby creating a eutectic mixture with a high concentration of lidocaine in the oil phase. Based on bibliographic data, thymol creating a binary eutectic system containing lidocaine has been chosen. After addition of other excipients, an emulsion system was prepared and the drug was stabilized in the oil phase by a mixed nonionic emulsifier and carbomera. For the optimal anesthetic effects, the pH value should be adjusted; trometamol has been chosen as a suitable basic reacting excipient. Based on the addition of different amounts of trometamol, pH values of individual emulgels have been measured and the final composition of lidocaine emulgel has been created. A recipe for a 5 % lidocaine emulgel with the pH value of 9.1 has been created, based on the gel-forming substance carbomera with an emulsion of the oil phase containing a eutectic mixture of lidocaine and thymol, with an addition of ethanol and propylenglycol, stabilized by a mixed nonionic emulsifier. The advantage is the absence of other local anesthetics.

  2. Sol-gel applications for ceramic membrane preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, I.

    2017-02-01

    Ceramic membranes possessing superior properties compared to polymeric membranes are more durable under severe working conditions and therefore their service life is longer. The ceramic membranes are composed of some layers. The support is the layer composed of coarser ceramic structure and responsible for mechanical durability under filtration pressure and it is prepared by consolidation of ceramic powders. The top layer is composed of a finer ceramic micro-structure mainly responsible for the separation of components present in the fluid to be filtered and sol-gel method is a versatile tool to prepare such a tailor-made ceramic filtration structure with finer pores. Depending on the type of filtration (e.g. micro-filtration, ultra-filtration, nano-filtration) aiming separation of components with different sizes, sols with different particulate sizes should be prepared and consolidated with varying precursors and preparation conditions. The coating of sol on the support layer and heat treatment application to have a stable ceramic micro-structure are also important steps determining the final properties of the top layer. Sol-gel method with various controllable parameters (e.g. precursor type, sol formation kinetics, heat treatment conditions) is a practical tool for the preparation of top layers of ceramic composite membranes with desired physicochemical properties.

  3. Physicochemical and structural properties of composite gels prepared with myofibrillar protein and lard diacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Xiaoqin; Guan, Haining; Zhao, Xinxin; Diao, Xinping; Kong, Baohua

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical and structural properties of composite gels prepared with porcine myofibrillar protein (MP) and lard, glycerolized lard (GL) or purified glycerolized lard (PGL). The gels prepared with MP and GL or PGL had significantly higher penetration force and water-holding capacity (WHC) than the gel with lard (Pgel, T21 and T22 of the gels that were prepared with GL or PGL moved in the direction of slower relaxation time, which suggests that the water mobility in the gel system was restricted. The presence of lard, GL and PGL did not affect the participating proteins in composite gels. The presence of GL and PGL altered the secondary and tertiary structures of MP in composite gels, which changed the gel properties. In general, the composite gels that were prepared with MP and GL or PGL showed improved gel quality.

  4. MUCOADHESIVE GEL WITH IMMOBILIZED LYSOZYME: PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekina S. S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of non-covalent immobilized lysozyme, as well as physico-chemical and biochemical properties of obtained mucoadhesive gel was the aim of the research. Lysozyme activity was determined by bacteriolytic method (Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells acetone powder was a substrate. Lysozyme immobilization was conducted by the method of entrapment in gel. Enzyme carrier interaction was studied by viscometric, spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods. Mucoadhesive gel with immobilized lysozyme, possessing antiinflammatory and antimicrobial activities, was prepared. Due to immobilization, protein-polymer complex with the original enzymatic activity was formed. The product is characterized by high mucoadhesive properties, quantitative retaining of protein and bacteriolytic activity, prolonged release of the enzyme, improved biochemical characteristics (extended pH-activity profile, stability in acidic medium and during storage for 2 years, and it is perspective for further studies. The proposed method for lysozyme immobilization in the carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt gel allows to obtain a stable, highly efficient product, with high adhesive properties for attachment to the mucous membranes, that is promising for use in biomedicine.

  5. Preparation and bioactivity of sol-gel macroporous bioactive glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua Zhou; Jianming Ruan; Jianpeng Zou; Zhongcheng Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Bioactive glass is well known for its ability of bone regeneration, and sol-gel bioactive glass has many advantages com-pared with melt-derived bioactive glass. 3-D scaffold prepared by the sol-gel method is a promising substrate material for bone tissue engineering and large-scale bone repair. Porous sol-gel glass in the CaO-SiO2-P2O5 system with macropores larger than 100 μm was prepared by the addition of stearic acid as a pore former. The diameter of the pore created by the pore former varied from 100 to 300μm. The formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the glass was analyzed by studying the surface of the porous glass by scanning elec-tron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectra after they had been immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for some time, and the porous glass shows good bioactivity.

  6. Novel pH-sensitive interpenetrating network hydrogel beads of carboxymethylcellulose-(polyacrylamide-grafted-alginate) for controlled release of ketoprofen: preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Raghavendra V; Sa, Biswanath

    2008-10-01

    Novel pH-sensitive carboxymethylcellulose-(polyacrylamide-grafted-sodium alginate) interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogel beads loaded with ketoprofen were prepared using ionotropic gelation and covalent crosslinking method. Polyacrylamide-grafted-sodium alginate (PAAm-g-SA) copolymer was synthesized by free radical polymerization using ammonium persulfate (APS) as free radical initiator under the nitrogen atmosphere followed by hydrolysis using sodium hydroxide. The grafting, alkaline hydrolysis and crosslinking reactions were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Beads were characterized by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties of the prepared IPNs were investigated. The erosion was observed with the beads containing only ionic crosslinks whereas it was negligible with the beads containing both ionic and covalent crosslinks. The swelling of the beads and drug release was significantly increased when pH of the medium was changed from acidic to alkaline (P<0.05). The swelling and release data were fitted to an empirical equation to determine the transport mechanism. Drug release followed case II transport mechanism in acidic medium whereas anomalous/non-Fickian transport mechanism was observed in alkaline medium.

  7. Formation reason of gel-like impurities of polyacrylamide%聚丙烯酰胺胶状杂质的形成因为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关淑霞; 邰永娜; 于海南; 宋春红

    2011-01-01

    With a view to the emerge of a great deal of black and yellow strip substances with pungent putrid odor in the filter-bag of percolator at the site where polyacrylamide (PAM) was prepared as well as severe blockage of the percolator and corrosion of equipments caused by the impurities, analyses were made in relation to bacteria and inorganic ions so as to search the reasons leading to the impurities. It was found that, due to the increase of amount of bacteria, the content of Fe3+ increased, and the side amide chain of PAM was degraded to form carboxyl. This, in association with tangling and cross-linking of PAM solution containing increased content of metal ions, resulted in the strip substances. At the same time, PAM was biodegraded to generate NH3, and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) reduced sulfate to form H2S by making use of H2 produced inside cell membrane, resulting in putrid odor.%在聚丙烯酰胺(PAM)配制现场发现过滤器滤袋内存在大量黑色和黄色且有刺鼻腐臭气味的胶状条形物;这类杂质造成过滤装置严重堵塞和设备腐蚀.鉴于此,从细菌和无机离子含量两方面着手分析了聚丙烯酰胺胶状条形杂质的形成因为.结果表明:由于细菌和金属离子Fe3+含量的增加,PAM的侧酰胺基降解成羧基;而含大量金属离子的PAM溶液经缠结交联形成条形物.与此同时,PAM经生物降解产生NH3,硫酸盐还原菌(SRB)利用细胞膜内产生的氢将硫酸盐还原为H2S,从而产生腐臭气味.

  8. Separation and sequencing of familiar and novel murine proteins using preparative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, B A; Patterson, R M; Witcher, L L; He, C; Selkirk, J K

    1994-05-01

    Strategies are needed for rapid protein isolation in order to identify disease-related proteins and facilitate the design of oligonucleotides for further molecular inquiry. In our laboratory, C3H10T1/2 murine fibroblasts have been found to express a variety of proteins in various subcellular fractions which are relevant to experimental transformation and carcinogenesis. Preparative two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) procedures were developed to identify major cytoplasmic proteins by electroblotting and microsequencing. Isoelectric focusing tube gels were enlarged to 6 mm ID to accommodate larger protein loads at 0.5 to 2 mg protein. Separated proteins were electrotransferred from 6 mm thick slab gels onto 0.22 mu polyvinylidene difluoride membranes. Nearly 100 prominent blotted proteins were stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue between pI 4.5-7.0 and 18-106 kDa and, of these, 27 prominent and well-resolved proteins were selected for sequencing. Sequences of 14 to 24 amino acid residues in length were obtained from 11 proteins which were identified from computerized databases. Some of these identified proteins had structural or enzymatic functions while others had only recently been discovered, including a newly reported Hsp 70 class member and a novel calcium-binding protein, reticulocalbin. The new heat shock protein has a molecular mass of 75 kDa and has been designated as Grp75, PBP74, CSA or p66mot-1 in mice and humans with purported roles in transformation and antigen processing. Reticulocalbin is an endoplasmic reticular protein which contains six domains of the EF-hand motif associated with high-affinity calcium-binding proteins. It may be involved in protein transport and luminal protein processing. In addition, sequences of 5 to 11 residues in length were also obtained from six other unidentified proteins. Thus, we have found that preparative 2-D PAGE serves as a powerful one-step purification method for protein isolation and

  9. A pH-sensitive Modified Polyacrylamide Hydrogel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A pH-sensitive modified polyacrylamide hydrogel was prepared by two steps and the modified polyacrylamide was characterized by 1HNMR spectrum. The surface morphology and swelling behavior of the hydrogels were investigated.

  10. CONTROLLED RELEASE FROM PDMAEMA GELS PREPARED BY GAMMA RADIATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Liu; Min Yi; Shuang-ji Chen; Hong-fei Ha

    2002-01-01

    Poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (polyDMAEMA) hydrogels prepared by γ-irradiation showed obvious temperature-sensitivity in a temperature range of 38-40℃ and pH-sensitivity at pH = 2.5. They also showed electric response behavior although it was not typical. The hydrogels were used in controlled release at different pH, temperature, and electric voltage. The release rates of methylene blue (MB) from the gels at 52℃ and pH = 1.24 were faster than those at 20℃ and pH = 10.56, respectively. In addition, the release rate at a field voltage of 5.0 was also faster than that without electric field.

  11. Preparation of tamarind gum based soft ion gels having thixotropic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukesh; Mondal, Dibyendu; Mukesh, Chandrakant; Prasad, Kamalesh

    2014-02-15

    Tamarind gum was used to prepare ion gels using both synthetic ionic liquids (ILs) namely 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide and bio-based ionic liquids (Bio-ILs) namely choline acrylate, choline caproate and choline caprylate by heating cooling process. The gels were found to have good thermal stability and exhibited thixotropic behaviour. Upon relaxation after applied breaking strain, the recovery of gel structures after ten consecutive cycles was observed. The hydrogel of the gum prepared using ethanol aqueous solution had much inferior quality in terms of viscosity, viscoelasticity, thermal stability and thixotropicity when compared with the ion gels. The ion gels also showed very good adherence to human finger muscles and skin. The ion gels thus prepared may find application in electrochemistry, sensors, actuators and the gels prepared with Bio-ILs could even be useful in biomedical applications.

  12. Protein and glycoprotein abnormalities in platelets from human Chediak-Higashi syndrome: polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic study of platelets from five patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledezma, E; Apitz-Castro, R

    1985-10-01

    Polyacrylamide electrophoretic analysis of proteins and Tritium-labelled glycoproteins of the platelets from five patients with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome shows the existence of marked quantitative differences when compared to normal platelets. While the glycoprotein abnormalities are solely related to the plasma membrane, some of the abnormalities detected in the Coomasie blue pattern are probably representative of defects related to the dense bodies and the alpha-granules. Some of the abnormalities found may, in part, explain the variability of aggregatory responses described in these patients, as well as the marked tendency towards desaggregation exhibited by platelets from humans with the Chediak-Higashi Syndrome.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Sol-Gel Prepared Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlawat, Dharamvir Singh; Kumari, Rekha; Rachna; Yadav, Indu

    2014-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) have been successfully prepared using sol-gel method by annealing the sample at 550°C for 30 min. The SNPs were not confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis when the annealing temperature was considered at 450°C. They were also not confirmed without calcination of the sample. The physical mechanism of silver clusters formation in the densified silica matrix with respect to thermal treatment has been understood. The presence of silver metal in the silica matrix was confirmed by XRD analysis and TEM image of the samples. The average size of nanoparticles dispersed in silica matrix was determined as 10.2 nm by the XRD technique. The synthesized nanocomposites were also characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy with a peak in the absorption spectra at around 375 nm. The distribution of particle size has been reported here in the range from 8 nm to 25 nm by TEM observations of the sample prepared at 550°C. The spherically smaller size (≈10 nm) SNPs have reported the surface plasmons resonance (SPR) peak less than or near to 400 nm due to blue-shifting and effect of local refractive index. Without annealing the silica samples the absorption spectra does not show any peak around 375 nm. The FTIR spectroscopy of the three types of samples prepared at different temperatures (room temperature, 450°C and 550°C) has also been reported. This spectra have provided the identification of different chemical groups in the prepared samples. It has been predicted that the size of SNPs by XRD, UV-Visible and TEM results have agreed well with each other. It may be concluded that formation of SNPs is a function of annealing temperature.

  14. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIAL CELLULOSE/POLYACRYLAMIDE HYDROGEL%细菌纤维素/聚丙烯酰胺水凝胶的制备及性能表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶晶; 容建华; 李文迪; 林志丹; 张秀菊

    2011-01-01

    通过自由基聚合在细菌纤维素(BC)网络中引入聚丙烯酰胺(PAM),制备了细菌纤维素/聚丙烯酰胺(BC/PAM)复合水凝胶,并采用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、红外光谱(IR)、热失重分析(TGA)、X射线衍射(XRD)和力学测试等手段对复合凝胶的结构和性能进行了研究.研究结果显示在复合水凝胶中,虽然PAM自身没有交联,但由于BC和PAM之间形成强烈的氢键相瓦作用,PAM并不会被水溶出,而是均匀地分布于BC的网络结构中,将BC微纤有效地分隔开,避免了BC微纤在干燥过程中容易聚集的缺点;溶胀率测试结果显示复合凝胶复水能力强,BC干燥后可完全恢复,并且复合凝胶的十燥收缩由纯BC水凝胶的各向异性转换为各向同性;其他结果显示BC/PAM复合水凝胶的热稳定性、压缩强度和模量获得明显提高,另外PAM的引入使得BC纤维在干燥过程中的(110)晶面的取向结构发生变化.%Bacterial cellulose/polyacrylamide composite hydrogel (BC/PAM) was prepared through free radical polymerization in which polyacrylamide (PAM) was introduced into the network of bacterial cellulose (BC). Structure and properties of composite hydrogels were studied through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectrum ( IR ), thermal gravimetric analysis ( TGA ), X-ray diffraction ( XRD ) and mechanical testing. SEM images of freeze-dried composite gels showed that polyacrylamide dispersed uniformally inside the network of BC and also coated on the surface of BC microfibers, which avoided the aggregation of BC mircofibers because of hydrogen bond during the drying process. It was found that the rehydration capacity of composite gels had been greatly enhanced and the shrinking of hydrogels converted to isotropic compared with the anisotropy of pure BC. IR results indicated that hydrogen bond interation formed significantly between BC and PAM, by which stable networks of PAM and BC formed although the cross-linker wasn' t

  15. Preparation and anti-bacterial properties of a temperature sensitive gel containing silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to prepare a novel temperature-sensitive spray gel containing silver nanoparticles and investigate its anti-bacterial properties in vitro. Methods: The aqueous complex gel was prepared by Pluronic F127 (18-22%) and Pluronic F68 (3-9%) through a cold method to obtain a p...

  16. Preparation of polyacrylamide based monolith with immobilized pH gradient and its application for protein analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU GuiJie; ZHANG WeiBing; ZHANG LiHua; LIANG Zhen; ZHANG YuKui

    2007-01-01

    Monolithic materials were prepared in capillaries by in situ polymerization of acrylamide, glycidyl methacrylate and N,N'-memylenebisacrylamid in the presence of trinary porogens, including 1,4-butanediol, dodecanol and dimethyl sulphoxide. With Ampholine immobilized on the monolith by chemical bonding according to their pIs, the monolithic immobilized pH gradient (M-IPG) was prepared, and applied to the separation of four standard proteins. Compared with polyacrylate based M-IPG, the hydrophilicity of the new material was improved. It could not only avoid the adsorption of proteins, but also make the synthesized procedure simple, which showed great potential in the analysis of proteins.

  17. Preparation of polyacrylamide based monolith with immobilized pH gradient and its application for protein analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Monolithic materials were prepared in capillaries by in situ polymerization of acrylamide, glycidyl methacrylate and N,N′-memylenebisacrylamid in the presence of trinary porogens, including 1,4-butanediol, dodecanol and dimethyl sulphoxide. With Ampholine immobilized on the monolith by chemical bonding according to their pIs, the monolithic immobilized pH gradient (M-IPG) was prepared, and applied to the separation of four standard proteins. Compared with polyacrylate based M-IPG, the hydrophilicity of the new material was improved. It could not only avoid the adsorption of proteins, but also make the synthesized procedure simple, which showed great potential in the analysis of proteins.

  18. Sol-gel preparation of silica and titania thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoř, Tomáš; Václavík, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Thin films of silicon dioxide (SiO2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) for application in precision optics prepared via the solgel route are being investigated in this paper. The sol-gel process presents a low cost approach, which is capable of tailoring thin films of various materials in optical grade quality. Both SiO2 and TiO2 are materials well known for their application in the field of anti-reflective and also highly reflective optical coatings. For precision optics purposes, thickness control and high quality of such coatings are of utmost importance. In this work, thin films were deposited on microscope glass slides substrates using the dip-coating technique from a solution based on alkoxide precursors of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and titanium isopropoxide (TIP) for SiO2 and TiO2, respectively. As-deposited films were studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry to determine their thickness and refractive index. Using a semi-empirical equation, a relationship between the coating speed and the heat-treated film thickness was described for both SiO2 and TiO2 thin films. This allows us to control the final heat-treated thin film thickness by simply adjusting the coating speed. Furthermore, films' surface was studied using the white-light interferometry. As-prepared films exhibited low surface roughness with the area roughness parameter Sq being on average of 0.799 nm and 0.33 nm for SiO2 and TiO2, respectively.

  19. /dopamine films prepared by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde-Aguilar, G.; Prado-Prone, G.; Vergara-Aragón, P.; Garcia-Macedo, J.; Santiago, Patricia; Rendón, Luis

    2014-09-01

    Dopamine was encapsulated into nanoporous amorphous TiO2 matrix by sol-gel method under atmospheric conditions. A second sample was obtained by the addition of the crown-ether 15C5 in this previous sample. Thin films were spin-coated on glass wafers. No heat treatment was employed in both films. All films were characterized using infrared spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction, optical absorption and scanning electronic microscopy. Despite the films prepared with 15C5 were no calcined, a partial crystallization was identified. Anatase and rutile nanoparticles with sizes of 4-5 nm were obtained. Photoconductivity technique was used to determine the charge transport mechanism on these films. Experimental data were fitted with straight lines at darkness and under illumination wavelengths at 320, 400, and 515 nm. It indicates an ohmic behavior. Photovoltaic and photoconductivity parameters were determined from the current density vs. the applied-electrical-field results. Amorphous film has bigger photovoltaic and photoconductive parameters than the partially crystalline film. Results observed in the present investigation prove that the nanoporous TiO2 matrix can protect the dopamine inhibiting its chemical instability. This fact modifies the optical, physical and electrical properties of the film, and is intensified when 15C5 is added.

  20. Separation of metalloproteins using a novel metal ion contaminant sweeping technique and detection of protein-bound copper by a metal ion probe in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: distribution of copper in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shingo; Kawashima, Mitsuyoshi; Ohshima, Hiroki; Enomoto, Kazuki; Sato, Makoto; Yoshimura, Hajime; Yoshimoto, Keitaro; Maeda, Mizuo; Shibukawa, Masami

    2013-10-21

    A polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE)-based method has been developed, consisting of two types of gel electrophoresis, to obtain an accurate distribution of protein-bound metal ions in biological samples. First, proteins are separated by PAGE without the uptake of contaminant metal ions in the separation field and dissociation of metal ions from the proteins. This is followed by another PAGE for the separation and detection of protein-bound metal ions in small volume samples with high sensitivity in the ppt range using a fluorescent metal probe. The former is a new technique using blue-native (BN) PAGE to electrophoretically sweep all metal contaminants by employing two kinds of chelating agents. These agents form complexes with contaminants in the gel and the separation buffer solution, which migrate towards opposite pole directions, thus lowering the contaminants to below the ppt level during separation. This is termed "Metal Ion Contaminant Sweeping BN-PAGE (MICS-BN-PAGE)". After the separation of proteins under these first metal-free conditions, the metal ions in the gel fractions are eluted, followed by derivatization of copper ions into the metal probe complexes to be separated and determined by fluorescence detection in the second PAGE. In this PAGE-based method, the copper ions bound to ceruloplasmin and superoxide dismutase were quantitatively determined, in addition to the exchangeable albumin-bound copper ions. This system successfully provided distribution maps of protein-copper in human serum. The precise distribution of copper in human serum was investigated, and found to be different from that which is widely accepted.

  1. Preparation and clinical application of indomethacin gel for medical treatment of stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momo, Kenji; Shiratsuchi, Tatsuko; Taguchi, Hiroyuki; Hashizaki, Kaname; Saito, Yoshihiro; Makimura, Mizue; Ogawa, Naotake

    2005-05-01

    The preparation and clinical applications of indomethacin (IM) gel were investigated in the treatment of stomatitis resulting from chemotherapy and radiotherapy for cancer. IM gel was prepared by adding various water-soluble polymers [hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), etc.] to IM aqueous solution. The release rate of IM from IM gels was found to decrease with increasing polymer concentration and viscosity and to follow a first-order reaction rate equation. The release rate of IM from the IM gel with HPC was decreased gradually with increasing polymer concentration and to be easily controllable compared with gels with other polymers. The time before pain relief occurred after application of the IM gel was slightly shorter and the duration of pain relief was longer compared with the IM aqueous solution. It was confirmed that IM gel is useful in the treatment of stomatitis.

  2. Effect of detergents and chemicals on purified vaccinia virus: analysis by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy1,2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, J; Yamamoto, T

    1977-03-01

    Vaccinia virus particles were dissociated into their constituent polypeptides and analysed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gel electrophoresis. Thirty-three distinct polypeptide bands were identified and their molecular weights ranged between 11 000 and 150 000 daltons. Specific staining of gels containing polypeptides of dissociated virions revealed the presence of eight glycopeptides. No lipopeptides were detected. Analysis of chemical extracts (urea, guanidine hydrochloride, and alkali treatment) of the virus by SDS gel electrophoresis indicated that a total of 10 to 14 different polypeptides ranging in molecular weights from 11 000 to 70 000 daltons were solubilized. Analysis of detergent extracts and of the remains of extracted viral particles has shown that the detergent Nonidet P-40 (NP-40) solubilized a total of 11 polypeptides of which 6 were glycopeptides. The other detergents sodium deoxycholate (SDC) and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) were not as selective. both solubilizing more than 25 of the polypeptides composing the virus. Gel electrophoresis results also indicated that most of the small molecular weight (11 000-70 000 daltons) polypeptides were readily solubilized by NP-40, SDC, and CTAB, while those with molecular weights of 70 000 daltons and higher were not well solubilized. The effects of detergents were also analysed by electron microscopy. Evidence was obtained for subpopulations of viral particles having different susceptibility to detergent extraction.

  3. Research on Nonionic Polyacrylamide Zirconium Gel Fracturing Fluids in Coalbed Methane Gas Wells%煤层气井用非离子聚丙烯酰胺锆冻胶压裂液优选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉; 戴彩丽; 梁利; 王欣; 赵福麟

    2012-01-01

    Active water and guar gum are widely used for coalbed methane fracturing in China. Nevertheless, the application of these two types of fracturing fluid was limited due to poor rheological properties of active water and severe formation damage of guar gum fracturing fluid. Considering the temperature and low permeability of coalbed, the formulation of nonionic polyacrylamide zirconium gel fracturing fluids suitable for coalbed mechane fracturing was selected based on the analysis on the effects of different factors on the zirconium gel. The formulation is 0. 4%PAM+0. 035%ZrOCl2. The performance of the optimized formulation of nonionic polyacrylamide zirconium gel fracturing fluids was evaluated through laboratory experiments, and the results showed that,the formulation had the characteristics of shearing resistance, low filter loss, easy breaking, good proppant carrying capacity, non-residue, low formation damage and easy flowback. It is suitable for the coalbed gas reservoirs fracturing.%活性水、瓜胶压裂液是国内煤层气井压裂最常用的压裂液,但活性水压裂液流变性能差,瓜胶压裂液破胶残渣含量高对煤层的伤害大,限制了这两类压裂液在煤层压裂中的应用.为此,针对煤层温度和渗透率低的特点,在分析影响锆冻胶压裂液性能因素的基础上,优选出了适用于煤层气井压裂的非离子型聚丙烯酰胺锆冻胶压裂液配方(0.400%PAM+0.035%ZrOCl2).通过室内试验对优选出的非离子型聚丙烯酰胺锆冻胶压裂液的性能进行了评价,结果表明,该压裂液具有耐剪切、滤失量低、易破胶、携砂性能好、无残渣、对煤层伤害低、易返排的特点,适用于低温煤层压裂.

  4. Comparison of dosimetry gels prepared by agar and bovine gelatine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağsöz, M. E.; Korkut, Ö.; Alemdar, N.; Aktaş, S.; Çalı, E. B.; Kantarcı, M.

    2016-04-01

    Gel dosimeters are unique materials capable of showing three dimensional (3D) dose distributions of therapeutic or diagnostic exposures. Fricke gel dosimeters can be considered as chemical dosimeters that rely on a radiation-induced chemical reaction. Dose distribution of Fricke solutions containing Fe+2 ions determines the transformation of acidic, oxygen saturated Fe+2 ions to Fe+3 ions by the ionizing radiation in aqueous solutions. In this study we produced two different types of gel dosimeters using agar and bovine gelatin with similar fabrication methods. We compared the magnetic resonance (MR) T1 imaging responses of these two gel dosimeters to acquire a dose dependency of MR intensities. In conclusion agar gel dosimeters found to be produced easily and more consistent.

  5. Physicochemical and structural properties of glycerin gel prepared using glycyrrhizic acid diethyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Kenjiro; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Sakai, Kenichi; Kushida, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Nobuji

    2014-01-01

    Glycyrrhizic acid diethyl ester (GZ-DE) was developed as a prodrug of glycyrrhizic acid (GZ), a hepatitis therapeutic drug. We fortuitously found that GZ-DE gels with glycerin selectively while searching for a safe solvent with which to dissolve GZ-DE. Based on this gelation, the aim of this study was to investigate the preparation of the gel and study the rheology, physicochemical and structural properties of the glycerin gel by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), capillary electrophoresis (CEP), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The glycerin gel was prepared by the addition of at least 2.0% w/w GZ-DE. This gel did not flow at room temperature. After mixing glycerin and GZ-DE, a gel was formed after 2 days at 25°C or 3 h at 60°C. Glycerin gel containing 2.4% w/w GZ-DE provided the following results: 1) The glycerin gel exhibited creep at a constant stress of less than 10 Pa, but it is a fragile gel, showing Newtonian flow at 10 Pa stress. 2) Dynamic viscoelastic measurements showed that the elastic modulus (G') exceeds the viscous modulus (G''), indicating that glycerin gel has solid-like properties. 3) DSC showed a significant difference between the glass transition temperature of glycerin and glycerin gel. 4) CEP did not reveal a new compound in the glycerin gel. 5) NMR confirmed that glycerin gel is a physical gel. 6) SAXS measurements revealed that the glycerin gel has an oval-shaped basic frame (119 nm long and 65 nm wide).

  6. SWELLING EQUILIBRIUM OF NONIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE HYDROGEL IN AQUEOUS SALT SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A series of nonionic polyacrylamide hydrogels, using acrylamide as monomer and N,N’-methylene diacrylamide as crosslinking agent, were prepared by the free radical polymerization in aqueous solution. Swelling equilibria for the gels were carried out in aqueous solutions of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, Na2HPO4 and K2HPO4 with concentration ranging from 10-3 to 5mol/kgH2O at 25℃. Experimental results revealed that the chlorides and phosphates cause a different behavior at higher salt concentration. The swelling ratio increases with increasing concentration of chlorides salts, while decreases with the increased phosphates salt concentration. The phenomena seem to be related to the different interactions of chloride and hydrogen phosphate ions with the network groups. Furthermore, the effects of different concentration of crosslinking agent and total monomers on gel swelling performance were also investigated.

  7. Photochromic organic-inorganic composite materials prepared by sol-gel processing : properties and potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Lisong; Mennig, Martin; Schmidt, Helmut K.

    1994-01-01

    The sol-gel method which features a low-temperature wet-chemical process opens vast possibilities to incorporating organic dyes into solid matrices for various optical applications. In this paper we present our experimental results on the sol-gel derived photochromic organic-inorganic composite (ORMOCER) materials follwoing an introductory description of the sol-gel process and a brief review on the state of the art of the photochromic solids prepared using this method. Our photochromic spiro...

  8. 纳米分子筛/聚丙烯酰胺复合材料的制备%Preparation of nano-zeolite/polyacrylamide composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴东义; 刘建明; 贺业浩

    2009-01-01

    采用溶液共混法制备纳米分子筛/聚丙烯酰胺复合材料,做了条件实验(如:温度,pH值,配比,浓度,合成时间,添加偶联剂等),测试了纳米分子筛/聚丙烯酰胺复合材料的吸水性,吸油性.结果表明,随着分子筛含量增加,纳米分子筛/聚丙烯酰胺复合材料吸水率和吸油率都有很大的增加,随着共混温度升高复合材料吸水率和吸油率增大,确定了复合材料最佳吸水率和吸油率制备条件.%The conditional experiments have been done (such as: temperature, pH value, mixture ratio, density, synthesizing time and adding to accidentally connect etc. )to prepare the nano-zeolite/polyacrylamide composites and water absorption and oil absorption of the composites have been tested through adopting solution co-combination method. The re-sult showed that water and oil absorption of the composites have been greatly enhanced with increase of the content of nano-zeolite and the conditional preparation of the optimum water and oil absorptivity have been determined with rise of the mixing temperature and enlargement of water and oil absorptivity of the composites.

  9. Characterisation of ribosomal proteins from HeLa and Krebs II mouse ascites tumor cells by different two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G; Beier, H

    1978-01-01

    electrophoresis; 2. two-dimensional gel electrophoresis at pH 4.K/pH 8.6 in SDS. The molecular weights for 40S proteins ranged from 10,000 to 39,000 dalton (number average molecular weight: 21,000). The molecular weights for the 60S proteins ranged from 14,000 to 44,000 dalton (number average molecular weight: 23......Electrophoresis of ribosomal proteins according to Kaltschmidt and Wittmann, 1970a, b (pH 8.6/pH 4.5 urea system) yielded 29 proteins for the small subunits and 35 and 37 proteins for the large subunits of Krebs II ascites and HeLa ribosomes, respectively. Analysis of the proteins according...... to a modified technique by Mets and Bogorad (1974) (pH 4.5/pH 8.6 SDS system) revealed 28 and 29 proteins in the small subunits and 37 and 38 proteins in the large subunits of Krebs II ascites and HeLa ribosomes. The molecular weights of the individual proteins were determined by: 1. "three-dimensional" gel...

  10. Analysis of the MRI Features of the Complications after Augmentation Mammoplasty with Polyacrylamide Hydrophilic Gel Injection%PAHG注射隆乳术后并发症的MRI表现分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁雯雯; 张雪林; 张海捷

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨聚丙烯酰胺水凝胶(PAHG)注射隆乳术后并发症的MRI特点及其诊断价值.方法 回顾性分析32例PAHG注射隆乳术后患者的临床和MRI资料.结果 32例中,17例(30只)乳腺假体包膜破裂,表现为多发的团块状长T1长T2信号,内可见低信号影分隔;6例(12只)硬结形成,表现为皮下、腺体内或肌间隙内散在的T2WI明亮高信号结节影;2例(4只)乳腺MRI可见假体严重变形、不对称;2例(4只)乳腺伴发无菌性炎症,表现为乳腺腺体结构紊乱,腺体内可见线条样稍长T1长T2信号影,增强扫描未见异常强化灶.MRI表现与临床表现相符.结论 聚丙烯酰胺水凝胶隆乳术后各种并发症的MRI表现有一定特点,乳腺MRI扫描可指导临床诊断和治疗.%Objective To investigate the clinical value of MRI in the diagnosis of the complications after breast augmentation with polyacrylamide hydrophilic gel(PAHG) injection. Methods The MR imaging and clinical data of 32 patients who had breast augmentation with polyacrylamide hydrophilic gel injection were retrospcctivcly revicwed. Results In the 32 patients,there were 17 cases (30 breasts) with envelope rupture, which appeared as mass- like long T1 and long T2 signal with hypointcnse septa; 6 cases (12 breasts) with callosity,the images showed sporadic nodules with high signal on T2 WI; prosthesis asymmetry occurred in 2 cases( 4 breasts ) ; aseptic inflammation in 2 cases ( 4 breasts) with pieces of slightly long T1 and long T2 signals , and none abnormal reinforcement was seen after enhancement. MRI findings were corresponded to the clinic manifcstations. Conclusion Since each complication after breast augmentation with PAHG has its own MR features,breast imaging plays important role in guiding clinical diagnosis and treatment for the complications after mammoplasty.

  11. {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators performances prepared from zirconium molybdate gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroy-Guzman, Fabiola; Diaz-Archundia, Laura Veronica; Hernandez-Cortes, Sabino [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: fmg@nuclear.inin.mx

    2008-07-01

    {sup 99m}Tc may be produced from {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc zirconium molybdate gel generators. These gels are part of the generator matrix and their chemical and physical characteristics directly influence the generator performances. In this work zirconium molybdate gels were synthesized under different preparation conditions and characterized by TGA, IR and INAA. Our goal was to investigate and correlate generator performance with the physical-chemical properties of the gel. The two factors studied were the molybdate solution pH and the preparation conditions of the zirconyl salt solutions. Several polymolybdate and zirconium species can be formed in solution which can inhibit or favor the zirconium molybdate gel formation or the insoluble polymolybdate-rich and zirconium oxy-hydroxide phases. The {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc gel generator performance is directly correlated with gel structures. More regular network gels present lower generator performances compared to gels with more flexible random framework. The physico-chemical properties of the gels as well as their behavior as technetium-99m generators are presented and discussed. (author)

  12. Preparation of oxide glasses from metal alkoxides by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, K.; Yoko, T.; Sakka, S.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation is carried out on the types of siloxane polymers produced in the course of the hydrolysis of silicon tetraethoxide, as well as the preparation of oxide glasses from metal alkoxides by the sol-gel method.

  13. Dosimetric properties of N-isopropylacrylamide polymer gel using nonelectrophoresis grade BIS in preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Khodadadi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Substitution non-electrophoresis grade BIS not only reduces the cost of gel preparation without any adverse effect on its dose response, but also its lower background increases the dynamic range of dose linearity.

  14. Preparation and fluorescence properties of crystalline gel rare earth phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Hiroaki; Funamoto, Takehiro

    2015-03-01

    An aqueous solution of sodium dihydrogen phosphate was mixed with a aqueous solution of lanthanum nitrate and stirred for 24 h, and the pH was adjusted to 11 using ammonia. The obtained phosphates were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The lanthanum phosphate gel was obtained with a large amount of water. The fluorescence of the gels was investigated by substituting a part of the lanthanum cations with cerium, terbium, and europium cations. UV-vis reflectance and fluorescence spectra of these substituted materials were obtained and analyzed. Rrare-earth phosphate gels with large amounts of water exhibited bluish purple, green, and red fluorescence when cation ratios of La/Ce = 70/30, La/Ce/Tb = 55/30/15, and La/Eu = 95/5 were used, respectively.

  15. Copper base materials prepared by gel-casting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Weihua; JIA Chengchang; SHI Yantao; HAN Yuepeng

    2008-01-01

    Gel-casting process was developed as a new molding process in the field of copper base powder metallurgy to manufacture metal parts with excellent performance and complex shapes.Through changing the parameters of gel-casting process,such as dispersant and solid loading,the corresponding effects on the rheology of Cu slurries,molding and sintering behaviors were studied.The results show that the viscosity of Cu slurries was significantly reduced with an increase in dispersant.The most appropriate solid loading was found to be 61% and the sintering temperature was 910℃ in these experiments.After the optimization of parameters of gel-casting process,copper composite parts with relatively high density and better properties were obtained.

  16. Preparation and characterization of bioactive glass nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Gisela M.; Mano, João F.

    2011-12-01

    Bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs), based on both ternary (SiO2-CaO-P2O5) and binary (SiO2-CaO) systems, were prepared via an optimized sol-gel method. The pH of preparation and the effect of heat treatment temperature were evaluated, as well as the effect of suppressing P in the bioactivity ability of the materials. The morphology and composition of the BG-NPs were studied using FTIR, XRD and SEM. The bioactive character of these materials was accessed in vitro by analyzing the ability for apatite formation onto the surface after being immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). XRD, EDX and SEM were used to confirm the bioactivity of the materials. The BG-NP effect on cell metabolic activity was assessed by seeding L929 cells with their leachables, proving the non-cytotoxicity of the materials. Finally the most bioactive BG-NPs developed (ternary system prepared at pH 11.5 and treated at 700 °C) were successfully combined with chitosan in the production of biomimetic nanocomposite osteoconductive membranes that could have the potential to be used in guided tissue regeneration.

  17. 双向电泳分析鸢尾绿白嵌合叶片的蛋白质%Two-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Analysis of Proteins from Albino-Green Chimeric Leaves of Iris japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金勇; 曾英; 桑玉英

    2002-01-01

    Proteins extracted from albino-green chimeric leave s of Iris japonica were separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel ele ctrophoresis and relative molecular weights and isoelectric points were determin ed.Approximately 400 protein spots were identified in each 2-D PAGE gel.Altered expression was apparent for at least 13 proteins.The results showed that protein expression patterns changed obviously in the green and white leaf strips.In com parison with the 2-D PAGE map from Arabidopsis thaliana in SWISS-2DPAGE data base, it revealed that the expression pattern of large subunit of RuBisCO and the proteins labeled W and T was closely related to the mechanism involved in chimeric variations of Iris japonic.%利用双向聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳对鸢尾(Iris japonica )绿白嵌合叶片的蛋白质进行分离,并初步鉴定了蛋白质的相对分子量和等电点.每个电泳图谱共检测到400余个蛋白点,其中至少13个蛋白的表达变化明显;结果表明,嵌合叶片的绿色与白色叶组织具有明显不同的蛋白质双向电泳图谱.与数据库中拟南芥双向电泳图谱相比较,发现Rubisco大亚基、标记为W和T蛋白的表达变化与产生绿白嵌合叶片的表型密切相关.

  18. Histone H4 N-terminal acetylation in Kasumi-1 cells treated with depsipeptide determined by acetic acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, amino acid coded mass tagging, and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwen; Su, Xiaodan; Liu, Shujun; Knapp, Amy R; Parthun, Mark R; Marcucci, Guido; Freitas, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    Disrupted patterns of acetylation and deacetylation of core histones play an important role in silencing transcription of hematopoietic important genes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A thorough investigation of these mechanisms and the response to pharmacologic modifiers will provide a better understanding of the role of histone acetylation in leukemogenesis. We describe here an analytical approach that combines acid urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (AU-PAGE), amino acid coded mass tagging (AACM), and mass spectrometry (MS) for the investigation of histone acetylation patterns. The combined approach was used to follow the dynamics of H4 acetylation in Kasumi-1 cells harboring the fusion gene AML1/ETO shown to aberrantly recruit histone deacetylases (HDACs). The histones in Kasumi-1 cells were labeled by growing the cells in media in which lysine was replaced with stable isotope-labeled lysine (Lys-D4). Labeled and unlabeled cells were treated with depsipeptide and analyzed at different time points (0, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h). The cells were mixed, the histone was extracted, and acetylated H4 isoforms were separated using AU-PAGE before in-gel trypsin digestion. The digests were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. Peptides were identified by mass and isotope pattern. LC-MS/MS of Arg-C digests were also performed to verify the acetylation pattern for H4. The major pattern of acetylation was determined as follows: initial acetylation at K16, followed by acetylation at K12, and finally acetylation of either K8 and/or K5.

  19. Speciation analysis of inorganic arsenic in river water by Amberlite IRA 910 resin immobilized in a polyacrylamide gel as a selective binding agent for As(V) in diffusive gradient thin film technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolisola, Ana M C M; Suárez, Carlos A; Menegário, Amauri A; Gastmans, Didier; Kiang, Chang H; Colaço, Camila D; Garcez, Daniel L; Santelli, Ricardo E

    2014-09-07

    In this study, a method is proposed for the selective retention of As(V) using diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT) samplers containing a strongly basic anion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA 910) supported on a polyacrylamide gel. In addition, the total arsenic content is determined by ferrihydrite gel discs. Subsequently, the concentration of As(III) was obtained by determining the difference between the total As and As(V). DGT experiments showed linear accumulation of As(V) (up to 280 ng) until a deployment time of 8 h deployment (R(2) > 0.99). The retention of As(V) was appropriate (97.9-112.3%) between pH 5 and 9. For a solution with an ionic strength ranging from 0.001 to 0.05 mol L(-1), the As(V) uptake ranged from 90-120%. The proposed method was applied for the speciation of arsenic in river water. For the analysis of spiked samples collected at the Furnas stream, the recoveries of total arsenic content ranged between 103.9% and 118.8%. However, the recoveries of As(III) and As(V) were 43.3-75.2% and 147.3-153.4%, respectively. These differences were probably because of the oxidation of As(III) to As(V) during deployments. For spiked samples collected at the Ribeirão Claro, the recoveries of dissolved As(III), As(V) and As(T) were 103.1%, 108.0% and 106.3%, respectively. Thus, the DGT technique with Amberlite IRA 910 resin as the binding phase can be employed for the in situ redox speciation of inorganic arsenic.

  20. Association of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins-related markers and low-density lipoprotein heterogeneity with cardiovascular risk: effectiveness of polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis as a method of determining low-density lipoprotein particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Shigemasa; Matsumoto, Michiaki; Nagao, Ken; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Despite well-controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), hypertriglyceridemia is an independent predictor of coronary events. We investigated the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease through examining the relation between triglyceride (TG) metabolism and LDL-heterogeneity as assessed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Estimated LDL-particle size [relative LDL migration (LDL-Rm value)] measured by PAGE with the LipoPhor system (Joko, Tokyo, Japan) was evaluated in 645 consecutive patients with one additional risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Multivariate regression analysis after adjustments for traditional risk factors revealed an elevated triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs)-related markers [TG, remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C), very LDL (VLDL) fraction, apolipoprotein (apo) C-II, and apo C-III] level to be an independent predictor of smaller-size LDL-particle size, both in the overall population, and in a subset of patients with serum LDL-C cardiovascular disease, it may be of particular importance to pay attention not only to the quantitative change in the serum LDL-C, but also TG-metabolism associated with LDL-heterogeneity. Combined evaluation of TRLs-related markers and LDL-Rm value may be useful for assessing the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2013 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation and Application of Silica-based Perfusion Packing of Size Exclusion Chromatography for Quantitation of Polyacrylamide inEnhanced Oil Recovery Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sui Xihua; Zha Qingfang; Wu Mingbo; Guo Yansheng

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a novel macroporous silica derived size exclusion chromatography (SEC) packing for quantitative analysis of high molecular weight (MW) polyacrylamide (PAM) are presented.Using this packing,a fast,sensitive and reproducible approach for quantitation of super high-MW PAM in demanding enhanced oil recovery (EOR) waters was developed and the effect of synthesis parameters on the properties of resultant materials was investigated.These parameters include salt addition,reaction temperature and duration,activation condition of functional groups on the silica surface,as well as the reaction cycles required for optimal silica modification.Moreover,SEC analysis conditions,such as mobile phase composition,flow rate,detection and sample preparation,were also explored and an optimal analysis protocol was developed.Under this optimized SEC analysis conditions,the synthesized macroporous materials proved satisfactory for quantification of PAM with average MW up to 22 million Daltons.An SEC analysis required less than few minutes with a detection limit of 1 ng,a linear response range of 0.1 to 75 mg/L with squared R value of 0.99 and reproducibility better than 9.2% RSD (relative standard deviation).The analysis of PAM in highly saline oilfield production water containing interfering high MW polymeric surfactants indicated the recovery ranges from 92.5% to 110.1% for 1.0 mg/L PAM and 94.2% to 103.8% for 50 mg/L PAM solution.This study presented for the first time that the reliable quantization of high MW PAM in highly demanding EOR waters can be achieved by SEC.

  2. Preparation of ferromagnetic binary alloy fine fibers byorganic gel-thermal reduction process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Xiang-qian; CAO Kai; ZHOU Jian-xin

    2006-01-01

    Ferromagnetic metal fibers with a high aspect ratio (length/diameter) are attractive for use as high performance electromagnetic interference shielding materials. Ferromagnetic binary alloy fine fibers of iron-nickel, iron-cobalt and cobalt-nickel were prepared by the organic gel-thermal reduction process from the raw materials of critic acid and metal salts. These alloy fibers synthesized were featured with a diameter of about 1 μm and a length as long as 1 m. The structure, thermal decomposition process and morphologies of the gel precursors and fibers derived from thermal reduction of the gel precursors were characterized by FTIR, XRD, TG/DSC and SEM. The gel spinnability largely depends on the molecular structure of metal- carboxylates formed during the gel formation. The gel consisting of linear-type structural molecules shows good spinnability.

  3. Preparation of ferromagnetic metal fine fibers by organic gel-thermal reduction process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The organic gel-thermal reduction process was used for the preparation of ferromagnetic metal Ni, Co and Fe fine fibers from the raw materials of citric acid, lactic acid and metal salts. The structure, thermal decomposition process and morphologies of the gel precursors and fibers derived from thermal reduction of these gel precursors were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that spinnability of gel largely depends on molecular structure of metal-carboxylate complex that is a linear-type structure formed in the gel. As a result, the gels exhibit a good spinnability. Metal Ni, Co and Fe fine fibers are featured with diameters of around 1 urn and a high aspect ratio up to 1×106.

  4. [Preparation, characterization and surface-enhanced Raman properties of agarose gel/gold nanoparticles hybrid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-yuan; Liu, Ying; Wang, Zhou-ping

    2014-08-01

    Agarose gel/gold nanoparticles hybrid was prepared by adding gold nanoparticles to preformed agarose gel. Naniocomposite structures and properties were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy. Experimental data indicated a uniform distribution of gold nanoparticles adsorbed on agarose gel network And the excellent optical absorption properties were shown. Based on the swelling-contraction characteristics of agarose gel and the adjustable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the gold nanoparticles, the nano-composites were used as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate to detect the Raman signal molecules Nile blue A. Results revealed that the porous structure of the agarose gel provided a good carrier for the enrichment of the gold nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles dynamic hot-spot effect arising from the agarose gel contraction loss of water in the air greatly enhanced the Raman signal.

  5. Triple-transforming gel prepared by β-cyclodextrin,diphenylamine and lithium chloride in N,N-dimethylacetamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yuan Li; Wen Jing Zhao; Hua Cheng Zhang; Tao Sun; Wei An; Fei Fei Xin; Ai You Hao

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a triple-transforming gel system(gel-sol-gel')for the first time,which is a thermo-responsive and multicomponent organogel prepared by β-cyclodextrin(β-CD),diphenylamine(DPA)and lithium chloride(LiCl)in N,N-dimethylacetamide(DMAC)in a suitable proportion based on the supramolecular interactions.In the triple-transforming gel system,a gel(gel A)could be formed by β-CD,DPA and LiCl in DMAC at room temperature based on stirring,then the gel could transform into a clear solution based on heating,and then the other gel(gel B)can be formed at a relatively high temperature(Tgel,the gelation temperature by heating).The two gel states in the triple-transforming gel system have different microstructures.This gel system was characterized by OM,SEM,IR and rheology.

  6. Qualitative and quantitative determination of R-phycoerythrin from Halymenia floresia (Clemente) C. Agardh by polyacrylamide gel using electrophoretic elution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malairaj, Sathuvan; Muthu, Sakthivel; Gopal, Venkatesh Babu; Perumal, Palani; Ramasamy, Rengasamy

    2016-07-08

    R-Phycoerythrin is one of the phycobiliproteins widely found in seaweeds. In this study, we have shown to extract and purify R-Phycoerythrin from the south east cost Indian red seaweed Halymenia floresia. R-Phycoerythrin was extracted in 50mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). The preparative native PAGE purification was employed alternative to the chromatography and therefore can be scaled up efficiently. Both the yield and the purity of R-Phycoerythrin are very effective. The purified R-Phycoerythrin showed a single band on the examination by native PAGE electrophrosis. SDS-PAGE analysis showed five bands at 16kDa, 21kDa, 30kDa, 39kDa and 47kDa which corresponds to the α, β and γ', γ and αβ subunits. This preparative method for R-Phycoerythrin purification can offer a reference for R-Phycoerythrin purification from other marine red macro algae.

  7. SEM studies of the structure of the gels prepared from untreated and radiation modified potato starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Krystyna; Sartowska, Bożena; Królak, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Potato starch was irradiated with a 60Co gamma rays using doses of 5, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. Gels containing ca. 9.1% of starch were prepared by heating the starch suspensions in the heating chamber stabilized at 100 °C. Four procedures were applied for preparation of the samples in regard to SEM studies and the ability to observe the radiation effect by SEM was assessed for each method. Differences were observed between the SEM images recorded for the non-irradiated samples prepared using all the methods, and those irradiated. Images of the non-irradiated gels indicate generally a honey-comb structure, while smooth areas but with oriented fractures has appeared after irradiation. Modification of gel structure corresponds to the applied dose. The results were related to the process of gel formation (as observed by means of the hot stage microscope) to decrease in swelling power of the irradiated starch and to decreased viscosity of the resulting gels. It can be concluded that the differences in structural properties of gels shown by SEM result probably due to the better homogenization of the gels formed after radiation induced degradation.

  8. Combining blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry as an effective strategy for analyzing potential membrane protein complexes of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Weijun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis is an infectious bacterial disease in humans caused primarily by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and infects one-third of the world's total population. Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine has been widely used to prevent tuberculosis worldwide since 1921. Membrane proteins play important roles in various cellular processes, and the protein-protein interactions involved in these processes may provide further information about molecular organization and cellular pathways. However, membrane proteins are notoriously under-represented by traditional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE and little is known about mycobacterial membrane and membrane-associated protein complexes. Here we investigated M. bovis BCG by an alternative proteomic strategy coupling blue native PAGE to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to characterize potential protein-protein interactions in membrane fractions. Results Using this approach, we analyzed native molecular composition of protein complexes in BCG membrane fractions. As a result, 40 proteins (including 12 integral membrane proteins, which were organized in 9 different gel bands, were unambiguous identified. The proteins identified have been experimentally confirmed using 2-D SDS PAGE. We identified MmpL8 and four neighboring proteins that were involved in lipid transport complexes, and all subunits of ATP synthase complex in their monomeric states. Two phenolpthiocerol synthases and three arabinosyltransferases belonging to individual operons were obtained in different gel bands. Furthermore, two giant multifunctional enzymes, Pks7 and Pks8, and four mycobacterial Hsp family members were determined. Additionally, seven ribosomal proteins involved in polyribosome complex and two subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase complex were also found. Notablely, some proteins with high hydrophobicity or multiple transmembrane

  9. Mapping and identification of HeLa cell proteins separated by immobilized pH-gradient two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and construction of a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, AC; Rossel Larsen, M; Roepstorff, P

    1999-01-01

    improvements of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with immobilized pH gradients (IPG) compared to isoelectric focusing with carrier ampholytes, a highly reproducible method for examining global changes in HeLa cell protein expression due to different stimuli is now available. Therefore, we have initiated...

  10. Mapping and identification of HeLa cell proteins separated by immobilized pH-gradient two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and construction of a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, AC; Rossel Larsen, M; Roepstorff, P

    1999-01-01

    improvements of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with immobilized pH gradients (IPG) compared to isoelectric focusing with carrier ampholytes, a highly reproducible method for examining global changes in HeLa cell protein expression due to different stimuli is now available. Therefore, we have initiated...

  11. Preparation of an efficient humidity indicating silica gel from rice husk ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J P Nayak; J Bera

    2011-12-01

    An efficient humidity indicating silica gel was prepared using rice husk ash as a raw material via sodium silicate extraction and acid neutralization method. Cobalt chloride was impregnated into the silica gel as a colour indicating material. A low concentration of cobalt chloride solution (0.0005 mol dm-3) was used for the impregnation. The effect of pH of the impregnating solution on the colour development behaviour of the gel was investigated. The specific surface area of the gel was determined by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method. The gel has been characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and visible spectroscopy. The moisture adsorption and desorption kinetics of the desiccant were evaluated using simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry.

  12. Preparation and characterisation of mucoadhesive nasal gel of venlafaxine hydrochloride for treatment of anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamoshree Basu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to prepare and evaluate mucoadhesive nasal gels of venlafaxine hydrochloride. Mucoadhesive nasal gels were prepared using polymers like carbopol 934 and sodium alginate and characterized in terms of viscosity, texture profile analysis, ex vivo drug permeation profiles and histopathological studies. The results show that values of viscosity, hardness and adhesiveness increase while those of cohesiveness decrease with corresponding increase in concentration of the polymers. Ex vivo drug permeation profiles showed that formulation containing 5% sodium alginate provided a better controlled release of the drug than the other formulations over a period of 12 h. Histopathological studies assured that gels containing different polymers did not produce any significant change in the nasal mucosae of goat even after 12 h permeation study. Mucoadhesive nasal gel of venlafaxine hydrochloride is a novel dosage form which delivers the drug directly into systemic circulation and provides controlled release of the drug.

  13. Preparation of nanometer MgO by sol-gel auto-combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Nanometer MgO was prepared via a sol-gel auto-combustion technique using magnesium nitrate as raw material and citric acid as chelating agent.IR spectra of the dried gel were used to investigate the structure of the precursors.By studying the different TG curves of magnesium citrate gel prepared by different methods,we found that a combustion process occurred and the nitrate ions acted as an oxidant in the combustion process.TEM photographs of synthesized powders from the sol-gel auto-combustion showed that the crystallites were uniform in size.In addition,the XRD pattern of this sample showed that the particle size was 8.9 nm.The BET curves,in turn,showed that the specific surface of the sample was 26.34 m2/g.The mechanism of the frothing process in restraining agglomeration is discussed.

  14. Preparation of protein samples for gel electrophoresis by sequential extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟伯雄; 翁宏飚; 等

    2002-01-01

    Since preparation and solubilization of protein samples are crucial factors in proteome research,the authors established a sequential extraction technique to prepare protein samples from the body wall of the 5th instar larvae of silkworm.Bombyx mori.Two kinds of protein samples were obtained from the body wall using the method.Between the two types of samples only about 15% proteins were identical;the majority were different,indicating that more species of proteins could be obtained with the sequential extraction method;which will be useful for preparation of protein samples for proteome study.

  15. Preparation of protein samples for gel electrophoresis by sequential extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟伯雄; 翁宏飚; 方维焕

    2002-01-01

    Since preparation and solubilization of protein samples are crucial factors in proteome research, the authors established a sequential extraction technique to prepare protein samples from the body wall of the 5th instar larvae of silkworm, Bombyx mori. Two kinds of protein samples were obtained from the body wall using the method. Between the two types of samples only about 15% proteins were identical; the majority were different, indicating that more species of proteins could be obtained with the sequential extraction method; which will be useful for preparation of protein samples for proteome study.

  16. Semi-interpenetrating polymer networks based on polyacrylamide and poly[itaconic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalagasidis-Krušić Melina T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pH and temperature on the equilibrium swelling properties of PIA/PAAm semi-IPNs were investigated.Semi-IPNs based on polyacrylamide (PAAm and poly(itaconic acid (PIA were prepared by two different techniques, by polymerizing itaconic acid in the presence of polyacrylamide gel (Semi-IPNs-l and by making the polyacrylamide gel in the presence of previously synthesized poly(itaconic acid (Semi-IPNs-ll, with different PIA/PAAm mass ratios. The equilibrium swelling degree of an ionic network depends very much on the concentration of ionisable groups. The addition of a small amount of itaconic acid dramatically changes the swelling behavior of PAAm. Increase of the ionic monomer (IA produces swelling degrees that increase to a high extent when the pH of the buffer solution is higher than the nominal pKa values of the acid groups. Gels with higher IA content swell less than PAAm gels in low pH buffers. At low pH, when complexation due to hydrogen bonding occurs between the carboxylic groups and amide groups of acrylamide, the polymer network collapses and the swelling ratio is low. The presence of hydrogen bonds in the complexes causes additional constraints in the network, acting as a physical crosslinking and makes the network less hydrophilic, because the carboxylic groups on the PIA are occupied in the complexes. As opposed to this, the equilibrium swelling degrees change very little with pH of the solution in nonionic PAAm gel.Hydrogels exhibit continuous changes in water content as a function of temperature. The swelling degree increases with increasing temperature due to gel expansion upon warming.

  17. 家蝇抗菌物质诱导表达后的电泳分析%Induction of antibacterial peptide from Musca domestica and preliminary isolation by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许兵红; 曾莉萍; 董卫华

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨家蝇抗菌肽的诱导及电泳分离方法.方法 家蝇三龄幼虫针刺体壁诱导后,第48h提取其血淋巴,置于100℃、80℃水浴10s、30s、lmin、3min、5min等不同时间后,观察不同温度处理不同时间后的去杂蛋白效果和对溶壁微球菌的抑菌效果,并对各样品进行电泳分离.结果 血淋巴100℃水浴10s、30s、1min仍有抑菌活性,处理3min和5min无抑菌活性;80℃水浴30s-5min均有抑菌活性,电泳显示100℃处理3min和5min的样品与其他相比缺少2条蛋白区带.结论 针刺诱导的家蝇抗菌肽分离时血淋巴预处理采用80℃水浴lmin去杂蛋白效果较好,诱导的血淋巴100℃处理3min和5min即丧失抗菌活性,电泳显示缺少2条区带,此2条差异区带可能为抗菌肽组份.%The objective of this study was to induce and preliminarily isolate antibacterial peptide from Musca domestica by mean of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After being induced by pricking for 48 hours, the hemolymph was collected and tested against Micrococcus lysodeikticus, and then the bacteriostatic effects were observed and the diameters of clear inhibitory ring were recorded respectively. After being bathed at 100℃ and 80℃ for 10sec, 30sec, lmin, 3min and 5min, each hemolymph was centrifuged at 10000r/min for 10min to get rid of unwanted proteins, and the supernatant was tested against M. lysodeikticus and displayed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The hemolymph didn't possess antibacterial activity against M. lysodeikticus after being bathed at 100℃ for 3min and 5min, but possessed antibacterial activity in others. It was also found that the two samples which were bathed at 100℃ for 3min and 5min were lack of two special bands from the others. It implies that bathing at 80℃ for 1min and then centrifuging could get rid of unwanted proteins in a large extent, which indicated that the two special bands are the components of the antibacterial peptides induced

  18. Comparison of non-electrophoresis grade with electrophoresis grade BIS in NIPAM polymer gel preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Roghayeh; Khajeali, Azim; Farajollahi, Ali Reza; Hajalioghli, Parisa; Raeisi, Noorallah

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of replacing electrophoresis cross-linker with non-electrophoresis N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS) in N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel and its possible effect on dose response. NIPAM polymer gel was prepared from non-electrophoresis grade BIS and the relaxation rate (R2) was measured by MR imaging after exposing the gel to gamma radiation from Co-60 source. To compare the response of this gel with the one that contains electrophoresis grade BIS, two sets of NIPAM gel were prepared using electrophoresis and non-electrophoresis BIS and irradiated to different gamma doses. It was found that the dose-response of NIPAM gel made from the non-electrophoresis grade BIS is coincident with that of electrophoresis grade BIS. Taken all, it can be concluded that the non-electrophoresis grade BIS not only is a suitable alternative for the electrophoresis grade BIS but also reduces the cost of gel due to its lower price.

  19. Macroporous Titania Monolith Prepared via Sol-gel Process with Polymer Foam as the Template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN, Jian; DU, Zhong-Jie; ZHANG, Chen; LI, Hang-Quan

    2006-01-01

    Macroporous titania monoliths were prepared via sol-gel method using polymer foam as templates. The polymer foam polymerized via concentrated emulsion polymerization was immerged in a solution of titanium(Ⅳ) isopropoxide in 2-propanol, which underwent a sol-gel process. The organic components were subsequently removed by calcination. The effects of various parameters, including the nature of the monomer, the volume fraction of dispersed phase of the concentrated emulsion, and concentration of the sol-gel solution were investigated. The SEM micrographs of the macroporous titania monoliths thus obtained showed that the porous structure of the final material was effectively controllable.

  20. Preparation and photochromic properties of dye-doped aluminosilicate ORMOCER gels and coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Lisong; Hoffmann, Bernd; Mennig, Martin; Schmidt, Helmut K.

    1994-01-01

    Aluminosilicate and ORMOCER gels and coatings containing photochromic dyes, 1, 3-dihydro-1, 3, 3-trimethylspiro-[2H-indole-2, 3'-[3H]-naphth-[2, 1-b][1, 4]-oxazine] (SO) and 1', 8a'-dihydro-2', 3'-dimethoxycarbonyl-spiro [fluorene-9, 1'-indolizine] (DHI), were prepared by the sol-gel method and the photochromic activity was monitored in the course of the sol-wetgel-xerogel transformation. The photochromic activity of the aluminosilicate gels decreases rapidly and even vanishes in the wetgel-x...

  1. Characterization of Sr{beta}-alumina prepared by sol-gel and spray pyrolysis methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaignan, G. Paruthimal; Seo, Dae Jong; Park, Seung Bin

    2004-06-15

    Eu{sup 2+} doped {beta}-alumina, Sr{sub 1-x}MgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17} Eu{sub x}{sup 2+} (x=0.01-0.07) were successfully prepared by sol-gel and spray pyrolysis techniques with the same precursor materials. Sr{beta}-alumina doped with Eu{sup 2+} (SrMgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}:Eu{sup 2+}) prepared from sol-gel method showed three photoluminescence (PL) peaks at 390, 418 and 459 nm after excitation wavelength at 254 nm and one PL peak at 461 nm when excitation was at 365 nm. The same powder was prepared from spray pyrolysis technique showed the six PL peaks at 323, 397, 415, 443, 480 and 508 nm after excitation at 254 nm. Also two PL peaks at 440 and 480 nm were observed after the excitation at 365 nm. These PL peaks were dependent on the excitation wavelength. The effect of different annealing temperatures of sol-gel powders, preparation conditions of spray pyrolysis powders and reduction atmospheres of both sol-gel and spray pyrolysis powders of various compositions of Eu{sup 2+} doped Sr{beta}-alumina were also studied. Both the powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and PL techniques and comparison between the two preparation methods. Sol-gel prepared powder had eight times higher PL intensity and brightness than the spray pyrolysis prepared powder. The suggested good composition of Sr{beta}-alumina is Sr{sub 0.93}MgAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}:Eu{sub 0.07} for both sol-gel and spay pyrolysis methods.

  2. Preparation and characterization of polyacrylamide modificated bentonite as impermeability material%聚丙烯酰胺改性膨润土防渗材料的制备及其表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学贵; 刘长风; 高品一; 邵红; 王国胜

    2012-01-01

    A new type of modified bentonite impermeable material is prepared by direct intercalation polymerization of modified polyacrylamide at room temperature with Na-base bentonite from Jilin Liufangzi as raw material. The effect of amount of the modified polyacrylamide on structure of the modified bentonite impermeable material is discussed through the analysis of characterization results. The results show that the specific surface area of the modified bentonite modified by 30% polyacrylamide is bigger than that of the original bentonite, distribution of its particle size is better. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that spacing of layers of polyacrylamide modified bentonite changed little and the structure and morphology of other parts are not affected, and peak of dxh is sharp, which shows that dispersion of polyacrylamide in bentonite is good. SEM characterization results show that the irregularity of surface of modified bentonite significantly increased. IR analysis results show that there is polyacrylamide among layers of bentonite.%以吉林省刘房子地区天然膨润土为主要原料,采用水溶液聚合法,在室温条件下,首次通过改性聚丙烯酰胺对膨润土进行直接插层改性,制备了一种新型聚丙烯酰胺改性膨润土防渗材料.结合表征结果讨论了不同改性聚丙烯酰胺加入量对改性膨润土材料结构的影响,结果表明,聚丙烯酰胺加入量为30%的改性膨润土比表面积较原土增大,粒径分布较好;XRD表征结果说明,聚丙烯酰胺插层使膨润土的层间距变化不大,对膨润土的其它部分的结构及形貌等未产生影响,d.的峰比较尖锐,说明聚丙烯酰胺在膨润土中分散性较好;SEM表征显示改性膨润土表面的不规整程度明显增加;IR分析结果说明膨润土层间存在聚丙烯酰胺.

  3. Identification and In Silico Analysis of Major Redox Modulated Proteins from Brassica juncea Seedlings Using 2D Redox SDS PAGE (2-Dimensional Diagonal Redox Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Satya Prakash; Deswal, Renu

    2017-02-01

    The thiol-disulphide exchange regulates the activity of proteins by redox modulation. Many studies to analyze reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced changes in the gene expression have been reported, but efforts to detect H2O2 modified proteins are comparatively few. Two-dimensional diagonal redox sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) was used to detect polypeptides which undergo thiol-disulphide exchange in Brassica juncea seedlings following H2O2 (10 mM) treatment for 30 min. Eleven redox responsive polypeptides were identified which included cruciferin, NLI [Nuclear LIM (Lin11, Isl-1 & Mec-3 domains)] interacting protein phosphatase, RuBisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) large subunit, and myrosinase. Redox modulation of RuBisCO large subunit was further confirmed by western blotting. However, the small subunit of RuBisCO was not affected by these redox changes. All redox modulated targets except NLI interacting protein (although it contains two cysteines) showed oxidation sensitive cysteines by in silico analysis. Interestingly, interactome of cruciferin and myrosinase indicated that they may have additional function(s) beside their well-known roles in the seedling development and abiotic stress respectively. Cruciferin showed interactions with stress associated proteins like defensing-like protein 192 and 2-cys peroxiredoxin. Similarly, myrosinase showed interactions with nitrilase and cytochrome p450 which are involved in nitrogen metabolism and/or hormone biosynthesis. This simple procedure can be used to detect major stress mediated redox changes in other plants.

  4. Preparation of an imogolite/poly(acrylic acid) hybrid gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoik; Ryu, Jungju; Kim, Donghyun; Joo, Yongho; Lee, Sang Uck; Sohn, Daewon

    2013-09-15

    Many efforts in the field of hydrogels have been focused toward increasing the mechanical strength of the gel using inorganic materials. In this study, we synthesized a hydrogel that has excellent mechanical properties using surface-modified inorganic nanofibers composed of imogolite (Al2SiO3(OH)4), which is a hydrated aluminum silicate that has a hollow tube structure. Gamma ray radiation generates peroxide radicals on the nanofibers (imogolite), resulting in an additive free hybrid hydrogel. Structural optimization was carried out by changing the composition of imogolite and poly(acrylic acid). Chemical bonding between the nanofiber and the polymer was simulated by a cluster model and characterized by wide area Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that imogolite embedded in a polymer matrix can align along the direction of an elongational force, as confirmed by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS).

  5. Preparation and characterization of bismuth ruthenate pyrochlore via solid state reaction and sol-gel methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuree Sansernnivet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth ruthenate pyrochlores, potential cathode materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells(ITSOFCs, were prepared via solid-state and sol-gel method. Effects of the preparation routes and conditions on the phase and microstructures of the materials were investigated in this study using XRD and SEM. The study showed that the preparation method and the adding sequence of the starting meterials have a significant effect on the crystal phase and the particle size obtained. Sol-gel synthesis could yield a material with only pyrochlore structure, i.e. Bi2Ru2O7, while the solid state method yielded powder with a small amount of the secondary RuO2 phase. The sol-gel synthesis resulted in materialswith a finer particle size (~0.3-1.0 μm compared to powder synthesized via the solid state reaction method.

  6. Preparation of ZnO crystal by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new method to prepare ZnO crystal was put forward. The preparation process was studied and the mechanism of this method was also discussed. The results show that the sol particles will aggregate when being dehydrated and will form into hard compact gel body through the hard agglomeration between particles. This dry gel is a hard compact agglomeration composed of the first sol particles. At high sintering temperature, the small compacted particles will easily grow up and form a fine ZnO crystal.

  7. A comparative in vitro study of the digestibility of heat- and high pressure-induced gels prepared from industrial milk whey proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin-Song; Mu, Tai-Hua; Wang, Juan

    2013-06-01

    We undertook this study to compare the digestibility of heat- and high pressure-induced gels produced from whey protein isolate (WPI). To simulate in vivo gastrointestinal digestion of WPI gels, a pepsin-trypsin digestion system was used. The in vitro protein digestibility of WPI gels induced by high pressure (400 MPa and 30 min; P-gel) and those induced by heat (80°C and 30 min; H-gel) was compared using a protein concentration of 0.14 g mL-1. The in vitro protein digestibility of P-gels was significantly greater than that of H-gels (p<0.05). The size-exclusion chromatography profiles of the hydrolysates showed that the P-gel generated more and smaller peptides than natural WPI and H-gels. Furthermore, Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed some soluble disulfide-mediated aggregation in the P-gel, while there was more insoluble aggregation in the H-gel than the P-gel. The P-gel was more sensitive to proteinase than the H-gel, which was related to the content of S-S bonds, and this in turn could be attributed to the differences in the gelation mechanism between the H-gel and P-gel.

  8. Preparation and use of 131I magic gel as a dosimeter for targeted radionuclide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbon, Frédéric; Love, Peter; Chittenden, Sarah; Flux, Glen; Ravel, Patrice; Cook, Gary

    2006-10-01

    Clinical interest in targeted radiotherapy is increasing, but accurate dosimetry studies are difficult to achieve. The aim of this study was to investigate the preparation and use of a "normoxic" polymer gel (with a tissue-equivalent density), known as MAGIC gel, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for nonsealed source dosimetry. MAGIC gel samples were mixed with deionized water (MAGIC95) or a solution of 131I (131I-MAGIC95). By measuring the radioinduced variations of R2 values (relaxivity) of irradiated gels, we analyzed the response of MAGIC95 and MAGIC samples to external photon beam or 131I irradiation (131I-MAGIC95). MRI showed that a homogeneous dose distribution from 131I can be achieved if the MAGIC gel, at a temperature of approximately 35 degrees C, is mixed in 131I solution and the resulting mixture shaken gently for 30 minutes. It is important that the vials are completely filled, as residual air reduces polymerization and causes spontaneous polymerization stripes. Responses of MAGIC95 or MAGIC gels to external photon beam irradiation are similar. The variations of R2 values for 131I-MAGIC95 gel depend on the absorbed dose and not on the duration of the irradiation being reproducible from one batch of gel to another. MAGIC gel responses to 131I or external beam irradiation (EBI) are different. Our preliminary results suggest that radiolabeled "normoxic" polymer can be easily and safely produced. Radiolabeled MAGIC gel may, therefore, be suitable for the creation of phantoms dedicated to nonsealed source dosimetry.

  9. Infrared Spectroscopy Studies on sol-gel prepared alumina Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid JAFAR TAFRESHI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-alumina fine particles were synthesized by sol-gel process. Aluminum tri-sec-butoxide (ATB, anhydrous ethyl alcohol (EtOH, water (H2O and hydrochloric acid (HCl were used as starting materials. Different samples were synthesized with EtOH/ATB=60/1, HCl/ATB=0.08/1 and H2O/ATB=1/1 ratios and calcined at different temperatures. Molar ratios of H2O/ATB (from 1 to 25 and HCl/ATB (from 0.08 to 0.4 were changed for some other samples, during synthesizing process. The products were characterized by both XRD and FTIR measurements. Studies were carried out on the effect of calcination temperature and change of H2O/ATB and HCl/ATB ratios on structure and processes involved in phase transformations.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.4872

  10. Preparation and antioxidant capacity of element selenium nanoparticles sol-gel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan; Qin, Biyin; Zhou, Yanhui; Wang, Yudong; Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wenjie

    2011-06-01

    This paper reported the preparation and antioxidant capacities of element selenium nanoparticles (nanoSe(0))-ascorbic acid (Vc) sol and nanSe(0)/Vc/selenocystine (SeCys) sol-gel compounds. NanoSe(0)-Vc sol was prepared by reduction of selenious dioxide (SeO2) with Vc. In the nanoSe(0)-Vc sol, highly concentrated Vc was also used as a modifier to modulate the diameter of Se(0) nanoparticles in the liquid phase. Then excellent nanoSe(0) sol-gel compounds were obtained by adding SeCys into the nanoSe(0)-Vc sol. The structure of the nanoSe(0)/Vc/SeCys sol-gel compounds was defined, which was constructed via C-Se, Se-H and O=C-Se valences and by interaction between SeCys and Vc via peptide bonds, esterification and dehydration. The antioxidant capacities of the nanoSe(0)-Vc sol and the nanoSe(0)Vc/SeCys sol-gel compounds were estimated by oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) assay. The nanoSe(0)/Vc/SeCys sol-gel compounds possessed a strong antioxidant capacity due to forming the perfect three-dimensional (3D) frameworks structure. The results suggested that the nanoSe(0)-Vc sol and the nanoSe(0)Vc/SeCys sol-gel compounds might be potential medicine, especially antioxidant.

  11. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro gastrointestinal digestibility of oil-in-water emulsion-agar gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Neves, Marcos A; Kobayashi, Isao; Uemura, Kunihiko; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi

    2013-01-01

    Soybean oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion-agar gel samples were prepared and their digestibility evaluated by using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Emulsion-agar sols were obtained by mixing the prepared O/W emulsions with a 1.5 wt % agar solution at 60 °C, and their subsequent cooling at 5 °C for 1 h formed emulsion-agar gels. Their gel strength values increased with increasing degree of polymerization of the emulsifiers, and the relative gel strength increased in the case of droplets with an average diameter smaller than 700 nm. Flocculation and coalescence of the released emulsion droplets depended strongly on the emulsifier type; however, the emulsifier type hardly affected the ζ-potential of emulsion droplets released from the emulsion-agar gels during in vitro digestion. The total FFA content released from each emulsion towards the end of the digestion period was nearly twice that released from the emulsion-agar gel, indicating that gelation of the O/W emulsion may have delayed lipid hydrolysis.

  12. Bismuth Substituted Yttrium Iron Garnet Single Crystal Films Prepared by Sol-gel Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Magneto-optic Faraday rotation effect and the amount of bismuth substituted in yttrium iron garnet single crystal films prepared by gel-coating on modified gadolinium-gallium garnet substrates are investigated, where the gel is synthesized by a sol-gel reaction of nitrates and ethylene glycol. The coated gel is annealed in air at temperatures up to 660℃ for 4h, which is about 300℃ lower than that of liquid-phase epitaxy. The maximum amount of Bi substitution is x=2.7 and the crystallization temperature of garnet phase decreases with the increase of x down to 520℃ for x=2.7. In this film, a huge Faraday rotation of -8.1×104 (°)/cm at λ=0.633μm is obtained.

  13. Photochromic organic-inorganic composite materials prepared by sol-gel processing: properties and potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lisong; Mennig, Martin; Schmidt, Helmut K.

    1994-09-01

    The sol-gel method which features a low-temperature wet-chemical process opens vast possibilities to incorporating organic dyes into solid matrices for various optical applications. In this paper we present our experimental results on the sol-gel derived photochromic organic- inorganic composite (Ormocer) materials following an introductory description of the sol-gel process and a brief review on the state of the art of the photochromic solids prepared using this method. Our photochromic spirooxazine-Ormocer gels and coatings possess better photochromic response and color-change speed than the corresponding photochromic polymer coatings and similar photochemical stability to the latter. Further developments are proposed as to tackle the temperature dependence problem and further tap the potentialities of the photochromic dye-Ormocer material for practical applications.

  14. Emission of Eu3+in sol-gel oxyfluoride glass materials obtained by different preparation methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Żądło; B. Szpikowska-Sroka; L. Żur; R. Czoik; W.A. Pisarski

    2014-01-01

    Silica glasses doped with Eu3+ions prepared by sol-gel methods were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to verify the nature of the studied systems. Excitation and emission spectra of Eu3+ ions in sol-gel glass materials were detected. Red-to-orange luminescence intensity ratios R/O related to integrated intensities of 5D0→7F2 to 5D0→7F1 transitions and luminescence lifetimes for 5D0 state of Eu3+ions were determined. The results indicated that spectroscopic parameters for Eu3+ions strongly de-pended on reagents and their relative ratios used for sol-gel glass preparation.

  15. Method for preparing hydrous titanium oxide spherules and other gel forms thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J.L.

    1998-10-13

    The present invention are methods for preparing hydrous titanium oxide spherules, hydrous titanium oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, titanium monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous titanium oxide spherules having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, titanium monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendible particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent having a desired crystallinity, titanium oxide spherules in the form of anatase, brookite or rutile, titanium oxide spherules having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, hydrous titanium oxide fiber materials, titanium oxide fiber materials, hydrous titanium oxide fiber materials having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, titanium oxide fiber materials having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite and spherules of barium titanate. These variations of hydrous titanium oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters and ceramics. 6 figs.

  16. Benzydamine hydrochloride buccal bioadhesive gels designed for oral ulcers: preparation, rheological, textural, mucoadhesive and release properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavana, Sinem Yaprak; Güneri, Pelin; Ertan, Gökhan

    2009-01-01

    This study developed and examined the characterization of Benzidamine hydrochloride (BNZ) bioadhesive gels as platforms for oral ulcer treatments. Bioadhesive gels were prepared with four different hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) types (E5, E15, E50 and K100M) with different ratios. Each formulation was characterized in terms of drug release, rheological, mechanical properties and adhesion to a buccal bovine mucosa. Drug release was significantly decreased as the concentration and individual viscosity of each polymeric component increased due to improved viscosity of the gel formulations. The amount of drug released for the formulations ranged from 0.76 +/- 0.07 and 1.14 +/- 0.01 (mg/cm2 +/- SD). Formulations exhibited pseudoplastic flow and all formulations, increasing the concentration of HPMC content significantly raised storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), dynamic viscosity (eta') at 37 degrees C. Increasing concentration of each polymeric component also significantly improved the hardness, compressibility, adhesiveness, cohesiveness and mucoadhesion but decreased the elasticity of the gel formulations. All formulations showed non-Fickian diffusion due to the relaxation and swelling of the polymers with water. In conclusion, the formulations studied showed a wide range of mechanical and drug diffusion characteristics. On the basis of the obtained data, the bioadhesive gel formulation which was prepared with 2.5% HPMC K 100M was determined as the most appropriate formulation for buccal application in means of possessing suitable mechanical properties, exhibiting high cohesion and bioadhesion.

  17. Preparation and characterization of bioadhesive controlled-release gels of cidofovir for vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuğcu-Demiröz, Fatmanur; Acartürk, Füsun; Özkul, Aykut

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop mucoadhesive and thermosensitive gels for vaginal delivery that would be able to provide a controlled release of the model drug, cidofovir. The study also monitored the drug's potential antiviral properties. Cidofovir was put into the form of a vaginal gel, using mucoadhesive and thermosensitive polymers such as chitosan, Carbopol 974P, HPMC, and poloxamer 407. The physicopharmaceutical properties and stability of the vaginal gel formulations were evaluated. The gel formulation which was prepared with HPMC K100M exhibited the highest viscosity, as well as maximum adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and mucoadhesion values. The results of antiviral activity studies, which used the bovine herpes virus type 1 virus infection in vitro model using Vero cells, demonstrated the antiherpetic effect of the cidofovir gel containing HPMC K100M, at least under in vitro conditions. The study found that a mucoadhesive vaginal gel containing cidofovir can be a promising and innovative alternative therapeutic system for the treatment of genital herpes simplex virus and human papilloma virus induced infections in women.

  18. Pulsed electric field assisted sol-gel preparation of TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Rajaboopathi; Han, Bing; Louhi-Kultanen, Marjatta

    2016-10-01

    This work studies the effect of a pulsed electric field (PEF) on the precipitation and properties of TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared using pulsed DC electric field assisted sol-gel method. The duration of the PEF treatment was varied to investigate its effect on the particle size of TiO2 nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, UV diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that TiO2 particles prepared with pulsed electric field assisted sol-gel method had enhanced average crystallite size due to the effect of the pulsed electric field on primary nucleation. The effect of electric field on nanoparticle preparation is interesting which can be used to control the grain and crystallite size of nanoparticle.

  19. Porphyrinosilica and metalloporphyrinosilica: hybrid organic-inorganic materials prepared by sol-gel processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YASSUKO IAMAMOTO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available New materials porphyrinosilica and metalloporphyrinosilica template have been obtained by a sol-gel processing where functionalyzed porphyrins and metalloporphyrins "building blocks" were assembled into a three-dimensional silicate network. The optimized conditions for preparation of these materials are revised. The monomer precursors porphyrinopropylsilyl and metalloporphyrinopropylsilyl preparation reactions and subsequent one pot sol-gel processing with tetraethoxysilane are discussed. In the case of metalloporphyrins the nitrogen base coordinates to the central metal and acts as a template in the molecular imprinting technique. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic spectra, infrared spectra, luminescence spectra, surface area and electron spectroscopy imaging of the materials are used to characterize the prepared materials. The catalytic activities of these metalloporphyrinosilica- template are compared.

  20. A Review of Photocatalysts Prepared by Sol-Gel Method for VOCs Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Ke Tseng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel process is a wet-chemical technique (chemical solution deposition, which has been widely used in the fields of materials science, ceramic engineering, and especially in the preparation of photocatalysts. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are prevalent components of indoor air pollution. Among the approaches to remove VOCs from indoor air, photocatalytic oxidation (PCO is regarded as a promising method. This paper is a review of the status of research on the sol-gel method for photocatalyst preparation and for the PCO purification of VOCs. The review and discussion will focus on the preparation and coating of various photocatalysts, operational parameters, and will provide an overview of general PCO models described in the literature.

  1. Preparation of A New Fiber by Sol-gel Technology in Solid-phase Microextraction (SPME)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ming WEI; Qing Yu OU; Ju Bai LI

    2004-01-01

    The sol-gel technology is applied for the preparation of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber. The fiber demonstrates high thermal stability, efficient extraction rate and the selectivity for non-polar or low-polar analytes. Efficient SPME-GC-FID analyses of benzene- toluene-ethylbenzene-xylenes (BTEXs) and low-polar halocarbon were achieved by the sol-gel coated DSDA-DDBT-TiO2 fiber. Some parameters of the SPME fiber for the determination of halocarbon in aqueous sample were investigated.

  2. Biocompatible Nb2O5 thin films prepared by means of the sol-gel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, D; Eisenbarth, E; Schanne, N; Breme, J

    2004-04-01

    Thin biocompatible oxide films with an optimised composition and structure on the surface of titanium and its alloys can improve the implant integration. The preparation of these thin oxide layers with the intended improvement of the surface properties can be realised by means of the sol-gel process. Nb2O5 is a promising coating material for this application because of its extremely high corrosion resistance and thermodynamic stability. In this study, thin Nb2O5 layers ( TiO2 sol-gel coated cp-titanium concerning the spreading of cells, collagen I synthesis and wettability.

  3. Preparation of Poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) Modified Tungsten Oxide Hybrid Films via Sol-Gel Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Poly (ethylene axide) (PEO) modified WO3 thin films were prepared on glass substrates with special temperature.The sol-gel transition proess was investigated by using DTA-TG,SEM and XRD.The electrochemical characteristic of the films was studied by cyclic voltmmetry measurement.The results show that PEO has heavy effects on the crystallization of WO3 during structure evolution because of the interaction between PEO and WO3.It increases the crystallization temperature of the gels and thus improves the electrochemical properties and cyclic life of WO3 film as electrochromic materials.

  4. Preparation and studies of Co(II) and Co(III)-substituted barium ferrite prepared by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teh, Geok Bee [Department of Bioscience and Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, 53300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]. E-mail: tehgb@mail.utar.edu.my; Nagalingam, Saravanan [Department of Bioscience and Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, 53300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jefferson, David A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    The sol-gel preparative method was employed to synthesise Co(II) and Co(III)-substituted barium ferrite. This method was attempted to achieve higher homogeneity of the final product. Samples of substituted ferrites were characterised by various experimental techniques including high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, magnetometry and thermal gravimetric analysis. The microstructural changes induced by such substitution are also discussed.

  5. Y_2SiO_5:Ce~(3+) particle growth during sol-gel preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀娟; 焦桓; 王晓明; 曾正志; 荆西平

    2010-01-01

    The phosphor Y2SiO5:Ce3+ was prepared by a sol-gel method and the particle growth process was investigated by XRD, SEM and TEM. After heating at 400 °C, the as-dried gel became a powder composed of mixed phases of polycrystalline Y2O3 and amorphous SiO2. With an increase in temperature, the crystallinity of Y2O3 improved. The sample quickly changed to the pure Y2SiO5 phase when it was heated at 1400 °C for 10 min. SEM indicated that the as-dried gel consisted of large porous particles. At an annealing tempe...

  6. Preparation of long alumina fibers by sol-gel method using tartaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hong-Bin

    2011-12-01

    Long alumina fibers were prepared by sol-gel method. The spinning sol was obtained by mixing aluminum nitrate, tartaric acid, and polyvinylpyrrolidone with a mass ratio of 10:3:1.5. Thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the properties of the gel and ceramic fibers. A little of α-Al2O3 phase is observed in the alumina precursor gel fibers sintered at 1273 K. The fibers with a uniform diameter can be obtained when sintered at 1473 K, and its main phase is also indentified as α-Al2O3.

  7. Disinfection studies on TiO2 thin films prepared by a sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambala, Venkata Subba Rao; Naidu, Ravi

    2009-02-01

    Transparent anatase TiO2 nanometer thin films were prepared by dip-coating on soda-lime glass plates via the sol-gel method. The un-calcined and the calcined films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM, Nano-indentation (hardness and Young's modulus), UV-vis spectrometry, thickness and hydrophilicity (contact angle measurements). The photocatalytic activity of the thin films was evaluated by performing disinfection studies on the Gram-negative microorganisms like Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus Aureus, a Gram-positive organism. The photocatalytic activity for both groups of organisms was studied in saline and nutrient broth. The leakage of potassium from the bacteria was observed parallel to cell viability. The activity of the sol-gel prepared TiO2 thin films were compared under UV lamps and natural day light (ND) lamps with Degussa P-25 TiO2 thin films prepared on soda-lime glass using a polymer support and the commercial self-cleaning glass (SC). The sol-gel prepared thin films which were annealed at 450 degrees C, show highest photocatalytic activity, the slowest conversion rate from hydrophilic to a hydrophobic state, light-induced hydrophilicity, and also higher disinfection activities compared to P-25 films and commercial self-cleaning glass. The films also show excellent activities when continuously reused for more than a month.

  8. Mullite fibres preparation by aqueous sol-gel process and activation energy of mullitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan Hongbin, E-mail: hb-t@163.co [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University Xi' an 710049 (China) and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong, Shaanxi 723003 (China); Ding Yaping; Yang Jianfeng [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2010-03-04

    Mullite fibres were prepared by sol-gel process using aluminum carboxylates (ACs) and silica sol. ACs was synthesized from dissolving aluminum powder in a mixture of formic acid and oxalic acid using aluminum chloride hexahydrate as catalyst. A molar ratio of 1:2:1 for aluminum, formic acid and oxalic acid was optimized to obtain clear solution and viscous ACs sol for fibres synthesis. Thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were used to characterize the properties of the gel and ceramic fibres. The gel fibres completely transformed to mullite at 1200 {sup o}C, with a smooth surface and uniform diameter. The activation energy for mullite formation in precursor gel fibres was determined by means of differential thermal analysis. The value obtained, E{sub a} = 741.4 kJ/mol, was lower than most data reported in the literatures, which was attributed to the silica-alumina micro-phase separation when organic acids decomposed during gel fibres heating.

  9. Preparation and rapid analysis of antibacterial silver, copper and zinc doped sol-gel surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Swarna; McHale, Patrick; Duffy, Brendan

    2012-06-01

    The colonisation of clinical and industrial surfaces with microorganisms, including antibiotic-resistant strains, has promoted increased research into the development of effective antibacterial and antifouling coatings. This study describes the preparation of metal nitrate (Ag, Cu, Zn) doped methyltriethoxysilane (MTEOS) coatings and the rapid assessment of their antibacterial activity using polyproylene microtitre plates. Microtitre plate wells were coated with different volumes of liquid sol-gel and cured under various conditions. Curing parameters were analysed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and visual examination. The optimum curing conditions were determined to be 50-70°C using a volume of 200 μl. The coated wells were challenged with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cultures, including biofilm-forming and antibiotic-resistant strains. The antibacterial activities of the metal doped sol-gel, at equivalent concentrations, were found to have the following order: silver>zinc>copper. The order is due to several factors, including the increased presence of silver nanoparticles at the sol-gel coating surface, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, leading to higher elution rates as measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The use of microtitre plates enabled a variety of sol-gel coatings to be screened for their antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria in a relatively short time. The broad-spectrum antibacterial activity of the silver doped sol-gel showed its potential for use as a coating for biomaterials.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Titania-silica Composite Particles by Pechini Sol-gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuanting

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two Pechini sol-gel processes were used to prepare titania-silica composite particles. The dynamic oxidation behavior of the TiO2-SiO2 powders has been characterized by thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DTG-DSC. The crystal phase and microstructure of the composite particles were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM. The effects of Si:Ti molar ratio and sol-gel process on the TiO2-SiO2 powders were studied. The preparation of the polymeric precursors can influence the morphology of obtained TiO2-SiO2 composite particles. The spherical TiO2-SiO2 composite particles which are 20 nm~400 nm in diameter appear in gel-1 system. However, the TiO2-SiO2 powders obtained by gel-2 system are irregular in shape and 2~15 μm in diameter which show a loose porous structure consisted of very fine granules.

  11. A novel gel combustion procedure for the preparation of foam and porous pellets of UO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjay Kumar, D.; Ananthasivan, K.; Venkata Krishnan, R.; Maji, Dasarath; Dasgupta, Arup

    2017-01-01

    In this study, it has been demonstrated for the first time how sucrose gel-combustion could be used for the preparation of UO2 foam. Further the citrate gel-combustion was gainfully used for preparing porous pellets of UO2. The utility of two-step sintering (1073 K for 30 min and 1473 K for 4 h) for obtaining these porous bodies was demonstrated for the first time. The foams and pellets possessed meso and macro pores. A starting mixture with sucrose to nitrate ratio of 2.4 was found to yield urania foam with adequate crush strength. The porous pellets were found to possess better handling strength, lesser carbon residue and higher overall density than the foam. A citric acid to nitrate ratio 0.25 in the starting mixture, 180 MPa compaction pressure were optimal for obtaining a pellet with 40% porosity.

  12. Preparation of ITO transparent conductive film by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-hua; REN Dong-yan

    2006-01-01

    The ITO transparent conductive films were prepared on substrate of quartz glass by sol-gel method. The raw materials were nitrate indium, acetylacetone and the dopant of anhydrous chloride (SnCl4). The process from gel to crystalline film and the microstructure of the films were investigated by DTA-TG, XRD and SEM. The influence of preparation processes on the electricity performance of the films was also studied by four-probe apparatus. The results show that the crystallization process of ITO xerogel completes when the heat treatment temperature reaches 600 ℃. The ITO films possesses on vesicular structures accumulated by spherical particles, and both heat treatment temperature and cooling rate have important effects on the resistivity ofITO films.

  13. Comparative study of ZnO thin films prepared by different sol-gel route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Esmaieli Ghodsi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available   Retraction Notice    The paper "Comparative study of ZnO thin films prepared by different sol-gel route" by H. Absalan and F. E. Ghodsi, which appeared in Iranian Journal of Physics Research, Vol. 11, No. 4, 423-428 (in Farsi is translation of the paper "Comparative Study of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Different Sol-Gel Route" by F. E. Ghodsi and H. Absalan, which appeared in ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, Vol 118 (2010 (in English and for this reason is retracted from this journal.The corresponding author  (and also the first author is the only responsible person for this action.   

  14. Study of NiCuZn ferrite powders and films prepared by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Liang-Qiu; Yu Guo-Jian; Wang Ying; Wei Fu-Lin

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports that a series of NiCuZn ferrite powders and films are prepared by using sol-gel method. The effects of raw material composition and the calcinate temperature on magnetic properties of them are investigated. The NiCuZn ferrite powders are prepared by the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method and subsequently heated at 700 ℃~1000 ℃. The results show that NiCuZn ferrite powders with single spinel phase can be formed after heat-treating at 750 ℃. Powders obtained from Nio.4Cuo.2Zno.4Fe1.9O4 gel have better magnetic properties than those from gels with other composition. After heat-treating at 900 ℃ for 3 h, coercivity Hc and saturation magnetization Ms are 9.7 Oe (1 Oe = 80 A/m) and 72.4 emu/g, respectively. Different from the powders, NiCuZn films produced on Si (100) from the Ni0.4Cu0.2Zn0.4Fe2O4 gel formed at room temperature possess high properties. When heat-treating condition is around 600 ℃ for 6 min, samples with low Hc and high Ms will be obtained. The minimal Hc is 16.7 Oe and Ms is about 300 emu/cm3. In comparison with the films prepared through long-time heat treating, the films prepared through short heat-treating time exhibits better soft magnetic properties.

  15. Hemoglobin-imprinted polymer gel prepared using modified glucosamine as functional monomer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Li Zhao; Tian Ying Guo; Yong Qing Xia; Mou Dao Song

    2008-01-01

    A new functional glycomonomer was obtained from modified glucosamine.Hemoglobin-imprinted polymer gel was prepared with allyl-bromide modified glucosamine as functional monomer,poly(ethylene-glycol)diaorylate(PEGDA)as cross-linker and ammonium persulfate[(NH4)2S2O8]/sodium hydrogen sulfite(NaHSO3)as initiators in a phosphate buffer.The adsorption capacity and selective adsorption of the molecular imprinting polymer(MIP)were also discussed.

  16. 影响聚丙烯酰胺水凝胶取出的因素及术后乳房整形策略探讨%Mammaplasty after polyacrylamide hydrophilic gel removal from breast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈保国; 乔群; 黄渭清; 张海林; 朱琳; 曾昂

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨聚丙烯酰胺水凝胶取出与乳房整形策略的关系. 方法 2003年2月至2009年8月,共收治聚丙烯酰胺水凝胶注射隆乳术后患者130例,于术前常规行乳腺B超或MRI检查,明确注射物的分布层次和周围组织浸润等情况,并在注射物取出术后根据是否植入假体或何时植入假体,将患者分为一期植入假体、二期植入假体和不植入假体3种情况,分别给予相应治疗. 结果 本组患者随访最长时间3个月,满意、基本满意和不满意率分别为83例(63.84%)、41例(31.53%)、6例(4.63%).基本满意组中5例6只乳房出现轻度包膜挛缩(Baker Ⅰ级);3例患者注射物残留过多,但仍执意要求植入假体,2例术后假体出现不平,但患者可以接受.不满意组皆为患者自行选择乳房假体,术后感到乳房外形与年龄不符,再次行假体取出术.除上述并发症外,无假体疝出、感染、切口裂开及双侧乳房不对称等畸形. 结论 根据聚丙烯酰胺水凝胶取出术后乳房畸形特点及乳房修复条件,选择恰当的再隆乳策略,既可改善胸部外观,又可缓解心理压力.%Objective To explore the relationship between mammaplasty and results after polyacrylamide hydrophilic gel(PAHG)removal from breast. Methods From Feb.2003 to Aug.2009,130 patients with bilateral breast augmentation by PAHG injection were treated.Preoperative ultrasound examination and MRI were performed to know the distribution of PAHG and infiltration at the surrounding tissue.According to the conditions after removal,the patients were received implant augmentationimmediately,or at the second stage,or no implant. Results The patients were followed up for 3 months at the most with a very satisfactory rate of 63.84%(83/120),a satisfactory rate of 31.53%(41/120)and a dissatisfactory rate of 4.63%(6/120).Slight capsular contracture(Baker Ⅰ)occurred in 5 cases with 6 breasts in satisfactory group.All the patients in dissatisfactory

  17. Study of gels of molybdenum with cerium in the preparation of generators of 99Mo - 99mTc

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Moraes; Bárbara Marczewski; Carla Roberta Dias; João Alberto Osso Junior

    2005-01-01

    99mTc has ideal nuclear properties for organ imaging in nuclear medicine, and it is obtained from the 99Mo-99mTc generator. Four different types of generators are available: chromatographic that uses 99Mo from fission of uranium; MEK solvent extraction; Tc2O7 sublimation; gel chromatographic. This work presents the preparation of gel generators of molybdenum with cerium and characterization of the gels: mass ratio between molybdenum and cerium, structure, size of particles and elution percent...

  18. Preparation of supramolecular hydrogel-enzyme hybrids exhibiting biomolecule-responsive gel degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemitsu, Hajime; Fujisaku, Takahiro; Onogi, Shoji; Yoshii, Tatsuyuki; Ikeda, Masato; Hamachi, Itaru

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogelators are small, self-assembling molecules that form supramolecular nanofiber networks that exhibit unique dynamic properties. Development of supramolecular hydrogels that degrade in response to various biomolecules could potentially be used for applications in areas such as drug delivery and diagnostics. Here we provide a synthetic procedure for preparing redox-responsive supramolecular hydrogelators that are used to create hydrogels that degrade in response to oxidizing or reducing conditions. The synthesis takes ∼2-4 d, and it can potentially be carried out in parallel to prepare multiple hydrogelator candidates. This described solid-phase peptide synthesis protocol can be used to produce previously described hydrogelators or to construct a focused molecular library to efficiently discover and optimize new hydrogelators. In addition, we describe the preparation of redox-responsive supramolecular hydrogel-enzyme hybrids that are created by mixing aqueous solutions of hydrogelators and enzymes, which requires 2 h for completion. The resultant supramolecular hydrogel-enzyme hybrids exhibit gel degradation in response to various biomolecules, and can be rationally designed by connecting the chemical reactions of the hydrogelators with enzymatic reactions. Gel degradation in response to biomolecules as triggers occurs within a few hours. We also describe the preparation of hydrogel-enzyme hybrids arrayed on flat glass slides, enabling high-throughput analysis of biomolecules such as glucose, uric acid, lactate and so on by gel degradation, which is detectable by the naked eye. The protocol requires ∼6 h to prepare the hydrogel-enzyme hybrid array and to complete the biomolecule assay.

  19. Gel-aided sample preparation (GASP)--a simplified method for gel-assisted proteomic sample generation from protein extracts and intact cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Roman; Kessler, Benedikt M

    2015-04-01

    We describe a "gel-assisted" proteomic sample preparation method for MS analysis. Solubilized protein extracts or intact cells are copolymerized with acrylamide, facilitating denaturation, reduction, quantitative cysteine alkylation, and matrix formation. Gel-aided sample preparation has been optimized to be highly flexible, scalable, and to allow reproducible sample generation from 50 cells to milligrams of protein extracts. This methodology is fast, sensitive, easy-to-use on a wide range of sample types, and accessible to nonspecialists. © 2014 The Authors. PROTEOMICS published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Keggin结构钨磷酸/聚丙烯酰胺复合物的制备及光性质研究%Preparation, Photochromic Properties of Keggin Type Tungstophosphoric Acids Based on Polyacrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯威; 张铁锐; 刘延; 卢然; 赵英英; 姚建年

    2000-01-01

    A new photochromic complex of Keggin type Tungstophosphate acid/polyacrylamide system was prepared in aqueous solution, and its thin films was made by the dip-coating technique. Their properties were investigated by FT-IR, UV-Vis, as well as TG-DTA measurement. The results showed that this type of system had different properties in solution and in thin films. ESR spectra g values for the one-electron blues were the characteristic of tetragonal Ws+ complex in aqueous solution and thin films.The formation of a radical signal of ESR spectra indicated that polyaerylamide was a proton donor, the reversibility for photochromism was relative to the presence and diffusion of oxygen in polymeric network.

  1. Evaluation of a polyacrylamide hydrogel in the treatment of induced osteoarthritis in a goat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tnibar, Aziz; Persson, Ann; Jensen, Henrik Elvang;

    2014-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) is an inert, non-degradable, non-immunogenic polymer gel with high viscoelasticity consisting of 97.5% sterile water and 2.5% cross-linked polyacrylamide. Its biocompatibility in soft tissues has been demonstrated. PAAG has recently been tested for the treatment...

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Alginate-Hyaluronic Acid-chitosan based Composite Gel Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yan; ZHENG Mengzhu; DONG Xiaoying; ZHAO Dan; CHENG Han; XIAO Xincai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to fabricate composite gel beads based on natural polysaccharides. Hyaluronic acid (HA) and Chitosan (CS) were successfully admixed with Ca2+/alginate (SA) gel system to produce SA/HA/CS gel beads by dual crosslinking:the ionic gelation and the polyelectrolyte complexation. The preparation procedure was that the weight ratio of SA (2%, m/v) to HA (2%, m/v) was kept at 2:1, then the mixture was dripped into the Ca2+solution for ion-crosslinking, and finally polyelectrolyte crosslinked with 2%low molecular weight CS (LMW-CS) for 1.5 hours. The optimal formulation was achieved by adjusting the concentration and the weight ratio of SA, HA and LMW-CS. Due to the incorporation of HA and LMW-CS, the swelling ratio of the beads at pH 7.4 was increased up to 120, and the time for the maximum swelling degree was prolonged to 7.5 h. The swelling behavior was obviously improved compared to the pure SA/Ca2+system. The preliminary results clearly suggest that the SA/HA/CS gel beads may be a potential candidate for biomedical delivery vehicles.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Nanosized LiCoO2 by Sol-Gel Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; YingKe

    2001-01-01

    In the intense search for high-energy density cathode materials for use in lithium-ion rechargeable battery technology, LiCoO2 has become the first, and one of the most promising, for commercial applications1. Sol-gel chemistry has recently evolved as a powerful approach for preparing inorganic materials such as glasses and ceramics2. The improved sol-gel process is based on the ability of certain weak acids to form polybasic acid chelates with various cations. These chelates can undergo polyesterification when heated in a polyhydroxyl alcohol to form a solid polymeric resin through which the cations are uniformly distributed. Thus the resin retains homogeneity on the atomic scale and may be calcined at low temperature to yield fine particulate oxides. Using this method, it is possible to obtain phase-pure ultrafine crystalline nanophases after firing the ploymeric precursors at some appointed temperature for several hours. In this work we reported that nanosized LiCoO2 were prepared by the improved sol-gel process.  ……

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Nanosized LiCoO2 by Sol-Gel Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ In the intense search for high-energy density cathode materials for use in lithium-ion rechargeable battery technology, LiCoO2 has become the first, and one of the most promising, for commercial applications1. Sol-gel chemistry has recently evolved as a powerful approach for preparing inorganic materials such as glasses and ceramics2. The improved sol-gel process is based on the ability of certain weak acids to form polybasic acid chelates with various cations. These chelates can undergo polyesterification when heated in a polyhydroxyl alcohol to form a solid polymeric resin through which the cations are uniformly distributed. Thus the resin retains homogeneity on the atomic scale and may be calcined at low temperature to yield fine particulate oxides. Using this method, it is possible to obtain phase-pure ultrafine crystalline nanophases after firing the ploymeric precursors at some appointed temperature for several hours. In this work we reported that nanosized LiCoO2 were prepared by the improved sol-gel process.

  5. Preparation of Machinable Bioactive Glass-ceramics by Sol-gel Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to prepare machinable bioactive glass-ceramics by sol-gel method. A multi-component composite sol with great uniformity and stability was first prepared by a 2-step method.The composite sol was then transformed into gel by aging under different temperatures. The gel was dried finally by super critically drying method and sintered to obtain the machinable bioactive glass-ceramics. Effect of thermal treatment on crystallization of the glass-ceramics was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Microstructure of the glass-ceramics was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the mechanism of machinability was discussed. Phlogopite and hydroxylapatite were identified as main crystal phases by XRD analysis under thermal treatment at 750 ℃ and 950 ℃ for 1.5 h separately. The relative bulk density could achieve 99%under 1050 ℃ for 4 h. Microstructure of the glass-ceramics showed that the randomly distributed phlogopite and hydroxylapatite phases were favorable to the machinability of the glass-ceramics. A mean bending strength of about 160-180 MPa and a fracture toughness parameter KIC of about 2.1-2.3 were determined for the glass-ceramics.

  6. Preparation and magnetic properties of Fe2O3 microtubules prepared by sol-gel template method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Chuanbo; ZHANG Cunrui; WANG Wenyan; LI Qiaoling

    2010-01-01

    Fe(OH)3 precursor sol was prepared by a sol-gel method.The precursor sol was dipped onto the absorbent cotton,and gel was formed on the absorbent cotton template after the volatilization of moisture.Fe2O3 microtubules were synthesized after the process of self-propagation or calcination.The phase,morphology,and particle diameter of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction(XRD)and scanning electron microscopy(SEM),and the magnetic properties of the samples were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer(VSM).The external diameters of Fe2O3 microtubules ranged between 8 and 13 μm,and the wall thicknesses ranged between 0.5 and 2 μm The type of the calcination method plays a significant role in developing the Fe2O3 phase and the variation in the magnetic properties in the sol-gel template complexing method.γ-Fe2O3 was synthesized by a self-propagation method.However,α-Fe2O3 was synthesized after calcination at 400℃ for 2 h.The coercivity of the samples synthesized by calcination at 400℃ for 2 h after self-propagation was found to increase significantly,thereby presenting hard magnetic properties.

  7. Fast and facile preparation of CTAB based gels and their applications in Au and Ag nanoparticles synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Ravi Kant, E-mail: rkupadhyay85@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Gautam Budh Nagar, 201314 Uttar Pradesh (India); Soin, Navneet, E-mail: n.soin@bolton.ac.uk [Knowledge Centre for Materials Chemistry (KCMC), Institute for Materials Research and Innovation (IMRI), University of Bolton, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5AB (United Kingdom); Saha, Susmita, E-mail: ssaha@bose.res.in [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Barman, Anjan, E-mail: abarman@bose.res.in [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Sinha Roy, Susanta, E-mail: susanta.roy@snu.edu.in [Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Gautam Budh Nagar, 201314 Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2015-04-15

    We have demonstrated that the gel-like mesophase of Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) can be synthesized by judicial adjustment of water to surfactant molar ratio (W{sub 0}), without using any additional salts, gelating agents or co-surfactants. Gel formation was found to be highly dependent on the water to surfactant molar ratio (W{sub 0}), with the lowest value of W{sub 0} (41.5) resulting in rapid gel formation. Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) analysis revealed that the gel was comprised of interconnected cylindrical structures. The presence of hydrogen bonding in the gel-like mesophase was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Rheology measurements revealed that all the gel samples were highly viscoelastic in nature. Furthermore, Au and Ag containing CTAB gels were explored as precursors for the preparation of spherical Gold (Au) and Silver (Ag) nanoparticles using Sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) as reducing agent. The effects of NaBH{sub 4} concentration on the particle size and morphology of the Au and Ag nanoparticles have also been studied. - Highlights: • A facile synthesis of CTAB based gel-like mesophase is reported. • CTAB gels were obtained by adjusting water to surfactant molar ratio (W{sub 0}). • FTIR analysis revealed that hydrogen bonding plays a key role in gel formation. • Au, Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by using CTAB gel and NaBH{sub 4}.

  8. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TIO2-SILICONE NANOCOMPOSITE OBTAINED BY SOL-GEL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOIZHAIGANOVA Meruyert

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel process is attractive for the nanocomposite preparation due to its unique advantages such as low temperature processing, high homogeneity of final products and its capability to generate materials with controlled surface properties. The preparation of TiO2-Silicone nanocomposite by sol–gel method, which is efficient at producing thin, transparent multi-component oxide layers, was considered due to its possible application as finishing coating on leather. In this study the preparation and characterization of TiO2-Silicone nanocomposite were investigated. TiO2-Silicone nanocomposite was prepared from titanium n-butoxide (TBO and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS catalyzed with acid. The chemical structure of the composite was evaluated by means of Raman spectroscopy. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM was employed to characterize the surface properties of composite films. In summary, the colloidal TiO2–Silicone nanocomposite solution was successfully synthesized using the sol-gel method. The turbidity value of the TiO2–Silicone nanocomposite solution was 12.7 ntu. The TiO2–Silicone nanocomposite was mildly acidic with a pH value of 5.2. It was determined that the viscosity of the TiO2– Silicone nanocomposite solution was approximately equal to 1-3 mPa.s. The particles sizes were approximately 5.4 nm, with the coatings being approximately 0.06 µm in thickness. From the results obtained it was revealed that the TiO2-Silicone nanocomposite can be used as coating in leather fninshing process.

  9. THERMAL, MECHANICAL, AND MOISTURE ABSORPTION PROPERTIES OF WOOD-TiO2 COMPOSITES PREPARED BY A SOL-GEL PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoqing Wang; Junliang Liu,; Yubo Chai

    2012-01-01

    Wood-TiO2 (titania) composites were prepared by a sol-gel process, in which wood was impregnated with the precursor solutions prepared from tetrabutyl titanate (TBT), followed by a curing step. The surface morphology and moisture absorption behavior of the wood composites, as well as their thermal and mechanical performances, were examined. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) analysis revealed that TiO2 gels were deposited principally in the cell lumens and partly in the cell wa...

  10. Alcohol sensing of tin oxide thin film prepared by sol–gel process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunita Mishra; C Ghanshyam; Nathai Ram; Satinder Singh; R P Bajpai; R K Bedi

    2002-06-01

    The present paper describes the alcohol sensing characteristics of spin coated SnO2 thin film deposited by using sol–gel process. The sensitivity of the film was measured at different temperatures and different concentrations of alcohol at ppm level. Alcohol detection result shows peak sensitivity at 623 K. The variation of sensitivity and ethanol concentration has shown a linear relationship up to 1150 ppm and after that it saturates. The response time measurement of the sensor was also observed and it was found that the response time is 30 sec. The results obtained favour the sol–gel process as a low cost method for the preparation of thin films with a high sensing characteristic.

  11. Preparation and Performance of an Adsorption Type Gel Plugging Agent as Enhanced Oil Recovery Chemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel adsorption type gel plugging agent (ATGPA was prepared using acrylamide (AM, acrylic acid (AA, diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DMDAAC, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate (AMPS, formaldehyde (HCHO, resorcinol (C6H6O2, and thiocarbamide (CH4N2S as raw materials under mild conditions. ATGPA was characterized by infrared (IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. It was found that ATGPA exhibited higher elastic modulus (G′ and viscous modulus (G′′ than AM/AA gel plugging agent (AAGPA under the same scanning frequency. It was also found that ATGPA had moderate temperature resistance and salt tolerance. Core plugging tests results indicated that ATGPA could achieve up to higher plugging rate (PR than AAGPA (97.2% versus 95.7% at 65°C. In addition, ATGPA possessed stronger antiscouring ability by core plugging experiments at 65°C.

  12. Preparation of nanocrystalline ferroelectric BaNb2O6 by citrate gel method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S P Gaikwad; Violet Samuel; Renu Pasricha; V Ravi

    2005-04-01

    A gel was formed when a aqueous solution of BaCl2, NbF5 and citric acid in stoichiometric ratio is heated on a water bath. This gel on decomposition at 600°C yielded the nano crystallites of BaNb2O6, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction study (XRD). This is a much lower temperature as compared to that prepared by traditional solid state method (1000°C) as reported for the formation of BaNb2O6. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) investigations revealed that the average particle size is 50 nm for the calcined powders. The room temperature dielectric constant at 1 kHz is found to be 1000. The ferroelectric hysteresis loop parameters of these samples were also studied.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of M-Type Barium Ferrite Fibers via Aqueous Sol-Gel Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Cairong; FAN Guoliang; SONG Chonglin; L(U) Gang

    2007-01-01

    BaFe12O19 fibers was prepared via an aqueous sol-gel process using Fe(OH)( HCOO)2 synthesized in laboratory and Ba(CH3COO)2 as the original materials and citrate as the chelate. The rheological behaviour of spinnable sol was characterized on rheometer, and the development of gel fibers to barium ferrite fibers was studied by IR, TG and XRD. Morphology observation of the fibers was given on SEM, and the diameter of the obtained fibers was between 5 and 10 μm corresponding to different additives. The additives affected the surface tension of the precursor sol which had close relation to the microstructure of fibers. Sucrose and hydroxyethylic cellulose could improve the surface tension while diethanolamine and hexadecylamine reduce that of the precursor sol. And using diethanolamine or hexadecylamine as an additive, well-structured BaFe12O19 fibers could be obtained.

  14. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of manganese doped TiO(2) immobilized on silica gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuehua; Lei, Bo; Guo, Laiqiu; Zhou, Wuyi; Liu, Youqin

    2008-12-15

    A series of Mn-TiO(2)/SiO(2) (silica gel loaded with manganese doped TiO(2)) photocatalysts have been prepared by sol-gel method, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Photocatalytic activities were enhanced in photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange over Mn-TiO(2)/SiO(2). XPS analysis shows that a Ti-O-Si or Ti-O-Mn bond is formed on the surface of photocatalyst. Mn is doped as a mixture of Mn(2+) and Mn(3+) on the surface of 1.0mol% Mn-TiO(2)/SiO(2). Mn(3+) appears to trap electrons and prohibit the electron-hole recombination. The electrons trapped in Mn(3+) site are subsequently transferred to the adsorbed O(2). As a result, the combination of the electron-hole pair was reduced.

  15. Preparation of nanocrystalline Mg4Nb2O9 by citrate gel method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Vadivel Murugan; A B Gaikwad; V Ravi

    2006-02-01

    A gel was formed when a aqueous solution of Mg(NO3)2, NbF5 and citric acid in stoichiometric ratio was heated on a water bath. No precipitation was observed at acidic pH and gellation was complete with evaporation of the solvent. This gel on decomposition at 750°C produced nanocrystallites of ternary oxide, Mg4Nb2O9 (M4N2). The phase contents and lattice parameters were studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) at various temperatures. Particle size and morphology were studied by transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM). For comparison, M4N2 powders were also prepared by conventional ceramic route at 900°C.

  16. Photocatalytic degradation for methylene blue using zinc oxide prepared by codeposition and sol-gel methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wenzhong; Li, Zhijie; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yihong; Guo, Qingjie; Zhang, Yuanli

    2008-03-21

    Zinc oxide nanoparticle was obtained by zinc hydrate deposited on the silica nanoparticle surface and zinc hydrate was dispersed in starch gel. The structure of zinc oxide particle was characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption and XRD, the morphology was observed by TEM. The result showed that the zinc oxide nanoparticle deposited on the silica nanoparticle surface was well-dispersed and less than 50nm, displayed higher photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation. However, the zinc oxide nanoparticle in a size of 60nm was derived from starch gel and showed poorer photocatalytic activity. It provided a simple and effective route to prepare zinc oxide nanoparticle with higher photocatalytic activity through depositing zinc oxide on the silica particle surface, moreover, the catalyst is easier to recover due to its higher density.

  17. Microstructure Control of Nanoporous Silica Thin Film Prepared by Sol-gel Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nanoporous silica films were prepared by sol-gel process with base, acid and base/acid two-step catalysis.Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and particle size analyzer were used to characterize the microstructure and the particle size distribution of the sols. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopic ellipsometer were used to characterize the surface microstructure and the optical properties of the silica films. Stability of the sols during long-term storage was investigated. Moreover,the dispersion relation of the optical constants of the silica films, and the control of the microstructure and properties of the films by changing the catalysis conditions during sol-gel process were also discussed.

  18. Sol-gel preparation and electrical behaviour of Ln: YAG (Ln = Ce, Nd, Ho, Er

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIVARAS KAREIVA

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A sol-gel method has been developed to prepare pure yttrium aluminum garnet, Y3Al5O12 (YAG, and rare-earth substituted (Ce-Y3Al5O12, Nd-Y3Al5O12, Ho-Y3Al5O12, and Er-Y3Al5O12 samples. The XRD patterns of the polycrystalline powders sintered at 1000ºC showed the formation of monophasic garnet materials. The micro-structural features in the polycristalline samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy. A homogeneous distribution of rare-earth dopants in the YAG lattice was achieved in all of the cases. Electrical conductivity measurements were also performed on the compacts of sol-gel derived Ln-YAG samples. In contrast to the expected dielectric behaviour, the conducting properties of the examined specimens indicate metallic behaviour with the resistivity increasing gradually with increasing temperature.

  19. In situ sol-gel preparation of porous alumina monoliths for chromatographic separations of adenosine phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajickova, Zuzana; Rubi, Emir; Svec, Frantisek

    2011-06-03

    A method enabling the in situ preparation of porous alumina monoliths within 100 μm i.d. fused silica capillaries has been developed. These monoliths were prepared using the sol-gel process from a mixture consisting of an inorganic aluminum salt, a porogen, an epoxide, and a solvent. We investigated the effects of varying the preparation conditions on the physical characteristics of the monoliths with respect to their potential application in chromatographic separations. The best columns were obtained from a mixture of aluminum chloride hexahydrate, N,N-dimethylformamide, water, ethanol and propylene oxide. Adenosine phosphates were then separated in the optimized column with retention increasing according to number of phosphate functionalities.

  20. Preparation, Properties and Mechanism of Inhomogeneous Calcium Alginate Ion Cross-linking Gel Microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Inhomogeneous calcium alginate ion cross-linking gel microspheres, a novel ion absorbent, were prepared by dropping a sodium alginate solution to a calcium chloride solution via an electronic droplet generator. Calcium alginate microspheres have uniform particle sizes, a smooth surface and a microporous structure. The electrode probe reveals the inhomogeneous distribution of calcium ions with the highest concentration on the surface, and the lowest concentration in the cores of the spheres. As a novel ion adsorbent, calcium alginate gel microspheres have a lower limiting adsorption mass concentration, a higher enrichment capacity and a higher adsorption capacity for Pb2+ than usual ion exchange resins. The highest percentage of the adsorption is 99.79%. The limiting adsorption mass concentration is 0.0426 mg/L. The adsorption capacity for Pb2+ is 644 mg/g. Calcium alginate gel microspheres have a much faster ion exchange velocity than D418 chelating resin and D113 polyacrylate resin. The moving boundary model was employed to interpret the ion exchange kinetics process, which indicates that the ion exchange process is controlled by intraparticle diffusion of adsorbable ions. So the formation of inhomogeneous gel microspheres reduces the diffusion distance of adsorbable ions within the spheres and enhances the ion exchange velocity. Alginate has a higher selectivity for Pb2+ than for Ca2+ and the selectivity coefficient KPbCa is 316. As an ion cross-linking gel, calcium alginate inhomogeneous microspheres can effectively adsorb heavy metal Pb2+ at a higher selectivity and a higher adsorption velocity. It is a novel and good ion adsorbent.

  1. Production and characterization of spodumene dosimetric pellets prepared by a sol-gel route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, H. R. B. R.; Nascimento, D. S.; Bispo, G. F. C.; Teixeira, V. C.; Valério, M. E. G.; Souza, S. O.

    2014-11-01

    Spodumene is an aluminosilicate that has shown good results for high-dose TL dosimetry for beta or gamma rays. Due to its chemical composition (LiAlSi2O6) it has potential to be used as a neutron dosimeter. The synthetic spodumene is usually produced by solid state reaction and conventional sol-gel, whose shortcomings arise from the need to employ high temperatures and high cost reagents, respectively. Proteic sol-gel method is promising, because it can reduce production costs and the possibility of environmental contamination. This work reports the production of the spodumene by the proteic sol-gel method using edible unflavored gelatin as a precursor. The product is characterized physically and morphologically, and investigated its applicability as a TL dosimeter. Two sets of samples were prepared using different sources of silicon, one with TEOS (Si(OC3H5)4) and one with SILICA (SiO2). The materials produced were characterized by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry in order to evaluate the structural properties, as well as possible changes in physical or chemical properties depending on the temperature. The production of spodumene was successful, with generation of the crystals in the β-phase with tetragonal structure. Sintered pellets produced from these crystals were irradiated with a 90Sr-90Y source and their TL glow curves were evaluated. Although the samples prepared by the proteic sol-gel method with TEOS presented a lower forming temperature, the samples produced with SILICA showed higher sensitivity to radiation.

  2. External polyacrylate-coating as alternative material for preparation of photopolymerized sol-gel monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Fernando Antonio Simas; de Castro, Patrícia Mendonça; Molina, Celso; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; Polachini, Ferminio César; Messaddeq, Younes; Nunes, Adriana Palombo; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal

    2008-06-30

    Photopolymerized sol-gel monolithic columns for use in capillary electrochromatography were prepared in 125 microm i.d. polyacrylate-coated fused-silica capillaries. The polyacrylate-coating, unlike the polyimide one, is transparent to the radiation used (approximately 370 nm), and thus, no coating removal is necessary. This is a very important particularity since intrinsic capillary column characteristics, such as flexibility and mechanical resistance, are unchanged. A mixture containing metacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) as the polymeric precursor, hydrochloric acid as the catalyst, toluene as the porogen and bis(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)-phenylphosphine oxide (Irgacure 819) as the photoinitiator was irradiated at 370 nm for 20 min inside the capillaries to prepare the columns through sol-gel approach. The versatility and viability of the use of polyacrilate as a new capillary external coating were shown through preparation of two columns under different conditions, which were tested in electrochromatography for separation of standard mixture containing thiourea (marker compound), propylbenzene, phenanthrene and pyrene.

  3. Silica-Copper Oxide Composite Thin Films as Solar Selective Coatings Prepared by Dipping Sol Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Barrera-Calva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica-copper oxide (silica-CuO composite thin films were prepared by a dipping sol-gel route using ethanolic solutions comprised TEOS and a copper-propionate complex. Sols with different TEOS/Cu-propionate (Si/Cu molar ratios were prepared and applied on stainless steel substrates using dipping process. During the annealing process, copper-propionate complexes developed into particulate polycrystalline CuO dispersed in a partially crystallized silica matrix, as indicated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analyses. The gel thermal analysis revealed that the prepared material might be stable up to 400°C. The silica-CuO/stainless steel system was characterized as a selective absorber surface and its solar selectivity parameters, absorptance (α, and emittance (ε were evaluated from UV-NIR reflectance data. The solar parameters of such a system were mostly affected by the thickness and phase composition of the SiO2-CuO film. Interestingly, the best solar parameters (α = 0.92 and ε = 0.2 were associated to the thinnest films, which comprised a CuO-Cu2O mixture immersed in the silica matrix, as indicated by XPS.

  4. Lithium ceramics: sol-gel preparation and tritium release; Ceramiques lithiees: elaboration sol-gel et relachement du tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renoult, O.

    1994-04-01

    Ceramics based on lithium aluminate (LiA1O{sub 2}), lithium zirconate (Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) and lithium titanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) are candidates as tritium breeder blanket materials for forthcoming nuclear fusion reactors. Lithium silico-aluminate Li{sub 4+x}A1{sub 4-3x}Si{sub 2x}O{sub 8} (0 {<=} x {<=} 0,25) powders were synthetized from alkoxyde-hydroxyde sol-gel route. By direct sintering at 850-1100 deg C (without prior calcination), ceramics with controlled stoichiometry and homogenous microstructure were obtained. We have also prepared, using a comparable method, Li{sub 2}Zr{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0, x = 0,1 et x = 1) materials. All these ceramics, with different microstructures and compositions, have been tested in out-of-reactor experiments. Concerning lithium aluminate microporous ceramics, the silicon substitution leads to a significant improvement of the tritrium release. Classical models taking into account independent surface mechanisms are not able to describe correctly the observed tritium release kinetics. We show, using a simple model, that the release kinetics is in fact limited by an intergranular diffusion followed by a desorption. The delay in tritium release, which occurs when the ceramic compacity increases, is explained in terms of an enhancement of the ionic T{sup +} diffusion path length. The energy required for desorption includes a leading term independent of hydrogen contained in the sweep gas. This term is attributed to the limiting recombination step of T{sup +} in molecular species HTO. For similar microstructures, the facility of tritium release for the different studied materials is explained by three properties: the crystal structure of the ceramic, the acidity of oxides and finally the presence of electronic non-stoichiometric defects. (author). 89 refs., 50 figs., 2 tabs., 1 annexe.

  5. Preparation and mechanical properties of silicon oxycarbide fibers from electrospinning/sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaofei [School of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Tianjin University, 300072 Tianjin (China); Gong, Cairong, E-mail: gcr@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Tianjin University, 300072 Tianjin (China); Fan, Guoliang [School of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Tianjin University, 300072 Tianjin (China)

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Ceramic fibers, silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) fibers were demonstrated and showed higher mechanical properties from electrospinning/sol-gel process at 1000 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiOC fibers with low cost are promising to substitute the non-oxide fibers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Successful preparation of SiOC fibers by electrospinning/sol-gel process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Confirmation of the designed product using material characterization methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SiOC fibers prepared at 1000 Degree-Sign C possess higher strength (967 MPa). -- Abstract: Silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) fibers were produced through the electrospinning of the solution containing vinyltrimethoxysilane and tetraethoxysilane in the course of sol-gel reaction with pyrolysis to ceramic. The effect of the amount of spinning agent Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on the dope spinnability was investigated. At a mass ratio of PVP/alkoxides = 0.05, the spinning sol exhibited an optimal spinnable time of 50 min and generated a large quantity of fibers. Electrospun fibers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermo gravimetric analysis-differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The SEM results revealed that the SiOC fibers had a smooth surface and dense cross-section, free of residue pores and cracks. The XPS results gave high content of SiC (13.99%) in SiOC fibers. The SiOC fibers prepared at 1000 Degree-Sign C had a high tensile strength of 967 MPa and Young's modulus of 58 GPa.

  6. Dielectric function of sol-gel prepared nano-granular zinc oxide by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliot, Mickaël, E-mail: mickael.gilliot@univ-reims.fr; Hadjadj, Aomar [LISM, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Reims (France); Eypert, Céline [HORIBA Jobin Yvon S.A.S., Palaiseau (France)

    2013-11-14

    ZnO thin films have been prepared by sol gel and deposited by spin coating. The dielectric function has been determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Ellipsometric spectra are inverted by a direct numerical method without using the standard fitting procedures. The obtained dielectric function presents a broad excitonic effect. The dielectric function is studied using Elliot excitonic theory including exciton plus band-to-band Coulomb interactions with standard Lorentzian broadening. A modification of this model dielectric function with independent bound and unbound exciton contributions is empirically proposed to improve modelling of the band gap excitonic peak.

  7. Preparation of self-sustained film by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹冰; 朱从善

    1999-01-01

    Large size self-sustained film with considerable thickness ranging from 30 to 500 μm was prepared with sol-gel method by using dimethyldiethoxysilane/tetraethoxysilane composite alkoxide as precursor. The film exhibits good plasticity as well. Various factors that may influence the film properties were investigated. IR and AFM techniques were adopted to study the film structure and surface morphology. Gas chromatogram/mass spectrum technique was also adopted to characterize the network structure of the material through identification of different polymers formed during hydrolysis and condensation course.

  8. Thermal properties and water repellency of cotton fabric prepared through sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Jia-Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fabrics were treated by one-step sol-gel method. The pure silica hydrosol and phosphorus-doped hydrosol were prepared with the addition of a hydrophobic hexadecyltrimethoxysilane to decrease the surface energy of cotton fabric. The thermal properties and water repellency of treated cotton fabric were characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis, micro combustion, limiting oxygen index, and contact angle measurement. The results showed that cotton fabric treated by phosphorus-doped silica hydrosol had excellent flame retardance, and the water repellence was apparently improved with the addition of hexadecyltrimethoxysilane.

  9. KINETICS OF GRAIN-GROWTH OF YTTRIUM ALUMINUM GARNET FIBERS PREPARED BY SOL-GEL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan H.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG long fibers were prepared by the sol-gel method using aluminum chloride, aluminum powder, yttrium oxide and acetic acid as raw materials. The grain growth law is given by Dn – D0n = Kt (D0 = initial grain size, D = average grain size at time t, n = grain growth exponent and K = reaction constant. The grain growth exponent and activation energy of YAG fibers are ≈ 3 and 200 kJ/mol, respectively. The grain-growth behaviors of YAG were influenced by experimental conditions such as raw materials, initial particle size, initial particle distribution, etc.

  10. Preparation of selective surfaces of black cobalt by the sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, E.C.; Viveros, T.G.; Morales, U. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    1996-09-01

    Black cobalt, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, thin solid coatings on stainless steel and glass substrates have been prepared by the dip coating technique via the sol-gel route using a CoCl{sub 2} precursor. The coatings produced on substrates exhibit a blue to black colours as a function of the film thickness. Sols have been made from a cobalt acetate precursor 0.1 M, and for such conditions, the dip coating process gives 0.08-0.25 {mu}m thick uniform films per dipping, depending on the viscocity of the sol. (Author)

  11. Preparation of glucose oxidase electrode containing hydrophobic silica nanoparticles by the sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳; 唐芳琼; 袁金锁; 江龙

    1995-01-01

    The influences of hydrophobic SiO2 nanoparticles and the contents of glucose oxidase(GOD)upon the response current of enzyme electrode have been investigated by using the sol-gel method,in whichpolyvinylbutyryl(PVB)was used as a matrix.The influenoe of enzymatic activity was measured byelectrochemical method.Experimental data demonstrated that hydrophobic SiO2 particles can immobilizeenzyme well,providing a good and simple method for preparing high quality GOD biosensor.The mechanismhas been discussed.

  12. PREPARATION AND SECOND-ORDER OPTICAL NONLINEARITY OF NOVEL PHENOXYSILICON NETWORKS BY SOL-GEL PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Huang; Jian Wang; Ling-zhi Zhang; Zhi-gang Cai; Zhao-xi Lianga

    2001-01-01

    Four phenoxysilicon networks for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications were designed and prepared by an extended sol-gel process without additional H20 and catalyst. All poled polymer network films possess high second-order nonlinear optical coefficients (d33) of 10-?~10-8 esu. The investigation of NLO temporal stability at room temperature and elevated temperature (120°C) indicated that these films exhibit high d33 stability because the orientation of the chromophores are locked in the phenoxysilicon organic/inorganic networks.

  13. Preparation of Ca Doped Lanthanum Chromite by Sol-Gel Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zang Bangqiang; Ao Qing; Li Dehui; Sun Liangcheng; Liu Ruwei

    2004-01-01

    Super fine particles of calcium-doped lanthanum chromites were prepared by the sol-gel process in which the chelating agent was citric acid and the dispersant agent was ethylene glycol. The phase of fine particles was analyzed by XRD and the size and shape of the particles were investigated by TEM. The result shows that the nano-particles of La1-xCaxCrO3 can be obtained by the way of Ca2+ complex singly with citric acid and being calcined at 700 ℃.

  14. Ultraviolet Spectrum of Nanometer Zinc Oxide Prepared by Sol-Gel Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping Liang; Xiaohui Wang; Shaobo Xin; Yajin Liu

    2006-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanometer powders were prepared by the sol-gel process. The sol and the powders characteristic of absorbing ultraviolet light is detected by the ultraviolet spectrometer. The results indicate the concentration of zinc acetate dihydrate in isopropyl alcohol solution and the final pH value of the aqueous sol have effect on the UV absorption of the sol.The nanometer zinc oxide has strong absorption at 200 nm~360 nm, and over 90% ultraviolet in the range of 200 nm~360 nm wavelength are absorbed. The characteristic of absorbing ultraviolet light of zinc oxide increases as the particle size of zinc oxide decreases.

  15. Luminescence properties of Lu2O3: Tb film prepared by Pechini sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Siqing; Wang, Jian; Xu, Zhibin; Xie, Jianjun; Shi, Ying

    2011-02-01

    Uniform and crack free Tb3+ doped lutetium oxide (Lu2O3:Tb) films were prepared by Pechini sol-gel method combined with the spin-coating technique. The influence of the different substrate (monocrystalline silicon (111) and silica glass) and atmosphere (N2 and Air) on the luminescence properties of films was investigated. According to the emission spectra, we found that the luminous intensity was higher on silica glass substrate. Moreover, it was found that the luminous intensity calcined in N2 was higher almost twice as that calcined in air.

  16. Preparation and characterization of mesoporous lithium borosilicate material via the sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touati, F., E-mail: Fathi.Touati@fss.rnu.tn [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Tunis., Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieur de Tunis, 2 rue Jawaher Lel Nehru 1008 Montfleury-Tunis (Tunisia); Sediri, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Tunis., Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieur de Tunis, 2 rue Jawaher Lel Nehru 1008 Montfleury-Tunis (Tunisia); Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Universite Tunis-Elmanar, Tunis (Tunisia); Gharbi, N. [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Tunis., Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieur de Tunis, 2 rue Jawaher Lel Nehru 1008 Montfleury-Tunis (Tunisia)

    2009-05-05

    The lithium borosilicate gels were prepared from the cohydrolysis of the tetraehtylorthosilicate (Si(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}O){sub 4}) and triethylborate (B(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}O){sub 3}) by using an ethanolic solution of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) as surfactant. The Li{sup +} ions were introduced from an acidic solution of lithium carbonate (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}). Depending on the B/Si, Li/Si and TTAB/Si molar ratios at pH equal to 1 and at room temperature, monolithic and transparent colourless gels were obtained. The structure of the gel was investigated by infrared spectroscopy (IR), {sup 29}Si, {sup 11}B and {sup 7}Li solid-state magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) and by thermal analysis (DTA-TG). The results show the possibility of obtaining a borosilicate network via B-O-Si bonds in which Li{sup +} ions were dispersed. The adsorption-desorption isotherms of the xerogel were characteristic of mesoporous materials. These materials may provide a greater free volume through which conducting ions can move.

  17. Stability of capillary gels for automated sequencing of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, H; Dew-Jager, K E; Brady, K; Grey, R; Dovichi, N J; Gesteland, R

    1992-08-01

    Recent interest in capillary gel electrophoresis has been fueled by the Human Genome Project and other large-scale sequencing projects. Advances in gel polymerization techniques and detector design have enabled sequencing of DNA directly in capillaries. Efforts to exploit this technology have been hampered by problems with the reproducibility and stability of gels. Gel instability manifests itself during electrophoresis as a decrease in the current passing through the capillary under a constant voltage. Upon subsequent microscopic examination, bubbles are often visible at or near the injection (cathodic) end of the capillary gel. Gels have been prepared with the polyacrylamide matrix covalently attached to the silica walls of the capillary. These gels, although more stable, still suffer from problems with bubbles. The use of actual DNA sequencing samples also adversely affects gel stability. We examined the mechanisms underlying these disruptive processes by employing polyacrylamide gel-filled capillaries in which the gel was not attached to the capillary wall. Three sources of gel instability were identified. Bubbles occurring in the absence of sample introduction were attributed to electroosmotic force; replacing the denaturant urea with formamide was shown to reduce the frequency of these bubbles. The slow, steady decline in current through capillary sequencing gels interferes with the ability to detect other gel problems. This phenomenon was shown to be a result of ionic depletion at the gel-liquid interface. The decline was ameliorated by adding denaturant and acrylamide monomers to the buffer reservoirs. Sample-induced problems were shown to be due to the presence of template DNA; elimination of the template allowed sample loading to occur without complications.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Preparation and characterisation of novel thick sol-gel titania film photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Andrew; Elliott, Nicholas; Hill, George; Fallis, David; Durrant, James R; Willis, Richard L

    2003-05-01

    The preparation and characterization of thick (9 microns), clear, mechanically robust and photocatalytically active films of nanocrystalline anatase titania are described. XRD and SEM analysis show the films comprise 13 nm particles of anatase TiO2. Thin (54 nm) films of the 'paste' TiO2, along with sol-gel titania films made by a more traditional route are also prepared and characterised. All titania films mediate the photocatalytic destruction of stearic acid with a quantum yield of 0.0016 +/- 0.0003, using either 365 nm (i.e. BLB) or 254 nm (germicidal) light. P25 TiO2 films also appear to mediate the same process with a similar formal quantum efficiency. Of all the films tested, the thick paste TiO2 films are the most ideally suited for use with near UV light, for reasons which are discussed. All the titania films tested exhibit photoinduced superhydrophilicity.

  19. Sol-gel Preparation of CNT/ZnO Nanocomposite and Its Photocatalytic Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG, Xuejing; YAO, Shuwen; LI, Xiaobo

    2009-01-01

    Using carbon nanotubes (CNT) as templete, CNT/ZnO nanocomposite was prepared by a sol-gel method. Its structure was characterized by XRD, IR and TEM. The UV absorbing properties were detected by a UV spectro- photometer. Photo degradation of methyl red in aqueous solution was investigated by using CNT/ZnO nanocompo- site as photocatalyst. The results showed that the nanocomposite was composed of carbon nanotubes coated evenly by ZnO particles, with a diameter of 50-60 nm. UV-vis spectra indicated that the as-prepared CNT/ZnO nano- composite had absorption of visible light as well as ultraviolet light. 60% CNT-added nanocomposite had the high- est degradation rate for methyl red under the sunlight irradiation.

  20. C-ADU Gel Particle Preparation by Modified-External Gelation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyung Cha; Eom, Sung Ho; Cho, Cho Moon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Carbon black powder as a carbon source in the final UCO kernel is added during the broth solution preparation, in the processing of UCO kernel fabrication. The preparation of a good quality UCO kernel is very difficult owing to the homogeneous distribution of carbon in a UCO kernel. The key technology used to obtain a good quality sphere (sphericity, density, C/U, O/U ratios) is a uniform distribution of carbon particles into the C-ADU gel sphere, i.e., during the gelation step of liquid droplets formation before the thermal treatment. We carried out carbon source selection experiments on the various kinds of carbon black powder and a dispersion test in a simulated broth solution. The CB10 sample shows that the relative cumulative velocity and the velocity distribution density have the highest value. This is a Cabot Emperor 1800 CB particle.

  1. Surface treatment of nickel substrate for the preparation of BSCCO film through sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Huazhe, E-mail: hzyang@mail.cmu.edu.cn [Department of Biophysics, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Yu Xiaoming [Institute of Materials Physics and Chemistry, School of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Ji Yang [Stomatology Department of the General Hospital of Shenyang Military Area Command, Shenyang, 110840 (China); Qi Yang, E-mail: qiyang@imp.neu.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Physics and Chemistry, School of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2012-03-15

    A modified degreasing-oxidization process was devised and settled to treat the surface of nickel (Ni) substrates, and BSCCO films were prepared on the treated NiO/Ni substrates by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy were adopted to clarify the function of different treatment on phase formation and wettability of NiO/Ni substrates. Differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetry analysis were adopted to confirm the desirable heat treatment process. XRD and scanning electron microscopy were adopted to investigate the phase constituent and surface morphology of BSCCO films. Results demonstrate that both the surface wettability of the substrate to sol and the lattice matching between the substrate and BSCCO can be improved through the modified treatment, which are favorable for the preparation of BSCCO films.

  2. Sol-gel preparation and characterization of Co3O4 nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new citrate acid-hydrazine sol-gel route for preparation of Co3O4 nanoparticles has been developed. Co3O4 nanoparticles with different particle-sizes and morphology were prepared at different heat-treatment temperatures and the pure cubic nanocrystals of Co3O4 were obtained at 600℃. The synthesis process was monitored by infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). The structure and morphology of Co3O4 nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray-photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The infrared absorption bands blueshifted with particle size decreasing, which could be attributed to increasing surface effect. XPS results showed that predominant species at surface layers of Co3O4 nanocrystals are octahedral Co (Ⅲ).

  3. Photocatalytic Activity of Nanosized ZnWO4 Prepared by the Sol-gel Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yan; ZHANG Shi-cheng; ZHANG Li-wu; ZHU Yong-fa

    2007-01-01

    Nanosized ZnWO4 photocatalysts were successfully synthesized via the sol-gel process in a temperature range of 450-800 ℃. The grain size, crystal size, and crystallinity of ZnWO4 particles increased with the increase of calcination temperature and prolonging calcination time. The photocatalytic activity was measured for the degradation of an aqueous Rhodamine-B(RhB) solution and gaseous formaldehyde(FAD). With the increase of calcination temperature and time, the activities increased to a maximum and then decreased. ZnWO4 photocatalyst prepared at 550 ℃ for 10 h showed the highest activity, which is similar to the photocatalytic activity of P25TiO2 for the degradation of gaseous FAD. High crystallinity, large surface area, and good dispersion are responsible for the high photocatalytic performance of the prepared ZnWO4.

  4. A novel green nonaqueous sol-gel process for preparation of partially stabilized zirconia nanopowder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Feng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel green nonaqueous sol-gel process was developed to prepare 3 mol% Y2O3-doped ZrO2 nanopowder from zirconium oxychloride and without need for washing of the obtained particles. It was shown that highly dispersive nanometer-scale zirconia powder with the particle size of 15–25 nm and BET surface area of 41.2 m2/g can be prepared. The sintering behaviour was also investigated. Density of the translucent body sintered at 1400 °C is 98.7 ± 0.3% of its theoretical density and the surface and cross section areas are dense without holes or other defects. The bending strength of the sintered sample is 928 ± 64 MPa.

  5. Preparation, characterization, and biological properties of organic-inorganic nanocomposite coatings on titanium substrates prepared by sol-gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia; Papale, Ferdinando

    2014-02-01

    When surface-reactive (bioactive) coatings are applied to medical implants by means of the sol-gel dip-coating technique, the biological proprieties of the surface of the implant can be locally modified to match the properties of the surrounding tissues to provide a firm fixation of the implant. The aim of this study has been to synthesize, via sol-gel, organoinorganic nanoporous materials and to dip-coat a substrate to use in dental applications. Different systems have been prepared consisting of an inorganic zirconium-based matrix, in which a biodegradable polymer, the poly-ε-caprolactone was incorporated in different percentages. The materials synthesized by the sol-gel process, before gelation, when they were still in sol phase, have been used to coat a titanium grade 4 (Ti-4) substrate to change its surface biological properties. Thin films have been obtained by means of the dip-coating technique. A microstructural analysis of the obtained coatings was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The biological proprieties have been investigated by means of tests in vitro. The bone-bonding capability of the nanocomposite films has been evaluated by examining the appearance of apatite on their surface when plunged in a simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion concentrations nearly equal to those of human blood plasma. The examination of apatite formation on the nanocomposites, after immersion in SBF, has been carried out by SEM equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. To evaluate cells-materials interaction, human osteosarcoma cell line (Saos-2) has been seeded on specimens and cell vitality evaluated by WST-8 assay.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of thin solid films of silver doped hydroxyapatite prepared by sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Chapon, Patrick; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Predoi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp) thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with x(Ag) = 0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h.

  7. Antimicrobial Activity of Thin Solid Films of Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Liliana Iconaru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES. These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with xAg=0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h.

  8. Preparation of zirconia nanopowders in ultrasonic field by the sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaoxi; Chen Ling; Li Bing; Li Lin [Inst. of Light Industry and Chemical Engineering, South China Univ. of Technology, Guangzhou (China)

    2005-07-01

    Zirconia nanopowders were prepared in the ultrasonic field by the sol-gel method and the sonochemical effect on the structure of zirconium hydroxide and the zirconia nanopowder properties were systematically investigated in this work. Ultrasound was introduced into the different stages of the synthesis of zirconia nanopowders in sol-gel reaction system, and zirconium hydroxides and the zirconia nanopowders with different properties were obtained. The results indicated that ultrasonic cavitation could not only disaggregate the agglomerates of zirconia colloidal particles but also reduce the amount of coordinated H{sub 2}O, free H{sub 2}O and free hydroxyl groups of the zirconium hydroxide colloidal particles, thus effectively preventing the formation of hard agglomerates in zirconia powders. Moreover, the effects of different ultrasonic output powers and treatment cycles on the structure and properties of ZrO{sub 2} nanopowders were studied by TEM, XRD and SAXS. Zirconia nanopowders with an extremely small crystallite size (10.3 nm) and a narrow size distribution were yielded with 520 W ultrasound for 6 treatment cycles on the formation period and 600 W ultrasound for 2 treatment cycles on the washing period. It is concluded that the ultrasonic field is a potential method for nanopowder preparation. (orig.)

  9. Sol-gel prepared active ternary oxide coating on titanium in cathodic protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR V. PANIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of a ternary oxide coating, on titanium, which consisted of TiO2, RuO2 and IrO2 in the molar ratio 0.6:0.3:0.1, calculated on the metal atom, were investigated for potential application for cathodic protection in a seawater environment. The oxide coatings on titanium were prepared by the sol gel procedure from a mixture of inorganic oxide sols, which were obtained by forced hydrolysis of metal chlorides. The morphology of the coating was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of activated titanium anodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and polarization measurements in a H2SO4- and NaCl-containing electrolyte, as well as in seawater sampled on the Adriatic coast in Tivat, Montenegro. The anode stability during operation in seawater was investigated by the galvanostatic accelerated corrosion stability test. The morphology and electrochemical characteristics of the ternary coating are compared to that of a sol-gel-prepared binary Ti0.6Ru0.4O2 coating. The activity of the ternary coating was similar to that of the binary Ti0.6Ru0.4O2 coating in the investigated solutions. However, the corrosion stability in seawater is found to be considerably greater for the ternary coating.

  10. Citrate sol-gel combustion preparation and photoluminescence properties of YAG:Ce phosphors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Le; LU Zhou; ZHU Jinzhen; YANG Hao; HAN Pengde; CHEN Yan; ZHANG Qitu

    2012-01-01

    Yellow-emitting YAG:Ce3+ nanocrystalline phosphors were prepared by citrate sol-gel combustion method using citric acid as the fuel and chelating agent.The influence of mole ratio of citric acid to metallic ions (MRCM),pH value of the solution,calcination temperature and Ce-doped concentration on the structures and properties of as-prepared powders were investigated in detail.Higher crystallinity and better luminescence performance powders were obtained at MRCM=2,pH=3 and the calcination temperature of 1200 ℃.The phosphors exhibited the characteristic broadband visible luminescence of YAG:Ce.The optimum concentration of Ce3+ was 1.0 mol.%,and the concentration quenching was derived from the reciprocity between electric dipole and electric quadrupole (d-q).Especially,the pH value of the solution was a key factor to obtain a stable sol-gel system and then obtain pure and homogeneous rare earth ions doped YAG phosphors at a lower temperature.The Y3Al5O12:Ce0.03 phosphor with optimized synthesis-condition and composition had a similar luminescence intensity with the commercial phosphor YAG:Ce.

  11. Thermal stability of nanostructured titania and titania-ceria ceramic powders prepared by the sol-gel process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koebrugge, G.W.; Winnubst, A.J.A.; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    The preparation and characterisation of nanometre TiO2 powder materials, prepared by the sol-gel method, are described. Controlled hydrolysis of a titanium-2-methyl-2-butoxide precursor was applied to obtain alcosols with particles (in alcohol) smaller than 5 nm. Powders obtained from this sol were

  12. Preparation and performance of photocatalytic regenerationable activated carbon prepared via sol-gel TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shou-xin; SUN Cheng-lin

    2006-01-01

    Preparation ofphotocatalytic regenerationable activated carbon (AC) is the key step for the practical application of in situ regeneration of exhausted AC. A novel photocatalytic regenerationable AC was prepared by sol-gel TiO2 in this work. The adsorption and regeneration performance of TiO2/AC were evaluated using phenol as model compound. Scanning electron microscope (SEM)and nitrogen (77 K) adsorption isotherm were used to determine the surface area, pore structure and the distribution of TiO2. The results showed that with the increase of TiO2 loading, adsorption capacity of TiO2/AC decreased and the regeneration efficiency increased. The photocatalytic regenerationable AC with suitable TiO2 loading (2 wt%) exhibited suitable adsorption capacity and regeneration efficiency. TiO2 located mainly in the entrance of macro-pore of carbon. The prepared TiO2/AC exhibited similar surface structure and pore structure with material carbon.

  13. Sol-gels with fiber-optic chemical sensor potential: Effects of preparation, aging, and long-term storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badini, G. E.; Grattan, K. T. V.; Tseung, A. C. C.

    1995-08-01

    The features of sol-gels, incorporating pH-sensitive dyes, designed as potential substrates for fiber-optic chemical sensors, have been investigated in terms of a variety of characteristics resulting from the preparation methods used and following the storage of samples for a period of several years. These materials, organically doped sol-gels, have been used as the heart of a number of prototype chemical sensing instruments, and a key issue in their effective use in instrumentation is their long-term durability and stability. In this work, it has been shown that such aged gel substrates can withstand immersion in water, drying, and reimmersion without fragmenting. Such impregnated gels were shown to still exhibit strong fluorescence, although some changes to the gel structure, determined from microhardness measurements, were observed and reported, reflecting their potential for use in chemically sensitive fiber optic-based instruments.

  14. Comparative Studies on Preparation of Large Plant DNA Fragments by Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jiliang(杨继良); Wang Qinghua(王庆华); Deng Daiyong; Yang Dianer; Jin Demin; Weng Manli; Zhang Juren; Wang Bin

    2004-01-01

    The preparation of large plant DNA fragments is extremely important to the construction of large insert DNA libraries (YAC, BAC, PAC and TAC). Although several techniques have been developed in each step of large plant DNA fragments preparation, the whole processing remains complicated and difficult. Based on authors research experience and the recent worldwide development in this field, the following aspects are discussed in this paper: techniques of plant high molecular weight (HMW) DNA purification by pre-electrophoresis, the optimal conditions for the partial digestion of the HMW DNA by HindIII, the isolation effects of of large plant DNA fragments (100~400 kb) with different parameters of pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the recovery of large DNA fragments. Through comparative studies, the advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed and some recommendations are proposed for preparing high quality large plant DNA fragments. The suggested techniques have been used in preparing the large DNA fragments of maize, rice, moss, laver, sea tangle and peach,and similar results are obtained among all the materials. This paper only reports the results using maize as material.

  15. Mullite long fibres prepared by sol-gel method using water solvent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, K.; Yasohama, S.; Hayashi, S.; Yasumori, A. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Inorganic Materials

    1997-12-31

    Mullite long fibres, which are a candidate for high temperature applications were prepared by sol-gel method from water solvent systems. They were synthesized from three different combinations of raw materials as follows: (1):Al(O{sub 1}C{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 3}, Al-nitrate and Si(OC{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4} (TEOS), (2):Al metal, Al-chloride and TEOS, (3):Al metal, Al-nitrate and TEOS. In the methods (1) and (2), very fine SiO{sub 2} aerosol particles were also used partially replacing TEOS. The prepared solutions were condensed and examined the spinability by a hand drawing method. Dense and crack free mullite fibres were prepared from the methods (1) and (3) by firing up to 1100 C. Whereas the fibres prepared from the method (2) were less SiO{sub 2} than mullite composition and were porous by the firing due to evaporation of residual Cl ions at high temperature. (orig.) 10 refs.

  16. Preparation of demipermanent and semipermanent hair dyes gels from ethanol extract of Caesalpinia sappan L. using carbomer as gelling agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawati, T.; Syahrin, A.; Irpan

    2017-07-01

    Caesalpinia sappan L. (Cs L) contains of essential oils, saponin, brazilin, brazilein, alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins that have a function as cationic natural dyes. The aim of this research was to prepare the ethanol extract of Cs L wood and to prepare demi-permanent and semi-permanent of hair dye gels by using Carbomer of 2 % and 1.5 % as gelling agent and Cs L extract as cationic dyes. The Extract of Cs L was macerated by using ethanol of 96 % as the solvent, and then thickened. Three formula of demi-permanent hair dye gels were made by using Cs L extract of 3 %, 6% and 9 %. Three formula of semi-permanent hair dye gels were made by using Cs L extract of 2.50 %, 7.00 % and 10.50 %. Those hair dyes gels were prepared by swelling and mixing methods. All products of hair dyes gels were evaluated with organoleptic test, homogeneity test, pH test, consistency test, rheological properties test and dyeing effect test. The demi-permanent hair dye gels products had brown to brown dark black colors, pH of 5.05-5.43, homogeny, specific Cs L odor, and had pseudoplastic thixotropic flow characteristic. The semi-permanent hair dye gels products had red color pH of 6.5-6.25, homogeny, Cs L odor, and have pseudoplastic thixotropic flow characteristics. The optimum formula of demi-permanent was formula gel that contained of 6 % extract of Cs L and the optimum formula of permanent hair dyes gel was formula that contained of 10.50 % extract of Cs L.

  17. Formulation and Performance of Novel Energetic Nanocomposites and Gas Generators Prepared by Sol-Gel Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapsaddle, B J; Zhao, L; Prentice, D; Pantoya, M L; Gash, A E; Satcher Jr., J H; Shea, K J; Simpson, R L

    2005-03-24

    In the field of composite energetic materials, properties such as ingredient distribution, particle size, and morphology affect both sensitivity and performance. Since the reaction kinetics of composite energetic materials are typically controlled by the mass transport rates between reactants, one would anticipate new and potentially exceptional performance from energetic nanocomposites. We have developed a new method of making nanostructured energetic materials, specifically explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, using sol-gel chemistry. A novel sol-gel approach has proven successful in preparing nanostructured metal oxide materials. By introducing a fuel metal, such as aluminum, into the nanostructured metal oxide matrix, energetic materials based on thermite reactions can be fabricated. Two of the metal oxides are tungsten trioxide and iron(III) oxide, both of which are of interest in the field of energetic materials. Due to the versatility of the preparation method, binary oxidizing phases can also be prepared, thus enabling a potential means of controlling the energetic properties of the subsequent nanocomposites. Furthermore, organic additives can also be easily introduced into the nanocomposites for the production of nanostructured gas generators. The resulting nanoscale distribution of all the ingredients displays energetic properties not seen in its micro-scale counterparts due to the expected increase of mass transport rates between the reactants. The unique synthesis methodology, formulations, and performance of these materials will be presented. The degree of control over the burning rate of these nanocomposites afforded by the compositional variation of a binary oxidizing phase will also be discussed. These energetic nanocomposites have the potential for releasing controlled amounts of energy at a controlled rate. Due to the versatility of the synthesis method, a large number of compositions and physical properties can be achieved, resulting in

  18. Preparation of ion-activated in situ gel systems of scopolamine hydrobromide and evaluation of its antimotion sickness efficacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-lei CAO; Qi-zhi ZHANG; Xin-guo JIANG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To develop a novel, in situ gel system for nasal delivery of scopolamine hydrohromide (SCOP) and study its efficacy on motion sickness. Methods: SCOP in situ gels at 0.2%, 0.5%, and 1.0% gellan gum concentration (w/v) were prepared,respectively, and characterized in terms of viscosity, in vitro release, and nasal ciliotoxicity. Single photon emission computing tomography technique was used to evaluate the nasal residence time of gel containing 99mTc tracer. The antimotion sickness efficacy produced by the in situ gel formulation was investigated in rats and compared with those achieved after subcutaneous and oral administration.Results: The viscosity of the gellan gum formulations either in solution or in gel increased with increasing concentrations of gellan gum. Its release in vitro was moderate in artificial nasal fluid. The micrographic results showed that in situ gels were safe, without nasal ciliotoxicity. In comparison with phosphate buffer saline,a prolonged radioactivity of 99mTc in the rabbit nasal cavity was observed after administration of the gellan gum formulation. Intranasal SCOP in situ gel at a dose of 100 μg/kg decreased symptoms of motion sickness significantly in comparison with subcutaneous and oral administration (P<0.01). Conclusion: SCOP nasal in situ gel is a safe and promising therapeutic alternative to existing medications for motion sickness.

  19. Novel hydrophobically associative polyacrylamide with tunable viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Feng Zhang; Wen Hui Wu

    2009-01-01

    Hydrophobically associative polyacrylamide (HAPAM) were prepared in aqueous solution by radical copolymerization of novel cationic surface-active monomer, dimethylhexadecyl(3-acrylamidopropyl)ammonium bromide (DMHAB), with acrylarnide (AM) in the presence of DMHAB/CTAB mixed micelles. The length of hydrophobic microblock (N_H) in HAPAM is controlled by the molar fraction of DMHAB in mixed micelles, which can be mediated by the ratio of CTAB to DMHAB. The results of steady-state fluorescence probe and viscometry experiments showed the ability of HAPAM association was determined by the length of the hydrophobic microblock. HAPAM with tunable association ability are promising materials for thickening agent.

  20. Pickering Emulsion Gels Prepared by Hydrogen-Bonded Zein/Tannic Acid Complex Colloidal Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan; Guo, Jian; Yin, Shou-Wei; Wang, Jin-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2015-08-26

    Food-grade colloidal particles and complexes, which are formed via modulation of the noncovalent interactions between macromolecules and natural small molecules, can be developed as novel functional ingredients in a safe and sustainable way. For this study was prepared a novel zein/tannic acid (TA) complex colloidal particle (ZTP) based on the hydrogen-bonding interaction between zein and TA in aqueous ethanol solution by using a simple antisolvent approach. Pickering emulsion gels with high oil volume fraction (φ(oil) > 50%) were successfully fabricated via one-step homogenization. Circular dichroism (CD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements, which were used to characterize the structure of zein/TA complexes in ethanol solution, clearly showed that TA binding generated a conformational change of zein without altering their supramolecular structure at pH 5.0 and intermediate TA concentrations. Consequently, the resultant ZTP had tuned near neutral wettability (θ(ow) ∼ 86°) and enhanced interfacial reactivity, but without significantly decreased surface charge. These allowed the ZTP to stabilize the oil droplets and further triggered cross-linking to form a continuous network among and around the oil droplets and protein particles, leading to the formation of stable Pickering emulsion gels. Layer-by-layer (LbL) interfacial architecture on the oil-water surface of the droplets was observed, which implied a possibility to fabricate hierarchical interface microstructure via modulation of the noncovalent interaction between hydrophobic protein and natural polyphenol.

  1. Ferroelectric-Like Properties of Amorphous Metal Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuhuan

    1995-01-01

    Advances in the field of both optical and electrical integrated circuit devices require new thin film materials. Ferroelectric materials have attractive properties such as hysteresis behavior, pyroelectricity, piezoelectricity and nonlinear optical properties. Many ferroelectric thin films have been successfully prepared from metal organic compounds via sol-gel processing. Thus far, research has concentrated upon polycrystalline or epitaxial ferroelectric films. For amorphous ferroelectric thin films, preliminary experimental results in our laboratory indicated that these amorphous films possessed good ferroelectric -like properties. The purpose of this research is (1) to fabricate amorphous metal oxide thin films by the sol-gel technique, (2) to determine whether these amorphous metal oxide thin films have ferroelectric-like properties and (3) to propose a theoretical model ("ferrons model") to explain the ferroelectric-like properties of amorphous thin films, which deals with a structure of permanent dipoles of "partially ordered clusters" (ferrons) in the amorphous films. The theoretical model is based on our experimental results of thin films of two amorphous materials (barium titanite and lead zirconate titanate). This research may provide a new functional material which could be useful for producing integrated electronic and electrooptic devices.

  2. Preparation of calcium fluoroaluminosilicate glasses containing sodium and phosphorus by the nonhydrolytic sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cestari, Alexandre; Bandeira, Lucimara C.; Calefi, Paulo S. [Universidade de Franca, Av. Dr. Armando Salles Oliveira 201, Pq. Universitario, 14404-600 Franca, SP (Brazil); Nassar, Eduardo J. [Universidade de Franca, Av. Dr. Armando Salles Oliveira 201, Pq. Universitario, 14404-600 Franca, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: ejnassar@unifran.br; Ciuffi, Katia J. [Universidade de Franca, Av. Dr. Armando Salles Oliveira 201, Pq. Universitario, 14404-600 Franca, SP (Brazil)

    2009-03-20

    Aluminum and silicon oxide-based inorganic matrices have been extensively studied because of their countless applications. Dental cements consist of aluminum and silicon-based amorphous polymeric materials containing fluoride, sodium, phosphorus and calcium, which are also good candidates for bone replacement. The nonhydrolytic sol-gel method has emerged as an alternative route for the preparation of these materials under milder conditions than those employed in traditional methods, such as oxide fusion. The main advantages of the nonhydrolytic sol-gel method include the use of low temperatures and the ready availability and easy purification of the precursors. Together, these factors have contributed to the production of highly pure materials with controlled porosity and nanometric particles. Dental restorations based on aluminosilicate matrices are known as glass ionomer cements. These materials have interesting physical and dental properties, mainly because they display anticariogenic activity and exhibit prolonged adhesiveness to the dental structure. The base of the ionomer is an aluminosilicate that is industrially synthesized by the fusion of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, AlF{sub 3}, CaF{sub 2}, NaF and AlPO{sub 4}, in various concentrations. The characterizations conducted in this study reveal that this ionomer displays interesting properties, so its use as a precursor of dental cement and a biomaterial for bone replacement is highly recommended.

  3. Molecularly imprinted polymer for 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid prepared by a sol-gel method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yanli Sun

    2014-07-01

    Based on a sol-gel procedure, a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) was synthesized, using phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMOS), aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as monomers and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as cross-linking agent. In addition to the amount of the template, some factors in the sol-gel process: TEOS/APTES/PTMOS molar ratio, H2O/Si molar ratio, CH3CH2OH/Si molar ratio, etc. were investigated in detail. Results show that the optimum conditions for the preparation of the MIPs were 20:1.5:1 (TEOS: APTES: PTMOS), ca. 4 (H2O/Si), ca. 4 (CH3CH2OH/Si), respectively. Effects of various parameters involved in the adsorption process of 2, 4-D on MIP such as incubation time, pH, etc. were also evaluated. It is found that the adsorption attained equilibrium within 3 h, the optimum pH for adsorption was about 7 and the adsorption obeyed Langmuir model. Test results also demonstrated that the present MIP for 2, 4-D had large adsorption capacity (the maximum adsorption concluded from Langmuir model reached 243.3 mg/g) and good selectivity.

  4. Characterizations of maghemite thin films prepared by a sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, L. N., E-mail: lau7798@gmail.com; Ibrahim, N. B., E-mail: baayah@ukm.edu.my [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor. Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Iron is one of the abundant elements of Mother Nature and its compound, iron oxide is an interesting material to study since its discovery in the form of magnetite. It can exist in many phases such as hematite and maghemite, this unique nature has put it as a potential candidate in various applications. The aim of this work is to study the influence of different precursor concentrations on the microstructural and magnetic properties of iron oxide thin film. All samples were prepared via the sol-gel method followed by a spin coating technique on quartz substrates. Iron oxide films were confirmed as maghemite phase from X-ray diffraction patterns. The film morphology was examined by a field emission scanning electron microscope and it showed non-systematic value of average grain size and film thickness throughout the study. Hysteresis loop further confirmed that maghemite is a magnetic material when it was characterized by a vibrating sample magnetometer. The coercivity did not show any correlation with molarity. Nevertheless, it increased as the precursor concentration of the film increased due to the domain behaviour. In conclusion, maghemite thin films were successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method with different precursor concentrations in this work.

  5. Nanostructured zirconium titanate fibers prepared by particulate sol–gel and cellulose templating techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouhani, P. [Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Oklahoma State University, OK 74106 (United States); Salahinejad, E. [Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, School of Material Science and Engineering, Oklahoma State University, OK 74106 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Zand Blvd., 7134851154 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kaul, R. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Center for Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, OK 74107 (United States); Vashaee, D. [Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Oklahoma State University, OK 74106 (United States); Tayebi, L., E-mail: lobat.tayebi@okstate.edu [Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, School of Material Science and Engineering, Oklahoma State University, OK 74106 (United States); School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •A method to produce zirconium titanate fibers was introduced. •The resultant structure and photocatalytic activity of the fiber were investigated. •The fiber exhibited higher photocatalytic characteristics, compared with the powders. -- Abstract: In this paper, a method for cost-effective production of nanostructured zirconium titanate (ZrTiO{sub 4}) fibers is introduced. In this method, ZrTiO{sub 4} fibers were synthesized by a sol–gel technique using cellulose fibers as the template. The resultant structures were studied by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analyses. The photocatalytic activity of the fiber was compared to that of ZrTiO{sub 4} powders prepared by the same sol–gel method, in dark and under UVA and UVC radiations. According to the results, after calcination accompanied by the template removal, the ZrTiO{sub 4} fiber consists of uniformly-deposited, crystalline nanoparticles. This nanostructured fiber exhibited a higher surface area and a higher porosity compared with the ZrTiO{sub 4} powders, resulting in considerably higher photocatalytic characteristics, as confirmed by the experiment. The large surface area and the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the ZrTiO{sub 4} fibers also offer applications in sensors and bioactive films.

  6. PREPARATION OF STAR NETWORK PEG-BASED GEL POLYMER ELECTROLYTES FOR ELECTROCHROMIC DEVICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An amorphous,colorless,and highly transparent star network polymer with a pentaerythritol core linking four PEG-block polymeric arms was synthesized from the poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG),pentaerythritol,and dichloromethane by Williamson reaction.FTIR and 1H-NMR measurement demonstrated that the polymer repeating units were C[CH2-OCH2O-(CH2CH2O)m-CH2O-(CH2CH2O)n-CH2O]4.The polymer host held well mechanical properties for pentaerythritol cross-linking.The gel polymer electrolytes based on Lithium perchlorate(LiClO4)and ethylene carbonate/propylene carbonate(EC/PC)were prepared and characterized by AC impedance spectroscopy and thermogravimetry(TG),the results showed thermal stability up to at least 150℃ and ionic conductivity reaching 8.83×fabricated by transparent PET-ITO and electrochromic active viologen derivative films,and its excellent performance promised the usage of the gel polymer electrolytes as ionic conductor material in ECD.

  7. Preparation and Application of Nano-composite Poly(vinyl alcohol) Gel Electrolyte in Electrochemical Capacitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈赟; 谭强强; 徐宇兴

    2012-01-01

    A nano-composite polymer gel electrolyte was prepared using titanium oxide nanowire,poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA),lithium salt and organic solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP).The obtained electrolyte has the potential for application in electrochemical capacitor,the PVA in it is in an amorphous state.The ionic conductivities of electrolytes increased after addition of the nanowire,and the electrolyte with 3%(ω) of nanowire exhibited the highest ionic conductivity of 3.2 mS/cm at 20 ℃,as measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.The temperature dependence of the conductivity was found to be in agreement with the Arrhenius equation.Functioning as separator and electrolyte,this nano-composite PVA gel electrolyte was used to assemble the electrochemical capacitor with active carbon film as electrodes.The compositing of nanowire may extend the life of electrochemical capacitors as they keep more than 90% of their capacitance after 5 000 cycles of charging and discharging.

  8. Sol-gel Process in Preparation of Organic-inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macan, J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid materials are a sort of nanostructured material in which the organic and inorganic phases are mixed at molecular level. The inorganic phase in hybrid materials is formed by the sol-gel process, which consists of reactions of hydrolysis and condensation of metal (usually silicon alkoxides. Flexibility of sol-gel process enables creation of hybrid materials with varying organic and inorganic phases in different ratios, and consequently fine-tuning of their properties. In order to obtain true hybrid materials, contact between the phases should be at molecular level, so phase separation between thermodynamically incompatible organic and inorganic phases has to be prevented. Phase interaction can be improved by formation of hydrogen or covalent bonds between them during preparation of hybrid materials. Covalent bond can be introduced by organically modified silicon alkoxides containing a reactive organic group (substituent capable of reacting with the organic phase. In order to obtain hybrid materials with desired structures, a detailed knowledge of hydrolysis and condensation mechanism is necessary. The choice of catalyst, whether acid or base, has the most significant influence on the structure of the inorganic phase. Other important parameters are alkoxide concentration, water: alkoxide ratio, type of alkoxide groups, solvent used, temperature, purity of chemicals used, etc. Hydrolysis and condensation of organically modified silicon alkoxides are additionally influenced by nature and size of the organic supstituent.

  9. Preparation and characterization of nano-hydroxyapatite powder using sol–gel technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K P Sanosh; Min-Cheol Chu; A Balakrishnan; T N Kim; Seong-Jai Cho

    2009-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) nano powders (20–60 nm) were synthesized using a sol–gel route with calcium nitrate and phosphoric acid as calcium and phosphorus precursors, respectively. Double distilled water was used as a diluting media for HA sol preparation and ammonia was used to adjust the pH. After aging, the HA gel was dried at 65°C and calcined to different temperatures ranging from 200–800°C. The dried and calcined powders were characterized for phase composition using X-ray diffractometry, elemental dispersive X-ray and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. The particle size and morphology were studied using transmission electron microscopy. Calcination revealed HA nano powders of increased particle size and crystallinity with increase in temperature. For all calcinations temperatures, the particle size distribution analysis of HA powders showed skewed distribution plot. At temperature of 700°C and above, formation of CaO was noticed which was attributed to phosphorous volatilization. This study showed that high purity HA with varying degrees of crystallinity could be obtained using this simple technique.

  10. Partial Oxidation of n-Butane over a Sol-Gel Prepared Vanadium Phosphorous Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Salazar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium phosphorous oxide (VPO is traditionally manufactured from solid vanadium oxides by synthesizing VOHPO4∙0.5H2O (the precursor followed by in situ activation to produce (VO2P2O7 (the active phase. This paper discusses an alternative synthesis method based on sol-gel techniques. Vanadium (V triisopropoxide oxide was reacted with ortho-phosphoric acid in an aprotic solvent. The products were dried at high pressure in an autoclave with a controlled excess of solvent. This procedure produced a gel of VOPO4 with interlayer entrapped molecules. The surface area of the obtained materials was between 50 and 120 m2/g. Alcohol produced by the alkoxide hydrolysis reduced the vanadium during the drying step, thus VOPO4 was converted to the precursor. This procedure yielded non-agglomerated platelets, which were dehydrated and evaluated in a butane-air mixture. Catalysts were significantly more selective than the traditionally prepared materials with similar intrinsic activity. It is suggested that the small crystallite size obtained increased their selectivity towards maleic anhydride.

  11. Preparation of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by sol-gel method with optimum processing parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusoff, Yusriha Mohd; Salimi, Midhat Nabil Ahmad; Anuar, Adilah [Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kompleks Pusat Pengajian Jejawi 3, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Many studies have been carried out in order to prepare hydroxyapatite (HAp) by various methods. In this study, we focused on the preparation of HAp nanoparticles by using sol-gel technique in which few parameters are optimized which were stirring rate, aging time and sintering temperature. HAp nanoparticles were prepared by using precursors of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate, Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O and phosphorous pentoxide, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Both precursors are mixed in ethanol respectively before they were mixed together in which it formed a stable sol. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for its characterization in terms of functional group, phase composition, crystallite size and morphology of the nanoparticles produced. FTIR spectra showed that the functional groups that present in all five samples were corresponding to the formation of HAp. Besides, XRD shows that only one phase was formed which was hydroxyapatite. Meanwhile, SEM shows that the small particles combine together to form agglomeration.

  12. Application of preparative disk gel electrophoresis for antigen purification from inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okegawa, Yuki; Koshino, Masanori; Okushima, Teruya; Motohashi, Ken

    2016-02-01

    Specific antibodies are a reliable tool to examine protein expression patterns and to determine the protein localizations within cells. Generally, recombinant proteins are used as antigens for specific antibody production. However, recombinant proteins from mammals and plants are often overexpressed as insoluble inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. Solubilization of these inclusion bodies is desirable because soluble antigens are more suitable for injection into animals to be immunized. Furthermore, highly purified proteins are also required for specific antibody production. Plastidic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase: EC 6.4.1.2) from Arabidopsis thaliana, which catalyzes the formation of malonyl-CoA from acetyl-CoA in chloroplasts, formed inclusion bodies when the recombinant protein was overexpressed in E. coli. To obtain the purified protein to use as an antigen, we applied preparative disk gel electrophoresis for protein purification from inclusion bodies. This method is suitable for antigen preparation from inclusion bodies because the purified protein is recovered as a soluble fraction in electrode running buffer containing 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate that can be directly injected into immune animals, and it can be used for large-scale antigen preparation (several tens of milligrams).

  13. Preparation of Nanometer-structured TiO2 Thin Films by Sol-Gel Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Feng; LI Qian-tao; HU Wang-kai; DENG Tao

    2002-01-01

    The transparent anatase TiO2 nanometer thin films were prepared by the sol-gel method on soda-lime glass. X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and UV-visible spectrophotometer were used to analyze the formation of the phases. Only increasing the heat-treatment time, the average grain size has no obvious change. The mechanism of grain growth in TiO2 thin film is probably as follows: the grain of coating will become grain core later; TiO2 sol constantly deposited on the surface of TiO2 grain and formed membrane with increasing of coating cycle times; TiO2 grain in the film grow steadily.

  14. Erbium-activated silica-zirconia planar waveguides prepared by sol-gel route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Rogeria R. [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo-Av., Bandeirantes 3900, cep 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)], E-mail: rrgoncalves@ffclrp.usp.br; Messaddeq, Younes [Instituto de Quimica, UNESP-Rua Prof. Francisco Degni, s/n, Quitandinha, cep 14800-900 Araraquara-SP (Brazil); Chiasera, Alessandro; Jestin, Yoann; Ferrari, Maurizio [CNR-IFN, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CSMFO group, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Ribeiro, Sidney J.L. [Instituto de Quimica, UNESP-Rua Prof. Francisco Degni, s/n, Quitandinha, cep 14800-900 Araraquara-SP (Brazil)

    2008-03-31

    Er{sup 3+} doped (100 - x)SiO{sub 2} - xZrO{sub 2} planar waveguides were prepared by the sol-gel route, with x ranging from 10 up to 30 mol%. Multilayer films doped with 0.3 mol% Er{sup 3+} ions were deposited on fused quartz substrates by the dip-coating technique. The thickness and refractive index were measured by m-line spectroscopy at different wavelengths. The fabrication protocol was optimized in order to confine one propagating mode at 1.5 {mu}m. Photoluminescence in the near and visible region indicated a crystalline local environment for the Er{sup 3+} ion.

  15. Study on UV Shielding TiO2 Thin Film Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shihai Zhao; Xiaohui Wang; Shaobo Xin; Qiang Jiang; Xiaoping Liang

    2006-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were prepared on microscopes slides by sol-gel and dip-coating processes from specially formulated sols. The results show that there exists anatase and rutile structure of TiO2 when heat treatment temperature is 450℃, and at 800℃, TiO2 particle size is of below 100 nm and rutile structure is presented. In the range of 360 nm~400 nm the transmittance of TiO2 sol increases with the increasing of the concentration of Ti(OC4H9)4 in ethanol solution.The transmittance of TiO2 films with various number of the layer is measured to be 0% below 320 nm, and the three-layer TiO2 film is of the best UV resistance in the range of 320 nm~400 nm.

  16. TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared by sol - gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suciu, R C; Indrea, E; Silipas, T D; Dreve, S; Rosu, M C [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Popescu, V; Popescu, G; Nascu, H I, E-mail: ramona.suciu@itim-cj.r [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Physics Department, 15 C Daicoviciu, 400020 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    There is a growing awareness that titania (TiO{sub 2}) and TiO{sub 2}-based oxide systems are the most promising candidates for the development of photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) for solar-hydrogen production. The PEC is equipped with a single photoelectrode (photoanode) and cathode, both of which are immersed in an aqueous electrolyte. In this work we present a sol-gel method to prepare TiO{sub 2} thin films on ITO using tetraisopropoxides of titanium, acetylacetone, 1-butanol and Tween 80 as surfactant. The films were deposited on ITO coated glass slides by spray pyrolysis. UV-VIS spectra and fluorescence measurements were made for the solutions and films. X-ray diffraction was used for structural investigations and the morphology of the film was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy.

  17. TiO2 thin films prepared by sol - gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, R. C.; Indrea, E.; Silipas, T. D.; Dreve, S.; Rosu, M. C.; Popescu, V.; Popescu, G.; Nascu, H. I.

    2009-08-01

    There is a growing awareness that titania (TiO2) and TiO2-based oxide systems are the most promising candidates for the development of photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) for solar-hydrogen production [1]. The PEC is equipped with a single photoelectrode (photoanode) and cathode, both of which are immersed in an aqueous electrolyte. In this work we present a sol-gel method to prepare TiO2 thin films on ITO using tetraisopropoxides of titanium, acetylacetone, 1-butanol and Tween 80 as surfactant. The films were deposited on ITO coated glass slides by spray pyrolysis. UV-VIS spectra and fluorescence measurements were made for the solutions and films. X-ray diffraction was used for structural investigations and the morphology of the film was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy.

  18. Preparation of Ag-doped TiO2 Thin Film by Sol-gel Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Ag-TiO2 thin film has been prepared on glass substrate by sol-gel process. The structure and properties of the materials were studied by DTA, XRD, and EPR.The photocatalytic activity was examined by the photocatalytic degradation of dichlorophos. The analysis results indicate that the photocatalytic activity of the Ag-TiO2 thin film is higher than that of pure TiO2 thin film. It is also influenced by the content of anatase and heating temperature. The ESR result shows that the Ag-TiO2 thin film has more hydroxide radicals than pure TiO2 thin film after illuminated by UV light.

  19. Study of optical characteristics of tin oxide thin film prepared by sol–gel method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumanta Kumar Tripathy; Bhabani Prasad Hota; P V Rajeswari

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present details of preparation of tin oxide (SnO2) thin film by sol–gel process. The film was synthesized on a glass (Corning 7059) plate by dip coating method. Here, we used tin (II) chloride as precursor and methanol as solvent. Optical characteristics and physical properties like refractive index, absorption coefficient and thickness of thin film were calculated from the study of transmission spectrum (wavelength vs transmission curve) data given by UV/VIS Spectrophotometer. Effect of number of coatings on transmittance and refractive index was also examined. It was observed that refractive index decreases with the number of coating and transmission value was more than 80% at wavelength greater than 450 nm in all cases. Structural analysis was studied by XRD measurement by using diffractometer which confirms tetragonal rutile structure of SnO2. Surface morphology was analysed from SEM micrograph and change in morphology on number of coat was discussed.

  20. Upconversion properties of Y2O3:Er films prepared by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Yanmin; GUO Hai

    2009-01-01

    Y2O3:Er3+ films were prepared by a simple sol-gel process. The structural properties of Y2O3:Er3+ flints were characterized with X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the Y2O3:Er3+ f'rims might have high upconversion efficiency because of their low vibrational energy. Under 785 and 980 nm laser excitation, the samples showed green (2H11/2→4I15/2, 4S3/2→4I15/2) and red (4F9/2→4I15/2) upconversion emissions. The upconversion mechanisms were stud-led in detail through laser power dependence. Excited state absorption and energy transfer process were discussed as possible upconversion mechanisms. The cross relaxation process in Er3+ was also investigated.

  1. Microstructural and optical properties of CuS nanoparticles prepared by sol–gel route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Riyaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the synthesis of CuS nanoparticles using sol–gel route in the presence of distilled water at 100 °C for 3 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS, and scanning electron microscope (SEM techniques were employed to study the microstructural properties of the prepared sample. Crystallite size was determined by Debye–Scherrer formula and was found to be 17.73 nm. The EDS spectrum shows a clear peak of Cu and S elements. SEM images show the morphology of the CuS nanostructures. Optical analyses were done by UV–visible and Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR techniques. The band gap was calculated by Tauc relation and came out to be 2.89 eV.

  2. Photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of ZnO powders prepared via sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerachai Sangchay

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on synthesis of ZnO powders via sol-gel method. The prepared powders were calcined at the temperature of 300, 500 and 700°C for 1 h with the heating rate of 10°C/min. The microstructures of the fabricated powders were characterized by SEM and XRD techniques, and the results show that all samples were the agglomeration and spherical shape and reveal only the wurtzite phase. The photocatalytic activities of the powders were also tested via the degradation of methylene blue (MB solution under UV irradiation. Finally, antibacterial activity efficiency was evaluated by the inactivation of E. coli. It was observed that higher calcined at the temperature gives better photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. With the highest calcined at the temperature investigated in this experiment (T700 condition the powders show photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of 80.06 and 99.00%, respectively.

  3. Preparation of PDMS-coated microspheres by sol-gel method for sorptive extraction of PAHs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Guang Yang; Xiang Juan Ji; Xiao Zheng Lan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel SPME mode, PDMS-coated solid glass microspheres (SGMs), were prepared by sol-gel method. Using homemade thermal desorption unit coupled with CGC-FID, six PAHs as model analytes, the performance of the new mode was characterized. The new extractive phase exhibited high thermal stability and satisfactory extraction capability. The detection limits were 0.01-0.045 ng/mL, and the linearity was from 0.5 ng/mL to 96 ng/mL. The R.S.D.s of repeatability for retention time and peak area were all within 0.074% and 6.7%, respectively. The recoveries of the PAHs were 78-127% from the sarnples taken from river water.

  4. PREPARATION OF POLYSULFONAMIDE/TiO2 NANOCOMPOSITES BY SOL-GEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaopeng; WANG Weitao; MA Ji; DENG Jie; LIU Li

    2006-01-01

    Polysulfonamide (PSA) was synthesized at room temperature, the polymerization based on terephthaloyl chloride and 3,3 '-diaminodiphenylsulfone in the common solvent N,N -Dimethyl-acetamide (DMAc). Polysulfonamide/titanium oxide nanocomposites were prepared by sol-gel method. Tetrabutyl titanate(TBT) was added into the polysulfonamide solution, at the same time ,some water was mixed to make the TBT hydrolyze. In the process, hydrochloric acid was used to catalyze the reaction. The polysulfonamide chemistry structure was characterized by FT-IR spectrum. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to observe the microstructure of the composite film. The thermal property was investigated by TGA.The results show that we have succeeded to synthesize the polysulfonamide, TiO2particles were well distributed in the composite film and average size was about 20 nm on average, the heat-resistance of nanocomposite was batter than the pure polysulfonamide.

  5. Fabrication and properties of nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin film prepared by sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumetha Suwanboon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO thin films were prepared on glass substrate by sol-gel dip-coating method. The structural properties were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD method and atomic force microscope (AFM. The optical properties were measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The XRD patterns showed that the films formed preferred orientation along c-axis which increased as a function of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP concentration. The films gave the crystallite size of 15-18 nm calculated by Scherrer’s formula and grain size of 48-70 nm measured by AFM at different PVP concentrations. The direct optical band gap of the films was in the range of 3.80-4.08 eV.

  6. Preparation of Rare Earth Doped Alumina-Siloxane Gel and Its ER Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李幼荣; 张明; 周兰香; 邱关明; 井上真一; 冈本宏

    2002-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was used to wrap alumina-siloxane sol through emulsion polymerization. A kind of suspensions with notable ER effect was produced by fully mixing the prepared microcapsule with silicon oil. Meanwhile a series of PMMA wrapped alumina-siloxane gel doped with rare earths was obtained and its ER effect was tested, like viscosity of different rare earth ion doped samples in different powder concentrations and at different temperatures, at the same time, leak current density and dielectric constant were measured. Results show that the ER effect of this suspension is remarkable, and its stability is much better. The condition of emulsion polymerization and the mechanism of effect are discussed.

  7. Effect of thiolated polymers to textural and mucoadhesive properties of vaginal gel formulations prepared with polycarbophil and chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevher, Erdal; Sensoy, Demet; Taha, Mohamed A M; Araman, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design and evaluate of mucoadhesive gel formulations for the vaginal application of clomiphene citrate (CLM) for local treatment of human papilloma virus (HPV) infections. Chitosan (CHI) and polycarbophil (PC) were covalently modified using the thioglycolic acid and L-cysteine, respectively. The formation of thiol conjugates of chitosan (CHI-TG) and polycarbophil (PC-CYS) were confirmed by FT-IR analysis and PC-CYS and CHI-TG were found to have 148.42 +/- 4.16 and 41.17 +/- 2.34 micromol of thiol groups per gram of polymer, respectively. One percent CLM gels were prepared by combination of various concentrations of PC and CHI with thiolated conjugates of these polymers. Hardness, compressibility, elasticity, adhesiveness and cohesiveness of the gels were measured by Texture profile analysis and the vaginal mucoadhesion was investigated by mucoadhesion test. The increasing in the amount of the thiol conjugates was found to enhance the elasticity, cohesiveness, adhesiveness and mucoadhesion of the gel formulations but not their hardness and compressibility when compared to gels prepared using their respective parent formulations. Slower release rate of CLM from gels was achieved when the polymer concentrations were increased in the gel formulations. PC and its thiol conjugate were found to prolong the release of CLM longer than 70 h unlike gel formulations prepared using CHI and its thiol conjugate which were able to release CLM up to 12 h. Stability of CLM was preserved during the 3 month stability analysis under controlled room temperature and accelerated conditions.

  8. Bismuth–titanium oxide nanopowders prepared by sol–gel method for photocatalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solís-Casados, D.A. [Centro Conjunto de Investigación en Química Sustentable UAEM-UNAM, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco Km 14.5, Unidad San Cayetano, Toluca 50200, Estado de México, México (Mexico); Escobar-Alarcón, L., E-mail: luis.escobar@inin.gob.mx [Departamento de Física, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, México DF 11801, México (Mexico); Arrieta-Castañeda, A.; Haro-Poniatowski, E. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Apdo. Postal 55-534, México DF, México (Mexico)

    2016-04-01

    TiO{sub 2} has been widely studied for photocatalytic applications; however, its band gap is so large (Eg = 3.2 eV for anatase) that it can only be excited by ultraviolet light which accounts for only 5% of the incoming solar energy. Thus, it is important to develop a visible light driven photocatalyst with a lower band gap value. For this purpose, different TiO{sub 2}–Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} binary compounds were prepared by the sol–gel technique. The obtained materials were characterized by Energy Dispersed Spectroscopy, X Ray Diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Raman Spectroscopy and Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy, in order to obtain information on their chemical composition, crystalline structure, vibrational features and optical properties. Compositional characterization reveal that the Bi content can be varied from 0.3 to 43.6 at.% in an easy way in the binary compounds. Structural characterization shows that the starting material corresponds to the crystalline anatase phase of TiO{sub 2} and upon Bi addition a phase transition to bismuth titanates and finally to bismuth oxide occurs. Raman results suggest the formation of titanates for compounds with a low content of Bi whilst for higher metal contents a mixture of oxides is obtained. HRTEM results demonstrated that the prepared nanopowders are quite crystalline. Optical measurements reveal that the band gap narrows from 3.2 eV to values as low as 1.4 eV. The photocatalytic activity was tested in the degradation of Malachite Green dye under illumination using a solar simulator with good results. - Highlights: • Bismuth–Titanium oxide nanopowders were synthesized by the sol–gel technique. • The evolution of the different crystalline phases was determined. • Materials with band gap as low as 1.4 eV were obtained. • Good photocatalytic activity using visible light was observed.

  9. 美洛昔康醇质体凝胶的研制%Preparation of Meloxicam Ethosomes Gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨羽行; 刘小平

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To prepare Meloxicam Ethosomes Gel. Methods: The optimum preparation process of Meloxicam Ethosomes Gel was selected with orthogonal design. The rate of envelopment was determined by HPLC method. The shape, grainsize and its distribution of Meloxicam Ethosomes Gel were evaluated based on the Gel. Results: The prepared Ethosomes Gel with high encapsulation efficiency (74.70%) had narrow size distribution. The number of mean grain size was 16.95 |JLm. The Gel was translucent and ropy which was valued at 2.17 mg/10 g for its average content. Conclusion: The Meloxicam Ethosomes Gel with preferable stability is prepared with a uncomplicated technology. It is valuable with appli -cation prospect.%目的:制备美洛昔康醇质体凝胶.方法:通过正交设计优选出美洛昔康醇质体的制备工艺,利用HPLC 法测定包封率,并对其进行外观粒径评价,从而制备出凝胶剂.结果:制备的醇质体粒径分布均匀,平均粒径为16.95 μm,包封率为74.70%.制得凝胶剂为半透明黏稠状胶体,平均含量为2.17 mg/10 g.结论:本实验制备工艺简单,制得的美洛昔康醇质体凝胶有很好的稳定性,具有较好的应用前景.

  10. Structural, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of aluminium doped PLZT ceramics prepared by sol-gel route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Soma [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)]. E-mail: dutta_som@yahoo.co.in; Choudhary, R.N.P. [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Sinha, P.K. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2007-03-14

    Nanosized piezoelectric ceramics for vibration sensor applications have been prepared by mixing the ferroelectric PLZT (8:60:40) with variable doping fractions of trivalent aluminium ion (Al{sup 3+}). Samples have been prepared through a standard sol-gel route. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to determine the phase and morphological modifications. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies reveal the microstructure with nanosized well-dispersed homogeneous spherical particles. The vibrational infra-red (IR) spectroscopy record is taken to locate the position of the doping Al{sup 3+} ion. Using electrical impedance spectroscopy, the resonance and anti-resonance frequencies of the Al modified PLZT system have been determined and analysed. Al addition in PLZT has left a profound effect in its dielectric and piezoelectric properties. An interpretation of the role of Al addition is proposed in terms of structure modification. The sensing power of the investigated material was found useful for the vibration control of a cantilever beam.

  11. Preparation of Water-Repellent Glass by Sol-Gel Process Using Perfluoroalkylsilane and Tetraethoxysilane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Soo-Bok; Kwon, Soo-Han; Kadono, Kohei

    2001-03-01

    Coating films on glass substrate were prepared by sol-gel process using alkoxide solutions containing perfluoroalkylsilane (PFAS) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). The physical properties of the coating films were characterized by SEM, FT-IR, and XRD. And their surface properties were investigated by measuring contact angles and atomic compositions. Transparent coating films with smooth surface and uniform thickness could be obtained. The contact angles of the coating films for water and methylene iodide are extremely high, at 118 degrees and 97 degrees, respectively, and their surface free energies are about 9.7 dyn/cm. It was found that the water-repellent glass prepared is very hydrophobic and exhibits excellent water-repellency. Hydrophobic perfluoroalkyl groups are preferentially enriched to the outermost layer at the coating film-air interface, and two layers probably exist in the coating film. The upper layer oriented toward the air is composed of mainly perfluoroalkyl groups originating from PFAS, and the lower layer is composed of mainly -OSiO- groups originating from TEOS. The heat treatment after drying step cannot influence the surface enrichment of the perfluoroalkyl group. The hydrolysis reaction should be more completely done before the dip coating step to obtain lower surface free energy. The burning temperature should be less than 300 degrees C because the perfluoroalkyl group begins to decompose from this temperature. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  12. Preparation of a Star Network PEG-based Gel Polymer Electrolyte and Its Application to Electrochromic Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yong-Feng; FU Xiang-Kai; ZHANG Shu-Peng; JIANG Qing-Long

    2007-01-01

    A star network polymer with a pentaerythritol core linking four PEG-block polymeric arms was synthesized,and its corresponding gel polymer electrolyte based on lithium perchlorate and plasticizers EC/PC with the character being colorless and highly transparent has been also prepared. The polymer host was characterized and confirmed to be of a star network and an amorphous structure by FTIR, 1H NMR and XRD studies. The polymer host hold good mechanical properties for pentaerythritol cross-linking. Maximum ionic conductivity of the prepared electrolyte showed that the thermal stability was up to at least 150 ℃. The gel polymer electrolyte was further evaluated in electrochromic devices fabricated by transparent PET-ITO and electrochromically active viologen derivative films, and its excellent performance promised the usage of the gel polymer electrolyte as ionic conductor material in electrochrornic devices.

  13. Facile preparation of hierarchically porous carbons from metal-organic gels and their application in energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Qiu, Bin; Xia, Dingguo; Zou, Ruqiang

    2013-06-01

    Porous carbon materials have numerous applications due to their thermal and chemical stability, high surface area and low densities. However, conventional preparing porous carbon through zeolite or silica templates casting has been criticized by the costly and/or toxic procedure. Creating three-dimensional (3D) carbon products is another challenge. Here, we report a facile way to prepare porous carbons from metal-organic gel (MOG) template, an extended metal-organic framework (MOF) structure. We surprisingly found that the carbon products inherit the highly porous nature of MOF and combine with gel's integrated character, which results in hierarchical porous architectures with ultrahigh surface areas and quite large pore volumes. They exhibit considerable hydrogen uptake and excellent electrochemical performance as cathode material for lithium-sulfur battery. This work provides a general method to fast and clean synthesis of porous carbon materials and opens new avenues for the application of metal-organic gel in energy storage.

  14. New synthesis parameters of GGG:Nd nanocrystalline powder prepared by sol–gel method: Structural and spectroscopic investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshikh Mohamad, Yassin, E-mail: yassinm@mail.ru; Atassi, Yomen; Moussa, Zafer

    2015-09-15

    GGG:Nd nanopowder is synthesized by the sol–gel method using formic acid and acetic acid as chelating agents and ethylene glycol as a cross linking agent. TGA–DSC, XRD, photoluminescence spectroscopy and fluorescence life time analysis (τ) are used to characterize the powder. XRD is used to optimize the synthesis parameters. According to XRD, complete phase of GGG nanopowder is formed at 800 °C for 1 min. Fluorescence life time analyses reveal that the optimum crystallization temperature is 1000 °C. - Highlights: • GGG:Nd nanopowder was prepared using formic acid by the sol gel method. • Optimization of sol gel parameters was done. • GGG phase formation was complete at 800 °C for 1 min • According to τ measurements, optimal temperature treatment is at 1000 °C. • Nanopowder prepared with formic acid was better than that formed with acetic acid.

  15. [A method for determining DNA sequence by labeling the end of the molecule and cleaving at the base. Isolation of DNA fragments, end-labeling, cleavage, electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel and analysis of results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxam, A M; Gilbert, W

    1986-01-01

    We elaborate basic chemical principles and current laboratory procedures for sequencing end-labeled DNA by partial cleavage and gel electrophoresis (A. M. Maxam and W. Gilbert, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1977, v. 74, p. 560-564). We provide step-by-step protocols for 32P-labeling DNA ends, segregating the labeled ends by cutting with a second restriction enzyme or separating strands, partially cleaving the DNA at specific bases with reagents, electrophoresing the labeled products of cleavage on sequencing gels, and interpreting sequencing band patterns. Many of these procedures have been condensed, to make them faster and easier, and some are new. We also discuss sequencing strategies, and suggest a technique which will reduce plasmid or viral DNA to a collection of singly-end-labeled fragments in one day, for efficient sequencing of these chromosomes in 250-nucleotide blocks.

  16. Effect of Additives on Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of Tio/ZnO Nanocomposite Prepared via Sol-Gel Process

    OpenAIRE

    Shahram Moradi; Parviz Aberoomand Azar; Sanaz Raeis Farshid; Saeed Abedini Khorrami; Mohammad Hadi Givianrad

    2012-01-01

    TiO2/ZnO nanocomposites were prepared by the sol-gel method with and without addatives such as carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), polyvinylpyrrolidon, (PVP), and hydroxylpropylcellulose (HPC). The characteristics of the prepared TiO2/ZnO nanocomposites were identified by IR spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) methods. The additives have a significant effect on the particle size distribut...

  17. Synthetic aspects and characterization of polypropylene–silica nanocomposites prepared via solid-state modification and sol–gel reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, Sachin; Goossens, Han; Picchioni, Francesco; Magusin, Pieter; Mezari, Brahim; Duin, Martin van

    2005-01-01

    A new route is developed by combining solid-state modification (SSM) by grafting vinyl triethoxysilane (VTES) with a sol–gel method to prepare PP/silica nanocomposites with varying degree of adhesion between filler and matrix. VTES was grafted via SSM in porous PP particles. Bulk polymerization unde

  18. Synthetic aspects and characterization of polypropylene-silica nanocomposites prepared via solid-state modification and sol-gel reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, S; Goossens, H; Picchioni, F; Magusin, P; Mezari, B

    2005-01-01

    A new route is developed by combining solid-state modification (SSM) by grafting vinyl triethoxysilane (VTES) with a sol-gel method to prepare PP/silica nanocomposites with varying degree of adhesion between filler and matrix. VTES was grafted via SSM in porous PP particles. Bulk polymerization unde

  19. Nanostructured TiO2 thin films for DSSCs prepared by sol gel technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Siti Noraini Abu; Abdullah, Huda; Mahbor, Kamisah Mohamad

    2017-07-01

    In this research, nanostructured TiO2 thin films were prepared by sol-gel technique for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated. The nanostructured thin films were prepared using commercial Titania powder (Degussa P25) and titanium (IV) ethoxide (TEOT). The resulting solution were spin-coated on pieces of indium-doped tin oxide (InO2:Sn, ITO) transparent glass (8 Ω/sq, TEC GlassTM) with an area of 10 × 10 mm2 at a rate of 2000 rpm for 30 seconds. The films were annealed in furnace at 450 °C for 60 min. The working electrode was then immersed in the solution of N-719 (Ruthenium) dye at room temperature for 24 h. A thin film of platinum (Pt) was deposited on the ITO-glass substrate as the counter electrode using print-screen technique. The structures, morphological and optical properties of the films, were examined using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and UV-VIS spectrometer respectively. The XRD results showed that the crystalline phase of the film was anatase. The micrograph obtained using FESEM demonstrated that the prepared TiO2 film has a nanosructured characteristic. The photovoltaic properties of DSSC was studied under an incident irradiation of 100 mW/cm2. The energy conversion efficiency (η) of the DSSC with nanostuctured TiO2 (P25) and TiO2 was 0.3% and 0.2 % respectively.

  20. Preparation and characterization of carbosilane denddmer-bonded silica gel and its use in LC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Guowen; Zhao Shigui; Feng Shengyu

    2006-01-01

    Divergently synthesized carbosilane dendrimers generations 1(G1) and 2 (G2) with allyl end groups were bonded onto silica gel.Reactions between the dendrimers and acid-processed silica gel took place,with toluene reflux and organic base as catalyst.Chemically bonded silica gel was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM),infrared (IR),and other methods.The chemically modified silica gels were packed into high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) column and their separation characters were evaluated.G2-bonded silica gel was effective in separating homologous compounds of alcohol, alkyl-substituted benzene,N-substituted benzene,metacrylic acid ester and phthalate.

  1. Self-healing guar gum and guar gum-multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite gels prepared in an ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukesh; Mondal, Dibyendu; Mukesh, Chandrakant; Prasad, Kamalesh

    2013-10-15

    Guar gum is a galactomannan extracted from the seed of the leguminous shrub Cyamopsis tetragonoloba. It was found to form a soft viscoelastic gel in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, an ionic liquid at an optimized concentration of 10%w/v. A nanocomposite gel of the gum with enhanced strength could be prepared with 0.2%w/v of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the ionic liquid. When the gels thus prepared were subjected to surface fractures or bisected completely, they found to self-heal at room temperature without any external interventions. The self-healing process could be repeated several times. These viscoelastic gel systems showed thixotropic nature and recovery of the storage modulus with time for several cycles was observed upon rheological investigations. The interaction took place between ionic liquid, guar gum and MWCNT was studied by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, powder XRD and rheometry. The results suggested that, upon standing at room temperature development of electrostatic interactions and the van der Waals interactions among the ionic liquid molecules facilitated the formation of reversible noncovalent bonds and eventually activated the self-healing in the gel systems through appropriate chain entanglements.

  2. Preparation of Photocrosslinked Fish Elastin Polypeptide/Microfibrillated Cellulose Composite Gels with Elastic Properties for Biomaterial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Shinya; Mori, Megumi; Teramoto, Naozumi; Iisaka, Makoto; Suzuki, Natsumi; Noto, Masanari; Kaimoto, Yasuko; Kakimoto, Masashi; Yamada, Michio; Shiratsuchi, Eri; Shimasaki, Toshiaki; Shibata, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Photocrosslinked hydrogels reinforced by microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) were prepared from a methacrylate-functionalized fish elastin polypeptide and MFC dispersed in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). First, a water-soluble elastin peptide with a molecular weight of ca. 500 g/mol from the fish bulbus arteriosus was polymerized by N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC), a condensation reagent, and then modified with 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate (MOI) to yield a photocrosslinkable fish elastin polypeptide. The product was dissolved in DMSO and irradiated with UV light in the presence of a radical photoinitiator. We obtained hydrogels successfully by substitution of DMSO with water. The composite gel with MFC was prepared by UV irradiation of the photocrosslinkable elastin polypeptide mixed with dispersed MFC in DMSO, followed by substitution of DMSO with water. The tensile test of the composite gels revealed that the addition of MFC improved the tensile properties, and the shape of the stress–strain curve of the composite gel became more similar to the typical shape of an elastic material with an increase of MFC content. The rheology measurement showed that the elastic modulus of the composite gel increased with an increase of MFC content. The cell proliferation test on the composite gel showed no toxicity. PMID:25584682

  3. Preparation of Photocrosslinked Fish Elastin Polypeptide/Microfibrillated Cellulose Composite Gels with Elastic Properties for Biomaterial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocrosslinked hydrogels reinforced by microfibrillated cellulose (MFC were prepared from a methacrylate-functionalized fish elastin polypeptide and MFC dispersed in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO. First, a water-soluble elastin peptide with a molecular weight of ca. 500 g/mol from the fish bulbus arteriosus was polymerized by N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC, a condensation reagent, and then modified with 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate (MOI to yield a photocrosslinkable fish elastin polypeptide. The product was dissolved in DMSO and irradiated with UV light in the presence of a radical photoinitiator. We obtained hydrogels successfully by substitution of DMSO with water. The composite gel with MFC was prepared by UV irradiation of the photocrosslinkable elastin polypeptide mixed with dispersed MFC in DMSO, followed by substitution of DMSO with water. The tensile test of the composite gels revealed that the addition of MFC improved the tensile properties, and the shape of the stress–strain curve of the composite gel became more similar to the typical shape of an elastic material with an increase of MFC content. The rheology measurement showed that the elastic modulus of the composite gel increased with an increase of MFC content. The cell proliferation test on the composite gel showed no toxicity.

  4. Preparation of photocrosslinked fish elastin polypeptide/microfibrillated cellulose composite gels with elastic properties for biomaterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Shinya; Mori, Megumi; Teramoto, Naozumi; Iisaka, Makoto; Suzuki, Natsumi; Noto, Masanari; Kaimoto, Yasuko; Kakimoto, Masashi; Yamada, Michio; Shiratsuchi, Eri; Shimasaki, Toshiaki; Shibata, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-09

    Photocrosslinked hydrogels reinforced by microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) were prepared from a methacrylate-functionalized fish elastin polypeptide and MFC dispersed in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). First, a water-soluble elastin peptide with a molecular weight of ca. 500 g/mol from the fish bulbus arteriosus was polymerized by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC), a condensation reagent, and then modified with 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate (MOI) to yield a photocrosslinkable fish elastin polypeptide. The product was dissolved in DMSO and irradiated with UV light in the presence of a radical photoinitiator. We obtained hydrogels successfully by substitution of DMSO with water. The composite gel with MFC was prepared by UV irradiation of the photocrosslinkable elastin polypeptide mixed with dispersed MFC in DMSO, followed by substitution of DMSO with water. The tensile test of the composite gels revealed that the addition of MFC improved the tensile properties, and the shape of the stress-strain curve of the composite gel became more similar to the typical shape of an elastic material with an increase of MFC content. The rheology measurement showed that the elastic modulus of the composite gel increased with an increase of MFC content. The cell proliferation test on the composite gel showed no toxicity.

  5. THERMAL, MECHANICAL, AND MOISTURE ABSORPTION PROPERTIES OF WOOD-TiO2 COMPOSITES PREPARED BY A SOL-GEL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Wang,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood-TiO2 (titania composites were prepared by a sol-gel process, in which wood was impregnated with the precursor solutions prepared from tetrabutyl titanate (TBT, followed by a curing step. The surface morphology and moisture absorption behavior of the wood composites, as well as their thermal and mechanical performances, were examined. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM analysis revealed that TiO2 gels were deposited principally in the cell lumens and partly in the cell walls, as confirmed by the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis. By this inorganic modification, the hygroscopicity of wood was significantly reduced and its dimensional stability was improved consequently. Greater amounts of TiO2 gel deposited in the cell lumens were not helpful in enhancing the hygroscopicity of wood. Thermal analysis (TG-DTA showed that the incorporation of TiO2 gel retarded the thermal decomposition of wood matrix and improved the thermal stability of wood. The incorporated inorganic gel seemed to stiffen the wood cell walls, as indicated by the increased resistance of the wood composites to deformation and collapse in compression.

  6. Measurements of elastic moduli of silicone gel substrates with a microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Edgar; Groisman, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Thin layers of gels with mechanical properties mimicking animal tissues are widely used to study the rigidity sensing of adherent animal cells and to measure forces applied by cells to their substrate with traction force microscopy. The gels are usually based on polyacrylamide and their elastic modulus is measured with an atomic force microscope (AFM). Here we present a simple microfluidic device that generates high shear stresses in a laminar flow above a gel-coated substrate and apply the device to gels with elastic moduli in a range from 0.4 to 300 kPa that are all prepared by mixing two components of a transparent commercial silicone Sylgard 184. The elastic modulus is measured by tracking beads on the gel surface under a wide-field fluorescence microscope without any other specialized equipment. The measurements have small and simple to estimate errors and their results are confirmed by conventional tensile tests. A master curve is obtained relating the mixing ratios of the two components of Sylgard 184 with the resulting elastic moduli of the gels. The rigidity of the silicone gels is less susceptible to effects from drying, swelling, and aging than polyacrylamide gels and can be easily coated with fluorescent tracer particles and with molecules promoting cellular adhesion. This work can lead to broader use of silicone gels in the cell biology laboratory and to improved repeatability and accuracy of cell traction force microscopy and rigidity sensing experiments.

  7. Measurements of elastic moduli of silicone gel substrates with a microfluidic device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Gutierrez

    Full Text Available Thin layers of gels with mechanical properties mimicking animal tissues are widely used to study the rigidity sensing of adherent animal cells and to measure forces applied by cells to their substrate with traction force microscopy. The gels are usually based on polyacrylamide and their elastic modulus is measured with an atomic force microscope (AFM. Here we present a simple microfluidic device that generates high shear stresses in a laminar flow above a gel-coated substrate and apply the device to gels with elastic moduli in a range from 0.4 to 300 kPa that are all prepared by mixing two components of a transparent commercial silicone Sylgard 184. The elastic modulus is measured by tracking beads on the gel surface under a wide-field fluorescence microscope without any other specialized equipment. The measurements have small and simple to estimate errors and their results are confirmed by conventional tensile tests. A master curve is obtained relating the mixing ratios of the two components of Sylgard 184 with the resulting elastic moduli of the gels. The rigidity of the silicone gels is less susceptible to effects from drying, swelling, and aging than polyacrylamide gels and can be easily coated with fluorescent tracer particles and with molecules promoting cellular adhesion. This work can lead to broader use of silicone gels in the cell biology laboratory and to improved repeatability and accuracy of cell traction force microscopy and rigidity sensing experiments.

  8. THE APPLICATION OF CATIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE AS DRAINAGE AND RETENTION AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinWang; KefuChen; FushanChent; ChuanshanZhao; RendangYang

    2004-01-01

    Cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) which was prepared through complex initiation system in laboratory and cationic polyacrylamide (Ciba) were used asretention and drainage aids for bleached wheat strawpulp. The influences of (polydiallyldimethlammonium chloride) PDADMAC and PDADMAC/CPAMon Zeta potential and drainability of pulp was investigated. The dual drainage and retention systems suchas CPAM/modified bentonite, CPAM/colloidal SiO2,as well as their comparison between the two systemswere discussed, and the optimal dosages of additiveswere determined. The results showed that: the complex systems can further enhance filler retention,drainability of pulp and strength properties of paper.

  9. 聚丙烯酰胺凝胶法合成TbFeO3纳米颗粒及其可见光催化活性%Polyacrylamide Gel Synthesis and Visible-light Photocatalytic Activity of TbFeO3 Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林贯军; 杨华; 县涛

    2012-01-01

    采用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶法制备了TbFeO3纳米颗粒,研究了不同络合剂对样品的纯度、颗粒尺寸及形貌的影响.XRD分析结果表明,以酒石酸、柠檬酸或乙二胺四乙酸(EDTA)为络合剂,在650℃下烧结均可制备出单相TbFeO3纳米颗粒,但产物的平均粒径不同;而采用乙酸或草酸为络合剂则难以制得纯相样品.SEM观测结果表明,以酒石酸为络合剂制备的颗粒细小、均匀、形貌规整、呈球状,平均粒径约为50 nm;以柠檬酸为络合剂制备的颗粒主要以近球形为主,颗粒的尺寸分布相对较宽,平均粒径约为100 nm;以EDTA 为络合剂制备的颗粒主要呈椭球状,颗粒尺寸较均匀,但颗粒间存在不同程度的黏连现象,平均粒径约为110 nm.这3种样品的BET比表面积分别为15.4,8.3和6.8 m2/g.紫外-可见漫反射吸收光谱研究表明,TbFeO3纳米颗粒的带隙为1.95 ~1.98 eV.分别以甲基橙(MO)、罗丹明B(RhB)、亚甲基蓝(MB)、酸性品红(AF)和刚果红(CR)5种有机染料为目标降解物,考察了TbFeO3颗粒的光催化活性.结果表明,在可见光辐照下颗粒表现出良好的光催化活性,其中,以酒石酸为络合剂制备的样品光催化效果最好.%A polyacrylamide gel method was used to prepare TbFeO3 nanoparticles, and the influences of dif-fe-rent chelating agents on the phase purity, particle size and morphology were investigated. X-ray diffraction ( XRD) results indicate that single-phase TbFeO3 particles can be prepared at a calcination temperature of 650 ℃ using tartaric acid, citric acid or ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid(EDTA) as the chelating agent, but the average grain size has a dependence on the choice of the chelating agent. The use of acetic acid or oxalic acid as the chelating agent is difficult to achieve the synthesis of single-phase TbFeO3 samples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations reveal that the particles prepared using tartaric acid as the chelating agent

  10. Borehole testing methods using a new temporary polyacrylamide packers technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepikova, Maria V.; Roques, Clement; Selker, John

    2017-04-01

    Range of options for investigation of hydraulic behavior of aquifers from boreholes has been limited to rigid, cumbersome packers, and inflatable sleeves. Here we propose a new temporary polyacrylamide packers (TAMP) technology that uses soft grains of polyacrylamide gel as a borehole sealing material and discuss its possible applications. Polyacrylamide gel, also called hydrogel or water-absorbing polymer, consists of long chains of molecules that can absorb over a hundred times their weight in liquids. Soft gel grains are mainly made of water, but the water inside these particles does not contribute to the flow of the suspension. The gel packing (permeability similar to open gravel) placed to a well suppresses free convection, allowing for local temperature and chemical sampling through free-flowing gel. Minimizing the effect of free convection within the well column would be beneficial for active thermal tests where free convection often dominate flow and create thermal disequilibrium between the water in the borehole and the surrounding media. Preliminary laboratory experiments and the literature suggests that as the polyacrylamide pack is subject to modest compressive stress to the gel media (of order 0.1 ATM), the permeability transitions from of the order of 10 to 7 millidarcys to 0.01 millidarcys, illustrating the remarkable ability to transition from highly permeable to nearly impermeable grouting. Though yet to be confirmed in the field, by locally injecting water at pressure greater than the compressive stress, local voids can be formed which can act as local pump test sources, with all other locations in the borehole hydraulically isolated where local response pressure from the formation can be measured. This arrangement could be valuable for tomographic study of aquifers wherein hundreds of injection zones could be tested by simply pulling an injection pipe vertically through the packed borehole. The gel grains can be of the scale of cm, so do not pass

  11. Preparation and Application Situation of Silica Gel%硅胶的制备及应用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵希鹏

    2011-01-01

    硅胶不溶于水和任何溶剂,无毒无味,化学性质稳定,除强碱、氢氟酸外不与任何物质发生反应。根据其孔径的大小分为:大孔硅胶、粗孔硅胶、B型硅胶、细孔硅胶。由于孔隙结构的不同,因此它们的吸附性能各有特点。硅胶是一种高活性的吸附材料,通常以硅酸钠和硫酸为原料制备,文中介绍了各种硅胶的生产工艺,论述了硅胶的应用现状。%Silica gel was insoluble in water and any solvent,non-toxic and odorless,chemical stability,except strong alkali and hydrofluoric acid,and it can't react with any material.According to its aperture size's,it was divided into big pore silica gel,thick pore silica gel,the type B silica gel and the fine pore silica gel.Because the pore structure was different,so they had different features of adsorption performance.Silica gel was a highly active adsorption materials,usually prepared by the sodium silicate and sulfuric acid as raw material.Various silica gel production technology was introduced,and the present situation of the application of the silica gel was discussed.

  12. Characterization of Nanostructured n-ZnO/p-Si Heterojunction Prepared by a Simple Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Xu, Jing; Ning, Huanpo; Xiong, Hao; Xing, Huaizhong; Qin, Yuming

    2016-03-01

    The nanostructured ZnO film was prepared on a texturized Si wafer by a simple sol-gel method to fabricate n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction photoelectric device. The novel sol-gel method is cheap and convenient. The structural, optical and electrical properties of the nanostructured ZnO film were studied by XRD, SEM, XPS, PL, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and Hall effect measurement. The current-voltage (I-V) curve of nanostructured ZnO/p-Si heterojunction device shows good rectifying behavior. Good photoelectric behavior is obtained.

  13. Preparation and Scintillating Properties of Sol-Gel Eu3+, Tb3+ Co-Doped Lu2O3 Nanopowders

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Moreno Palmerin; Rosario Ruiz Guerrero; Margarita García Hernández; Ángel de Jesús Morales Ramírez; Antonieta García Murillo; Felipe de Jesús Carrillo Romo

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Eu3+, Tb3+ co-doped Lu2O3 powders with a maximum size of 25.5 nm were prepared by the sol-gel process, using lutetium, europium and terbium nitrates as precursors, and ethanol as a solvent. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) were used to study the chemical changes during the xerogel annealing. After the sol evaporation at 100 °C, the formed gel was annealed from 300 to 900 °C for 30 min under a rich O2 atmosphere, and the yielded product was ana...

  14. Low-temperature Magnesiothermic Synthesis of Mesoporous Silicon Carbide from an MCM-48/Polyacrylamide Nanocomposite Precursor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zahra Saeedifar; Amir Abbas Nourbakhsh; Roozbeh Javad Kalbasi; Ebrahim Karamian

    2013-01-01

    Mesoporous silicon carbide with high specific surface area was successfully synthesized from an MCM-48/polyacrylamide nanocomposite precursor in the temperature range of 550-600 ℃ (below the melting point of Mg) by means of a magnesiothermic reduction process.The MCM-48/polyacrylamide precursor nanocomposite was prepared by in-situ polymerization of acrylamide monomer in the presence of mesoporous MCM-48 synthesized by sol-gel method.The physicochemical properties and microstructures of the nanocomposite precursor and the low-temperature SiC product were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),differential scanning calorimetry-thermo gravimetric analysis (DSC-TGA),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N2 adsorption-desorption.TEM micrographs and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) gas adsorption studies showed that the SiC powder was nanocrystalline and had a specific surface area of 330 m2/g and a mesoporosity in the range of 2-10 nm.The presence of an exothermic peak in the DSC trace corresponds to the self-combustion process of the SiC magnesiothermic synthesis.The results also show that the carbon in excess to that required to produce SiC plays a role in the reduction of the SiO2.The mechanism of magnesiothermic synthesis of mesoporous SiC is discussed.

  15. Preparation and Adsorption Ability of Polysulfone Microcapsules Containing Modified Chitosan Gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fei; LUO Guangsheng; YANG Weiwei; WANG Yujun

    2005-01-01

    Chemically modified chitosan beads containing polyethyleneimine (PEI) were prepared to improve the metal ion adsorption capacity of the chitosan beads and their mechanical stability and to limit their biodegradability. The modified beads were encapsulated with the polymer material polysulfone by a novel surface coating method named the emulsion phase inversion method. The adsorption properties of the modified beads and the microstructures of the polysulfone coating layer were then analyzed. The experimental results showed that the PEI was successfully linked onto the chitosan beads. The density of the -NH2 groups in the modified beads was significantly increased, while the water content was reduced. The coating layer thickness was about 200 (m. The modified chitosan gel beads had excellent Cu(II) adsorption capacity, with a maximum Cu(II) adsorption capacity 1.34 times higher than that of the unmodified beads. The results show that even with the polysulfone coating the adsorption kinetics of the modified beads is still better than those of the unmodified beads. The modifications improve the mass transfer performance of the chitosan beads as well as the bead stability.

  16. White-light emission of ZnO nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shi-Shuai; Zhang Zhong; Hang Jin-Zhao; Feng Xiu-Peng; Liu Ru-Xi

    2011-01-01

    In:ZnO nanoparticles are prepared by the sol-gel process.The ratios of In/(Zn+In) are 0%,5%,8%,10%,and 15%,respectively.Crystal phase structures and optoelectronic properties of these samples are characterized and the chromaticity coordinates of different samples are also calculated in CIE-XYZ colour system.The results show that preferred growth direction of ZnO changes from (002) plane to (001) plane and interplanar distance becomes shorter.When the doping amount of In is 5%,Zn atoms are completely replaced by In atoms.The resistivities of the samples first decrease,then increase afterwards with the increase of the amount of In.With the increase of In,the ultraviolet emission is redshifted and new peaks occur at 465 nm,535 nm,and 630 nm.The sample with 10% indium has white-light emission.The band structures of samples with 0% and 12.5% indium are investigated by the first principle method.The mechanism of white emission is discussed from the viewpoint of additional energy levels.

  17. Fabrication and Optical Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Prepared via a Simple Sol-gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hedayati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research zinc oxide (ZnO nano-crystalline powders were prepared by sol-gel method using zinc acetate. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis, Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy. The structure of nanoparticles was studied using XRD pattern. The crystallite size of ZnO nanoparticles was calculated by Debye–Scherrer formula. Morphology of nano-crystals was observed and investigated using the SEM. The grain size of zinc oxide nanoparticles were in suitable agreement with the crystalline size calculated by XRD results. The optical properties of particles were studied with UV-Vis an FTIR absorption spectrum. The Raman spectrum measurements were carried out using a micro-laser Raman spectrometer forms the ZnO nanoparticles. At the end studied the effect of calcined temperature on the photoluminescence (PL emission of ZnO nanoparticles.

  18. Silica-gel Supported V Complexes:Preparation, Characterization and Catalytic Oxidative Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎俊波; 刘习文; 曹灿灿; 郭嘉; 潘志权

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript, a series of catalyst SGn-[VVO2-PAMAM-MSA] (SG=silica gel, PAMAM=poly-amidoamine, MSA=5-methyl salicylaldehyde, n=0, 1, 2, 3) was prepared and their structures were fully charac-terized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelec-tron spectroscopy (XPS) and inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometer (ICP) etc. XPS revealed that the metal V and SGn-PAMAM-MSA combined more closely after the formation of Schiff base derivatives. Their cata-lytic activities for oxidation of dibenzothiophene were evaluated using tert-butyl hydroperoxide as oxidant. The results showed that the catalyst SG2.0-[VVO2-PAMAM-MSA] presented good catalytic activity and recycling time. Mean-while, the optimal condition for the catalytic oxidation of SG2.0-[VVO2-PAMAM-MSA] was also investigated, which showed that when the oxidation temperature was 90 °C, time was 60 min, the O/S was 3︰1, and the mass content of catalyst was 1%, the rate of desulfurization could reach 85.2%. Moreover, the catalyst can be recycled several times without significant decline in catalytic activity.

  19. Zinc oxide films prepared by sol-gel spin-coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsume, Y.; Sakata, H. [Tokai Univ., Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Dept. of Appl. Chem.

    2000-08-22

    The d.c. electrical conductivity and optical properties of undoped zinc oxide films prepared by the sol-gel process using a spin-coating technique were investigated. The ZnO films were obtained by 10 cycle spin-coated and dried zinc acetate films followed by annealing in air at 500-575 C. The films deposited on the Pyrex glass substrate were polycrystalline and c-axis oriented. A minimum film resistivity gave 28.2 {omega} cm at an annealing temperature of 525 C. The temperature dependence of the conductivity indicated electron transport in the conduction band due to thermal excitation of donor electrons for temperatures from 250 to 300 K. The grain boundary scattering effect due to thermionic emission was confirmed. For temperatures below 250 K nearest-neighbor hopping conduction was dominant in the films. The films were transparent in the visible range above 400 nm and had sharp ultraviolet absorption edges at 380 nm. The absorption edge analysis revealed that the optical band gap energy for the films was 3.20-3.21 eV and the electronic transition was of the direct transition type. From the Urbach tail analysis the width of the localized state E{sub e}=0.07-0.08 eV. (orig.)

  20. Preparation and Characterization of CuO Nanoparticles by Novel Sol-Gel Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Aparna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments of nanosize materials of metal and metal oxide particles are intensively pursued because of their prominence in different fields of applications. Among all the transition metal oxides, CuO is a potential candidate for the application of magnetic storage devices, solar energy transfer, sensors, and super capacitors etc. Moreover CuO nanoparticles act as a good catalyst in some of the chemical reactions. CuO nanoparticles were prepared by novel sol-gel method. In this technique CuCl2.6H2O is added with acetic acid and heated to 100 °C with continuous stirring. To control the ph of the above solution, NaOH is added to the solution till ph reached desired value. The color of the solution changed from blue to black with precipitation. The black precipitation was washed 3 – 4 times with distilled water. Finally the solution was centrifuged and dried in air for one day. The CuO nanoparticles were characterized by studying their structure with X-ray diffraction and composition by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The size of the nanoparticles is estimated by particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy. The optical studies were carried out with Uv-Vis spectrophotometer.

  1. Structural and electrical properties of lithium cobalt nanoferrites prepared by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisnam, Victory; Maisnam, Mamata; Phanjoubam, Sumitra

    2015-01-01

    Lithium cobalt nanoferrites having the compositional formula Li0.5-x/2CoxFe2.5-x/2O4 with x varying from 0.00 to 0.12 in steps of 0.03 were prepared by the chemical sol-gel method. Samples were heated at two different temperatures namely 300°C and 500°C for 4 h. Structural characterization of the samples was done using X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and confirmed the formation of single phase with spinel structure in all the samples. From the XRD data, the lattice parameter was calculated and found to range from 82.87-83.35 nm while the crystallite size was found to be in the range 17-34 nm. Microstructural studies were carried out using the Scanning Electron Microscopy and revealed the microstructures with grain size ranging from 35-70 nm. Electrical properties like dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC conductivity for these nanoferrites were investigated. The frequency variation of room temperature dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC conductivity were studied in the frequency range 100 Hz-1 MHz, and a dispersive behavior was observed, which has been attributed to the Maxwell-Wagner type of interfacial polarization.

  2. Preparation and optical properties of iron-modified titanium dioxide obtained by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hreniak, Agnieszka; Gryzło, Katarzyna; Boharewicz, Bartosz; Sikora, Andrzej; Chmielowiec, Jacek; Iwan, Agnieszka

    2015-08-01

    In this paper twelve TiO2:Fe powders prepared by sol-gel method were analyzed being into consideration the kind of iron compound applied. As a precursor titanium (IV) isopropoxide (TIPO) was used, while as source of iron Fe(NO3)3 or FeCl3 were tested. Fe doped TiO2 was obtained using two methods of synthesis, where different amount of iron was added (1, 5 or 10% w/w). The size of obtained TiO2:Fe particles depends on the iron compound applied and was found in the range 80-300 nm as it was confirmed by SEM technique. TiO2:Fe particles were additionally investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) method. Additionally, for the TiO2:Fe particles UV-vis absorption and the zeta potential were analyzed. Selected powders were additionally investigated by magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and X-ray diffraction techniques. Photocatalytic ability of Fe doped TiO2 powders was evaluated by means of cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHOL) degradation experiment conducted under the 30 min irradiation of simulated solar light.

  3. Characterization of sol-gel-prepared Ti02 thin film for O2 sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashbar, Massood Z.; Ghantasala, Muralihar K.; Wlodarski, Wojtek

    1997-11-01

    This paper presents the results of our investigation on deposition and characterization of sol-gel prepared TiO2 thin films for oxygen sensing applications. The properties of pure TiO2 thin films are compared with those doped with niobium oxide and 1%pt. These films are characterized using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study their chemical composition, structure and surface morphology respectively. Both kinds of the films are stoichiometric. Pure TiO2 as well as doped films were amorphous as deposited. Pure TiO2 films after annealing to 450 degrees Celsius and above showed the formation of anatase phase, while the doped films still predominantly amorphous, barely showing the onset of crystallinity. Pure films after annealing to 600 degrees Celsius appear to have become granular and porous. Doping with niobium oxide and Pt resulted in modification of film microstructure also. As a result of doping, the gas sensitivity of the films is increased from 8 to 24 and operating temperature decreased from 320 degrees Celsius to 190 degrees Celsius.

  4. Preparation and characterization of HypoGel-supported Pd nanocatalysts for Suzuki reaction under mild conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kin Hong Liew; Wan Zurina Samad; Norazzizi Nordin; Poh Lee Loh; Joon Ching Juan; Mohd Ambar Yarmo; Badrul Hisham Yahaya; Rahimi M. Yusop

    2015-01-01

    A new heterogeneous catalyst composed of Pd nanoparticles immobilized within a HypoGel resin has been prepared in the absence of any ligands using an extensive cross-linking method. This new-ly developed nanocatalyst was characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spec-trometer (ICP-MS) techniques. TEM and XRD results revealed that the Pd nanoparticles were well dispersed with diameters in the range of 4–12 nm, and an average size of about 8 nm. The cross-linked Pd catalyst demonstrated excellent catalytic activity towards the synthesis of a series of biaryl compounds by the reaction of various aryl halides (e.g., bromides andiodides) with phenyl-boronic acid in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide. ICP-MS analysis indicated that there was only 0.25% weight loss of Pd (0.55 ± 0.02 ppm) from the supported catalyst after the first cycle reaction. Furthermore, the catalyst showed excellent reusability (up to five uses) with consistently high levels of catalytic activity following its recovery by filtration.

  5. Dielectric properties of FeNbO4 ceramics prepared by the sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devesa, S.; Graça, M. P.; Henry, F.; Costa, L. C.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, FeNbO4 powders were prepared using the sol-gel method. The fine powder particles were pressed into pellets and sintered at temperatures between 500 and 1200 °C. The powder was studied by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The morphology of the grains was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Heat-treatment of the particles results in higher crystallinity, larger grains, and a decrease in the porosity of the material. The dielectric properties were measured in the frequency range of 102-106 Hz, in function of temperature (200-370 K). In all samples the real (ε‧) and imaginary (ε″) parts of the complex permittivity increase with increasing annealing temperature. The sample heat treated at 1200 °C shows the highest ε‧, > 104 at 300 K. All samples show a dielectric relaxation phenomenon, analysed using the modulus formalism. The evolution of the ac conduction activation energy and of the activation energy associated with the relaxation mechanism, is directly related with the changes promoted by the heat treatment in the structure and in the morphology of the base powders.

  6. Chirality of Single-Handed Twisted Titania Tubular Nanoribbons Prepared Through Sol-gel Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sibing; Zhang, Chuanyong; Li, Yi; Li, Baozong; Yang, Yonggang

    2015-08-01

    Single-handed twisted titania tubular nanoribbons were prepared through sol-gel transcription using a pair of enantiomers. Handedness was controlled by that of the template. The obtained samples were characterized using field-emission electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance circular dichroism (DRCD), and X-ray diffraction. The DRCD spectra indicated that the titania nanotubes exhibit optical activity. Although the tubular structure was destroyed after being calcined at 700 °C for 2.0 h, DRCD signals were still identified. However, the DRCD signals disappeared after being calcined at 1000 °C for 2.0 h. The optical activity of titania was proposed to be due to chiral defects. Previous results showed that straight titania tubes could be used as asymmetric autocatalysts, indicating that titania exhibit chirality at the angstrom level. Herein, it was found that they also exhibit DRCD signals, indicating that there are no obvious relationships between morphology at the nano level and chirality at the angstrom level. The nanotube chirality should originate from the chiral defects on the nanotube inner surface. The Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated that the chirality of the titania was transferred from the gelators through the hydrogen bonding between N-H and Ti-OH.

  7. Preparation and optical characteristics of ZnO films by chelating sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lirong; JIN Zhengguo; BU Shaojing; SUN Yingchun; CHENG Zhijie

    2004-01-01

    The effect of different annealing temperatures on the structure, morphology, and optical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by the chelating sol-gel method was investigated. Zinc-oxide thin films were coated on quartz glass substrates by dip coating. Zinc nitrate, absolute ethanol, and citric acid were used as precursor, solvent, and chelating agent, respectively. The results show that ZnO films derived from zinc-citrate have lower crystallization temperature (below 400°C),and that the crystal structure is wurtzite. The films, treated over 500°C, consist of nano-particles and show to be porous at 600°C. The particle size of the film increases with the increase of the annealing temperature. The largest particle size is 60 nm at 600°C. The optical transmittances related to the annealing temperatures become 90% higher in the visible range. The film shows a starting absorption at 380 nm, and the optical band-gap of the thin film (fired at 500°C) is 3.25 eV and close to the intrinsic band-gap of ZnO (3.2 eV).

  8. Photocatalytic properties of TiO2 bonded active carbon composites prepared by SOL-GEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佑稷; 李效东; 李君文; 尹静

    2004-01-01

    Photocatalyst of TiO2 bonded active carbon (TiO2/AC), was prepared via sol-gel method from a mixture of TiO2 sol with active carbon. Post heat treatment was performed at 250 ℃ for 2 h in air and then kept at 400 ℃ to 600 ℃ under a flow of nitrogen for 2 h. The TiO2/AC composites obtained were characterized by SEM, XRD, UV-vis and BET. The photocatalytic activities of the TiO2/AC composites were studied in comparison with TiO2, AC,P-25 and a mixture of TiO2 and AC, respectively. The Ramnant rate of Rhodamine B absorbed by the active carbon is found to be almost 70% and the remnant rates of the Rhodamine B decolorized by TiO2 and the mixture of TiO2 and the active carbon are 30% and 25%, respectively. However, nearly complete removal of Rhodamine B is observed for a TiO2/AC composite after 200 min under UV irradiation, which will take the P-25 commercial product 5 h. Therefore, the TiO2/AC composite is much more effective in decolorization of aqueous Rhodamine B. In addition, the composite can be easily separated from solutions.

  9. Preparation of YBCO superconductor nanoparticles by sol-gel combustion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Farbod

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the details of synthesizing nano crystalline YBCO superconductor using a sol-gel combustion method and the effect of sol pH and sintering temperature on particle size was investigated. The sintering temperature was chosen 880°C and the samples were annealed at this temperature for 5 hours. The morphology and structure of the nano scale products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed the samples prepared using the sol with pH of 5 and 7 have mean particle size of 500 and 200 nm, respectively. In order to investigate the effect of sintering temperature on the size of YBCO particles three sets of samples from the sol with pH of 7 were sintered at 800, 880 and 950°C. The results showed the samples sintered at 800, 880 and 950°C have the average particle size of 100, 200 and 400 nm respectively.

  10. Characterization of Erbium Substituted Yttrium Iron Garnet Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan E. Shaiboub

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Yttrium iron garnet (YIG thin films substituted erbium ions (Er+3 Er0.4Y2.6Fe5O12 films were prepared by a sol-gel method at different temperatures which varied from 800 to 1000°C for 2 hours in air. Magnetic and microstructural properties of the films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD, the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The XRD patterns of the sample have only peaks of the garnet structure. The lattice constants decrease, while the particle size increases from 51 to 85 nm as the annealing temperature increases with average in thickness of 300 nm. The saturation magnetization and the coercivity of the samples increased from 26 (emu/cc and 28 Oe for the film annealed at 800°C to 76 (emu/cc and 45 Oe for film annealed at 1000°C, respectively.

  11. Sol-gel preparation and spectroscopic study of the pyrophanite MnTiO3 nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Guowei; KANG; Youngsoo; LI; Tianduo; XU; Guiying

    2005-01-01

    The nanosized xerogel of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and manganese oxides (MnO2, Mn2O3, Mn3O4) was prepared by the sol-gel method using manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O) and titanium isopropoxide (Ti(O-iPr)4) as precursors in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/ ethanol/H2O/HCl micelle solutions, following the calcinations of the produced powders at difference temperatures. The nanostructure and phase composition of these nanoparticles were characterized with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The spectroscopic characterizations of these nanoparticles were also done with UV-Vis spectroscopy and laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS). XRD patterns show that the pyrophanite MnTiO3 phase was formed at the calcinations temperature of 900℃. The TEM images show that the nanoparticles are almost spherical or slight ellipose and the sizes are 50 nm on average. The UV-Vis spectra show that the nanosized MnTiO3 have significant absorption bands in the visible region. There are new absorption peaks of MnTiO3 nanoparticles in LRS compared with the pure TiO2 powder.

  12. Development of bufferless gel electrophoresis chip for easy preparation and rapid DNA separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksandrov, Sergiy; Aman, Abdurazak; Lim, Wanyoung; Kim, Younghee; Bae, Nam Ho; Lee, Kyoung G; Lee, Seok Jae; Park, Sungsu

    2017-09-27

    This work presents a handy, fast, and compact bufferless gel electrophoresis chip (BGEC), which consists of precast agarose gel confined in a disposable plastic body with electrodes. It does not require large volumes of buffer to fill reservoirs, or the process of immersing the gel in the buffer. It withstands voltages up to 28.4 V/cm, thereby allowing DNA separation within 10 minutes with a similar separation capability to the standard gel electrophoresis. The results suggest that our BGEC is highly suitable for in situ gel electrophoresis in forensic, epidemiological settings and crime scenes where standard gel electrophoresis equipment cannot be brought in while quick results are needed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Properties of Zn O/Cr thin films prepared by Sol-Gel; Propiedades de peliculas delgadas ZnO/Cr preparadas por Sol-Gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirado G, S.; Olvera A, R., E-mail: tirado@esfm.ipn.mx [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional A. L. M., San Pedro Zacatenco, 07788 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    Zn O films and those superficially modified with chromium were deposited on substrates of soda-lime glass, using the Sol-Gel process and the repeated immersion method. Starting from dehydrated zinc acetate was prepared a solution to 0.6 M to ambient temperature in 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine (Mea) stirring magnetically. The Sol was prepared with an aging to seven days and was used to grow a films group with thickness to eight immersions. These same films were superficially modified with several depositions of a chromium nitrate Sol dissolved in ethanol to low concentration. The Zn O films were structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction, its chemical composition by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and its morphology by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, as well as their optical properties by UV-vis. Of the obtained results are proposed possible applications. (author)

  14. Preparation and Characterisation of Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Nanotubular TiO2 Surface Obtained by Sol-Gel Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jin-Ho; Kim, Jung-Hwa; Koh, Jeong-Tae; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Oh, Gye-Jeong; Lee, Seok-Woo; Lee, Kwang-Min; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Park, Sang-Won

    2015-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubular surface has been developed to complement the defects of both TiO2 and HA. A sol-gel processing technique was used to coat HA on TiO2 nanotubular surface. All the titanium discs were blasted with resorbable blast media (RBM). RBM-blasted Ti surface, anodized Ti surface, and sol-gel HA coating on the anodized Ti surface were prepared. The characteristics of samples were observed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Biologic responses were evaluated with human osteosarcoma MG63 cells in vitro. The top of the TiO2 nanotubes was not completely covered by HA particles when the coating time was less than 60 sec. It was demonstrated the sol-gel derived HA film was well-crystallized and this enhanced biologic responses in early stage cell response.

  15. Ce-doped YAG phosphors prepared via sol–gel method: Effect of some modular parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukerika, A., E-mail: assia1618@gmail.com [Laser Department/Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers (CRNA), 02, Boulevard Frantz Fanon, B.P. 399, Algiers 16000 (Algeria); Laboratory of Materials Study, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Jijel University, B.P. 98, Ouled Aissa, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Guerbous, L., E-mail: guerbous@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Materials Study, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Jijel University, B.P. 98, Ouled Aissa, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Brihi, N. [Laboratory of Materials Study, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Jijel University, B.P. 98, Ouled Aissa, Jijel 18000 (Algeria)

    2014-11-25

    Highlights: • Ce-doped YAG phosphor powders have been prepared using sol-gel method. • The influence of complexing agent and the molar ratio on some properties have been studied. • The effect of ethylene glycol and citric acid on the structural and luminescence havebeen discussed. • The specific role of molar ratio between ethylene glycol and citric acid has been studied. • The effect of pH on the pure phase and luminescence property of YAG: Ce has been discussed. - Abstract: Cerium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Ce{sup 3+}) nanopowders have been synthesized using sol–gel method. Different synthesized parameters such as molar ratio of citric acid and ethylene glycol to the total metallic ions, complexing molar ratio and pH of the solution have been changed and their influence on structural and luminescence properties have been investigated. Thermal gravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC), X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and photoluminescence (PL) have been used to characterize the samples. Single cubic phase YAG was formed with pH ⩽ 4 and for pH ⩾ 6 additional impurities crystalline phase namely Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} (YAM) and YAlO{sub 3} (YAP) have been detected. All samples exhibit intense broad green–yellow emission band in the range of 460–700 nm with a maximum intensity at around 530 nm assigned to the 5d → 4f ({sup 2}F{sub 5/2}, {sup 2}F{sub 7/2}) interconfigurationnelles transitions of Ce{sup 3+} ion in YAG nanomaterial. The origin of the highest emission intensity obtained for pH = 4, citric acid to the total metallic ions of 1:1 (CA:M{sup 3+}, of 1:1) and a molar ratio of ethylene glycol:citric acid corresponding to 2:1 (EG:CA = 2:1) parameters are discussed.

  16. Automated Gel Size Selection to Improve the Quality of Next-generation Sequencing Libraries Prepared from Environmental Water Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyaguari-Diaz, Miguel I; Slobodan, Jared R; Nesbitt, Matthew J; Croxen, Matthew A; Isaac-Renton, Judith; Prystajecky, Natalie A; Tang, Patrick

    2015-04-17

    Next-generation sequencing of environmental samples can be challenging because of the variable DNA quantity and quality in these samples. High quality DNA libraries are needed for optimal results from next-generation sequencing. Environmental samples such as water may have low quality and quantities of DNA as well as contaminants that co-precipitate with DNA. The mechanical and enzymatic processes involved in extraction and library preparation may further damage the DNA. Gel size selection enables purification and recovery of DNA fragments of a defined size for sequencing applications. Nevertheless, this task is one of the most time-consuming steps in the DNA library preparation workflow. The protocol described here enables complete automation of agarose gel loading, electrophoretic analysis, and recovery of targeted DNA fragments. In this study, we describe a high-throughput approach to prepare high quality DNA libraries from freshwater samples that can be applied also to other environmental samples. We used an indirect approach to concentrate bacterial cells from environmental freshwater samples; DNA was extracted using a commercially available DNA extraction kit, and DNA libraries were prepared using a commercial transposon-based protocol. DNA fragments of 500 to 800 bp were gel size selected using Ranger Technology, an automated electrophoresis workstation. Sequencing of the size-selected DNA libraries demonstrated significant improvements to read length and quality of the sequencing reads.

  17. Preparation and evaluation of mesalamine collagen in situ rectal gel: a novel therapeutic approach for treating ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadass, Satiesh Kumar; Perumal, Sathiamurthi; Jabaris, Sugin Lal; Madhan, Balaraman

    2013-01-23

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects the colonic mucosa. Mesalamine had been established as a first line drug for treating mild to moderate UC. A continued availability of the drug for treatment of damaged tissues remains a great challenge today. In the present study, a novel mesalamine collagen in situ gel has been prepared using type I collagen, which is pH/temperature sensitive. This hydrogel undergoes sol-gel transition under physiological pH and temperature which was confirmed by rheological studies. The in vitro release profile demonstrated sustained release of mesalamine over a period of 12h. The in vivo efficacy of the in situ gel was performed using dextran sodium sulphate induced ulcerative colitis model in BALB/c mice. The clinical parameters such as, body weight changes, rectal bleeding and stool consistency were evaluated. In addition, the histopathological investigation was conducted to assess severity of mucosal damage and inflammation infiltrate. There was a significant reduction in rectal bleeding and mucosal damage score for collagen-mesalamine in situ gel group compared to the reference group. Apart from releasing mesalamine in controlled manner, the strategy of administering mesalamine through collagen in situ gel facilitates regeneration of damaged mucosa resulting in a synergistic effect for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  18. Preparation of chitosan-graft-(β-cyclodextrin) based sol-gel stationary phase for open-tubular capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Haixia; Li, Qingyin; Yu, Xiaowei; Yi, Jiaojiao; Xie, Zenghong

    2013-07-01

    A novel open-tubular CEC column coated with chitosan-graft-(β-CD) (CDCS) was prepared using sol-gel technique. In the sol-gel approach, owing to the 3D network of sol-gel and the strong chemical bond between the stationary phase and the surface of capillary columns, good chromatographic characteristics and unique selectivity in separating isomers were shown. The column efficiencies of 55,000∼163,000 plates/m for the isomeric xanthopterin and phenoxy acid herbicides using the sol-gel-derived CDCS columns were achieved. Good stabilities were demonstrated that the RSD values for the retention time of thiourea and isoxanthopterin were 1.3 and 1.4% (run to run, n = 5), 1.6 and 2.0% (day to day, n = 3), 2.9 and 3.1% (column to column, n = 3), respectively. The sol-gel-coated CDCS columns have shown improved separations of isomeric xanthopterin in comparison with CDCS-bonded capillary column.

  19. Studies of muscle proteins in embryonic myocardial cells of cardiac lethal mutant mexican axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) by use of heavy meromyosin binding and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    In the Mexican axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum recessive mutant gene c, by way of abnormal inductive processes from surrounding tissues, results in an absence of embryonic heart function. The lack of contractions in mutant heart cells apparently results from their inability to form normally organized myofibrils, even though a few actin-like (60-A) and myosin-like (150-A) filaments are present. Amorphous "proteinaceous" collections are often visible. In the present study, heavy meromyosin (HMM) treatment of mutant heart tissue greatly increases the number of thin filaments and decorates them in the usual fashion, confirming that they are actin. The amorphous collections disappear with the addition of HMM. In addition, an analysis of the constituent proteins of normal and mutant embryonic hearts and other tissues is made by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gel electrophoresis. These experiments are in full agreement with the morphological and HMM binding studies. The gels show distinct 42,000-dalton bands for both normal and mutant hearts, supporting the presence of normal actin. During early developmental stages (Harrison's stage 34) the cardiac tissues in normal and mutant siblings have indistinguishable banding patterns, but with increasing development several differences appear. Myosin heavy chain (200,000 daltons) increases substantially in normal hearts during development but very little in mutants. Even so the quantity of 200,000-dalton protein in mutant hearts is significantly more than in any of the nonmuscle tissues studied (i.e. gut, liver, brain). Unlike normal hearts, the mutant hearts lack a prominent 34,000-dalton band, indicating that if mutants contain muscle tropomyosin at all, it is present in drastically reduced amounts. Also, mutant hearts retain large amounts of yolk proteins at stages when the platelets have virtually disappeared from normal hearts. The morphologies and electrophoresis patterns of skeletal muscle from normal and mutant siblings are

  20. Hydrogen photochromism in V{sub 2}O{sub 5} layers prepared by the sol–gel technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi; Pan, Lei [Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology (China); Li, Yao, E-mail: yaoli@hit.edu.cn [Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology (China); Gavrilyuk, A.I., E-mail: gavrilyuk@mail.ioffe.ru [A.F. Ioffe Physical Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Sankt-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We prepared the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} gel layer by the sol–gel technology to investigate the photochromism. • The comprehensive characterization of the gels was carried out with the help of different technique. • The photochromic sensitivity of the layers was enhanced with thickness. • The position of the arising absorption band in the spectral range was dependant on the concentration of inserted hydrogen atoms. - Abstract: Here we report on hydrogen photochromism in V{sub 2}O{sub 5} highly disordered layers, i.e., photochromism that occurs due to hydrogen atoms; the hydrogen being detached under the action of light from organic molecules adsorbed on the oxide surface, whereas the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} layers have been prepared by the sol–gel technology. The comprehensive characterization of the layers has been carried out, as well as the investigation of the parameters influencing their photochromic sensitivity. The high photochromic sensitivity of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} layers is provided by the surface Grotthuss diffusion of the injected protons.

  1. Functional characterization of the gels prepared with pectin methylesterase (PME)-treated pectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young-Hee; Lee, Suyong; Kim, Yang; Kim, Kwang-Ok; Kim, Young-Suk; Yoo, Sang-Ho

    2009-10-01

    High- and low-methoxyl pectins were treated with pectin methylesterase (PME) and the functional properties of the resulting pectin gels were characterized. The degree of esterification of high- and low-methoxyl pectins decreased from 74.5% to 6.3% and 40.0% to 6.5%, respectively while not changing their molecular weight. Also, the addition of glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) dramatically affected the gel strength and the pH reduction by the GDL led to the increased syneresis of the pectin gels, which was also observed in the PME-treated samples. When flavor compounds were incorporated into the pectin gels, the flavor release from the gels increased with decreasing the degree of esterification due to increased hydrophilic properties.

  2. Comparison of the redox activities of sol-gel and conventionally prepared Bi-Mo-Ti mixed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildberger, M.; Grundwaldt, J.D.; Mallat, T.; Baiker, A. [Lab. of Technical Chemistry, Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-12-31

    Novel sol-gel Bi-Mo-Ti oxides have been prepared and characterized by XRD, XPS, FT-Raman and HRTEM. The surface Bi{sup 3+} and Mo{sup 6+} species of some xerogels and an aerogel could be reduced and oxidized at room temperature, whereas the conventionally prepared reference materials were not reduced by H{sub 2} below 300 C. The unusual redox properties, under very mild conditions, are likely due to the unique morphology of Bi-Mo-oxides stabilized by titania. During butadiene oxidation to furan at above 400 C to sol-gel mixed oxides restructured considerably and their performance was barely better than that of titania-supported Bi-Mo oxides. (orig.)

  3. Novel Nano Boehmite prepared by Solvothermal reaction of aluminum hydroxide gel in Monoethanolamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yasuhiro; Hayakawa, Tomokatsu; Inomata, Tomohiko; Ozawa, Tomohiro; Masuda, Hideki

    2017-07-01

    Solvothermal reaction of aluminum hydroxide gel (AHG) in monoethanolamine (MEA) was studied at several temperatures (100, 120, 150, and 200 °C) in several reaction times (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 13 h). The reaction product prepared at a low temperature of 120 °C in the reaction time more than 6 h gave a blue photoluminescence nanoboehmite intercalated with monoethanolamine derivatives (BM-MEA) in the colloidal solution, which showed a photoluminescence emission centered at 420 nm with an excitation of 360 nm. The powdery samples recovered from the reaction products were characterized by using elemental analysis, XRD analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric (TG)-DTA, 13C and 27Al CP/MAS NMR spectroscopies, N2 gas adsorption/desorption isotherm, SEM and TEM images, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction revealed that the basal space in BM-MEA was expanded from 0.61 to 1.2 nm by intercalation of MEA derivatives to boehmite, and the IR and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra determined that the intercalated MEA derivatives are protonated- and carbamate-substituted MEAs, which are formed in the layers through a covalent bond with Al-OH groups on boehmite surface. The empirical formula of BM-MEA was estimated to be AlO(OH)0.82(OCH2CH2NH3 +)0.05(OCH2CH2NHCOO-)0.13 on the basis of the elemental TG-DTA and IR spectral analyses. We discuss the reaction mechanism of a unique blue photoluminescence BM-MEA formed by proceeding in CO2-H2O-alkanolamine system.

  4. The chemical and catalytic properties of nanocrystalline metal oxides prepared through modified sol-gel synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Corrie Leigh

    The goal of this research was to synthesize, characterize and study the chemical properties of nanocrystalline metal oxides. Nanocrystalline (NC) ZnO, CuO, NiO, Al2O3, and the binary Al2O 3/MgO and ZnO/CuO were prepared through modified sol gel methods. These NC metal oxides were studied in comparison to the commercial (CM) metal oxides. The samples were characterized by XRD, TGA, FTIR, BET, and TEM. The NC samples were all accompanied by a significant increase in surface area and decrease in crystallite size. Several chemical reactions were studied to compare the NC samples to the CM samples. One of the reactions involved a high temperature reaction between carbon tetrachloride and the oxide to form carbon dioxide and the corresponding metal chloride. A similar high temperature reaction was conducted between the metal oxide and hydrogen sulfide to form water and the corresponding metal sulfide. A room temperature gas phase adsorption was studied where SO2 was adsorbed onto the oxide. A liquid phase adsorption conducted at room temperature was the destructive adsorption of paraoxon (a toxic insecticide). In all reactions the NC samples exhibited greater activity, destroying or adsorbing a larger amount of the toxins compared to the CM samples. To better study surface area effects catalytic reactions were also studied. The catalysis of methanol was studied over the nanocrystalline ZnO, CuO, NiO, and ZnO/CuO samples in comparison to their commercial counterparts. In most cases the NC samples proved to be more active catalysts, having higher percent conversions and turnover numbers. A second catalytic reaction was also studied, this reaction was investigated to look at the support effects. The catalysis of cyclopropane to propane was studied over Pt and Co catalysts. These catalysts were supported onto NC and CM alumina by impregnation. By observing differences in the catalytic behavior, support effects have become apparent.

  5. Preparation of mullite fiber sol-gel method. Sol-gel ho ni yoru mullite sen prime i no gosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, T. (Unichika Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Fujiki, Y. (National Institute for Research and Inorganic Materials, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1991-08-01

    This report discribes a method to prepare mullite fiber by a new process using aqueous solution of aluminum nitrate, aluminum isopropoxide, and tetraethoxisilane(TEOS). Presursors of mullite were obtained by a method to add aluminum isopropoxide and TEOS simultaneously to the solution of aluminum nitrate, or by another method to add TEOS after adding aluminum isopropoxide. Then, structural analyses on the spinning solution, precursor fibers, and calcination process were carried out by {sup 27}Al- and {sup 29}Si-NMR, X-ray diffraction analysis, and DTA. The spinnable range of the method to add aluminum isopropoxide and TEOS at the same time was wider when it was shown with H{sub 2}O mol/(Al+Si)mol and Al(OPr{sup i}){sub 3} mol/Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} mol. Manifastation of spinnability deeply related to the bonding condition of Al and Si formed in the solution. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Preparation and Ethanol Sensing Properties of ZnO Nanoparticles via a Novel Sol-Gel Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi Daryakenari, A.; AHMADI DARYAKENARI M.; Bahari, Y.; Omivar, H.

    2012-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles were prepared using a novel sol-gel method. Chemical reactions were carried out between zinc acetate and methanol under ambient conditions using monoethanol amine (MEA) as surfactant and subsequent heating at 2 0 0 ∘ C . The powders were calcined, pressed into pellets, and presintered. The properties of the product were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. For gas sensing experiment, etha...

  7. Preparation of Strontium Bismuth Tantalum (SBT) Fine Powder by Sol-Gel Process Using Bismuth Subnitrate as Bismuth Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Strontium bismuth tantalum (SBT) fine power was prepared by Sol-Gel method. Pentaethoxy tantalum, strontium acetate and bismuth subnitrate were used as raw materials, and were dissolved in proper order in ethylene glycol to form transparent sol. The mixed precursor was dried at 80°C and annealed at 800°C for 1 h. Crystallized nanometer sized SBT fine powder was obtained and characterized by XRD.

  8. A new approach to prepare nanoscopic rare earth metal fluorides: the fluorolytic sol-gel synthesis of ytterbium fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, L; Dimitrov, A; Kemnitz, E

    2014-06-25

    A new approach for the preparation of approx. 5 nm sized ytterbium fluoride nanoparticles based on the fluorolytic sol-gel route is reported. DLS, TEM, IR and XRD were used to characterize the particles as well as the aging behavior of the sols. Furthermore, a new Yb(III) complex was isolated from the precursor solution and characterized by X-ray single crystal structure determination.

  9. Preparation of gas-tight strontium-doped lanthanum cobaltate by an aqueous sol-gel process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.H.; Kruidhof, H.; Bouwmeester, H.J.M.; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Gas-tight dense membranes of highly Sr-doped LaCoO3 (such as the composition La0.3Sr0.7CoO3 chosen in this study) are difficult to prepare using usual synthesis processes. This report presents an aqueous sol-gel route using metal acetates as precursors to achieve this goal. Hydrogen peroxide and amm

  10. Nanostructured ZnO thin films prepared by sol–gel spin-coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heredia, E., E-mail: heredia.edu@gmail.com [UNIDEF (CONICET-MINDEF), J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bojorge, C.; Casanova, J.; Cánepa, H. [UNIDEF (CONICET-MINDEF), J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Craievich, A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Cidade Universitária, 66318 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kellermann, G. [Universidade Federal do Paraná, 19044 Paraná (Brazil)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • ZnO films synthesized by sol–gel were deposited by spin-coating on flat substrates. • Structural features of ZnO films with several thicknesses were characterized by means of different techniques. • The thicknesses of different ZnO thin films were determined by means of FESEM and AFM. • The nanoporous structures of ZnO thin films were characterized by GISAXS using IsGISAXS software. • The average densities of ZnO thin films were derived from (i) the critical angle in 1D XR patterns, (ii) the angle of Yoneda peak in 2D GISAXS images, (iii) minimization of chi2 using IsGISAXS best fitting procedure. - Abstract: ZnO thin films deposited on silica flat plates were prepared by spin-coating and studied by applying several techniques for structural characterization. The films were prepared by depositing different numbers of layers, each deposition being followed by a thermal treatment at 200 °C to dry and consolidate the successive layers. After depositing all layers, a final thermal treatment at 450 °C during 3 h was also applied in order to eliminate organic components and to promote the crystallization of the thin films. The total thickness of the multilayered films – ranging from 40 nm up to 150 nm – was determined by AFM and FESEM. The analysis by GIXD showed that the thin films are composed of ZnO crystallites with an average diameter of 25 nm circa. XR results demonstrated that the thin films also exhibit a large volume fraction of nanoporosity, typically 30–40 vol.% in thin films having thicknesses larger than ∼70 nm. GISAXS measurements showed that the experimental scattering intensity is well described by a structural model composed of nanopores with shape of oblate spheroids, height/diameter aspect ratio within the 0.8–0.9 range and average diameter along the sample surface plane in the 5–7 nm range.

  11. Network generation enhances interpretation of proteomics data sets by a combination of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xijun; Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wu, Gelin; Sun, Wenjun; Yan, Guangli

    2012-10-21

    Recent advances in proteomic technologies have enabled us to create detailed protein-protein interaction maps in diseases. As the size of the interaction dataset increases, powerful computational methods are required in order to effectively interpret network models from large scale interactome data. In this study, we carried out comparative proteomics to construct and identify the proteins networks associated with hepatic injury (HI) which are largely unknown, as a case study. All proteins expressed were separated and identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). Protein-interacting networks and pathways were mapped using STRING analysis program. We have performed for the first time a comprehensive profiling of changes in protein expression of HI rats, to uncover the networks altered by treated with CCl(4). Identification of fifteen spots (seven over-expressed and eight under-expressed) were established by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. These proteins were subjected to functional pathway analysis using STRING software for better understanding of the biological context of the identified proteins. It suggested that modulation of multiple vital physiological pathways including DNA repair process, cell apoptosis, oxidation reduction, signal transduction, metabolic process, intracellular signaling cascade, regulation of biological processes, cell communication, regulation of cellular process, and molecular transport. In summary, the present study provides the first protein-interacting network maps and novel insights into the biological responses and potential pathways of HI. The generation of protein interaction networks clearly enhances the interpretation of proteomic data, particularly in respect of understanding molecular mechanisms of panel protein biomarkers.

  12. Protein extraction from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: Comparison of methods for analysis by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, native PAGE and surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumber, Sanjeev; Taylor, Deborah L; Whittington, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    Mycobacterium paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease, a chronic bowel disease in ruminants worldwide and is currently incurable. This study was conducted to compare methods for examining the proteome of M. paratuberculosis. SDS-PAGE, native PAGE and SELDI-TOF-MS were compared and the efficacy of various lysis buffers was assessed. Chaotropic agents (Urea CHAPS and potassium thiocyanate) and non-ionic detergent (Tween20 and Triton X-100) extracts were compared on three different ProteinChip surfaces along with two energy absorbing molecules (EAM): EAM-1 proprietary formulation and sinapinic acid (Ciphergen). Urea CHAPS was efficient for extraction of proteins and their detection on all the ProteinChip surfaces. However, potassium thiocyanate was the most effective buffer, leading to detection of the greatest number of protein peaks on the immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) surface. Sinapinic acid was more efficient than the EAM-1 proprietary formulation and resulted in additional peaks with higher intensity for both the low and the medium molecular weight range proteins. Intra-chip and inter-chip coefficient of variation for mass/charge varied from 0.01% to 0.07% and 0.00% to 0.08%, respectively. SELDI-TOF-MS was an efficient tool for the protein profiling of M. paratuberculosis and will be useful for investigation of novel proteins, although SDS-PAGE/2D gel electrophoresis is recommended for study of high molecular weight species. All buffers were suitable for protein extraction for SDS-PAGE, while Tween20 was best for native PAGE.

  13. Comparison of the Sol-gel Method with the Coprecipitation Technique for Preparation of Hexagonal Barium Ferrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing-ping; LIU Ying; ZHANG Mi-lin; QIAO Ying-jie; XIA Tian

    2008-01-01

    Hexagonal barium ferrite BaFe12O19 particles were prepared by sol-gel and coprecipitation methods,respectively.The composition of the so-obtained materials was investigated by means of XRD.By the sol-gel method,non-anticipated intermediate crystalline phases,such as γ-Fe2O3,α-Fe2O3,BaCO3,and BaFe2O4 etc.,were formed with the delay of the formation of BaFe12O19.The formation of single phase BaFe12O19 required calcination at 850 ℃ for 4 h.On the other hand,using copreeipitation technique,amorphous hydroxide precursor was directly transferred into BaFe12O19 almost without the formation of intermediate crystalline phases.BaFe12O19 was prepared by calcining at 700 ℃ for 3 h.The results were confirmed by ESEM and VSM analyses.Based on the already reported results and the observed results in this study,it can be concluded that the coprecipitaion technique is easier to control than the sol-gel method for preparation of BaFe12O19 at a low temperature.

  14. Effect of ammonium hydroxide on preparation process of YBa2Cu3O7-x superconductor by sol gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Arabi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper the effect of ammonium hydroxide addition to the solution of metallic oxide on sol gel preparation process of YBCO is studied with differential thermal analysis, thermal graviometry and X-ray diffraction. Two samples with and without ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium hydroxide prevents both barium nitrate precipitate during the gel preparation and also unwanted reaction as well as increasing homogeneous product. After drying the gel, the samples heated up to 1050°C in DTA apparatus in order to find more accurate the type and the temperature of reaction during the preparation process. After the initial reactions in the samples, Y2Cu2O5 and 123 phases are created in the range of 780-840°C and then the 123 phase is strengthened at 900-950°C. As shown in X-ray data, 123 was the only phase after this range. In addition ammonium hydroxide support and increase the creation of 123 phase at lower temperature.

  15. Study of gels of molybdenum with cerium in the preparation of generators of 99Mo - 99mTc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Moraes

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available 99mTc has ideal nuclear properties for organ imaging in nuclear medicine, and it is obtained from the 99Mo-99mTc generator. Four different types of generators are available: chromatographic that uses 99Mo from fission of uranium; MEK solvent extraction; Tc2O7 sublimation; gel chromatographic. This work presents the preparation of gel generators of molybdenum with cerium and characterization of the gels: mass ratio between molybdenum and cerium, structure, size of particles and elution percentage of 99mTc after irradiating the gels. Eight gels were prepared at the same temperature of 50 ºC with concentrations of NaOH of 2 and 4 mol/L, mass ratio of 0.31 and 0.38 and final pH of 3.5 and 4.5. The analysis of the results proved that these gels are not adequate for preparation of the generators of 99Mo-99mTc, since the elution percentages are low, when compared with the gel of molybdenum with zirconium.O 99mTc é o radiofármaco mais utilizado em Medicina Nuclear. Ele é obtido do gerador de 99Mo-99mTc e existem quatro tipos diferentes de geradores: cromatográfico que utiliza 99Mo de fissão; extração por solvente com MKT; sublimação do heptaóxido de tecnécio; cromatográfico tipo gel. Este trabalho apresenta a preparação de geradores tipo gel de molibdênio com cério, a caracterização desses géis com relação à quantidade de molibdênio e de cério, sua estrutura, tamanho das partículas e porcentagem de eluição do 99mTc após o gel ser irradiado. Foram preparados oito géis na temperatura de 50ºC com concentração de NaOH de 2 e 4 mol/L, relação de massa de 0,31 e 0,38 e pH final de 3,5 e 4,5. A análise dos resultados comprovou que esses géis não são adequados para preparação dos geradores de 99Mo-99mTc, já que as porcentagens de eluição são baixas, quando comparadas com o gel de molibdênio com zircônio.

  16. Preparation of Nd-doped gadolinium-gallium garnet laser ceramic powder by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yan-ping; LIU Jing-he

    2006-01-01

    Preparation of Nd3+:Gd3Ga5O12 polycrystalline material by sol-gel method was preparated in this paper.The structure and the pattern of the sample were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis(TG-DTA),Infrared spectrum,XRD,TEM and electron spectrum,which indicated that the powder with good characteristics of 70-100 nm can be obtained by sintering at 1 000℃.It was shown that the chemical composition of the sample was agreed with experimental requirements by electron spectrum analysis.

  17. Viscoelasticity of various gel films prepared from solvent-soluble constituents in coal; Sekitanchu no yobai kayoseibun kara sakuseishita shushu no gel maku no nendansei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takanohashi, T.; Isoda, S.; Doi, S.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    Viscoelasticity of gel films prepared from solvent-soluble constituents without ash of coal using the mixed solvent of carbon disulfide and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS2-NMP) was measured to study the network structure of the constituents. In experiment, Upper Freeport coal and Zao Zhuang coal were used as specimens. Viscoelasticity of various gels with different weight fractions of solvent was measured by creep measurement under a fixed load and stress-strain analysis under variable loads. In the 2nd and 3rd creep measurements, although no large changes in elastic strain and viscoelastic strain were found, viscous strain gradually decreased with an increase in viscosity. In the case of small weight fraction of solvent, small viscous strain and viscoelastic strain were found, while slightly large elastic strain was found. It was thus suggested that this elastic strain is derived from not only physical cross-linked networks by coal-solvent interaction but also those by coal-coal interaction in polymer chains of coal itself. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Preparation of silane-WO{sub 3} film through sol-gel method and characterization of photochromism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Zhongkuan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, Guangdong (China)], E-mail: luozhongkuan@126.com; Yang Jianjun [Xinyi Glass Holdings Limited, Shenzhen 518115, Guangdong (China); Cai Honghua; Li Haiyang; Ren Xiangzhong; Liu Jianhong; Liang Xun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, Guangdong (China)

    2008-06-30

    The sol of silane and WO{sub 3} was prepared from tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and methacryloxy-propyl-trimethoxy silane (KH570) with a novel route as described in previous work, and the aqueous WO{sub 3} solution was prepared from ammonium tungstate. These two sols were mixed by stirring for about 1 hour with a certain ratio. Through sol-gel method, the transparent hybrids coating of organic silane and tungsten oxide was prepared by spraying or dipping on the glass substrates, and then were heat-treated at a certain temperature. The photochromic properties were investigated. AFM was used to investigate the surface structure of the prepared coatings. The crystalline phase was studied through X-ray diffraction. UV lights with different wavelengths were used to get the coloration of the film. The results show that silane-WO{sub 3} film exhibits better photo-chromic properties under UV light irradiation.

  19. Molecular receptors in metal oxide sol-gel materials prepared via molecular imprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Ashley, Carol S.; Daitch, Charles E.; Shea, Kenneth J.; Rush, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    A method is provided for molecularly imprinting the surface of a sol-gel material, by forming a solution comprised of a sol-gel material, a solvent, an imprinting molecule, and a functionalizing siloxane monomer of the form Si(OR).sub.3-n X.sub.n, wherein n is an integer between zero and three and X is a functional group capable of reacting with the imprinting molecule, evaporating the solvent, and removing the imprinting molecule to form the molecularly imprinted metal oxide sol-gel material. The use of metal oxide sol-gels allows the material porosity, pore size, density, surface area, hardness, electrostatic charge, polarity, optical density, and surface hydrophobicity to be tailored and be employed as sensors and in catalytic and separations operations.

  20. Preparation of ultrafine LiTaO3 powders by citrate gel method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Navale; V Samuel; V Ravi

    2005-08-01

    A gel was formed when a aqueous solution of Li(NO3), TaF5 and citric acid in stoichiometric ratio was heated in a water bath. This gel on decomposition at 700°C produced fine crystallites of ternary oxide, LiTaO3 (LT). The phase contents and lattice parameters were studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Particle size and morphology were studied by transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM).

  1. Preparation and Properties of New Inorganic Glasses and Gel-Derived Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    application of halide glass fibers. We have therefore performed P accurate annealing temperatures on ZBLA and ZBLAN glass fibers. Figure 11 shows the length...New Inorganic Glasses and Gel-Derived Solids . .2. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) ’/ J. D. Mackenzie 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT...necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP , Sol-gel methods, --Halide glasses , Porous glass -polymer composites, Fluorozirconate glasses

  2. Preparation and characterization of conductive and transparent ruthenium dioxide sol-gel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allhusen, John S; Conboy, John C

    2013-11-27

    RuO2 conductive thin films were synthesized using the sol-gel method and deposited onto transparent insulating substrates. The optical transmission, film thickness, surface morphology and composition, resistivity, and spectroelectrochemical performance have been characterized. The optical transmission values of these films ranged from 70 to 89% in the visible region and from 56 to 88% in the infrared region. Resistivity values of the RuO2 sol-gel films varied from 1.02 × 10(-3) to 1.13 Ω cm and are highly dependent on the initial solution concentration of RuO2 in the sol-gel. The RuO2 sol-gel films were used as electrodes for the electrochemical oxidation and reduction of ferrocenemethanol. The electrochemical behavior of our novel RuO2 sol-gel films was compared to that of a standard platinum disk electrode and showed no appreciable differences in the half-wave potential (E1/2). The mechanical and chemical stability of the coatings was tested by physical abrasion and exposure to highly acidic, oxidizing Piranha solution. Repeated exposure to these extreme conditions did not result in any appreciable decline in electrochemical performance. Finally, the use of the novel RuO2 sol-gel conductive and transparent films was demonstrated in a spectroelectrochemistry experiment in which the oxidation and reduction of ferrocenemethanol was monitored via UV-vis spectroscopy as the applied potential was cycled.

  3. Preparation and characterization of EPDM/silica composites prepared through non-hydrolytic sol-gel method in the absence and presence of a coupling agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Mokhothu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM rubber composites containing in situ generated silica particles was prepared through a non-hydrolytic sol-gel (NHSG method with silicon tetrachloride as precursor. The silica particles were homogenously dispersed in the EPDM matrix, but there were agglomerates at high silica contents. The swelling experiments showed a decrease in the crosslinking density of the vulcanized rubber due to the presence of the silica particles for both the composites prepared in the presence and absence of a coupling agent, bis-[-3-(triethoxysilyl-propyl]-tetrasulfide (TESPT. Unlike the composites prepared through a hydrolytic sol-gel (HSG method with TEOS as precursor, the TESPT did not seem to take part in the sol-gel reaction. The presence of TESPT influenced the interaction and dispersion of the silica particles in the EPDM matrix, which gave rise to increased thermal stability of the EPDM when compared to the composites prepared in the absence of TESPT. However, ethylene chloride and TESPT evaporated from the samples at temperatures below the EPDM decomposition range. The values of the Nielsen model parameters, that gave rise to a good agreement with the experimentally determined Young’s modulus values, indicated improved dispersion and reduced size of the silica aggregates in the EPDM matrix. There was also good agreement between the storage modulus and Young’s modulus values. The filler effectiveness (Factor C indicated a mechanical stiffening effect and a thermal stability contribution by the filler, while the damping reduction (DR values confirmed that the EPDM interacted strongly with the well dispersed silica particles and the polymer chain mobility was restricted. The tensile properties, however, were in some cases worse than those for the samples prepared through the HSG method in the presence of TEOS.

  4. Simultaneous immunoblotting analysis with activity gel electrophoresis and 2-D gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Der-Yen; Chang, Geen-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion blotting method can couple immunoblotting analysis with another biochemical technique in a single polyacrylamide gel, however, with lower transfer efficiency as compared to the conventional electroblotting method. Thus, with diffusion blotting, protein blots can be obtained from an SDS polyacrylamide gel for zymography assay, from a native polyacrylamide gel for electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) or from a 2-D polyacrylamide gel for large-scale screening and identification of a protein marker. Thereafter, a particular signal in zymography, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and 2-dimensional gel can be confirmed or identified by simultaneous immunoblotting analysis with a corresponding antiserum. These advantages make diffusion blotting desirable when partial loss of transfer efficiency can be tolerated or be compensated by a more sensitive immunodetection reaction using enhanced chemiluminescence detection.

  5. Preparation and evaluation of novel in situ gels containing acyclovir for the treatment of oral herpes simplex virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Binu; Verma, Surajpal

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop an oral mucosal drug delivery system to facilitate the local and systemic delivery of acyclovir for the treatment of oral herpes infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). An in situ gelling system was used to increase the residence time and thus the bioavailability of acyclovir in oral mucosa. Temperature and pH trigged in situ gel formulations were prepared by cold method using polymers like poloxamer 407, carbopol 934, and HPMC. Glycerin and a mixture of tween 80 and ethanol (1 : 2 ratio) were used as the drug dissolving solvent. The pH of carbopol containing formulation was adjusted to pH 5.8 while the pH of poloxamer solution was adjusted to pH 7. These formulations were evaluated for sol-gel transition temperature, gelling capacity, pH, viscosity, spreadability, gel strength, drug content, ex-vitro permeation, and mucoadhesion. The gelation temperatures of all the formulations were within the range of 28-38°C. All the formulations exhibited fairly uniform drug content (98.15-99.75%). Drug release study of all the formulations showed sustained release properties. The release of drug through these in situ gel formulations followed the Higuchi model and Korsmeyer peppas model mechanism.

  6. Preparation of Raspberry-like Superhydrophobic SiO2 Particles by Sol-gel Method and Its Potential Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Gui-Long

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry‐like SiO2 particles with a nano‐micro‐binary structure were prepared by a simple sol‐gel method using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES as precursors. The chemical components and morphology of the SiO2 particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT‐IR and a Transmission electron microscope (TEM. The surface topography and wetting behaviour of the raspberry‐like SiO2 surface were observed with a Scanning electron microscope (SEM and studied by the water/oil contact angle (CA, respectively. The thermal stability of the prepared SiO2 particles was characterized by TGA analysis. The results show that the highly dispersed SiO2 particles initially prepared by the sol‐gel method turn into raspberry‐like particles with during the aging process. The raspberry‐like SiO2 particles show superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity across a wide range of pH values. The SiO2 particles were thermally stable up to 475°C, while above this temperature the hydrophobicity decreases and finally becomes superhydrophobic when the temperature reaches 600°C. The raspberry‐like SiO2 particles which were prepared have potential applications in the fields of superhydrophobic surfaces, water‐oil separation, anti‐corrosion and fluid transportation.

  7. Luminescent Eosin Y–SiO{sub 2} hybrid nano and microrods prepared by sol–gel template method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secu, M., E-mail: msecu@infim.ro [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, Bucharest–Magurele, 077125 (Romania); Secu, C.E.; Sima, M.; Negrea, R.F.; Bartha, C. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, Bucharest–Magurele, 077125 (Romania); Dinescu, M.; Damian, V. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest–Magurele 077125 (Romania)

    2013-11-15

    Sol–gel chemistry within the pores of a polycarbonate template membrane was used for the preparation of Eosin Y–SiO{sub 2} hybrid nano- and microrods, using tetraethylorthosilicate [TEOS, Si(OC{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4}] as the precursor in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) catalyst. The ethanolic solution of Eosin-Y was added to the silica sol to trap dye molecules inside the SiO{sub 2} gel network during the gelation. Structural and morphological characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and luminescence microscopy have shown the formation of rods with 200 nm and 1.2 μm diameter and about 30 μm length, exhibiting luminescence properties. Spectroscopic characterization has shown that the luminescence is due to Eosin-Y molecule in the xerogel porous network, surrounded by a solvation shell given mainly by the water. -- Highlights: • Sol–gel template method was used to prepare Eosin Y–SiO{sub 2} hybrid rods-type structures. • Morphological characterization has shown nano- and microrods with luminescent properties. • Luminescence is due to Eosin-Y molecule surrounded by a solvation shell given by water.

  8. Influence of pH on the Property of Apatite-type Lanthanum Silicates Prepared by Sol-gel Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Qingle; LU Lihua; ZENG Yanwei; ZHANG Hua

    2012-01-01

    The apatite-type lanthanum silicates with formula La9.33Si6O26 are prepared by sol-gel process.The homogeneity of the sol affected by pH value of the solution is investigated.The viscosity of the sols slightly increases first and then increases abruptly because the predominant reaction mechanism changes from hydrolysis reaction to condensation reaction.In addition,the onset time of the increase for the viscosity shortens from pH1 to pH 4.The gelation time decreases with increasing pH of the solution.Therefore,the pH of the sols should be less than 4 to form gel.The sol with initial pH 2 shows maximum value of zeta potential and maximum stability.For the sample with initial pH 2,pure apatite-type lanthanum silicates La9.33Si6O26 have been successfully prepared after the dried gel is calcined at 1 000 ℃.In addition,this sample sintered at 1 550 ℃exhibits the highest ionic conductivity.The activation energies are all less than 0.90 eV.

  9. Preparation of a Thermosensitive Gel Composed of a mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD Nanodrug Delivery System for Pancreatic Tumor Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ming; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Ying; Han, Bao-Shan; Duan, You-Rong

    2015-09-23

    It is hypothesized that a gel (NP-Gel) composed of thermosensitive gel (Gel) and nanoparticles (NP) can prolong drug release time and overcome the drug resistance of pancreatic tumor cells. Paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded monomethoxy (polyethylene glycol)-poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(l-lysine)-cyclic peptide (arginine-glycine-aspartic-glutamic-valine acid) (mPEG-PLGA-PLL-cRGD) NP and NP-Gel were designed, optimized, and characterized using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, high efficiency liquid chromatography, and rheological analyses. Aspc-1/PTX cell was used in a cell uptake test. A 3D cell model was used to mimic PTX elimination in tissue. The in vivo sustained release and antitumor effects were studied in Aspc-1/PTX-loaded nude mice with xerographic and in situ tumors. The NP were 133.7 ± 28.3 nm with 85.03% entrapped efficiency, 1.612% loaded ratio, and suitable rheological properties. PTX was released as NP from NP-Gel, greatly prolonging the release and elimination times to afford long-term effects. NP-Gel enhanced the uptake of PTX by Aspc-1/PTX cells more than using NP or the Gel alone. Gel and NP-Gel remained solid in the tumor and stayed over 50 days versus the several days of NP in solution. NP-Gel exhibited a much higher inhibition rate in vivo than in solution, NP, or the Gel alone. In conclusion, the antitumor effects of NP-Gel might arise from synergic effects from NP and the Gel. NP primarily reversed drug resistance, while the Gel prolonged release time considerably in situ. This preparation proved effective with a very small PTX dose (250 μg/kg) and exhibited few toxic effects in normal tissue.

  10. Sol-Gel Preparation and Luminescence Properties of BaMgAl10O17∶Eu2+ Phosphors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of BaMgAl10O17∶ Eu2+ (BAM) phosphors using the sol-gel method and their luminescence properties were reported. The blue-light emitting BAM was synthesized using citric acid and ethylene glycol as chelating materials. Emission of blue-light was obtained from these phosphors. The luminescent intensity increases as the temperature of heat treatment is increased. This study investigated the effects of the molar ratio of ethylene glycol to citric acid (Φ value), with respect to the phase formation and luminescence properties of BAM. The variation of the Φ value resulted in the change of the sol-gel reaction mechanism and the microstructures of the resultant powders. An increase in Φ value leads to an increase in the rate of BAM phase formation. The photoluminescent intensity of the prepared phosphors increases with heating temperatures because of enhanced crystallization.

  11. Direct ArF laser photopatterning of metal oxide nanostructures prepared by the sol-gel route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridaoui, Hassan; Wieder, Fernand; Ponche, Arnaud; Soppera, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.soppera@uha.fr [Institut de Science des Materiaux de Mulhouse (IS2M), CNRS-LRC 7228, Universite de Haute Alsace, 15 rue Jean Starcky, Mulhouse (France)

    2010-02-10

    We developed specific negative tone resists suitable for preparing periodic inorganic nanostructures by ArF photolithography. This approach is based on the sol-gel chemistry of modified metal alkoxides followed by DUV laser irradiation. Patterning at the nanoscale was demonstrated by using an achromatic interferometer operating at 193 nm. In a second step, thermal treatment could be used to obtain metal oxide nanostructures (ZrO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}). Such thermal treatment did not affect the integrity of the nanostructures. The DUV-induced modifications of the physico-chemical properties of the sol-gel thin film were followed by ellipsometry, XPS and AFM. The crystalline structure of the material after thermal treatment was proved by DRX analysis. Examples of periodic nanostructures are given in order to illustrate the possibilities opened by this new route that provides a convenient method to create transparent, robust, high refractive index nanostructures compatible with a wide variety of substrates.

  12. The preparation of sol-gel materials doped with ionic liquids and trialkyl phosphine oxides for yttrium(III) uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinghui; Sun, Xiaoqi; Luo, Fang; Chen, Ji

    2007-12-01

    A new material (IL923SGs) composed of ionic liquids and trialkyl phosphine oxides (Cyanex 923) for Y(III) uptake was prepared via a sol-gel method. The hydrophobic ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (C8mim+ PF6(-)) was used as solvent medium and pore templating material. The extraction of Y(III) by IL923SGs was mainly due to the complexation of metal ions with Cyanex 923 doped in the solid silica. Ionic liquid was stably doped into the silica gel matrix providing a diffusion medium for Cyanex 923, and this will result in higher removal efficiencies and excellent stability for metal ions separation. IL923SGs were also easily regenerated and reused in the subsequent removal of Y(III) in four cycles.

  13. The preparation of sol-gel materials doped with ionic liquids and trialkyl phosphine oxides for Yttrium(III) uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yinghui [Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Chemistry and Physics, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Sun Xiaoqi [Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Chemistry and Physics, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Luo Fang [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Chen Ji [Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Chemistry and Physics, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)], E-mail: jchen@ciac.jl.cn

    2007-12-05

    A new material (IL923SGs) composed of ionic liquids and trialkyl phosphine oxides (Cyanex 923) for Y(III) uptake was prepared via a sol-gel method. The hydrophobic ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (C{sub 8}mim{sup +}PF{sub 6}{sup -}) was used as solvent medium and pore templating material. The extraction of Y(III) by IL923SGs was mainly due to the complexation of metal ions with Cyanex 923 doped in the solid silica. Ionic liquid was stably doped into the silica gel matrix providing a diffusion medium for Cyanex 923, and this will result in higher removal efficiencies and excellent stability for metal ions separation. IL923SGs were also easily regenerated and reused in the subsequent removal of Y(III) in four cycles.

  14. Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Composite Prepared by Sol-Gel Synthesis and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, O; Kuntz, J; Gash, A; Munir, Z

    2009-02-13

    Energetic composite powders consisting of sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide were produced with various amounts of micrometer-scale tantalum fuel metal. Such energetic composite powders were ignition tested and results show that the powders are not sensitive to friction, spark and/or impact ignition. Initial consolidation experiments, using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique, on the sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide produced samples with higher relative density than can be achieved with commercially available tungsten oxide. The sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide with immobilized tantalum fuel metal (Ta - WO{sub 3}) energetic composite was consolidated to a density of 9.17 g.cm{sup -3} or 93% relative density. In addition those parts were consolidated without significant pre-reaction of the constituents, thus the sample retained its stored chemical energy.

  15. Preparation and evaluation of chitosan based thermoreversible gels for intraperitoneal delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depani, Bhavesh P; Naik, Anuja A; Nair, Hema A

    2013-12-01

    Sterile thermoreversibly gelling systems based on chitosan- glycerol phosphate were developed for intraperitoneal delivery of the antineoplastic agent 5-FU. The formulation was evaluated for gelling characteristics and in vitro drug release. Drug free gels were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity in L-929 mouse fibroblast cells. Drug loaded gels were subjected to acute toxicity studies in Swiss albino mice via intraperitoneal route and efficacy studies via intratumoral injections in subcutaneous colon carcinoma bearing BALB/c mice. The formulations gelled reversibly in 8 min at 37 °C and provided prolonged release of the drug. Drug free systems showed dose dependent cytotoxicity in fibroblast cells, while in vivo studies revealed a 2.8-fold increase in LD50 of 5-FU administered intraperitoneally as the developed system. Tumor volume measurements showed comparable efficacy of 5-FU administered as gel and commercial injection with a greatly improved safety profile of the former as adjudged from mortality and body weight measurements.

  16. Zinc oxide films prepared by sol-gel spin coating technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaruddin, Sharul Ashikin; Chan, Kah-Yoong; Yow, Ho-Kwang [Multimedia University, Faculty of Engineering, Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Zainizan Sahdan, Mohd; Saim, Hashim [Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Knipp, Dietmar [Jacobs University Bremen, School of Engineering and Science, Bremen (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films and micro- and nanostructures are very promising candidates for novel applications in emerging thin-film transistors, solar cells, sensors and optoelectronic devices. In this paper, a low-cost sol-gel spin coating technique was used to fabricate ZnO films on glass substrates. The sol-gel fabrication process of the ZnO films is described. The influence of precursor concentration on the material properties of the ZnO films was investigated. Atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffractometry were employed to examine the structural properties of the ZnO films. The optical properties of the ZnO films were characterized with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The experimental results reveal that the precursor concentration in the sol-gel spin coating process exerts a strong influence on the properties of the ZnO films. The effects of the precursor concentration are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Use of a purified outer membrane protein F (porin) preparation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a protective vaccine in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilleland, H. E.; Parker, M G; Matthews, J.M.; Berg, R D

    1984-01-01

    The outer membrane protein F (porin) from the PAO1 strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was purified by two different methods. One procedure involved separation by column chromatography of proteins extracted from isolated outer membranes, whereas the other involved extraction from gels after slab polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins extracted from cell envelopes. Both procedures yielded protein F preparations which successfully immunized mice from subsequent challenge with the PAO1 stra...

  18. Preparation of high dielectric constant thin films of CaCu3Ti4O12 by sol–gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepam Maurya; Devendra P Singh; D C Agrawal; Y N Mohapatra

    2008-02-01

    Preparation of sol–gel derived CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) thin films using two different sols and their characterization including their dielectric response are reported. The properties of CCTO films depend heavily on solvents used to prepare the sols. Dielectric constant as high as ∼900 at 100 kHz could be obtained when acetic acid was used to prepare the sol; in contrast, use of hexanoic acid in the sol yielded films with a much lower dielectric constant. The variation in grain and grain boundary conductivities with temperature has been measured. Activation energies of 0.08 eV and 0.68 eV have been found for grain and grain boundary conduction, respectively.

  19. Synthesis and magnetic properties of barium-calcium hexaferrite particles prepared by sol-gel and microemulsion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotania, R. B.; Khomane, R. B.; Chauhan, C. C.; Menon, S. K.; Kulkarni, B. D.

    The preparation of W-type hexaferrite particles with the composition BaCa 2Fe 16O 27 by microemulsion and a stearic acid sol-gel method with and without surfactant has been investigated at various sintering temperatures. The structural and magnetic characteristics have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques. The effect of sintering temperature on the properties of BaCa 2Fe 16O 27 hexaferrites has been studied. The value of saturation magnetization ( Ms) depends on types of surfactant used. The sample prepared in the presence of polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleat (Tween 80) shows low saturation magnetization ( Ms=15.10 emu/g), whereas the other sample prepared in the presence of a surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) exhibits high saturation magnetization ( Ms=24.60 emu/g) compared to the normal sample.

  20. Application of Carbon Quantum Dots in Fluorescent Imaging of Human Serum Proteins after Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis%碳量子点荧光成像法应用于聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳检测人血清蛋白质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亭廷; 彭程; 马云川; 欧阳津

    2013-01-01

    A new method of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) fluorescent imaging for human serum proteins detection after polyacrylamide gels electrophoresis (PAGE) is established.Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is one of the most general and powerful technique to separate complex biosamples,and it is widely used in molecular biology,biochemistry and medicine.With the evolution of clinical proteomics,the development of a novel method to detect serum proteins atter PAGE with high resolution and high sensitivity is of great significant.As far as we know,the carbon quantum dots have not been applied in the detection of serum proteins after PAGE.The fluorescent carbon quantum dots were synthesized by a one-step microwave pyrolysis method:glycerol and phosphate buffer (7.1 mmol.L-1,pH 7.4) (Φ=70%) was mixed evenly,and then put the solution into the advanced microwave digestion system and heated for 14 min (750 W),the colorless solution turned to yellow after reaction.The yellow solution was diluted into the incubation solution with HOAc-NaOAc buffer (80 mmol.L-1,pH 2.7),and then used for staining serum proteins.The emission and excitation spectra of carbon quantum dots were measured,and the excitation wavelength allowed the use of an ultraviolet lamp at 365 nm for the fluorescent imaging.In order to investigate the performance of CQDs fluorescent imaging,the dilution of human serum samples separated by electrophoresis was used for detection,and was compared with traditional method of CBB-R250 staining and silver staining.The results suggested that CQDs based on fluorescent imaging could effectively detect human serum proteins with high sensitivity and resolution.The sensitivity of CQDs imaging was higher than CBB staining and comparable to silver staining.Therefore,the CQDs fluorescent imaging could be an inexpensive,time-saving,pollution-free and convenient method with high sensitivity and resolution for the detection of human serum proteins.It demonstrates the CQDs fluorescent

  1. Sol-Gel Preparation of LaNiO3 and Its Physical and Chemical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Jianshu; Zhou Caiming; Wei Gaoyao

    2004-01-01

    LaNiO3 was synthesized by sol-gel method in which lanthanum nitrate and nickel nitrate were used as start materials and citric acid was used as complex for gel formation.The precursor was dried and subsequently heated at elevated temperature to form the desired product.XRD analysis shows that pure LaNiO3 was synthesized.Electrical conductivity and electrochemical performance of the material were tested.The electrical conductivity decreases from 34.5that there are current peaks in the curve, which is the evidence of the electrochemical activity of LaNiO3.

  2. Characteristics of a self-assembled fibrillar gel prepared from red stingray collagen

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Inwoo; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Yoshida, Asami; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Tachibana, Katsuyasu; Oda, Tatsuya; Hara, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    A translucent collagen gel was formed from a transparent acidic solution of red stingray collagen by adjusting to physiological ionic strength and pH in phosphate buffer and then incubating at 25–37°C. During fibril formation from red stingray collagen, the turbidity increased when the NaCl concentration was increased at constant pH and the rate of fibril formation was accelerated by higher pH or lower NaCl concentration. The T m of red stingray collagen fibrillar gel was estimated as 44.3 ±...

  3. Rapid (ten-minute) pore-gradient electrophoresis of proteins and peptides in Micrograd gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, C W; Margolis, J

    1992-01-01

    Precast gradient gels of short migration length (25 mm) have been developed to provide rapid electrophoretic separation without loss of resolution. These Micrograd gels have been prepared in gel ranges (conventional and unique) to match pore-gradient electrophoresis conditions to proteins/peptides ranging in size from several hundreds to millions. The Hylinx Micrograd gel combines an extreme gel range (6 to 48% polyacrylamide) with a novel crosslinker to provide sieving of polypeptides, and pore-limit electrophoresis of the smallest proteins (e.g. insulin monomer). All gel ranges (such as 3 to 30%) provide zone sharpening in routine analysis of conventional protein mixtures (e.g. serum) within 10 min electrophoresis at 200 to 300 volts. The gels are thin (1 mm) and thus stain quickly, but the gel cassette is of conventional overall width (83 mm), thus fitting many apparatus designs and accommodating 12 samples. The gels are finding valuable use in screening applications, requiring the electrophoretic analysis of many samples, and in cases where a rapid answer is needed, such as monitoring protein purification. The gels have proved particularly useful, in-house, for the latter application in developing Gradipore's new large-scale preparative electrophoresis system, the Gradiflow.

  4. Flocculation of the Visonta lignite sludges by polyacrylamides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos-Szabo, J.; Lakatos, I.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory tests on the flocculation of clay-lignite sludges by polyelectrolytes proved the strongly heterodisperse suspensions to be suitable to sedimenting and filtering after the treatment by anionic polyacrylamides. The formation of large-sized flocs of loose structure allows troublefree filtration and dewatering. The specific flocculant consumption of dewatering is 1 to 2 kg per lignite ton. In this manner the preparation costs of lignite can be lowered.

  5. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT CATIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongjie Zhang; Huiren Hu; Fushan Chen

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM)with high molecular weight was prepared in aqueous solution through a complex initiator system. The CPAM was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR), and the charge density of the CPAM was determined by colloid titration. The results obtained indicated that the copolymerization technology used in the experiment was successful.

  6. Regioselective immobilization of short oligonucleotides to acrylic copolymer gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, E; Kochetkova, S V; Mirzabekov, A D; Florentiev, V L

    1996-01-01

    Four types of polyacrylamide or polydimethyl-acrylamide gels for regioselective (by immobilization at the 3' end) of short oligonucleotides have been designed for use in manufacturing oligonucleotide microchips. Two of these supports contain amino or aldehyde groups in the gel, allowing coupling with oligonucleotides bearing aldehyde or amino groups, respectively, in the presence of a reducing agent. The aldehyde gel support showed a higher immobilization efficiency relative to the amino gel. Of all reducing agents tested, the best results were obtained with a pyridine-borane complex. The other supports are based on an acrylamide gel activated with glutaraldehyde or a hydroxyalkyl-functionalized gel treated with mesyl chloride. The use of dimethylacrylamide instead of acrylamide allows subsequent gel modifications in organic solvents. All the immobilization methods are easy and simple to perform, give high and reproducible yields, allow long durations of storage of the activated support, and provide high stability of attachment and low non-specific binding. Although these gel supports have been developed for preparing oligonucleotide microchips, they may be used for other purposes as well. PMID:8774893

  7. RHEOLOGICAL MODIFICATION OF EPOXY RESINS WITH NANO SILICA PREPARED BY THE SOL-GEL PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Wang; Jiang Li; Cheng-fen Long; Yun-zhao Yu

    1999-01-01

    Nano silica-modified epoxy resins were synthesized by the sol-gel process. The materials have the morphological structure of nano particales dispersed in the epoxy matrix. The dispersed phase formed a physical network in the resin and thus influenced the rheological behavior greatly. However, the nano silica did not show a significant influence on the mechanical properties of the cured resins.

  8. [Sol-gel preparation of ultrathin nano-hydroxyapatite coating and its characterization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianhua; Guo, Linghong; Li, Hui

    2006-10-01

    Present study used dip-coating techniques to fabricate ultrathin nano-HA coating on titanium in organic sol-gel of Ca (NO3)2. 4H2O and PO(CH3)3 and inorganic sol-gel of Ca (NO3)2. 4H2O and (NH4)2HPO4. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to observe the morphology and distribution of crystallite size (D) and lattice strain (epsilon) of ultrathin nano-HA coating. After heated at 400 degrees C, the apatite structure of coatings on titanium began to appear. At heating temperature of 400 degrees C-600 degrees C, the effect of heating temperature on D and epsilon of both coatings was obvious. Precursor types significantly affected the particle diameters of nano-HA coatings, which were 25-40 nm for organic sol-gel and about 100 nm for inorganic sol. The thickness of ultrathin nano-HA coatings was 2.5 microm for organic sol-gel and 5 microm for inorganic sol and morphology of interfaces between coating and titanium was intact and homogenous.

  9. Preparation and properties of cyclic acetal based biodegradable gel by thiol-ene photopolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kemin; Lu, Jian; Yin, Ruixue; Chen, Lu; Du, Shuang; Jiang, Yan; Yu, Qiang

    2013-04-01

    Synthetic, hydrolytically degradable biomaterials have been widely developed for biomedical use; however, most of them will form acidic products upon degradation of polymer backbone. In order to address this concern, we proposed to fabricate a biodegradable gel based on the crosslinking of a cyclic acetal monomer with reactable diallyl group and multifunctional thiols by thiol-ene photopolymerization. This gel produces diols and carbonyl end groups upon hydrolytic degradation and could be entirely devoid of acidic by-products. Real time infrared spectroscopy was employed to investigate the effect of different light intensities and concentrations of photoinitiator on the polymerization kinetics. With the increase of the concentration of photoinitiator and light intensity, both the rate of polymerization and final double bond conversion increased. Degradation of cyclic acetal based networks was investigated in PBS medium so as to simulate physiological conditions. The remaining mass of the materials after 25 days incubation was 84%. TGA analysis showed that the gels exhibited a typical weight loss (97.2%) at around 378 °C. In vitro cytotoxicity showed that the cyclic acetal based gels had non-toxicity to cell L-929 and had good biocompatibility.

  10. Nanostructured Mesoporous Titanium Dioxide Thin Film Prepared by Sol-Gel Method for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 paste was prepared by sol-gel and hydrothermal method with various precursors. Nanostructured mesoporous TiO2 thin-film back electrode was fabricated from the nanoparticle colloidal paste, and its performance was compared with that made of commercial P25 TiO2. The best performance was demonstrated by the DSSC having a 16 μm-thick TTIP-TiO2 back electrode, which gave a solar energy conversion efficiency of 6.03%. The ability of stong adhesion on ITO conducting glass substrate and the high surface area are considered important characteristics of TiO2 thin film. The results show that a thin film with good adhesion can be made from the prepared colloidal paste as a result of alleviating the possibility of electron transfer loss. One can control the colloidal particle size from sol-gel method. Therefore, by optimizing the preparation conditions, TiO2 paste with nanoparticle and narrow diameter distribution was obtained.

  11. Preparation and characterization of core-shell electrodes for application in gel electrolyte-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avellaneda, Cesar O.; Goncalves, Agnaldo D.; Benedetti, Joao E. [Laboratorio de Nanotecnologia e Energia Solar (LNES), Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13083-970 Campinas/SP (Brazil); Nogueira, Ana F., E-mail: anaflavia@iqm.unicamp.b [Laboratorio de Nanotecnologia e Energia Solar (LNES), Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13083-970 Campinas/SP (Brazil)

    2010-01-25

    Core-shell electrodes based on TiO{sub 2} covered with different oxides were prepared and characterized. These electrodes were applied in gel electrolyte-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The TiO{sub 2} electrodes were prepared from TiO{sub 2} powder (P25 Degussa) and coated with thin layers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and SrTiO{sub 3} prepared by the sol-gel method. The core-shell electrodes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements. J-V curves in the dark and under standard AM 1.5 conditions and photovoltage decay measurements under open-circuit conditions were carried out in order to evaluate the influence of the oxide layer on the charge recombination dynamics and on the device's performance. The results indicated an improvement in the conversion efficiency as a result of an increase in the open circuit voltage. The photovoltage decay curves under open-circuit conditions showed that the core-shell electrodes provide longer electron lifetime values compared to uncoated TiO{sub 2} electrodes, corroborating with a minimization in the recombination losses at the nanoparticle surface/electrolyte interface. This is the first time that a study has been applied to DSSC based on gel polymer electrolyte. The optimum performance was achieved by solar cells based on TiO{sub 2}/MgO core-shell electrodes: fill factor of approx0.60, short-circuit current density J{sub sc} of 12 mA cm{sup -2}, open-circuit voltage V{sub oc} of 0.78 V and overall energy conversion efficiency of approx5% (under illumination of 100 mW cm{sup -2}).

  12. Preparation and Characterization on Nano-Sized Barium Titanate Powder Doped with Lanthanum by Sol-Gel Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The nano-sized BaTiO3:La3+ powders were prepared by sol-gel process using butyl phthalate, barium acetate and lanthanum oxide as raw material, and these samples were tested by means of TG-DTA, XRD and SEM. The results indicate that with the annealing temperature and the doped concentration rising, the powders' particle sizes will increase and decrease respectively. When annealing temperature is 900 ℃ and doped concentration is 7%, the phase is cubic without other phases, and the particle size of power is 43.34 nm.

  13. Antibacterial activity of Nb–aluminum oxide prepared by the non-hydrolytic sol–gel route

    OpenAIRE

    Alfenas, C. dos S.; Ricci, G. P.; De Faria, E. H.; Saltarelli, M.; Lima, O. J. de; Rocha, Z. N. da; E. J. Nassar; Calefi,Paulo Sergio; Montanari, Lilian B.; Martins, Carlos H. Gomes; Katia J. Ciuffi

    2011-01-01

    Acesso restrito: Texto completo. p. 65-70. Brazil has been the largest producer of niobium (Nb2O5) since 1980, and this material is usually applied to reduce corrosion in alloys. In addition, it has recently been evaluated for use in other technological areas, such as adsorption and catalysis. This paper presents the results of the antibacterial activity of Nb–aluminum oxide, designated MAC–Nb5+, prepared by the non-hydrolytic sol–gel route. The resulting material MAC–Nb5+ was character...

  14. Preparation and characterization of ZnO and Fe-doped ZnO films by sol-gel method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xin; Wang,Jiangang; Ma, Jing; Hu, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    ZnO and Fe-doped ZnO thin films are prepared on glass substrate by sol-gel method, and the surface morphology, structure and optical property are analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The results show that both films have a smooth surface and a hexagonal wurtzite structure with orienting along the (101) plane. Compared with the ZnO film, the surface of Fe-doped ZnO film becomes smoother, and its...

  15. Preparation and characterization of ZnO-TiO(2) films obtained by sol-gel method

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, T; Harizanova, A.; Koutzarova, T.; Vertruyen, Bénédicte

    2011-01-01

    The sol-gel route has been applied to obtain ZnO-TiO(2) thin films. For comparison, pure TiO(2) and ZnO films are also prepared from the corresponding solutions. The films are deposited by a spin-coated method on silicon and glass substrates. Their structural and vibrational properties have been studied as a function of the annealing temperatures (400-750 degrees C). Pure ZnO films crystallize in a wurtzite modification at a relatively low temperature of 400 degrees C, whereas the mixed oxide...

  16. Grain Size and Photocatalytic Activity of Nanometer TiO2 Thin Films Prepared by the Sol-gel Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Transparent anatase TiO2 nanometer thin films with photocatalytic activity were prepared via the sol-gel method on soda-lime glass. The thickness, crystalline phase, grain size, surface hydroxyl amount and so on were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-visible spectrophotometer (UV-VIS). The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films was evaluated for the photocatalytic decolorization of aqueous methyl orange. The effects of film thickness on the crystalline phase, grain size, transmittance and photocatalytic activity of nanometer TiO2 thin films were discussed.

  17. Sample preparation for the analysis of complex carbohydrates by multicapillary gel electrophoresis with light-emitting diode induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajos, Marcell; Hajós, Péter; Bonn, Guenther K; Guttman, András

    2008-06-01

    This paper evaluates various sample preparation methods for multicapillary gel electrophoresis based glycan analysis to support electrokinetic injection. First the removal of excess derivatization reagent is discussed. Although the Sephadex G10 filled multiscreen 96-well filter plate and Sephadex G10 filled pipet tips enabled increased analysis sensitivity, polyamide DPA-6S pipet tips worked particularly well. In this latter case an automated liquid handling system was used to increase purification throughput, necessary to feed the multicapillary electrophoresis unit. Problems associated with the high glucose content of such biological samples as normal human plasma were solved by applying ultrafiltration. Finally, a volatile buffer system was developed for exoglycosidase-based carbohydrate analysis.

  18. Preparation of nickel oxide thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel spin coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M. A. R.; Mamat, M. H.; Ismail, A. S.; Malek, M. F.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    Preparation of NiO thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel method was conducted to synthesize the quality of the surface thin films. The effects of annealing temperature on the surface topology were systematically investigated. Our studies confirmed that the surface roughness of the thin films was increased whenever annealing temperature was increase. NiO thin films morphology structure analysis was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope. Surface roughness of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy.

  19. Ferromagnetism of Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel process at room temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Gui-jun; WANG Jin-bin; ZHONG Xiang-li; ZHOU Gong-cheng; YAN Hai-long

    2006-01-01

    Mn-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles are prepared by an ultrasonic assisted sol gel process. Transmission electron microscopy shows pseudo-hexagonal nanoparticles with an average size of about 24 nm. From the analysis of X-ray diffraction,the Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles are identified to be a wurtzite structure without any impurity phases. The magnetic properties are measured by using su perconducting quantum interference device. For the ZnO with 2 % Mn doping concentration, a good hyster esis loop indicates fine ferromagnetism with a Curie temperature higher than 350 K.

  20. Preparation of thin layers of SnO{sub 2} by a sol-gel method; Elaboration de couches minces de SnO{sub 2} prepare par voie sol gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemissi, M.; Amardjia-Adnani, A. [Universite Ferhet Abbas de Setif, Lab. Dosage, Dept. de Technologie, Faculte de l' Ingenieur, Setif (Algeria)

    2006-07-01

    Thin layers of SnO{sub 2} doped with Sb have been prepared to use them as electrodes in nanocrystalline dye photovoltaic cells. In this work, these layers have been at first prepared and then their nano-structures and electrical properties have been studied. The sol-gel method has been used to deposit, on glass substrates, composite layers of SnO{sub 2} doped with 14% Sb. These films have been annealed at 500 C for different times, their thicknesses which are of 250 nm, have been measured by ellipsometry. The analysis of the obtained structures by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction shows that the size of the crystallites evolves with time and annealing temperature, which ones is between 5.8 and 18.6 nm. (O.M.)

  1. Non isothermal decomposition of lanthanum titanates precursors prepared by sol gel process: A kinetic and thermodynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassil, S. [Université Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, IRCELYON, Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l’environnement de Lyon, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626 Villeurbanne (France); Kaddouri, A., E-mail: akim.kaddouri@ircelyon.univ-lyon1.fr [Université Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, IRCELYON, Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l’environnement de Lyon, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626 Villeurbanne (France); Béguin, B.; Gélin, P. [Université Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, IRCELYON, Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l’environnement de Lyon, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626 Villeurbanne (France)

    2013-09-10

    Highlights: ► Metal-propionates is a most promising route for the preparation of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3+δ} (LST) at a temperature substantially lower than that used for the preparation of the same solid by traditional methods. ► Activation energy and isothermal thermodynamic parameters calculated for the decomposition process are close to those observed for metal organic compounds. ► Sol gel-prepared LST presented low propensity to coke deposition and high stability with time during the critical long term exposure to methane and steam at high temperatures. - Abstract: The single phase La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3+δ} was prepared via the sol gel process using propionic acid. Kinetics of the thermal decomposition of the precursors has been studied using differential thermogravimetry under non-isothermal conditions in different atmospheres (air and helium). Non isothermal kinetic (A and ΔE) and thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS and Cp) were determined using different heating rates. La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SrO and TiO{sub 2} products crystallized at temperatures of ca. 730, 960 and 470 °C respectively while pure La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3+δ} phase was obtained at 1200 °C, temperature substantially lower than that used for the preparation of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3+δ} by conventional solid state method. Precursors and/or final solids were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TG), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (DR-UV–vis) and methane steam reforming under water deficient conditions.

  2. Preparation and characterization of silk/silica hybrid biomaterials by sol-gel crosslinking process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Aiqin, E-mail: aiqinhou@dhu.edu.c [National Engineering Research Center for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Donghua University, 3H, 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China); Chen Huawei [National Engineering Research Center for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Donghua University, 3H, 2999 North Renmin Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2010-03-15

    The silk/silica hybrid biomaterials are synthesized by sol-gel crosslinking process. The chemical and morphological structures of silk/silica hybrids are investigated with micro-FT-IR spectra, X-ray diffraction, SEM, AFM, and DSC. The results show that the crosslinking reactions among inorganic nano-particles, fibroin and 2,4,6-tri[(2-epihydrin-3-bimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-EBAC) take place during sol-gel process. The silk/silica hybrids form new molecular structures containing not only organic fibroin but also inorganic nano-silica particles. The inorganic particles are bounded to the fibroin through covalent bonds. The silk/silica hybrids can form excellent film with very even nanometer particles. The thermal properties of organic/inorganic hybrid are improved.

  3. Physical properties of sodium silicate based silica aerogels prepared by single step sol-gel process dried at ambient pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurav, Jyoti L. [Air Glass Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra (India); Rao, A. Venkateswara [Air Glass Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra (India)], E-mail: raouniv@yahoo.com; Rao, A. Parvathy; Nadargi, D.Y.; Bhagat, S.D. [Air Glass Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra (India)

    2009-05-12

    The experimental results on physical properties of water glass (sodium silicate) based silica aerogels prepared by single step sol-gel process, dried at atmospheric pressure are reported. The hydrolysis and condensation reactions of the sodium silicate precursor proceeded with tartaric acid as a catalyst. The hydrogel was vapour passed in order to remove sodium salt from the gel network. Solvent exchange was carried out using methanol and hexane as a solvents. Finally, surface chemical modification of the gel was done using trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) followed by ambient pressure drying of the gel up to the temperature 200 deg. C. To get good quality aerogels various sol-gel parameters such as water vapour passing period varied from 0.5 to 2 h, gel aging from 1 to 4 h, Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O molar ratio from 3 x 10{sup -3} to 1.5 x 10{sup -2}, tartaric acid/Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} molar ratio from 0.3 to 1.9 and TMCS/Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} molar ratio from 4.8 to 12. The aerogels were characterized by percentage of volume shrinkage, bulk density, porosity and hydrophobicity. The hydrophobicity of the aerogel was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Microstructural studies have been carried out by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption BET analysis. From the TGA-DTA studies of the aerogels, it was found that the aerogels were thermally stable up to 470 {sup o}C. Low density ({approx}0.066 g/cm{sup 3}), high hydrophobicity ({approx}145 deg.), high porosity ({approx}97 %), high pore volume, surface area of 510 m{sup 2}/g aerogels have been obtained for Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}:H{sub 2}O:tartaric acid (C{sub 4}H{sub 6}O{sub 6}):TMCS molar ratio at 1:166.6:2.5:12 respectively with half an hour water vapour passing.

  4. EFFECT OF ANNEALING ON THE PROPERTIES OF VANADIUM PENTOXIDE FILMS PREPARED BY SOL–GEL METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    YAQIANG LIU; XUELIAN DU; XUEQIN LIU

    2014-01-01

    The vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) films were obtained by using sol–gel procedure and then were annealed at different temperature in air. The effect of different annealing temperatures on the composition, the microstructure, the surface morphology and the optical properties of the films were characterized by methods such as by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and spectral transmittance. The results revealed that the film annealed at 150°C has amorphous structure ...

  5. EFFECT OF ANNEALING ON THE PROPERTIES OF VANADIUM PENTOXIDE FILMS PREPARED BY SOL–GEL METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    YAQIANG LIU; XUELIAN DU; XUEQIN LIU

    2014-01-01

    The vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) films were obtained by using sol–gel procedure and then were annealed at different temperature in air. The effect of different annealing temperatures on the composition, the microstructure, the surface morphology and the optical properties of the films were characterized by methods such as by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and spectral transmittance. The results revealed that the film annealed at 150°C has amorphous structure ...

  6. Preparation and clinical evaluation of Finastride gel in the treatment of idiopathic Hirsutism

    OpenAIRE

    Tahvilian, Reza; Ebrahimi,Ali; Beiki, Omid; Nemati, Hoshang; Masoud, Sahar

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hirsutism is the presence of excess terminal hairs in females in a male-like pattern. The most accepted hypothesis for the development of hirsutism is increased 5α-reductase activity in hair follicles of hirsute women. Finasteride partially blocks the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone through inhibition of 5α-reductase in hair follicles. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of finasteride gel 0.25% in management of idiopathic hirsutism and treatment of h...

  7. [Preparation of huperzine A nasal in situ gel and evaluation of its brain targeting following intranasal administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Tao; Zhao, Yan; Yue, Peng; Dong, Wen-xin; Chen, Qing-hua

    2006-11-01

    The feasibility of intranasal brain targeting drug delivery system via the olfactory pathway from nose to brain was explored. Using gellan gum, a cation-sensitive gel forming excipient, huperzine A (Hup A) nasal in situ gel was prepared by pH gradient precipitation method. The pharmacokinetics of Hup A in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after intranasal, intravenous and intragastric adminstration to rats was studied using cisternal cannulation for serial CSF sampling and femoral artery cannulation for serial blood sampling. The distributions of Hup A into rat brain tissues following intranasal dosing were compared with those after intravenous and intragastric dosing by tissue homogeneization. The therapeutics effects of Hup A nasal in situ gel on cognitive function were tested in mice and rats with Morris water maze, step down test and step through test. The AUC(0-->6 h) value in plasma obtained after nasal administration was 0.94 of that after intravenous administration, but the AUC(0-->6 h) of CSF after nasal administration was 1.3 and 2.3 times of that after intravenous and intragastric administration. The AUC(0-->6 h), of cerebrum, hippocampus, cerebellum, left olfactory bulb and right olfactory bulb after nasal administration were 1.5, 1.3, 1.0, 1.2 and 1.0 of that after intravenous administration, 2.7, 2.2, 1.9, 3.1 and 2.6 times of that after intragastric administration, respectively. Intranasal adminintration of 17.5-35 microg x kg(-1) showed equal effects after oral adminintration of 70 microg x kg(-1) commercial tablets, which was in good agreement with the results of pharmacokinetics. Intranasal administration of huperzine A nasal in situ gel significantly increased the distributions of Hup A into rat brain tissues, especially into cerebrum and hippocampus which should be the target areas of Hup A, and enhanced the brain targeting of Hup A.

  8. Nanostructured TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cells prepared by the sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Young Sam; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Park, Sang Joon; Yoon, Hyon Hee; Choi, Hyung Wook

    2011-12-01

    TiO2 films were prepared on glass substrates using the sol-gel process for a dye-sensitized solar cell application. The TiO2 sol was prepared using hydrolysis/polycondensation. Titanium (IV) Tetra Isopropoxide (TTIP) was used as precursor and Nitric acid (HNO3) was used as a catalyst for the peptization. The crystal structure and morphology of the prepared materials were characterized by XRD, and an SEM. The observations confirmed the nanocrystalline nature of the TiO2. The reaction parameters, such as the catalyst concentrations, the calcination time, and the calcination temperature were varied during the synthesis in order to achieve nanosize TiO2 particles. The prepared TiO2 particles were coated onto FTO glass using a screen printing technique. The prepared TiO2 films were characterized by UV-vis. The TiO2 particles calcinated at low temperatures showed an anatase phase they grew into a rutile phase when the calcination temperature increased. The size and structure of the TiO2 particles were adjusted to specific surface areas. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the DSSC was highly affected by the properties of the TiO2 particles.

  9. Preparation and properties of aqueous castor oil-based polyurethane-silica nanocomposite dispersions through a sol-gel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ying; Larock, Richard C

    2011-09-01

    Waterborne castor oil-based polyurethane-silica nanocomposites with the polymer matrix and silica nanoparticles chemically bonded have been successfully prepared through a sol-gel process. The formation of silica nanoparticles in water not only reinforces the resulting coatings, but also increases the crosslink density of the nanocomposites. The (29)Si solid state NMR spectrum indicates the formation of silica and the TEM indicates that the nanoparticles are embedded in the polymers, resembling a core-shell structure. The silica nanoparticles in the polymer matrix play an important role in improving both the mechanical properties and the thermal stabilities of the resulting nanocomposites. This work provides an effective and promising way to prepare biorenewable, high performance nanocomposite coatings.

  10. Luminescence Properties of Tb3+-Doped LuAG Films Prepared by Pechini Sol-Gel Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Lu3Al5O12 (LuAG) thin films with different Tb3+ concentration were prepared on carefully cleaned (111) silicon wafer by a Pechini process and dip-coating technique. Heat treatment was performed in the temperature range from 800 to 1100 ℃. The crystal structure was analyzed by XRD. The results show that LuAG film starts to crystallize at about 900 ℃, and the particle size increases with the sintering temperature. Excitation and emission spectra of Tb3+ doped LuAG films were measured. The effects of heat-treatment temperature and doping concentration of Tb3+ on the luminescent properties were also investigated. For a comparison study, Tb3+-doped LuAG powders were also prepared by the same sol-gel method.

  11. Electrical stability of Al-doped ZnO transparent electrode prepared by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Samia; Yamasue, Eiji; Okumura, Hideyuki; Ishihara, Keiichi N.

    2016-07-01

    Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films have been considered as a promising alternative to tin doped indium oxide (ITO), which is currently used in various optoelectronic applications. However, the environmental stability of AZO film is not satisfactory, in that the resistivity is significantly increases in air. Here, we investigate the resistivity stability of AZO thin films prepared by sol-gel method using various annealing temperatures and durations. The degradation of resistivity property was observed for AZO films stored in ambient or damp heat environment, where the degradation rate was influenced by annealing temperature. A significant improvement of electrical stability was attained in AZO films that were prepared at high annealing temperature. The films, which showed the highest and the lowest increasing rate of resistivity, were further characterized in detail to shed light on the possible mechanisms explaining the improved stability through crystallinity, surface morphology and elemental state of the thin film.

  12. Electrical stability of Al-doped ZnO transparent electrode prepared by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabassum, Samia, E-mail: shawon14@gmail.com; Yamasue, Eiji; Okumura, Hideyuki; Ishihara, Keiichi N.

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO thin film was deposited by sol-gel method in different annealing temperature and duration. • We examined the environmental stability in ambient and damp heat condition. • We investigated chemical state of thin film. • Better stability was observed in the film annealed at high temperature (600 °C) along with longer duration (120 min). • An ultrathin aluminum oxide layer formation was predicted by XPS measurement which protects further oxidation and improves stability. - Abstract: Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films have been considered as a promising alternative to tin doped indium oxide (ITO), which is currently used in various optoelectronic applications. However, the environmental stability of AZO film is not satisfactory, in that the resistivity is significantly increases in air. Here, we investigate the resistivity stability of AZO thin films prepared by sol-gel method using various annealing temperatures and durations. The degradation of resistivity property was observed for AZO films stored in ambient or damp heat environment, where the degradation rate was influenced by annealing temperature. A significant improvement of electrical stability was attained in AZO films that were prepared at high annealing temperature. The films, which showed the highest and the lowest increasing rate of resistivity, were further characterized in detail to shed light on the possible mechanisms explaining the improved stability through crystallinity, surface morphology and elemental state of the thin film.

  13. Efficient Pb(II) removal using sodium alginate-carboxymethyl cellulose gel beads: Preparation, characterization, and adsorption mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huixue; Gao, Zhimin; Wu, Daoji; Jiang, Jiahui; Sun, Youmin; Luo, Congwei

    2016-02-10

    Alginate-carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) gel beads were prepared in this study using sodium alginate (SA) and sodium CMC through blending and cross-linking. The specific surface area and aperture of the prepared SA-CMC gel beads were tested. The SA-CMC structure was characterized and analyzed via infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Static adsorption experiment demonstrated that Pb(II) adsorption of SA-CMC exceeded 99% under the optimized conditions. In addition, experiments conducted under the same experimental conditions showed that the lead ion removal efficiency of SA-CMC was significantly higher than that of conventional adsorbents. The Pb(II) adsorption process of SA-CMC followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the dynamic adsorption model could be described through a pseudo-second-order rate equation. Pb(II) removal mechanisms of SA-CMC, including physical, chemical, and electrostatic adsorptions, were discussed based on microstructure analysis and adsorption kinetics. Chemical adsorption was the main adsorption method among these mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of LiTaO3 Films Derived by an Improved Sol-Gel Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun GOU; Jun WANG; Ming YANG; Zehua HUANG; Weizhi LI; Yadong JIANG

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,an improved sol-gel method was suggested to obtain high-concentration LiTaO3 precursor solution for simplified experimental conditions and thicker films,by mixing lithium acetate and tantalum ethoxide in a 1,2-Propylene glycol solution.Compared to traditional methods,the process was done without weak acidic solution and absolute dry experimental condition.Results of a comparative study of LiTaO3 thin films derived by the improved sol-gel process and a traditional process using 2-methoxy ethanol as solvent were presented.Nano-crystalline LiTaO3 films with rhombohedral structures were formed in both methods after annealing at 650 ° for 5 min.The thickness of each LiTaO3 layer coated onto the substrate increased from 25 nm to 110 nm when 2-methoxy ethanol was replaced by 1,2-Propylene glycol.LiTaO3 films with a stronger preferential orientation were obtained in 1,2-Propylene glycol due to its higher boiling point and slower volatilization rate.On the other hand,the diffraction peak intensity of LiTaO3 thin films prepared using 1,2-Propylene glycol was weaker than that of the films prepared using 2-methoxy ethanol due to decreased times of annealing.

  15. Preparation of 4-butylaniline-bonded silica gel for the solid-phase extraction of flavone glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ganghui; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2015-04-01

    To extract flavone glycosides efficiently, a new extraction material based on 4-butylaniline-bonded silica gel was prepared using a two-step grafting method including a ring-opening reaction and synchronous hydrolysis. Preparation of the silica-based material was easily achieved under mild conditions, and the material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The material was used in solid-phase extraction, and the extraction can be performed in neutral conditions without regard to ionic strength. Selectivity tests of 14 compounds on the extraction cartridge showed that the material has a high affinity to flavone glycosides in contrast to octadecyl silica, and the extraction yields for four flavone glycosides were found to be >93%. Selectivity tests further reveal that the adsorption on its surface is likely attributed to multiple interactions, including hydrophobic interactions, π-π interactions, and hydrogen bonding. To explore the applicability of 4-butylaniline-bonded silica gel, naringin and hesperidin from Simotang oral liquid were extracted, and the extraction yields were >90%, which is distinguished from silica cartridge.

  16. Proteinograma sérico de bezerros recém-nascidos da raça Holandesa obtido por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida Serum protein concentration in newborn Holstein calves determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Fagliari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The serum protein concentration of newborn Holstein calves determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide (SDS-PAGE was studied. Blood samples from 40 healthy newborn calves were obtained 48 hours after birth. Calves had been given 3 liters of colostrum within 2 hours after birth, following by dose corresponding by 15% of animal weight each 24 hours. The results showed three different proteinograms: 19 calves had 14 proteins with molecular weights (MW ranging from 28,000 D to 170,000D (proteinogram 1; 11 calves had 14 proteins with MW ranging from 18,000 to 170,000 D (proteinogram 1; and 10 calves had 12 proteins with MW ranging from 28,000 D to 170,000 D (proteinogram 3. The three groups presented similar IgG levels. The highest serum concentration of ceruloplasmin were verified in proteinogram 3, which had the lowest serum level of protein with MW 58,000D. It was verified a1-antitrypsin only in proteinogram 2, which had no proteins with MW of 42,000 D and 37,000D. The highest serum concentrations of IgA and protein with MW 58,000 D, and the lowest serum levels of transferrin, haptoglobin, and acid glycoprotein were verified in proteinogram 3. Measurement of serum protein concentrations by SDS-PAGE may be useful in monitoring the occurrence of hypogammaglobulinemia and the neonatal disease in calves.

  17. Preparation of lithium fast ionic conductor by sol-gel-hydrothermal method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qinghua; Wang Bengen; Xu Yan; Liu Hongyu

    2006-01-01

    The solid fast ionic conductor was synthesized by the sol-gel-hydrothermal method.The influences of the dispersion reagent,the alkalinity and the calcination temperature on the surface morphology of nanopowders,and the electric conductivity were discussed.When PEG 12000 was used as the dispersion reagent,the alkalinity was 1.0% and the calcination temperature was 550℃; the electric conductivity at ambience temperature of the inorganic nanopowder of lithium fast ionic conductor synthesized was 2.59 ±10-3 S·cm-1.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Ordered Ladder Like Polyphenylsilsesquioxane via Two-step Sol-gel Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yu-zhong; QI Sheng-li; LIU Jing-jing; WU Zhan-peng; YANG Xiao-ping; JIN Ri-guang; WU De-zhen

    2011-01-01

    Soluble and ordered ladder like polyphenylsilsesquioxane was synthesized by a two-step sol-gel method including hydrolysis and polycondensation. The procedure was monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the presence of the ladder like structure was confirmed by X-ray techniques. 29Si NMR analysis shows a very narrow half peak width(δ<4) at δ-78.866 of the main chain unit C6H5SiO3/2 of polyphenylsilsesquioxane, indicating that the polyphenylsilsesquioxane has ordered ladder like structures rather than the branched ones. The relationship between molecular weight and the time of polycondensation was also discussed.

  19. Luminescence of Eu{sup 3+} incorporated into PZT tetragonal ceramics prepared by sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Federico; Schabes-Retchkiman, Pablo; GarcIa-Macedo, Jorge [Instituto de FIsica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-09-07

    Luminescence of Eu{sup 3+} in Pb(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x})O{sub 3} (PZT) polycrystalline tetragonal samples synthesized by sol-gel processing is reported. Studies by x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy demonstrate the incorporation of the dopant in the host. A broad charge transfer band centred around 266 nm was observed in the Eu{sup 3+} excitation spectra. Eu{sup 3+} is in a low symmetry site. Luminescence was lost between 673 and 1173 K. It was recovered after 1 h of heat treatment at 1273 K, when nanocrystallites were formed.

  20. Effect of preparation conditions in sol-gel method on yellow phosphor with wide spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yenchen; Inoue, Shuhei; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Chen, Jyh-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Among several methods to obtain white light in light emitting diodes (LEDs), mixing blue light with yellow light excited by blue light is the most effective and economical method. However, the quality of white light achieved by this method is poor, making it essential to develop high-quality yellow phosphors. In this study, we synthesized yellow phosphors with broad spectral width by the sol-gel method and studied the effect of various synthetic conditions on their photoluminescence spectra. Consequently, we optimized synthesis conditions for a series of yellow phosphors and found that excess europium doping caused quenching and reduced the quantum yield.

  1. Low dielectric loss in nano-Li-ferrite spinels prepared by sol–gel auto-combustion technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mamata Maisnam; Nandeibam Nilima; Maisnam Victory; Sumitra Phanjoubam

    2016-02-01

    Pure and doped nano-Li-ferrite spinels were prepared by the sol–gel auto-combustion technique. The prepared ferrites were pelleted and heat treated at different temperatures. Structural characterization was carried out on the as-prepared samples and also on the heat-treated samples using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The studies confirmed the formation of single phase with spinel structures in all the samples. The crystallite size of the samples evaluated from XRD data was found to be 17–24 nm. Scanning electron microscopic photomicrographs revealed the microstructures and the grain size of these nanoferrites. The room-temperature dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent, tan δ were measured as a function of frequency in the range 100 Hz–1 MHz. These nanoferrites showed the normal dielectric dispersion behaviour. The observed dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent were found to be much lower than those measured on substituted Li-ferrites prepared by the conventional ceramic method. The results obtained were discussed in the paper.

  2. Optical characterization of pure and Al-doped ZnO prepared by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belka, Radosław; Keczkowska, Justyna; Kasińska, Justyna

    2016-09-01

    In this paper the preparation process and optical characterization of pure and Al3+ doped zinc oxide (Al:ZnO) coatings will be presented. ZnO based materials have been studied extensively due to their potential applications in optoelectronic devices as conductive gas sensors, transparent conductive, electrodes, solar cell windows, varistors, UVfilters or photovoltaic cells. It is II-VI semiconductor with wide-band gap of 3.37 eV and large exciton binding energy of 60meV. It is possible to improve the conductivity of ZnO coating by intentionally doping ZnO with aluminium ions during preparation process. Such transparent and conducting thin films, known as AZO (Aluminium Zinc Oxide) films, are very good candidate for application as transparent conducting materials in many optoelectronic devices. The well-known sol-gel method is used for preparation of solution, coated on glass substrates by dip coating process. Prepared samples were investigated by Raman and UV-VIS spectroscopy. Transmittance as well as specular and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy methods were used for studies of optical parameters. We found that Al admixture influences on optical bandgap of ZnO.

  3. Preparation and properties of ZnO thin films deposited by sol-gel technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Wei; PENG Xingping; LIU Xueqin; HE Zhiwei; WANG Yinyue

    2007-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on (100) Si substrates by sol-gel technique.Zinc acetate was used as the precursor material.The effect of different anneal-ing atmospheres and annealing temperatures on composition, structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films was inves-tigated by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction,atomic force microscopy and photolumi-nescence (PL),respectively.At an annealing temperature of 400℃ in N2 for 2 h,dried gel films were propitious to undergo structural relaxation and grow ZnO grains.ZnO thin film annealed at 400℃ in N2 for 2 h exhibited the optimal structure and PL property,and the grain size and the lattice constants of the film were calculated (41.6 nm,a = 3.253 A and c=5.210A).Moreover,a green emission around 495 nm was observed in the PL spectra owing to the oxygen vacancies located at the surface of ZnO grains.With increas- ing annealing temperature,both the amount of the grown ZnO and the specific surface area of the grains decrease,which jointly weaken the green emission.

  4. Development of novel biocompatible hybrid nanocomposites based on polyurethane-silica prepared by sol gel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashti, Ali; Yahyaei, Hossein; Firoozi, Saman; Ramezani, Sara; Rahiminejad, Ali; Karimi, Roya; Farzaneh, Khadijeh; Mohseni, Mohsen; Ghanbari, Hossein

    2016-12-01

    Due to high biocompatibility, polyurethane has found many applications, particularly in development of biomedical devices. A new nanocomposite based on thermoset polyurethane and silica nanoparticles was synthesized using sol-gel method. Sol-gel process was fulfilled in two acidic and basic conditions by using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and trimethoxyisocyanatesilane as precursors. The hybrid films characterized for mechanical and surface properties using tensile strength, contact angle, ATR-FTIR and scanning electron microscopy. Biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the hybrids were assessed using standard MTT, LDH and TUNEL assays. The results revealed that incorporation of silica nanoparticles was significantly improved tensile strength and mechanical properties of the hybrids. Based on the contact angle results, silica nanoparticles increased hydrophilicity of the hybrids. Biocompatibility by using human lung epithelial cell line (MRC-5) demonstrated that the hybrids were significantly less cytotoxic compared to pristine polymer as tested by MTT and LDH assays. TUNEL assay revealed no signs of apoptosis in all tested samples. The results of this study demonstrated that incorporation of silica nanoparticles into polyurethane lead to the enhancement of biocompatibility, indicating that these hybrids could potentially be used in biomedical field in particular as a new coating for medical implants.

  5. Dense and Cellular Zirconia Produced by Gel Casting with Agar: Preparation and High Temperature Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Tulliani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified gel-casting process was developed to produce both dense and highly porous (40% volume yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP using agar, a natural polysaccharide, as gelling agent. A fugitive phase, made of commercial polyethylene spheres, was added to the ceramic suspension before gelling to produce cellular ceramic structures. The characterization of the microstructural features of both dense and cellular ceramics was carried out by FEG SEM analysis of cross-sections produced by focused ion beam. The mechanical properties of the components were characterized at room temperature by nanoindentation tests in continuous stiffness measurement mode, by investigating the direct effect of the presence of residual microporosity. The presence of a diffuse residual microporosity from incomplete gel deaeration resulted in a decay of the bending strength and of the elastic modulus. The mechanical behavior of both dense and cellular zirconia (in terms of elastic modulus, flexural strength, and deformation at rupture was investigated by performing four-point bending tests at the temperature of 1500°C.

  6. Optimized sample preparation for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of soluble proteins from chicken bursa of Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xiaojuan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE is a powerful method to study protein expression and function in living organisms and diseases. This technique, however, has not been applied to avian bursa of Fabricius (BF, a central immune organ. Here, optimized 2-DE sample preparation methodologies were constructed for the chicken BF tissue. Using the optimized protocol, we performed further 2-DE analysis on a soluble protein extract from the BF of chickens infected with virulent avibirnavirus. To demonstrate the quality of the extracted proteins, several differentially expressed protein spots selected were cut from 2-DE gels and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Results An extraction buffer containing 7 M urea, 2 M thiourea, 2% (w/v 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl-dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS, 50 mM dithiothreitol (DTT, 0.2% Bio-Lyte 3/10, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF, 20 U/ml Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I, and 0.25 mg/ml Ribonuclease A (RNase A, combined with sonication and vortex, yielded the best 2-DE data. Relative to non-frozen immobilized pH gradient (IPG strips, frozen IPG strips did not result in significant changes in the 2-DE patterns after isoelectric focusing (IEF. When the optimized protocol was used to analyze the spleen and thymus, as well as avibirnavirus-infected bursa, high quality 2-DE protein expression profiles were obtained. 2-DE maps of BF of chickens infected with virulent avibirnavirus were visibly different and many differentially expressed proteins were found. Conclusion These results showed that method C, in concert extraction buffer IV, was the most favorable for preparing samples for IEF and subsequent protein separation and yielded the best quality 2-DE patterns. The optimized protocol is a useful sample preparation method for comparative proteomics analysis of chicken BF tissues.

  7. Preparation of sol-gel TiO{sub 2}/purified Na-bentonite composites and their photovoltaic application for natural dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saelim, Ni-on [Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Polymer Processing and Polymer Nanomaterials Research Unit, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Magaraphan, Rathanawan, E-mail: rathanawan.k@chula.ac.th [Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Polymer Processing and Polymer Nanomaterials Research Unit, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center for Petroleum, Petrochemicals, and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Sreethawong, Thammanoon [Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center for Petroleum, Petrochemicals, and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Natural dye from red cabbage was successfully employed in DSSC. {yields} A fast sol-gel method to produce TiO{sub 2}/clay thin film was proposed. {yields} The sol-gel-prepared TiO{sub 2}/clay was applied as the scattering layer on top of TiO{sub 2} electrode. {yields} Thicker sol-gel-prepared TiO{sub 2}/clay electrode showed higher DSSC efficiency. - Abstract: The sol-gel TiO{sub 2}/purified natural clay electrodes having Ti:Si molar ratios of 95:5 and 90:10 were initially prepared, sensitized with natural red cabbage dye, and compared to the sol-gel TiO{sub 2} electrode in terms of physicochemical characteristics and solar cell efficiency. The results showed that the increase in purified Na-bentonite content greatly increased the specific surface area and total pore volume of the prepared sol-gel TiO{sub 2}/purified Na-bentonite composites because the clay platelets prevented TiO{sub 2} particle agglomeration. The sol-gel TiO{sub 2}/5 mol% Si purified Na-bentonite and sol-gel TiO{sub 2}/10 mol% Si purified Na-bentonite composites could increase the film thickness of solar cells without cracking when they were coated as a scattering layer on the TiO{sub 2} semiconductor-based film, leading to increasing the efficiency of the natural dye-sensitized solar cells in this work.

  8. Utilization of DNA as functional materials: preparation of filters containing DNA insolubilized with alginic acid gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, K; Sawadaishi, T; Nishimura, S I; Tokura, S; Nishi, N

    1996-02-01

    Thin films composed of DNA and alginic acid were prepared by casting their mixed solution on glass plate followed by coagulation with aqueous solution of calcium chloride. DNA could be conveniently insolubilized by this method. DNA in the films adsorbed intercalating materials, such as ethidium bromide. This phenomenon was successfully applied to the preparation of filters for the selective removal or accumulation of harmful intercalating pollutants.

  9. Evaluation du potentiel radiosensibilisateur ou radioprotecteur/antioxydant de quelques composes selectionnes par dosimetrie par gel de polyacrylamide et dosimetre de Fricke, et utilisation de la filamentation par impulsion laser infrarouge fenitoseconde comme un nouveau et puissant faisceau pour la radiotherapie du cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesat, Ridthee

    In radiation treatment, a sufficiently high radiation dose must be delivered to the tissue volumes containing the tumor cells while the lowest possible dose should be deposited in surrounding healthy tissue. We developed an original approach that is fast and easy to implement for the early assessment of the efficiency of radiation sensitizers and protectors. In addition, we characterized a new femtosecond laser pulse irradiation technique. We are able to deposit a considerable dose with a very high dose rate inside a well-controlled macroscopic volume without deposition of energy in front or behind the target volume. The radioprotective efficiency was measured by irradiation of the Fricke solution incorporating a compound under study and measuring the corresponding production of ferric ions G(Fe3+). The production of ferric ions is most sensitive to the radical species produced in the radiolysis of water. We studied experimentally and simulated with a full Monte-Carlo computer code the radiation-induced chemistry of Fricke/cystamine solutions. Results clearly indicate that the protective effect of cystamine originates from its radical-capturing ability, which allows this compound to compete with the ferrous ions for the various free radicals - especially ·OH radicals and H· atoms - formed during irradiation of the surrounding water. The sensitizing capacity of radiation sensitizers was measured by irradiation of a polyacrylamide gel (PAG) dosimeter incorporating a compound under study and measuring the corresponding increase in the gradient between spin-spin relaxation rate (R2) and absorbed dose. We measured an irradiation energy-dependent increase in R 2-dose sensitivity for halogenated compounds or a decrease for radioprotectors. Finally, we studied a novel laser irradiation method called "filamentation". We showed that this phenomenon results in an unprecedented deposition of energy and the dose rate thus achieved exceeds by orders of magnitude values

  10. Perpentylated (2, 3, 6-Tri-O-pentyl)-β-cyclodextrin Used as Capillary Gas Chromatographic Stationary Phase Prepared by Sol-gel Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Min LIANG; Mei Ling QI; Yu LENG; Ruo Nong FU

    2005-01-01

    Capillary column preparation using perpentylated (2,3,6-tri-O-pentyl)-β-cyclodextrin as stationary phase by sol-gel technology with simplicity and rapidity is described. Multiple preparation steps in conventional column technology were avoided. The prepared columns exhibit satisfactory chromatographic performances and pronounced selectivity for a wide range of test solutes, and have been successfully used for the separation of nitrotoluene, dimethoxybenzene,alcohols, alkanes, dimethylphenol and cresol isomers.

  11. Preparation and characterization of 5-sulphosalicylic acid doped tetraethoxysilane composite ion-exchange material by sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, Suhail-ul; Islam, Nasarul; Ahad, Sozia; Fatima, Syed Zeeshan; Pandith, Altaf Hussain, E-mail: altafpandit23@gmail.com

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Sulphosalicylic acid doped tetraethoxysilane composite is prepared by sol–gel method. •Its X-ray diffraction studies suggest that it is crystalline in nature. • This material shows selectivity for Mg(II) and Ni(II) ions in aqueous solutions. • Separation of Ni(II) from binary mixtures was successfully achieved on this material. -- Abstract: In this manuscript, we report the preparation and characterization of sulphosalicylic doped tetraethoxysilane (SATEOS), composite material by sol–gel method as a new ion exchanger for the removal of Ni(II) from aqueous solution. The fine granular material was prepared by acid catalyzed condensation polymerization through sol–gel mechanism in the presence of cationic surfactant. The material has an ion exchange capacity of 0.64 mequiv./g(dry) for sodium ions, 0.60 mequiv./g(dry) for potassium ions, 1.84 mequiv./g(dry) for magnesium ions, 1.08 mequiv./g(dry) for calcium ions and 1.36 mequiv./g(dry) for strontium ions. Its X-ray diffraction studies suggest that it is crystalline in nature. The material has been characterized by SEM, IR, TGA and DTG so as to identify the various functional groups and ion exchange sites present in this material. Quantum chemical computations at DFT/B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) level on model systems were performed to substantiate the structural conclusions based ion instrumental techniques. Investigations into the elution behaviour, ion exchange reversibility and distribution capacities of this material towards certain environmentally hazardous metal ions are also performed. The material shows good chemical stability towards acidic conditions and exhibits fast elution of exchangeable H{sup +} ions under neutral conditions. This material shows remarkable selectivity for Ni(II) and on the basis of its K{sub d} value (4 × 10{sup 2} in 0.01 M HClO{sub 4}) some binary separations of Ni(II) from other metal ions are performed.

  12. Sol-Gel-Prepared Nanoparticles of Mixed Praseodymium Cobaltites-Ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekinchak, Olga; Vasylechko, Leonid; Lutsyuk, Iryna; Vakhula, Yaroslav; Prots, Yuri; Carrillo-Cabrera, Wilder

    2016-02-01

    Two series of nanocrystalline powders of PrCo1 - x Fe x O3 ( x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9) of high purity were obtained by sol-gel citrate method at 700 and 800 °C. The formation of continuous solid solution with an orthorhombic perovskite structure (sp. group Pbnm) was observed. A peculiarity of the PrCo1 - x Fe x O3 solid solution is the lattice parameter crossovers, which occurred at certain compositions and revealed in the pseudo-tetragonal or pseudo-cubic metric. An average crystallite size of the PrCo1 - x Fe x O3 samples estimated from the analysis of the angular dependence of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) line broadening varies between 30 and 155 nm, depending on the composition and synthesis temperature.

  13. Effect of Annealing on the Properties of Vanadium Pentoxide Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaqiang; Du, Xuelian; Liu, Xueqin

    2014-03-01

    The vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) films were obtained by using sol-gel procedure and then were annealed at different temperature in air. The effect of different annealing temperatures on the composition, the microstructure, the surface morphology and the optical properties of the films were characterized by methods such as by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and spectral transmittance. The results revealed that the film annealed at 150°C has amorphous structure and dense with a smooth surface and the films annealed at 300°C and 450°C have a polycrystalline V2O5 structure with preferred growth orientation along (001) planes, the c-axis and perpendicular to the silicon substrate surface. From the spectral transmittance we determined the absorption edge using the Tauc plot. The results indicated that optical bandgap of V2O5 thin films decreased with annealing temperature.

  14. A novel sol-gel method for preparing favorable TiO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Dainan; Li, Jie; Zhong, Zhiyong; Jia, Lijun; Wen, Tianlong; Zhang, Huaiwu; Liao, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films were synthesized by the sol-gel spin-coating method with different variables. Tetrabutyl titanate (TBOT) proportion and C5H8O2: TBOT molar ratio were confirmed to be influential on the gelation time. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the samples presented rutile TiO2 phases, which is a basis for subsequent experiments. Scanning electron microscope results revealed that TiO2 thin films with homogeneous and compact surfaces were synthesized successfully when adding moderate TBOT. It was found the thickness of films could reach about 60 nm when sintered at 750 °C, and the influence of sintering temperature was also investigated.

  15. Bioactivity studies of calcium magnesium silicate prepared from eggshell waste by sol–gel combustion synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Choudhary

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the synthesis of calcium magnesium silicate (akermanite, Ca2MgSi2O7 using eggshell biowaste (as calcium source, magnesium nitrate and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS as starting materials. Sol–gel combustion method was adopted to obtain calcium magnesium silicate. Citric acid was used as a fuel (reducing agent and nitrate ions present in the metal nitrates acts as an oxidizing agent during combustion process. The characterization of synthesized calcium magnesium silicate was carried out by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques. Calcium magnesium silicate crystallite size was observed in nano regime which can effectively mimic natural bone apatite composition. In-vitro bioactivity was investigated by immersing calcium magnesium silicate pellet in simulated body fluid (SBF for three weeks. Results show effective deposition of crystallized hydroxyapatite (HAP layer on its surface and predicting its possibilities for applications in hard tissue regeneration.

  16. Preparation and Sinterability of Mn-Zn Ferrite Powders by Sol-Gel Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Mn-Zn spinel ferrites were synthesized by sol-gel method. Effects of calcined temperature on structure and particle size of MnZnFe2O4 were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD patterns indicate that the ultra fine Mn-Zn ferrite exhibits a spinel crystal structure. SEM images show that the powder fired at 900 ℃ for 2 h has an average diameter of 60~90 nm. The particle size becomes larger with the increasing of calcined temperature and the distribution of particle becomes even more homogeneous. Sintering behaviors of synthesized ferrite powders depend on the powder characteristics and high temperatures have induced the good crystallization of particles.

  17. The effect of Ni and Fe doping on YBCO powder prepared by sol gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Saeb

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available  We fabricated YBa2Cu3-xMxO7- d (M=Ni, Fe bulk samples, with stochiometric amount 0≤x≤0.045 by sol-gel method. The phase analysis and microstructure of specimens were examined by XRD and SEM. The electrical resistivity was measured using standard four probe technique for 77-300K. Investigation of XRD spectrum by MAUD shows Ni and Fe ions substitute in Cu(2 and Cu(1 site, respectively. Transition temperature decreases in 93-87K for Ni-doped samples and 93-92K for Fe-doped series. It seems that the suppression of superconductivity has no direct correlation with the magnetism of ions itself .

  18. Nano preparation of Dy{sup 3+} substituted ceria via urea-formaldehyde gel combustion route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Mridula; Bandyopadhyay, Siddhartha [CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2013-10-15

    Nanocrystalline ceria powders have been synthesised via the gel combustion route, using for the first time urea formaldehyde as fuel for doping of dysprosium oxide. This synthesis route can produce well-crystallised powder within a one step combustion process, eliminating the need for further calcinations. The formation sequences have been described through differential scanning calorimetry-thermo gravimetric analysis study and the crystallinity of the powder was examined using X-ray diffraction, selected area electron diffraction and high resolution patterns. Lattice parameter was found to increase with doping concentration. Very fine grains in the size range of 3-5 nm are found to occur in the form of large and soft agglomerates (50-130 nm). The optical band gap suggests that those powders with low dopant concentration may have useful applications in UV-shielding and in transparent conducting film. (orig.)

  19. Sol-Gel Preparation of Graphite/TiO2 Composite Particles and Their Electrorheological Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling ZHENG; Yinong LI

    2005-01-01

    Graphite/TiO2 composite particles were obtained by sol-gel technique in this paper. The structure and characteristic of the composite particles are analyzed by XRD, SEM and TG-DTA. The electrorheological properties of the ER fluid containing the particles were measured by a Couette-type rheometer under shear rates of 1~136 s-1 and AC electric fields of 0~3 kV/mm. The experimental results show that the leaking current density of the ER fluid is higher than that of pure titanium dioxide particles dispersed in damping oil. The shear yield stress of the ER fluid increases with increasing electric field and exhibits a typical Bingham flow behavior. The suspension demonstrates an excellent ER performance (τ/τ0=1200) compared with conventional ER fluids (τ/τ0 ≤500). The sedimentation of the ER fluid is improved obviously due to the coating effect of the particles.

  20. Preparation of ketoprofen ethosomal gels%酮洛芬醇质体凝胶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 何文; 罗丽萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To prepare ketoprofen ethosomal gels and study the quality preliminarily. Methods The ketoprofen ethosomes were prepared by injection method. The optimal formulation and preparation were screened by orthogonal experiments. The ethosomal gels were prepared by mixing method. The content of ketoprofen was determined by HPLC and the entrapment efficiency of the ethosomes was measured by dialysis method. Results The shape of the ketoprofen ethosomes was spherical with homogeneous size and the average value of mean particle size was(185.8 ±58.2)nm. The average encapsulation efficiency was (72.6 ±3.2)%. The linear range of ketoprofen was 1.5-12.0 μg · mL-1(r=0.999 9). The average recovery of ketoprofen is (99.3 ±1. 5)%. Conclusion The preparation is simple and reasonable with promising repeatability and controllable quality.%目的 研制酮洛芬醇质体凝胶,并对其质量进行初步考察.方法 采用注入法制备酮洛芬醇质体,通过正交实验优选较佳处方和工艺;采用研和法制备醇质体凝胶,HPLC测定其中主药的含量,透析法测定包封率.结果 酮洛芬醇质体形态圆整,粒径均匀,平均粒径为(185.8±58.2)nm,平均包封率为(72.6±3.2)%.酮洛芬线性浓度范围为1.5-12.0μg·mL-1(r=0.9999),平均回收率为(99.3±1.5)%.结论 本制剂制备工艺简单可行,重现性好,质量稳定可控.