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Sample records for preparations normal uninfected

  1. Normal Thymic Size and Low Rate of Infections in Human Donor Milk Fed HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants from Birth to 18 Months of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Hoppe, Tine Ursula

    2013-01-01

    (P age had significantly fewer infections at 8 months when compared to age-matched formula-fed infants (P = 0.001). Conclusion. HIV-EU infants fed human donor milk have normal growth of thymus and contract......Objective. To evaluate the immune function in HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU) infants fed human donor milk. Methods. Ultrasound-obtained thymic index (Ti), T-lymphocyte subsets, and the number of infections were examined from birth to 18 months of age in 18 HIV-EU infants. The infants were compared...... to a cohort of 47 term, HIV-unexposed breastfed or formula-fed infants. Results. The thymic size at 12 months of age was not significantly different between the HIV-EU group and the control infants (P = 0.56). At 4 months of age, the HIV-EU infants had significantly fewer infections than the control infants...

  2. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland on squash preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murro, Diana; Alsadi, Alaa; Nag, Sukriti; Arvanitis, Leonidas; Gattuso, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    As primary pineal lesions are extremely rare, many surgical pathologists are unfamiliar with normal pineal cytologic features. We describe cytologic features of the normal pineal gland in patients of varying ages and identify common diagnostic pitfalls. We performed a retrospective review of pineal gland biopsies performed at our institution, where approximately 30,000 surgical specimens are accessioned yearly, for the last 23 years. Only two pineal gland biopsies were found. Although both cases were initially diagnosed as low-grade gliomas on frozen section, the final diagnosis was benign pineal tissue based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry results. Additionally, we performed squash preparations of five normal pineal gland autopsy specimens with Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik® (Dade Behring, Newark, DE) stains. Infant preparations were highly cellular smears composed of numerous, uniform, single cells with indistinct cytoplasm, small round-to-oval nuclei, fine chromatin, and absent nucleoli and calcifications. The vague microfollicular pattern mimicked a pineocytoma and the fine fibrillary background mimicked a glial neoplasm. Young adult smears were similar; however, microcalcifications were present with fewer background single cells. Older patients had much less cellular smears composed of small clusters of cells with fusiform-to-spindle nuclei, a fine chromatin pattern, and indistinct cytoplasmic borders. There were fewer background single cells and more microcalcifications. The cytologic features of the native pineal gland vary with age. Normal pineal tissue can be confused with a pineocytoma or low-grade glioma. Familiarity with normal pineal gland cytological features will help to avoid a potential misdiagnosis.

  3. Preparing normal tissue cells for space flight experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Claudia; Kohn, Florian P M; Bauer, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Deterioration of health is a problem in modern space flight business. In order to develop countermeasures, research has been done on human bodies and also on single cells. Relevant experiments on human cells in vitro are feasible when microgravity is simulated by devices such as the Random Positioning Machine or generated for a short time during parabolic flights. However, they become difficult in regard to performance and interpretation when long-term experiments are designed that need a prolonged stay on the International Space Station (ISS). One huge problem is the transport of living cells from a laboratory on Earth to the ISS. For this reason, mainly rapidly growing, rather robust human cells such as cancer cells, embryonic cells, or progenitor cells have been investigated on the ISS up to now. Moreover, better knowledge on the behavior of normal mature cells, which mimic the in vivo situation, is strongly desirable. One solution to the problem could be the use of redifferentiable cells, which grow rapidly and behave like cancer cells in plain medium, but are reprogrammed to normal cells when substances like retinoic acid are added. A list of cells capable of redifferentiation is provided, together with names of suitable drugs, in this review.

  4. Turnover rates of B cells, T cells, and NK cells in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected rhesus macaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, R.J. de; Mohri, H.; Ho, D.D.; Perelson, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    We determined average cellular turnover rates by fitting mathematical models to 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine measurements in SIV-infected and uninfected rhesus macaques. The daily turnover rates of CD4(+) T cells, CD4(-) T cells, CD20(+) B cells, and CD16(+) NK cells in normal uninfected rhesus macaques

  5. Comparative study on radiation sensitivity of preparations from normal and dystrophic (vitamin E deficient) muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katona, G.; Szekessy-Hermann, V. (Semmelweis Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Budapest (Hungary)); Szabo, L.D. (Orszagos Frederic Joliot-Curie Sugarbiologiai es Sugaregeszseguegyi Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1983-11-22

    The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of homogenates prepared from striated muscles of normal rabbits increases on the effect of low dose /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. irradiation while it decreases on the effect of high doses. However, no activity increase can be observed in homogenates from muscle of vitamin E deficient rabbits even with low dose irradiation. Nevertheless, activity increase in the homogenates prepared by addition of a non-ionic detergent (Triton-X-100) continuously decreases, irrespective of the fact whether the homogenates originate from normal or dystrophic muscle. The activity increase occurring on low dose irradiation can also be observed in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The difference between the preparations from normal and dystrophic muscle is manifested by the lower activating effect of irradiation in dystrophic than in normal muscle, activity increase may be even absent. The ATPase activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum will not grow on the effect of preparations. The different behavior to irradiation of AChE in normal and dystrophic muscle preparations was discussed with special reference to the role of vitamin E in stabilizing membrane structures.

  6. Comparative study on radiation sensitivity of preparations from normal and dystrophic (Vitamin-E deficient) muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katona, G.; Szabo, L.D.; Szekessy-Hermann, V.

    1983-01-01

    The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of homogenates prepared from the cross-striated muscles of normal rabbits increases with low dose /sup 60/Co-..gamma..-irradiation while it decreases with high doses. However, no activity increase can be observed in homogenates from muscles of vitamin-E deficient rabbits even with low dose irradiation. Nonetheless, activity increases in the homogenates prepared by addition of a non-ionic detergent (Triton-X-100) continuously decreases, irrespective of whether or not the homogenates originate from normal or dystrophic muscles. The activity increases occurring at low dose irradiation can also be observed in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The difference between the preparations for normal and dystrophic muscles is manifested by the lower activating effect of irradiation in dystrophic rather than in normal muscle, and activity increases may even be absent. The ATPase activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum does not increase with the efffect of preparations. The different behaviour to irradiation of AChE in normal and dystrophic muscle preparations was discussed with special reference to the role of vitamin-E in stabilizing membrane structure. 34 references, 6 figures.

  7. Classifying, archiving and digitalizing documents related to normal conducting magnets & preparing graphs of magnetic measurement results

    CERN Document Server

    Bayramoglu, Gultug

    2016-01-01

    The main project aims to classify and digitalize documents related to normal conducting magnets. These documents include magnetic measurement results and their graphs, inspection reports, manufacturing reports and so on. The archive of Normal Conducting Magnets Section consists lots of different types of normal conducting magnets documents. Besides these magnet varieties, there are still documents from the times of first accelerator at CERN. In that moment, my project involves to identify, classify and digitalize documents and make them ready to be uploaded in NORMA - database of normal conducting magnets. In addition part of my time I’ve spent on second project, which was preparing graphs of magnetic measurement results of magnets such as current and magnetic field. The aim of these graphs is to compare parameters of magnets the same type and check measurement results’ consistency according to reference points. All of these graphs are on time basis.

  8. One-day bowel preparation in children with colostomy using normal saline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel A Ameh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colonic and colorectal surgery frequently requires bowel preparation. This is an evaluation of the use of normal saline for one-day bowel preparation in children with colostomy. Patients and Methods:A prospective study of 55 children with colostomy who had one-day bowel preparation for colonic and colorectal surgical procedures in a 3-year period. The information, along with clinical data was recorded on a structured proforma. Data were analysed using SPSS version 11.0. Results:There were 33 boys and 22 girls. The median age was 4 years (range, one month - 13 years. The primary diagnosis were as follows: Anorectal malformation, 24 (44%; Hirschsprung`s disease, 24 (44%; Faecal incontinence- post-abdominoperineal pull-through, 2 (4%; Penetrating rectal injury, 1 (2%; others, 4(8%. Intraoperative bowel luminal fluid cleanliness was assessed as clear in 36 (62% and contaminated in 21 (38%. Overall, postoperatively, superficial surgical site infection occurred in 6 (10.9% patients (2 had clean intraoperative colonic fluid, 5.9%. Conclusion:One-day bowel preparation using normal saline is effective and safe in children with colostomy.

  9. HIV Treatment Protects Uninfected Partner from The Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html HIV Treatment Protects Uninfected Partner From the Virus Study of gay couples duplicates findings of earlier ... HealthDay News) -- HIV treatment prevented transmission of the virus in gay couples when only one partner had ...

  10. Jules Horowitz Reactor: Organisation for the Preparation of the Commissioning Phase and Normal Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrade, J.; Fabre, J. L.; Marcille, O. [French Alternative Energies end Atomic Energy Commission, Provence (France)

    2013-07-01

    The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) is a new modern Material Testing Reactor (MTR) currently under construction at CEA Cadarache research centre in the south of France. It will be a major research facility in support to the development and the qualification of materials and fuels under irradiation with sizes and environment conditions relevant for nuclear power plants in order to optimise and demonstrate safe operations of existing power reactors as well as to support future reactors design. It will represent also an important research infrastructure for scientific studies dealing with material and fuel behaviour under irradiation. The JHR will contribute also to secure the production of radioisotope for medical application. This is a key public health stake. The construction of JHR which started in 2007 is going-on with target of commissioning by the end of 2017. The design of the reactor provides modern experimental capacity in support to R and D programs for the nuclear energy for the next 60 years. In parallel to the facility construction, the preparation of the future staff and of the organisation to operate the reactor safely, reliably and efficiently is an important issue. In this framework, many actions are in progress to elaborate: Ο the staffing and the organisational structure for the commissioning test phases and also for normal operation, Ο the documentation in support to the reactor operation (safety analysis report, general operating rules, procedures, instructions, ···), Ο the maintenance, in service and periodic test programs, Ο staff training programs by using dedicated facilities (simulator, ···) Ο commissioning test programs for ensuring that the layout of systems and subcomponents is completed in accordance with the design requirements, the specification performances and the safety criteria. These commissioning tests will also be helpful for transferring the knowledge on the installed systems to the operating group. This paper gives the

  11. The Effect of Full Crown Preparation on Normal and Inflamed Pulp Tissue: An Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Vardkar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Full crown preparation may have adverse effects on pulp tissue. In this study, the effect of full-crown preparation on intact versus inflamed pulp tissue was studied. Methods: Fifteen healthy mature cats were randomly selected for this study. The study was performed on four canine teeth of each cat. Cats were anesthetized and then radiographs were taken from the canine teeth. Class V cavities were prepared in cat canine teeth. Soft decayed dentin was placed on the floor of cavities and sealed. After 1 month, all of the samples prepared for crown fabrication. Before crown preparation, an impression was taken in a custom tray. During crown preparation, the remnants of carious dentin were removed and undercuts were sealed by glass-ionomer. After preparation, self-cured acrylic temporary crowns were fabricated in a direct procedure and cemented permanently by glass-ionomer. One week later, teeth of the opposite jaw were prepared in a similar procedure. After 2 months, vital perfusion performed and the pulp tissue was histologically examined. Results: There was no significant difference between 4 groups, regarding to histologic status of the pulp. In healthy lower jaw, inflammation was the most frequent but in the other groups, necrosis was most frequent. Also, there was no significant difference between the upper jaw and the lower jaw groups regarding to the frequency of necrosis and inflammation. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between intact and inflamed groups regarding the frequency of necrosis and inflammation

  12. The Effect of Full Crown Preparation on Normal and Inflamed Pulp Tissue: An Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bidar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Full crown preparation may have adverse effects on pulp tissue. In this study, the effect of full-crown preparation on intact versus inflamed pulp tissue was studied. Methods: Fifteen healthy mature cats were randomly selected for this study. The study was performed on four canine teeth of each cat. Cats were anesthetized and then radiographs were taken from the canine teeth. Class V cavities were prepared in cat canine teeth. Soft decayed dentin was placed on the floor of cavities and sealed. After 1 month, all of the samples prepared for crown fabrication. Before crown preparation, an impression was taken in a custom tray. During crown preparation, the remnants of carious dentin were removed and undercuts were sealed by glass-ionomer. After preparation, self-cured acrylic temporary crowns were fabricated in a direct procedure and cemented permanently by glass-ionomer. One week later, teeth of the opposite jaw were prepared in a similar procedure. After 2 months, vital perfusion performed and the pulp tissue was histologically examined. Results: There was no significant difference between 4 groups, regarding to histologic status of the pulp. In healthy lower jaw, inflammation was the most frequent but in the other groups, necrosis was most frequent. Also, there was no significant difference between the upper jaw and the lower jaw groups regarding to the frequency of necrosis and inflammation. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between intact and inflamed groups regarding the frequency of necrosis and inflammation

  13. Preparing Fe5C2 Intermetallic Compound by Mechanical Alloying Method at Room Temperature and Normal Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何正明; 钟敏建; 沈伟星; 张正明

    2003-01-01

    Single phase Fe5C2 intermetallic compound was prepared by mechanical alloying method. The phase and crystal structure of sample were analyzed with X-ray differaction spectrum. The decomposing temperature of the Fe5C2 compound is 596.4℃ determined by the DSC curve. It is further shown that the size of nanometer crystal grain is an important condition for carrying out the solid state reaction at room temperature and normal pressure.

  14. A comparison of carbamazepine Divitabs and a normal carbamazepine preparation in psychiatric and oligophrenic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, J.R.; Doorschot, C.H.; Van Bavel, L.P.; Loonen, A.J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty patients who had become accustomed to a stable oral carbamazepine dose participated in an open, randomized, two-centre, cross-over study, in which ordinary tablets and Divitabs (a new sustained release preparation) were compared. Pharmacokinetic parameters, seizure control, effects on the

  15. A comparison of carbamazepine Divitabs and a normal carbamazepine preparation in psychiatric and oligophrenic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, J.R.; Doorschot, C.H.; Van Bavel, L.P.; Loonen, A.J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty patients who had become accustomed to a stable oral carbamazepine dose participated in an open, randomized, two-centre, cross-over study, in which ordinary tablets and Divitabs (a new sustained release preparation) were compared. Pharmacokinetic parameters, seizure control, effects on the beh

  16. 28 CFR 91.56 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant... environmental assessment is generally prepared when a project is not expected to have a significant impact on... construction of a new facility within an existing correctional complex may have limited impact on...

  17. 28 CFR 91.57 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of an environmental impact statement. Significant impact. For the proposed construction of a new... preparation of an environmental impact statement. 91.57 Section 91.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for...

  18. Preparative isolation of Heteroclitin D from Kadsurae Caulis using normal-phase flash chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Xue Yu; Qian-Wen Wang; Xin-Jun Xu; Wei-Jian Lv; Ming-Qian Zhao; Zhi-Kun Liang

    2013-01-01

    Heteroclitin D (H.D) was successfully isolated from Kadsurae Caulis by using flash chromatography and recrystallized by methanol, 10.2 mg of H.D was obtained from 4.86 g of crude extract, and the purity determined by HPLC was 99.4%. The structure was identified by UV, IR, MS, and NMR analysis. The fast, simple and efficient method can be applied to the preparation of reference substance of H. D.

  19. Bait Formulations of Chlorophyllin against Infected/Uninfected Lymnaea acuminata in Red and Sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of snail population is an important tool in fasciolosis control programme. In order to achive this objective the method of bait formulation containing an attractant and a molluscicide is an appropriate approach to ensure the death of host snail. Chlorophyllin bait pellets were prepared by addition of attractants starch (10 mM/serine (20 mM and Chlorophyllin 2% agar solution. These baits were used against host snail Lymnaea acuminata. The behavioral response of snail against attractant (starch/serine and chlorophyllin was examined in red and sunlight. The fraction of snail that was in contact with chlorophyllin bait in zone-3 was used as measure of attraction process. Infected snails were more attracted with red light+starch (57.7%. Uninfected snails were more attracted by red light+serine (58.0%. The molluscicidal activity of chlorophyllin against infected snails in red light (96h LC50-1.88% chlorophyllin in bait and sunlight (96h LC50-2.40% chlorophyllin in bait was more pronounced than uninfected snail in red light (96h LC50-1.76% Chlorophyllin in bait and sunlight (96h LC50-3.62% chlorophyllin in bait.

  20. The "new normal": Adapting doctoral trainee career preparation for broad career paths in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair, Rebekah; Hutto, Tamara; MacBeth, Cora; Newstetter, Wendy; McCarty, Nael A; Melkers, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Doctoral recipients in the biomedical sciences and STEM fields are showing increased interest in career opportunities beyond academic positions. While recent research has addressed the interests and preferences of doctoral trainees for non-academic careers, the strategies and resources that trainees use to prepare for a broad job market (non-academic) are poorly understood. The recent adaptation of the Social Cognitive Career Theory to explicitly highlight the interplay of contextual support mechanisms, individual career search efficacy, and self-adaptation of job search processes underscores the value of attention to this explicit career phase. Our research addresses the factors that affect the career search confidence and job search strategies of doctoral trainees with non-academic career interests and is based on nearly 900 respondents from an NIH-funded survey of doctoral students and postdoctoral fellows in the biomedical sciences at two U.S. universities. Using structural equation modeling, we find that trainees pursuing non-academic careers, and/or with low perceived program support for career goals, have lower career development and search process efficacy (CDSE), and receive different levels of support from their advisors/supervisors. We also find evidence of trainee adaptation driven by their career search efficacy, and not by career interests.

  1. The Immune System of HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Raya, Bahaa; Kollmann, Tobias R.; Marchant, Arnaud; MacGillivray, Duncan M.

    2016-01-01

    Infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women are HIV-exposed but the majority remains uninfected [i.e., HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)]. HEU infants suffer greater morbidity and mortality from infections compared to HIV-unexposed (HU) peers. The reason(s) for these worse outcomes are uncertain, but could be related to an altered immune system state. This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature investigating the adaptive and innate immune system of HEU infants. HEU infants have altered cell-mediated immunity, including impaired T-cell maturation with documented hypo- as well as hyper-responsiveness to T-cell activation. And although prevaccination vaccine-specific antibody levels are often lower in HEU than HU, most HEU infants mount adequate humoral immune response following primary vaccination with diphtheria toxoid, haemophilus influenzae type b, whole cell pertussis, measles, hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. However, HEU infants are often found to have lower absolute neutrophil counts as compared to HU infants. On the other hand, an increase of innate immune cytokine production and expression of co-stimulatory markers has been noted in HEU infants, but this increase appears to be restricted to the first few weeks of life. The immune system of HEU children beyond infancy remains largely unexplored. PMID:27733852

  2. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  3. Altered immunological reactivity in HIV-1-exposed uninfected neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hygino, Joana; Lima, Patrícia G; Filho, Renato G S; Silva, Agostinho A L; Saramago, Carmen S M; Andrade, Regis M; Andrade, Daniel M; Andrade, Arnaldo F B; Brindeiro, Rodrigo; Tanuri, Amilcar; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2008-06-01

    This work aimed to evaluate immune events in HIV-1-exposed uninfected neonates born from mothers who control (G1) or not (G2) the plasma viral load, using unexposed neonates as controls. Cord blood from each neonate was collected, plasma and mononuclear cells were separated and the lymphoproliferation and cytokine pattern were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the in vitro lymphoproliferation induced by polyclonal activators was higher in the G2 neonates. Nevertheless, no cell culture responded to poll synthetic HIV-1 envelope peptides. The cytokine dosage in the plasma and supernatants of polyclonally-activated cultures demonstrated that, while IL-4 and IL-10 were the dominant cytokines produced in G1 and control groups, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were significantly higher in G2 neonates. Systemic levels of IL-10 observed among the G1 neonates were higher in those born from anti-retroviral treated mothers. In summary, our results indicate an altered immune responsiveness in neonates exposed in utero to HIV and support the role of maternal anti-retroviral treatment to attenuate it.

  4. Maternal HIV infection influences the microbiome of HIV-uninfected infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Jeffrey M; Li, Fan; Martelly, Shoria; Byrt, Erin; Rouzier, Vanessa; Leo, Marguerite; Tobin, Nicole; Pannaraj, Pia S; Adisetiyo, Helty; Rollie, Adrienne; Santiskulvong, Chintda; Wang, Shaun; Autran, Chloe; Bode, Lars; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Kuhn, Louise; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2016-07-27

    More than 1 million HIV-exposed, uninfected infants are born annually to HIV-positive mothers worldwide. This growing population of infants experiences twice the mortality of HIV-unexposed infants. We found that although there were very few differences seen in the microbiomes of mothers with and without HIV infection, maternal HIV infection was associated with changes in the microbiome of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Furthermore, we observed that human breast milk oligosaccharides were associated with bacterial species in the infant microbiome. The disruption of the infant's microbiome associated with maternal HIV infection may contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants.

  5. Preparation of acetylated waxy, normal, and high-amylose maize starches with intermediate degrees of substitution in aqueous solution and their properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhi-Gang; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2012-09-19

    Acetylated waxy, normal, and high-amylose maize starches with intermediate degrees of substitution (DS) were prepared in aqueous solution with 20% (w/w) sodium hydroxide as a catalyst. The level of DS was in the order high-amylose maize starch > waxy maize starch > normal maize starch. Settling volume indicated that during the early reaction, normal maize starch swelled to a lesser extent compared with waxy and high-amylose maize starches. The settling volume of all three starches increased initially but decreased after long reaction time. Aggregation of granules was observed as DS increased. The A-type X-ray diffraction pattern of acetylated normal and waxy maize starches weakened as DS increased, whereas the diffraction peaks disappeared in acetylated high-amylose starch when DS was 0.95. Low DS promoted the swelling of the starches in water, but at high DS, the starches became more hydrophobic and the peak viscosity of acetylated starches decreased.

  6. An effective intervention to reduce intravaginal practices among HIV-1 uninfected Kenyan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapalasingam, Sumathi; McClelland, R Scott; Ravel, Jacques; Ahmed, Aabid; Cleland, Charles M; Gajer, Pawel; Mwamzaka, Musa; Marshed, Fatma; Shafi, Juma; Masese, Linnet; Fajans, Mark; Anderson, Molly E; Jaoko, Walter; Kurth, Ann E

    2014-11-01

    Intravaginal practices (IVP) are common among African women and are associated with HIV acquisition. A behavioral intervention to reduce IVP is a potential new HIV risk-reduction strategy. Fifty-eight HIV-1-uninfected Kenyan women reporting IVP and 42 women who denied IVP were followed for 3 months. Women using IVP attended a skill-building, theory-based group intervention occurring weekly for 3 weeks to encourage IVP cessation. Vaginal swabs at each visit were used to detect yeast, to detect bacterial vaginosis, and to characterize the vaginal microbiota. Intravaginal insertion of soapy water (59%) and lemon juice (45%) was most common among 58 IVP women. The group-counseling intervention led to a decrease in IVP from 95% (54/58) at baseline to 0% (0/39) at month 3 (p=0.001). After 3 months of cessation, there was a reduction in yeast on vaginal wet preparation (22% to 7%, p=0.011). Women in the IVP group were more likely to have a Lactobacillus iners-dominated vaginal microbiota at baseline compared to controls [odds ratio (OR), 6.4, p=0.006] without significant change in the microbiota after IVP cessation. The group counseling intervention was effective in reducing IVP for 3 months. Reducing IVP may be important in itself, as well as to support effective use of vaginal microbicides, to prevent HIV acquisition.

  7. Purification of flavonoids from licorice using an off-line preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yunpeng; Fu, Yanhui; Fu, Qing; Cai, Jianfeng; Xin, Huaxia; Dai, Mei; Jin, Yu

    2016-07-01

    An orthogonal (71.9%) off-line preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography/reversed-phase liquid chromatography method coupled with effective sample pretreatment was developed for separation and purification of flavonoids from licorice. Most of the nonflavonoids were firstly removed using a self-made Click TE-Cys (60 μm) solid-phase extraction. In the first dimension, an industrial grade preparative chromatography was employed to purify the crude flavonoids. Click TE-Cys (10 μm) was selected as the stationary phase that provided an excellent separation with high reproducibility. Ethyl acetate/ethanol was selected as the mobile phase owing to their excellent solubility for flavonoids. Flavonoids co-eluted in the first dimension were selected for further purification using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Multiple compounds could be isolated from one normal-phase fraction and some compounds with bad resolution in one-dimensional liquid chromatography could be prepared in this two-dimensional system owing to the orthogonal separation. Moreover, this two-dimensional liquid chromatography method was beneficial for the preparation of relatively trace flavonoid compounds, which were enriched in the first dimension and further purified in the second dimension. Totally, 24 flavonoid compounds with high purity were obtained. The results demonstrated that the off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography method was effective for the preparative separation and purification of flavonoids from licorice.

  8. Aedes triseriatus females transovarially-infected with La Crosse virus mate more efficiently than uninfected mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Sara M.; Beaty, Meaghan K.; Gabitzsch, Elizabeth S.; Blair, Carol D.; Beaty, Barry J.

    2010-01-01

    The mating efficiencies of field-collected and laboratory-colonized Aedes triseriatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) female mosquitoes transovarially-infected or uninfected with La Crosse virus (LACV) were compared. The females were placed in cages with age-matched males, and the insemination rates were determined daily by detection of sperm in the spermathecae. LACV-infected mosquitoes typically mated more quickly than uninfected mosquitoes. LACV load was not correlated with increased insemination. PMID:19769048

  9. Contents of several inorganic substances in European eel infected and uninfected by Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barus, V; Tenora, F; Krácmar, S; Dvorácek, J

    1999-07-30

    The content of 5 macroelements and 5 microelements were analyzed using the atomic absorption method in muscle samples of European eels infected and uninfected by Anguillicola crasus. The mean contents of these substances in infected eels were statistically highly significantly lower in Ca, P, Fe, Mn, but only statistically significantly lower in Na, Mg, Zn and Cu as compared to uninfected fishes. These differences are discussed in relation to hematophagus feeding and pathogenity of the parasite.

  10. On-line comprehensive two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography for preparative isolation of Peucedanum praeruptorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Yuan; Li, Jia-Fu; Jian, Ya-Mei; Wu, Zhen; Fang, Mei-Juan; Qiu, Ying-Kun

    2015-03-27

    A new on-line comprehensive preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography (2D NPLC × RPLC) system was developed for the separation of complicated natural products. It was based on the use of a silica gel packed medium-pressure column as the first dimension and an ODS preparative HPLC column as the second dimension. The two dimensions were connected with normal-phase (NP) and reversed-phase (RP) enrichment units, involving a newly developed airflow assisted adsorption (AAA) technique. The instrument operation and the performance of this NPLC × RPLC separation method were illustrated by gram-scale isolation of ethanol extract from the roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum. In total, 19 compounds with high purity were obtained via automated multi-step preparative separation in a short period of time using this system, and their structures were comprehensively characterized by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR. Including two new compounds, five isomers in two groups with identical HPLC and TLC retention values were also obtained and identified by 1D NMR and 2D NMR. This is the first report of an NPLC × RPLC system successfully applied in an on-line preparative process. This system not only solved the interfacing problem of mobile-phase immiscibility caused by NP and RP separation, it also exhibited apparent advantages in separation efficiency and sample treatment capacity compared with conventional methods.

  11. Surface Antigen Profiling of Helicobacter pylori-Infected and -Uninfected Gastric Cancer Cells Using Antibody Microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukri, Asif; Hanafiah, Alfizah; Kosai, Nik Ritza; Mohamed Taher, Mustafa; Mohamed Rose, Isa

    2016-10-01

    Comprehensive immunophenotyping cluster of differentiation (CD) antigens in gastric adenocarcinoma, specifically between Helicobacter pylori-infected and -uninfected gastric cancer patients by using DotScan(™) antibody microarray has not been conducted. Current immunophenotyping techniques include flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry are limited to the use of few antibodies for parallel examination. We used DotScan(™) antibody microarray consisting 144 CD antibodies to determine the distribution of CD antigens in gastric adenocarcinoma cells and to elucidate the effect of H. pylori infection toward CD antigen expression in gastric cancer. Mixed leukocytes population derived from gastric adenocarcinoma patients were immunophenotyped using DotScan(™) antibody microarray. AGS cells were infected with H. pylori strains and cells were captured on DotScan(™) slides. Cluster of differentiation antigens involved in perpetuating the tolerance of immune cells to tumor cells was upregulated in gastric adenocarcinoma cells compared to normal cells. CD279 which is essential in T cells apoptosis was found to be upregulated in normal cells. Remarkably, H. pylori-infected gastric cancer patients exhibited upregulated expression of CD27 that important in maintenance of T cells. Infection of cagA+ H. pylori with AGS cells increased CD antigens expression which involved in cancer stem cell while cagA- H. pylori polarized AGS cells to express immune-regulatory CD antigens. Increased CD antigens expression in AGS cells infected with cagA+ H. pylori were also detected in H. pylori-infected gastric cancer patients. This study suggests the tolerance of immune system toward tumor cells in gastric cancer and distinct mechanisms of immune responses exploited by different H. pylori strains. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Preparation of 6—[18F]fluoro—L—DOPA and its biodistribution in normal and unilateral PD model rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGLan; TANGGang-Hua; 等

    2002-01-01

    No-carrier-added 6-[18F] fluoro-L-DOPA(6-FDOPA) was synthesized via a multistep procedure from a commercial available precursor,6-nitroveratraldehyde,The total synthesis time was 75min,with a radiochemical yield of (10±3)%,high radiochemical purity(>99%) and high enantiomeric purity(>95%).The biodistributions of 6-FDOPA in normal and unilateral PD model rats were measured.The results from normal rats showed the expected high concentration of radioactivity in striatum and low distrbutions in cerebrum,cortex and cerebellum.The ration of the radioactivity in striatum to cerebellum reached a peak value(5.9) at 60 min.In unilateral PD model rate.whose substania nigra of the right side had been damaged by pre-treated with 6-OHDA,the radioactive concentration in striatum of the damaged side was significantly lower than that of the undamaged side or that of both sides in striatum of control groups.

  13. Role of Bax in death of uninfected retinal cells during murine cytomegalovirus retinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Juan; Marshall, Brendan; Covar, Jason; Zhang, Nancy Y; Smith, Sylvia B; Atherton, Sally S; Zhang, Ming

    2014-10-08

    Extensive death of uninfected bystander neuronal cells is an important component of the pathogenesis of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Our previous results have shown that caspase 3-dependent and -independent pathways are involved in death of uninfected bystander cells during murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) retinitis and also that Bcl-2, an important inhibitor of apoptosis via the Bax-mediated mitochondrial pathway, is downregulated during this process. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Bax-mediated mitochondrial damage has a significant role in the death of uninfected retinal cells. BALB/c mice, Bax(-/-) mice, or Bax(+/+) mice were immunosuppressed with methylprednisolone and infected with 5 × 10(3) plaque-forming units (PFU) of the K181 strain of MCMV via the supraciliary route. Injected eyes were analyzed by plaque assay, electron microscopy, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, TUNEL assay, Western blot (for caspase 3, caspase 12, Bax, receptor interacting protein-1 [RIP1] and receptor interacting protein-3 [RIP3]), as well as immunohistochemical staining for MCMV early antigen and cleaved caspase 3. Significantly more Bax was detected in mitochondrial fractions of MCMV-infected eyes than in mitochondrial fractions of mock-infected control eyes. Furthermore, the level of cleaved caspase 3 was significantly lower in MCMV-infected Bax(-/-) eyes than in MCMV-infected Bax(+/+) eyes. However, more caspase 3-independent cell death of uninfected bystander retinal cells and more cleaved RIP1 were observed in Bax(-/-) than in Bax(+/+) eyes. During MCMV retinitis, Bax is activated and has an important role in death of uninfected bystander retinal cells by caspase 3-dependent apoptosis. Although the exact mechanism remains to be deciphered, active Bax might also prevent death of some types of uninfected retinal cells by a caspase 3-independent pathway. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  14. Antiproliferative activity of extracts prepared from three species of Reishi on cultured human normal and tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagata, Yohtaro; Sasaki, Fumiyuki

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the growth of human fibrosarcoma (HT-1080) and fibroblast (SF-TY) cells in combination with water-soluble (WS) and high molecular component (HMC) fractions prepared from Reishi (R), Rokkaku-Reishi (2R) and Apple Rokkaku-Reishi (A2R). Each WS fraction exhibited dose-and time-dependent inhibition of the growth of the HT-1080 and SF-TY cells. The extracts exhibited marked antiproliferative activity against the HT-1080 cells. The HMC fractions inhibited cell growth dose-and time-dependently in the HT-1080 cells only, and not in the SF-TY cells, suggesting that HMC fractions selectively inhibit HT-1080 cells. Among the HMC fractions, A2R is a strong candidate for anti-tumor targeting since its fraction exhibited better inhibition than the R and 2R fractions. Furthermore, the volume of the A2R fraction was approximately five times greater than that of the others, and included four proteins (molecular mass 9, 13, 22 and 40 kDa) detected by SDS-PAGE. Three of these (13, 22 and 40 kDa) were confirmed to be glycosylated with the Periodic Acid-Schiff Stain kit. These results suggest that A2R may possess anti-tumor activity and, in particular, that the protein components of A2R may act to selectively inhibit the growth of HT-1080 cells.

  15. Adenovirus DNA replication in vitro is stimulated by RNA from uninfected HeLa cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, P.C. van der; Dam, D. van; Kwant, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Adenovirus DNA replication was studied in a partially reconstituted system consisting of purified viral proteins (DNA-binding protein, precursor terminal protein and Ad DNA polymerase) and a nuclear extract from uninfected HeLa cells. Optimal DNA replication required the presence of a heat-stable, r

  16. Low birth weight in perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected infants: observations in urban settings in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casimir Ledoux Sofeu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The consequences of maternal HIV infection for fetal growth are controversial. Here, we estimated the frequency of small for gestational age and gender (SGAG among neonates born to HIV-infected or uninfected mothers and assessed the contribution, if any, of maternal HIV to the risk of SGAG. METHODS: The data used were obtained from the ANRS-Pediacam cohort in Cameroon. Pairs of newborns, one to a HIV-infected mother and the other to an uninfected mother, were identified during the first week of life, and matched on gender and recruitment site from 2007-2010. SGAG was defined in line with international recommendations as a birth weight Z-score adjusted for gestational age at delivery and gender more than two standard deviations below the mean (-2SD. Considering the matched design, logistic regression modeling was adjusted on site and gender to explore the effect of perinatal HIV exposure on SGAG. RESULTS: Among the 4104 mother-infant pairs originally enrolled, no data on birth weight and/or gestational age were available for 108; also, 259 were twins and were excluded. Of the remaining 3737 mother-infant pairs, the frequency of SGAG was 5.3% (95%CI: 4.6-6.0, and was significantly higher among HIV-infected infants (22.4% vs. 6.3%; p<.001 and lower among HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (3.5% vs. 6.3%; p<.001 than among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Similarly, SGAG was significantly more frequent among HIV-infected infants (aOR: 4.1; 2.0-8.1 and less frequent among HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (aOR: 0.5; 0.4-0.8 than among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Primiparity (aOR: 1.9; 1.3-2.7 and the presence of any disease during pregnancy (aOR: 1.4; 1.0-2.0 were identified as other contributors to SGAG. CONCLUSION: Maternal HIV infection was independently associated with SGAG for HIV-exposed uninfected infants. This provides further evidence of the need for adapted monitoring of pregnancy in HIV-infected women, especially if they are

  17. Low Birth Weight in Perinatally HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants: Observations in Urban Settings in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofeu, Casimir Ledoux; Warszawski, Josiane; Ateba Ndongo, Francis; Penda, Ida Calixte; Tetang Ndiang, Suzie; Guemkam, Georgette; Makwet, Nicaise; Owona, Félicité; Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Tchendjou, Patrice; Texier, Gaëtan; Tchuente, Maurice; Faye, Albert; Tejiokem, Mathurin Cyrille

    2014-01-01

    Background The consequences of maternal HIV infection for fetal growth are controversial. Here, we estimated the frequency of small for gestational age and gender (SGAG) among neonates born to HIV-infected or uninfected mothers and assessed the contribution, if any, of maternal HIV to the risk of SGAG. Methods The data used were obtained from the ANRS-Pediacam cohort in Cameroon. Pairs of newborns, one to a HIV-infected mother and the other to an uninfected mother, were identified during the first week of life, and matched on gender and recruitment site from 2007–2010. SGAG was defined in line with international recommendations as a birth weight Z-score adjusted for gestational age at delivery and gender more than two standard deviations below the mean (−2SD). Considering the matched design, logistic regression modeling was adjusted on site and gender to explore the effect of perinatal HIV exposure on SGAG. Results Among the 4104 mother-infant pairs originally enrolled, no data on birth weight and/or gestational age were available for 108; also, 259 were twins and were excluded. Of the remaining 3737 mother-infant pairs, the frequency of SGAG was 5.3% (95%CI: 4.6–6.0), and was significantly higher among HIV-infected infants (22.4% vs. 6.3%; p<.001) and lower among HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (3.5% vs. 6.3%; p<.001) than among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Similarly, SGAG was significantly more frequent among HIV-infected infants (aOR: 4.1; 2.0–8.1) and less frequent among HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (aOR: 0.5; 0.4–0.8) than among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Primiparity (aOR: 1.9; 1.3–2.7) and the presence of any disease during pregnancy (aOR: 1.4; 1.0–2.0) were identified as other contributors to SGAG. Conclusion Maternal HIV infection was independently associated with SGAG for HIV-exposed uninfected infants. This provides further evidence of the need for adapted monitoring of pregnancy in HIV-infected women, especially if they are

  18. Early Weaning Increases Diarrhea Morbidity and Mortality Among Uninfected Children Born to HIV-infected Mothers in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Fawzy, Ashraf; Arpadi, Stephen; Kankasa, Chipepo; Sinkala, Moses; Mwiya, Mwiya; Thea, Donald M.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; Kuhn, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Background. Early weaning may reduce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission but may have deleterious consequences for uninfected children. Here we evaluate effects of early weaning on diarrhea morbidity and mortality of uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers.

  19. Measles and Rubella Seroprevalence Among HIV-infected and Uninfected Zambian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Catherine G; Searle, Kelly; Matakala, Hellen K; Greenman, Michelle P; Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Thuma, Philip E; Moss, William J

    2017-03-01

    Measles and congenital rubella syndrome remain significant causes of morbidity and mortality despite available vaccines. HIV-infected youth may be at increased risk of measles because of greater waning immunity after vaccination. At a population level, they constitute a potentially large pool of susceptibles to measles and rubella. More data among HIV-infected youth in sub-Saharan Africa are needed to guide vaccination policy and control strategies. This cross-sectional study was nested within 2 ongoing studies of malaria and HIV in Zambia. Dried blood spot cards from youth (5-15 years) in these studies from 2009 to 2013 were tested for IgG antibodies to measles and rubella viruses. HIV-uninfected youth, HIV-infected treatment-naive youth and HIV-infected youth receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) were compared. A total of 617 HIV-uninfected, 144 HIV-infected treatment-naive and 128 HIV-infected youth receiving ART were included in this study. The proportion seropositive for measles virus was significantly higher among HIV-uninfected youth (92.5%) compared with HIV-infected treatment-naive youth (74.1%) and HIV-infected youth receiving ART (71.9%). No differences by age were observed. The proportion seropositive for rubella virus was significantly higher among HIV-uninfected youth (54.7%) compared with HIV-infected treatment-naive youth (41.7%) and HIV-infected youth receiving ART (49.6%), with increases observed by age for all groups. Measles seroprevalence was lower among HIV-infected than uninfected youth, consistent with waning immunity after measles vaccination. HIV-infected youth would benefit from revaccination. Half of all youth in rural Zambia were susceptible to rubella and may need targeting for catch-up rubella campaigns when measles-rubella vaccine is introduced.

  20. Differences in the Faecal Microbiome in Schistosoma haematobium Infected Children vs. Uninfected Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Louise Kay

    Full Text Available Several infectious diseases and therapeutic interventions cause gut microbe dysbiosis and associated pathology. We characterised the gut microbiome of children exposed to the helminth Schistosoma haematobium pre- and post-treatment with the drug praziquantel (PZQ, with the aim to compare the gut microbiome structure (abundance and diversity in schistosome infected vs. uninfected children.Stool DNA from 139 children aged six months to 13 years old; with S. haematobium infection prevalence of 27.34% was extracted at baseline. 12 weeks following antihelminthic treatment with praziqunatel, stool DNA was collected from 62 of the 139 children. The 16S rRNA genes were sequenced from the baseline and post-treatment samples and the sequence data, clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs. The OTU data were analysed using multivariate analyses and paired T-test.Pre-treatment, the most abundant phyla were Bacteroidetes, followed by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria respectively. The relative abundance of taxa among bacterial classes showed limited variation by age group or sex and the bacterial communities had similar overall compositions. Although there were no overall differences in the microbiome structure across the whole age range, the abundance of 21 OTUs varied significantly with age (FDR<0.05. Some OTUs including Veillonella, Streptococcus, Bacteroides and Helicobacter were more abundant in children ≤ 1 year old compared to older children. Furthermore, the gut microbiome differed in schistosome infected vs. uninfected children with 27 OTU occurring in infected but not uninfected children, for 5 of these all Prevotella, the difference was statistically significant (p <0.05 with FDR <0.05. PZQ treatment did not alter the microbiome structure in infected or uninfected children from that observed at baseline.There are significant differences in the gut microbiome structure of infected vs. uninfected children and the differences were refractory to

  1. Purification of amide alkaloids from Piper longum L. using preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuiyong; Zhu, Wenya; Fu, Qing; Ke, Yanxiong; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2013-06-07

    A comprehensive off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) method coupling normal phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) and reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) was developed for separation and purification of amide alkaloids from Piper longum L. In the first dimension, the crude alkaloid fractions were separated in NPLC mode and 20 fractions were collected. Then fractions 5-20 were selected for further purification in RPLC mode in the second dimension. The purities of RPLC fractions with similar structures were all identified accurately by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). In total, 28 compounds with high purity were obtained and their structures were comprehensively characterized by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that this 2D NPLC × RPLC method with good orthogonality (58.3%) was effective for the preparative separation and purification of amide alkaloids from Piper longum L.

  2. On-line comprehensive two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography for preparative isolation of toad venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Fu; Fang, Hua; Yan, Xia; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Zhen; Wu, Yun-Long; Qiu, Ying-Kun

    2016-07-22

    An on-line comprehensive preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography (2D NPLC×RPLC) system was constructed with a newly developed vacuum evaporation assisted adsorption (VEAA) interface, allowing fast removal of NPLC solvent in the vacuum condition and successfully solving the solvent incompatibility problem between NPLC and RPLC. The system achieved on-line solvent exchange within the two dimensions and its performance was illustrated by gram-scale isolation of crude extract from the venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans. Within separation time of ∼20h, 19 compounds were obtained with high purity in a single run. With the VEAA interface, the 2D system exhibited apparent advantages in separation efficiency and automation compared with conventional methods, indicating its promising application in the routine separation process for complicated natural products.

  3. "I did not want to give birth to a child who has HIV": Experiences using PrEP during pregnancy among HIV-uninfected Kenyan women in HIV-serodiscordant couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintye, Jillian; Beima-Sofie, Kristin M; Kimemia, Grace; Ngure, Kenneth; Trinidad, Susan Brown; Heffron, Renee; Baeten, Jared; Odoyo, Josephine; Mugo, Nelly; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Kelley, Maureen C; John-Stewart, Grace C

    2017-07-31

    The perceptions, motivations, and beliefs of HIV-uninfected women about PrEP use during pregnancy can influence its uptake and adherence. This study elicited the views of HIV-uninfected women with personal experience taking PrEP during pregnancy. Qualitative interviews were conducted with HIV-uninfected women who had personal experience taking PrEP while pregnant. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 HIV-uninfected Kenyan women in HIV-serodiscordant couples enrolled in an open-label PrEP demonstration project who became pregnant while using PrEP and continued PrEP through their pregnancy. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed into English. A qualitative descriptive analysis was performed, using a constant comparison approach to identify key themes related to PrEP use in pregnancy. Desire to remain HIV-uninfected and have an HIV-free infant were strong motivators influencing continued use of PrEP during pregnancy. Supporting HIV-infected partners and childbearing within an HIV-serodiscordant relationship were also motivators. Women had challenges distinguishing normal pregnancy symptoms from PrEP side effects and were concerned that observed side effects could be signs of danger for the infant related to PrEP exposure. Healthcare providers were important conduits of knowledge about PrEP, and continuity of PrEP providers throughout pregnancy facilitated adherence. HIV-uninfected women in HIV-serodiscordant couples were motivated to use PrEP during pregnancy to remain HIV-uninfected and to have an HIV-free child, but had concerns about side effects. Healthcare providers will be important for PrEP messaging and adherence support in this unique population.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC), where it is permissible to download, share, remix, transform, and buildup the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be used commercially without

  4. Cellular Composition of Cerebrospinal Fluid in HIV-1 Infected and Uninfected Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Emily L; Ronquillo, Rollie; Altmeppen, Hermann; Spudich, Serena S; Price, Richard W; Sinclair, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In order to characterize the cellular composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a healthy state and in the setting of chronic pleocytosis associated with HIV-1 (HIV) infection, multi-parameter flow cytometry was used to identify and quantitate cellular phenotypes in CSF derived from HIV-uninfected healthy controls and HIV-infected subjects across a spectrum of disease and treatment. CD4+ T cells were the most frequent CSF population and the CD4:CD8 ratio was significantly increased in the CSF compared to blood (p = 0.0232), suggesting preferential trafficking of CD4+ over CD8+ T cells to this compartment. In contrast, in HIV-infection, CD8+ T cells were the major cellular component of the CSF and were markedly increased compared to HIV-uninfected subjects (p<0.001). As with peripheral blood, the CSF CD4:CD8 ratio was reversed in HIV-infected subjects compared to HIV-uninfected subjects. Monocytes, B cells and NK cells were rare in the CSF in both groups, although absolute counts of CSF NK cells and B cells were significantly increased in HIV-infected subjects (p<0.05). Our studies show that T cells are the major cellular component of the CSF in HIV-infected and uninfected subjects. The CSF pleocytosis characteristic of HIV infection involves all lymphocyte subsets we measured, except for CD4+ T cells, but is comprised primarily of CD8+ T cells. The reduced proportion of CD4+ T cells in the CSF may reflect both HIV-related peripheral loss and changes in trafficking patterns in response to HIV infection in the central nervous system.

  5. Cellular Composition of Cerebrospinal Fluid in HIV-1 Infected and Uninfected Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L Ho

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the cellular composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in a healthy state and in the setting of chronic pleocytosis associated with HIV-1 (HIV infection, multi-parameter flow cytometry was used to identify and quantitate cellular phenotypes in CSF derived from HIV-uninfected healthy controls and HIV-infected subjects across a spectrum of disease and treatment. CD4+ T cells were the most frequent CSF population and the CD4:CD8 ratio was significantly increased in the CSF compared to blood (p = 0.0232, suggesting preferential trafficking of CD4+ over CD8+ T cells to this compartment. In contrast, in HIV-infection, CD8+ T cells were the major cellular component of the CSF and were markedly increased compared to HIV-uninfected subjects (p<0.001. As with peripheral blood, the CSF CD4:CD8 ratio was reversed in HIV-infected subjects compared to HIV-uninfected subjects. Monocytes, B cells and NK cells were rare in the CSF in both groups, although absolute counts of CSF NK cells and B cells were significantly increased in HIV-infected subjects (p<0.05. Our studies show that T cells are the major cellular component of the CSF in HIV-infected and uninfected subjects. The CSF pleocytosis characteristic of HIV infection involves all lymphocyte subsets we measured, except for CD4+ T cells, but is comprised primarily of CD8+ T cells. The reduced proportion of CD4+ T cells in the CSF may reflect both HIV-related peripheral loss and changes in trafficking patterns in response to HIV infection in the central nervous system.

  6. Suppression of predation on the intermediate host by two trophically-transmitted parasites when uninfective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, F; Benesh, D P; Milinski, M

    2013-01-01

    Trophically-transmitted parasites generally need to undergo a period of development in the intermediate host before reaching infectivity. During this vulnerable period, manipulation of the host to reduce susceptibility to predation would be advantageous for parasites, because it increases the probability of surviving until infectivity and thus the probability of transmission. We tested this 'predation suppression' hypothesis in 2 parasite species that use copepods as first hosts: the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus and the nematode Camallanus lacustris. In a series of prey choice experiments, we found that copepods harbouring uninfective, still-developing worm larvae were less frequently consumed by stickleback predators than uninfected copepods. The levels of predation suppression were similar in the two parasite species, suggestive of convergent evolution. Additionally, copepods harbouring 2 worms of a given species were not more susceptible to predation than those with 1 worm, suggesting that excessive larval parasite growth does not increase host susceptibility to predation. Our results support the idea that parasites can suppress intermediate host susceptibility to predation while uninfective, but we also note that the available studies suggest that this effect is weaker than the frequently observed enhancement of host predation by infective helminth larvae.

  7. Recreational drug use and T lymphocyte subpopulations in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chun; Jacobson, Lisa P; Tashkin, Donald; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Roth, Michael D; Margolick, Joseph B; Chmiel, Joan S; Rinaldo, Charles; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Detels, Roger

    2008-04-01

    The effects of recreational drugs on CD4 and CD8 T cells in humans are not well understood. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) to define associations between self-reported use of marijuana, cocaine, poppers and amphetamines, and CD4 and CD8 T cell parameters in both HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected MSM. For the HIV-infected MSM, we used clinical and laboratory data collected semiannually before 1996 to avoid potential effects of antiretroviral treatment. A regression model that allowed random intercepts and slopes as well as autoregressive covariance structure for within subject errors was used. Potential confounders adjusted for included length of follow-up, demographics, tobacco smoking, alcohol use, risky sexual behaviors, history of sexually transmitted infections, and antiviral therapy. We found no clinically meaningful associations between use of marijuana, cocaine, poppers, or amphetamines and CD4 and CD8 T cell counts, percentages, or rates of change in either HIV-uninfected or -infected men. The regression coefficients were of minimum magnitude despite some reaching statistical significance. No threshold effect was detected for frequent (at least weekly) or continuous substance use in the previous year. These results indicate that use of these substances does not adversely affect the numbers and percentages of circulating CD4 or CD8 T cells in either HIV-uninfected or -infected MSM.

  8. The rectal microbiota of cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus infection and uninfected controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, J S; Nichols, J; Jalali, M; Litster, A

    2015-10-22

    Rectal swabs were collected from 31 cats, 16 with FIV infection and 15 uninfected controls, to evaluate and compare the rectal bacterial microbiota in cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection and uninfected controls. The rectal microbiota was characterized via next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene (V4 region) polymerase chain reaction products. Eighteen different phyla were identified. Firmicutes dominated in both groups, followed by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, but there were no significant differences between groups. When predominant orders are compared, FIV-infected cats had significant higher median relative abundances of Bifidobacteriales (P=0.022), Lactobacillales (P=0.022) and Aeromonadales (P=0.043). No differences were identified in the 50 most common genera when adjusted for false discovery rate. There were significant differences in community membership (Jaccard index, unifrac P=0.008, AMOVA Pmicrobiota differed between cats with FIV infection and uninfected controls. Some of the changes that were noted have been associated with 'dysbiosis' and proinflammatory states in other species, so it is possible that subclinical alteration in the intestinal microbiota could influence the health of FIV-infected cats. Evaluation of the reasons for microbiota alteration and the potential impact on cat health is required.

  9. Knowledge of HPV among HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Adolescent Women in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, David C; Adler, David; Wallace, Melissa; Bennie, Thola; Abar, Beau; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    The aim of this study is to examine the knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected female adolescents in South Africa. Subjects were recruited from a parent study of HPV infection comprised of females ages 16-21 in Masiphumelele, Cape Town, South Africa. A total of 30 subjects, 15 HIV-infected and 15 HIV-uninfected, were selected via randomization and completed a measure of HPV knowledge, based on a previously validated instrument. The study took place in May 2013. The overall mean score on the measure for all subjects was 43.3% (S.D. 10.9). There was no significant difference in HPV knowledge between the HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected groups. Based on results from a previous large-scale study using the same validated measure, this sample scored significantly worse on general HPV knowledge than samples from the US, UK, and Australia. Given the limited knowledge of HPV in this sample, there is greater need for education about the prevention of cervical cancer, specifically among high-risk adolescent women.

  10. Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Levels in HIV Infected and Uninfected Pregnant Women with and without Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Niren Ray; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Nagiah, Savania; Ramkaran, Prithiksha; Tiloke, Charlette; Chuturgoon, Anil Amichund

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia and HIV/AIDS are inflammatory conditions that contribute significantly to adverse maternal and foetal outcomes. The immune reconstitution effects of HAART on inflammatory mediators has not been adequately studied in pregnancy and may impact on the inflammatory cytokine network in women with co-morbid preeclampsia. Our study evaluated changes in pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-6 in HIV infected preeclamptic women on HAART. Methods A prospective experimental study was conducted at Prince Mshiyeni Memorial Hospital between July 2013 and September 2014. One hundred and ninety three pregnant women were recruited into 4 groups: uninfected normotensive (50; 26%), infected normotensive (45; 23%), uninfected preeclamptic (53; 28%) and infected preeclamptic women (45; 23%). Serum levels of cytokines TNF-α, IFN- γ, IL-2 and IL-6 were determined using commercially available kits and a Cytometric Bead Array (CBA). Comparative data was recorded and analysed descriptively. Results In the control groups (normotensive), significantly lower values were found in IL-2 (p = 0.010), TNF-α (p = 0.045), and IL-6 (p = 0.005); and a non-significant decrease was observed in IFN-γ (p = 0.345) in HIV infected women on HAART compared to uninfected controls. In the experimental group (preeclamptic) women, significantly reduced levels were observed in IL-2 and TNF-α (p = 0.001; p = 0.000) and non-significant decreases were observed in IFN-γ and IL-6 (p = 0.023; p = 0.086) in HIV infected women on HAART compared with uninfected preeclamptic women. Non-significant differences were observed between uninfected preeclamptic and normotensive women. Conclusion In uncomplicated/normotensive pregnancies, HIV/HAART is associated with significant decreases in IL-2, TNF-α and IL-6, and in preeclamptic women significant decreases in IL-2 and TNF-α were observed. These findings suggest that HIV/HAART impacts on pro-inflammatory cytokines in women with co

  11. DNA and RNA from Uninfected Vertebrate Cells Contain Nucleotide Sequences Related to the Putative Transforming Gene of Avian Myelocytomatosis Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheiness, Diana; Bishop, J. Michael

    1979-01-01

    The avian carcinoma virus MC29 (MC29V) contains a sequence of approximately 1,500 nucleotides which may represent a gene responsible for tumorigenesis by MC29V. We present evidence that MC29V has acquired this nucleotide sequence from the DNA of its host. The host sequence which has been incorporated by MC29V is transcribed into RNA in uninfected chicken cells and thus probably encodes a cellular gene. We have prepared radioactive DNA complementary to the putative MC29V transforming gene (cDNAmc29) and have found that sequences homologous to cDNAmc29 are present in the genomes of several uninfected vertebrate species. The DNA of chicken, the natural host for MC29V, contains at least 90% of the sequences represented by cDNAmc29. DNAs from other animals show significant but decreasing amounts of complementarity to cDNAmc29 in accordance with their evolutionary divergence from chickens; the thermal stabilities of duplexes formed between cDNAmc29 and avian DNAs also reflect phylogenetic divergence. Sequences complementary to cDNAmc29 are transcribed into approximately 10 copies per cell of polyadenylated RNA in uninfected chicken fibroblasts. Thus, the vertebrate homolog of cDNAmc29 may be a gene which has been conserved throughout vertebrate evolution and which served as a progenitor for the putative transforming gene of MC29V. Recent experiments suggest that the putative transforming gene of avian erythroblastosis virus, like that of MC29V, may have arisen by incorporation of a host gene (Stehelin et al., personal communication). These findings for avian erythroblastosis virus and MC29V closely parallel previous results, suggesting a host origin for src (D. H. Spector, B. Baker, H. E. Varmus, and J. M. Bishop, Cell 13:381-386, 1978; D. H. Spector, K. Smith, T. Padgett, P. McCombe, D. Roulland-Dussoix, C. Moscovici, H. E. Varmus, and J. M. Bishop, Cell 13:371-379, 1978; D. H. Spector, H. E. Varmus, and J. M. Bishop, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75:4102-4106, 1978; D

  12. Nucleotide sequences related to the transforming gene of avian sarcoma virus are present in DNA of uninfected vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, D H; Varmus, H E; Bishop, J M

    1978-09-01

    We have detected nucleotide sequences related to the transforming gene of avian sarcoma vius (ASV) in the DNA of uninfected vertebrates. Purified radioactive DNA (cDNAsarc) complementary to most of all of the gene (src) required for transformation of fibroblasts by ASV was annealed with DNA from a variety of normal species. Under conditions that facilitate pairing of partially matched nucleotide sequences (1.5 M NaCl, 59 degrees), cDNAsarc formed duplexes with chicken, human, calf, mouse, and salmon DNA but not with DNA from sea urchin, Drosophila, or Escherichia coli. The kinetics of duplex formation indicated that cDNAsarc was reacting with nucleotide sequences present in a single copy or at most a few copies per cell. In contrast to the preceding findings, nucleotide sequences complementary to the remainder of the ASV genome were observed only in chicken DNA. Thermal denaturation studies of the duplexes formed with cDNAsarc indicated a high degree of conservation of the nucleotide sequences related to src in vertebrate DNAs; the reductions in melting temperature suggested about 3--4% mismatching of cDNAsarc with chicken DNA and 8--10% mismatching of cDNAsarc with the other vertebrate DNAs.

  13. Anatomic Fat Depots and Coronary Plaque Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Uninfected Men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palella, Frank J; McKibben, Rebeccah; Post, Wendy S; Li, Xiuhong; Budoff, Matthew; Kingsley, Lawrence; Witt, Mallory D; Jacobson, Lisa P; Brown, Todd T

    2016-04-01

    Methods.  In a cross-sectional substudy of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, noncontrast cardiac computed tomography (CT) scanning for coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring was performed on all men, and, for men with normal renal function, coronary CT angiography (CTA) was performed. Associations between fat depots (visceral adipose tissue [VAT], abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue [aSAT], and thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue [tSAT]) with coronary plaque presence and extent were assessed with logistic and linear regression adjusted for age, race, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, body mass index (BMI), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) parameters. Results.  Among HIV-infected men (n = 597) but not HIV-uninfected men (n = 343), having greater VAT was positively associated with noncalcified plaque presence (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04, P aSAT and tSAT and greater median VAT among men with BMI aSAT and extent of total plaque among HIV-infected men, but not among HIV-uninfected men. Lower tSAT was associated with greater CAC and total plaque score extent regardless of HIV serostatus. Conclusions.  The presence of greater amounts of VAT and lower SAT may contribute to increased risk for coronary artery disease among HIV-infected persons.

  14. Increased risk of fragility fractures among HIV infected compared to uninfected male veterans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Womack

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection has been associated with an increased risk of fragility fracture. We explored whether or not this increased risk persisted in HIV infected and uninfected men when controlling for traditional fragility fracture risk factors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cox regression models were used to assess the association of HIV infection with the risk for incident hip, vertebral, or upper arm fracture in male Veterans enrolled in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study Virtual Cohort (VACS-VC. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios comparing HIV status and controlling for demographics and other established risk factors. The sample consisted of 119,318 men, 33% of whom were HIV infected (34% aged 50 years or older at baseline, and 55% black or Hispanic. Median body mass index (BMI was lower in HIV infected compared with uninfected men (25 vs. 28 kg/m²; p<0.0001. Unadjusted risk for fracture was higher among HIV infected compared with uninfected men [HR: 1.32 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.47]. After adjusting for demographics, comorbid disease, smoking and alcohol abuse, HIV infection remained associated with an increased fracture risk [HR: 1.24 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.39]. However, adjusting for BMI attenuated this association [HR: 1.10 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.25]. The only HIV-specific factor associated with fragility fracture was current protease inhibitor use [HR: 1.41 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.70]. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV infection is associated with fragility fracture risk. This risk is attenuated by BMI.

  15. Population genetics of Wolbachia-infected, parthenogenetic and uninfected, sexual populations of Tetrastichus coeruleus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reumer, Barbara M; van Alphen, Jacques J M; Kraaijeveld, Ken

    2013-09-01

    Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria known to manipulate the reproduction of their hosts. These manipulations are expected to have consequences on the population genetics of the host, such as heterozygosity levels, genetic diversity and gene flow. The parasitoid wasp Tetrastichus coeruleus has populations that are infected with parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia and populations that are not infected. We studied the population genetics of T. coeruleus between and within Wolbachia-infected and uninfected populations, using nuclear microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA. We expected reduced genetic diversity in both DNA types in infected populations. However, migration and gene flow could introduce new DNA variants into populations. We therefore paid special attention to individuals with unexpected (genetic) characteristics. Based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, two genetic clusters were evident: a thelytokous cluster containing all Wolbachia-infected, parthenogenetic populations and an arrhenotokous cluster containing all uninfected, sexual populations. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA did not exhibit concordant patterns of variation, although there was reduced genetic diversity in infected populations for both DNA types. Within the thelytokous cluster, there was nuclear DNA variation, but no mitochondrial DNA variation. This nuclear DNA variation may be explained by occasional sex between infected females and males, by horizontal transmission of Wolbachia, and/or by novel mutations. Several females from thelytokous populations were uninfected and/or heterozygous for microsatellite loci. These unexpected characteristics may be explained by migration, by inefficient transmission of Wolbachia, by horizontal transmission of Wolbachia, and/or by novel mutations. However, migration has not prevented the build-up of considerable genetic differentiation between thelytokous and arrhenotokous populations.

  16. CCR5 Expression Levels in HIV-Uninfected Women Receiving Hormonal Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciaranghella, Gaia; Wang, Cuiwei; Hu, Haihong; Anastos, Kathryn; Merhi, Zaher; Nowicki, Marek; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Cohen, Mardge; Golub, Elizabeth T; Watts, D Heather; Alter, Galit; Young, Mary A; Tsibris, Athe M N

    2015-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity increases as receptor/coreceptor expression levels increase. We determined peripheral CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 expression levels in HIV-uninfected women who used depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA; n = 32), the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD; n = 27), oral contraceptive pills (n = 32), or no hormonal contraception (n = 33). The use of LNG-IUD increased the proportion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that expressed CCR5; increases in the magnitude of T-cell subset CCR5 expression were observed with DMPA and LNG-IUD use (P CCR5 expression.

  17. Effect of Multivitamin Supplementation on Measles Vaccine Response among HIV-Exposed Uninfected Tanzanian Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Sudfeld, Christopher Robert; Duggan, Christopher Paul; Histed, A.; Manji, K. P.; Meydani, S. N.; Aboud, S.; Wang, Molin; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Wafaie W Fawzi

    2013-01-01

    Immunization and nutritional interventions are mainstays of child health programs in sub-Saharan Africa, yet few published data exist on their interactions. HIV-exposed (but uninfected) infants enrolled in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of multivitamin supplements (vitamins B complex, C, and E) conducted in Tanzania were sampled for an assessment of measles IgG quantity and avidity at 15 to 18 months. Infants were vaccinated between 8.5 and 12 months of age, and all mothers received hi...

  18. HIV-specific cytotoxic T-cell activity in an HIV-exposed but uninfected infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland-Jones, S L; Nixon, D F; Aldhous, M C; Gotch, F; Ariyoshi, K; Hallam, N; Kroll, J S; Froebel, K; McMichael, A

    1993-04-03

    The factors necessary for protective immunity against HIV-1 are unknown. Important information about these factors should come from study of people at high risk of HIV infection who have not apparently become infected. Among these are the estimated 60-85% of children who may be exposed in utero or perinatally to HIV-1 but do not become infected. We observed the transient appearance of HIV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity in a baby born to HIV-1-infected parents, in whom all standard markers of infection remained negative. These findings suggest that HIV-specific CTLs may be a marker for recently exposed, but uninfected, individuals.

  19. In vivo evaluation of the accuracy of working length determination using an electronic apex locater IPEX (NSK) on vital uninfected teeth and teeth with radiographic evidence of periapical lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, Kachenahalli Narasimhaiah; Daniel, Jacob G.; Razvi, Shuaib; Vinaychandra, Ramachandra; Kini, Annapurna; Nandakishore, Kunigal Jayram

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the accuracy of working length determination of an electronic apex locator, IPEX, on vital uninfected teeth and teeth with radiographic evidence of periapical lesions. Materials and Methods: Twenty vital and uninfected teeth and 16 teeth with a single canal and matured apices and having radiographic evidence of periapical lesions of 5-10 mm were taken for this study. Access cavities were prepared and pulp was considered to be vital if bleeding was present upon entering the chambers. No. 15 k-type file was used to determine the working length. X-rays were taken to determine the working length using Ingle's method, followed by determination using the electronic apex locator, IPEX. Teeth were then observed under 45 × magnification using stereomicroscope. No 15 k-type file was maneuvered till the emergence of the tip was seen and the real length of the tooth was thus measured in the instrument up to 0.5 mm accuracy using stereomicroscope. Results: The data were duly collected and entered, and the statistical analysis was done using Student's t test. In uninfected teeth, IPEX was found to be more reliable than Ingle's radiographic technique, but this was not statistically significant. In case of teeth with radiographic evidence of periapical lesions, the radiographic method appeared to be relatively more dependable; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: For rendering effective root canal procedure, both radiographs and electronic apex locators have important roles to play. PMID:25625080

  20. Investigation of HIV-1 infected and uninfected cells using the optical trapping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombinda-Lemboumba, S.; Malabi, R.; Lugongolo, M. Y.; Thobakgale, S. L.; Manoto, S.; Mthunzi-Kufa, P.

    2017-02-01

    Optical trapping has emerged as an essential tool for manipulating single biological material and performing sophisticated spectroscopy analysis on individual cell. The optical trapping technique has been used to grab and immobilize cells from a tightly focused laser beam emitted through a high numerical aperture objective lens. Coupling optical trapping with other technologies is possible and allows stable sample trapping, while also facilitating molecular, chemical and spectroscopic analysis. For this reason, we are exploring laser trapping combined with laser spectroscopy as a potential non-invasive method of interrogating individual cells with a high degree of specificity in terms of information generated. Thus, for the delivery of as much pathological information as possible, we use a home-build optical trapping and spectroscopy system for real time probing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infected and uninfected single cells. Briefly, our experimental rig comprises an infrared continuous wave laser at 1064 nm with power output of 1.5 W, a 100X high numerical aperture oil-immersion microscope objective used to capture and immobilise individual cell samples as well as an excitation source. Spectroscopy spectral patterns obtained by the 1064 nm laser beam excitation provide information on HIV-1 infected and uninfected cells. We present these preliminary findings which may be valuable for the development of an HIV-1 point of care detection system.

  1. Host Protein Biomarkers Identify Active Tuberculosis in HIV Uninfected and Co-infected Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achkar, Jacqueline M.; Cortes, Laetitia; Croteau, Pascal; Yanofsky, Corey; Mentinova, Marija; Rajotte, Isabelle; Schirm, Michael; Zhou, Yiyong; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula; Kasprowicz, Victoria O.; Larsen, Michelle; Allard, René; Hunter, Joanna; Paramithiotis, Eustache

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers for active tuberculosis (TB) are urgently needed to improve rapid TB diagnosis. The objective of this study was to identify serum protein expression changes associated with TB but not latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI), uninfected states, or respiratory diseases other than TB (ORD). Serum samples from 209 HIV uninfected (HIV−) and co-infected (HIV+) individuals were studied. In the discovery phase samples were analyzed via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, and in the verification phase biologically independent samples were analyzed via a multiplex multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) assay. Compared to LTBI and ORD, host proteins were significantly differentially expressed in TB, and involved in the immune response, tissue repair, and lipid metabolism. Biomarker panels whose composition differed according to HIV status, and consisted of 8 host proteins in HIV− individuals (CD14, SEPP1, SELL, TNXB, LUM, PEPD, QSOX1, COMP, APOC1), or 10 host proteins in HIV+ individuals (CD14, SEPP1, PGLYRP2, PFN1, VASN, CPN2, TAGLN2, IGFBP6), respectively, distinguished TB from ORD with excellent accuracy (AUC = 0.96 for HIV− TB, 0.95 for HIV+ TB). These results warrant validation in larger studies but provide promise that host protein biomarkers could be the basis for a rapid, blood-based test for TB. PMID:26501113

  2. Host Protein Biomarkers Identify Active Tuberculosis in HIV Uninfected and Co-infected Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Achkar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers for active tuberculosis (TB are urgently needed to improve rapid TB diagnosis. The objective of this study was to identify serum protein expression changes associated with TB but not latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI, uninfected states, or respiratory diseases other than TB (ORD. Serum samples from 209 HIV uninfected (HIV− and co-infected (HIV+ individuals were studied. In the discovery phase samples were analyzed via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, and in the verification phase biologically independent samples were analyzed via a multiplex multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS assay. Compared to LTBI and ORD, host proteins were significantly differentially expressed in TB, and involved in the immune response, tissue repair, and lipid metabolism. Biomarker panels whose composition differed according to HIV status, and consisted of 8 host proteins in HIV− individuals (CD14, SEPP1, SELL, TNXB, LUM, PEPD, QSOX1, COMP, APOC1, or 10 host proteins in HIV+ individuals (CD14, SEPP1, PGLYRP2, PFN1, VASN, CPN2, TAGLN2, IGFBP6, respectively, distinguished TB from ORD with excellent accuracy (AUC = 0.96 for HIV− TB, 0.95 for HIV+ TB. These results warrant validation in larger studies but provide promise that host protein biomarkers could be the basis for a rapid, blood-based test for TB.

  3. Enhanced Th17 phenotype in uninfected neonates born from viremic HIV-1-infected pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hygino, Joana; Vieira, Morgana M; Guillermo, Landi V; Silva-Filho, Renato G; Saramago, Carmen; Lima-Silva, Agostinho A; Andrade, Regis M; Andrade, Arnaldao F B; Brindeiro, Rodrigo M; Tanuri, Amilcar; Guimarães, Vander; de Melo Bento, Cleonice Alves

    2011-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the in vitro functional profile of T cells from uninfected neonates born from HIV-1-infected pregnant women who controlled (G1) or not (G2) the virus replication. We demonstrated that the lymphoproliferation of T cell to polyclonal activators was higher in the G2 as compared with G1. Nevertheless, no detectable proliferative response was observed in response to HIV-1 antigens in both neonate groups. Cytokine dosage in the supernatants of these polyclonally activated T cell cultures demonstrated that, while IL-10 was the dominant cytokine produced in G1, Th17-related cytokines were significantly higher in G2 neonates. The higher Th17 phenotype tendency in G2 was related to high production of IL-23 by lipopolysaccharide-activated monocyte-derived dendritic cells from these neonates. Our results demonstrated immunological disorders in uninfected neonates born from viremic HIV-1-infected mothers that can help to explain why some of these children have elevated risk of clinical morbidity and mortality due to pathological hypersensitivity.

  4. Biomarkers in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected and uninfected individuals with varying severity of cardiomyopathy in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Emi E; Sherbuk, Jacqueline E; Clark, Eva H; Marks, Morgan A; Gandarilla, Omar; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Vasquez-Villar, Angel; Choi, Jeong; Crawford, Thomas C; Do, Rose Q; Q, Rose; Fernandez, Antonio B; Colanzi, Rony; Flores-Franco, Jorge Luis; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

    2014-10-01

    Twenty to thirty percent of persons with Trypanosoma cruzi infection eventually develop cardiomyopathy. If an early indicator were to be identified and validated in longitudinal studies, this could enable treatment to be prioritized for those at highest risk. We evaluated cardiac and extracellular matrix remodeling markers across cardiac stages in T. cruzi infected (Tc+) and uninfected (Tc-) individuals. Participants were recruited in a public hospital in Santa Cruz, Bolivia and assigned cardiac severity stages by electrocardiogram and echocardiogram. BNP, NTproBNP, CKMB, troponin I, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, TGFb1, and TGFb2 were measured in specimens from 265 individuals using multiplex bead systems. Biomarker levels were compared between Tc+ and Tc- groups, and across cardiac stages. Receivers operating characteristic (ROC) curves were created; for markers with area under curve>0.60, logistic regression was performed. Analyses stratified by cardiac stage showed no significant differences in biomarker levels by Tc infection status. Among Tc+ individuals, those with cardiac insufficiency had higher levels of BNP, NTproBNP, troponin I, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 than those with normal ejection fraction and left ventricular diameter. No individual marker distinguished between the two earliest Tc+ stages, but in ROC-based analyses, MMP-2/MMP-9 ratio was significantly higher in those with than those without ECG abnormalities. BNP, NTproBNP, troponin I, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 levels rose with increasing severity stage but did not distinguish between Chagas cardiomyopathy and other cardiomyopathies. Among Tc+ individuals without cardiac insufficiency, only the MMP-2/MMP-9 ratio differed between those with and without ECG changes.

  5. Hospital admission among HIV-exposed uninfected children compared with HIV-unexposed children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseholm, Ellen; Helleberg, Marie; Nordly, Sannie B;

    2016-01-01

    : A nationwide register-based cohort study. METHODS: All HEU children born in Denmark from 2000 to 2012 were individually matched to five HIV-unexposed controls. Outcomes were risk of hospital admission (any, because of an infectious disease, observation/nonspecific diagnosis) and use of antibiotics during......OBJECTIVE:: The main objective of this study was, on a national level, to investigate the risk of in-hospital admissions and use of antibiotics during the first 4 years of life among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children compared with a matched control group of HIV-unexposed children. DESIGN...... because of observation/nonspecific diagnosis [excess incidence rate 22.6 (95% CI 18.2-27.0), IRR 6.06 (95% CI 4.84-7.61)]. CONCLUSION: HEU children had an increased risk of overall hospital admission mainly due to an increased risk of admission because of observation/nonspecific diagnosis...

  6. Cases of Impaired Oxidative Burst in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants’ Neutrophils—A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloupazoa Siawaya, Anicet Christel; Mveang-Nzoghe, Amandine; Mvoundza Ndjindji, Ofilia; Mintsa Ndong, Armel; Essone, Paulin N.; Djoba Siawaya, Joel Fleury

    2017-01-01

    An increased risk of serious bacterial infections in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants has been demonstrated. Although neutrophils are essential for the protection of infants against bacterial infections, no study has investigated their profile in HEU infants to date. In this study, we assessed the function of neutrophils in HEU infants using the nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test. Among 25 HEU infants, 9 (36%) showed a reduced ability of their neutrophils to produce reactive oxygen species upon stimulation with bacteria. No alteration of total neutrophil counts was noted in the blood of HEU infants indicating that the alteration observed in the 36% of HEU infants may only be functional. Conclusively, impaired neutrophil function could be a factor of vulnerability in HEU infants. PMID:28337206

  7. Dendritic cells in uninfected infants born to hepatitis B virus-positive mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumbi, Lemonica J; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Anastassiadou, Vassiliki; Machaira, Maria; Kafetzis, Dimitris A; Papaevangelou, Vassiliki

    2010-07-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a central role in antiviral immunity, detecting viruses via Toll-like receptors (TLR) and producing in response vast amounts of type I interferons (IFNs). Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes chronic infection after vertical transmission. This study investigated whether an HBV-infected maternal environment might influence DC numbers and pDC function in uninfected infants. Blood was collected from inactive HBsAg carrier and control mothers and their infants at birth and 1 and 6 months of age. HBV DNA was measured in maternal and neonatal perinatal sera using real-time PCR. The circulating frequencies of myeloid DCs (mDCs) and pDCs were determined in the babies by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and cord blood pDCs were stimulated with resiquimod, and alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) production and the pDC phenotype were assessed. The effect of the common-cold virus, rhinovirus (RV), on resiquimod stimulation was also determined. HBV DNA was detected in 62.3% of the mothers and 41% of their infants. DC numbers and pDC functions were similar between subjects and controls and were not correlated with maternal or neonatal viremia. RV infection did not induce pDC maturation until the age of 6 months, and it reduced TLR7-dependent resiquimod-induced IFN-alpha production similarly in both groups. Although the DC system is immature at birth, DCs of uninfected neonates of HBV-positive mothers are competent to initiate and maintain T-cell responses. RV is a weak inducer of IFN-alpha production until the age of 6 months and inhibits IFN-alpha responses triggered by the TLR7 pathway.

  8. Levamisole-Contaminated Cocaine Use in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Unstably Housed Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Elise D; Kral, Alex H; Cohen, Jennifer; Dilworth, Samantha E; Shumway, Martha; Lynch, Kara L

    2016-09-01

    A growing number of case reports cite serious health complications linked to the cocaine adulterant, levamisole and women are disproportionately affected; however, the clinical effects are not well established. Between April and October of 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 222 homeless and unstably housed women (116 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]-infected and 106 HIV-uninfected). Immune markers and behavioral factors were compared in separate models by cocaine and levamisole exposure. Overall, 63% of participants were toxicology positive for cocaine/benzoylecgonine, 85% of whom also tested positive for levamisole. Differences in immune markers did not reach levels of significance among HIV-uninfected persons. Compared to HIV-infected persons who were negative for both cocaine and levamisole, the adjusted odds of low white blood cell count were significantly higher among HIV-infected persons positive for both (p = 0.03), but not for those positive for cocaine only. Neutrophil count and HIV viral load did not differ by cocaine and levamisole status among HIV-infected persons. In a separate model, the adjusted odds of testing positive for levamisole were higher among African American women compared to Caucasian and Asian women (p = 0.02). In the context of high levamisole prevalence, results suggest that decreased immune function as a result of levamisole exposure occurs mainly in individuals who are already immune compromised (e.g., HIV-positive), and race/ethnicity appears to be an important factor in understanding levamisole exposure among cocaine-using women. While larger and geographically diverse studies are needed to elucidate these initial findings, results suggest that levamisole may be one mechanism of immune dysfunction in HIV-infected cocaine-using women.

  9. Has Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Increased the Time to Seroreversion in HIV Exposed but Uninfected Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Mavel; Ludwig, David A.; Khan, Safia S.; Chaparro, Aida A.; Rivera, Delia M.; Cotter, Amanda M.; Scott, Gwendolyn B.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in pregnancy in the United States, the time of seroreversion in infants born to HIV-infected mothers has not been documented. The objective of this study was to determine the timing of clearance of HIV antibodies and to identify any associated biological and clinical factors. Methods. A retrospective analysis of infants who remained uninfected after perinatal HIV exposure was performed. Infant and maternal medical records from January 2000 to December 2007 were reviewed and the time of seroreversion was estimated using methods for censored survival data. Results. In total, 744 infants were included in the study, with prenatal data available for 551 mothers. The median age of seroreversion was 13.9 months, and 14% of infants remained seropositive after 18 months, 4.3% after 21 months, and 1.2% after 24 months. Earlier age of seroreversion was associated with higher immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels at 3–7 months of age (P = .0029) and a higher rate of IgG change over the next 6 months of life (P = .003). Infants born by vaginal delivery were more likely to serorevert at a younger age (P = .0052), and maternal exposure to protease inhibitors was associated with a later age of seroreversion (P = .026). Conclusions. Clearance of HIV antibodies in uninfected infants was found to occur at a later age than has been previously reported. Fourteen percent of the infants had persistence of HIV antibodies at or beyond 18 months of age. PMID:22851494

  10. Preparation of an anti-acid sphingomyelinase monoclonal antibody for the quantitative determination and polypeptide analysis of lysosomal sphingomyelinase in fibroblasts from normal and Niemann-Pick type A patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousson, R; Parvaz, P; Bonnet, J; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, C; Louisot, P; Vanier, M T

    1993-04-02

    An anti-acid sphingomyelinase monoclonal antibody has been prepared using an in vitro booster technique. The antigen, acid sphingomyelinase, was purified from human placentas by sequential chromatographic steps in the presence of the non-ionic detergent Nonidet P40. This monoclonal antibody (MAB 236) precipitates specifically the enzyme activity by immunoadsorption techniques and presents the same specificity to normal and mutated sphingomyelinase in Niemann-Pick type A patients. MAB 236 is the first antibody able to precipitate the protein in the presence of detergent thereby permitting the quantitative determination of normal and mutated sphingomyelinase in tissue and cell extracts. Polypeptide analysis and quantitative determination experiments using this monoclonal antibody showed no difference between patients and normal controls.

  11. INCIDENCE OF LYMPHOMAS AND OTHER CANCERS IN HIV-INFECTED AND HIV-UNINFECTED PATIENTS WITH HEMOPHILIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RABKIN, CS; HILGARTNER, MW; HEDBERG, KW; ALEDORT, LM; HATZAKIS, A; EICHINGER, S; EYSTER, ME; WHITE, GC; KESSLER, CM; LEDERMAN, MM; DEMOERLOOSE, P; BRAY, GL; COHEN, AR; ANDES, WA; MANCOJOHNSON, M; SCHRAMM, W; KRONER, BL; BLATTNER, WA; GOEDERT, JJ

    1992-01-01

    Objective. - To determine the types and rates of cancers occurring in excess in the presence of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Design. - Cohort analytic study of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects followed for up to 12 years. Setting. - Fifteen hemophilia treat

  12. Strain-specific differences in mating, oviposition, and host-seeking behavior between Wolbachia-infected and uninfected Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwatanaratanabutr, Itsanun; Allan, Sandra; Linthicum, Kenneth; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn

    2010-09-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited bacteria that cause various reproductive alterations in their arthropod hosts, including cytoplasmic incompatibility. In this study, we compared mating, oviposition, and host-seeking behavior of Wolbachia-infected (Houston [HOU], Gainesville [GNV]) and Houston uninfected (HT1) Aedes albopictus. In mating assays with virgin mosquitoes, mating success of Wolbachia-infected males was significantly higher than uninfected strains. Mating success was highest with HOU males exposed to infected (95%) and uninfected females (100%), and lowest with HT1 males exposed to infected (20%) and uninfected (25%) females. Results suggested that Wolbachia infection may influence the reproductive behavior of this mosquito. There were no clear differences in oviposition responses between strains, with all strains ovipositing significantly more often on hay infusion and larval rearing water than on water controls and least frequently on 4-methylphenol. Strains of Ae. albopictus females were host-seeking a human when given a choice. Responses to a human arm, acetone, CO2, and dichloromethane were generally higher from the Houston strains than from the GNV strain. Responses of HOU and HT1 females differed from GNV with greater responses to the arm and CO2.

  13. Reduced thymic size but no evidence of impaired thymic function in uninfected children born to human immunodeficiency virus-infected mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Lilian; Rosenfeldt, Vibeke; Vang, Lena

    2011-01-01

    HIV-exposed, uninfected (HIV-EU) infants present hematologic and immunologic abnormalities at birth, and it remains to be clarified whether these abnormalities persist beyond infancy, for instance, affecting vaccination responses.......HIV-exposed, uninfected (HIV-EU) infants present hematologic and immunologic abnormalities at birth, and it remains to be clarified whether these abnormalities persist beyond infancy, for instance, affecting vaccination responses....

  14. Do Biomarkers of Inflammation, Monocyte Activation, and Altered Coagulation Explain Excess Mortality Between HIV Infected and Uninfected People?

    Science.gov (United States)

    So-Armah, Kaku A; Tate, Janet P; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Butt, Adeel A; Gerschenson, Mariana; Gibert, Cynthia L; Leaf, David; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Budoff, Matthew J; Samet, Jeffrey H; Kuller, Lewis H; Deeks, Steven G; Crothers, Kristina; Tracy, Russell P; Crane, Heidi M; Sajadi, Mohammad M; Tindle, Hilary A; Justice, Amy C; Freiberg, Matthew S

    2016-06-01

    HIV infection and biomarkers of inflammation [measured by interleukin-6 (IL-6)], monocyte activation [soluble CD14 (sCD14)], and coagulation (D-dimer) are associated with morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that these immunologic processes mediate (explain) some of the excess risk of mortality among HIV infected (HIV+) versus uninfected people independently of comorbid diseases. Among 2350 (1521 HIV+) participants from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study Biomarker Cohort (VACS BC), we investigated whether the association between HIV and mortality was altered by adjustment for IL-6, sCD14, and D-dimer, accounting for confounders. Participants were followed from date of blood draw for biomarker assays (baseline) until death or July 25, 2013. Analyses included ordered logistic regression and Cox Proportional Hazards regression. During 6.9 years (median), 414 deaths occurred. The proportional odds of being in a higher quartile of IL-6, sCD14, or D-dimer were 2-3 fold higher for viremic HIV+ versus uninfected people. Mortality rates were higher among HIV+ compared with uninfected people [incidence rate ratio (95% CI): 1.31 (1.06 to 1.62)]. Mortality risk increased with increasing quartiles of IL-6, sCD14, and D-dimer regardless of HIV status. Adjustment for IL-6, sCD14, and D-dimer partially attenuated mortality risk among HIV+ people with unsuppressed viremia (HIV-1 RNA ≥10,000 copies per milliliter) compared with uninfected people-hazard ratio (95% CI) decreased from 2.18 (1.60 to 2.99) to 2.00 (1.45 to 2.76). HIV infection is associated with elevated IL-6, sCD14, and D-dimer, which are in turn associated with mortality. Baseline measures of these biomarkers partially mediate excess mortality risk among HIV+ versus uninfected people.

  15. Do Biomarkers of Inflammation, Monocyte Activation, and Altered Coagulation Explain Excess Mortality Between HIV Infected and Uninfected People?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Janet P.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Butt, Adeel A.; Gerschenson, Mariana; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Leaf, David; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Deeks, Steven G.; Crothers, Kristina; Tracy, Russell P.; Crane, Heidi M.; Sajadi, Mohammad M.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Justice, Amy C.; Freiberg, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: HIV infection and biomarkers of inflammation [measured by interleukin-6 (IL-6)], monocyte activation [soluble CD14 (sCD14)], and coagulation (D-dimer) are associated with morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that these immunologic processes mediate (explain) some of the excess risk of mortality among HIV infected (HIV+) versus uninfected people independently of comorbid diseases. Methods: Among 2350 (1521 HIV+) participants from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study Biomarker Cohort (VACS BC), we investigated whether the association between HIV and mortality was altered by adjustment for IL-6, sCD14, and D-dimer, accounting for confounders. Participants were followed from date of blood draw for biomarker assays (baseline) until death or July 25, 2013. Analyses included ordered logistic regression and Cox Proportional Hazards regression. Results: During 6.9 years (median), 414 deaths occurred. The proportional odds of being in a higher quartile of IL-6, sCD14, or D-dimer were 2–3 fold higher for viremic HIV+ versus uninfected people. Mortality rates were higher among HIV+ compared with uninfected people [incidence rate ratio (95% CI): 1.31 (1.06 to 1.62)]. Mortality risk increased with increasing quartiles of IL-6, sCD14, and D-dimer regardless of HIV status. Adjustment for IL-6, sCD14, and D-dimer partially attenuated mortality risk among HIV+ people with unsuppressed viremia (HIV-1 RNA ≥10,000 copies per milliliter) compared with uninfected people—hazard ratio (95% CI) decreased from 2.18 (1.60 to 2.99) to 2.00 (1.45 to 2.76). Conclusions: HIV infection is associated with elevated IL-6, sCD14, and D-dimer, which are in turn associated with mortality. Baseline measures of these biomarkers partially mediate excess mortality risk among HIV+ versus uninfected people. PMID:26885807

  16. EEG analysis of gait movement preparation in the normal state and in the abnormal state of Parkinsonʼs disease with freezing of gait /

    OpenAIRE

    Velu, Priya D.

    2014-01-01

    The cortical control of gait is an important aspect of locomotive function in healthy and diseased states. Here we used electroencephalography (EEG), signal processing, and machine learning methods to capture neural signals related to movement preparation of gait in healthy controls and in Parkinson's disease patients with freezing of gait (FOG). We focused on pre-movement EEG in tasks that required natural ambulation of the subjects through the environment with the ultimate goal of applicati...

  17. Pharmacokinetics of gallium maltolate in Lawsonia intracellularis-infected and uninfected rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, F; Alcorn, J; Allen, A L; Clark, C R; Vannucci, F A; Pusterla, N; Mapes, S; Ball, K R; Dowling, P M; Thompson, J; Bernstein, L R; Gebhart, C J; Hamilton, D L

    2014-10-01

    Oral gallium maltolate (GaM) pharmacokinetics (PK) and intestinal tissue (IT) concentrations of elemental gallium ([Ga]) and iron ([Fe]) were investigated in a rabbit model of equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). New Zealand white does (uninfected controls and EPE-infected, n = 6/group) were given a single oral GaM dose (50 mg/kg). Serial blood samples were collected from 0 to 216 h post-treatment (PT) and IT samples after euthanasia. Serology, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry confirmed, or excluded, EPE. Blood and IT [Ga] and [Fe] were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. PK parameters were estimated through noncompartmental approaches. For all statistical comparisons on [Ga] and [Fe] α = 5%. The Ga log-linear terminal phase rate constant was lower in EPE rabbits vs. uninfected controls [0.0116 ± 0.004 (SD) vs. 0.0171 ± 0.0028 per hour; P = 0.03]; but half-life (59.4 ± 24.0 vs. 39.4 ± 10.8 h; P = 0.12); Cmax (0.50 ± 0.21 vs. 0.59 ± 0.42 μg/mL; P = 0.45); tmax (1.75 ± 0.41 vs. 0.9 ± 0.37 h; P = 0.20); and oral clearance (6.743 ± 1.887 vs. 7.208 ± 2.565 L/h; P = 0.74) were not. IT's [Ga] and [Fe] were higher (P < 0.0001) in controls. In conclusion, although infection reduces IT [Ga] and [Fe], a 48 h GaM dosing interval is appropriate for multidose studies in EPE rabbits. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Macroautophagy occurs in distal TMV-uninfected root tip tissue of tomato taking place systemic PCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shumin; Hong, Qiang; Li, Yang; Li, Qi; Li, Ruisha; Zhang, Hongli; Wang, Mao; Yuan, Xiaojun

    2017-05-27

    Autophagy is an important mechanism for recycling cell materials upon encountering stress conditions. Our previous studies had shown that TMV infection could lead to systemic PCD in the distal uninfected tissues, including root tip and shoot tip tissues. But it is not clear whether there is autophagy in the distal apical meristem of TMV-induced plants. To better understand the autophagy process during systemic PCD, here we investigated the formation and type of autophagy in the root meristem cells occurring PCD. Transmission electron microscopy assay revealed that the autophagic structures formed by the fusion of vesicles, containing the sequestered cytoplasm, multilamellar bodies, and degraded mitochondria. In the PCD progress, many mitochondria appeared degradation with blurred inner membrane structure. And the endoplasmic reticulum was broke into small fragments. Finally, the damaged mitochodria were engulfed and degraded by the autophagosomes. These results indicated that during the systemic PCD process of root tip cells, the classical macroautophagy occurred, and the cell contents and damaged organelles (mitochondria) would be self-digested by autophagy.

  19. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  20. Comparative studies of optical and elastic properties of ZrO{sub 2} thin films prepared under normal and oblique incidence deposition geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, P., E-mail: piyali.sarkar4@gmail.com; Tokas, R. B., E-mail: piyali.sarkar4@gmail.com; Jena, S., E-mail: piyali.sarkar4@gmail.com; Thakur, S., E-mail: piyali.sarkar4@gmail.com; Sahoo, N. K., E-mail: piyali.sarkar4@gmail.com [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Oblique angle deposited optical thin films have attracted recent researcher’s interest because of their attractive optical, micro-structural, mechanical properties and more importantly because of their great potential in achieving tunability in refractive index. These properties in turn make it important in case of designing different optical devices. In the present work, ZrO{sub 2} thin films have been deposited on fused silica substrate by electron beam evaporation technique in normal as well as oblique angle deposition configurations. Optical properties, especially refractive index of the films have been estimated by fitting the measured transmission spectra with suitable theoretical dispersion models. Atomic force microscopy has been employed to characterize morphological properties of samples. The elastic properties of both the films are estimated by Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy, a new and highly sensitive technique for thin films.

  1. Antiretroviral Drug Use in a Cohort of HIV-Uninfected Women in the United States: HIV Prevention Trials Network 064.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Chen

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral (ARV drug use was analyzed in HIV-uninfected women in an observational cohort study conducted in 10 urban and periurban communities in the United States with high rates of poverty and HIV infection. Plasma samples collected in 2009-2010 were tested for the presence of 16 ARV drugs. ARV drugs were detected in samples from 39 (2% of 1,806 participants: 27/181 (15% in Baltimore, MD and 12/179 (7% in Bronx, NY. The ARV drugs detected included different combinations of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors (1-4 drugs/sample. These data were analyzed in the context of self-reported data on ARV drug use. None of the 39 women who had ARV drugs detected reported ARV drug use at any study visit. Further research is needed to evaluate ARV drug use by HIV-uninfected individuals.

  2. Antiretroviral Drug Use in a Cohort of HIV-Uninfected Women in the United States: HIV Prevention Trials Network 064

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Iris; Clarke, William; Ou, San-San; Marzinke, Mark A.; Breaud, Autumn; Emel, Lynda M.; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James P.; Richardson, Paul; Haley, Danielle F.; Lucas, Jonathan; Rompalo, Anne; Justman, Jessica E.; Hodder, Sally L.; Eshleman, Susan H.

    2015-01-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) drug use was analyzed in HIV-uninfected women in an observational cohort study conducted in 10 urban and periurban communities in the United States with high rates of poverty and HIV infection. Plasma samples collected in 2009–2010 were tested for the presence of 16 ARV drugs. ARV drugs were detected in samples from 39 (2%) of 1,806 participants: 27/181 (15%) in Baltimore, MD and 12/179 (7%) in Bronx, NY. The ARV drugs detected included different combinations of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors (1–4 drugs/sample). These data were analyzed in the context of self-reported data on ARV drug use. None of the 39 women who had ARV drugs detected reported ARV drug use at any study visit. Further research is needed to evaluate ARV drug use by HIV-uninfected individuals. PMID:26445283

  3. Early Weaning Increases Diarrhea Morbidity and Mortality Among Uninfected Children Born to HIV-infected Mothers in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Ashraf; Arpadi, Stephen; Kankasa, Chipepo; Sinkala, Moses; Mwiya, Mwiya; Thea, Donald M.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Early weaning may reduce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission but may have deleterious consequences for uninfected children. Here we evaluate effects of early weaning on diarrhea morbidity and mortality of uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers. Methods. HIV-infected women in Lusaka, Zambia, were randomly assigned to breastfeeding for 4 months only or to continue breastfeeding until the mother decided to stop. Replacement and complementary foods were provided and all women were counseled around feeding and hygiene. Diarrhea morbidity and mortality were assessed in 618 HIV-uninfected singletons alive and still breastfeeding at 4 months. Intent-to-treat analyses and comparisons based on actual feeding practices were conducted using regression methods. Results. Between 4 and 6 months, diarrheal episodes were 1.8-fold (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3–2.4) higher in the short compared with long breastfeeding group. Associations were stronger based on actual feeding practices and persisted after adjustment for confounding. At older ages, only more severe outcomes, including diarrhea-related hospitalization or death (relative hazard [RH], 3.2, 95% CI, 2.1–5.1 increase 4–24 months), were increased among weaned children. Conclusions. Continued breastfeeding is associated with reduced risk of diarrhea-related morbidity and mortality among uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers in this low-resource setting despite provision of replacement and complementary food and counseling.  Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00310726. PMID:21459815

  4. Looking beyond prevention of parent to child transmission: Impact of maternal factors on growth of HIV-exposed uninfected infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Trivedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compared to HIV-infected children, relatively little has been described regarding the health status, particularly growth of HIV-exposed but uninfected children in resource-limited settings. This is particularly relevant with widespread implementation of the prevention of parent to child transmission program. Methods: At a tertiary care health institute in India, a cohort of 44 HIV-exposed but uninfected children were followed through 6 months of age. The anthropometric parameters weight, length, and head circumference were investigated at birth, 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months point of time. The information on maternal characteristics such as HIV clinical staging, CD4 count, and maternal weight were recorded. The linear regression analysis was applied to estimate the influence of maternal characteristics on infant anthropometric parameters. Results: Anthropometric parameters (weight, length and head circumference were significantly reduced in uninfected new-borns of mothers in HIV Clinical stage III and IV and weight 50 kg. Analysis conducted to find the effect of maternal immunosuppression on infant growth reveals a significant difference at CD4 300 cells/mm 3 and not at established cut-off of CD4 350 cells/mm 3 . This trend of difference continued at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. The multiple linear regression analysis model demonstrated maternal HIV clinical stage and weight as predictors for birth weight and length, respectively. Conclusions: Advanced HIV disease in the mother is associated with poor infant growth in HIV-exposed, but uninfected children at a critical growth phase in life. These results underscore the importance, especially in resource-constrained settings, of early HIV diagnosis and interventions to halt disease progression in all pregnant women.

  5. Social and immunological differences among uninfected Brazilians exposed or unexposed to human immunodeficiency virus-infected partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Luiza; Melo, Victor Hugo; Aleixo, Agdemir Waléria; Aleixo, Lúcia Fernandes; Pascoal-Xavier, Marcelo Antônio; Silva, Rafaela Oliveira; Ferreira, Laís Alves; Domingos, Willian Cunha; Greco, Dirceu Bartolomeu

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the social conditions and immunological characteristics that allow some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed patients to remain uninfected represents an on-going challenge. In this study, the socio-demographic and sexual behaviour characteristics and immune activation profiles of uninfected individuals exposed to HIV-infected partners were investigated. A confidential and detailed questionnaire was administered and venous blood was tested using HIV-1/enzyme immunoassays, plasma HIV-1 RNA levels/bDNA and immunophenotyping/flow cytometry to determine the frequencies of CD4 and CD8 T cells expressing activation markers. The data analysis showed significant differences (p < 0.05) for immune parameters in individuals who were uninfected, albeit exposed to HIV-infected partners, compared with unexposed individuals. In particular, the exposed, uninfected individuals had a higher frequency (median, minimum-maximum) of CD4+HLA-DR+ (4.2, 1.8-6.1), CD8+HLA-DR+ (4.6, 0.9-13.7), CD4+CD45RO+ (27.5, 14.2-46.6), CD4+CD45RO+CD62L+ (46.7, 33.9-67.1), CD8+CD45RA+HLA-DR+ (12.1, 3.4-35.8) and CD8+CD45RO+HLA-DR+ (9.0, 3.2-14.8) cells, a decreased percentage of CD8+CD28+ cells (11.7, 4.5-24.0) and a lower cell-surface expression of Fcγ-R/CD16 on monocytes (56.5, 22.0-130.0). The plasma HIV-1 RNA levels demonstrated detectable RNA virus loads in 57% of the HIV-1+ female partners. These findings demonstrate an activation profile in both CD4 and CD8 peripheral T cells from HIV-1 exposed seronegative individuals of serodiscordant couples from a referral centre in Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais. PMID:25317705

  6. Social and immunological differences among uninfected Brazilians exposed or unexposed to human immunodeficiency virus-infected partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the social conditions and immunological characteristics that allow some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-exposed patients to remain uninfected represents an on-going challenge. In this study, the socio-demographic and sexual behaviour characteristics and immune activation profiles of uninfected individuals exposed to HIV-infected partners were investigated. A confidential and detailed questionnaire was administered and venous blood was tested using HIV-1/enzyme immunoassays, plasma HIV-1 RNA levels/bDNA and immunophenotyping/flow cytometry to determine the frequencies of CD4 and CD8 T cells expressing activation markers. The data analysis showed significant differences (p < 0.05 for immune parameters in individuals who were uninfected, albeit exposed to HIV-infected partners, compared with unexposed individuals. In particular, the exposed, uninfected individuals had a higher frequency (median, minimum-maximum of CD4+HLA-DR+ (4.2, 1.8-6.1, CD8+HLA-DR+ (4.6, 0.9-13.7, CD4+CD45RO+ (27.5, 14.2-46.6, CD4+CD45RO+CD62L+ (46.7, 33.9-67.1, CD8+CD45RA+HLA-DR+ (12.1, 3.4-35.8 and CD8+CD45RO+HLA-DR+ (9.0, 3.2-14.8 cells, a decreased percentage of CD8+CD28+ cells (11.7, 4.5-24.0 and a lower cell-surface expression of Fcγ-R/CD16 on monocytes (56.5, 22.0-130.0. The plasma HIV-1 RNA levels demonstrated detectable RNA virus loads in 57% of the HIV-1+ female partners. These findings demonstrate an activation profile in both CD4 and CD8 peripheral T cells from HIV-1 exposed seronegative individuals of serodiscordant couples from a referral centre in Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais.

  7. Characterization of the Skin Microbiota in Italian Stream Frogs (Rana italica) Infected and Uninfected by a Cutaneous Parasitic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Ermanno; Rossi, Roberta; Fidati, Laura; Paracucchi, Romina; Scargetta, Silvia; Montalbani, Elena; Franzetti, Andrea; La Porta, Gianandrea; Fagotti, Anna; Simonceli, Francesca; Cenci, Giovanni; Di Rosa, Ines

    2015-01-01

    In human and wildlife populations, the natural microbiota plays an important role in health maintenance and the prevention of emerging infectious diseases. In amphibians, infectious diseases have been closely associated with population decline and extinction worldwide. Skin symbiont communities have been suggested as one of the factors driving the different susceptibilities of amphibians to diseases. The activity of the skin microbiota of amphibians against fungal pathogens, such as Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, has been examined extensively, whereas its protective role towards the cutaneous infectious diseases caused by Amphibiocystidium parasites has not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, we investigated, for the first time, the cutaneous microbiota of the Italian stream frog (Rana italica) and characterized the microbial assemblages of frogs uninfected and infected by Amphibiocystidium using the Illumina next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 629 different OTUs belonging to 16 different phyla were detected. Bacterial populations shared by all individuals represented only one fifth of all OTUs and were dominated by a small number of OTUs. Statistical analyses based on Bray-Curtis distances showed that uninfected and infected specimens had distinct cutaneous bacterial community structures. Phylotypes belonging to the genera Janthinobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Flavobacterium were more abundant, and sometimes almost exclusively present, in uninfected than in infected specimens. These bacterial populations, known to exhibit antifungal activity in amphibians, may also play a role in protection against cutaneous infectious diseases caused by Amphibiocystidium parasites.

  8. A comparative study of CIDP in a cohort of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, Pierre L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate differences in clinical presentation, electrodiagnostic measures, CSF changes, and treatment outcome measures in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Methods: A retrospective analysis of medical records of all patients meeting the European Federation of Neurology diagnostic criteria for idiopathic CIDP was performed in 2 neuromuscular units in Kwa-Zulu Natal between 2003 and 2015. Results: Eighty-four patients were included in the study; 39 were HIV-infected and 45 were HIV-uninfected. Among the HIV-infected patients, the majority were younger, were female, and had a monophasic progressive illness. Eighty-six percent (86%) were corticosteroid-responsive and 76% were in remission within 6–12 months requiring no further treatment. Among the HIV- uninfected patients, the majority were older, were male, and had a relapsing-remitting course. Twenty-seven percent (27%) were corticosteroid-responsive, 95% required combination therapy, and 33% were not in remission by 18 months on therapy. Conclusion: This study shows that HIV-infected patients with CIDP were younger, were more often female, displayed a monophasic progressive course, were highly steroid-responsive, and went into remission within 12 months of corticosteroid initiation. PMID:28054000

  9. Strategies for Monitoring Outcomes in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Children in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Claire; Tookey, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance of pregnancies in women living with HIV is carried out on a national basis in the United Kingdom (UK) through the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood. There are currently around 1100-1200 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants born every year in the UK, where vertical transmission of HIV now occurs in fewer than 5 in every 1000 pregnancies. By the end of 2014, there was a cumulative total of more than 15,000 HEU children with any combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) exposure and more than 5000 with cART exposure from conception in the UK. HEU infants are increasingly being exposed to newer antiretroviral drugs for which less is known regarding both short- and long-term safety. In this commentary, we describe the approaches that have been taken to explore health outcomes in HEU children born in the UK. This includes the Children exposed to AntiRetroviral Therapy (CHART) Study, which was a consented follow-up study carried out in 2002-2005 of HEU children born in 1996-2004. The CHART Study showed that 4% of HEU children enrolled had a major health or development problem in early childhood; this was within expected UK norms, but the study was limited by small numbers and short-term follow-up. However, the problems with recruitment and retention that were encountered within the CHART Study demonstrated that comprehensive, clinic-based follow-up was not a feasible approach for long-term assessment of HEU children in the UK. We describe an alternative approach developed to monitor some aspects of their long-term health, involving the "flagging" of HEU infants for death and cancer registration with the UK Office for National Statistics. Some of the ethical concerns regarding investigation of long-term outcomes of in utero and perinatal exposure to antiretrovirals, including those relating to consent and confidentiality, are also discussed.

  10. Strategies for monitoring outcomes in HIV-exposed uninfected children in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eThorne

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance of pregnancies in women living with HIV is carried out on a national basis in the United Kingdom (UK through the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC. There are currently around 1100-1200 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU infants born every year in the UK, where vertical transmission of HIV now occurs in fewer than five in every 1000 pregnancies. By the end of 2014, there was a cumulative total of more than 15,000 HEU children with any combination antiretroviral therapy (cART exposure and more than 5,000 with cART exposure from conception in the UK. HEU infants are increasingly being exposed to newer antiretroviral drugs for which less is known regarding both short and longer-term safety. In this commentary, we describe the approaches that have been taken to explore health outcomes in HEU children born in the UK. This includes the Children exposed to AntiRetroviral Therapy (CHART Study, which was a consented follow-up study carried out in 2002-2005 of HEU children born in 1996-2004. The CHART Study showed that 4% of HEU children enrolled had a major health or development problem in early childhood; this was within expected UK norms but the study was limited by small numbers and short-term follow-up. However, the problems with recruitment and retention that were encountered within the CHART Study demonstrated that comprehensive, clinic-based follow-up was not a feasible approach for long-term assessment of HEU children in the UK. We describe an alternative approach developed to monitor some aspects of their long-term health, involving the flagging of HEU infants for death and cancer registration with the UK Office for National Statistics. Some of the ethical concerns regarding investigation of long-term outcomes of in utero and perinatal exposure to antiretrovirals including those relating to consent and confidentiality are also discussed.

  11. The Microbiome of Ehrlichia-Infected and Uninfected Lone Star Ticks (Amblyomma americanum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout Fryxell, R. T.; DeBruyn, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum, transmits several bacterial pathogens including species of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia. Amblyomma americanum also hosts a number of non-pathogenic bacterial endosymbionts. Recent studies of other arthropod and insect vectors have documented that commensal microflora can influence transmission of vector-borne pathogens; however, little is known about tick microbiomes and their possible influence on tick-borne diseases. Our objective was to compare bacterial communities associated with A. americanum, comparing Anaplasma/Ehrlichia -infected and uninfected ticks. Field-collected questing specimens (n = 50) were used in the analyses, of which 17 were identified as Anaplasma/Ehrlichia infected based on PCR amplification and sequencing of groEL genes. Bacterial communities from each specimen were characterized using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries. There was a broad range in diversity between samples, with inverse Simpson’s Diversity indices ranging from 1.28–89.5. There were no statistical differences in the overall microbial community structure between PCR diagnosed Anaplasma/Ehrlichia-positive and negative ticks, but there were differences based on collection method (P Anaplasma. Other taxa of interest in these specimens included Coxiella, Borrelia, and Rickettsia. Identification of bacterial community differences between specimens of a single tick species from a single geographical site indicates that intra-species differences in microbiomes were not due solely to pathogen presence/absence, but may be also driven by vector life history factors, including environment, life stage, population structure, and host choice. PMID:26751816

  12. Placental pathology in HIV infection at term: a comparison with HIV-uninfected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalk, Emma; Schubert, Pawel; Bettinger, Julie A; Cotton, Mark F; Esser, Monika; Slogrove, Amy; Wright, Colleen A

    2017-05-01

    To describe and correlate placental characteristics from pregnancies in HIV-infected and HIV-negative women with maternal and infant clinical and immunological data. Prospective descriptive study of placentas from term, uncomplicated vaginal births in a cohort of HIV-infected (n = 120) and HIV-negative (n = 103) women in Cape Town, South Africa. Microscopic and macroscopic features were used to determine pathological cluster diagnoses. The majority of HIV-infected women received some form of drug treatment for the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV. Data were analysed using logistic regression. HIV-infected women were older (median [IQR] 27.4 years [24-31] vs. 25.8 [23-30]), more likely to be multiparous (81.7% vs. 71.8%) and had lower CD4 counts (median [IQR] 323.5 cells/ml [235-442] vs. 467 [370-656]). There were no differences in gestational age at first antenatal visit or at delivery. The proportion of specimens with placental lesions was similar in both groups (39.2% vs. 44.7%). Half of all samples were below the tenth percentile expected-weight-for-gestation regardless of HIV status. This was unaffected by adjustment for confounding variables. Maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM) was more frequent in HIV infection (24.2% vs. 12.6%; P = 0.028), an association which strengthened after adjustment (aOR 2.90 [95% confidence interval 1.11-7.57]). Otherwise the frequency of individual diagnoses did not differ between the groups on multivariate analysis. In this cohort of term, uncomplicated pregnant women, few differences were observed between the HIV-infected and uninfected groups apart from MVM. This lesion may underlie the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, which have been observed at higher rates in some HIV-infected women on ART. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effect of Training Preparation for Childbirth on Fear of Normal Vaginal Delivery and Choosing the Type of Delivery Among Pregnant Women in Hamadan, Iran: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra; Kazemi, Farideh; Oshvandi, Khodayar; Jalali, Mozhgan; Esmaeili-Vardanjani, Ali; Rafiei, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine effect of an educational program on pregnant women’s fear of normal vaginal delivery. Fear of natural childbirth during pregnancy may increase the risk of caesarean section. Educational programs may be effective in reducing women fear of natural childbirth. Materials and methods: This randomized controlled trial conducted from September 2012 to January 2013 in Hamadan, Iran. One hundred fifty eligible women were randomly assigned to group "A" (Intervention group, n = 75) or group "B" (Control group, n = 75). Women in group A, participated in an antenatal educations program for physiologic childbirth in 8 two-hour sessions. A self-designed questionnaire was used to examine women's fear of natural childbirth. Data were analyzed with SPSS.16 software. Results: Baseline characteristics of women were similar in both groups. After intervention the mean fear score in group A compared to group B was significantly reduced (51.7 ± 22.4 vs. 58.7 ± 21.7) (p = 0.007). Physiologic delivery was the first choice of type of child birth after training in pregnant women in group A (58.7%). But delivery in physiologic form had lowest rate in group A (8%). Conclusion: Results of present study showed that educational program could be serving as an important tool in reducing women fear from natural childbirth and in choosing of physiologic birth. And for delivery as a physiological, education and counseling of pregnant women, doctors and midwives are required. PMID:28101112

  14. Effect of Training Preparation for Childbirth on Fear of Normal Vaginal Delivery and Choosing the Type of Delivery Among Pregnant Women in Hamadan, Iran: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine effect of an educational program on pregnant women’s fear of normal vaginal delivery. Fear of natural childbirth during pregnancy may increase the risk of caesarean section. Educational programs may be effective in reducing women fear of natural childbirth.Materials and methods: This randomized controlled trial conducted from September 2012 to January 2013 in Hamadan, Iran. One hundred fifty eligible women were randomly assigned to group "A" (Intervention group, n = 75 or group "B" (Control group, n = 75. Women in group A, participated in an antenatal educations program for physiologic childbirth in 8 two-hour sessions. A self-designed questionnaire was used to examine women's fear of natural childbirth. Data were analyzed with SPSS.16 software.Results: Baseline characteristics of women were similar in both groups. After intervention the mean fear score in group A compared to group B was significantly reduced (51.7 ± 22.4 vs. 58.7 ± 21.7 (p = 0.007. Physiologic delivery was the first choice of type of child birth after training in pregnant women in group A (58.7%. But delivery in physiologic form had lowest rate in group A (8%.Conclusion: Results of present study showed that educational program could be serving as an important tool in reducing women fear from natural childbirth and in choosing of physiologic birth. And for delivery as a physiological, education and counseling of pregnant women, doctors and midwives are required.

  15. Novel Method to Prepare Magnesium by Aluminothermic Reduction of Magnesia and Calcium Hydroxide at Normal Atmosphere, 1223 K (950 °C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng; Du, Shuang-Ming; Sun, Wan-Chang; Zhang, Ju-Mei; Niu, Li-Bin; Zheng, Bin; Hua, Xiao-Hu

    2017-02-01

    An experimental apparatus was designed to investigate the aluminothermic reduction of the mixture of MgO and Ca(OH)2 at normal atmosphere, 1223 K (950 °C), with the molar ratio of MgO:Al:Ca(OH)2 to be 3:2:1, reinforced by high-energy ball milling. The effect of mechanical milling time and content of grinding aid (sodium stearate) on the reduction ratio of MgO were studied. Moreover, the reduzate and reactant activated by ball milling were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectrometer analysis. The average grain sizes of Al and MgO activated by ball milling were also calculated by Scherrer formula. The results indicate that the reduction ratio of MgO is increased with increasing mechanical milling time and content of sodium stearate. The high-energy ball milling has good reinforcement on the aluminothermic reduction of MgO. Moreover, the strengthening mechanism of mechanical force on the reaction was further discussed.

  16. Normal and abnormal grain growth in fine-grained Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets prepared from He jet milled powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, F.; Woodcock, T. G.; Schultz, L.; Schwöbel, C.; Gutfleisch, O.; Zickler, G. A.; Fidler, J.; Üstüner, K.; Katter, M.

    2017-03-01

    Fine-grained, heavy rare earth free Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets were prepared from He jet milled powders with an average particle size of 1.5 μm by low temperature sintering at 920 °C or 980 °C. A coercivity of >1600 kA/m was achieved for an average grain size of 1.68 μm. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the distribution and composition of intergranular and grain boundary junction phases was similar to that in conventionally processed magnets. Microstructural analysis on different length scales revealed the occurrence of abnormal grain growth, which is unexpected for sintering temperatures below 1000 °C. A larger area fraction of abnormal grains was observed in the sample sintered at 920 °C compared to that sintered at 980 °C. Microtexture investigation showed a better crystallographic alignment of the abnormal grains compared to the fine-grained matrix, which is explained by a size dependent alignment of the powder particles during magnetic field alignment prior to sintering. Slightly larger particles in the initial powder show a better alignment and will act as nucleation sites for abnormal grain growth. Magneto-optical Kerr investigations confirmed the lower switching field of the abnormal grains compared to the fine-grained matrix. The demagnetisation curve of the sample sintered at 920 °C showed reduced rectangularity and this was attributed to a cooperative effect of the larger fraction of abnormal grains with low switching field and, as a minor effect, a reduced degree of crystallographic texture in this sample compared to the material sintered at 980 °C, which did not show the reduced rectangularity of the demagnetisation curve.

  17. Risk of Disease After Isoniazid Preventive Therapy for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Exposure in Young HIV-uninfected Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tameris, Michele D.; Geldenhuys, Hennie D.; Mulenga, Humphrey; Van Schalkwyk, Amaryl; Hughes, Elizabeth J.; Toefey, Asma; Scriba, Thomas J.; Hussey, Gregory; Mahomed, Hassan; McShane, Helen; Landry, Bernard; Hanekom, Willem A.; Hatherill, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background: The risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) disease in HIV-uninfected children after isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for a positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk of TB disease after IPT in young HIV-uninfected children with a positive QFT-GIT result, or household TB contact. Methods: HIV-uninfected South African infants aged 4–6 months were screened for enrolment in a TB vaccine trial. Baseline household TB contact and positive QFT-GIT result were exclusion criteria, and these infants were referred for IPT. Outcome data are reported for 36 months after IPT referral. Results: Four thousand seven hundred forty-nine infants were screened. Household TB contact was reported in 131 (2.8%) infants; 279 (6.0%) were QFT-GIT positive, and 138 of these 410 infants (34.0%) started IPT. Forty-four cases of TB disease (11.0%) were recorded within 991 child years of observation. TB disease incidence was 4.8 versus 3.6 per 100 child years in household exposed versus QFT-GIT-positive children [incidence rate ratio: 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67–2.88] and 2.4 versus 5.5 per 100 child years in children who received versus did not receive IPT, respectively (incidence rate ratio: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.17–0.96). Adjusted hazard ratio (Cox regression) for TB disease was 0.48 (95% CI: 0.21–1.05) for those who received IPT. Conclusion: In young HIV-uninfected children, the effect of IPT on risk of TB disease is similar, whether TB exposure was defined by household contact history or by positive QFT-GIT result. International IPT guidelines for HIV-uninfected children with a positive QFT-GIT result should be updated. PMID:26252568

  18. Site-specific differences in T cell frequencies and phenotypes in the blood and gut of HIV-uninfected and ART-treated HIV+ adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukl, Steven A; Shergill, Amandeep K; Girling, Valerie; Li, Qingsheng; Killian, Maudi; Epling, Lorrie; Li, Peilin; Kaiser, Philipp; Haase, Ashley; Havlir, Diane V; McQuaid, Kenneth; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Wong, Joseph K

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal T lymphocytes are critical for mucosal immunity and HIV pathogenesis, yet little is known about normal T cell numbers and phenotypes in different regions of the gut, or the degree to which ART can restore levels to those of HIV-uninfected individuals. To investigate these questions, we measured T cell frequencies and markers of memory, activation, anergy, and homing in the blood, ileum, and rectum of HIV- and ART-suppressed HIV+ adults. In HIV- individuals, T cell frequencies and phenotypes differed significantly between sites. Compared to HIV- adults, HIV+ adults had lower absolute CD4+T cell counts in the ileal lamina propria and lower relative CD4+T cell counts in the blood and ileum. In the gut, HIV+ adults had a higher proportion of CD38+ CD4+T cells, a lower proportion of terminally-differentiated effector cells, and, in the rectum, a higher proportion of CTLA-4+ CD4+T cells. In HIV+ individuals, relative CD4+T cell numbers in the ileum correlated with the proportion of CTLA-4+ CD4+T cells, whereas in the rectum, they tended to correlate with the proportion of circulating CD4+T cells expressing α4β7 or CCR6. Mechanisms of T cell reconstitution may differ throughout the gut, with homing contributing more in the rectum while ileal reconstitution is associated with mucosal CD4+T cell anergy.

  19. Site-specific differences in T cell frequencies and phenotypes in the blood and gut of HIV-uninfected and ART-treated HIV+ adults.

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    Steven A Yukl

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal T lymphocytes are critical for mucosal immunity and HIV pathogenesis, yet little is known about normal T cell numbers and phenotypes in different regions of the gut, or the degree to which ART can restore levels to those of HIV-uninfected individuals. To investigate these questions, we measured T cell frequencies and markers of memory, activation, anergy, and homing in the blood, ileum, and rectum of HIV- and ART-suppressed HIV+ adults. In HIV- individuals, T cell frequencies and phenotypes differed significantly between sites. Compared to HIV- adults, HIV+ adults had lower absolute CD4+T cell counts in the ileal lamina propria and lower relative CD4+T cell counts in the blood and ileum. In the gut, HIV+ adults had a higher proportion of CD38+ CD4+T cells, a lower proportion of terminally-differentiated effector cells, and, in the rectum, a higher proportion of CTLA-4+ CD4+T cells. In HIV+ individuals, relative CD4+T cell numbers in the ileum correlated with the proportion of CTLA-4+ CD4+T cells, whereas in the rectum, they tended to correlate with the proportion of circulating CD4+T cells expressing α4β7 or CCR6. Mechanisms of T cell reconstitution may differ throughout the gut, with homing contributing more in the rectum while ileal reconstitution is associated with mucosal CD4+T cell anergy.

  20. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for comput

  1. Altered Natural Killer Cell Function in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants

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    Christiana Smith

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesHIV-exposed uninfected (HEU infants have higher rates of severe and fatal infections compared with HIV-unexposed (HUU infants, likely due to immune perturbations. We hypothesized that alterations in natural killer (NK cell activity might occur in HEU infants and predispose them to severe infections.DesignCase–control study using cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs at birth and 6 months from HEU infants enrolled from 2002 to 2009 and HUU infants enrolled from 2011 to 2013.MethodsNK cell phenotype and function were assessed by flow cytometry after 20-h incubation with and without K562 cells.ResultsThe proportion of NK cells among PBMCs was lower at birth in 12 HEU vs. 22 HUU (1.68 vs. 10.30%, p < 0.0001 and at 6 months in 52 HEU vs. 72 HUU (3.09 vs. 4.65%, p = 0.0005. At birth, HEU NK cells demonstrated increased killing of K562 target cells (p < 0.0001 and increased expression of CD107a (21.65 vs. 12.70%, p = 0.047, but these differences resolved by 6 months. Stimulated HEU NK cells produced less interferon (IFNγ at birth (0.77 vs. 2.64%, p = 0.008 and at 6 months (4.12 vs. 8.39%, p = 0.001, and showed reduced perforin staining at 6 months (66.95 vs. 77.30%, p = 0.0008. Analysis of cell culture supernatants indicated that lower NK cell activity in HEU was associated with reduced interleukin (IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18. Addition of recombinant human IL-12 to stimulated HEU PBMCs restored IFNγ production to that seen in stimulated HUU cultures.ConclusionNK cell proportion, phenotype, and function are altered in HEU infants. NK cell cytotoxicity and degranulation are increased in HEU at birth, but HEU NK cells have reduced IFNγ and perforin production, suggesting an adequate initial response, but decreased functional reserve. NK cell function improved with addition of exogenous IL-12, implicating impaired production of IL-12 by accessory cells. Alterations in NK cell and accessory

  2. Effect of CO2 on uninfected Sf-9 cell growth and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajrala, Sucheta G; Murhammer, David W

    2016-03-01

    A problem in the mass production of recombinant proteins and biopesticides using insect cell culture is CO2 accumulation. This research investigated the effect of elevated CO2 concentration on insect cell growth and metabolism. Spodoptera frugiperda Sf-9 insect cells were grown at 20% air saturation, 27(°) C, and a pH of 6.2. The cells were exposed to a constant CO2 concentration by purging the medium with CO2 and the headspace with air. The population doubling time (PDT) of Sf-9 cells increased with increasing CO2 concentration. Specifically, the PDT for 0-37, 73, 147, 183, and 220 mm Hg CO2 concentrations were 23.2 ± 6.7, 32.4 ± 7.2, 38.1 ± 13.3, 42.9 ± 5.4, and 69.3 ± 35.9 h (n = 3 or 4, 95% confidence level), respectively. The viability of cells in all experiments was above 90%, i.e., while increased CO2 concentrations inhibited cell growth, it did not affect cell viability. The osmolality for all bioreactor experiments was observed to be 300-360 mOsm/kg, a range that is known to have a negligible effect on insect cell culture. Elevated CO2 concentration did not significantly alter the cell specific glucose consumption rate (2.5-3.2 × 10(-17) mol/cell s), but slightly increased the specific lactate production rate from -3.0 × 10(-19) to 10.2 × 10(-19) mol/cell s. Oxidative stress did not contribute to CO2 inhibition in uninfected Sf-9 cells as no significant increase in the levels of lipid hydroperoxide and protein carbonyl concentrations was discovered at elevated CO2 concentration. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:465-469, 2016.

  3. The Burden of Oral Disease among Perinatally HIV-Infected and HIV-Exposed Uninfected Youth.

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    Anna-Barbara Moscicki

    Full Text Available To compare oral health parameters in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected youth (PHEU.In a cross-sectional substudy within the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study, participants were examined for number of decayed teeth (DT, Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT, oral mucosal disease, and periodontal disease (PD. Covariates for oral health parameters were examined using zero-inflated negative binomial regression and ordinal logistic regression models.Eleven sites enrolled 209 PHIV and 126 PHEU. Higher DT scores were observed in participants who were PHIV [Adjusted Mean Ratio (aMR = 1.7 (95% CI 1.2-2.5], female [aMR = 1.4 (1.0-1.9], had no source of regular dental care [aMR = 2.3 (1.5-3.4], and had a high frequency of meals/snacks [≥5 /day vs 0-3, aMR = 1.9 (1.1-3.1] and juice/soda [≥5 /day vs 0-3, aMR = 1.6 (1.1-2.4]. Higher DMFT scores were observed in participants who were older [≥19, aMR = 1.9 (1.2-2.9], had biological parent as caregiver [aMR = 1.2 (1.0-1.3], had a high frequency of juice/soda [≥5 /day vs 0-3, aMR = 1.4 (1.1-1.7] and a low saliva flow rate [mL/min, aMR = 0.8 per unit higher (0.6-1.0]. Eighty percent had PD; no differences were seen by HIV status using the patient-based classifications of health, gingivitis or mild, moderate, or severe periodontitis. No associations were observed of CD4 count and viral load with oral health outcomes after adjustment.Oral health was poor in PHIV and PHEU youth. This was dismaying since most HIV infected children in the U.S. are carefully followed at medical health care clinics. This data underscore the need for regular dental care. As PHIV youth were at higher risk for cavities, it will be important to better understand this relationship in order to develop targeted interventions.

  4. The Microbiome of Ehrlichia-Infected and Uninfected Lone Star Ticks (Amblyomma americanum.

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    R T Trout Fryxell

    Full Text Available The Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum, transmits several bacterial pathogens including species of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia. Amblyomma americanum also hosts a number of non-pathogenic bacterial endosymbionts. Recent studies of other arthropod and insect vectors have documented that commensal microflora can influence transmission of vector-borne pathogens; however, little is known about tick microbiomes and their possible influence on tick-borne diseases. Our objective was to compare bacterial communities associated with A. americanum, comparing Anaplasma/Ehrlichia -infected and uninfected ticks. Field-collected questing specimens (n = 50 were used in the analyses, of which 17 were identified as Anaplasma/Ehrlichia infected based on PCR amplification and sequencing of groEL genes. Bacterial communities from each specimen were characterized using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries. There was a broad range in diversity between samples, with inverse Simpson's Diversity indices ranging from 1.28-89.5. There were no statistical differences in the overall microbial community structure between PCR diagnosed Anaplasma/Ehrlichia-positive and negative ticks, but there were differences based on collection method (P < 0.05, collection site (P < 0.05, and sex (P < 0.1 suggesting that environmental factors may structure A. americanum microbiomes. Interestingly, there was not always agreement between Illumina sequencing and PCR diagnostics: Ehrlichia was identified in 16S rRNA gene libraries from three PCR-negative specimens; conversely, Ehrlichia was not found in libraries of six PCR-positive ticks. Illumina sequencing also helped identify co-infections, for example, one specimen had both Ehrlichia and Anaplasma. Other taxa of interest in these specimens included Coxiella, Borrelia, and Rickettsia. Identification of bacterial community differences between specimens of a single tick species from a single geographical site indicates that

  5. Sexual Behavior and Knowledge among Adolescents with Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Compared to HIV-Uninfected Adolescents at an Urban Tertiary Center in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Ashlesha; Pineda, Carol; Kest, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sexual behaviors and knowledge among PHIV-infected (PHIV(+)) adolescents in comparison with HIV-uninfected youths are not well understood and continue to be studied actively. Objective. To compare sexual behavior and sexual knowledge of PHIV(+) and HIV-uninfected adolescents at an urban, tertiary-care center in New Jersey. Study Design. Modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance questionnaire was administered to PHIV(+) and HIV-uninfected adolescents to assess and compare sexual behavior and knowledge over a 1-year-period. Results. Twenty-seven PHIV(+) and 100 HIV-uninfected adolescents were studied; 59% PHIV(+) and 52% HIV-uninfected adolescents were sexually active. A significantly higher proportion of PHIV(+) adolescents compared to HIV-uninfected adolescents reported ≥1 occasion of unprotected penetrative sex (p 4) sexual partners (p = 0.037). Significantly more PHIV(+) males reported receptive anal intercourse (p sexual abstinence can prevent HIV transmission and >80% adolescents in both groups did not consider multiple sexual partners a risk factor for HIV transmission. Only 25% PHIV(+) adolescents reported disclosing their seropositive status to their first sexual partners. Conclusions. High risk sexual behaviors were significantly more prevalent among PHIV(+) youths; however both groups demonstrated considerable gaps in sexual knowledge. There is an urgent need for heightening awareness about risky behaviors, interventions for prevention, and reproductive health promotion among adolescents.

  6. Comparable performance of conventional and liquid-based cytology in diagnosing anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected and -uninfected Thai men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanuphak, Nittaya; Teeratakulpisarn, Nipat; Lim, Cherry; Changnam, Taweesak; Kerr, Stephen; Deesua, Amornrat; Hongchookiat, Piranun; Rodbamrung, Piyanee; Numto, Saranya; Barisri, Jiranuwat; Phanuphak, Praphan; Keelawat, Somboon; Sohn, Annette H; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Triratanachat, Surang

    2013-08-01

    Anal cytology has increasingly been used to screen for anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) among men who have sex with men (MSM) at increased risk for anal cancer. Use of liquid-based cytology has been reported to reduce fecal and bacterial contamination and air-drying artifact compared with conventional cytology. Costs associated with liquid-based cytology, however, may limit its use in resource-limited settings. Anal swab samples were collected from MSM participants and used to prepare conventional and liquid-based cytology slides. Abnormal conventional cytology results triggered referral for high-resolution anoscopy and biopsy. Agreement between the 2 cytology techniques and the positive predictive value ratios of histology confirmed AIN were calculated. Among 173 MSM, abnormal anal cytology was identified in 46.2% of conventional and 32.4% of liquid-based slides. The results agreed in 62.4% of cases with a κ value of 0.49 (P cytology results (95% confidence interval: 1.6 to 7.8; P = 0.001) compared with HIV-uninfected MSM. Histological AIN 2 and 3 were identified in 20 MSM. The positive predictive value ratios and 95% confidence interval indicated no difference between the 2 techniques. Conventional anal cytology may be a preferred option for resource-limited settings given comparable performances to liquid-based cytology for the detection of AIN, although the agreement between the 2 techniques was lower among HIV-infected MSM. Due to high prevalence of abnormal anal cytology and AIN, health systems should prepare adequate infrastructure for high-resolution anoscopy services and AIN treatment.

  7. Greater Risk of Stroke of Undetermined Etiology in a Contemporary HIV-Infected Cohort Compared with Uninfected Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Felicia C; Price, Richard W; Hsue, Priscilla Y; Kim, Anthony S

    2017-05-01

    Although ischemic stroke risk is increased among people living with HIV infection, little is known about the epidemiology of ischemic stroke subtypes in contemporary HIV-infected cohorts. We examined the distribution of ischemic stroke subtypes among predominantly treated HIV-infected individuals to determine if and how the distribution differs from that of the general population. We studied 60 HIV-infected and 60 HIV-uninfected adults with a history of first-ever ischemic stroke between 2000 and 2012. Ischemic strokes were classified as 1 of 5 subtypes based on established criteria. We used multinomial logistic regression models to compare the relative frequency of ischemic stroke subtypes by HIV status. Large artery atherosclerosis (23%) and stroke of undetermined etiology (23%) were the most common stroke subtypes among HIV-infected individuals. The most recent plasma HIV viral load before the stroke event differed by subtype, with a median undetectable viral load for individuals with large artery stroke and stroke of undetermined etiology. Using cardioembolic stroke as the reference subtype, HIV-infected individuals were at higher proportional risk of stroke of undetermined etiology compared with uninfected individuals (relative risk ratio [RRR]: 8.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-63.7, P = .04). Among HIV-infected individuals with virologically suppressed infection, we observed a trend toward a greater proportion of strokes attributable to large artery atherosclerosis (RRR: 6.7, 95% CI: .8-57.9, P = .08). HIV-infected individuals may be at greater proportional risk of stroke of undetermined etiology compared with uninfected individuals. Further investigation is warranted to confirm this finding and determine underlying reasons for this greater risk. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk of congenital cytomegalovirus infection among HIV-exposed uninfected infants is not decreased by maternal nelfinavir use during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Soren; Leister, Erin; Jacobsen, Denise L; Boucoiran, Isabelle; Huang, Meei-Li; Jerome, Keith R; Jourdain, Gonzague; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Burchett, Sandra; Frenkel, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is common among infants born to HIV-infected women. Nelfinavir (NFV), an antiretroviral drug that is safe during pregnancy, inhibits CMV replication in vitro at concentrations that standard doses achieve in plasma. We hypothesized that infants born to women receiving NFV for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) would have a reduced prevalence of cCMV infection. The prevalence of cCMV infection was compared among HIV-uninfected infants whose HIV-infected mothers either received NFV for >4 weeks during pregnancy (NFV-exposed) or did not receive any NFV in pregnancy (NFV-unexposed). CMV PCR was performed on infant blood samples collected at 4 weeks during pregnancy and 941 did not receive any NFV during pregnancy. The overall prevalence of cCMV infection in the infants was 2.2%, which did not differ by maternal NFV use. Maternal CD4 T cell counts were inversely correlated with risk of cCMV infection, independent of the time NFV was initiated during gestation. Infants with cCMV infection were born 0.7 weeks earlier (P = 0.010) and weighed 170 g less (P = 0.009) than uninfected infants. Among HIV-exposed uninfected infants, cCMV infection was associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. NFV use in pregnancy was not associated with protection against cCMV. Safe and effective strategies to prevent cCMV infection are needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Comparison of lower genital tract microbiota in HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the US.

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    Lorie Benning

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that alterations of the bacterial microbiota in the lower female genital tract influence susceptibility to HIV infection and shedding. We assessed geographic differences in types of genital microbiota between HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the United States. METHODS: Genera of lower genital tract bacterial microbiota were identified by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from 46 US women (36 HIV-infected, 10 HIV-uninfected and 40 Rwandan women (18 HIV-infected, 22 HIV-uninfected with similar proportions of low (0-3 Nugent scores. Species of Lactobacillus were identified by assembling sequences along with reference sequences into phylogenetic trees. Prevalence of genera and Lactobacillus species were compared using Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: Overall the seven most prevalent genera were Lactobacillus (74%, Prevotella (56%, Gardnerella (55%, Atopobium (42%, Sneathia (37%, Megasphaera (30%, and Parvimonas (26%, observed at similar prevalences comparing Rwandan to US women, except for Megasphaera (20% vs. 39%, p = 0.06. Additionally, Rwandan women had higher frequencies of Mycoplasma (23% vs. 7%, p = 0.06 and Eggerthella (13% vs. 0%, p = 0.02, and lower frequencies of Lachnobacterium (8% vs. 35%, p<0.01 and Allisonella (5% vs. 30%, p<0.01, compared with US women. The prevalence of Mycoplasma was highest (p<0.05 in HIV-infected Rwandan women (39%, compared to HIV-infected US women (6%, HIV-uninfected Rwandan (9% and US (10% women. The most prevalent lactobacillus species in both Rwandan and US women was L. iners (58% vs. 76%, p = 0.11, followed by L. crispatus (28% vs. 30%, p = 0.82, L. jensenii (20% vs. 24%, p = 0.80, L. gasseri (20% vs. 11%, p = 0.37 and L. vaginalis (20% vs. 7%, p = 0.10. DISCUSSION: We found similar prevalence of most major bacterial genera and Lactobacillus species in Rwandan and US women. Further work will be needed

  10. Dairy calcium intake and lifestyle risk factors for bone loss in hiv-infected and uninfected mediterranean subjects

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    Vecchi Valentina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the reported high prevalence of osteoporosis in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-population, there have been no previous studies examining dairy calcium intake and bone mineral density (BMD in HIV-subjects. We assessed the prevalence of low BMD in HIV-infected and uninfected subjects and analyzed the effects of calcium intake, lifestyle and HIV-related risk factors on BMD. Methods One hundred and twelve HIV-infected subjects were consecutively enrolled. Seventy- six HIV-uninfected subjects matched for age and sex were enrolled as the control group. The HIV-subjects were interviewed about lifestyle habits and completed a weekly food-frequency questionnaire to estimate calcium intake. HIV-RNA, CD4+ T-cell count and data on antiretroviral therapy were also recorded. Both biochemical bone turnover markers and BMD, assessed by dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry (DXA were recorded in the HIV-cases and controls. We also calculated the 10-year fracture risks using the WHO FRAX equation. Results Osteoporosis prevalence was significantly higher in the HIV-cases than controls (p p p BMI values were significantly correlated with dairy intake quartiles (p p p p p p p Conclusions Among the foods rich in calcium, yogurt was a protective predictor of BMD in HIV-subjects. HIV/HCV co-infection, nadir CD4 + T-cell count

  11. Do Healthy Monarchs Migrate Farther? Tracking Natal Origins of Parasitized vs. Uninfected Monarch Butterflies Overwintering in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Altizer

    Full Text Available Long-distance migration can lower parasite prevalence if strenuous journeys remove infected animals from wild populations. We examined wild monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus to investigate the potential costs of the protozoan Ophryocystis elektroscirrha on migratory success. We collected monarchs from two wintering sites in central Mexico to compare infection status with hydrogen isotope (δ2H measurements as an indicator of latitude of origin at the start of fall migration. On average, uninfected monarchs had lower δ2H values than parasitized butterflies, indicating that uninfected butterflies originated from more northerly latitudes and travelled farther distances to reach Mexico. Within the infected class, monarchs with higher quantitative spore loads originated from more southerly latitudes, indicating that heavily infected monarchs originating from farther north are less likely to reach Mexico. We ruled out the alternative explanation that lower latitudes give rise to more infected monarchs prior to the onset of migration using citizen science data to examine regional differences in parasite prevalence during the summer breeding season. We also found a positive association between monarch wing area and estimated distance flown. Collectively, these results emphasize that seasonal migrations can help lower infection levels in wild animal populations. Our findings, combined with recent declines in the numbers of migratory monarchs wintering in Mexico and observations of sedentary (winter breeding monarch populations in the southern U.S., suggest that shifts from migratory to sedentary behavior will likely lead to greater infection prevalence for North American monarchs.

  12. Do Healthy Monarchs Migrate Farther? Tracking Natal Origins of Parasitized vs. Uninfected Monarch Butterflies Overwintering in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altizer, Sonia; Hobson, Keith A; Davis, Andrew K; De Roode, Jacobus C; Wassenaar, Leonard I

    2015-01-01

    Long-distance migration can lower parasite prevalence if strenuous journeys remove infected animals from wild populations. We examined wild monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) to investigate the potential costs of the protozoan Ophryocystis elektroscirrha on migratory success. We collected monarchs from two wintering sites in central Mexico to compare infection status with hydrogen isotope (δ2H) measurements as an indicator of latitude of origin at the start of fall migration. On average, uninfected monarchs had lower δ2H values than parasitized butterflies, indicating that uninfected butterflies originated from more northerly latitudes and travelled farther distances to reach Mexico. Within the infected class, monarchs with higher quantitative spore loads originated from more southerly latitudes, indicating that heavily infected monarchs originating from farther north are less likely to reach Mexico. We ruled out the alternative explanation that lower latitudes give rise to more infected monarchs prior to the onset of migration using citizen science data to examine regional differences in parasite prevalence during the summer breeding season. We also found a positive association between monarch wing area and estimated distance flown. Collectively, these results emphasize that seasonal migrations can help lower infection levels in wild animal populations. Our findings, combined with recent declines in the numbers of migratory monarchs wintering in Mexico and observations of sedentary (winter breeding) monarch populations in the southern U.S., suggest that shifts from migratory to sedentary behavior will likely lead to greater infection prevalence for North American monarchs.

  13. Risk Factors for Acquisition and Clearance of Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection Among HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachler, Daniel C.; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Strickler, Howard D.; Wiley, Dorothy J.; Cranston, Ross D.; Burk, Robert D.; Minkoff, Howard; Reddy, Susheel; Xiao, Weihong; Guo, Yingshi; Gillison, Maura L.; D'Souza, Gypsyamber

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes the majority of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States, yet the risk factors for and natural history of oral HPV infection are largely unknown. In 2010–2011, a US-based longitudinal cohort study of 761 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and 469 at-risk HIV-uninfected participants from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and the Women's Interagency HIV Study was initiated. Semiannually collected oral rinses were evaluated for 37 HPV genotypes using the Roche LINEAR ARRAY HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, California), and factors associated with oral HPV incidence and clearance were explored using adjusted Wei-Lin-Weissfeld modeling. Through 2013, the 2-year cumulative incidence of any type of oral HPV infection was 34% in HIV-infected persons and 19% in HIV-uninfected persons. However, many of these infections cleared. Seven percent of incident infections and 35% of prevalent infections persisted for at least 2 years. After adjustment for other risk factors, HIV infection (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.7, 3.2), reduced current CD4 cell count, and increased numbers of oral sex and “rimming” partners increased the risk of incident oral HPV infection, whereas male sex, older age, and current smoking increased the risk of oral HPV persistence (each P < 0.05). This helps explain the consistent associations observed between these factors and prevalent oral HPV infection in previous cross-sectional studies. PMID:25480823

  14. Insulin resistance change and antiretroviral therapy exposure in HIV-infected and uninfected Rwandan women: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimura, Eugene; Hoover, Donald R; Shi, Qiuhu; Dusingize, Jean Claude; Sinayobye, Jean D'Amour; Cohen, Mardge; Anastos, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    We longitudinally assessed predictors of insulin resistance (IR) change among HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected (ART-initiators and ART-non-initiators) Rwandan women. HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV-) women provided demographic and clinical measures: age, body mass index (BMI) in Kg/(height in meters)2, Fat-Mass (FMI) and Fat-Free-Mass (FFMI) index, fasting serum glucose and insulin. Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) was calculated to estimate IR change over time in log10 transformed HOMA measured at study enrollment or prior to ART initiation in 3 groups: HIV- (n = 194), HIV+ ART-non-initiators (n=95) and HIV+ ART-initiators (n=371). ANCOVA linear regression models of change in log10-HOMA were fit with all models included the first log10 HOMA as a predictor. Mean±SD log10-HOMA was -0.18±0.39 at the 1st and -0.21±0.41 at the 2nd measure, with mean change of 0.03±0.44. In the final model (all women) BMI at 1st HOMA measure (0.014; 95% CI=0.006-0.021 per kg/m2; pchange in BMI from 1st to 2nd measure (0.024; 95% CI=0.013-0.035 per kg/m2; pchange. When restricted to subjects with FMI measures, FMI at 1st HOMA measure (0.020; 95% CI=0.010-0.030 per kg/m2; pchange in FMI from 1st to 2nd measure (0.032; 95% CI=0.020-0.043 per kg/m2; pchange in HOMA. While ART use did not predict change in log10-HOMA, untreated HIV+ women had a significant decline in IR over time. Use or duration of AZT, d4T and EFV was not associated with HOMA change in HIV+ women. Baseline BMI and change in BMI, and in particular fat mass and change in fat mass predicted insulin resistance change over ~3 years in HIV-infected and uninfected Rwandan women. Exposure to specific ART (d4T, AZT, EFV) did not predict insulin resistance change in ART-treated HIV-infected Rwandan women.

  15. Comparison of risk and age at diagnosis of myocardial infarction, end-stage renal disease, and non-AIDS-defining cancer in HIV-infected versus uninfected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Keri N; McGinnis, Kathleen A; Wyatt, Christina M; Freiberg, Matthew S; Gilbert, Cynthia; Oursler, Krisann K; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Dubrow, Robert; Park, Lesley S; Skanderson, Melissa; Shiels, Meredith S; Gange, Stephen J; Gebo, Kelly A; Justice, Amy C

    2015-02-15

    Although it has been shown that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults are at greater risk for aging-associated events, it remains unclear as to whether these events happen at similar, or younger ages, in HIV-infected compared with uninfected adults. The objective of this study was to compare the median age at, and risk of, incident diagnosis of 3 age-associated diseases in HIV-infected and demographically similar uninfected adults. The study was nested in the clinical prospective Veterans Aging Cohort Study of HIV-infected and demographically matched uninfected veterans, from 1 April 2003 to 31 December 2010. The outcomes were validated diagnoses of myocardial infarction (MI), end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC). Differences in mean age at, and risk of, diagnosis by HIV status were estimated using multivariate linear regression models and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively. A total of 98 687 (31% HIV-infected and 69% uninfected) adults contributed >450 000 person-years and 689 MI, 1135 ESRD, and 4179 NADC incident diagnoses. Mean age at MI (adjusted mean difference, -0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], -.59 to .37 years) and NADC (adjusted mean difference, -0.10 [95% CI, -.30 to .10] years) did not differ by HIV status. HIV-infected adults were diagnosed with ESRD at an average age of 5.5 months younger than uninfected adults (adjusted mean difference, -0.46 [95% CI, -.86 to -.07] years). HIV-infected adults had a greater risk of all 3 outcomes compared with uninfected adults after accounting for important confounders. HIV-infected adults had a higher risk of these age-associated events, but they occurred at similar ages than those without HIV. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. An improved microinjection protocol for the transfer of Wolbachia pipientis between infected and uninfected strains of the flour beetle Tribolium confusum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, N W; Wade, M J

    1996-07-01

    The lethality of halocarbon and other oils to hatching larvae of the flour beetle Tribolium confusum limits existing microinjection protocols, because postinjection survivorship is only 5.6% of the eggs injected. We report the development of an oil-free protocol that improves survivorship fivefold. We used this protocol to transfect the cytoplasmic endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis from infected donor eggs to uninfected host eggs and observed reproductive incompatibility in 40% of the surviving, injected eggs. Compared with mock injected controls (35.9% survival) or microinjection of uninfected cytoplasm (32.3% survival), injection of Wolbachia-infected cytoplasm into host eggs significantly reduced egg-to-adult survival (25.1%).

  17. A Prospective Cohort Study of Common Childhood Infections in South African HIV-exposed Uninfected and HIV-unexposed Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slogrove, Amy L.; Esser, Monika M.; Cotton, Mark F.; Speert, David P.; Kollmann, Tobias R.; Singer, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Much evidence of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infant infectious morbidity predates availability of maternal combination antiretroviral therapy and does not control for universal risk factors (preterm birth, low birth weight, suboptimal breastfeeding and poverty). Methods: This prospective cohort study identified HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and their newborns from South African community midwife unit. The primary outcome, infectious cause hospitalization or death before 6 months of age, was compared between HEU and HIV-unexposed (HU) infants and classified for type and severity using validated study-specific case definitions. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were calculated by logistic regression including stratified analyses conditioned on breastfeeding. Results: One hundred and seventy-six (94 HEU and 82 HU) mother–infant pairs were analyzed. HIV-infected mothers were older (median, 27.8 vs. 24.7 years; P < 0.01) and HU infants more often breastfed (81/82 vs. 35/94; P < 0.001). Groups were similar for maternal education, antenatal course, household characteristics, birth weight, gestational age and immunizations. The primary outcome occurred in 17 (18%) HEU and 10 (12%) HU infants [aOR, 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44–4.55]. In stratified analysis restricted to breastfed infants, the aOR for hospitalization due to very severe infection or death was 4.2 (95% CI: 1.00–19.2; P = 0.05) for HEU infants. Hospitalization for diarrhea was more common in HEU than HU infants [8/94 (8.5%) vs. 1/82 (1.2%); P = 0.04]. Conclusion: The difference between HEU and HU infants in the probability of infectious cause hospitalization or death in the first 6 months of life was not significant. However, among breastfed infants, severe infectious morbidity occurred more often in HEU than HU infants. PMID:28081048

  18. Leukocyte telomere length in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected children: shorter telomeres with uncontrolled HIV viremia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène C F Côté

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs used in HIV antiretroviral therapy can inhibit human telomerase reverse transcriptase. We therefore investigated whether in utero or childhood exposure to NRTIs affects leukocyte telomere length (LTL, a marker of cellular aging. METHODS: In this cross-sectional CARMA cohort study, we investigated factors associated with LTL in HIV-1-infected (HIV(+ children (n = 94, HIV-1-exposed uninfected (HEU children who were exposed to antiretroviral therapy (ART perinatally (n = 177, and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HIV(- control children (n = 104 aged 0-19 years. Univariate followed by multivariate linear regression models were used to examine relationships of explanatory variables with LTL for: a all subjects, b HIV(+/HEU children only, and c HIV(+ children only. RESULTS: After adjusting for age and gender, there was no difference in LTL between the 3 groups, when considering children of all ages together. In multivariate models, older age and male gender were associated with shorter LTL. For the HIV(+ group alone, having a detectable HIV viral load was also strongly associated with shorter LTL (p = 0.007. CONCLUSIONS: In this large study, group rates of LTL attrition were similar for HIV(+, HEU and HIV(- children. No associations between children's LTL and their perinatal ART exposure or HIV status were seen in linear regression models. However, the association between having a detectable HIV viral load and shorter LTL suggests that uncontrolled HIV viremia rather than duration of ART exposure may be associated with acceleration of blood telomere attrition.

  19. Risk factors for acquisition and clearance of oral human papillomavirus infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachler, Daniel C; Sugar, Elizabeth A; Margolick, Joseph B; Weber, Kathleen M; Strickler, Howard D; Wiley, Dorothy J; Cranston, Ross D; Burk, Robert D; Minkoff, Howard; Reddy, Susheel; Xiao, Weihong; Guo, Yingshi; Gillison, Maura L; D'Souza, Gypsyamber

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes the majority of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States, yet the risk factors for and natural history of oral HPV infection are largely unknown. In 2010-2011, a US-based longitudinal cohort study of 761 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and 469 at-risk HIV-uninfected participants from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and the Women's Interagency HIV Study was initiated. Semiannually collected oral rinses were evaluated for 37 HPV genotypes using the Roche LINEAR ARRAY HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, California), and factors associated with oral HPV incidence and clearance were explored using adjusted Wei-Lin-Weissfeld modeling. Through 2013, the 2-year cumulative incidence of any type of oral HPV infection was 34% in HIV-infected persons and 19% in HIV-uninfected persons. However, many of these infections cleared. Seven percent of incident infections and 35% of prevalent infections persisted for at least 2 years. After adjustment for other risk factors, HIV infection (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.7, 3.2), reduced current CD4 cell count, and increased numbers of oral sex and "rimming" partners increased the risk of incident oral HPV infection, whereas male sex, older age, and current smoking increased the risk of oral HPV persistence (each P infection in previous cross-sectional studies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Comparison of the incidence of sibling cannibalism between male-killing Spiroplasma infected and uninfected clutches of a predatory ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakamura, K.; Miura, K.; Jong, de P.W.; Ueno, H.

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of sibling cannibalism in clutches of Harmonia axyridis infected by the male-killing Spiroplasma was compared with that in uninfected clutches, and the way in which fitness compensation was realized by sibling cannibalism was investigated. Primarily the rate of sibling cannibalism was

  1. Comparison of the therapeutic dose of warfarin in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients: a study of clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B S; Mokoena, T

    2017-01-01

    Background People infected with HIV are prone to venous thrombosis. Treatment of thrombosis is primarily with warfarin. No studies have addressed the effects of HIV infection on warfarin dose. The aims of this study were to determine whether the therapeutic dose of warfarin and induction time to therapeutic dose in HIV-infected patients differ from that in HIV-uninfected patients. Methods A prospective and retrospective descriptive study of induction time to therapeutic warfarin dose, as well as of ambulant therapeutic warfarin dose, was performed. HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients being treated after deep venous thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism were compared. Sex and use of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) were also compared in the groups. Results 234 patients were entered into the study. Induction time to therapeutic warfarin dose did not differ between the 2 groups. The mean therapeutic dose of warfarin was higher in the HIV-infected than the HIV-uninfected group: 6.06 vs 5.72 mg/day, but this was not statistically significant (p=0.29). There was no difference in therapeutic warfarin dose between ARV-naïve groups—HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected patients not on ARVs. Conclusions There appears to be little effect of HIV infection on warfarin dosing. Warfarin therapy should be administered conventionally in HIV-infected patients. PMID:28179414

  2. Comparison of the incidence of sibling cannibalism between male-killing Spiroplasma infected and uninfected clutches of a predatory ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakamura, K.; Miura, K.; Jong, de P.W.; Ueno, H.

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of sibling cannibalism in clutches of Harmonia axyridis infected by the male-killing Spiroplasma was compared with that in uninfected clutches, and the way in which fitness compensation was realized by sibling cannibalism was investigated. Primarily the rate of sibling cannibalism was

  3. EFFECT OF HIGHLY ACTIVE ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY ON VAGINAL Candida spp. ISOLATION IN HIV-INFECTED COMPARED TO HIV-UNINFECTED WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Souza Dantas ALCZUK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC in HIV-infected women contributed to the impairment of their quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART use on the vaginal Candida spp. isolation in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected women. This cross-sectional study included 178 HIV-infected (HIV group and 200 HIV-uninfected women (control that were studied at the Specialized Assistance Service (SAE for sexually transmitted diseases (STD/AIDS of the city of Maringá, Brazil, from April 1 to October 30, 2011. The yeasts were isolated and identified by phenotypic and molecular methods. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, nystatin and amphotericin B was tested by the reference microdilution method. Higher frequencies of total vaginal Candida spp. isolation were found in the HIV-infected group than in the control group. However, both groups showed a similar frequency of colonization and VVC. Although C. albicans was the most frequent and sensitive to azolics and polyenes in both HIV-infected and uninfected women, the emerging resistance of C. glabrata to amphotericin B in the HIV-infected women was observed. Although higher frequency of vaginal Candida spp. isolation had been observed in the HIV-infected than in HIV-uninfected women, colonization and VVC showed similar frequency in both groups, indicating that HAART appears to protect against vaginal colonization and VVC.

  4. Small CD4 Mimetics Prevent HIV-1 Uninfected Bystander CD4+ T Cell Killing Mediated by Antibody-dependent Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Richard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection causes a progressive depletion of CD4+ T cells. Despite its importance for HIV-1 pathogenesis, the precise mechanisms underlying CD4+ T-cell depletion remain incompletely understood. Here we make the surprising observation that antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC mediates the death of uninfected bystander CD4+ T cells in cultures of HIV-1-infected cells. While HIV-1-infected cells are protected from ADCC by the action of the viral Vpu and Nef proteins, uninfected bystander CD4+T cells bind gp120 shed from productively infected cells and are efficiently recognized by ADCC-mediating antibodies. Thus, gp120 shedding represents a viral mechanism to divert ADCC responses towards uninfected bystander CD4+ T cells. Importantly, CD4-mimetic molecules redirect ADCC responses from uninfected bystander cells to HIV-1-infected cells; therefore, CD4-mimetic compounds might have therapeutic utility in new strategies aimed at specifically eliminating HIV-1-infected cells.

  5. Thyroid preparation overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid preparations are medicines used to treat thyroid gland disorders. Overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. This can be by accident or ...

  6. Incidence of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in HIV-infected and uninfected patients with breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sithembile Ngidi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN can result in poor tolerance of chemotherapy, leading to dose reductions, delays in therapy schedules, morbidity and mortality. Actively identifying predisposing risk factors before treatment is of paramount importance. We hypothesised that chemotherapy is associated with a greater increase in CIN and its complications in HIV-infected patients than in those who are not infected. Objective. To establish the incidence of CIN in HIV-infected and uninfected patients undergoing chemotherapy. Methods. A retrospective chart review and analysis was conducted in the oncology departments at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital and Addington Hospital, Durban, South Africa. The study population consisted of 65 previously untreated women of all ages with stage II - IV breast cancer and known HIV status treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy from January 2012 to December 2015. Results. HIV-infected patients formed 32.3% of the group, and 95.2% of them were on antiretroviral therapy. The mean age (standard deviation (SD of the cohort was 48.5 (13.2 years (40.6 (9.6 years for the HIV-infected group v. 52.0 (13.1 years for the uninfected group; p<0.001. Ninety-five neutropenia episodes were observed (rate 0.85 per 1 year of follow-up time. Following multivariate adjustment, patients with HIV infection were almost two times more likely to develop CIN (hazard ratio (HR 1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.06 - 2.92; p=0.029. A high baseline absolute neutrophil count (ANC (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68 - 0.95; p=0.005 remained significantly associated with protection against CIN. Conclusions. HIV-infected patients were younger than those who were not infected, and presented at a more locally advanced stage of disease. HIV infection was an independent predictor for CIN. HIV-infected patients had an almost two-fold increased risk of developing CIN and developed neutropenia at a much faster rate. A high baseline white cell

  7. Immunodiagnostic identification of dairy cows infected with Prototheca zopfii at various clinical stages and discrimination between infected and uninfected cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, U; Scholz, H; Hensel, A

    2001-02-01

    Protothecosis is a severe form of mastitis in cattle that is caused by colorless algae of the genus Prototheca. So far, no suitable serological test for the identification of infected animals is available for routine diagnosis. In this study an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the identification of infected cows and for discriminating among infected cows at various clinical stages was developed. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum and IgA and IgG1 in whey were used as antibody isotypes. The ELISA was evaluated using serum and whey from animals at different clinical stages of infection. A total of 12 cows with acute clinical manifestation of protothecal mastitis, 22 cows with clinical signs of chronic mastitis, 40 Prototheca zopfii-negative cows, and 18 cows with chronic clinical signs and earlier cultures positive for P. zopfii but with presently negative culturing results were investigated. A sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 94% were calculated for the ELISA based on IgA levels. Intra-assay and interassay variations were calculated to be 6.08 and 6.32%, respectively. Based on these data, this ELISA was found to be suitable for discrimination between infected and uninfected animals and might therefore be useful for screening affected herds.

  8. [Association between intracellular zinc levels and nutritional status in HIV-infected and uninfected children exposed to the virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez G, Erika María; Maldonado C, María Elena; Rojas L, Mauricio; Posada J, Gladys

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition, growth retardation and opportunistic infections outlast the metabolic, immune and gastrointestinal disorders produced by HIV. Zinc deficiency has been associated with deteriorating nutritional status, growth failure, and risk of infection. The aim of this study is to determine the association between zinc levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the nutritional status of HIV-infected and uninfected children exposed to the virus. An analytical, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted on 17 infected and 17 exposed children, aged 2-10 years. Anthropometric measurements, clinical and nutritional history, 24h recall, measurement of physical activity, and zinc in PBMC by flow cytometry analysis were recorded. Height according to age, energy consumption and adequacy of energy, protein and dietary zinc were significantly higher in children exposed to the virus compared to those infected with HIV (P .05). However, the median levels of zinc in monocytes of infected patients was higher (218.6) compared to the control group (217.0). No association was found between zinc intake and levels of intracellular zinc. The deterioration of nutritional status and growth retardation in children were associated with HIV, but not with the levels of intracellular zinc. The dietary intake of this nutrient was not associated with levels of zinc in monocytes or CD4 + and CD4- lymphocytes. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  9. Reduced CD4 T cell activation and in vitro susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in exposed uninfected Central Africans

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    Fontanet Arnaud

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmentally driven immune activation was suggested to contribute to high rates of HIV-1 infection in Africa. We report here a study of immune activation markers and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in vitro of forty-five highly exposed uninfected partners (EUs of HIV-1 infected individuals in Central African Republic, in comparison with forty-four low-risk blood donors (UCs. Results Analysis of T lymphocyte subsets and activation markers in whole blood showed that the absolute values and the percentage of HLA-DR+CD4 T cells and of CCR5+CD4 T cells were lower in the EUs than in the UCs (p = 0.0001. Mutations in the CCR5 coding region were not found in either group. Susceptibility to in vitro infection of unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, prior of PHA activation, was decreased in EUs compared to UCs, either using a CXCR4-tropic or a CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strain (p = 0.02 and p = 0.05, respectively. Levels of MIP-1β, but not of MIP-1α or RANTES, in the supernatants of PHA-activated PBMC, were higher in the EUs than in the UCs (p = 0.007. Conclusion We found low levels of CD4 T cell activation and reduced PBMC susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in Central African EUs, indicating that both may contribute to the resistance to HIV-1 infection.

  10. The association of perceived stress and verbal memory is greater in HIV-infected versus HIV-uninfected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leah H; Cook, Judith A; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Martin, Eileen; Valcour, Victor; Milam, Joel; Anastos, Kathryn; Young, Mary A; Alden, Christine; Gustafson, Deborah R; Maki, Pauline M

    2015-08-01

    In contrast to findings from cohorts comprised primarily of HIV-infected men, verbal memory deficits are the largest cognitive deficit found in HIV-infected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), and this deficit is not explained by depressive symptoms or substance abuse. HIV-infected women may be at greater risk for verbal memory deficits due to a higher prevalence of cognitive risk factors such as high psychosocial stress and lower socioeconomic status. Here, we investigate the association between perceived stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and verbal memory performance using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) in 1009 HIV-infected and 496 at-risk HIV-uninfected WIHS participants. Participants completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery which yielded seven cognitive domain scores, including a primary outcome of verbal memory. HIV infection was not associated with a higher prevalence of high perceived stress (i.e., PSS-10 score in the top tertile) but was associated with worse performance on verbal learning (p memory (p stress was associated with poorer performance in those cognitive domains (p's stress interaction was found only for the verbal memory domain (p = 0.02); among HIV-infected women only, high stress was associated with lower performance (p's memory measure in particular. These findings suggest that high levels of perceived stress contribute to the deficits in verbal memory observed in WIHS women.

  11. Neuroethics beyond Normal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, John R; Giordano, James

    2016-01-01

    An integrated and principled neuroethics offers ethical guidelines able to transcend conventional and medical reliance on normality standards. Elsewhere we have proposed four principles for wise guidance on human transformations. Principles like these are already urgently needed, as bio- and cyberenhancements are rapidly emerging. Context matters. Neither "treatments" nor "enhancements" are objectively identifiable apart from performance expectations, social contexts, and civic orders. Lessons learned from disability studies about enablement and inclusion suggest a fresh way to categorize modifications to the body and its performance. The term "enhancement" should be broken apart to permit recognition of enablements and augmentations, and kinds of radical augmentation for specialized performance. Augmentations affecting the self, self-worth, and self-identity of persons require heightened ethical scrutiny. Reversibility becomes the core problem, not the easy answer, as augmented persons may not cooperate with either decommissioning or displacement into unaccommodating societies. We conclude by indicating how our four principles of self-creativity, nonobsolescence, empowerment, and citizenship establish a neuroethics beyond normal that is better prepared for a future in which humans and their societies are going so far beyond normal.

  12. Rare occurrence of occult hepatitis C virus in apparently uninfected injecting drug users: a two-centre, masked, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, P B; Pham, T N Q; Ratnarajah, S; Cameron, B; Bull, R; White, P A; Michalak, T I; Lloyd, A R

    2013-10-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a phenomenon where serum HCV RNA is not detected by sensitive commercial assays, but viral RNA is detected by ultrasensitive techniques. Occult HCV infection has not previously been studied in highly exposed, but apparently uninfected (EU) individuals. Two studies examining occult infection in EU subjects were undertaken - an initial two-centre, masked, case-control study based on cross-sectional samples (n = 35 subjects) and a single-centre confirmatory study based on longitudinal samples (n = 32 subjects). Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were tested for HCV RNA using an ultrasensitive nested polymerase chain reaction assays. Two EU subjects in the first study (10%) and one in the second study (3%) were found to have consistently detectable HCV RNA. Occult HCV infection occurs in high-risk, apparently uninfected subjects.

  13. Seroincidence of Influenza Among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Men During the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Shikha; Olsen, Sonja J; Fernandez, Stefan; Muangchana, Charung; Rungrojcharoenkit, Kamonthip; Prapasiri, Prabda; Katz, Jacqueline M; Curlin, Marcel E; Gibbons, Robert V; Holtz, Timothy H; Chitwarakorn, Anupong; Dawood, Fatimah S

    2014-12-01

    Among 368 Thai men who have sex with men with paired serum samples collected before and during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, we determined influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 seroconversion rates (≥4-fold rise in antibody titers by hemagglutination inhibition or microneutralization assays). Overall, 66 of 232 (28%) participants seroconverted after the first year of A(H1N1)pdm09 activity, and 83 of 234 (35%) participants seroconverted after the second year. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 seroconversion did not differ between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (55 of 2157 [35%]) and HIV-uninfected (71 of 2211 [34%]) participants (P = .78). Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 seroconversion occurred in approximately one third of our Thai study population and was similar among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants.

  14. Evaluating Safer Conception Options for HIV-Serodiscordant Couples (HIV-Infected Female/HIV-Uninfected Male: A Closer Look at Vaginal Insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeoma Mmeje

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV serodiscordant couples represent at least half of all HIV-affected couples worldwide. Many of these couples have childbearing desires. Safer methods of conception may allow for pregnancy while minimizing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV. In serodiscordant partnerships with an HIV-infected female and HIV-uninfected male, vaginal insemination of a partner's semen during the fertile period coupled with 100% condom use may be the safest method of conception.

  15. Chlorophyllin Bait Formulation and Exposure to Different Spectrum of Visible Light on the Reproduction of Infected/Uninfected Snail Lymnaea acuminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a waterborne disease, caused by Fasciola species. Snail Lymnaea acuminata is an intermediate host of these flukes. Control of snail population is major tool in reducing the incidences. Variation in light intensity and wavelength caused significant changes in reproduction pattern of snails. Maximum fecundity was noted with bait containing carbohydrate (starch, 468 ± 0.10/20 snails or amino acid (serine, 319 ± 0.29/20 snails as attractant. Sublethal feeding of chlorophyllin bait with starch or serine attractant to infected and uninfected snails caused significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability, and survivability. These significant changes are observed in snails exposed to different spectral band of visible light and sunlight. Maximum fecundity of 536 ± 2.0 and minimum of 89.3 ± 0.4 were noted in snails not fed with bait and exposed to sunlight and red spectral band, respectively. There was complete arrest in the fecundity of infected and uninfected snails and no survivability of uninfected snails after 48 h feeding with bait containing chlorophyllin + attractant. Minimum hatchability (9.25 ± 0.5 was noted in red light exposed, chlorophyllin + starch fed infected snails and hatching period of bait fed snails was prolonged. Conclusively, chlorophyllin bait and red light reduce reproduction capacity in snails.

  16. Chlorophyllin Bait Formulation and Exposure to Different Spectrum of Visible Light on the Reproduction of Infected/Uninfected Snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Navneet; Singh, D K; Singh, Vinay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a waterborne disease, caused by Fasciola species. Snail Lymnaea acuminata is an intermediate host of these flukes. Control of snail population is major tool in reducing the incidences. Variation in light intensity and wavelength caused significant changes in reproduction pattern of snails. Maximum fecundity was noted with bait containing carbohydrate (starch, 468 ± 0.10/20 snails) or amino acid (serine, 319 ± 0.29/20 snails) as attractant. Sublethal feeding of chlorophyllin bait with starch or serine attractant to infected and uninfected snails caused significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability, and survivability. These significant changes are observed in snails exposed to different spectral band of visible light and sunlight. Maximum fecundity of 536 ± 2.0 and minimum of 89.3 ± 0.4 were noted in snails not fed with bait and exposed to sunlight and red spectral band, respectively. There was complete arrest in the fecundity of infected and uninfected snails and no survivability of uninfected snails after 48 h feeding with bait containing chlorophyllin + attractant. Minimum hatchability (9.25 ± 0.5) was noted in red light exposed, chlorophyllin + starch fed infected snails and hatching period of bait fed snails was prolonged. Conclusively, chlorophyllin bait and red light reduce reproduction capacity in snails.

  17. Chlorophyllin Bait Formulation and Exposure to Different Spectrum of Visible Light on the Reproduction of Infected/Uninfected Snail Lymnaea acuminata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Navneet; Singh, D. K.; Singh, Vinay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a waterborne disease, caused by Fasciola species. Snail Lymnaea acuminata is an intermediate host of these flukes. Control of snail population is major tool in reducing the incidences. Variation in light intensity and wavelength caused significant changes in reproduction pattern of snails. Maximum fecundity was noted with bait containing carbohydrate (starch, 468 ± 0.10/20 snails) or amino acid (serine, 319 ± 0.29/20 snails) as attractant. Sublethal feeding of chlorophyllin bait with starch or serine attractant to infected and uninfected snails caused significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability, and survivability. These significant changes are observed in snails exposed to different spectral band of visible light and sunlight. Maximum fecundity of 536 ± 2.0 and minimum of 89.3 ± 0.4 were noted in snails not fed with bait and exposed to sunlight and red spectral band, respectively. There was complete arrest in the fecundity of infected and uninfected snails and no survivability of uninfected snails after 48 h feeding with bait containing chlorophyllin + attractant. Minimum hatchability (9.25 ± 0.5) was noted in red light exposed, chlorophyllin + starch fed infected snails and hatching period of bait fed snails was prolonged. Conclusively, chlorophyllin bait and red light reduce reproduction capacity in snails. PMID:26925296

  18. Hearing Loss in Perinatally Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Human Immunodeficiency Virus -Exposed but Uninfected Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Peter; Zeldow, Bret; Hoffman, Howard J.; Buchanan, Ashley; Siberry, George K.; Rice, Mabel; Sirois, Patricia A.; Williams, Paige L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about hearing loss in children with HIV infection (HIV+). We examined the prevalence of hearing loss in perinatally HIV+ and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children, compared these to the percentage with hearing loss in the general population, and evaluated possible risk factors for hearing loss in HIV+ and HEU children. Methods Audiometric examinations were completed in children who met any pre-specified criteria for possible hearing loss. The hearing examination consisted of a tympanogram in each ear and pure-tone air-conduction threshold testing from 500 through 4000 Hz. Hearing loss was defined as the pure-tone average over these frequencies ≥20 dB hearing level (HL). The associations of demographic, parent/caregiver, HIV disease, and HIV treatment with hearing loss were evaluated with univariate and multivariable logistic regression models. Results Hearing testing was completed in 231 children (145 HIV+ and 86 HEU). Hearing loss occurred in 20.0% of HIV+ children and 10.5% of HEU children. After adjusting for caregiver education level, HIV infection was associated with increased odds of hearing loss [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=2.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95–4.76, p=0.07]. Among HIV+ children, those with a CDC Class C diagnosis had over twice the odds of hearing loss (aOR=2.47, 95% CI: 1.04–5.87, p=0.04). The prevalence of hearing loss was higher in both HIV+ and HEU children compared with NHANES III children. Conclusions Hearing loss was more common in both HIV+ and HEU children than in healthy children. More advanced HIV illness increased the risk of hearing loss in HIV+ children. PMID:22549437

  19. Neurologic Outcomes in HIV-Exposed/Uninfected Infants Exposed to Antiretroviral Drugs During Pregnancy in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Alicen B; Yu, Qilu; Civitello, Lucy; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M; Pinto, Jorge; Gomes, Ivete M; Alarcón, Jorge O; Siberry, George K; Harris, D Robert; Hazra, Rohan

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate antiretroviral (ARV) drug exposure and other factors during pregnancy that may increase the risk of neurologic conditions (NCs) in HIV-exposed/uninfected (HEU) infants. A prospective cohort study was conducted at 24 clinical sites in Latin America and the Caribbean. Data on maternal demographics, health, HIV disease status, and ARV use during pregnancy were collected. Infant data included measurement of head circumference after birth and reported medical diagnoses at birth, 6-12 weeks, and 6 months. Only infants with maternal exposure to combination ARV therapy (cART) (≥3 drugs from ≥2 drug classes) during pregnancy were included. Microcephaly, defined as head circumference for age z-score less than -2, and NC were evaluated for their association with covariates, including individual ARVs, using bivariable and logistic regression analyses. From 2002 to 2009, 1,400 HEU infants met study inclusion criteria. At least one NC was reported in 134 (9.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.1-11.2), microcephaly in 105 (7.5%; 95% CI: 6.2-9.0), and specific neurologic diagnoses in 33 (2.4%; 95% CI: 1.6-3.3) HEU infants. Microcephaly and NC were not significantly associated with any specific ARV analyzed (p > 0.05). Covariates associated with increased odds of NC included male sex (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.8), birth weight <2.5 kg (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 2.1-4.8), 1-min Apgar score <7 (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.4-4.4), and infant infections (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.5-4.1). No ARV investigated was associated with adverse neurologic outcomes. Continued investigation of such associations may be warranted as new ARVs are used during pregnancy and cART exposure during the first trimester becomes increasingly common.

  20. Clinical Correlates and Drug Resistance in HIV-Infected and -Uninfected Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara, Chandy; Elsa, Heylen; Baijayanti, Mishra; Lennartsdotter, Ekstrand Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine demographics, clinical correlates, sputum AFB (acid fast bacilli) smear grading DOTS (Directly Observed Therapy Short Course) uptake, and drug resistance in a cohort of newly-diagnosed, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients with respect to HIV status at baseline, and compare smear conversion rates, side effects and mortality after two months. Design A prospective study among 54 HIV positive and 41 HIV negative pulmonary TB patients. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews, review of medical records, and lab tests. Results HIVTB co-infected patients, though more symptomatic at baseline, showed more improvement in their symptoms compared to HIV-uninfected TB patients at follow-up. The HIV co-infected group had more prevalent perceived side effects, and sputum smear positivity was marginally higher compared to the HIV negative group at follow-up. Mortality was higher among the HIV-infected group. Both groups had high rates of resistance to first-line anti-tubercular drugs, particularly isoniazid. There was no significant difference in the drug resistance patterns between the groups. Conclusions Prompt initiation and provision of daily regimens of ATT (Anti-Tubercular treatment) along with ART (Anti-Retroviral treatment) via ART centers is urgently needed in India. As resistance to ART and/or ATT is directly linked to medication non-adherence, the use of counseling, regular reinforcement, early detection and appropriate intervention strategies to tackle this complex issue could help prevent premature mortality and development of resistance in HIV-TB co-infected patients. The high rate of isoniazid resistance might preclude its use in India as prophylaxis for latent TB in HIV infected persons as per the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline. PMID:27708985

  1. Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Use Is Associated With Elevated Innate Immune Effector Molecules in Cervicovaginal Secretions of HIV-1-Uninfected Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Brandon L; Introini, Andrea; Roxby, Alison C; Choi, Robert Y; Bosire, Rose; Lohman-Payne, Barbara; Hirbod, Taha; Farquhar, Carey; Broliden, Kristina

    2015-05-01

    The effects of sex hormones on the immune defenses of the female genital mucosa and its susceptibility to infections are poorly understood. The injectable hormonal contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) may increase the risk for HIV-1 acquisition. We assessed the local concentration in the female genital mucosa of cationic polypeptides with reported antiviral activity in relation to DMPA use. HIV-1-uninfected women were recruited from among couples testing for HIV in Nairobi, Kenya. Cervicovaginal secretion samples were collected, and the concentrations of HNP1-3, LL-37, lactoferrin, HBD-2, and SLPI were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Levels of cationic polypeptides in cervicovaginal secretions were compared between women who were not using hormonal contraception and those using DMPA, oral, or implantable contraception. Among 228 women, 165 (72%) reported not using hormonal contraception at enrollment, 41 (18%) used DMPA, 16 (7%) used an oral contraceptive, and 6 (3%) used a contraceptive implant. Compared with nonusers of hormonal contraception, DMPA users had significantly higher mean levels of HNP1-3 (2.38 vs. 2.04 log₁₀ ng/mL; P = 0.024), LL-37 (0.81 vs. 0.40 log10 ng/mL; P = 0.027), and lactoferrin (3.03 vs. 2.60 log₁₀ ng/mL; P = 0.002), whereas SLPI and HBD-2 were similar. Although all analyzed cationic polypeptides have intrinsic antiviral capacity, their interaction and cumulative effect on female genital mucosa susceptibility to infections in vivo has yet to be unraveled. This study suggests a potential mechanism underlying the effect of DMPA on the innate immune defenses, providing a rationale to investigate its effect on HIV-1 acquisition risk.

  2. HIV-exposed uninfected infants in Zimbabwe: insights into health outcomes in the pre-antiretroviral therapy era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceri eEvans

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ZVITAMBO trial recruited 14110 mother-infant pairs to a randomised controlled trial of vitamin A between 1997-2000, before the availability of antiretroviral therapy for HIV prophylaxis or treatment in Zimbabwe. The HIV status of mothers and infants was well characterised through 1-2 years of follow-up, leading to the largest cohort to date of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU infants (n=3135, with a suitable comparison group of HIV-unexposed infants (n=9510. Here, we draw on 10 years of published findings from the ZVITAMBO trial. HEU infants had increased morbidity compared to HIV-unexposed infants, with 50% more hospitalisations in the neonatal period and 30% more sick clinic visits during infancy, particularly for skin infections, lower respiratory tract infections and oral thrush. HEU children had 3.9-fold and 2.0-fold higher mortality than HIV-unexposed children during the first and second years of life, respectively, most commonly due to acute respiratory infections, diarrhoea/dysentery, malnutrition, sepsis and meningitis. Infant morbidity and mortality was strongly related to maternal HIV disease severity, with a risk that remained until maternal CD4 counts were >800 cells/uL. HEU infants were more likely to be premature and small-for-gestational age than HIV-unexposed infants, and had more postnatal growth failure. Here, we propose a conceptual framework to explain the increased risk of infectious morbidity, mortality and growth failure among HEU infants, hypothesizing that immune activation and inflammation are key drivers of both infection susceptibility and growth failure. Future studies should further dissect the causes of infection susceptibility and growth failure, and determine the impact of ART and co-trimoxazole on outcomes of this vulnerable group of infants in the current era.

  3. 在室温和常压下用机械合金化方法制备Fe5C2金属间化合物%Preparing Fe5C2 Intermetallic Compound by Mechanical Alloying Method at Room Temperature and Normal Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何正明; 钟敏建; 沈伟星; 张正明

    2003-01-01

    Single phase Fe5C2 intermetallic compound was prepared by mechanical alloying method. The phase and crystal structure of sample were analyzed with X-ray differaction spectrum. The decomposing temperature of the Fe5C2 compound is 596.4℃ determined by the DSC curve. It is further shown that the size of nanometer crystal grain is an important condition for carrying out the solid state reaction at room temperature and normal pressure.

  4. Selected hematologic and biochemical measurements in African HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women and their infants: the HIV Prevention Trials Network 024 protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urassa Willy

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reference values for hematological and biochemical assays in pregnant women and in newborn infants are based primarily on Caucasian populations. Normative data are limited for populations in sub-Saharan Africa, especially comparing women with and without HIV infection, and comparing infants with and without HIV infection or HIV exposure. Methods We determined HIV status and selected hematological and biochemical measurements in women at 20–24 weeks and at 36 weeks gestation, and in infants at birth and 4–6 weeks of age. All were recruited within a randomized clinical trial of antibiotics to prevent chorioamnionitis-associated mother-to-child transmission of HIV (HPTN024. We report nearly complete laboratory data on 2,292 HIV-infected and 367 HIV-uninfected pregnant African women who were representative of the public clinics from which the women were recruited. Nearly all the HIV-infected mothers received nevirapine prophylaxis at the time of labor, as did their infants after birth (always within 72 hours of birth, but typically within just a few hours at the four study sites in Malawi (2 sites, Tanzania, and Zambia. Results HIV-infected pregnant women had lower red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood cell counts than HIV-uninfected women. Platelet and monocyte counts were higher among HIV-infected women at both time points. At the 4–6-week visit, HIV-infected infants had lower hemoglobin, hematocrit and white blood cell counts than uninfected infants. Platelet counts were lower in HIV-infected infants than HIV-uninfected infants, both at birth and at 4–6 weeks of age. At 4–6 weeks, HIV-infected infants had higher alanine aminotransferase measures than uninfected infants. Conclusion Normative data in pregnant African women and their newborn infants are needed to guide the large-scale HIV care and treatment programs being scaled up throughout the continent. These laboratory measures will help

  5. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain ... About Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal ...

  6. Disclosing in utero HIV/ARV exposure to the HIV-exposed uninfected adolescent: is it necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Jao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The tremendous success of antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a diminishing population of perinatally HIV-infected children on the one hand and a mounting number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU children on the other. As the oldest of these HEU children are reaching adolescence, questions have emerged surrounding the implications of HEU status disclosure to these adolescents. This article outlines the arguments for and against disclosure of a child's HEU status. Discussion: Disclosure of a child's HEU status, by definition, requires disclosure of maternal HIV status. It is necessary to weigh the benefits and harms which could occur with disclosure in each of the following domains: psychosocial impact, long-term physical health of the HEU individual and the public health impact. Does disclosure improve or worsen the psychological health of the HEU individual and extended family unit? Do present data on the long-term safety of in utero HIV/ARV exposure reveal potential health risks which merit disclosure to the HEU adolescent? What research and public health programmes or systems need to be in place to afford monitoring of HEU individuals and which, if any, of these require disclosure? Conclusions: At present, it is not clear that there is sufficient evidence on whether long-term adverse effects are associated with in utero HIV/ARV exposures, making it difficult to mandate universal disclosure. However, as more countries adopt electronic medical record systems, the HEU status of an individual should be an important piece of the health record which follows the infant not only through childhood and adolescence but also adulthood. Clinicians and researchers should continue to approach the dialogue around mother–child disclosure with sensitivity and a cogent consideration of the evolving risks and benefits as new information becomes available while also working to maintain documentation of an individual's perinatal HIV/ARV exposures

  7. Association of Fcγ receptor IIB polymorphism with cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-uninfected Chinese patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Ping Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As important regulators of the immune system, the human Fcγ receptors (FcγRs have been demonstrated to play important roles in the pathogenesis of various infectious diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify the association between FCGR polymorphisms and cryptococcal meningitis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this case control genetic association study, we genotyped four functional polymorphisms in low-affinity FcγRs, including FCGR2A 131H/R, FCGR3A 158F/V, FCGR3B NA1/NA2, and FCGR2B 232I/T, in 117 patients with cryptococcal meningitis and 190 healthy controls by multiplex SNaPshot technology. Among the 117 patients with cryptococcal meningitis, 59 had predisposing factors. In patients with cryptococcal meningitis, the FCGR2B 232I/I genotype was over-presented (OR = 1.652, 95% CI [1.02-2.67]; P = 0.039 and the FCGR2B 232I/T genotype was under-presented (OR = 0.542, 95% CI [0.33-0.90]; P = 0.016 in comparison with control group. In cryptococcal meningitis patients without predisposing factors, FCGR2B 232I/I genotype was also more frequently detected (OR = 1.958, 95% CI [1.05-3.66]; P = 0.033, and the FCGR2B 232I/T genotype was also less frequently detected (OR = 0.467, 95% CI [0.24-0.91]; P = 0.023 than in controls. No significant difference was found among FCGR2A 131H/R, FCGR3A 158F/V, and FCGR3B NA1/NA2 genotype frequencies between patients and controls. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We found for the first time associations between cryptococcal meningitis and FCGR2B 232I/T genotypes, which suggested that FcγRIIB might play an important role in the central nervous system infection by Cryptococcus in HIV-uninfected individuals.

  8. Disclosing in utero HIV/ARV exposure to the HIV-exposed uninfected adolescent: is it necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Jennifer; Hazra, Rohan; Mellins, Claude A; Remien, Robert H; Abrams, Elaine J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The tremendous success of antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a diminishing population of perinatally HIV-infected children on the one hand and a mounting number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children on the other. As the oldest of these HEU children are reaching adolescence, questions have emerged surrounding the implications of HEU status disclosure to these adolescents. This article outlines the arguments for and against disclosure of a child's HEU status. Discussion Disclosure of a child's HEU status, by definition, requires disclosure of maternal HIV status. It is necessary to weigh the benefits and harms which could occur with disclosure in each of the following domains: psychosocial impact, long-term physical health of the HEU individual and the public health impact. Does disclosure improve or worsen the psychological health of the HEU individual and extended family unit? Do present data on the long-term safety of in utero HIV/ARV exposure reveal potential health risks which merit disclosure to the HEU adolescent? What research and public health programmes or systems need to be in place to afford monitoring of HEU individuals and which, if any, of these require disclosure? Conclusions At present, it is not clear that there is sufficient evidence on whether long-term adverse effects are associated with in utero HIV/ARV exposures, making it difficult to mandate universal disclosure. However, as more countries adopt electronic medical record systems, the HEU status of an individual should be an important piece of the health record which follows the infant not only through childhood and adolescence but also adulthood. Clinicians and researchers should continue to approach the dialogue around mother–child disclosure with sensitivity and a cogent consideration of the evolving risks and benefits as new information becomes available while also working to maintain documentation of an individual's perinatal HIV/ARV exposures as a vital part of his

  9. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  10. The effect of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis on natural development of antibody-mediated immunity against P. falciparum malaria infection in HIV-exposed uninfected Malawian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longwe, Herbert; Jambo, Kondwani C; Phiri, Kamija S; Mbeye, Nyanyiwe; Gondwe, Thandile; Hall, Tom; Tetteh, Kevin K A; Drakeley, Chris; Mandala, Wilson L

    2015-01-01

    Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, currently recommended in HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) children as protection against opportunistic infections, also has some anti-malarial efficacy. We determined whether daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis affects the natural development of antibody-mediated immunity to blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we measured antibodies to 8 Plasmodium falciparum antigens (AMA-1, MSP-119, MSP-3, PfSE, EBA-175RII, GLURP R0, GLURP R2 and CSP) in serum samples from 33 HEU children and 31 HIV-unexposed, uninfected (HUU) children, collected at 6, 12 and 18 months of age. Compared to HIV-uninfected children, HEU children had significantly lower levels of specific IgG against AMA-1 at 6 months (p = 0.001), MSP-119 at 12 months (p = 0.041) and PfSE at 6 months (p = 0.038), 12 months (p = 0.0012) and 18 months (p = 0.0097). No differences in the IgG antibody responses against the rest of the antigens were observed between the two groups at all time points. The breadth of specificity of IgG response was reduced in HEU children compared to HUU children during the follow up period. Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis seems to reduce IgG antibody responses to P. falciparum blood stage antigens, which could be as a result of a reduction in exposure of those children under this regime. Although antibody responses were regarded as markers of exposure in this study, further studies are required to establish whether these responses are correlated in any way to clinical immunity to malaria.

  11. The effect of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis on natural development of antibody-mediated immunity against P. falciparum malaria infection in HIV-exposed uninfected Malawian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Longwe

    Full Text Available Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, currently recommended in HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU children as protection against opportunistic infections, also has some anti-malarial efficacy. We determined whether daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis affects the natural development of antibody-mediated immunity to blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection.Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we measured antibodies to 8 Plasmodium falciparum antigens (AMA-1, MSP-119, MSP-3, PfSE, EBA-175RII, GLURP R0, GLURP R2 and CSP in serum samples from 33 HEU children and 31 HIV-unexposed, uninfected (HUU children, collected at 6, 12 and 18 months of age.Compared to HIV-uninfected children, HEU children had significantly lower levels of specific IgG against AMA-1 at 6 months (p = 0.001, MSP-119 at 12 months (p = 0.041 and PfSE at 6 months (p = 0.038, 12 months (p = 0.0012 and 18 months (p = 0.0097. No differences in the IgG antibody responses against the rest of the antigens were observed between the two groups at all time points. The breadth of specificity of IgG response was reduced in HEU children compared to HUU children during the follow up period.Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis seems to reduce IgG antibody responses to P. falciparum blood stage antigens, which could be as a result of a reduction in exposure of those children under this regime. Although antibody responses were regarded as markers of exposure in this study, further studies are required to establish whether these responses are correlated in any way to clinical immunity to malaria.

  12. Absolute leukocyte telomere length in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals: evidence of accelerated cell senescence in HIV-associated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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    Joseph C Y Liu

    Full Text Available Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART has extended the longevity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected individuals. However, this has resulted in greater awareness of age-associated diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Accelerated cellular senescence may be responsible, but its magnitude as measured by leukocyte telomere length is unknown and its relationship to HIV-associated COPD has not yet been established. We measured absolute telomere length (aTL in peripheral leukocytes from 231 HIV-infected adults. Comparisons were made to 691 HIV-uninfected individuals from a population-based sample. Subject quartiles of aTL were assessed for relationships with measures of HIV disease severity, airflow obstruction, and emphysema severity on computed tomographic (CT imaging. Multivariable regression models identified factors associated with shortened aTL. Compared to HIV-uninfected subjects, the mean aTL in HIV-infected patients was markedly shorter by 27 kbp/genome (p<0.001; however, the slopes of aTL vs. age were not different (p=0.469. Patients with longer known durations of HIV infection (p=0.019 and lower nadir CD4 cell counts (p=0.023 had shorter aTL. Shorter aTL were also associated with older age (p=0.026, smoking (p=0.005, reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (p=0.030, and worse CT emphysema severity score (p=0.049. HIV-infected subjects demonstrate advanced cellular aging, yet in a cART-treated cohort, the relationship between aTL and age appears no different from that of HIV-uninfected subjects.

  13. Fusarium infection in maize: volatile induction of infected and neighboring uninfected plants has the potential to attract a pest cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piesik, Dariusz; Lemńczyk, Grzegorz; Skoczek, Agata; Lamparski, Robert; Bocianowski, Jan; Kotwica, Karol; Delaney, Kevin J

    2011-09-01

    Fusarium infection of maize leaves and/or roots through the soil can stimulate the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It is also well known that VOC emission from maize plants can repel or attract pests. In our experiments, we studied VOC induction responses of Zea mays L. ssp. mays cv. 'Prosna' having Fusarium infection (mix of four species) in leaves or roots, then tested for VOC induction of uninfected neighboring plants, and finally examined wind-tunnel behavioral responses of the adult cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus L. (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera) behavior to four induced VOCs. In the first part of our experiment, we confirmed that several green leaf volatiles (GLVs; (Z)-3-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate, 1-hexyl acetate), terpenes (β-pinene, β-myrcene, Z-ocimene, linalool, β-caryophyllene), and shikimic acid pathway derivatives (benzyl acetate, methyl salicylate, indole) were positively induced from maize plants infected by Fusarium spp. The quantities of induced VOCs were higher at 7d than 3d post-infection and greater when plants were infected with Fusarium on leaves rather than through soil. In the second part of our experiment, uninfected maize plants also showed significantly positive induction of several VOCs when neighboring an infected plant where the degree of induction was negatively related to the distance from the infected plant. In the third part of our experiment, a Y-tube bioassay was used to evaluate upwind orientation of adult cereal leaf beetles to four individual VOCs. Female and male O. melanopus were significantly attracted to the GLVs (Z)-3-hexenal and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and the terpenes linalool and β-caryophyllene. Our results indicate that a pathogen can induce several VOCs in maize plants that also induce VOCs in neighboring uninfected plants, though VOC induction could increase the range at which an insect pest species is attracted to VOC inducing plants.

  14. Prevalence of anal human papillomavirus infection and cytologic abnormalities among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Latini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV is responsible for 85% of anal cancers. Recently, anal cancer incidence has been increasing, particularly in men who have sex with men (MSM. Cytology may be a useful tool for the detection of anal precancerous lesions. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of anal HPV infection and cytologic abnormalities among HIV-infected and -uninfected MSM. Materials and Methods: MSM ≥18-year-old attending an STI clinic in Rome (Italy were enrolled. Anal cytologic samples were collected in PreservCyt (Hologic using a Dacron swab. The Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Diagnostics was used for the detection and genotyping of 37 mucosal HPV types. Liquid-based cytological slides were obtained using a ThinPrep2000 processor (Hologic. The morphology of the anal pap-test was classified following the Bethesda 2001 guidelines. Results: We enrolled 180 HIV-infected (median age 41 years, IQR 33–47 and 438 HIV-uninfected MSM (median age 32 years, IQR: 27–39. Most of the individuals were Caucasian (92.2% and 97.0%, respectively. HPV prevalence, both overall (93.3% vs 72.4%, p<.001 and by high-risk (HR HPV types (80.5% vs 56.0%, p<.001, was significantly higher among HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected individuals. HPV-multiple infections were evidenced in 48.2% of the HIV-uninfected and 76.1% of the HIV-infected MSM (p<.001. HPV16 was the most prevalent genotype in both groups (23.3% in HIV-positive and 17.6% in HIV-negative MSM. HPV6 and 84 were the most frequent low-risk types in both cohorts. Anal cytologic abnormalities were found in a significantly higher proportion of HIV-infected MSM (46.1% vs 27.9%, p<.001. H-SILs (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were exclusively observed among the HIV-infected individuals, although at a low prevalence (1.2%. Conclusions: A high prevalence of anal HPV infection and cytologic abnormalities was evidenced in both populations. Nonetheless, HIV-infected MSM showed a

  15. Testing for normality

    CERN Document Server

    Thode, Henry C

    2002-01-01

    Describes the selection, design, theory, and application of tests for normality. Covers robust estimation, test power, and univariate and multivariate normality. Contains tests ofr multivariate normality and coordinate-dependent and invariant approaches.

  16. 常温下用直接沉淀法制备纳米硫化铜%Preparation of copper sulfide nanoparticles by direct precipitation method at normal temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟力; 王桂清

    2012-01-01

    在常温下以硫酸铜( CuSO4·5H 2O)为铜源,硫化钠(Na2S ·9H2O)为硫源,六偏磷酸钠(NaPO3)6为稳定剂,辛基酚聚氧乙烯醚(OP-10)为表面活性剂,采用沉淀法成功合成了硫化铜纳米晶体;利用X射线粉末衍射仪和高分辨透射电镜分析了产物的晶体结构和形貌,考察了反应体系的pH、温度、反应物浓度、稳定剂用量等对产物组成和结构的影响.此外,利用紫外-可见光谱仪、荧光光谱仪及傅立叶转换红外光谱仪分析了产物的光学性质.结果表明,产物为纯六方相的硫化铜;其颗粒呈不规则球型、椭球型、棒状,平均粒径约为37 nm.产物在200~230 nm波长范围内对紫外光有较强的吸收;用383 nm的光激发,分别在440 nm和486 nm出现两个荧光发射峰,与常规硫化铜相比发生明显的蓝移.此外,产物具有良好的红外光透过率;反应体系的pH对产物的带隙能E(g)和光致发光强度有明显的影响.%Copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticles were prepared by direct precipitation method at 25 ℃ using CuSO4 as Cu-precursor, Na2S as S-source, sodium hexametaphosphate (NaPO3)6 as stabilizing agent, and polyoxyethylene octylphenol ether (OP-10) as surfactant. The crystalline structure and morphology of as-prepared product were analyzed by means of powder X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and the effects of pH and temperature of reaction system, reactant concentration, and dosage of stabilizer on the phase structure and morphology of the product were investigated. Moreover, the spectrometric properties of the product were evaluated using an ultraviolet-visible light spectrometer. It has been found that as-prepared CuS nanoparticles are of pure hexagonal phase, and they appear as irregularly-shaped spheres, elliptical spheres and bars with an average size of 37 nm. The optical properties of the product were detected with an ultraviolet-visible light absorption spectrometer

  17. Differential Inequalities, Normality and Quasi-Normality

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiaojun; Pang, Xuecheng

    2011-01-01

    We prove that if D is a domain in C, alpha>1 and c>0, then the family F of functions meromorphic in D such that |f'(z)|/(1+|f(z)|^alpha)>c for every z in D is normalin D. For alpha=1, the same assumptions imply quasi-normality but not necessarily normality.

  18. Comparison between concentrations of amphotericin B in infected lung lesion and in uninfected lung tissue in a patient treated with liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Matsumoto, Kana; Igari, Hidetoshi; Uesato, Masaya; Yoshida, Shigetoshi; Nakamura, Yasutaka; Morita, Kunihiko; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Yoshino, Ichiro; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2010-09-01

    Generally, the primary lesion of a mold infection is in the airway, an extravascular site. Therefore, the antifungal drug concentration at the actual tissue lesion of a mold infection is as important as in the blood compartment. Although our antifungal armamentarium has expanded recently, polyenes are still often needed in clinical practice because of their potent fungicidal activity and the rarity of resistance. Nevertheless, the distribution of amphotericin B (AmB) in infected lung tissue has not yet been evaluated. Using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, we determined the concentrations of AmB in plasma and infected and uninfected tissues of resected lung simultaneously, in a patient with pulmonary aspergillosis treated with liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB). The AmB concentration in the infected lesion of the lung was approximately 5.2 times higher than that in plasma and 3.7 times higher than in uninfected lung tissue. L-AmB accumulated in the infected lesion of the lung at a higher concentration. Although our data are from only one patient, they may be useful in helping to develop better strategies for the use of L-AmB against pulmonary fungal infections.

  19. In vitro transcription of a cloned vaccinia virus gene by a soluble extract prepared from vaccinia virus-infected HeLa cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Foglesong, P D

    1985-01-01

    Faithful transcription of a vaccinia virus gene was accomplished in vitro by using a soluble extract prepared from vaccinia virus-infected HeLa cells. Specific transcription of the cloned vaccinia virus gene was detected by using template DNA restricted within the transcribed region. The vaccinia virus gene was not transcribed by extracts prepared from uninfected HeLa cells even with supplementation by purified vaccinia virus RNA polymerase, nor was a clone of adenovirus 2 DNA bearing the maj...

  20. FTIR spectra and normal-mode analysis of a tetranuclear Manganese adamantane-like complex in two electrochemically prepared oxidation states: Relevance to the oxygen-evolving complex of Photosystem II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Hendrik; Dube, Christopher E.; Armstrong, William H.; Sauer, Kenneth; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2002-03-19

    The IR spectra and normal-mode analysis of the adamantane-like compound [Mn4O6(bpea)4]n+ in two oxidation states, MnIV4 and MnIIIMnIV3, that are relevant to the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II are presented. Mn-O vibrational modes are identified with isotopic exchange, 16O->18O, of the mono-(mu)-oxo bridging atoms in the complex. IR spectra of the MnIIIMnIV3 species are obtained by electrochemical reduction of the MnIV4 species using a spectroelectrochemical cell, based on attenuated total reflection [Visser et al. Anal Chem 2001, 73, 4374-4378]. A novel method of subtraction is used to reduce background contributions from solvent and ligand modes, and the difference and double-difference spectra are used in identifying Mn-O bridging modes that are sensitive to oxidation state change. Two strong IR bands are observed for the MnIV4 species at 745 and 707 cm-1 and a weaker band at 510 cm-1. Upon reduction, the MnIIIMnIV3 species exhibits two strong IR bands at 745 and 680 cm-1, and several weaker bands are observed in the 510 - 425 cm-1 range. A normal mode analysis is performed to assign all the relevant bridging modes in the oxidized MnIV4 and reduced MnIIIMnIV3 species. The calculated force constants for the MnIV4 species are = 3.15 mdynAngstrom, = 0.55 mdyn/Angstrom, and = 0.20 mdyn/Angstrom. The force constants for the MnIIIMnIV3 species are = 3.10 mdyn/Angstrom, = 2.45 mdyn/Angstrom, = 0.40, and = 0.15 mdyn/Angstrom. This study provides insights for the identification of Mn-O modes in the IR spectra of the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving complex during its catalytic cycle.

  1. Bait Formulations of Chlorophyllin against Infected/Uninfected Lymnaea acuminata in Red and Sunlight

    OpenAIRE

    Navneet Kumar; Vinay Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Control of snail population is an important tool in fasciolosis control programme. In order to achive this objective the method of bait formulation containing an attractant and a molluscicide is an appropriate approach to ensure the death of host snail. Chlorophyllin bait pellets were prepared by addition of attractants starch (10 mM)/serine (20 mM) and Chlorophyllin 2% agar solution. These baits were used against host snail Lymnaea acuminata. The behavioral response of snail against attracta...

  2. Detection of tuberculosis in HIV-infected and -uninfected African adults using whole blood RNA expression signatures: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrsini Kaforou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A major impediment to tuberculosis control in Africa is the difficulty in diagnosing active tuberculosis (TB, particularly in the context of HIV infection. We hypothesized that a unique host blood RNA transcriptional signature would distinguish TB from other diseases (OD in HIV-infected and -uninfected patients, and that this could be the basis of a simple diagnostic test.Adult case-control cohorts were established in South Africa and Malawi of HIV-infected or -uninfected individuals consisting of 584 patients with either TB (confirmed by culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis [M.TB] from sputum or tissue sample in a patient under investigation for TB, OD (i.e., TB was considered in the differential diagnosis but then excluded, or healthy individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI. Individuals were randomized into training (80% and test (20% cohorts. Blood transcriptional profiles were assessed and minimal sets of significantly differentially expressed transcripts distinguishing TB from LTBI and OD were identified in the training cohort. A 27 transcript signature distinguished TB from LTBI and a 44 transcript signature distinguished TB from OD. To evaluate our signatures, we used a novel computational method to calculate a disease risk score (DRS for each patient. The classification based on this score was first evaluated in the test cohort, and then validated in an independent publically available dataset (GSE19491. In our test cohort, the DRS classified TB from LTBI (sensitivity 95%, 95% CI [87-100]; specificity 90%, 95% CI [80-97] and TB from OD (sensitivity 93%, 95% CI [83-100]; specificity 88%, 95% CI [74-97]. In the independent validation cohort, TB patients were distinguished both from LTBI individuals (sensitivity 95%, 95% CI [85-100]; specificity 94%, 95% CI [84-100] and OD patients (sensitivity 100%, 95% CI [100-100]; specificity 96%, 95% CI [93-100]. Limitations of our study include the use of only culture confirmed TB patients, and

  3. Antigen-driven C–C Chemokine-mediated HIV-1 Suppression by CD4+ T Cells from Exposed Uninfected Individuals Expressing the Wild-type CCR-5 Allele

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Despite repeated exposure to HIV-1, certain individuals remain persistently uninfected. Such exposed uninfected (EU) people show evidence of HIV-1–specific T cell immunity and, in rare cases, selective resistance to infection by macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1. The latter has been associated with a 32–base pair deletion in the C–C chemokine receptor gene CCR-5, the major coreceptor of macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1. We have undertaken an analysis of the HIV-specific T cell responses in...

  4. Safety and tolerability of artemether-lumefantrine versus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for malaria in young HIV-infected and uninfected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamya Moses

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin combination therapy has become the standard of care for uncomplicated malaria in most of Africa. However, there is limited data on the safety and tolerability of these drugs, especially in young children and patients co-infected with HIV. Methods A longitudinal, randomized controlled trial was conducted in a cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected children aged 4-22 months in Tororo, Uganda. Participants were randomized to treatment with artemether-lumefantrine (AL or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP upon diagnosis of their first episode of uncomplicated malaria and received the same regimen for all subsequent episodes. Participants were actively monitored for adverse events for 28 days and then passively for up to 63 days after treatment. This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (registration # NCT00527800. Results A total of 122 children were randomized to AL and 124 to DP, resulting in 412 and 425 treatments, respectively. Most adverse events were rare, with only cough, diarrhoea, vomiting, and anaemia occurring in more than 1% of treatments. There were no differences in the risk of these events between treatment groups. Younger age was associated with an increased risk of diarrhoea in both the AL and DP treatment arms. Retreatment for malaria within 17-28 days was associated with an increased risk of vomiting in the DP treatment arm (HR = 6.47, 95% CI 2.31-18.1, p < 0.001. There was no increase in the risk of diarrhoea or vomiting for children who were HIV-infected or on concomitant therapy with antiretrovirals or trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole prophylaxis. Conclusion Both AL and DP were safe and well tolerated for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in young HIV-infected and uninfected children. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00527800; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00527800

  5. Sero-prevalence of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A comparative cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegbaru Belete

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis in immuno-compromised hosts manifests primarily as a life threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. However, there is scarce information about the magnitude of Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected people in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of T. gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects. Findings Sera were collected from people with and without HIV infection for the purpose of studying hepatitis B virus (HBV at St. Paul Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 24 January 2007 to 15 February 2007. Among these sera, the first 330 consecutive sera, 165 from each HIV sero-group, were selected and tested for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection was assessed against socio-demographic characteristics, HIV and HBV serostatus and HBV-related risk factors. The overall sero-prevalence of latent T. gondii infection among the study subjects was 90.0%. Toxoplasma infection was observed with respective prevalence of 93.3% and 86.7% among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people. Though Toxoplasma infection seems to be influenced by age, gender and HIV serostatus, only HBV serostatus was significantly associated (OR 2.71, CI 1.12 to 6.57 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion The seroprevalence of latent T. gondii infection is high and similar by HIV status. Educating people to prevent acquisition of new Toxoplasma infection and minimizing the risk of disease manifestations among HIV-Toxoplasma co-infected individuals is important.

  6. Factors influencing uptake of contraceptive implants in the immediate postpartum period among HIV infected and uninfected women at two Kenyan District Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabiby, Mufida M; Karanja, Joseph G; Odawa, Francis; Kosgei, Rose; Kibore, Minnie W; Kiarie, James N; Kinuthia, John

    2015-08-19

    Family planning is a cost effective strategy for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV and reduction of maternal/infant morbidity and mortality. Contraceptive implants are a safe, effective, long term and reversible family planning method whose use remains low in Kenya. We therefore set out to determine and compare the uptake, and factors influencing uptake of immediate postpartum contraceptive implants among HIV infected and uninfected women at two hospitals in Kenya. This cross sectional study targeted postpartum mothers at two Kenyan district hospitals (one urban and one rural). All participants received general family planning and method specific (Implant) counseling followed by immediate insertion of contraceptive implants to those who consented. The data was analyzed by descriptive analysis, T-test, Chi square tests and logistic regression. One hundred eighty-five participants were enrolled (91 HIV positive and 94 HIV negative) with a mean age of 26 years. HIV positive mothers were significantly older (27.5 years) than their HIV negative counterparts (24.5 years), P = 0.001. The two groups were comparable in education, employment, marital status and religious affiliation. Overall, the uptake of contraceptive implants in the immediate postpartum period was 50.3% and higher among HIV negative than HIV positive participants (57% vs. 43%, P = 0.046). Multivariate analysis revealed that a negative HIV status (P = 0.017) and prior knowledge of contraceptive implants (P = 0.001) were independently associated with increased uptake of contraceptive implants. There was a high uptake of immediate postpartum contraceptive implants among both HIV infected and un-infected women; efforts therefore need to be made in promoting this method of family planning in Kenya and providing this method to women in the immediate postpartum period so as to utilize this critical opportunity to increase uptake and reduce the high unmet need for family planning.

  7. A prospective descriptive study of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV uninfected patients in Vietnam - high prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans var grubii in the absence of underlying disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Stephen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cases of cryptococcal meningitis occur in patients with HIV infection: the course and outcome of disease in the apparently immunocompetent is much more poorly understood. We describe a cohort of HIV uninfected Vietnamese patients with cryptococcal meningitis in whom underlying disease is uncommon, and relate presenting features of patients and the characteristics of the infecting species to outcome. Methods A prospective descriptive study of HIV negative patients with cryptococcal meningitis based at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City. All patients had comprehensive clinical assessment at baseline, were cared for by a dedicated study team, and were followed up for 2 years. Clinical presentation was compared by infecting isolate and outcome. Results 57 patients were studied. Cryptococcus neoformans var grubii molecular type VN1 caused 70% of infections; C. gattii accounted for the rest. Most patients did not have underlying disease (81%, and the rate of underlying disease did not differ by infecting species. 11 patients died while in-patients (19.3%. Independent predictors of death were age ≥ 60 years and a history of convulsions (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals 8.7 (1 - 76, and 16.1 (1.6 - 161 respectively. Residual visual impairment was common, affecting 25 of 46 survivors (54.3%. Infecting species did not influence clinical phenotype or outcome. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of flucytosine and amphotericin B were significantly higher for C. neoformans var grubii compared with C. gattii (p Conclusion In HIV uninfected individuals in Vietnam, cryptococcal meningitis occurs predominantly in people with no clear predisposing factor and is most commonly due to C. neoformans var grubii. The rates of mortality and visual loss are high and independent of infecting species. There are detectable differences in susceptibility to commonly used antifungal drugs between species, but the clinical

  8. Dosimetric study of tips exposure during preparations and injections of {sup 18}F.D.G. in usual situation and degraded mode; Etude dosimetrique des expositions aux extremites lors des preparations et injections de 18FDG en situation normale et en mode degrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halley, A.; Lortal, B.; Dejean, C.; Buj, S.; Bouquey, C.; Clement, R.; Lecamus, S.; Bonichon, F.; Cazeau, A.L.; Caron, J. [Institut Bergonie, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: to evaluate tips exposure of manipulators in electro radiology in usual and degraded situation of radiation protection during the preparation and injection of {sup 18}F.D.G. solutions. indeed, during dysfunction of high energy shielded enclosure and/or automatic injector of F.D.G., an operation in manual mode is established. Conclusions: As expected, the phase of manual preparation in case of dysfunction of high energy shielded enclosure is the most irradiating because of possible successive sampling in order to adjust activity to inject. The derivative use of syringe-guard of automatic injector shows its efficiency for manual injection in degraded situation, even if irradiation stay more important comparatively to an automatic injection. (N.C.)

  9. Body fat distribution in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: outcomes from the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Associations between abnormal body fat distribution and clinical variables are poorly understood in pediatric HIV disease. Our objective was to compare total body fat and its distribution in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children and to evaluate associations with clin...

  10. Most cases of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-uninfected patients in Vietnam are due to a distinct amplified fragment length polymorphism-defined cluster of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii VN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jeremy N; Hoang, Thu N; Duong, Anh V; Hong, Chau T T; Diep, Pham T; Campbell, James I; Sieu, Tran P M; Hien, Tran T; Bui, Tien; Boni, Maciej F; Lalloo, David G; Carter, Dee; Baker, Stephen; Farrar, Jeremy J

    2011-02-01

    Cryptococcal disease most commonly occurs in patients with an underlying immune deficit, most commonly HIV infection, and is due to Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. Occasionally disease due to this variety occurs in apparently immunocompetent patients. The relationship between strains infecting immunosuppressed and immunocompetent patients is not clear. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was used to characterize the relationship between strains infecting HIV-infected and uninfected patients. Isolates from 51 HIV-uninfected patients and 100 HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis were compared. C. neoformans var. grubii VNI was responsible for infections in 73% of HIV-uninfected and 100% of HIV-infected patients. AFLP analysis defined two distinct clusters, VNIγ and VNIδ. The majority (84%) of isolates from HIV-uninfected patients were VNIγ, compared with only 38% of isolates from HIV-infected patients (odds ratio, 8.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.04 to 26.6; P cryptococcal meningitis in Vietnam. The distribution of these clusters differs according to the immune status of the host.

  11. Normalization in econometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, James D.; Daniel F. Waggoner; Zha, Tao

    2004-01-01

    The issue of normalization arises whenever two different values for a vector of unknown parameters imply the identical economic model. A normalization does not just imply a rule for selecting which point, among equivalent ones, to call the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). It also governs the topography of the set of points that go into a small-sample confidence interval associated with that MLE. A poor normalization can lead to multimodal distributions, disjoint confidence intervals, and v...

  12. Normal cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Caroline N; Natelson Love, Marissa C; Triebel, Kristen L

    2013-11-01

    Even those who do not experience dementia or mild cognitive impairment may experience subtle cognitive changes associated with aging. Normal cognitive changes can affect an older adult's everyday function and quality of life, and a better understanding of this process may help clinicians distinguish normal from disease states. This article describes the neurocognitive changes observed in normal aging, followed by a description of the structural and functional alterations seen in aging brains. Practical implications of normal cognitive aging are then discussed, followed by a discussion of what is known about factors that may mitigate age-associated cognitive decline.

  13. Normalizers of Irreducible Subfactors

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Roger R; Wiggins, Alan D

    2007-01-01

    We consider normalizers of an irreducible inclusion $N\\subseteq M$ of $\\mathrm{II}_1$ factors. In the infinite index setting an inclusion $uNu^*\\subseteq N$ can be strict, forcing us to also investigate the semigroup of one-sided normalizers. We relate these normalizers of $N$ in $M$ to projections in the basic construction and show that every trace one projection in the relative commutant $N'\\cap $ is of the form $u^*e_Nu$ for some unitary $u\\in M$ with $uNu^*\\subseteq N$. This enables us to identify the normalizers and the algebras they generate in several situations. In particular each normalizer of a tensor product of irreducible subfactors is a tensor product of normalizers modulo a unitary. We also examine normalizers of irreducible subfactors arising from subgroup--group inclusions $H\\subseteq G$. Here the normalizers are the normalizing group elements modulo a unitary from $L(H)$. We are also able to identify the finite trace $L(H)$-bimodules in $\\ell^2(G)$ as double cosets which are also finite union...

  14. Effects of antiretroviral agents during pregnancy on liver enzymes and amylase in HIV-exposed, uninfected newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia El Beitune

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of antiretroviral drugs administered to pregnant women on amylase and liver enzymes of the neonate. A prospective study was conducted on 52 neonates divided into three groups: infants born to HIV-infected mothers taking zidovudine (ZDV group, n = 18, infants born to mothers taking zidovudine + lamivudine + nelfinavir (TT group, n = 22 and infants born to normal women (control group, n = 12. Umbilical cord blood from the newborn infant was used to determine liver transaminases and amylase. Data were analyzed statistically by nonparametric tests, with the level of significance set at p<0.05. The median levels for TT group newborns were 33.3 U/L for oxaloacetic transaminase, 21.5 U/L for pyruvic transaminase, 1.9 mg/dL for total bilirubin, 153 mg/dL for alkaline phosphatase, and 9.6 U/L for amylase. These results did not differ from those obtained for Control newborns or newborns exposed to ZDV alone. No association was observed between the use of antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy and adverse effects on neonatal amylase and hepatic parameters at birth.

  15. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  16. Unmet need for family planning, contraceptive failure, and unintended pregnancy among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra I McCoy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV infection is a strategy recommended by the World Health Organization for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT. We assessed pregnancy intentions and contraceptive use among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women with a recent pregnancy in Zimbabwe. METHODS: We analyzed baseline data from the evaluation of Zimbabwe's Accelerated National PMTCT Program. Eligible women were randomly sampled from the catchment areas of 157 health facilities offering PMTCT services in five provinces. Eligible women were ≥16 years old and mothers of infants (alive or deceased born 9 to 18 months prior to the interview. Participants were interviewed about their HIV status, intendedness of the birth, and contraceptive use. RESULTS: Of 8,797 women, the mean age was 26.7 years, 92.8% were married or had a regular sexual partner, and they had an average of 2.7 lifetime births. Overall, 3,090 (35.1% reported that their births were unintended; of these women, 1,477 (47.8% and 1,613 (52.2% were and were not using a contraceptive method prior to learning that they were pregnant, respectively. Twelve percent of women reported that they were HIV-positive at the time of the survey; women who reported that they were HIV-infected were significantly more likely to report that their pregnancy was unintended compared to women who reported that they were HIV-uninfected (44.9% vs. 33.8%, p<0.01. After adjustment for covariates, among women with unintended births, there was no association between self-reported HIV status and lack of contraception use prior to pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Unmet need for family planning and contraceptive failure contribute to unintended pregnancies among women in Zimbabwe. Both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women reported unintended pregnancies despite intending to avoid or delay pregnancy, highlighting the need for effective contraceptive methods that align with

  17. Conceptual models for Mental Distress among HIV-infected and uninfected individuals: A contribution to clinical practice and research in primary-health-care centers in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Mary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental distress is common in primary care and overrepresented among Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected individuals, but access to effective treatment is limited, particularly in developing countries. Explanatory models (EM are contextualised explanations of illnesses and treatments framed within a given society and are important in understanding an individual's perspective on the illness. Although individual variations are important in determining help-seeking and treatment behaviour patterns, the ability to cope with an illness and quality of life, the role of explanatory models in shaping treatment preferences is undervalued. The aim was to identify explanatory models employed by HIV-infected and uninfected individuals and to compare them with those employed by local health care providers. Furthermore, we aimed to build a theoretical model linking the perception of mental distress to treatment preferences and coping mechanisms. Methods Qualitative investigation nested in a cross-sectional validation study of 28 (male and female attendees at four primary care clinics in Lusaka, Zambia, between December 2008 and May 2009. Consecutive clinic attendees were sampled on random days and conceptual models of mental distress were examined, using semi-structured interviews, in order to develop a taxonomic model in which each category was associated with a unique pattern of symptoms, treatment preferences and coping strategies. Results Mental distress was expressed primarily as somatic complaints including headaches, perturbed sleep and autonomic symptoms. Economic difficulties and interpersonal relationship problems were the most common causal models among uninfected individuals. Newly diagnosed HIV patients presented with a high degree of hopelessness and did not value seeking help for their symptoms. Patients not receiving anti-retroviral drugs (ARV questioned their effectiveness and were equivocal about seeking help

  18. Conceptual models for mental distress among HIV-infected and uninfected individuals: a contribution to clinical practice and research in primary-health-care centers in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipimo, Peter J; Tuba, Mary; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2011-01-10

    Mental distress is common in primary care and overrepresented among Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, but access to effective treatment is limited, particularly in developing countries. Explanatory models (EM) are contextualised explanations of illnesses and treatments framed within a given society and are important in understanding an individual's perspective on the illness. Although individual variations are important in determining help-seeking and treatment behaviour patterns, the ability to cope with an illness and quality of life, the role of explanatory models in shaping treatment preferences is undervalued. The aim was to identify explanatory models employed by HIV-infected and uninfected individuals and to compare them with those employed by local health care providers. Furthermore, we aimed to build a theoretical model linking the perception of mental distress to treatment preferences and coping mechanisms. Qualitative investigation nested in a cross-sectional validation study of 28 (male and female) attendees at four primary care clinics in Lusaka, Zambia, between December 2008 and May 2009. Consecutive clinic attendees were sampled on random days and conceptual models of mental distress were examined, using semi-structured interviews, in order to develop a taxonomic model in which each category was associated with a unique pattern of symptoms, treatment preferences and coping strategies. Mental distress was expressed primarily as somatic complaints including headaches, perturbed sleep and autonomic symptoms. Economic difficulties and interpersonal relationship problems were the most common causal models among uninfected individuals. Newly diagnosed HIV patients presented with a high degree of hopelessness and did not value seeking help for their symptoms. Patients not receiving anti-retroviral drugs (ARV) questioned their effectiveness and were equivocal about seeking help. Individuals receiving ARV were best adjusted to their

  19. Bone mineral density changes among HIV-uninfected young adults in a randomised trial of pre-exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir-emtricitabine or placebo in Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kasonde

    Full Text Available Tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP has been found to be effective for prevention of HIV infection in several clinical trials. Two studies of TDF PrEP among men who have sex with men showed slight bone mineral density (BMD loss. We investigated the effect of TDF and the interaction of TDF and hormonal contraception on BMD among HIV-uninfected African men and women.We evaluated the effects on BMD of using daily oral TDF-FTC compared to placebo among heterosexual men and women aged 18-29 years enrolled in the Botswana TDF2 PrEP study. Participants had BMD measurements at baseline and thereafter at 6-month intervals with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA scans at the hip, spine, and forearm.A total of 220 participants (108 TDF-FTC, 112 placebo had baseline DXA BMD measurements at three anatomic sites. Fifteen (6.8% participants had low baseline BMD (z-score of 3.0% at any anatomic site at any time after baseline were significantly greater for the TDF-FTC treatment group [34/68 (50.0% TDF-FTC vs. 26/79 (32.9% placebo; p = 0.04]. There was a small but significant difference in the mean percent change in BMD from baseline for TDF-FTC versus placebo at all three sites at month 30 [forearm -0.84% (p = 0.01, spine -1.62% (p = 0.0002, hip -1.51% (p = 0.003].Use of TDF-FTC was associated with a small but statistically significant decrease in BMD at the forearm, hip and lumbar spine. A high percentage (6.8% of healthy Batswana young adults had abnormal baseline BMD Further evaluation is needed of the longer-term use of TDF in HIV-uninfected persons.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00448669.

  20. Solution preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results.

  1. Shared values and normality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-hua; PANG Xue-cheng

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the normality and the shared values for a meromorphic function on the unit disc △.Based on Marty's normality criterion and through a detailed analysis of the meromorphic functions,it is shown that if for every f∈F,f and f(k) share a and b on △ and the zeros of f(z)-a are of multiplicity k≥3,then F is normal on △,where F is a family of meromorphic functions on the unit disc △,and a and b are distinct values.

  2. Undetectable plasma viral load predicts normal survival in HIV-2-infected people in a West African village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricard Dominique

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been no previous studies of the long-term survival and temporal changes in plasma viral load among HIV-2 infected subjects. Methods 133 HIV-2 infected and 158 HIV-uninfected subjects from a rural area in North-west Guinea-Bissau, West Africa were enrolled into a prospective cohort study in 1991 and followed-up to mid-2009. Data were collected on four occasions during that period on HIV antibodies, CD4% and HIV-2 plasma viral load. Results Median age (interquartile range [IQR] of HIV-2 infected subjects at time of enrollment was 47 (36, 60 years, similar to that of HIV-uninfected control subjects, 49 (38, 62 (p = 0.4. Median (IQR plasma viral load and CD4 percentage were 347 (50, 4,300 copies/ml and 29 (22, 35 respectively. Overall loss to follow-up to assess vital status was small, at 6.7% and 6.3% for HIV-2 infected and uninfected subjects respectively. An additional 17 (12.8% and 16 (10.1% of HIV-2 infected and uninfected subjects respectively were censored during follow-up due to infection with HIV-1. The mortality rate per 100 person-years (95% CI was 4.5 (3.6, 5.8 among HIV-2 infected subjects compared to 2.1 (1.6, 2.9 among HIV-uninfected (age-sex adjusted rate ratio 1.9 (1.3, 2.8, p Viral load measurements were available for 98%, 78%, 77% and 61% HIV-2 infected subjects who were alive and had not become super-infected with HIV-1, in 1991, 1996, 2003 and 2006 respectively. Median plasma viral load (RNA copies per ml (IQR did not change significantly over time, being 150 (50, 1,554; n = 77 in 1996, 203 (50, 2,837; n = 47 in 2003 and 171 (50, 497; n = 31 in 2006. Thirty seven percent of HIV-2 subjects had undetectable viraemia ( Conclusions A substantial proportion of HIV-2 infected subjects in this cohort have stable plasma viral load, and those with an undetectable viral load (37% at study entry had a normal survival rate. However, the sequential laboratory findings need to be interpreted with caution given

  3. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  4. Normality in analytical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-12-01

    Although C.G. Jung's interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault's criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung's work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault's own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung's disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  5. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  6. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” ...

  7. Cervical Dysplasia and High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections among HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Adolescent Females in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Adler

    2014-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we compared the HPV DNA and Pap smear results between 35 HIV-infected and 50 HIV-uninfected adolescents in order to determine the prevalence of HR-HPV genotypes and cervical cytological abnormalities. Comparisons were made using Pearson χ2 and independent-samples t-tests analyses, and associations between demographic and behavioral characteristics and HPV infections were examined. Results. HIV-infected participants were more likely to be infected with any HPV (88.6% versus 48.0%; P<0.001 and with at least one HR-HPV (60.0% versus 24.0%; P=0.001, and to have multiple concurrent HPV infections (68.6% versus 22.0%; P<0.001. HPV 16 and 18 were relatively underrepresented among HR-HPV infections. Abnormal Pap test results were more common among HIV-infected participants (28.8% versus 12.0%; P=0.054. A history of smoking was associated with HR-HPV infection. Conclusions. HIV-infected adolescents have an increased risk of infection with HR-HPV and of Pap test abnormalities. The majority of HR-HPV infections among our participants would not be prevented by the currently available vaccinations against HPV.

  8. Preferences for daily or intermittent pre-exposure prophylaxis regimens and ability to anticipate sex among HIV uninfected members of Kenyan HIV serodiscordant couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah T; Heffron, Renee; Ngure, Kenneth; Celum, Connie; Kurth, Ann; Curran, Kathryn; Mugo, Nelly; Baeten, Jared M

    2014-09-01

    Intermittent dosing for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been proposed as an alternative to daily PrEP to reduce cost and patient drug exposure and to improve adherence. One possible dosing regimen is pre-intercourse PrEP, which requires anticipating sex in advance. We examined preferences for daily versus pre-intercourse PrEP and ability to anticipate sex among 310 HIV uninfected members of HIV serodiscordant heterosexual couples in Thika, Kenya, with high HIV knowledge and experience with daily PrEP use in a clinical trial setting. Preferences were evenly split between daily PrEP (47.4 %) and pre-intercourse PrEP (50.7 %). Participants were more likely to prefer daily PrEP if they reported unprotected sex during the prior month (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 1.48, 95 % CI 1.20-1.81) or 3 h in advance, with younger participants being less likely to do so (aPR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.23-0.83 for ages 18-29 vs. ≥40). Findings suggest that intermittent PrEP could be a popular option in this population, but that optimal adherence and sufficient drug levels might be challenging with a pre-intercourse regimen.

  9. Phase I safety and immunogenicity evaluations of an alphavirus replicon HIV-1 subtype C gag vaccine in healthy HIV-1-uninfected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wecker, M; Gilbert, P; Russell, N; Hural, J; Allen, M; Pensiero, M; Chulay, J; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Abdool Karim, S S; Burke, D S

    2012-10-01

    On the basis of positive preclinical data, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of an alphavirus replicon HIV-1 subtype C gag vaccine (AVX101), expressing a nonmyristoylated form of Gag, in two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials in healthy HIV-1-uninfected adults. Escalating doses of AVX101 or placebo were administered subcutaneously to participants in the United States and Southern Africa. Because of vaccine stability issues, the first trial was halted prior to completion of all dose levels and a second trial was implemented. The second trial was also stopped prematurely due to documentation issues with the contract manufacturer. Safety and immunogenicity were evaluated through assessments of reactogenicity, reports of adverse events, and assessment of replication-competent and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viremia. Immunogenicity was measured using the following assays: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chromium 51 ((51)Cr)-release cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), gamma interferon (IFN-γ) ELISpot, intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), and lymphoproliferation assay (LPA). Anti-vector antibodies were also measured. AVX101 was well tolerated and exhibited only modest local reactogenicity. There were 5 serious adverse events reported during the trials; none were considered related to the study vaccine. In contrast to the preclinical data, immune responses in humans were limited. Only low levels of binding antibodies and T-cell responses were seen at the highest doses. This trial also highlighted the difficulties in developing a novel vector for HIV.

  10. Ratios of Normal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This article extends and amplifies on results from a paper of over forty years ago. It provides software for evaluating the density and distribution functions of the ratio z/w for any two jointly normal variates z,w, and provides details on methods for transforming a general ratio z/w into a standard form, (a+x/(b+y , with x and y independent standard normal and a, b non-negative constants. It discusses handling general ratios when, in theory, none of the moments exist yet practical considerations suggest there should be approximations whose adequacy can be verified by means of the included software. These approximations show that many of the ratios of normal variates encountered in practice can themselves be taken as normally distributed. A practical rule is developed: If a < 2.256 and 4 < b then the ratio (a+x/(b+y is itself approximately normally distributed with mean μ = a/(1.01b − .2713 and variance 2 = (a2 + 1/(b2 + .108b − 3.795 − μ2.

  11. Ratios of Normal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This article extends and amplifies on results from a paper of over forty years ago. It provides software for evaluating the density and distribution functions of the ratio z/w for any two jointly normal variates z,w, and provides details on methods for transforming a general ratio z/w into a standard form, (a+x/(b+y , with x and y independent standard normal and a, b non-negative constants. It discusses handling general ratios when, in theory, none of the moments exist yet practical considerations suggest there should be approximations whose adequacy can be verified by means of the included software. These approximations show that many of the ratios of normal variates encountered in practice can themselves be taken as normally distributed. A practical rule is developed: If a < 2.256 and 4 < b then the ratio (a+x/(b+y is itself approximately normally distributed with mean μ = a/(1.01b - .2713 and variance σ2 = (a2 + 1/(b2 + .108b - 3.795 μ2.

  12. Difluoromethane preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, A.; Sandt, E.J.A.; Van Bekkum, H.; Makkee, M.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract of NL 9401574 (A) The invention relates to a method for preparing difluoromethane, wherein dichlorodifluoromethane or monochlorodifluoromethane is brought into contact with hydrogen in the presence of palladium on activated carbon, wherein the loading of the palladium on the activated c

  13. Normalized Information Distance

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanyi, Paul M B; Cilibrasi, Rudi L; Li, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The normalized information distance is a universal distance measure for objects of all kinds. It is based on Kolmogorov complexity and thus uncomputable, but there are ways to utilize it. First, compression algorithms can be used to approximate the Kolmogorov complexity if the objects have a string representation. Second, for names and abstract concepts, page count statistics from the World Wide Web can be used. These practical realizations of the normalized information distance can then be applied to machine learning tasks, expecially clustering, to perform feature-free and parameter-free data mining. This chapter discusses the theoretical foundations of the normalized information distance and both practical realizations. It presents numerous examples of successful real-world applications based on these distance measures, ranging from bioinformatics to music clustering to machine translation.

  14. Normalization of satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.; Elman, Gregory C.

    1990-01-01

    Sets of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery taken over the Washington, DC metropolitan area during the months of November, March and May were converted into a form of ground reflectance imagery. This conversion was accomplished by adjusting the incident sunlight and view angles and by applying a pixel-by-pixel correction for atmospheric effects. Seasonal color changes of the area can be better observed when such normalization is applied to space imagery taken in time series. In normalized imagery, the grey scale depicts variations in surface reflectance and tonal signature of multi-band color imagery can be directly interpreted for quantitative information of the target.

  15. HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants Show Robust Memory B-Cell Responses in Spite of a Delayed Accumulation of Memory B Cells: an Observational Study in the First 2 Years of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduati, Eunice W; Nkumama, Irene N; Gambo, Faith K; Muema, Daniel M; Knight, Miguel G; Hassan, Amin S; Jahangir, Margaret N; Etyang, Timothy J; Berkley, James A; Urban, Britta C

    2016-07-01

    Improved HIV care has led to an increase in the number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants born to HIV-infected women. Although they are uninfected, these infants experience increased morbidity and mortality. One explanation may be that their developing immune system is altered by HIV exposure, predisposing them to increased postnatal infections. We explored the impact of HIV exposure on the B-cell compartment by determining the B-cell subset distribution, the frequency of common vaccine antigen-specific memory B cells (MBCs), and the levels of antibodies to the respective antigens in HEU and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants born to uninfected mothers, using flow cytometry, a B-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, during the first 2 years of life. For the majority of the B-cell subsets, there were no differences between HEU and HUU infants. However, HIV exposure was associated with a lower proportion of B cells in general and MBCs in particular, largely due to a lower proportion of unswitched memory B cells. This reduction was maintained even after correcting for age. These phenotypic differences in the MBC compartment did not affect the ability of HEU infants to generate recall responses to previously encountered antigens or reduce the antigen-specific antibody levels at 18 months of life. Although HIV exposure was associated with a transient reduction in the proportion of MBCs, we found that the ability of HEU infants to mount robust MBC and serological responses was unaffected.

  16. Normalized information distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitányi, P.M.B.; Balbach, F.J.; Cilibrasi, R.L.; Li, M.; Emmert-Streib, F.; Dehmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The normalized information distance is a universal distance measure for objects of all kinds. It is based on Kolmogorov complexity and thus uncomputable, but there are ways to utilize it. First, compression algorithms can be used to approximate the Kolmogorov complexity if the objects have a string

  17. Normalized information distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitányi, P.M.B.; Balbach, F.J.; Cilibrasi, R.L.; Li, M.

    2008-01-01

    The normalized information distance is a universal distance measure for objects of all kinds. It is based on Kolmogorov complexity and thus uncomputable, but there are ways to utilize it. First, compression algorithms can be used to approximate the Kolmogorov complexity if the objects have a string

  18. Normals to a Parabola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Given a parabola in the standard form y[superscript 2] = 4ax, corresponding to three points on the parabola, such that the normals at these three points P, Q, R concur at a point M = (h, k), the equation of the circumscribing circle through the three points P, Q, and R provides a tremendous opportunity to illustrate "The Art of Algebraic…

  19. Back to Normal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Xinjiang officials speed up the investigation of July 5 riot suspects and restore social order Life in Urumqi has gone back to normal one month after the July 5 riot that killed nearly 200 people in the capital city of China’s northwestern

  20. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  1. Normal modal preferential consequence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available of necessitation holds for the corresponding consequence relations, as one would expect it to. We present a representation result for this tightened framework, and investigate appropriate notions of entailment in this context|normal entailment, and a rational...

  2. Regulation of topoisomerase II alpha and beta in HIV-1 infected and uninfected neuroblastoma and astrocytoma cells: involvement of distinct nordihydroguaretic acid sensitive inflammatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandraju, Raj Kumar; Kondapi, Anand K

    2007-05-01

    The activity of Topoisomerase II alpha and beta isoforms is tightly regulated during different phases of cell cycle. In the present study, the action of anti-inflammatory agents, nordihydroguaretic acid (NDGA) is analyzed in HIV-1 infected CXCR4(+), CCR5(+) and CD4(-) SK-N-SH neuroblastoma, CXCR4(+), CCR5(+) and CD4(-) 1321N1 astrocytoma and CXCR4(+), CCR5(+/-) and CD4(-) GO-G-CCM glioblastoma cell lines. In SK-N-SH and 1321N1 the expression of Topoisomerase II alpha is concomitant with that of LOX-5 and is highly sensitive to NDGA, while the Topoisomerase II beta is expressed along with TNFalpha and exhibits low sensitivity to NDGA, suggesting distinct pathways of regulation for the two isoforms. HIV-1 infection in these cells enhanced the expression of Topo II alpha and beta. Further, the regulation of Topo II beta and TNFalpha in infected and uninfected SK cells is distinctly different. HIV-1 gp120 derived peptides could block HIV-1 mediated inflammation and Topoisomerase II alpha and beta expression, suggesting the viral mediated response. A combination of NDGA, gp-120 derived peptides and AZT has completely blocked the viral replication, suggesting the enhancement of potency of AZT under the suppression of inflammatory response. In contrast, the expression of Topo II alpha and beta was stimulated by NDGA in GO-G-CCM cells showing distinct regulatory pathway in these cells that was resistant to HIV-1 infection. This suggests the requirement of inflammatory response for productive viral infection. In summary, an induction of co-receptor mediated inflammatory response can distinctly enhance regulated expression of the cellular Topo II alpha and beta and promote productive infection in neurons and astrocytes.

  3. Association of the Fractal Dimension of Retinal Arteries and Veins with Quantitative Brain MRI Measures in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard A Crystal

    Full Text Available The fractal dimension of retinal arteries and veins is a measure of the complexity of the vascular tree. We hypothesized that retinal fractal dimension would be associated with brain volume and white matter integrity in HIV-infected women.Nested case-control within longitudinal cohort study.Women were recruited from the Brooklyn site of the Women's Interagency HIV study (WIHS; 34 HIV-infected and 21 HIV-uninfected women with analyzable MRIs and retinal photographs were included. Fractal dimension was determined using the SIVA software program on skeletonized retinal images. The relationship between predictors (retinal vascular measures and outcomes (quantitative MRI measures were analyzed with linear regression models. All models included age, intracranial volume, and both arterial and venous fractal dimension. Some models were adjusted for blood pressure, race/ethnicity, and HIV-infection.The women were 45.6 ± 7.3 years of age. Higher arterial dimension was associated with larger cortical volumes, but higher venous dimension was associated with smaller cortical volumes. In fully adjusted models, venous dimension was significantly associated with fractional anisotropy (standardized β = -0.41, p = 0.009 and total gray matter volume (β = -0.24, p = 0.03, and arterial dimension with mean diffusivity (β = -0.33,.p = 0.04 and fractional anisotropy (β = 0.34, p = 0.03. HIV-infection was not associated with any retinal or MRI measure.Higher venous fractal dimension was associated with smaller cortical volumes and lower fractional anisotropy, whereas higher arterial fractal dimension was associated with the opposite patterns. Longitudinal studies are needed to validate this finding.

  4. Randomised controlled trial testing the effect of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis on morbidity and mortality outcomes in breastfed HIV-exposed uninfected infants: study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutsoudis, Anna; Daniels, Brodie; Moodley-Govender, Eshia; Ngomane, Noluthando; Zako, Linda; Spooner, Elizabeth; Kiepiela, Photini; Reddy, Shabashini; Kuhn, Louise; Ramjee, Gita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction No randomised controlled trial (RCT) has examined the efficacy of cotrimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants during the breastfeeding period, in this new era of effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) prophylaxis. The efficacy of CTX prophylaxis has presently been demonstrated only in HIV-infected children. The absence of proven benefits in HEU breastfed infants associated with infectious diseases justifies an RCT as proposed. Herewith lies the rationale for conducting the proposed study. Methods A partially blinded RCT is proposed to evaluate the efficacy of CTX prophylaxis administered from 6 weeks of age to HEU infants receiving a PMTCT regimen. A non-inferiority design will be used, randomising 1298 infants to receive CTX or not to receive CTX. Participants will be reviewed at the following time points: 6 weeks (enrolment and randomisation), 10 weeks, 14 weeks, 4 months and monthly thereafter until 12 months of age. They will be evaluated for anthropometric growth, interval illness, CTX adherence, signs and symptoms of study drug toxicity, concomitant medication use, breastfeeding status and HIV infection status. The study will compare the incidence of grade 3 and grade 4 common childhood illnesses (focusing on pneumonia and diarrhoea) and all-cause mortality until 12 months of age. In a subset of participants, we will compare grade 3 and grade 4 haemoglobin and alanine aminotransferase results as well as investigate gut integrity. Ethics and dissemination The study has ethical approval from the University of KwaZulu-Natal Biomedical Research Ethics Committee (BFC212/13). Trial registration numbers PACTR201311000621110 and DOH-27-0614-4728; Pre-results. PMID:27406638

  5. Post-traumatic stress is associated with verbal learning, memory, and psychomotor speed in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leah H; Pyra, Maria; Cook, Judith A; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Martin, Eileen; Valcour, Victor; Milam, Joel; Anastos, Kathryn; Young, Mary A; Alden, Christine; Gustafson, Deborah R; Maki, Pauline M

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is higher among HIV-infected (HIV+) women compared with HIV-uninfected (HIV-) women, and deficits in episodic memory are a common feature of both PTSD and HIV infection. We investigated the association between a probable PTSD diagnosis using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C) version and verbal learning and memory using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test in 1004 HIV+ and 496 at-risk HIV- women. HIV infection was not associated with a probable PTSD diagnosis (17% HIV+, 16% HIV-; p = 0.49) but was associated with lower verbal learning (p < 0.01) and memory scores (p < 0.01). Irrespective of HIV status, a probable PTSD diagnosis was associated with poorer performance in verbal learning (p < 0.01) and memory (p < 0.01) and psychomotor speed (p < 0.001). The particular pattern of cognitive correlates of probable PTSD varied depending on exposure to sexual abuse and/or violence, with exposure to either being associated with a greater number of cognitive domains and a worse cognitive profile. A statistical interaction between HIV serostatus and PTSD was observed on the fine motor skills domain (p = 0.03). Among women with probable PTSD, HIV- women performed worse than HIV+ women on fine motor skills (p = 0.01), but among women without probable PTSD, there was no significant difference in performance between the groups (p = 0.59). These findings underscore the importance of considering mental health factors as correlates to cognitive deficits in women with HIV.

  6. Statokinesigram normalization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, José Magalhães

    2017-02-01

    Stabilometry is a technique that aims to study the body sway of human subjects, employing a force platform. The signal obtained from this technique refers to the position of the foot base ground-reaction vector, known as the center of pressure (CoP). The parameters calculated from the signal are used to quantify the displacement of the CoP over time; there is a large variability, both between and within subjects, which prevents the definition of normative values. The intersubject variability is related to differences between subjects in terms of their anthropometry, in conjunction with their muscle activation patterns (biomechanics); and the intrasubject variability can be caused by a learning effect or fatigue. Age and foot placement on the platform are also known to influence variability. Normalization is the main method used to decrease this variability and to bring distributions of adjusted values into alignment. In 1996, O'Malley proposed three normalization techniques to eliminate the effect of age and anthropometric factors from temporal-distance parameters of gait. These techniques were adopted to normalize the stabilometric signal by some authors. This paper proposes a new method of normalization of stabilometric signals to be applied in balance studies. The method was applied to a data set collected in a previous study, and the results of normalized and nonnormalized signals were compared. The results showed that the new method, if used in a well-designed experiment, can eliminate undesirable correlations between the analyzed parameters and the subjects' characteristics and show only the experimental conditions' effects.

  7. Semen preparation techniques for intrauterine insemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, Carolien M.; Heineman, M. J.; Cohlen, B. J.; Farquhar, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Semen preparation techniques for assisted reproduction, including intrauterine insemination (IUI), were developed to separate the motile morphological normal spermatozoa. Leucocytes, bacteria and dead spermatozoa produce oxygen radicals that negatively influence the ability to fertilize

  8. Semen preparation techniques for intrauterine insemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, C. M.; Heineman, M. J.; Cohlen, B. J.; Farquhar, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Semen preparation techniques for assisted reproduction, including intrauterine insemination (IUI), were developed to separate the motile morphological normal spermatozoa. Leucocytes, bacteria and dead spermatozoa produce oxygen radicals that negatively influence the ability to fertilize t

  9. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant R. Nassar BS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” “gait disturbances,” “cognitive function,” “neuropsychology,” “imaging,” and “pathogenesis,” articles were obtained for this review. The majority of the articles were retrieved from the past 10 years. The purpose of this review article is to aid general practitioners in further understanding current findings on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of iNPH.

  10. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant R. Nassar BS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” “gait disturbances,” “cognitive function,” “neuropsychology,” “imaging,” and “pathogenesis,” articles were obtained for this review. The majority of the articles were retrieved from the past 10 years. The purpose of this review article is to aid general practitioners in further understanding current findings on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of iNPH.

  11. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : An extensive body of literature is concerned with obese people, risk, and weight management. However, little is known about weight management among people not belonging to the extreme BMI categories. Management of weight among normal-weight and moderately overweight individuals...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...

  12. Normal Order: Combinatorial Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, A I; Blasiak, P; Horzela, A; Penson, K A; Solomon, Allan I.; Duchamp, Gerard; Blasiak, Pawel; Horzela, Andrzej; Penson, Karol A.

    2004-01-01

    A conventional context for supersymmetric problems arises when we consider systems containing both boson and fermion operators. In this note we consider the normal ordering problem for a string of such operators. In the general case, upon which we touch briefly, this problem leads to combinatorial numbers, the so-called Rook numbers. Since we assume that the two species, bosons and fermions, commute, we subsequently restrict ourselves to consideration of a single species, single-mode boson monomials. This problem leads to elegant generalisations of well-known combinatorial numbers, specifically Bell and Stirling numbers. We explicitly give the generating functions for some classes of these numbers. In this note we concentrate on the combinatorial graph approach, showing how some important classical results of graph theory lead to transparent representations of the combinatorial numbers associated with the boson normal ordering problem.

  13. Normality concerning shared values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Let F be a family of meromorphic functions in a plane domain D, and a and b be finite non-zero complex values such that a/b ∈ N \\ {1}. If for every f ∈ F, f(z) = a =■ f (z) = a and f (z) = b =■ f (z) = b, then F is normal. We also construct a non-normal family F of meromorphic functions in the unit disk Δ = {|z| < 1} such that for every f ∈ F, f(z) = m + 1  f (z) = m + 1 and f (z) = 1  f (z) = 1 in Δ, where m is a given positive integer. This answers Problem 5.1 in the works of Gu, Pang and Fang.

  14. Normality concerning shared values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG JianMing

    2009-01-01

    Let F be a family of meromorphic functions in a plane domain D,and a and b be finite non-zero complex values such that a/b ∈ N \\ {1}.If for every f ∈ F,f(z)=a=>(z) = a and f'(z)=b=>f"(z)=b,then F is normal.We also construct a non-normal family F of meromorphic functions in the unit disk △= {|z|<1} such that for every f ∈F,f(z) =m+1f'(z) = m+1and f'(z)=1 f"(z) = 1 in △ A,where m is a given positive integer.This answers Problem 5.1 in the works of Gu,Pang and Fang.

  15. How Prepared is Prepared Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter-Levy; Macleod; Rickert

    1996-10-01

    A 17-year-old female was in the final stage in treatment of right unilateral cleft lip and palate. She had undergone a number of previous surgeries. Hearing and speech were good on evaluation, and her social and family situation were deemed excellent. After preparatory orthodontics she underwent a Lefort I maxillary advancement. Surgery was successful and she was admitted into postoperative recovery. However, the lack of adequate preoperative preparation caused traumatic reaction from the patient and her parents: anxiety over appearance, crying, refusal of oral fluids and oral care, refusal of analgesia, and refusal to mobilize. The patience and persistence of hospital staff slowly overcame all adversities and the patient moved on to full and successful recovery, but this case prompted changes in preoperative procedures and involvement of patients and their families in postoperative meal selection, planing, and preparation.

  16. Of guangxi normal university sports institute 2014 graduates'employment investigation and analysis of the mental preparation%对广西师范大学体育学院2014届毕业生择业就业心理准备的调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦海星; 曾智伟; 梁莉

    2014-01-01

    Through the literature material law , questionnaire survey method , mathematical statistics meth-od, interview method and logical analysis , this paper carries out investigation and analysis of the mental preparation of job selection and employment of the graduates of2014 grade of Guangxi normal university. It is showed that there are psychological misconceptions , value orientation and self cognitive deviation ex-isting in the graduates ,and the graduates are required to constantly improve themselves and enhance their psychological quality .%通过文献资料法、问卷调查法、数理统计法、访谈法和逻辑分析等方法,对广西师范学院2014届毕业生择、就业心理准备的调查与分析。研究表明:体育专业的毕业生面对择、就业存在心理误区,存在价值取向与自我认知能力的偏差,在择、就业的过程中会不可避免地遇到各种困难和挫折,这就要求毕业生要不断完善自我,增强自身心理素质,同时高校应对大学生毕业生进行分析、引导,开展心理辅导和就业指导工作,让学生了解影响就业的心理因素,树立正确的就业观,为顺利就业作好充足的心理准备。

  17. Growth of HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants in the First 6 Months of Life in South Africa: The IeDEA-SA Collaboration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Morden

    Full Text Available HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU infants are a growing population in sub-Saharan Africa especially with the increasing coverage of more effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT antiretroviral therapy regimens. This study describes the characteristics of South African HEU infants, investigates factors impacting birth weight and assesses their growth within the first 28 weeks of life.This is a retrospective cohort based on routine clinical data from two South African PMTCT programmes. Data were collected between 2007 and 2013. Linear regression assessed factors affecting birth weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ while growth (longitudinal WAZ was assessed using mixed effects models.We assessed the growth of 2621 HEU infants (median birth WAZ was -0.65 (IQR -1.46; 0.0 and 51% were male. The feeding modalities practised were as follows: 0.5% exclusive breastfeeding, 7.9% breastfeeding with unknown exclusivity, 0.08% mixed breastfeeding and 89.2% formula feeding. Mothers with CD4 <200 cells/μl delivered infants with a lower birth WAZ (adjusted ß -0.253 [95% CI -0.043; -0.072], p = 0.006 compared to mothers with aCD4 ≥500 cells/μl. Similarly, mothers who did not receive antiretroviral drugs delivered infants with a lower birth WAZ (adjusted ß -0.39 [95% CI -0.67; -0.11], p = 0.007 compared to mothers who received antenatal antiretrovirals. Infants with a birth weight <2 500g (ß 0.070 [95% CI 0.061; 0.078], p <0.0001 experienced faster growth within the first 28 weeks of life compared to infants with a birth weight ≥2 500g. Infants with any breastfeeding exposure experienced slower longitudinal growth compared to formula fed infants (adjusted ß -0.012 [95% CI 0.021; -0.003], p = 0.011.Less severe maternal disease and the use of antiretrovirals positively impacts birth weight in this cohort of South African HEU infants. Formula feeding was common with breastfed infants experiencing marginally slower longitudinal growth.

  18. The association between malnutrition and the incidence of malaria among young HIV-infected and -uninfected Ugandan children: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arinaitwe Emmanuel

    2012-03-01

    associated with an increased incidence of malaria among a cohort of HIV-infected and -uninfected young children living in an area of high malaria transmission intensity. However, caution should be made when making causal inferences given the observational study design and inability to disentangle the temporal relationship between malnutrition and the incidence of malaria. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00527800.

  19. Identification of episomal human papillomavirus and other DNA viruses in cytological anal samples of HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Paolini, Francesca; Benevolo, Maria; Vocaturo, Amina; Latini, Alessandra; Giglio, Amalia; Venuti, Aldo; Giuliani, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    To date, there have been only few studies that investigated integration of anal Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Most of them were conducted on HIV-infected individuals and mainly analyzed samples from high-grade lesions and invasive cancer. We aimed to investigate HPV physical status in HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) with a detectable anal HPV infection, irrespective of the presence of lesions. We also sought to explore the presence of other circular DNA viruses in the anal region. Study participants were attendees of an STI screening program, which were also screened for anal HPV infection and cytological abnormalities. HPV physical status was assessed using multiply-primed RCA. HPV16-positive samples were also analyzed using E2/E6 multiplex PCR, qRT-PCR and APOT assay. RCA and virus-specific PCR were employed to investigate the presence of other DNA viruses. Anal HPV infection was detected in 76.9% of the 230 MSM enrolled. The anal cytological reports were: 129 NILM, 37 ASC-US and 28 L-SIL (36 samples were inadequate for interpretation). HPV physical status was evaluated in the 109 anal specimens that harbored one or two different HPV genotypes. Integration was observed only in one HPV16-positive sample (0.9%), in which integrate-derived viral transcripts of type B were detected. Integration occurred in chromosome 14 q. In 22 of the 53 (41.5%) mucosal HPV-negative samples, RCA restriction results would seem to indicate the presence of circular DNA viruses. Indeed, cutaneous HPV (4 samples), MCPyV (5 samples) and TTV (4 samples) were detected. In conclusion, anal HPV integration was rarely evidenced in HIV-uninfected MSM with no or mild anal cytological abnormalities, although the integration rate may have been underestimated because of the limitations of the employed assays. Other DNA viruses were detected in the anal samples of these individuals, although the significance of this occurrence needs to be assessed.

  20. Anal human papillomavirus in HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men: incidence and clearance rates, duration of infection, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, M G; Vescio, M F; Latini, A; Giglio, A; Moretto, D; Frasca, M; Benevolo, M; Rollo, F; Colafigli, M; Cristaudo, A; Giuliani, M

    2016-12-01

    Little is known regarding the natural history of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We aimed to evaluate incidence and clearance rates, their risk factors, and duration of anal HPV infection in HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM). A longitudinal study was conducted. Anal samples were analysed using the Linear Array HPV Genotyping test. Incidence and clearance rates, and corresponding risk factors, were estimated using a two-state Markov model. Overall, 155 MSM (median age 33.4 years) attending the largest sexually transmitted infection (STI) centre in Rome, Italy, were followed for a median of 12.2 months (Q1-Q3: 7.0-18.1). Incidence and clearance rates for any HPV were 85.6 (95% CI: 58.4-125.4) and 35.6 (95% CI: 24.7-51.5) × 1000 person-months, respectively; the median duration of infection was 9.4 months (Q1-Q3: 7.5-12.1). Receptive anal sex emerged as the only risk factor for the acquisition of any HPV (Hazard Ratio, HR = 2.65, 95% CI: 1.16-6.06). The incidence rates for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic types were 42.3 (95% CI: 29.2-61.4) and 29.2 (95% CI: 19.5-43.7) × 1000 person-months, respectively (p = 0.13); their clearance rates were 62.9 (95% CI: 45.1-87.7) and 65.7 (95% CI: 47.4-91.0) × 1000 person-months, respectively (p = 0.83). HPV16 showed the lowest clearance rate among carcinogenic types (59.7 × 1000 person-months), and a duration of infection of 16.8 months. In conclusion, a higher incidence rate was observed for carcinogenic compared to non-carcinogenic HPV types, although the difference was not significant. HPV16 emerged as the type with the longest duration of infection and the lowest clearance rate among carcinogenic types.

  1. Identification of episomal human papillomavirus and other DNA viruses in cytological anal samples of HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriella Donà

    Full Text Available To date, there have been only few studies that investigated integration of anal Human Papillomavirus (HPV. Most of them were conducted on HIV-infected individuals and mainly analyzed samples from high-grade lesions and invasive cancer. We aimed to investigate HPV physical status in HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM with a detectable anal HPV infection, irrespective of the presence of lesions. We also sought to explore the presence of other circular DNA viruses in the anal region. Study participants were attendees of an STI screening program, which were also screened for anal HPV infection and cytological abnormalities. HPV physical status was assessed using multiply-primed RCA. HPV16-positive samples were also analyzed using E2/E6 multiplex PCR, qRT-PCR and APOT assay. RCA and virus-specific PCR were employed to investigate the presence of other DNA viruses. Anal HPV infection was detected in 76.9% of the 230 MSM enrolled. The anal cytological reports were: 129 NILM, 37 ASC-US and 28 L-SIL (36 samples were inadequate for interpretation. HPV physical status was evaluated in the 109 anal specimens that harbored one or two different HPV genotypes. Integration was observed only in one HPV16-positive sample (0.9%, in which integrate-derived viral transcripts of type B were detected. Integration occurred in chromosome 14 q. In 22 of the 53 (41.5% mucosal HPV-negative samples, RCA restriction results would seem to indicate the presence of circular DNA viruses. Indeed, cutaneous HPV (4 samples, MCPyV (5 samples and TTV (4 samples were detected. In conclusion, anal HPV integration was rarely evidenced in HIV-uninfected MSM with no or mild anal cytological abnormalities, although the integration rate may have been underestimated because of the limitations of the employed assays. Other DNA viruses were detected in the anal samples of these individuals, although the significance of this occurrence needs to be assessed.

  2. Cardiac effects in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children and adolescents: a view from the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven E Lipshultz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is a primary cause of acquired heart disease, particularly of accelerated atherosclerosis, symptomatic heart failure, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Cardiac complications often occur in late-stage HIV infections as prolonged viral infection is becoming more relevant as longevity improves. Thus, multi-agent HIV therapies that help sustain life may also increase the risk of cardiovascular events and accelerated atherosclerosis. Discussion: Before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, the two-to-five-year incidence of symptomatic heart failure ranged from 4 to 28% in HIV patients. Patients both before and after HAART also frequently have asymptomatic abnormalities in cardiovascular structure. Echocardiographic measurements indicate left ventricular (LV systolic dysfunction in 18%, LV hypertrophy in 6.5%, and left atrial dilation in 40% of patients followed on HAART therapy. Diastolic dysfunction is also common in long-term survivors of HIV infection. Accelerated atherosclerosis has been found in HIV-infected young adults and children without traditional coronary risk factors. Infective endocarditis, although rare in children, has high mortality in late-stage AIDS patients with poor nutritional status and severely compromised immune systems. Although lymphomas have been found in HIV-infected children, the incidence is low and cardiac malignancy is rare. Rates of congenital cardiovascular malformations range from 5.6 to 8.9% in cohorts of HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected children with HIV-infected mothers. In non-HIV-infected infants born to HIV-infected mothers, foetal exposure to ART is associated with reduced LV dimension, LV mass, and septal wall thickness and with higher LV fractional shortening and contractility during the first two years of life. Conclusions: Routine, systematic, and comprehensive cardiac evaluation, including a thorough history and directed laboratory

  3. A phase I double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study of a multigenic HIV-1 adenovirus subtype 35 vector vaccine in healthy uninfected adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Keefer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We conducted a phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of escalating doses of two recombinant replication defective adenovirus serotype 35 (Ad35 vectors containing gag, reverse transcriptase, integrase and nef (Ad35-GRIN and env (Ad35-ENV, both derived from HIV-1 subtype A isolates. The trial enrolled 56 healthy HIV-uninfected adults. METHODS: Ad35-GRIN/ENV (Ad35-GRIN and Ad35-ENV mixed in the same vial in equal proportions or Ad35-GRIN was administered intramuscularly at 0 and 6 months. Participants were randomized to receive either vaccine or placebo (10/4 per group, respectively within one of four dosage groups: Ad35-GRIN/ENV 2×10(9 (A, 2×10(10 (B, 2×10(11 (C, or Ad35-GRIN 1×10(10 (D viral particles. RESULTS: No vaccine-related serious adverse event was reported. Reactogenicity events reported were dose-dependent, mostly mild or moderate, some severe in Group C volunteers, all transient and resolving spontaneously. IFN-γ ELISPOT responses to any vaccine antigen were detected in 50, 56, 70 and 90% after the first vaccination, and in 75, 100, 88 and 86% of Groups A-D vaccine recipients after the second vaccination, respectively. The median spot forming cells (SFC per 10(6 PBMC to any antigen was 78-139 across Groups A-C and 158-174 in Group D, after each of the vaccinations with a maximum of 2991 SFC. Four to five HIV proteins were commonly recognized across all the groups and over multiple timepoints. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were polyfunctional. Env antibodies were detected in all Group A-C vaccinees and Gag antibodies in most vaccinees after the second immunization. Ad35 neutralizing titers remained low after the second vaccination. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Ad35-GRIN/ENV reactogenicity was dose-related. HIV-specific cellular and humoral responses were seen in the majority of volunteers immunized with Ad35-GRIN/ENV or Ad35-GRIN and increased after the second

  4. Differences between HIV-infected and uninfected adults in the contributions of smoking, diabetes and hypertension to acute coronary syndrome: two parallel case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Sánchez, M; Perelló, R; Pérez, I; Mateo, M G; Junyent, M; Laguno, M; Blanco, J L; Martínez-Rebollar, M; Sánchez, M; Mallolas, J; Gatell, J M; Domingo, P; Martínez, E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the separate contributions of smoking, diabetes and hypertension to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in HIV-infected adults relative to uninfected adults. Two parallel case-control studies were carried out. In the first study, HIV-positive adults diagnosed with ACS between 1997 and 2009 (HIV+/ACS) were matched for age, gender and known duration of HIV infection with HIV-positive adults without ACS (HIV+/noACS), each individual in the HIV+/ACS group being matched with three individuals in the HIV+/noACS group. In the second study, each individual in the HIV+/ACS group in the first study was matched for age, gender and calendar date of ACS diagnosis with three HIV-negative individuals diagnosed with ACS between 1997 and 2009 (HIV-/ACS). Each individual in the HIV-/ACS group was then matched for age and gender with an HIV-negative adult without ACS (HIV-/noACS). After matching, the ratio of numbers of individuals in the HIV+/ACS, HIV+/noACS, HIV-/ACS and HIV-/noACS groups was therefore 1 : 3 : 3 : 3, respectively. We performed logistic regression analyses to identify risk factors for ACS in each case-control study and calculated population attributable risks (PARs) for smoking, diabetes and hypertension in HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals. There were 57 subjects in the HIV+/ACS group, 173 in the HIV+/noACS group, 168 in the HIV-/ACS group, and 171 in the HIV-/noACS group. Independent risk factors for ACS were smoking [odds ratio (OR) 4.091; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.086-8.438; P hypertension (OR 6.589; 95% CI 3.554-12.700; P hypertension were 54.35 and 30.58, 6.57 and 17.24, and 9.07 and 38.81% in HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals, respectively. The contribution of smoking to ACS in HIV-positive adults was generally greater than the contributions of diabetes and hypertension, and was almost twice as high as that in HIV-negative adults. Development of effective smoking cessation strategies should be

  5. Revisiting the Process of Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zener, Rita Schaefer

    1999-01-01

    Defines normalization and deviations in child development. Discusses the three different levels in the normalization process. Asserts that guiding the process of normalization should drive the practice of Montessori education. Concludes that whenever there are brief episodes of normalization, the true nature of the child shows itself. (JS)

  6. Normal transmitting boundary conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖振鹏

    1996-01-01

    The multi-transmitting formula (MTF) governed by a single artificial speed is analytically developed into a generalized MTF governed by a few artificial speeds to improve its capacity in simultaneous simulation of several one-way waves propagating at different speeds.The generalized MTF is then discretized and further generalized using the space extrapolation to improve its accuracies in numerical simulation of transient waves at large angles of incidence.The above two successive generalizitions of MTF based on the notion of normal transmission lead to a compact formula of local non-reflecting boundary condition.The formula not only provides a general representation of the major schemes of existing local boundary conditions but can be used to generate new schemes,which combine advantages of different schemes.

  7. Evaluating the Normal Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a little table-free C function that evaluates the normal distribution with absolute error less than 8 x 10 -16 . A small extension provides relative error near the limit available in double precision: 14 to 16 digits, the limits determined mainly by the computer's ability to evaluate exp(-t for large t. Results are compared with those provided by calls to erf or erfc functions, the best of which compare favorably, others do not, and all appear to be much more complicated than need be to get either absolute accuracy less than 10-15 or relative accuracy to the exp(-limited 14 to 16 digits. Also provided: A short history of the error function erf and its intended use, as well as, in the "browse files" attachment, various erf or erfc versions used for comparison.

  8. Weierstrass preparation and algebraic invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Harbater, David; Krashen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We prove a form of the Weierstrass Preparation Theorem for normal algebraic curves over complete discrete valuation rings. While the more traditional algebraic form of Weierstrass Preparation applies just to the projective line over a base, our version allows more general curves. This result is then used to obtain applications concerning the values of u-invariants, and on the period-index problem for division algebras, over fraction fields of complete two-dimensional rings. Our approach uses patching methods and matrix factorization results that can be viewed as analogs of Cartan's Lemma.

  9. Cervical Precancer Risk in HIV-Infected Women Who Test Positive for Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus Despite a Normal Pap Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Marla J.; Burk, Robert D.; Massad, L. Stewart; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin; Hessol, Nancy A.; Castle, Philip E.; Anastos, Kathryn; Xie, Xianhong; Minkoff, Howard; Xue, Xiaonan; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Flowers, Lisa; Levine, Alexandra M.; Colie, Christine; Rahangdale, Lisa; Fischl, Margaret A.; Palefsky, Joel M.; Strickler, Howard D.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Determining cervical precancer risk among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected women who despite a normal Pap test are positive for oncogenic human papillomavirus (oncHPV) types is important for setting screening practices. Methods. A total of 2791 HIV-infected and 975 HIV-uninfected women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study were followed semiannually with Pap tests and colposcopy. Cumulative risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater (CIN-2+; threshold used for CIN treatment) and grade 3 or greater (CIN-3+; threshold to set screening practices) were measured in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women with normal Pap tests, stratified by baseline HPV results, and also in HIV-infected women with a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL; benchmark indication for colposcopy). Results. At baseline, 1021 HIV-infected and 518 HIV-uninfected women had normal Pap tests, of whom 154 (15%) and 27 (5%), respectively, tested oncHPV positive. The 5-year CIN-2+ cumulative risk in the HIV-infected oncHPV-positive women was 22% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9%–34%), 12% (95% CI, 0%–22%), and 14% (95% CI, 2%–25%) among those with CD4 counts CIN-3+, the cumulative risk averaged 4% (95% CI, 1%–8%) in HIV-infected oncHPV-positive women, and 10% (95% CI, 0%–23%) among those positive for HPV type 16. In HIV-infected women with LSIL, CIN-3+ risk was 7% (95% CI, 3%–11%). In multivariate analysis, HIV-infected HPV16-positive women had 13-fold (P = .001) greater CIN-3+ risk than oncHPV-negative women (referent), and HIV-infected women with LSIL had 9-fold (P < .0001) greater risk. Conclusions. HIV-infected women with a normal Pap result who test HPV16 positive have high precancer risk (similar to those with LSIL), possibly warranting immediate colposcopy. Repeat screening in 1 year may be appropriate if non-16 oncHPV is detected. PMID:26187020

  10. Normal labour: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, D

    2000-02-01

    Midwives practice within the normal childbirth paradigm. It is argued that midwives failure to define normality has allowed increasing technicalization and medicalization of the normal physiological process of birth because doctors so closely define abnormality. A concept analysis model is used to clarify what is meant by the term 'normal labour'; the emphasis being on understanding what normal labour is as it applies to midwifery practice today. This analysis highlights the importance of movement and the sequential nature of normal labour, and reveals how this is implicit within the other uses of both the words normal and labour. The final definition of normal labour offered is intended to be complimentary to existing medical determinants of progress of normal labour, because as the body of the text stresses, medical knowledge is fundamentally enmeshed in midwifery care.

  11. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Use by Breastfeeding HIV-Uninfected Women: A Prospective Short-Term Study of Antiretroviral Excretion in Breast Milk and Infant Absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth K Mugwanya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP becomes more widely used in heterosexual populations, an important consideration is its safety in infants who are breastfed by women taking PrEP. We investigated whether tenofovir and emtricitabine are excreted into breast milk and then absorbed by the breastfeeding infant in clinically significant concentrations when used as PrEP by lactating women.We conducted a prospective short-term, open-label study of daily oral emtricitabine-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate PrEP among 50 HIV-uninfected breastfeeding African mother-infant pairs between 1-24 wk postpartum (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02776748. The primary goal was to quantify the steady-state concentrations of tenofovir and emtricitabine in infant plasma ingested via breastfeeding. PrEP was administered to women through daily directly observed therapy (DOT for ten consecutive days and then discontinued thereafter. Non-fasting peak and trough samples of maternal plasma and breast milk were obtained at drug concentration steady states on days 7 and 10, and a single infant plasma sample was obtained on day 7. Peak blood and breast milk samples were obtained 1-2 h after the maternal DOT PrEP dose, while maternal trough samples were obtained at the end of the PrEP dosing interval (i.e., 23 to 24 h after maternal DOT PrEP dose. Tenofovir and emtricitabine concentrations were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS assays. Of the 50 mother-infant pairs enrolled, 48% were ≤12 wk and 52% were 13-24 wk postpartum, and median maternal age was 25 y (interquartile range [IQR] 22-28. During study follow-up, the median (IQR daily reported frequency of infant breastfeeding was 15 times (12 to 18 overall, 16 (14 to 19 for the ≤12 weeks, and 14 (12 to 17 for the 13-24 wk infant age groups. Overall, median (IQR time-averaged peak concentrations in breast milk were 3.2 ng/mL (2.3 to 4.7 for tenofovir and 212.5 ng/mL (140.0 to 405.0 for

  12. Combinatorial Maps with Normalized Knot

    CERN Document Server

    Zeps, Dainis

    2010-01-01

    We consider combinatorial maps with fixed combinatorial knot numbered with augmenting numeration called normalized knot. We show that knot's normalization doesn't affect combinatorial map what concerns its generality. Knot's normalization leads to more concise numeration of corners in maps, e.g., odd or even corners allow easy to follow distinguished cycles in map caused by the fixation of the knot. Knot's normalization may be applied to edge structuring knot too. If both are normalized then one is fully and other partially normalized mutually.

  13. Institutionalizing Normal: Rethinking Composition's Precedence in Normal Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinnell, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Composition historians have recently worked to recover histories of composition in normal schools. This essay argues, however, that historians have inadvertently misconstrued the role of normal schools in American education by inaccurately comparing rhetorical education in normal schools to rhetorical education in colleges and universities.…

  14. Preparing for faster filling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the programmed technical stop last week, operators focussed on preparing the machine for faster filling, which includes multibunch injection and a faster pre-cycle phase.   The LHC1 screen shot during the first multibunch injection operation. The LHC operational schedule incorporates a technical stop for preventive maintenance roughly every six weeks of stable operation, during which several interventions on the various machines are carried out. Last week these included the replacement of a faulty magnet in the SPS pre-accelerator, which required the subsequent re-setting of the system of particle extraction and transfer to the LHC. At the end of last week, all the machines were handed back for operation and work could start on accommodating all the changes made into the complex systems in order for normal operation to be resumed. These ‘recovery’ operations continued through the weekend and into this week. At the beginning of this week, operators succeeded in pro...

  15. Normal and pathological altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelig, B J; Rosof, L S

    2001-01-01

    The psychoanalytic literature on altruism is sparse, although much has been written on this topic from a sociobiological perspective. Freud (1917) first described the concept in "Libido Theory and Narcissism." In 1946 Anna Freud coined the term "altruistic surrender" to describe the psychodynamics of altruistic behavior in a group of inhibited individuals who were neurotically driven to do good for others. The usefulness and clinical applicability of this formulation, in conjunction with the frequent coexistence of masochism and altruism, encouraged psychoanalysts to regard all forms of altruism as having masochistic underpinnings. Since then, there has been a conflation of the two concepts in much of the analytic literature. This paper reexamines the psychoanalytic understanding of altruism and proposes an expansion of the concept to include a normal form. Five types of altruism are described: protoaltruism, generative altruism, conflicted altruism, pseudoaltruism, and psychotic altruism. Protoaltruism has biological roots and can be observed in animals. In humans, protoaltruism includes maternal and paternal nurturing and protectiveness. Generative altruism is the nonconflictual pleasure in fostering the success and/or welfare of another. Conflicted altruism is generative altruism that is drawn into conflict, but in which the pleasure and satisfaction of another (a proxy) is actually enjoyed. Pseudoaltruism originates in conflict and serves as a defensive cloak for underlying sadomasochism. Psychotic altruism is defined as the sometimes bizarre forms of caretaking behavior and associated self-denial seen in psychotic individuals, and often based on delusion. We consider Anna Freud's altruistic surrender to combine features of both conflict-laden altruism and pseudoaltruism. Two clinical illustrations are discussed.

  16. Surface normals and barycentric coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullineux Glen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The normal to a triangular parametric surface is investigated where the parameters used are barycentric coordinates. Formulae for the normal are obtained for non-rational and rational surfaces.

  17. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  18. Genital Tract Interleukin-8 but not Interleukin-1β or Interleukin-6 Concentration is Associated with Bacterial Vaginosis and Its Clearance in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis Losikoff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Genital tract infections and cytokine perturbations are associated with increased HIV acquisition and transmission. We measured the relationship between bacterial vaginosis (BV and concentrations of Interleukin-8 (IL-8, Interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and Interleukin-6 (IL-6 in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL specimens collected longitudinally from 16 HIV-infected and 8 HIV-uninfected high-risk women. CVL samples were analyzed when women presented with BV, and at their next visit, after successful treatment, when BV was cleared. A subset of participants had cytokine levels evaluated at three consecutive clinic visits: before developing BV, at the time of BV diagnosis, and after clearing BV. Significantly higher IL-8, but not IL-1β or IL-6 levels were present when women had active BV compared to when BV was absent. Trends in cytokine levels were similar for HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. BV in these women was associated with significantly higher concentrations of genital tract IL-8 which decreased 2.4 fold when BV was cleared.

  19. T-lymphocyte subsets in HIV-infected and high-risk HIV-uninfected adolescents - Retention of naive T lymphocytes in HIV-infected adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, SD; Rudy, B; Muenz, L; Starr, SE; Campbell, DE; Wilson, C; Holland, C; Crowley-Nowick, P; Vermund, SH

    2000-01-01

    Background: The capacity of the immune system of adolescents to generate and repopulate naive and memory cell populations under conditions of normal homeostasis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is largely unknown. Objective: To assess lymphocyte subsets in HIV-infected and high-risk

  20. Permeability of normal versus carious dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashley, E L; Talman, R; Horner, J A; Pashley, D H

    1991-10-01

    Although a number of reports have been published demonstrating that carious dentin is less permeable than normal dentin, these reports have been qualitative rather than quantitative. The purpose of this in vitro study was to apply a quantitative technique to the study of the permeability of carious human teeth before and after excavation, before and after removal of the smear layer and before and after preparation of a control cavity of similar size and depth in normal dentin subjected to the same measurements, for comparative purposes. Dentin permeability was measured as a hydraulic conductance. The permeability values measured at each step in the protocol were expressed as a percent of the maximum permeability of both cavities, permitting each tooth the serve as its own control. Carious lesions exhibited a slight degree of permeability (2.3 +/- 0.6% of controls) which remained unchanged after excavation of the lesions. Removal of the smear layer in the excavated carious lesions increased the permeability significantly to 6.9 +/- 3.2%. Preparation of a control cavity of the same area and depth increased the permeability slightly. Removal of its smear layer increased the permeability of the dentin 91%. These results confirm previous qualitative studies that carious dentin, even after excavation and removal of the smear layer has a very low permeability.

  1. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  2. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  3. Exclusive breastfeeding, diarrhoeal morbidity and all-cause mortality in infants of HIV-infected and HIV uninfected mothers: an intervention cohort study in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel C Rollins

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral drug interventions significantly reduce the risk of HIV transmission to infants through breastfeeding. We report diarrhoea prevalence and all-cause mortality at 12 months of age according to infant feeding practices, among infants born to HIV-infected and uninfected mothers in South Africa. METHODS: A non-randomised intervention cohort study that followed both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and their infants until 18 months of age. Mothers were supported in their infant feeding choice. Detailed morbidity and vital status data were collected over the first year. At the time, only single dose nevirapine was available to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. RESULTS: Among 2,589 infants, detailed feeding data and vital status were available for 1,082 HIV-exposed infants and 1,155 HIV non-exposed infants. Among exclusively breastfed (EBF infants there were 9.4 diarrhoeal days per 1,000 child days (95%CI. 9.12-9.82 while among infants who were never breastfed there were 15.6 diarrhoeal days per 1,000 child days (95%CI. 14.62-16.59. Exclusive breastfeeding was associated with fewer acute, persistent and total diarrhoeal events than mixed or no breastfeeding in both HIV-exposed infants and also infants of HIV uninfected mothers. In an adjusted cox regression analysis, the risk of death among all infants by 12 months of age was significantly greater in those who were never breastfed (aHR 3.5, p<0.001 or mixed fed (aHR 2.65, p<0.001 compared with those who were EBF. In separate multivariable analyses, infants who were EBF for shorter durations had an increased risk of death compared to those EBF for 5-6 months [aHR 2.18 (95% CI, 1.56-3.01; p<0.001]. DISCUSSION: In the context of antiretroviral drugs being scaled-up to eliminate new HIV infections among children, there is strong justification for financial and human resource investment to promote and support exclusive breastfeeding to improve HIV-free survival

  4. Normal family of quasimeromorphic mappings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Daochun(孙道椿); YANG; Lo(杨乐)

    2003-01-01

    The more general quasimeromorphic mappings are studied with the geometric method. The necessary and sufficient conditions for the normality of the family of quasimeromorphic mappings are discussed. We proved two inequalities on the covering surface and obtained some normal criteria on quasimeromorphic mappings with them. Obviously, these criteria hold for meromorphic functions.

  5. Surfaces parametrised by the normals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    the origin to the tangent plane and the surface is simply considered as the envelope of its family of tangent planes. Suppose we are given points and normals and we want a C^k-surface interpolating these data. The data gives the value and gradients of the support function at certain points (the given normals...

  6. Rational Normalization of Concentration Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonckaert, P.; Egghe, L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses normalization features of good concentration measures and extends the range of values of concentration measures that are population-size-independent. Rational normalization is described, and mathematical formulas for the coefficient of variation, Pratt's measure, the Gini index, Theil's measure, and Atkinson's indices are explained. (14…

  7. Normal BGG solutions and polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Cap, A; Hammerl, M

    2012-01-01

    First BGG operators are a large class of overdetermined linear differential operators intrinsically associated to a parabolic geometry on a manifold. The corresponding equations include those controlling infinitesimal automorphisms, higher symmetries, and many other widely studied PDE of geometric origin. The machinery of BGG sequences also singles out a subclass of solutions called normal solutions. These correspond to parallel tractor fields and hence to (certain) holonomy reductions of the canonical normal Cartan connection. Using the normal Cartan connection, we define a special class of local frames for any natural vector bundle associated to a parabolic geometry. We then prove that the coefficient functions of any normal solution of a first BGG operator with respect to such a frame are polynomials in the normal coordinates of the parabolic geometry. A bound on the degree of these polynomials in terms of representation theory data is derived. For geometries locally isomorphic to the homogeneous model of ...

  8. An assessment of the risk of spreading the fish parasite Gyrodactylus salaris to uninfected territories in the European Union with the movement of live Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeler, E.; Thrush, M.; Paisley, Larry;

    2006-01-01

    The freshwater, monogenean fish ecto-parasite, Gyrodactylus salaris, was introduced into Norway through the importation of juvenile salmon from Sweden in the 1970s and resulted in dramatic declines in the number of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in 45 Norwegian rivers. From May 1, 2004, a change....... This risk assessment was undertaken to establish whether exports of live Atlantic salmon from coastal sites increased the risk of G. salaris introduction and establishment in uninfected EU territories. A scenario tree of events necessary for the introduction and establishment of the parasite was constructed......). Transmission from seawater sites, where salinity is greater than 25 parts per thousand, is only possible if infected fish were introduced hours before export. Furthermore, transport via wellboat in full-strength seawater (33 parts per thousand) reduced the risk of introduction to a negligible level. Similarly...

  9. Proportions of CD4+, CD8+ and B cell subsets are not affected by exposure to HIV or to Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in Malawian HIV-uninfected but exposed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longwe, Herbert; Phiri, Kamija S; Mbeye, Nyanyiwe M; Gondwe, Thandile; Jambo, Kondwani C; Mandala, Wilson L

    2015-08-28

    As a result of successful PMTCT programs, children born from HIV-infected mothers are now effectively protected from contracting the infection. However, it is not well known whether in utero exposure to the virus and the subsequent exposure to Cotrimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis affect the cell mediated immune system of the children. This observational prospective study was aimed at determining how CD4(+) T, CD8(+) T and B cell subsets varied in HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children at different ages. We recruited HEU and HIV-unexposed and uninfected (HUU) children from 6 months of age and followed them up until they were 18 months old. HEU children received daily CTX prophylaxis beginning at 6 weeks of age until when 12 months of age. Venous blood samples were collected 6 monthly and analysed for different subsets of CD8(+) T, B cells and totalCD4(+) T cells. At 6 months of age, HEU children had a lower percentage of total CD4(+) T cells compared to HUU children and a lower proportion of naïve CD8(+) T cells but higher percentage of effector memory CD8(+) T cells compared to HUU children. HEU and HUU children had similar proportions of all B cell subsets at all ages. The study showed that the subtle variations in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell subsets observed at 6 months do not last beyond 12 months of age, suggesting that HEU children have a robust cell-mediated immune system during first year of life. This article report is not based on results of a controlled health-care intervention.

  10. HIV-1 specific IgA detected in vaginal secretions of HIV uninfected women participating in a microbicide trial in Southern Africa are primarily directed toward gp120 and gp140 specificities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly E Seaton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many participants in microbicide trials remain uninfected despite ongoing exposure to HIV-1. Determining the emergence and nature of mucosal HIV-specific immune responses in such women is important, since these responses may contribute to protection and could provide insight for the rational design of HIV-1 vaccines. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We first conducted a pilot study to compare three sampling devices (Dacron swabs, flocked nylon swabs and Merocel sponges for detection of HIV-1-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in vaginal secretions. IgG antibodies from HIV-1-positive women reacted broadly across the full panel of eight HIV-1 envelope (Env antigens tested, whereas IgA antibodies only reacted to the gp41 subunit. No Env-reactive antibodies were detected in the HIV-negative women. The three sampling devices yielded equal HIV-1-specific antibody titers, as well as total IgG and IgA concentrations. We then tested vaginal Dacron swabs archived from 57 HIV seronegative women who participated in a microbicide efficacy trial in Southern Africa (HPTN 035. We detected vaginal IgA antibodies directed at HIV-1 Env gp120/gp140 in six of these women, and at gp41 in another three women, but did not detect Env-specific IgG antibodies in any women. CONCLUSION: Vaginal secretions of HIV-1 infected women contained IgG reactivity to a broad range of Env antigens and IgA reactivity to gp41. In contrast, Env-binding antibodies in the vaginal secretions of HIV-1 uninfected women participating in the microbicide trial were restricted to the IgA subtype and were mostly directed at HIV-1 gp120/gp140.

  11. The Amagugu Intervention: A Conceptual Framework for Increasing HIV Disclosure and Parent-Led Communication about Health among HIV-Infected Parents with HIV-Uninfected Primary School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Tamsen J.; Mitchell, Joanie; Stein, Alan; Mkwanazi, Ntombizodumo Brilliant; Bland, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in access to HIV prevention and treatment have reduced vertical transmission of HIV, with most children born to HIV-infected parents being HIV-uninfected themselves. A major challenge that HIV-infected parents face is disclosure of their HIV status to their predominantly HIV-uninfected children. Their children enter middle childhood and early adolescence facing many challenges associated with parental illness and hospitalization, often exacerbated by stigma and a lack of access to health education and support. Increasingly, evidence suggests that primary school-aged children have the developmental capacity to grasp concepts of health and illness, including HIV, and that in the absence of parent-led communication and education about these issues, HIV-exposed children may be at increased risk of psychological and social problems. The Amagugu intervention is a six-session home-based intervention, delivered by lay counselors, which aims to increase parenting capacity to disclose their HIV status and offer health education to their primary school-aged children. The intervention includes information and activities on disclosure, health care engagement, and custody planning. An uncontrolled pre–post-evaluation study with 281 families showed that the intervention was feasible, acceptable, and effective in increasing maternal disclosure. The aim of this paper is to describe the conceptual model of the Amagugu intervention, as developed post-evaluation, showing the proposed pathways of risk that Amagugu aims to disrupt through its intervention targets, mechanisms, and activities; and to present a summary of results from the large-scale evaluation study of Amagugu to demonstrate the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention model. This relatively low-intensity home-based intervention led to: increased HIV disclosure to children, improvements in mental health for mother and child, and improved health care engagement and custody planning for the child. The

  12. The Amagugu Intervention: A conceptual framework for increasing HIV disclosure and parent-led communication about health and HIV prevention among HIV-infected parents with HIV-uninfected primary school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamsen Jean Rochat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Advances in access to HIV prevention and treatment have reduced vertical transmission of HIV, with most children born to HIV-infected parents being HIV-uninfected themselves. A major challenge that HIV-infected parents face is disclosure of their HIV status to their predominantly HIV-uninfected children. Their children enter middle childhood and early adolescence facing many challenges associated with parental illness and hospitalisation, often exacerbated by stigma and a lack of access to health education and support. Increasingly, evidence suggests that primary school-aged children have the developmental capacity to grasp concepts of health and illness, including HIV, and that in the absence of parent-led communication and education about these issues, HIV-exposed children may be at increased risk of psychological and social problems. The Amagugu intervention is a six-session home-based intervention, delivered by lay counsellors, which aims to increase parenting capacity to disclose their HIV status and offer health education to their primary school-aged children. The intervention includes information and activities on disclosure, health care engagement and custody planning. An uncontrolled pre-post evaluation study with 281 families showed the intervention was feasible, acceptable and effective in increasing maternal disclosure. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the conceptual model of the Amagugu intervention, as developed post-evaluation, showing the proposed pathways of risk that Amagugu aims to disrupt through its intervention targets, mechanisms and activities; and to present a summary of results from the large scale evaluation study of Amagugu to demonstrate the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention model. This relatively low-intensity home-based intervention led to: increased HIV disclosure to children, improvements in mental health for mother and child, and improved health care engagement and custody planning for

  13. The Amagugu Intervention: A Conceptual Framework for Increasing HIV Disclosure and Parent-Led Communication about Health among HIV-Infected Parents with HIV-Uninfected Primary School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Tamsen J; Mitchell, Joanie; Stein, Alan; Mkwanazi, Ntombizodumo Brilliant; Bland, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    Advances in access to HIV prevention and treatment have reduced vertical transmission of HIV, with most children born to HIV-infected parents being HIV-uninfected themselves. A major challenge that HIV-infected parents face is disclosure of their HIV status to their predominantly HIV-uninfected children. Their children enter middle childhood and early adolescence facing many challenges associated with parental illness and hospitalization, often exacerbated by stigma and a lack of access to health education and support. Increasingly, evidence suggests that primary school-aged children have the developmental capacity to grasp concepts of health and illness, including HIV, and that in the absence of parent-led communication and education about these issues, HIV-exposed children may be at increased risk of psychological and social problems. The Amagugu intervention is a six-session home-based intervention, delivered by lay counselors, which aims to increase parenting capacity to disclose their HIV status and offer health education to their primary school-aged children. The intervention includes information and activities on disclosure, health care engagement, and custody planning. An uncontrolled pre-post-evaluation study with 281 families showed that the intervention was feasible, acceptable, and effective in increasing maternal disclosure. The aim of this paper is to describe the conceptual model of the Amagugu intervention, as developed post-evaluation, showing the proposed pathways of risk that Amagugu aims to disrupt through its intervention targets, mechanisms, and activities; and to present a summary of results from the large-scale evaluation study of Amagugu to demonstrate the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention model. This relatively low-intensity home-based intervention led to: increased HIV disclosure to children, improvements in mental health for mother and child, and improved health care engagement and custody planning for the child. The

  14. Normal families of meromorphic functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chao-wei; WANG Yong-jun

    2007-01-01

    A normal theorem concerning meromorphic functions sharing values was proved with the method of Zalcman-Pang.The theorem is as follows.If for each f in F,all zeros of f-a have multiplicity at least k(k≥2),f and its k-th derivative function share a,and if f=b whenever its k-th denvative equal b,then F is normal in D.This theorem improved the result of Chen and Fang[Chen HH,Fang ML,Shared values and normal families of meromorphic functions,Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications,2001,260:124-1 32].

  15. Complete Normal Ordering 1: Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to `complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all `cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of `complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative i...

  16. AGE IN NORMAL HUMAN PREGNANCY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Normal human pregnancy (PREG) predisposes towards gestational age (GA) ... These results potently suggest that the HH changes observed in this study are of advantage to ... changes of physiological functions affecting all body.

  17. Fedosov supermanifolds: II. Normal coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Geyer, B; Geyer, Bodo; Lavrov, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The study of recently introduced Fedosov supermanifolds is continued. Using normal coordinates, properties of even and odd symplectic supermanifolds endowed with a symmetric connection respecting given sympletic structure are studied.

  18. Normality Criteria of Meromorphic Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qiong; Yuan Wen-jun; Chen Wei; Tian Hong-gen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider normality criteria for a family of meromorphic functions concerning shared values. Let F be a family of meromorphic functions defined in a domain D, m, n, k and d be four positive integers satisfying m≥n+2 and d≥ k+1m−n−1 , and a(̸=0), b be two finite constants. Suppose that every f ∈F has all its zeros and poles of multiplicity at least k and d, respectively. If (fn)(k)−afm and (gn)(k)−agm share the value b for every pair of functions (f, g) of F, then F is normal in D. Our results improve the related theorems of Schwick (Schwick W. Normality criteria for families of meromorphic function. J. Anal. Math., 1989, 52:241–289), Li and Gu (Li Y T, Gu Y X. On normal families of meromorphic functions. J. Math. Anal. Appl., 2009, 354: 421–425).

  19. Immoral, deviant, or just normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary research often relates driving under the influence (DUI) to alcohol addiction and young drunk drivers, in particular, to social deviance. Based on qualitative interviews with 25 convicted drunk drivers, this article studies the relationship between drinking and DUI. The article focus...... themselves and their relationship between drinking and DUI as normal. The article thus concludes that while some drunk drivers view themselves in line with popular conceptions of DUI, others distance themselves from these associations so as to present themselves as normal....

  20. Is normal science good science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Kępińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available “Normal science” is a concept introduced by Thomas Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962. In Kuhn’s view, normal science means “puzzle solving”, solving problems within the paradigm—framework most successful in solving current major scientific problems—rather than producing major novelties. This paper examines Kuhnian and Popperian accounts of normal science and their criticisms to assess if normal science is good. The advantage of normal science according to Kuhn was “psychological”: subjective satisfaction from successful “puzzle solving”. Popper argues for an “intellectual” science, one that consistently refutes conjectures (hypotheses and offers new ideas rather than focus on personal advantages. His account is criticized as too impersonal and idealistic. Feyerabend’s perspective seems more balanced; he argues for a community that would introduce new ideas, defend old ones, and enable scientists to develop in line with their subjective preferences. The paper concludes that normal science has no one clear-cut set of criteria encompassing its meaning and enabling clear assessment.

  1. When Working in Cold, Be Prepared and Be Aware

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... does not restrict your movement or block your eyesight. Be prepared by wearing warm clothing. Be aware ... to cold temperatures could cause you to make poor decisions or react more slowly than normal. Tell ...

  2. Groupoid normalizers of tensor products

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Junsheng; White, Stuart A; Wiggins, Alan D

    2008-01-01

    We consider an inclusion $B\\subseteq M$ of finite von Neumann algebras satisfying $B'\\cap M\\subseteq B$. A partial isometry $v\\in M$ is called a groupoid normalizer if $vBv^*, v^*Bv\\subseteq B$. Given two such inclusions $B_i\\subseteq M_i$, $i=1,2$, we find approximations to the groupoid normalizers of $B_1 \\vnotimes B_2$ in $M_1\\vnotimes M_2$, from which we deduce that the von Neumann algebra generated by the groupoid normalizers of the tensor product is equal to the tensor product of the von Neumann algebras generated by the groupoid normalizers. Examples are given to show that this can fail without the hypothesis $B_i'\\cap M_i\\subseteq B_i$, $i=1,2$. We also prove a parallel result where the groupoid normalizers are replaced by the intertwiners, those partial isometries $v\\in M$ satisfying $vBv^*\\subseteq B$ and $v^*v, vv^*\\in B$.

  3. Normal probability plots with confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarangsi, Wanpen; Liu, Wei; Bretz, Frank; Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J; Wan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Normal probability plots are widely used as a statistical tool for assessing whether an observed simple random sample is drawn from a normally distributed population. The users, however, have to judge subjectively, if no objective rule is provided, whether the plotted points fall close to a straight line. In this paper, we focus on how a normal probability plot can be augmented by intervals for all the points so that, if the population distribution is normal, then all the points should fall into the corresponding intervals simultaneously with probability 1-α. These simultaneous 1-α probability intervals provide therefore an objective mean to judge whether the plotted points fall close to the straight line: the plotted points fall close to the straight line if and only if all the points fall into the corresponding intervals. The powers of several normal probability plot based (graphical) tests and the most popular nongraphical Anderson-Darling and Shapiro-Wilk tests are compared by simulation. Based on this comparison, recommendations are given in Section 3 on which graphical tests should be used in what circumstances. An example is provided to illustrate the methods.

  4. Preparing for Multiple Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video Games, and the Internet Preparing for Multiple Births KidsHealth > For Parents > Preparing for Multiple Births Print ... a combination of both. The Risks of Multiple Births The most common risk involved with multiple births ...

  5. Exercises in anatomy: the normal heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    In the first of our exercises in anatomy, created for the Multimedia Manual of the European Association of Cardiothoracic Surgery, we emphasized that thorough knowledge of intracardiac anatomy was an essential part of the training for all budding cardiac surgeons, explaining how we had used the archive of congenitally malformed hearts maintained at Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago to prepare a series of videoclips, demonstrating the salient features of tetralogy of Fallot. In this series of videoclips, we extend our analysis of the normal heart, since for our initial exercise we had concentrated exclusively on the structure of the right ventricular outflow tract. We begin our overview of normal anatomy by emphasizing the need, in the current era, to describe the heart in attitudinally appropriate fashion. Increasingly, clinicians are demonstrating the features of the heart as it is located within the body. It is no longer satisfactory, therefore, to describe these components in a 'Valentine' fashion, as continues to be the case in most textbooks of normal or cardiac anatomy. We then emphasize the importance of the so-called morphological method, which states that structures within the heart should be defined on the basis of their own intrinsic morphology, and not according to other parts, which are themselves variable. We continue by using this concept to show how it is the appendages that serve to distinguish between the atrial chambers, while the apical trabecular components provide the features to distinguish the ventricles. We then return to the cardiac chambers, emphasizing features of surgical significance, in particular the locations of the cardiac conduction tissues. We proceed by examining the cardiac valves, and conclude by providing a detailed analysis of the septal structures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  6. 3j Symbols: To Normalize or Not to Normalize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to…

  7. Conductivity Modulation in a gated Normal-CDW-Normal configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Saumya; Lake, Roger

    There is considerable interest in switching by exploiting a voltage controlled phase transition, and one such phase is the charge density wave phase that occurs in a number of quasi one dimensional and two dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Voltage controlled switching of the charge density wave transition in 1T-TaS2 has recently been demonstrated. We consider a transistor geometry with normal metal contacts and a channel of CDW material. The interaction is modeled with a negative U Hubbard term. Normal-CDW-temperature-U phase diagrams show the regime of the CDW in the ideal lattice. The wavelength of the CDW in the transistor channel is determined by both the conditions of Fermi surface nesting and also the condition of commensurability with the channel length between the two normal leads. Moving the Fermi level of the channel first results in phase boundaries within the CDW as the conditions of commensurability and Fermi surface nesting become incompatible. Moving the Fermi level from half filling by few tens of meV causes a collapsing of the CDW gap and an effective CDW-normal transition, leaving vestiges of the CDW in the channel. The transition is accompanied by one to two orders of magnitude increase in the conductivity. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant No. 1124733 and the Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC) Nanoelectronic Research Initiative as a part of the Nanoelectronics for 2020 and Beyond (NEB-2020) program.

  8. Mechanical stratigraphy and normal faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrill, David A.; Morris, Alan P.; McGinnis, Ronald N.; Smart, Kevin J.; Wigginton, Sarah S.; Hill, Nicola J.

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical stratigraphy encompasses the mechanical properties, thicknesses, and interface properties of rock units. Although mechanical stratigraphy often relates directly to lithostratigraphy, lithologic description alone does not adequately describe mechanical behavior. Analyses of normal faults with displacements of millimeters to 10's of kilometers in mechanically layered rocks reveal that mechanical stratigraphy influences nucleation, failure mode, fault geometry, displacement gradient, displacement distribution, fault core and damage zone characteristics, and fault zone deformation processes. The relationship between normal faulting and mechanical stratigraphy can be used either to predict structural style using knowledge of mechanical stratigraphy, or conversely to interpret mechanical stratigraphy based on characterization of the structural style. This review paper explores a range of mechanical stratigraphic controls on normal faulting illustrated by natural and modeled examples.

  9. The construction of normal expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Røpke, Inge

    2008-01-01

    The gradual upward changes of standards in normal everyday life have significant environmental implications, and it is therefore important to study how these changes come about. The intention of the article is to analyze the social construction of normal expectations through a case study. The case...... concerns the present boom in bathroom renovations in Denmark, which offers an excellent opportunity to study the interplay between a wide variety of consumption drivers and social changes pointing toward long-term changes of normal expectations regarding bathroom standards. The study is problemoriented...... and transdisciplinary and draws on a wide range of sociological, anthropological, and economic theories. The empirical basis comprises a combination of statistics, a review of magazine and media coverage, visits to exhibitions, and qualitative interviews. A variety of consumption drivers are identified. Among...

  10. Thesis Preparation Manual

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    "This Thesis Preparation Manual has been written to provide you with format and procedure guidance for preparing and processing your thesis at the Naval Postgraduate School. It covers both unclassified and classified theses. All theses and thesis technical reports must be prepared in accordance with these guidelines. Please note that this manual is not written in the thesis format." form the Foreword

  11. Glaucoma de pressão normal Normal tension glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Maynart Tavares

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O glaucoma de pressão normal é neuropatia óptica caracterizada por diminuição da camada de fibras nervosas da retina, aumento da relação escavação/disco e defeito de campo visual, porém sem evidência de aumento da pressão intra-ocular. Os pacientes com glaucoma de pressão normal constituem um grupo heterogêneo em que várias condições sistêmicas podem ser encontradas e apresentam sinais clínicos oculares somente facilmente identificados nos estágios muito avançados da doença. E seu tratamento apresenta desafios maiores do que os existentes no tratamento dos glaucomas hipertensivos. O presente texto propõe uma revisão da patogênese e do diagnóstico diferencial, discutindo os aspectos vasculares, reumáticos, neurológicos e genéticos que devem ser investigados, assim como do tratamento dessa doença. Os autores pesquisaram os bancos de dados do PubMed (MEDLINE, LILACS e Cochrane Library (CENTRAL.Normal tension glaucoma is an optic neuropathy in which the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness is reduced, the optic nerve is pathologically excavated, and the visual field is disturbed, although intraocular pressure is classified as normal. Patients with normal tension glaucoma are a heterogeneous group in which many systemic pathologic conditions may be present, and presenting ocular clinical signs that are difficult to be identified in the early stages of the disease. Treatment is more challenging than in hypertensive glaucomas. The authors sought to review the pathophysiology and differential diagnosis of this condition assessing vascular, rheumatic, neurological and genetic aspects that should be studied, as well as its treatment. The sources of references are PubMed (MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library (CENTRAL databases.

  12. Spytkirtlernes normale struktur og funktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Anja Weirsøe; Jensen, Siri Beier; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2011-01-01

    Spytkirtlernes normale struktur og funktion Makroskopisk inddeles spytkirtlerne efter deres størrelse, hvor glandulae (gll.) parotideae, gll. submandibulares og gll. sublinguales er de store parrede spytkirtler, mens de små spytkirtler er lokaliserede submukøst i kinder, læber og ganen. Mikroskop......Spytkirtlernes normale struktur og funktion Makroskopisk inddeles spytkirtlerne efter deres størrelse, hvor glandulae (gll.) parotideae, gll. submandibulares og gll. sublinguales er de store parrede spytkirtler, mens de små spytkirtler er lokaliserede submukøst i kinder, læber og ganen...

  13. Asymptotic Normality of Quadratic Estimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, James; Li, Lingling; Tchetgen, Eric; van der Vaart, Aad

    2016-12-01

    We prove conditional asymptotic normality of a class of quadratic U-statistics that are dominated by their degenerate second order part and have kernels that change with the number of observations. These statistics arise in the construction of estimators in high-dimensional semi- and non-parametric models, and in the construction of nonparametric confidence sets. This is illustrated by estimation of the integral of a square of a density or regression function, and estimation of the mean response with missing data. We show that estimators are asymptotically normal even in the case that the rate is slower than the square root of the observations.

  14. Normalized cDNA libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  15. Persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Newport, and Salmonella Poona in the gut of a free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and transmission to progeny and uninfected nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Stephen J; Anderson, Gary L; Williams, Phillip L; Millner, Patricia D; Beuchat, Larry R

    2005-05-25

    A study was undertaken to determine the persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and salmonellae in the gut of a free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, as affected by temperature and relative humidity and to determine if infected worms transmit Salmonella enterica serotype Newport to progeny and uninfected worms. Worms were fed cells of a non-pathogenic strain of E. coli (OP50), E. coli O157:H7, S. enterica serotype Newport, and S. enterica serotype Poona, followed by incubating at 4, 20, or 37 degrees C for up to 5 days. Initial populations of ingested pathogens significantly increased by up to 2.93 log(10) cfu/worm within 1 day at 20 degrees C on K agar and remained constant for an additional 4 days. When worms were placed on Bacto agar, populations of ingested pathogens remained constant at 4 degrees C, decreased significantly at 20 degrees C, and increased significantly at 37 degrees C within 3 days. Worms fed E. coli OP50 or S. Newport were incubated at 4 or 20 degrees C at relative humidities of 33%, 75%, or 98% to determine survival characteristics of ingested bacteria. Fewer cells of the pathogens survived incubation at 33% relative humidity compared to higher relative humidities. Populations of ingested E. coli OP50 and S. Newport decreased by up to 1.65 and 3.44 log(10) cfu/worm, respectively, in worms incubated at 20 degrees C and 33% relative humidity. Placement together on K agar of adult worms, labeled with green fluorescent protein (gfp) in the pharynx area, that had ingested gfp-labeled S. Newport and uninfected wild type worms resulted in transfer of the pathogen to gut of wild type worms. S. Newport was isolated from C. elegans two generations removed from exposure to the pathogen. Results of these studies show that C. elegans may serve as a temporary reservoir of foodborne pathogens, and could perhaps be a vector for contaminating preharvest fruits and vegetables, thus potentially increasing the risk of enteric infections associated with

  16. Length Normalization in XML Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, Jaap; Rijke, Maarten de; Sigurbjörnsson, Börkur

    2005-01-01

    The full paper appeared as: J. Kamps, M. de Rijke, and B. Sigurbj¨ornsson, “Length Normalization in XML Retrieval,” In: Proceedings 27th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference (SIGIR 2004), pages 80-87, 2004.

  17. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background) perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to 'complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all 'cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of 'complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting 'trick' we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  18. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to ‘complete normal order’ the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all ‘cephalopod’ Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of ‘complete normal ordering’ (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting ‘trick’ we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  19. Normal Families and Shared Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-qin; LEI Chun-lin

    2015-01-01

    Let k be a positive integer, let h be a holomorphic function in a domain D, h 6≡0 and let F be a family of nonvanishing meromorphic functions in D. If each pair of functions f and g in F , f (k) and g(k) share h in D, then F is normal in D.

  20. Hemimegalencephaly and normal intellectual development.

    OpenAIRE

    Fusco, L; Ferracuti, S; Fariello, G; Manfredi, M; Vigevano, F.

    1992-01-01

    Hemimegalencephaly is a rare congenital malformation characterised by overgrowth of one hemisphere. Although it is commonly thought to be associated with neurological deficits, developmental delay, and intractable epilepsy, the clinical expression of hemimegalencephaly, can vary widely. This patient was neurologically and neuropsychologically normal apart from rare partial seizures.

  1. Hemimegalencephaly and normal intellectual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, L; Ferracuti, S; Fariello, G; Manfredi, M; Vigevano, F

    1992-01-01

    Hemimegalencephaly is a rare congenital malformation characterised by overgrowth of one hemisphere. Although it is commonly thought to be associated with neurological deficits, developmental delay, and intractable epilepsy, the clinical expression of hemimegalencephaly, can vary widely. This patient was neurologically and neuropsychologically normal apart from rare partial seizures. Images PMID:1326602

  2. Is My Child's Appetite Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child’s appetite changes. Children do not grow as fast in their preschool years. That is why your child may have a smaller appetite now. That is normal. If he or she is not hungry or does not finish a meal, relax. Take the food away. Your child probably is eating enough if ...

  3. Selections, Extensions and Collectionwise Normality

    CERN Document Server

    Gutev, Valentin

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that the classical Michael's selection theorem for l.s.c. mappings with a collectionwise normal domain can be reduced only to compact-valued mappings modulo the Dowker's extension theorem for such spaces. The technique developed to achieve this result is applied to construct selections for set-valued mappings whose point images are in completely metrizable absolute retracts.

  4. Testing bivariate independence and normality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, W.C.M.; Ledwina, Teresa; Rafajlowicz, Ewaryst

    1997-01-01

    In many statistical studies the relationship between two random variables X and Y is investigated and in particular the question whether X and Y are independent and normally distributed is of interest. Smooth tests may be used for testing this. They consist of several components, the first measuring

  5. Striving for the unknown normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    the ADHD diagnosis both answers and produces existential questions on what counts as normal behaviour and emotions. The diagnosis helps the diagnosed to identify, accept and handle problems by offering concrete explanations and solutions to diffuse experienced problems. But the diagnostic process...

  6. Inequality constrained normal linear models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klugkist, I.G.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation deals with normal linear models with inequality constraints among model parameters. It consists of an introduction and four chapters that are papers submitted for publication. The first chapter introduces the use of inequality constraints. Scientists often have one or more theories

  7. Spytkirtlernes normale struktur og funktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Anja Weirsøe; Jensen, Siri Beier; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2011-01-01

    Spytkirtlernes normale struktur og funktion Makroskopisk inddeles spytkirtlerne efter deres størrelse, hvor glandulae (gll.) parotideae, gll. submandibulares og gll. sublinguales er de store parrede spytkirtler, mens de små spytkirtler er lokaliserede submukøst i kinder, læber og ganen. Mikroskop...

  8. Preparing for a dermatopathology quiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Vasudevan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatopathology is one of the key aspects in dermatological diagnosis and is of immense value to the practicing dermatologist as well as residents pursuing dermatology as a career. It is a visual medium of understanding the subject, and is therefore ideal to be tested similarly. Dermatopathology quiz has become a part and parcel of most scientific deliberations, and is therefore an essential requirement of the postgraduate curriculum. Preparing for a dermatopathology quiz is tougher than preparing for a normal clinical quiz because of the lesser importance given for it in the syllabus of postgraduation and also due to the lack of resources either in getting microscopic sessions arranged or due to lack of flair of the subject compared to cosmetology or dermatosurgery. This review was done with the purpose of educating both the students and quizmasters as to how to prepare for a dermatopathology quiz. It is a unique proposal and, therefore, is gathered from more of personal experience, experience gained from watching quizzes conducted by experienced quizmasters, and also from the advice gained from masters of the subject in relation to the quiz.

  9. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  10. Lymphoreticular cells in human brain tumours and in normal brain.

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation, using various rosetting assays of cell suspensions prepared by mechanical disaggregation or collagenase digestion, demonstrated lymphoreticular cells in human normal brain (cerebral cortex and cerebellum) and in malignant brain tumours. The study revealed T and B lymphocytes and their subsets (bearing receptors for Fc(IgG) and C3) in 5/14 glioma suspensions, comprising less than 15% of the cell population. Between 20-60% of cells in tumour suspensions morphologicall...

  11. Effects of antiretroviral drugs for prevention of HIV-mother-to-child transmission on hematological parameters and hemoglobin synthesis in HIV-uninfected newborns with and without thalassemia carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongnoi, Rotjanee; Oberdorfer, Peninnah; Sirivatanapa, Pannee; Phanpong, Chotiros; Pornprasert, Sakorn

    2013-04-01

    The effects of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs administered to HIV-infected pregnancy on hematological parameters and hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis in ARV-exposed newborns with and without thalassemia carrier and of ARV drugs in worsening anemia in thalassemia carrier newborns are not well understood. Cord blood samples were collected from newborns of HIV-infected and -uninfected pregnancies. Hematological parameters and hemoglobin typing were analyzed by automated blood counter and capillary electrophoresis (CE), respectively. In the group of thalassemia carrier, the ARV-exposed newborns had significantly lower mean levels of red blood cell counts and hematocrit and had significantly higher mean levels of MCH than the ARV-unexposed newborns. Similar results were found in the group of newborns without thalassemia carrier. There were no statistical differences in mean levels of Hb-A₂, Hb-A, Hb-F and Hb-E (when applicable) in ARV-exposed and -unexposed newborns either with or without thalassemia carrier. However, ARV-exposed newborns who were thalassemia carriers had the lowest levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit when compared to the other groups. Therefore, ARV drugs used for prevention of HIV-mother-to-child transmission (HIV-MTCT) altered hematological parameters but did not affect hemoglobin synthesis in newborns with and without thalassemia carrier. However, thalassemia and ARV drugs might have synergetic effect in inducing severe anemia.

  12. Correlating Pap Smear Results and Colposcopy-Directed Large Loop Excision of the Transformation Zone Histopathology in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Women: A Case-Control Study in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-J. van Bogaert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In low-resource settings (LRS with high HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer rates, new screening strategies face many logistic hurdles. Since cytology is there to stay, at least in the median-term future, it is important to assess to what extent HIV-HPV coinfection impacts the accuracy of screening methods and strategies. Methods. We audited the correlation between cytological diagnosis of minimal abnormality (CIN1, CIN2+, or cancer and the histological diagnosis of colposcopy-directed large loop excision of the transformation zone of 399 HIV-uninfected controls and 389 HIV-infected cases. Results. The average age at diagnosis of CIN2+ of the cases was 4.2 years younger than controls (. The endpoint used to assess the accuracy of cytology was minimal cytological abnormality (≤CIN1/LGSIL. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values were 92.7, 18.5, 45.1, and 77.9%, respectively. The overall ratio of discordance/concordance between cytology and histology was similar in both groups. Conclusion. In LRS, where rapid-HPV testing is not yet part of screening algorithms, a cytological diagnosis of minimal abnormality requires visual inspection and treatment of visualized lesions especially in HIV-infected women aged 30 years. The cytological endpoint of accuracy should be set low to avoid false negative smears.

  13. DNA and Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vaccines Encoding Multiple Cytotoxic and Helper T-Lymphocyte Epitopes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Are Safe but Weakly Immunogenic in HIV-1-Uninfected, Vaccinia Virus-Naive Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Mark J.; deCamp, Allan; Hay, Christine Mhorag; De Rosa, Stephen C.; Noonan, Elizabeth; Livingston, Brian D.; Fuchs, Jonathan D.; Kalams, Spyros A.; Cassis-Ghavami, Farah L.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated a DNA plasmid-vectored vaccine and a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine (MVA-mBN32), each encoding cytotoxic and helper T-lymphocyte epitopes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in 36 HIV-1-uninfected adults using a heterologous prime-boost schedule. HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses, measured as interleukin-2 and/or gamma interferon production, were induced in 1 (4%) of 28 subjects after the first MVA-mBN32 immunization and in 3 (12%) of 25 subjects after the second MVA-mBN32 immunization. Among these responders, polyfunctional T-cell responses, including the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and perforin, were detected. Vaccinia virus-specific antibodies were induced to the MVA vector in 27 (93%) of 29 and 26 (93%) of 28 subjects after the first and second immunizations with MVA-mBN32. These peptide-based vaccines were safe but were ineffective at inducing HIV-1-specific immune responses and induced much weaker responses than MVA vaccines expressing the entire open reading frames of HIV-1 proteins. PMID:22398243

  14. Comparison of the potential rate of population increase of brown and green color morphs of Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae) on barley infected and uninfected with Barley yellow dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Thieme, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Life tables of brown and green color morphs of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) reared on barley under laboratory conditions at 20 ± 1°C, 65% ± 5% relative humidity and a photoperiod of 16 : 8 h (L : D) were compared. The plants were either: (i) infected with the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV); (ii) not infected with virus but previously infested with aphids; or (iii) healthy barley plants, which were not previously infested with aphids. Generally, both color morphs of S. avenae performed significantly better when fed on BYDV-infected plants than on plants that were virus free but had either not been or had been previously infested with aphids. Furthermore, when fed on BYDV-infected plants, green S. avenae developed significantly faster and had a significantly shorter reproductive period than the brown color morph. There were no significant differences in this respect between the two color morphs of S. avenae when they were reared on virus-free plants that either had been or not been previously infested with aphids. These results indicate that barley infected with BYDV is a more favorable host plant than uninfected barley for both the color morphs of S. avenae tested, particularly the green color morph. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Hymenolepis nana: worm recovery from congenitally athymic nude and phenotypically normal rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A; Kamiyama, T

    1984-10-01

    When eggs or mouse-derived cysticercoids of Hymenolepis nana were inoculated into previously uninfected congenitally athymic nude (rnu/rnu) rats of an outbred Rowett strain, they failed to mature in the intestinal lumen. They also failed to mature in phenotypically normal (rnu/+) littermates, except when these hosts were treated with cortisone acetate from the beginning of the lumen phase. The Rowett rat, either thymus-deficient or not, was susceptible to tissue cysticercoids but resistant to luminal adults. It is therefore considered to be an unnatural host, at least for mouse-derived H. nana. There was little or no difference in susceptibility to initial tissue cysticercoids between these nude rats and phenotypically normal ones. The normal rats became completely resistant to reinfection with eggs and no secondary cysticercoids developed in their intestinal tissue, whereas the nude rats showed unaltered susceptibility to secondary tissue cysticercoids. Thus, acquired resistance to egg challenge, assessed by the failure of tissue cysticercoid recovery, was thymus-dependent. However, innate resistance to both a primary egg dose, assessed by the low recovery rates of tissue cysticercoids, and to a primary cysticercoid dose, assessed by the failure of luminal adult recovery, were thymus-independent. The effect of cortisone acetate to initiate maturation of H. nana appeared to be unrelated to thymus function. In contrast, all mice, either thymus-deficient or not, were highly susceptible to both phases. The number of worms recovered was more than 10 times greater than that of cysticercoids established in the rat's intestinal tissue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. MRI of normal achilles tendon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollandi, G.A. [Institute of Radiology, Univ. of Genoa (Italy); Bertolotto, M. [Institute of Radiology, Univ. of Genoa (Italy); Perrone, R. [Institute of Radiology, Univ. of Genoa (Italy); Garlaschi, G. [Institute of Radiology, Univ. of Genoa (Italy); Derchi, L.E. [Institute of Radiology, Univ. of Genoa (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    To investigate the normal internal structure of tendons 11 volunteers without clinical evidence of tendinopathy were examined using conventional spin-echo T1-, T2- and proton-density weighted sequences. The Achilles tendon was chosen because of its high frequency of injury in athletic activity, large size, superficial position and because it is oriented nearly parallel to the static magnetic field, therefore minimizing the ``magic angle phenomenon``. The tendons exhibited areas of slighly increased signal in four T1-weighted and in all but one proton-density-weighted scans. No intratendinous signal was detected in T2-weighted images. The possible origin of these findings is discussed. We conclude that the knowledge of these normal signals may be useful to avoid incorrectly diagnosing as pathological. (orig.). With 2 figs.

  17. Normal Galaxies in the Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Helou, G

    2000-01-01

    This review addresses what can be learned from infrared observations about galaxies powered predominantly by star formation. Infrared techniques mostly probe the interstellar medium of galaxies, yielding physical and chemical information on the medium out of which stars form, which is in turn affected by those stars. Methods traditionally used in the study of such normal galaxies at wavelengths longer than 3 microns are described, and major questions currently pursued in the field are outlined. The most prominent results from the IRAS survey are reviewed. Contributions by ISO in the field of broad-band photometry are then presented, followed by ISO results in spectrospcopy. Normal galaxy studies not directly concerned with the ISM are quickly reviewed. The outlook and challenges in pursuing the interpretation of infrared data on the ISM are discussed.

  18. The normal posterior atlantoaxial relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovelock, J.E. (Rochester General Hospital, NY (USA)); Schuster, J.A. (Rochester Univ. Medical Center, NY (USA))

    1991-02-01

    The relationship of the posterior aspects of the atlas and the axis were studied in 100 normal adult volunteers. The ratio of the height of the atlantal spinolaminar line to the atlantoaxial interspinous distance was found to be remarkably constant and was less than 2.0 in all men and women. This ratio should prove helpful in detecting hyperflexion injuries isolated to the atlantoaxial level. (orig.).

  19. Studying Normal, Everyday Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daren C. Brabham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Social media research has tended to focus on stand-out cases and has made use of big data methods to make claims about human experience and sociality. This commentary urges researchers to consider the everyday, normal experiences of most social media users, to consider the place of social media in a broader social context, and to consider marrying big data approaches with interviews and surveys of users.

  20. Normal Functions Concerning Shared Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIAO-JING

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss normal functions concerning shared values. We obtain the follow result. Let F be a family of meromorphic functions in the unit disc △, and a be a nonzero finite complex number. If for any f ∈ F, the zeros of f are of multiplicity, f and f' share a, then there exists a positive number M such that for any f ∈ F, (1 -|z|~2)(|f'(z)|)/(1+|f(z)|~2)≤ M.

  1. Blood ferrokinetics in normal man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosain, F; Marsaglia, G; Finch, C A

    1967-01-01

    The clearance of radioiron from plasma and its appearance in circulating erythrocytes in normal subjects are studied. The importance of correcting for plasma iron fluctuations and for mean body hematocrit is illustrated. The data are analyzed by probability theory to determine relationships between intravascular and extravascular iron. Two refluxes are described, one of about 7 particles of every 100 leaving the plasma, and the second of about 23. The return times of these are about 5 hours and 8 days, respectively.

  2. [The normal and the pathological].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, B

    1995-12-10

    The main problem of modern health care is to express its goals and its limits. To do this it is necessary to answer the fundamental question: what is normal and what is pathological? The French physician and philosopher Georges Canguilhem has tried to answer this question. He claims that for medicine, the difference between these fundamentals is determined by normativity and not by science. In doing this he wishes to save the autonomy of the individual patient and to delimit medicine from science.

  3. Normalization of Gravitational Acceleration Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Randy A.; Brown, Aaron J.; Adamo, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike the uniform density spherical shell approximations of Newton, the con- sequence of spaceflight in the real universe is that gravitational fields are sensitive to the nonsphericity of their generating central bodies. The gravitational potential of a nonspherical central body is typically resolved using spherical harmonic approximations. However, attempting to directly calculate the spherical harmonic approximations results in at least two singularities which must be removed in order to generalize the method and solve for any possible orbit, including polar orbits. Three unique algorithms have been developed to eliminate these singularities by Samuel Pines [1], Bill Lear [2], and Robert Gottlieb [3]. This paper documents the methodical normalization of two1 of the three known formulations for singularity-free gravitational acceleration (namely, the Lear [2] and Gottlieb [3] algorithms) and formulates a general method for defining normalization parameters used to generate normalized Legendre Polynomials and ALFs for any algorithm. A treatment of the conventional formulation of the gravitational potential and acceleration is also provided, in addition to a brief overview of the philosophical differences between the three known singularity-free algorithms.

  4. [Dynamic posturography in normal subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, A; Guglielmetti, G; Bindi, G F; Dellepiane, M

    1990-01-01

    The relative lack of data on the dynamic posturography led us to start a study in order to give our contributions to the standardization of M1, M2, M3, response parameters in normal subjects. Our research was carried out on 35 normal subjects aged 21 to 50. All of them were standing in Romberg's position on a Tönnies model board in a normally lit and ventilated room. We performed two tests: the first one open-eyed staring at no point, the second, 5 minutes later, closed-eyed. The EMG signals were obtained by surface electrodes on triceps sural and front tibial muscles. The EMG recording was determined by a "tilt" movement of the board at a steady speed of 50 per sec. and 4 wide. We use a XT 286 IBM computer with "T POST" software for checking and testing the data. Our results showed a significant variation in the value of the duration parameter in open-eyed and closed-eyed tests. Latency and area values were inferior to those obtained by other authors, except for Diener and Dichgans (3) whose results differ in latency value only.

  5. Normal fault earthquakes or graviquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doglioni, C.; Carminati, E.; Petricca, P.; Riguzzi, F.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquakes are dissipation of energy throughout elastic waves. Canonically is the elastic energy accumulated during the interseismic period. However, in crustal extensional settings, gravity is the main energy source for hangingwall fault collapsing. Gravitational potential is about 100 times larger than the observed magnitude, far more than enough to explain the earthquake. Therefore, normal faults have a different mechanism of energy accumulation and dissipation (graviquakes) with respect to other tectonic settings (strike-slip and contractional), where elastic energy allows motion even against gravity. The bigger the involved volume, the larger is their magnitude. The steeper the normal fault, the larger is the vertical displacement and the larger is the seismic energy released. Normal faults activate preferentially at about 60° but they can be shallower in low friction rocks. In low static friction rocks, the fault may partly creep dissipating gravitational energy without releasing great amount of seismic energy. The maximum volume involved by graviquakes is smaller than the other tectonic settings, being the activated fault at most about three times the hypocentre depth, explaining their higher b-value and the lower magnitude of the largest recorded events. Having different phenomenology, graviquakes show peculiar precursors. PMID:26169163

  6. "Ser diferente é normal?"/"Being different: is it normal?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Veras

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A pergunta título deste trabalho retoma o slogan “Ser diferente é normal”, que é parte da campanha criada para uma organização não-governamental que atende portadores de Síndrome de Down. O objetivo é a inclusão social da pessoa com deficiência e o primeiro passo foi propor a inclusão de um grupo de diferentes no grupo dito normal. No vídeo de lançamento da campanha, o diferente, identificado como normal, é mostrado por meio de exemplos – um negro com cabelo black-power, um skin-head, um corpo tatuado, um corpo feminino halterofílico, uma família hippie, uma garota com síndrome de Down. A visão da adolescente dançando reduz, de certo modo, o efeito imaginário que vai além da síndrome, uma vez que apenas o corpo com seus olhinhos puxados se destacam, e não se interrogam questões cognitivas. Minha proposta é refletir sobre o estatuto paradoxal do exemplo, tal como é trabalhado nesse vídeo: se, por definição, um exemplo mostra de fato seu pertencimento a uma classe, pode-se concluir que é exatamente por ser exemplar que ele se encontra fora dela, no exato momento em que a exibe e define. The question in the title of this paper refers to the slogan "ser diferente é normal" ("It´s normal to be different", which is part of a campaign created for a NGO that supports people with Down syndrome. The objective of the campaign is to promote the social inclusion of individuals with Down syndrome, and the first step was to propose the inclusion of a group of "differents" in the so-called normal group. The film launching the campaign shows the different identified as normal by means of examples: a black man exhibiting blackpower haircut, a skin-head, a tattooed body, an over-athletic female body, a hippie family and a girl with Down syndrome. The vision of the dancing teenager lessens the imaginary effect that surpasses the syndrome, since only her body and her little oriental eyes stand out and no cognitive issues are

  7. [Aesthetic surgery, psychic preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiss, R

    2003-10-01

    The aesthetic surgery impacts the psychological picture of the body. The candidate must be prepared to this change in appearance. If not, the surgeon must suggest the psychological preparation, evaluating the risk of dissatisfaction, in order to allow the surgical and narcissistic success of his operation. The author, a psychiatric, beneficiary in a strong experience of a surgical assistance, develops the interest of such a preparation upon a period of about 15 years (1988-2002).

  8. Materials Preparation Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MPC is recognized throughout the worldwide research community for its unique capabilities in purification, preparation, and characterization of: rare earth metals,...

  9. Materials Preparation Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MPC is recognized throughout the worldwide research community for its unique capabilities in purification, preparation, and characterization of: rare earth metals,...

  10. Cytotoxicity of Algae Extracts on Normal and Malignant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechelli, Jeremy; Coppage, Myra; Rosell, Karen; Liesveld, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Algae preparations are commonly used in alternative medicine. We examined the effects of algae extracts on normal hematopoietic cells and leukemia cells. Ethanol extracts were prepared of Dunaliella salina (Dun), Astaxanthin (Ast), Spirulina platensis (Spir), and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA). Cell viability effects were completed by Annexin staining. Ast and AFA inhibited HL-60 and MV-4-11 whereas Dun and Spir had no effect. Primary AML blasts demonstrated increased apoptosis in AFA. Primary CLL cells showed apoptosis at 24 hours after exposure to Dun, Ast, Spir, and AFA. High AFA concentrations decreased viability of normal marrow cells. Normal CD34+ viability was inhibited by Dun. Dun and AFA inhibited BFU-E, but all extracts inhibited CFU-GM. Cell-cycle analysis of AML cell lines showed G0/G1 arrest in the presence of AFA. These data suggest that algae extracts may inhibit AML cell lines and leukemia blasts, but they may also have potential inhibitory effects on normal hematopoiesis. PMID:23213541

  11. Cytotoxicity of Algae Extracts on Normal and Malignant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Bechelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Algae preparations are commonly used in alternative medicine. We examined the effects of algae extracts on normal hematopoietic cells and leukemia cells. Ethanol extracts were prepared of Dunaliella salina (Dun, Astaxanthin (Ast, Spirulina platensis (Spir, and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA. Cell viability effects were completed by Annexin staining. Ast and AFA inhibited HL-60 and MV-4-11 whereas Dun and Spir had no effect. Primary AML blasts demonstrated increased apoptosis in AFA. Primary CLL cells showed apoptosis at 24 hours after exposure to Dun, Ast, Spir, and AFA. High AFA concentrations decreased viability of normal marrow cells. Normal CD34+ viability was inhibited by Dun. Dun and AFA inhibited BFU-E, but all extracts inhibited CFU-GM. Cell-cycle analysis of AML cell lines showed G0/G1 arrest in the presence of AFA. These data suggest that algae extracts may inhibit AML cell lines and leukemia blasts, but they may also have potential inhibitory effects on normal hematopoiesis.

  12. Quantiles for Finite Mixtures of Normal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mezbahur; Rahman, Rumanur; Pearson, Larry M.

    2006-01-01

    Quantiles for finite mixtures of normal distributions are computed. The difference between a linear combination of independent normal random variables and a linear combination of independent normal densities is emphasized. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  13. Non-normal Hasemann Boundary Value Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We will discuss the non-normal Hasemann boundary value problem:we may find these results are coincided with those of normal Hasemann boundary value problem and non normal Riemann boundary value problem.

  14. Understanding a Normal Distribution of Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltenfort, Mitchell G

    2015-12-01

    Assuming data follow a normal distribution is essential for many common statistical tests. However, what are normal data and when can we assume that a data set follows this distribution? What can be done to analyze non-normal data?

  15. Multispectral histogram normalization contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soha, J. M.; Schwartz, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    A multispectral histogram normalization or decorrelation enhancement which achieves effective color composites by removing interband correlation is described. The enhancement procedure employs either linear or nonlinear transformations to equalize principal component variances. An additional rotation to any set of orthogonal coordinates is thus possible, while full histogram utilization is maintained by avoiding the reintroduction of correlation. For the three-dimensional case, the enhancement procedure may be implemented with a lookup table. An application of the enhancement to Landsat multispectral scanning imagery is presented.

  16. Normal language in abnormal brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piattelli-Palmarini, Massimo

    2017-02-27

    There is little doubt that, in the adult, specific brain lesions cause specific language deficits. Yet, brain localizations of linguistic functions are made problematic by several reported cases of normal language in spite of major brain anomalies, mostly, but not exclusively, occurring early in life. The signal cases are hydrocephaly, spina bifida and hemispherectomy. These cases are discussed and possible solutions are suggested: namely a vast redundancy of neurons and/or the role of microtubules as neuron-internal processors and key factors in signaling and guiding the growth and reconfiguration of the brain.

  17. Normal pediatric postmortem CT appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Willemijn M.; Bosboom, Dennis G.H.; Koopmanschap, Desiree H.J.L.M. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nikkels, Peter G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-04-01

    Postmortem radiology is a rapidly developing specialty that is increasingly used as an adjunct to or substitute for conventional autopsy. The goal is to find patterns of disease and possibly the cause of death. Postmortem CT images bring to light processes of decomposition most radiologists are unfamiliar with. These postmortem changes, such as the formation of gas and edema, should not be mistaken for pathological processes that occur in living persons. In this review we discuss the normal postmortem thoraco-abdominal changes and how these appear on CT images, as well as how to differentiate these findings from those of pathological processes. (orig.)

  18. Blood Ferrokinetics in Normal Man*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosain, Fazle; Marsaglia, George; Finch, Clement A.

    1967-01-01

    The clearance of radioiron from plasma and its appearance in circulating erythrocytes in normal subjects are studied. The importance of correcting for plasma iron fluctuations and for mean body hematocrit is illustrated. The data are analyzed by probability theory to determine relationships between intravascular and extravascular iron. Two refluxes are described, one of about 7 particles of every 100 leaving the plasma, and the second of about 23. The return times of these are about 5 hours and 8 days, respectively. Images PMID:6018746

  19. Update on normal tension glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotiranjan Mallick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal tension glaucoma (NTG is labelled when typical glaucomatous disc changes, visual field defects and open anterior chamber angles are associated with intraocular pressure (IOP constantly below 21 mmHg. Chronic low vascular perfusion, Raynaud's phenomenon, migraine, nocturnal systemic hypotension and over-treated systemic hypertension are the main causes of normal tension glaucoma. Goldmann applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography and visual field analysis are the main tools of investigation for the diagnosis of NTG. Management follows the same principles of treatment for other chronic glaucomas: To reduce IOP by a substantial amount, sufficient to prevent disabling visual loss. Treatment is generally aimed to lower IOP by 30% from pre-existing levels to 12-14 mmHg. Betaxolol, brimonidine, prostaglandin analogues, trabeculectomy (in refractory cases, systemic calcium channel blockers (such as nifedipine and 24-hour monitoring of blood pressure are considered in the management of NTG. The present review summarises risk factors, causes, pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of NTG.

  20. A Primer on Wound Bed Preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Gokoo, Chuck

    2009-01-01

    Successful wound closure and healing are a major concern for today's clinician. Determining if the wound will progress or not relies on a comprehensive assessment, recognition of wound characteristics that will promote or impede the healing process and preparing the wound bed such that pathological features are removed allowing the healing cascade to occur. When complications are no longer a roadblock the wound will achieve a stable microenvironment and progress through the normal repairative...

  1. Normal Orthodox Semigroups with Inverse Transversals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUFeng-lin

    2003-01-01

    A normal orthodox semigroup is an orthodox semigroup whose idempotent elements form a normal band.We deal with congruces on a normal orthodox semigroup with an iverse transversal .A structure theorem for such semigroup is obtained.Munn(1966)gave a fundamental inverse semigroup Following Munn's idea ,we give a fundamental normal orthodox semigroup with an inverse transversal.

  2. Is My Penis Normal? (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Is My Penis Normal? KidsHealth > For Teens > Is My Penis Normal? A A A en español ¿Es normal ... any guy who's ever worried about whether his penis is a normal size. There's a fairly wide ...

  3. Chapter 1: Direct Normal Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Daryl R.

    2016-04-15

    This chapter addresses the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the solar resource, the direct solar radiation. It discusses the total or integrated broadband direct beam extraterrestrial radiation (ETR). This total integrated irradiance is comprised of photons of electromagnetic radiation. The chapter also discusses the impact of the atmosphere and its effect upon the direct normal irradiance (DNI) beam radiation. The gases and particulates present in the atmosphere traversed by the direct beam reflect, absorb, and scatter differing spectral regions and proportions of the direct beam, and act as a variable filter. Knowledge of the available broadband DNI beam radiation resource data is essential in designing a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system. Spectral variations in the DNI beam radiation affect the performance of a CPV system depending on the solar cell technology used. The chapter describes propagation and scattering processes of circumsolar radiation (CSR), which includes the Mie scattering from large particles.

  4. Normalized Compression Distance of Multiples

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Andrew R

    2012-01-01

    Normalized compression distance (NCD) is a parameter-free similarity measure based on compression. The NCD between pairs of objects is not sufficient for all applications. We propose an NCD of finite multisets (multiples) of objacts that is metric and is better for many applications. Previously, attempts to obtain such an NCD failed. We use the theoretical notion of Kolmogorov complexity that for practical purposes is approximated from above by the length of the compressed version of the file involved, using a real-world compression program. We applied the new NCD for multiples to retinal progenitor cell questions that were earlier treated with the pairwise NCD. Here we get significantly better results. We also applied the NCD for multiples to synthetic time sequence data. The preliminary results are as good as nearest neighbor Euclidean classifier.

  5. IIH with normal CSF pressures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soh Youn Suh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH is a condition of raised intracranial pressure (ICP in the absence of space occupying lesions. ICP is usually measured by lumbar puncture and a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure above 250 mm H 2 O is one of the diagnostic criteria of IIH. Recently, we have encountered two patients who complained of headaches and exhibited disc swelling without an increased ICP. We prescribed acetazolamide and followed both patients frequently; because of the definite disc swelling with IIH related symptoms. Symptoms and signs resolved in both patients after they started taking acetazolamide. It is generally known that an elevated ICP, as measured by lumbar puncture, is the most important diagnostic sign of IIH. However, these cases caution even when CSF pressure is within the normal range, that suspicion should be raised when a patient has papilledema with related symptoms, since untreated papilledema may cause progressive and irreversible visual loss.

  6. Appearance normalization of histology slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicory, Jared; Couture, Heather D; Thomas, Nancy E; Borland, David; Marron, J S; Woosley, John; Niethammer, Marc

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a method for automatic color and intensity normalization of digitized histology slides stained with two different agents. In comparison to previous approaches, prior information on the stain vectors is used in the plane estimation process, resulting in improved stability of the estimates. Due to the prevalence of hematoxylin and eosin staining for histology slides, the proposed method has significant practical utility. In particular, it can be used as a first step to standardize appearance across slides and is effective at countering effects due to differing stain amounts and protocols and counteracting slide fading. The approach is validated against non-prior plane-fitting using synthetic experiments and 13 real datasets. Results of application of the method to adjustment of faded slides are given, and the effectiveness of the method in aiding statistical classification is shown.

  7. Normal origamis of Mumford curves

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    An origami (also known as square-tiled surface) is a Riemann surface covering a torus with at most one branch point. Lifting two generators of the fundamental group of the punctured torus decomposes the surface into finitely many unit squares. By varying the complex structure of the torus one obtains easily accessible examples of Teichm\\"uller curves in the moduli space of Riemann surfaces. The p-adic analogues of Riemann surfaces are Mumford curves. A p-adic origami is defined as a covering of Mumford curves with at most one branch point, where the bottom curve has genus one. A classification of all normal non-trivial p-adic origamis is presented and used to calculate some invariants. These can be used to describe p-adic origamis in terms of glueing squares.

  8. Radioprotection of normal tissue cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Patrick; Wenz, Frederik; Herskind, Carsten [Heidelberg University, Department of Radiation Oncology Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Improvements of radiotherapy in combination with surgery and systemic therapy have resulted in increased survival rates of tumor patients. However, radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity is still dose limiting. Several strategies have been pursued with the goal to develop substances which may prevent or reduce damage to normal tissue. Drugs applied before radiotherapy are called radioprotectors; those given after radiotherapy to reduce long-term effects are radiomitigators. Despite more than 50 years of research, until now only two substances, amifostine and palifermin, have overcome all obstacles of clinical approval and are applied during radiotherapy of head and neck cancer or total body irradiation, respectively. However, better understanding of the cellular pathways involved in radiation response has allowed the development of several highly promising drugs functioning as scavengers of reactive oxygen species or targeting specific molecules involved in regulation of cell death pathways or cell cycle arrest. The present review describes the major targets for radioprotectors or radiomitigators currently tested in clinical trials. (orig.) [German] Verbesserungen in der Radiotherapie in Kombination mit Chirurgie und Chemotherapie fuehrten zu erhoehten Ueberlebensraten von Tumorpatienten. Trotzdem sind Strahlenfolgen am Normalgewebe weiterhin dosislimitierend. Verschiedene Ansaetze wurden verfolgt, um Substanzen zu entwickeln, die Normalgewebstoxizitaeten verhindern oder verringern. Medikamente, die vor der Radiotherapie verabreicht werden, heissen Radioprotektoren, solche die danach gegeben werden, um langfristige Effekte zu reduzieren, Radiomitigatoren. Trotz mehr als 50 Jahre Forschung ueberwanden nur zwei Substanzen, Amifostin und Palifermin, alle Huerden der klinischen Pruefung und sind fuer die Anwendung waehrend der Radiotherapie von Kopf-Hals-Tumoren bzw. bei Ganzkoerperbestrahlung zugelassen. Jedoch erlaubte das bessere Verstaendnis der Signalwege

  9. Multivariate normal-Laplace distribution and processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanichukattu Korakutty Jose

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The normal-Laplace distribution is considered and its properties are discussed. A multivariate normal-Laplace distribution is introduced and its properties are studied. First order autoregressive processes with these stationary marginal distributions are developed and studied. A generalized multivariate normal-Laplace distribution is introduced. Multivariate geometric normal-Laplace distribution and multivariate geometric generalized normal-Laplace distributions are introduced and their properties are studied. Estimation of parameters and some applications are also discussed.

  10. Simulations of Normal Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bottema, R

    2003-01-01

    Results are presented of numerical simulations of normal isolated late type spiral galaxies. Specifically the galaxy NGC 628 is used as a template. The method employs a TREESPH code including stellar particles, gas particles, cooling and heating of the gas, star formation according to a Jeans criterion, and Supernova feedback. A regular spiral disc can be generated as an equilibrium situation of two opposing actions. On the one hand cooling and dissipation of the gas, on the other hand gas heating by the FUV field of young stars and SN mechanical forcing. The disc exhibits small and medium scale spiral structure of which the multiplicity increases as a function of radius. The theory of swing amplification can explain, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the emerging spiral structure. In addition, swing amplification predicts that the existence of a grand design m=2 spiral is only possible if the disc is massive. The simulations show that the galaxy is then unstable to bar formation. A general criterion is ...

  11. Normalization of emotion control scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatoolah Tahmasebian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion control skill teaches the individuals how to identify their emotions and how to express and control them in various situations. The aim of this study was to normalize and measure the internal and external validity and reliability of emotion control test. Methods: This standardization study was carried out on a statistical society, including all pupils, students, teachers, nurses and university professors in Kermanshah in 2012, using Williams’ emotion control scale. The subjects included 1,500 (810 females and 690 males people who were selected by stratified random sampling. Williams (1997 emotion control scale, was used to collect the required data. Emotional Control Scale is a tool for measuring the degree of control people have over their emotions. This scale has four subscales, including anger, depressed mood, anxiety and positive affect. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using correlation and Cronbach's alpha tests. Results: The results of internal consistency of the questionnaire reported by Cronbach's alpha indicated an acceptable internal consistency for emotional control scale, and the correlation between the subscales of the test and between the items of the questionnaire was significant at 0.01 confidence level. Conclusion: The validity of emotion control scale among the pupils, students, teachers, nurses and teachers in Iran has an acceptable range, and the test itemswere correlated with each other, thereby making them appropriate for measuring emotion control.

  12. Familial idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huovinen, Joel; Kastinen, Sami; Komulainen, Simo; Oinas, Minna; Avellan, Cecilia; Frantzen, Janek; Rinne, Jaakko; Ronkainen, Antti; Kauppinen, Mikko; Lönnrot, Kimmo; Perola, Markus; Pyykkö, Okko T; Koivisto, Anne M; Remes, Anne M; Soininen, Hilkka; Hiltunen, Mikko; Helisalmi, Seppo; Kurki, Mitja; Jääskeläinen, Juha E; Leinonen, Ville

    2016-09-15

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a late-onset surgically alleviated, progressive disease. We characterize a potential familial subgroup of iNPH in a nation-wide Finnish cohort of 375 shunt-operated iNPH-patients. The patients were questionnaired and phone-interviewed, whether they have relatives with either diagnosed iNPH or disease-related symptomatology. Then pedigrees of all families with more than one iNPH-case were drawn. Eighteen patients (4.8%) from 12 separate pedigrees had at least one shunt-operated relative whereas 42 patients (11%) had relatives with two or more triad symptoms. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, familial iNPH-patients had up to 3-fold risk of clinical dementia compared to sporadic iNPH patients. This risk was independent from diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and APOE ε4 genotype. This study describes a familial entity of iNPH offering a novel approach to discover the potential genetic characteristics of iNPH. Discovered pedigrees offer an intriguing opportunity to conduct longitudinal studies targeting potential preclinical signs of iNPH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Memory abilities during normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Solis, F; Jaime, R M; Ardila, A

    1998-02-01

    One hundred and five normal subjects from 20 to 89 years old, and with a minimum of six years of formal education were selected. Subjects were divided into seven age ranges, with 15 subjects in each group. The following tests were individually administered: (1) Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) (Wechsler, 1945); (2) Serial Verbal Learning (Ardila, Rosselli & Puente, 1994; Ardila & Ostrosky, 1991); (3) The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) (Osterrieth, 1944) (copy, immediate, and delayed reproduction); (4) Corsi's blocks (Milner, 1971) (forwards and backwards); and (5) Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (Wilson, Cockburn, & Baddeley, 1985). This last test may be considered as a functional or ecological memory test. All test scores declined across ages between 4.1% and 76.6%. In all the tests, excepting Digits, standard deviations increased with age. It was observed that the youngest subjects could retain about three-fourths of the information presented, whereas the oldest retained around one-third of this information. About half of the test significantly correlated with the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test. A factor analysis revealed four different factors accounting for 63.3% of the variance. A single nonverbal memory factor accounted for over 40% of the variance.

  14. Quantitative proteome profiling of normal human circulating microparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer T; Iversen, Line V;

    2012-01-01

    proteome using nano-LC-MS/MS on an LTQ-Orbitrap with optimized sample collection, preparation, and analysis of 12 different normal samples. Analytical and procedural variation were estimated in triply processed samples analyzed in triplicate from two different donors. Label-free quantitation was validated...... by the correlation of cytoskeletal protein intensities with MP numbers obtained by flow cytometry. Finally, the validity of using pooled samples was evaluated using overlap protein identification numbers and multivariate data analysis. Using conservative parameters, 536 different unique proteins were quantitated...

  15. Normal blood and milk lead values in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willoughby, R.A.; Brown, G.

    1971-01-01

    A total of 193 blood samples were collected for whole blood lead determination from 158 normal young and adult horses. The overall mean and standard deviation was 10.7 +/- 8.51 ..mu..g Pb/100 gm whole blood. The highest blood lead values were found in mares at parturition and a group of foals sampled shortly after they had been weaned and during a period when they were adjusting to commercially prepared ration. The blood lead values from a group of horses reared in a large city were as low or lower than horses reared under rural conditions. Normal colostrum and milk lead values were less than 50 ..mu..g Pb/liter. 8 references, 1 table.

  16. Normal anatomy of the skull base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustrin, E S; Robertson, R L; Tilak, S

    1994-08-01

    CT and MR imaging increasingly are being used for the evaluation of the skull base. New innovative techniques have revolutionized radiologic understanding of normal skull base anatomy. Thus, normal anatomic relationships with radiographic correlation are vital for accurate pathologic assessment.

  17. Safety and tolerability of conserved region vaccines vectored by plasmid DNA, simian adenovirus and modified vaccinia virus ankara administered to human immunodeficiency virus type 1-uninfected adults in a randomized, single-blind phase I trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma-Jo Hayton

    Full Text Available TRIAL DESIGN: HIV-1 vaccine development has advanced slowly due to viral antigenic diversity, poor immunogenicity and recently, safety concerns associated with human adenovirus serotype-5 vectors. To tackle HIV-1 variation, we designed a unique T-cell immunogen HIVconsv from functionally conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome, which were presented to the immune system using a heterologous prime-boost combination of plasmid DNA, a non-replicating simian (chimpanzee adenovirus ChAdV-63 and a non-replicating poxvirus, modified vaccinia virus Ankara. A block-randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled phase I trial HIV-CORE 002 administered for the first time candidate HIV-1- vaccines or placebo to 32 healthy HIV-1/2-uninfected adults in Oxford, UK and elicited high frequencies of HIV-1-specific T cells capable of inhibiting HIV-1 replication in vitro. Here, detail safety and tolerability of these vaccines are reported. METHODS: Local and systemic reactogenicity data were collected using structured interviews and study-specific diary cards. Data on all other adverse events were collected using open questions. Serum neutralizing antibody titres to ChAdV-63 were determined before and after vaccination. RESULTS: Two volunteers withdrew for vaccine-unrelated reasons. No vaccine-related serious adverse events or reactions occurred during 190 person-months of follow-up. Local and systemic events after vaccination occurred in 27/32 individuals and most were mild (severity grade 1 and predominantly transient (<48 hours. Myalgia and flu-like symptoms were more strongly associated with MVA than ChAdV63 or DNA vectors and more common in vaccine recipients than in placebo. There were no intercurrent HIV-1 infections during follow-up. 2/24 volunteers had low ChAdV-63-neutralizing titres at baseline and 7 increased their titres to over 200 with a median (range of 633 (231-1533 post-vaccination, which is of no safety concern. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate

  18. Safety, adherence and acceptability of intermittent tenofovir/emtricitabine as HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP among HIV-uninfected Ugandan volunteers living in HIV-serodiscordant relationships: a randomized, clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie M Kibengo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Efficacy of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP in prevention of HIV acquisition has been evaluated using a daily regimen. However, adherence to long term daily medication is rarely perfect. Intermittent regimen may be a feasible alternative. Preclinical studies have demonstrated effectiveness of intermittent PrEP in SHIV prevention among animals. However, little is known about intermittent PrEP regimens. DESIGN: Seventy two HIV-uninfected volunteers in HIV serodiscordant couple relationships in Uganda were randomly assigned to receive daily oral Tenofovir/Emtricitabine (TDF/FTC-Truvada or placebo, or intermittent (Monday, Friday and within 2 hours after sex, not to exceed one dose per day oral TDF/FTC or placebo in a 2:1:2:1 ratio. Volunteers and study staff were blinded to drug assignment, but not to regimen assignment. METHODS: Volunteers were followed for 4 months after randomization, with monthly clinical and laboratory safety assessments and comprehensive HIV risk reduction services. Adherence was monitored using medication event monitoring system (MEMS and self-report. Sexual activity data were collected via daily short text message (SMS and self-report. HIV-specific immune responses were assessed by IFN-γ ELISPOT. RESULTS: Both daily and intermittent oral TDF/FTC regimens were well tolerated. Median MEMS adherence rates were 98% (IQR: 93-100 for daily PrEP regimen, 91% (IQR: 73-97 for fixed intermittent dosing and 45% (IQR: 20-63 for post-coital dosing. SMS response rate was 74%, but increased to 80% after excluding server outages; results may have been affected by the novelty of this measure. The majority of volunteers expressed willingness with no particular preference for either regimen. CONCLUSIONS: Both daily and intermittent oral PrEP dosing regimens were safe. Adherence was high for daily and fixed intermittent dosing; post-coital dosing was associated with poor adherence. Fixed intermittent PrEP regimens may be

  19. Altered Memory T-Cell Responses to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination and Altered Cytokine Responses to Polyclonal Stimulation in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Kenyan Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Knight, Miguel A; Nduati, Eunice; Hassan, Amin S; Gambo, Faith; Odera, Dennis; Etyang, Timothy J; Hajj, Nassim J; Berkley, James Alexander; Urban, Britta C; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV strategies has resulted in an increased population of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants. HEU infants have higher rates of morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed (HU) infants. Numerous factors may contribute to poor health in HEU infants including immunological alterations. The present study assessed T-cell phenotype and function in HEU infants with a focus on memory Th1 responses to vaccination. We compared cross-sectionally selected parameters at 3 and 12 months of age in HIV-exposed (n = 42) and HU (n = 28) Kenyan infants. We measured ex vivo activated and bulk memory CD4 and CD8 T-cells and regulatory T-cells by flow cytometry. In addition, we measured the magnitude, quality and memory phenotype of antigen-specific T-cell responses to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and Tetanus Toxoid vaccine antigens, and the magnitude and quality of the T cell response following polyclonal stimulation with staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Finally, the influence of maternal disease markers on the immunological parameters measured was assessed in HEU infants. Few perturbations were detected in ex vivo T-cell subsets, though amongst HEU infants maternal HIV viral load positively correlated with CD8 T cell immune activation at 12 months. Conversely, we observed age-dependent differences in the magnitude and polyfunctionality of IL-2 and TNF-α responses to vaccine antigens particularly in Th1 cells. These changes mirrored those seen following polyclonal stimulation, where at 3 months, cytokine responses were higher in HEU infants compared to HU infants, and at 12 months, HEU infant cytokine responses were consistently lower than those seen in HU infants. Finally, reduced effector memory Th1 responses to vaccine antigens were observed in HEU infants at 3 and 12 months and higher central memory Th1 responses to M. tuberculosis antigens were observed at 3 months only. Long-term monitoring of vaccine efficacy

  20. Euler Characteristic and Quadrilaterals of Normal Surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tejas Kalelkar

    2008-05-01

    Let be a compact 3-manifold with a triangulation . We give an inequality relating the Euler characteristic of a surface normally embedded in with the number of normal quadrilaterals in . This gives a relation between a topological invariant of the surface and a quantity derived from its combinatorial description. Secondly, we obtain an inequality relating the number of normal triangles and normal quadrilaterals of , that depends on the maximum number of tetrahedrons that share a vertex in .

  1. Color normalization of histology slides using graph regularized sparse NMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Lingdao; Schonfeld, Dan; Sethi, Amit

    2017-03-01

    Computer based automatic medical image processing and quantification are becoming popular in digital pathology. However, preparation of histology slides can vary widely due to differences in staining equipment, procedures and reagents, which can reduce the accuracy of algorithms that analyze their color and texture information. To re- duce the unwanted color variations, various supervised and unsupervised color normalization methods have been proposed. Compared with supervised color normalization methods, unsupervised color normalization methods have advantages of time and cost efficient and universal applicability. Most of the unsupervised color normaliza- tion methods for histology are based on stain separation. Based on the fact that stain concentration cannot be negative and different parts of the tissue absorb different stains, nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), and particular its sparse version (SNMF), are good candidates for stain separation. However, most of the existing unsupervised color normalization method like PCA, ICA, NMF and SNMF fail to consider important information about sparse manifolds that its pixels occupy, which could potentially result in loss of texture information during color normalization. Manifold learning methods like Graph Laplacian have proven to be very effective in interpreting high-dimensional data. In this paper, we propose a novel unsupervised stain separation method called graph regularized sparse nonnegative matrix factorization (GSNMF). By considering the sparse prior of stain concentration together with manifold information from high-dimensional image data, our method shows better performance in stain color deconvolution than existing unsupervised color deconvolution methods, especially in keeping connected texture information. To utilized the texture information, we construct a nearest neighbor graph between pixels within a spatial area of an image based on their distances using heat kernal in lαβ space. The

  2. 18 CFR 154.305 - Tax normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax normalization. 154... Changes § 154.305 Tax normalization. (a) Applicability. An interstate pipeline must compute the income tax component of its cost-of-service by using tax normalization for all transactions. (b) Definitions. (1)...

  3. Access cavity preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, N; Tomson, P L

    2014-03-01

    Each stage of root canal treatment should be carried out to the highest possible standard. The access cavity is arguably the most important technical stage, as subsequent preparation of the root canal(s) can be severely comprised if this is not well executed. Inadequate access can lead to canals being left untreated, poorly disinfected, difficult to shape and obturate, and may ultimately lead to the failure of the treatment. This paper highlights common features in root canal anatomy and outlines basic principles for locating root canals and producing a good access cavity. It also explores each phase of the preparation in detail and offers suggestions of instruments that have been specifically designed to overcome potential difficulties in the process. Good access design and preparation will result in an operative environment which will facilitate cleaning, shaping and obturation of the root canal system in order to maximise success.

  4. Measuring Palatal Height in Normal Occlusion and Malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zarringhalam

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Due to the appearance of palatal height difference in orthodontic patients we decided to carry out this study.Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine palatal height in persons with normal occlusion and different malocclusions (class I, II Div I and III and comp aring them with each other.Materials and Methods : In this cross sectional research, 240 subjects were selected. Sixty cases (30 girls and 30 boys with normal occlusion within 16-18 years old were selected inrandom cluster sampling from high schools in Mashhad. Examination technique was direct observation, lateral cephalometric radiography, impression and preparing study model for measuring. For every kind of malocclusion 60 young patients, 30 females and 30 males,within the range of 16-20 years old attended orthodontic treatment in private dental offices or Orthodontics Department of Mashhad Dental School .The examination technique was indirect observation, using lateral cephalometry selected of 5395 lateral cephalograms andrelated study models for measuring. Mean, min imum and maximum and height of the palate was initially determined and then normal occlusion was compared with every kind of malocclusion using SPSS statistical software. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA andt-test (independent groups, and also Duncan test were used for comparison.Results: The ANOVA test showed that there were no statistically significant differences between females in normal occlusion and different malocclusions (P=0.486. In boys the palatal height was significantly higher in class III males than class II and class Imalocclusions and the height of palate for normal boys is significantly higher than class I malocclusion (P<0.05. Comparison of other groups was not significantly different.In each group height of palate was significantly lower in females than males (P<0.001.Conclusion: From this research we concluded that palatal height is different in females and males

  5. Preparation of hydrophobic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Eric D.; Shah, Pratik B.; Singh, Seema; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2009-02-03

    A method for preparing a hydrophobic coating by preparing a precursor sol comprising a metal alkoxide, a solvent, a basic catalyst, a fluoroalkyl compound and water, depositing the precursor sol as a film onto a surface, such as a substrate or a pipe, heating, the film and exposing the film to a hydrophobic silane compound to form a hydrophobic coating with a contact angle greater than approximately 150.degree.. The contact angle of the film can be controlled by exposure to ultraviolet radiation to reduce the contact angle and subsequent exposure to a hydrophobic silane compound to increase the contact angle.

  6. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen cry

  7. Cerium (IV) oxide nanotubes prepared by low temperature deposition at normal pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehme, M; Fu, G; Ionescu, E; Ensinger, W, E-mail: mboehme@ca.tu-darmstadt.de [Department of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-02-11

    This paper reports the synthesis of cerium dioxide nanotubes (CeNTs) by electroless deposition using ion-track-etched polycarbonate templates. To achieve nanotubes with thin walls and small surface roughness the tubes were generated by a several-step-containing procedure under aqueous conditions. The approach reported below will process open end nanotubes with well-defined outer diameter and wall thickness.

  8. Cerium (IV) oxide nanotubes prepared by low temperature deposition at normal pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, M; Fu, G; Ionescu, E; Ensinger, W

    2011-02-11

    This paper reports the synthesis of cerium dioxide nanotubes (CeNTs) by electroless deposition using ion-track-etched polycarbonate templates. To achieve nanotubes with thin walls and small surface roughness the tubes were generated by a several-step-containing procedure under aqueous conditions. The approach reported below will process open end nanotubes with well-defined outer diameter and wall thickness.

  9. Automated sample preparation for CE-SDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, M Eleanor; Vizel, Alona; Hutterer, Katariina M

    2013-05-01

    Traditionally, CE with SDS (CE-SDS) places many restrictions on sample composition. Requirements include low salt content, known initial sample concentration, and a narrow window of final sample concentration. As these restrictions require buffer exchange for many sample types, sample preparation is often tedious and yields poor sample recoveries. To improve capacity and streamline sample preparation, an automated robotic platform was developed using the PhyNexus Micro-Extractor Automated Instrument (MEA) for both the reduced and nonreduced CE-SDS assays. This automated sample preparation normalizes sample concentration, removes salts and other contaminants, and adds the required CE-SDS reagents, essentially eliminating manual steps during sample preparation. Fc-fusion proteins and monoclonal antibodies were used in this work to demonstrate benefits of this approach when compared to the manual method. With optimized conditions, this application has demonstrated decreased analyst "hands on" time and reduced total assay time. Sample recovery greater than 90% can be achieved, regardless of initial composition and concentration of analyte.

  10. Preparation a Child for Surgery and Hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hospitalization and medical experiences can be confusing and stressful for children, teens and their families. It is very common for young people and their families to have many questions when they are scheduled for surgery or hospitalization. When children are given opportunities to cope successfully with medical experiences, they may see themselves as more capable, more in control, and more reassured. This success often leads to a more positive sense of self, as well as a healthier regard for medical procedures in general. Also, previous medical experiences can affect how the child will react to hospitalization. It is important to maintain a normal routine and activities, such as playing and schooling. Family and friend’s child should be encouraged to visit the child patient. The best way to prepare the child for hospitalization is to prepare ourselves by understanding what will occur.

  11. Comparison of normalization algorithms for cross-batch color segmentation of histopathological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ryan A; Kothari, Sonal; Wang, May D

    2014-01-01

    Automated processing of digital histopathology slides has the potential to streamline patient care and provide new tools for cancer classification and grading. Before automatic analysis is possible, quality control procedures are applied to ensure that each image can be read consistently. One important quality control step is color normalization of the slide image, which adjusts for color variances (batch-effects) caused by differences in stain preparation and image acquisition equipment. Color batch-effects affect color-based features and reduce the performance of supervised color segmentation algorithms on images acquired separately. To identify an optimal normalization technique for histopathological color segmentation applications, five color normalization algorithms were compared in this study using 204 images from four image batches. Among the normalization methods, two global color normalization methods normalized colors from all stain simultaneously and three stain color normalization methods normalized colors from individual stains extracted using color deconvolution. Stain color normalization methods performed significantly better than global color normalization methods in 11 of 12 cross-batch experiments (pnormalization method using k-means clustering was found to be the best choice because of high stain segmentation accuracy and low computational complexity.

  12. Confirmed viral meningitis with normal CSF findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Naghum; Desjobert, Edouard; Lumley, Janine; Webster, Daniel; Jacobs, Michael

    2014-07-17

    An 18-year-old woman presented with a progressively worsening headache, photophobia feverishness and vomiting. Three weeks previously she had returned to the UK from a trip to Peru. At presentation, she had clinical signs of meningism. On admission, blood tests showed a mild lymphopenia, with a normal C reactive protein and white cell count. Chest X-ray and CT of the head were normal. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy was normal. CSF protein and glucose were in the normal range. MRI of the head and cerebral angiography were also normal. Subsequent molecular testing of CSF detected enterovirus RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. The patient's clinical syndrome correlated with her virological diagnosis and no other cause of her symptoms was found. Her symptoms were self-limiting and improved with supportive management. This case illustrates an important example of viral central nervous system infection presenting clinically as meningitis but with normal CSF microscopy.

  13. Multidimensional dynamical systems accepting the normal shift

    CERN Document Server

    Boldin, A Y

    1994-01-01

    The dynamical systems of the form \\ddot\\bold r=\\bold F (\\bold r,\\dot\\bold r) in \\Bbb R^n accepting the normal shift are considered. The concept of weak normality for them is introduced. The partial differential equations for the force field \\bold F(\\bold r,\\dot\\bold r) of the dynamical systems with weak and complete normality are derived.

  14. Pseudo--Normals for Signed Distance Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2003-01-01

    undertake showing that the angle weighted pseudo--normal has an important property, namely that it allows us to discriminate between points that are inside and points that are outside the mesh. This result is used for proposing a simple and efficient algorithm for computing the signed distance field from...... a mesh. Moreover, our result is an additional argument for the angle weighted pseudo--normals being the natural extension of the face normals....

  15. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the main auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via ...

  16. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place in the afternoons of 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via Ind...

  17. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance ...

  18. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register ...

  19. Preparations, models, and simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an outline for a typology of the different forms that scientific objects can take in the life sciences. The first section discusses preparations (or specimens)--a form of scientific object that accompanied the development of modern biology in different guises from the seventeenth century to the present: as anatomical-morphological specimens, as microscopic cuts, and as biochemical preparations. In the second section, the characteristics of models in biology are discussed. They became prominent from the end of the nineteenth century onwards. Some remarks on the role of simulations--characterising the life sciences of the turn from the twentieth to the twenty-first century--conclude the paper.

  20. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register ...

  1. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 11, 13, 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance ...

  2. Preparation of mullite fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.; Wang, B.; Liu, S.; Yan, Y. [Xiamen Univ. (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-06-01

    Transparent mullite fibers have been prepared using aluminum carboxylates (ACs) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as starting materials. The ACs are derived from the catalyzed dissolution of elemental aluminum in a mixture of formic acid and acetic acid. The solubility of aluminum in the acids is influenced by the concentrations of the acids, water, and additives and the preparation temperature. A 1:4:3:24 molar ratio of aluminum, formic acid, acetic acid, and water dissolves the aluminum completely to give a colorless, clear solution suitable for fiber synthesis. The mixture of the ACs and TEOS, in the presence of ethyl alcohol as a mutual solvent at 50--60 C, is concentrated to give a spinnable dope, from which mullite precursor fibers can be drawn. Heat treatment of the precursor at 1,250 C yields crystallized and transparent mullite fibers.

  3. Preparation for Physics Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelson, Edward

    2006-12-01

    The textbook for our preparation for physics course has been rewritten ab initio. Like its predecessor, it adapts a spiral approach to dealing with preconceptions, but this version encourages work at higher levels in Bloom's taxonomy and makes students sensitive to how p-prims affect their understanding. As its title: "All in Proportion: Preparation for Physics" indicates, it emphasizes how far proportional reasoning will take the student. Classwork is mainly group work, and various techniques are used to encourage students to complete the learning cycle on material that has not been mastered. Both the FCI and the Lawson "Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning" have been given to gauge student progress. Preliminary results will be reported and sample materials will be shown.

  4. Preparation and characterization of mesoporous indium oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi-zhe; CHENG Zhi-xuan; PAN Qing-yi; DONG Xiao-wen; ZHANG Jian-cheng; PAN Ling-li

    2009-01-01

    Indium oxide nanocrystals with mesoporous structure were successfully synthesized by using triblock copolymer as a template,and characterized by thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimeter (TG-DSC),X-ray powder diffraction (XRD),high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and N2 adsorption.A high EO/PO ratio is thought to be the key point to prepare mesoporous In2O3.The results show that the average pore diameter of the products is 6 nm,the BET surface area is 54.78 m2/g,and the adsorbing pore volume is 0.345 cm3/g.After comparing with normal indium oxide nanoparticles by BET test,mesoporous indium oxide demonstrates a large difference in adsorbing pore volume and average pore diameters from normal ones.

  5. [Microflora of spiruline preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, J

    1975-01-01

    A study, by direct microscopic examination and cultures, shows that the microflore which accompanies the spirulines preparations, varies as the origin and the technologie treatment quality. The main species are bacillacees; then, come faecal streptococcus which are the best contaminations indicators; enterobacteries, yeasts, moulds spores, are exceptional. Dry products as getting old, entail a great decrease of all the species, the anaerobies being more resistant.

  6. The Preparation of Graphene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanyan

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has unique structure and possesses excellent physical and chemical properties, and it has received a great deal of attention in related research fields. The quality, quantity and application of graphene are related to its preparation methods. At present the bottleneck of graphene research is that both high-quality and large quantity of graphene could not be obtained simultaneously and the reason is that the basic mechanism of graphene formation has mot been wel understood.

  7. Preparation of chitosan gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerge S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerogel conditioning of the chitosan makes it possible to prepare porous solids of significant specific surface. The increase in the chitosan concentration or the degree of acetylation decreases the specific surface of the synthesized chitosan gel. Whereas drying with supercritical CO2 more effectively makes it possible to preserve the volume of the spheres of gel and to have a more significant specific surface in comparison with evaporative drying.

  8. Moments of q-Normal and conditional q-Normal distributions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We calculate moments and moment generating functions of two distributions: the so called $q-$Normal and the so called conditional $q-$Normal distributions. These distributions generalize both Normal ($q=1),$ Wigner ($% q=0,$ $q-$Normal) and Kesten-McKay ($q=0,$ conditional $q-$Normal) distributions. As a by product we get asymptotic properties of some expansions in modified Bessel functions.

  9. Preparation and characteristic of NASICON ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Dongmei; LUO Fa; XIE Zhanglong; ZHOU Wancheng

    2006-01-01

    Hot-pressed sintering was employed to prepare the sodium super ionic conductor (Na1+xZr2SixP3-xO12,1.8≤x≤2.2)ceramics and compare with the sample obtained from normal-press sintering. The phase formation, density, and conductivity of the hot-press sintered and the normal-press sintered samples were investigated in detail. Results show that the density of NASICON ceramics and the degree of crystallization can be improved by hot-press process efficiently. The density of the sample sintered by normal sintering is obviously lower than that sintered by hot press. XRD analysis indicates all the hot press sintered samples contain mainly monoclinic NASICON and no ZrO2 phase was found. The ionic conductivity of normal-press sintered sample is much lower than that of hot-press sintered sample. When the composition is close to Na3Zr2Si2PO12 , the dc conductivities of the hot press sintered samples were in the order of 10-3 S·cm-1.The variation of the ac conductivity with frequency in the high frequency region agrees with the power law feature of σ(ω) ∝ωn(0<n<1).

  10. A Skew-Normal Mixture Regression Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Lin, Tsung-I

    2014-01-01

    A challenge associated with traditional mixture regression models (MRMs), which rest on the assumption of normally distributed errors, is determining the number of unobserved groups. Specifically, even slight deviations from normality can lead to the detection of spurious classes. The current work aims to (a) examine how sensitive the commonly…

  11. Normal Form for Families of Hamiltonian Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Guo WANG

    2007-01-01

    We consider perturbations of integrable Hamiltonian systems in the neighborhood of normally parabolic invariant tori. Using the techniques of KAM-theory we prove that there exists a canonical transformation that puts the Hamiltonian in normal form up to a remainder of weighted order 2d+1. And some dynamical consequences are obtained.

  12. Refixation saccades with normal gain values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsager, Leise Elisabeth Hviid; Faber, Christian Emil; Schmidt, Jesper Hvass

    2017-01-01

    Refixation saccades with normal gain value occur more frequently with increasing age. The phenomenon has also been observed in different vestibular disorders. In this case, we present a young male with normal gain value and refixation saccades tested with the video head impulse test (vHIT) the da...

  13. On the Computation of Noether Normalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱烨; 张江峰

    2004-01-01

    This paper considered the Noether normalization of a finitely generated algebra over an algebraically closed field. It gives a necessary and sufficient condition as well as an algorithm for the identification of those algebraically independent variables, then uses these elements to construct the Noether normalization of this algebra.

  14. http://programminghistorian.org/lessons/normalizing-data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The list that we created in the From HTML to a List of Words (2 needs some normalizing before it can be used further. We are going to do this by applying additional string methods, as well as by using regular expressions. Once normalized, we will be able to more easily analyze our data.

  15. Construction of \\mu-normal sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Madritsch, Manfred G.; Mance, Bill

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper we extend Champernowne's construction of normal numbers to provide sequences which are generic for a given invariant probability measure, which need not be the maximal one. We present a construction together with estimates and examples for normal numbers with respect to L\\"uroth series expansion, continued fractions expansion or $\\beta$-expansion.

  16. Combinatorial Solutions to Normal Ordering of Bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Blasiak, P; Horzela, A; Penson, K A; Solomon, A I

    2005-01-01

    We present a combinatorial method of constructing solutions to the normal ordering of boson operators. Generalizations of standard combinatorial notions - the Stirling and Bell numbers, Bell polynomials and Dobinski relations - lead to calculational tools which allow to find explicitly normally ordered forms for a large class of operator functions.

  17. More on (,-Normal Operators in Hilbert Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Eskandari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study some properties of (,-normal operators and we present various inequalities between the operator norm and the numerical radius of (,-normal operators on Banach algebra ℬ(ℋ of all bounded linear operators ∶ℋ→ℋ, where ℋ is Hilbert space.

  18. Product of normal edge transitive Cayley graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Assari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For two normal edge transitive Cayley graphs on two groups H and K whichhave no common direct factor and gcd(|H|/|H'|, |Z(K| = 1 = gcd(|K=K′|,|Z(H|,we consider four standard product of them and proved that only tensor product ofthem can be normal edge transitive.

  19. Representations of reductive normal algebraic monoids

    OpenAIRE

    Doty, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The rational representation theory of a reductive normal algebraic monoid (with one-dimensional center) forms a highest weight category, in the sense of Cline, Parshall, and Scott. This is a fundamental fact about the representation theory of reductive normal algebraic monoids. We survey how this result was obtained, and treat some natural examples coming from classical groups.

  20. Denotational Aspects of Untyped Normalization by Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filinski, Andrzej; Rohde, Henning Korsholm

    2005-01-01

    formal correctness proof for the normalization algorithm, expressed as a functional program in an ML-like, call-by-value language. Finally, we generalize the construction to produce an infinitary variant of normal forms, namely Böhm trees. We show that the three-part characterization of correctness......, as well as the proofs, extend naturally to this generalization....

  1. Normalizing the causality between time series

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, X San

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a rigorous yet concise formula has been derived to evaluate the information flow, and hence the causality in a quantitative sense, between time series. To assess the importance of a resulting causality, it needs to be normalized. The normalization is achieved through distinguishing three types of fundamental mechanisms that govern the marginal entropy change of the flow recipient. A normalized or relative flow measures its importance relative to other mechanisms. In analyzing realistic series, both absolute and relative information flows need to be taken into account, since the normalizers for a pair of reverse flows belong to two different entropy balances; it is quite normal that two identical flows may differ a lot in relative importance in their respective balances. We have reproduced these results with several autoregressive models. We have also shown applications to a climate change problem and a financial analysis problem. For the former, reconfirmed is the role of the Indian Ocean Dipole as ...

  2. Normalization strategy of microarray gene expression data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To discuss strategies and methods of normalization on how to deal with and analyze data for different chips with the combination of statistics, mathematics and bioinformatics in order to find significant difference genes. Methods: With Excel and SPSS software, high or low density chips were analyzed through total intensity normalization (TIN) and locally weighted linear regression normalization (LWLRN). Results: These methods effectively reduced systemic errors and made data more comparable and reliable. Conclusion: These methods can search the genes of significant difference, although normalization methods are being developed and need to be improved further. Great breakthrough will be obtained in microarray data normalization analysis and transformation with the development of non-linear technology, software and hardware of computer.

  3. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård;

    2004-01-01

    as increased phosphate and urea concentrations, whereas calcium and potassium concentrations decreased significantly after bowel preparation. No differences in plasma or extracellular volumes were seen. Orthostatic tolerance and balance function did not change after bowel preparation. CONCLUSIONS: Bowel...

  4. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  5. Preparation of tungsten oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulian, Christopher J.; Dye, Robert C.; Son, Steven F.; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Perry, W. Lee

    2009-09-22

    Tungsten trioxide hydrate (WO.sub.3.H.sub.2O) was prepared from a precursor solution of ammonium paratungstate in concentrated aqueous hydrochloric acid. The precursor solution was rapidly added to water, resulting in the crash precipitation of a yellow white powder identified as WO.sub.3.H.sub.2O nanosized platelets by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Annealing of the powder at 200.degree. C. provided cubic phase WO.sub.3 nanopowder, and at 400.degree. C. provided WO.sub.3 nanopowder as a mixture of monoclinic and orthorhombic phases.

  6. End-preparation assessments and tests for compounded sterile preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhiney, Linda F

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing has become a necessity to obtain sterile products that are currently on backorder. Because of the expense of outsourcing sterile compounding, pharmacy leadership in health systems are now considering the option of insourcing and batch preparing compounded sterile preparations, which can be a viable option for a health system. It can significantly decrease drug-spending costs, and the pharmacy has a complete record of the compounding process. The key to preparing high-quality, safe, sterile preparations and meeting United States Pharmacopeia standards is end-preparation assessments and tests.

  7. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  8. Why Specialized Preparation is Critical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwin, C. Kenneth; Dickinson, Thomas S.; Smith, Tracy W.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that mandating specific teacher preparation programs may be necessary to ensure that teachers are adequately prepared for the unique challenges and rewards of teaching young adolescents, discussing: the desirability of teacher young adolescents, important elements of teacher preparation, the need for tighter licensure requirements, and the…

  9. Normal force controlled rheology applied to agar gelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Bosi; Divoux, Thibaut; Snabre, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    A wide range of thermoreversible gels are prepared by cooling down to ambient temperature hot aqueous polymer solutions. During the sol-gel transition, such materials may experience a volume contraction which is traditionally overlooked as rheological measurements are usually performed in geometries of constant volume. In this article, we revisit the formation of 1.5\\% wt. agar gels through a series of benchmark rheological experiments performed with a plate-plate geometry. We demonstrate on that particular gel of polysaccharides that the contraction associated with the sol/gel transition cannot be neglected. Indeed, imposing a constant gap width during the gelation results in the strain hardening of the sample, as evidenced by the large negative normal force that develops. Such hardening leads to the slow drift in time of the gel elastic modulus $G'$ towards ever larger values, and thus to an erroneous estimate of $G'$. As an alternative, we show that imposing a constant normal force equals to zero during the gelation, instead of a constant gap width, suppresses the hardening as the decrease of the gap compensates for the sample contraction. Using normal force controlled rheology, we then investigate the impact of thermal history on 1.5\\% wt. agar gels. We show that neither the value of the cooling rate, nor the introduction of a constant temperature stage during the cooling process influence the gel elastic properties. Instead, $G'$ only depends on the terminal temperature reached at the end of the cooling ramp, as confirmed by direct imaging of the gel microstructure by cryoelectron microscopy. The present work offers an extensive review of the technical difficulties associated with the rheology of hydrogels and paves the way for a systematic use of normal force controlled rheology to monitor non-isochoric processes.

  10. Reactivity of Quartz at Normal Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    Scanlon, Chief, Concrete Technology Division, and Bryant Mather, Chief, SL. The report was prepared by A. D. Buck. Others ac- tively engaged in the work...included J. P. Burkes, G. S. Wong, Jay E. Rhoderick, Ron Reinhold, J. F. Jones, and T. G. Ray. Commander and Director of the WES during preparation and...forms of common opal and presumably precious opal. (2) Vitreous silica. c. Minerals or varieties. (1) Tridymite. (2) Cristobalite . 5-. . . .: .~i p (3

  11. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Human Resources is organising a preparation for retirement seminar which will take place on the four successive afternoons of 2 to 5 October 2007. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of one’s working life and the start of a new period of life. This period of transition and change is experienced differently from one individual to another. In any case, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above as well as those who have retired during the year have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members below 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of th...

  12. Preparation for retirement seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

      The Human Resources Department is organizing a preparation for retirement seminar, which will take place on the afternoons of the 25 and 27 November 2009. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to the availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned and the limited capacity of the Main Auditorium, you are requested to register in advance via Indico. &a...

  13. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a Preparation for Retirement Seminar, which will take place on 18 and 21 October 2011 in the afternoon in the Main Auditorium and on 19 October and 15 and 16 November 2011 in the afternoon in the Council Chamber. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned, you are ...

  14. Preparation for Retirement Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The Human Resources Department is organizing a Preparation for Retirement Seminar, which will take place on 18 and 21 October 2011 in the afternoon in the Main Auditorium and on 19 October and 15 and 16 November 2011 in the afternoon in the Council Chamber. Similar seminars in the past have always proved highly successful. Retirement marks the end of a person’s working life and the start of a new chapter. This period of transition is experienced differently from one individual to another. In all cases, being well-informed and prepared greatly facilitates the change in lifestyle. We would like to draw your attention to the following information: Staff concerned: All staff members aged 58 and above have been sent a personal invitation to attend. Spouses are welcome. Staff members under the age of 58 who are interested in attending the seminar may also apply. Their applications will be accepted subject to availability of places. Registration: In view of the number of people concerned, you are r...

  15. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    27 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 28 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 29 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 30 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 4.45 p.m. Auditorium (Main Building) After the success of the preparation seminars held in recent years, it has been decided that the programme should continue. The forthcoming seminar has been prepared in close collaboration with the CERN Pensioners' Association. The programme will be organised over several half-day sessions. Once again this year, a special session will be devoted to the 10th revision of the Swiss state pension scheme, the 'AVS' (Assurance-Vieillesse et Survivants), and the consequences for international civil servants. A talk will be given by Mrs Danièle Siebold, Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation, aimed mainly at those residing in or intending to move to Switzerland, or who worked in Switzerland before joining CERN. To enable Mrs Siebold to respond to your concerns as effectively as possible, please ...

  16. Data Breach Preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belangia, David Warren [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-13

    The Home Depot Data Breach is the second largest data breach on record. It has or will affect up to 56 million debit or credit cards. A trusted vendor account, coupled with the use of a previously unknown variant of malware that allowed the establishment of a foothold, was the entry point into the Home Depot network. Once inside the perimeter, privilege escalation provided an avenue to obtain the desired information. Home Depot did, however, learn some lessons from Target. Home Depot certainly communicated better than Target, procured insurance, and instituted as secure an environment as possible. There are specific measures an institution should undertake to prepare for a data breach, and everyone can learn from this breach. Publicly available information about the Home Depot Data Breach provides insight into the attack, an old malware variant with a new twist.While the malware was modified as to be unrecognizable with tools, it probably should have been detected. There are also concerns with Home Depot’s insurance and the insurance provider’s apparent lack of fully reimbursing Home Depot for their losses. The effect on shareholders and Home Depot’s stock price was short lived. This story is still evolving but provides interesting lessons learned concerning how an organization should prepare for it inevitable breach.

  17. The effective degeneracy of protein normal modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyuntae; Song, Guang

    2016-05-12

    Normal modes are frequently computed and used to portray protein dynamics and interpret protein conformational changes. In this work, we investigate the nature of normal modes and find that the normal modes of proteins, especially those at the low frequency range (0-600 cm(-1)), are highly susceptible to degeneracy. Two or more modes are degenerate if they have the same frequency and consequently any orthogonal transformation of them also is a valid representation of the mode subspace. Thus, degenerate modes can no longer characterize unique directions of motions as regular modes do. Though the normal modes of proteins are usually of different frequencies, the difference in frequency between neighboring modes is so small that, under even slight structural uncertainty that unavoidably exists in structure determination, it can easily vanish and as a result, a mode becomes effectively degenerate with its neighboring modes. This can be easily observed in that some modes seem to disappear and their matching modes cannot be found when the structure used to compute the modes is modified only slightly. We term this degeneracy the effective degeneracy of normal modes. This work is built upon our recent discovery that the vibrational spectrum of globular proteins is universal. The high density of modes observed in the vibrational frequency spectra of proteins renders their normal modes highly susceptible to degeneracy, under even the smallest structural uncertainty. Indeed, we find the degree of degeneracy of modes is proportional to the density of modes in the vibrational spectrum. This means that for modes at the same frequency, degeneracy is more severe for larger proteins. Degeneracy exists also in the modes of coarse-grained models, but to a much lesser extent than those of all-atom models. In closing, we discuss the implications of the effective degeneracy of normal modes: how it may significantly affect the ways in which normal modes are used in various normal modes

  18. On normality of the Wijsman topology

    CERN Document Server

    Holá, Lubica

    2011-01-01

    Let $(X,\\rho)$ be a metric space and $(CL(X),W_\\rho)$ be the hyperspace of all nonempty closed subsets of $X$ equipped with the Wijsman topology. The Wijsman topology is one of the most important classical hyperspace topologies. We give a partial answer to a question posed in \\cite{maio} whether the normality of $(CL(X),W_\\rho)$ is equivalent to its metrizability. If $(X,\\rho)$ is a linear metric space, then $(CL(X),W_\\rho)$ is normal if and only if $(CL(X),W_\\rho)$ is metrizable. Some further results concerning normality of the Wijsman topology on $CL(X)$ are also proved.

  19. The lambda sigma calculus and strong normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Explicit substitution calculi can be classified into several dis- tinct categories depending on whether they are confluent, meta-confluent, strong normalization preserving, strongly normalizing, simulating, fully compositional, and/or local. In this paper we present a variant of the λσ-calculus......, which satisfies all seven conditions. In particular, we show how to circumvent Mellies counter-example to strong normalization by a slight restriction of the congruence rules. The calculus is implemented as the core data structure of the Celf logical framework. All meta-theoretic aspects of this work...

  20. Normal-dispersion microresonator Kerr frequency combs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Xiaoxiao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical microresonator-based Kerr frequency comb generation has developed into a hot research area in the past decade. Microresonator combs are promising for portable applications due to their potential for chip-level integration and low power consumption. According to the group velocity dispersion of the microresonator employed, research in this field may be classified into two categories: the anomalous dispersion regime and the normal dispersion regime. In this paper, we discuss the physics of Kerr comb generation in the normal dispersion regime and review recent experimental advances. The potential advantages and future directions of normal dispersion combs are also discussed.

  1. Resonance Raman of BCC and normal skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-hui; Sriramoju, Vidyasagar; Boydston-White, Susie; Wu, Binlin; Zhang, Chunyuan; Pei, Zhe; Sordillo, Laura; Beckman, Hugh; Alfano, Robert R.

    2017-02-01

    The Resonance Raman (RR) spectra of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and normal human skin tissues were analyzed using 532nm laser excitation. RR spectral differences in vibrational fingerprints revealed skin normal and cancerous states tissues. The standard diagnosis criterion for BCC tissues are created by native RR biomarkers and its changes at peak intensity. The diagnostic algorithms for the classification of BCC and normal were generated based on SVM classifier and PCA statistical method. These statistical methods were used to analyze the RR spectral data collected from skin tissues, yielding a diagnostic sensitivity of 98.7% and specificity of 79% compared with pathological reports.

  2. Normal radiographic findings. 4. act. ed.; Roentgennormalbefunde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, T.B. [Gemeinschaftspraxis fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Dillingen (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    This book can serve the reader in three ways: First, it presents normal findings for all radiographic techniques including KM. Important data which are criteria of normal findings are indicated directly in the pictures and are also explained in full text and in summary form. Secondly, it teaches the systematics of interpreting a picture - how to look at it, what structures to regard in what order, and for what to look in particular. Checklists are presented in each case. Thirdly, findings are formulated in accordance with the image analysis procedure. All criteria of normal findings are defined in these formulations, which make them an important didactic element. (orig.)

  3. Normal families related to shared sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV Feng-jiao; LI Jiang-tao

    2008-01-01

    We studied the normality criterion for families of meromorphic functions related to shared sets. Let F be a family of meromorphic functions on the unit disc (, a and b be distinct non-zero values, S={a,b}, and k be a positive integer. If for every f∈F, i) the zeros of f(z) have a multiplicity of at least k+1, and ii) , then F is normal on (. At the same time, the corresponding results of normal function are also proved.

  4. Nonlinear dynamics exploration through normal forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    Geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students, this exposition covers the method of normal forms and its application to ordinary differential equations through perturbation analysis. In addition to its emphasis on the freedom inherent in the normal form expansion, the text features numerous examples of equations, the kind of which are encountered in many areas of science and engineering. The treatment begins with an introduction to the basic concepts underlying the normal forms. Coverage then shifts to an investigation of systems with one degree of freedom that model oscillations

  5. Normal anti-Klebsiella lymphocytotoxicity in ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsella, T.D.; Fritzler, M.J.; Lewkonia, R.M.

    1986-03-01

    We compared in vitro lymphocytotoxicity (LCT) of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), obtained from patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and normal controls (NC). Assays were performed with antibacterial antisera prepared from AS- and NC-derived Klebsiella and coliforms Escherichia coli. LCT assessed by eosin staining was not significantly different in PBL of 12 AS patients and 28 controls when reacted with 3 Klebsiella and 1 E coli antisera. LCT assessed by /sup 51/Cr release was not significantly different for PBL of 20 age- and sex-matched pairs of AS patients and NC when reacted with 3 Klebsiella and 1 E coli antisera. Similarly, LCT-/sup 51/Cr of PBL of 15 matched AS and NC pairs was not significantly different for anti-K21, a serotype putatively implicated in Klebsiella-HLA-B27 antigenic cross-reactivity. Our results do not support the notion of molecular mimicry between Klebsiella and B27 in the pathogenesis of primary AS.

  6. Earth's density flattening and hypothesis of latitudinal normal density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the definition of latitudinal density and density flattening of the level ellipsoid is given, and integral formulas of latitudinal density for pole gravity and equator gravity are derived. According to the pole gravity condition and equator gravity condition for the level ellipsoid, latitudinal density distribution function of the level ellipsoid is obtained. It is proved mathematically that latitudinal density of the earth's equator is larger than that of the pole, the earth's density flat-tening calculated preliminarily is 1/322, and hypothesis of the earth's latitudinal normal density is further proposed, so that theoretical preparation for studying the forming cause of the earth gravity in problems such as continent drift, mantle convection, and submarine extension is made well.

  7. Mental Health: What's Normal, What's Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Adult health Understanding what's considered normal mental health can be tricky. See how feelings, thoughts and behaviors determine mental health and how to recognize if you or a ...

  8. The Aging Prostate Is Never "Normal"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlomm, Thorsten; Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Korbel, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We argue against the recently published statement that tumor-specific molecular alterations found in "normal" prostate tissue from cancer patients challenge focal therapy approaches that only target a visible cancer lesion and not the adjacent molecular field....

  9. Sampling exactly from the normal distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Karney, Charles F F

    2013-01-01

    An algorithm for sampling exactly from the normal distribution is given. The algorithm reads some number of uniformly distributed random digits in a given base and generates an initial portion of the representation of a normal deviate in the same base. Thereafter, uniform random digits are copied directly into the representation of the normal deviate. Thus, in constrast to existing methods, it is possible to generate normal deviates exactly rounded to any precision with a mean cost that scales linearly in the precision. The method performs no arbitrary precision arithmetic, calls no transcendental functions, and, indeed, uses no floating point arithmetic whatsoever; it uses only simple integer operations. The algorithm is inspired by von Neumann's algorithm for sampling from the exponential distribution; an improvement to von Neumann's algorithm is also given.

  10. Normalization of the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy score ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017 Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. Acceptance Date: 09-05-2016. Aim: To construct normal values for .... Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease, inability to read and write. Patients with ...

  11. The method of minimal normal forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mane, S.R.; Weng, W.T.

    1992-12-31

    Normal form methods for solving nonlinear differential equations are reviewed and the comparative merits of three methods are evaluated. The concept of the minimal normal form is explained and is shown to be superior to other choices. The method is then extended to apply to the evaluation of discrete maps of an accelerator or storage ring. Such an extension, as suggested in this paper, is more suited for accelerator-based applications than a formulation utilizing continuous differential equations. A computer code has been generated to systematically implement various normal form formulations for maps in two-dimensional phase space. Specific examples of quadratic and cubic nonlinear fields were used and solved by the method developed. The minimal normal form method shown here gives good results using relatively low order expansions.

  12. The method of minimal normal forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mane, S.R.; Weng, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    Normal form methods for solving nonlinear differential equations are reviewed and the comparative merits of three methods are evaluated. The concept of the minimal normal form is explained and is shown to be superior to other choices. The method is then extended to apply to the evaluation of discrete maps of an accelerator or storage ring. Such an extension, as suggested in this paper, is more suited for accelerator-based applications than a formulation utilizing continuous differential equations. A computer code has been generated to systematically implement various normal form formulations for maps in two-dimensional phase space. Specific examples of quadratic and cubic nonlinear fields were used and solved by the method developed. The minimal normal form method shown here gives good results using relatively low order expansions.

  13. Ultrasound, normal placenta - Braxton Hicks (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... performed at 17 weeks gestation. It shows the placenta during a normal (Braxton Hicks) contraction. Throughout the ... contracts to facilitate better blood flow through the placenta and the fetus. In this ultrasound, the placenta ...

  14. Ultrasound, color - normal umbilical cord (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a normal color Doppler ultrasound of the umbilical cord performed at 30 weeks gestation. The cord is ... the cord, two arteries and one vein. The umbilical cord is connected to the placenta, located in the ...

  15. [Normal and abnormal meningeal enhancement: MRI features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietemann, J L; Correia Bernardo, R; Bogorin, A; Abu Eid, M; Koob, M; Nogueira, Th; Vargas, M I; Fakhoury, W; Zöllner, G

    2005-11-01

    The authors describe normal imaging of the meninges and meningeal spaces and MR (magnetic resonance) imaging findings in tumoral and nontumoral diseases. Dural or/and pial enhancement may be related to tumoral, infectious or granulomatous diseases.

  16. Relative Radiometric Normalization of Multitemporal images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Castillo Sanz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A correct radiometric normalization between both images is fundamental for change detection. MAD method and its IR-MAD extension in an implementation on multisprectral aerial images is described in this paper

  17. Developmental pragmatics in normal and abnormal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, B G; Bosco, F M; Bucciarelli, M

    1999-07-01

    We propose a critical review of current theories of developmental pragmatics. The underlying assumption is that such a theory ought to account for both normal and abnormal development. From a clinical point of view, we are concerned with the effects of brain damage on the emergence of pragmatic competence. In particular, the paper deals with direct speech acts, indirect speech acts, irony, and deceit in children with head injury, closed head injury, hydrocephalus, focal brain damage, and autism. Since no single theory covers systematically the emergence of pragmatic capacity in normal children, it is not surprising that we have not found a systematic account of deficits in the communicative performance of brain injured children. In our view, the challenge for a pragmatic theory is the determination of the normal developmental pattern within which different pragmatic phenomena may find a precise role. Such a framework of normal behavior would then permit the systematic study of abnormal pragmatic development.

  18. Normal form analysis of the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, J.A.

    1994-07-01

    A systematic analysis effort is under way to calculate and model the effects of present and future upgrades to the Tevatron. As a first step, using normal form theory, amplitude-dependent tuneshifts for current Tevatron collider operating conditions were calculated. The normal form algorithm was implemented within the frame work of the object-oriented accelerator physics class libraries BEAMLINE and MXYZPTLK under development at Fermilab.

  19. Progeria, rapamycin and normal aging: recent breakthrough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2011-01-01

    A recent discovery that rapamycin suppresses a pro-senescent phenotype in progeric cells not only suggests a non-toxic therapy for progeria but also implies its similarity with normal aging. For one, rapamycin is also known to suppress aging of regular human cells. Here I discuss four potential scenarios, comparing progeria with both normal and accelerated aging. This reveals further indications of rapamycin both for accelerated aging in obese and for progeria. PMID:21743107

  20. Progeria, rapamycin and normal aging: recent breakthrough

    OpenAIRE

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2011-01-01

    A recent discovery that rapamycin suppresses a pro-senescent phenotype in progeric cells not only suggests a non-toxic therapy for progeria but also implies its similarity with normal aging. For one, rapamycin is also known to suppress aging of regular human cells. Here I discuss four potential scenarios, comparing progeria with both normal and accelerated aging. This reveals further indications of rapamycin both for accelerated aging in obese and for progeria.

  1. Progeria, rapamycin and normal aging: recent breakthrough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2011-07-01

    A recent discovery that rapamycin suppresses a pro-senescent phenotype in progeric cells not only suggests a non-toxic therapy for progeria but also implies its similarity with normal aging. For one, rapamycin is also known to suppress aging of regular human cells. Here I discuss four potential scenarios, comparing progeria with both normal and accelerated aging. This reveals further indications of rapamycin both for accelerated aging in obese and for progeria.

  2. Right thoracic curvature in the normal spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuda Keigo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry and vertebral rotation, at times observed in the normal spine, resemble the characteristics of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Right thoracic curvature has also been reported in the normal spine. If it is determined that the features of right thoracic side curvature in the normal spine are the same as those observed in AIS, these findings might provide a basis for elucidating the etiology of this condition. For this reason, we investigated right thoracic curvature in the normal spine. Methods For normal spinal measurements, 1,200 patients who underwent a posteroanterior chest radiographs were evaluated. These consisted of 400 children (ages 4-9, 400 adolescents (ages 10-19 and 400 adults (ages 20-29, with each group comprised of both genders. The exclusion criteria were obvious chest and spinal diseases. As side curvature is minimal in normal spines and the range at which curvature is measured is difficult to ascertain, first the typical curvature range in scoliosis patients was determined and then the Cobb angle in normal spines was measured using the same range as the scoliosis curve, from T5 to T12. Right thoracic curvature was given a positive value. The curve pattern was organized in each collective three groups: neutral (from -1 degree to 1 degree, right (> +1 degree, and left ( Results In child group, Cobb angle in left was 120, in neutral was 125 and in right was 155. In adolescent group, Cobb angle in left was 70, in neutral was 114 and in right was 216. In adult group, Cobb angle in left was 46, in neutral was 102 and in right was 252. The curvature pattern shifts to the right side in the adolescent group (p Conclusions Based on standing chest radiographic measurements, a right thoracic curvature was observed in normal spines after adolescence.

  3. Sweet smells prepare plants for future stress: airborne induction of plant disease immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hwe-Su; Ryu, Choong-Min; Heil, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Plants require protection against a wide range of attackers such as insects and pathogens. The adequate plant defense responses are regulated via sophisticated signal cascades, which are activated following the perception of specific cues of the attackers. Plants might, however, gain a significant fitness advantage when pre-empting enemy attack before it actually occurs. Monitoring cues from attacked neighbors can permit plants to reach this goal. We have recently found airborne disease resistance against a bacterial pathogen in uninfected lima bean plants when these were located close to conspecific, resistance-expressing neighbors. The emitters could be chemically induced with benzothiadiazole or biologically with an avirulent pathogen. Unexpectedly, receiver plants, although expressing a functioning resistance, did not show reduced growth rates, which represent a common side-effect of directly induced pathogen resistance. Nonanal was identified as an active volatile and, rather than directly inducing full resistance, primed defense gene expression, which became fully activated only when the plants were subsequently challenged by a virulent pathogen. Priming by airborne signals allows for a more efficient and less costly preparation of plants for future attack and airborne signaling can affect resistance against both major groups of plant enemies: herbivores and pathogens.

  4. Preparing Students for Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesel, Anna

    2010-01-01

    : USA, China, Korea, Mexico, Chile and others. We describe our experiences of working on industrial projects with international teams and analyse the development and trends in student mobility. The growing popularity of these programmes and the increasing number of the students joining our international......A. Friesel. Preparing Students for Globalization Working with International Teams with Projects // Electronics and Electrical Engineering. - Kaunas: Technologija, 2019. - No. 6(102). - P. 111-114. This paper summarizes the activities, contents and overall outcomes of our experiences...... with international students studying at the Copenhagen University College of Engineering (in short - IHK); in particular students coming for one semester exchange program under Erasmus-programme. IHK's participation in EU-supported programmes like EIE-Surveyor and ELLEIEC, both ERASMUS thematic networks, have...

  5. Method to prepare Semtex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, A; Dougan, A

    2006-11-26

    This procedure requires the binder and uncoated RDX be prepared in separate steps, see Figure 1: (1) The binder and dye are mixed by agitation with a water-insoluble organic solvent (e.g., toluene), I; (2) The RDX/PETN is agitated thoroughly with water, II; (3) The binder solution I is added to the RDX/water mixture at II with thorough mixing to form a slurry III; (4) In the next step the solvent is distilled off at IV leaving resulting granules; (5) The next step is followed by filtration at V, which may be done by vacuum; (6) The composition is then dried at VI to a dough-like consistency.

  6. Cortical Thinning in Network-Associated Regions in Cognitively Normal and Below-Normal Range Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, Farena; Parlar, Melissa; Hawco, Colin; Hanford, Lindsay; Hall, Geoffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed whether cortical thickness across the brain and regionally in terms of the default mode, salience, and central executive networks differentiates schizophrenia patients and healthy controls with normal range or below-normal range cognitive performance. Cognitive normality was defined using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) composite score (T = 50 ± 10) and structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to generate cortical thickness data. Whole brain analysis revealed that cognitively normal range controls (n = 39) had greater cortical thickness than both cognitively normal (n = 17) and below-normal range (n = 49) patients. Cognitively normal controls also demonstrated greater thickness than patients in regions associated with the default mode and salience, but not central executive networks. No differences on any thickness measure were found between cognitively normal range and below-normal range controls (n = 24) or between cognitively normal and below-normal range patients. In addition, structural covariance between network regions was high and similar across subgroups. Positive and negative symptom severity did not correlate with thickness values. Cortical thinning across the brain and regionally in relation to the default and salience networks may index shared aspects of the psychotic psychopathology that defines schizophrenia with no relation to cognitive impairment.

  7. Cortical Thinning in Network-Associated Regions in Cognitively Normal and Below-Normal Range Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Walter Heinrichs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed whether cortical thickness across the brain and regionally in terms of the default mode, salience, and central executive networks differentiates schizophrenia patients and healthy controls with normal range or below-normal range cognitive performance. Cognitive normality was defined using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB composite score (T=50 ± 10 and structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to generate cortical thickness data. Whole brain analysis revealed that cognitively normal range controls (n=39 had greater cortical thickness than both cognitively normal (n=17 and below-normal range (n=49 patients. Cognitively normal controls also demonstrated greater thickness than patients in regions associated with the default mode and salience, but not central executive networks. No differences on any thickness measure were found between cognitively normal range and below-normal range controls (n=24 or between cognitively normal and below-normal range patients. In addition, structural covariance between network regions was high and similar across subgroups. Positive and negative symptom severity did not correlate with thickness values. Cortical thinning across the brain and regionally in relation to the default and salience networks may index shared aspects of the psychotic psychopathology that defines schizophrenia with no relation to cognitive impairment.

  8. [Incidence of normal hearing in acoustic neuroma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Donato, G; Russo, A; Taibah, A; Saleh, E; Sanna, M

    1995-04-01

    Unilateral or asymetrical sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus and instability classically represent the main symptoms for the suspected diagnosis of acoustic neurinoma. In literature there are very few studies which refer about acoustic neurinoma in patients with normal hearing. In this article we report the results of a retrospective analysis of 155 acoustic neurinoma cases with normal hearing managed in our center in the last 7 years. These patients are classified in two groups: 1) with normal hearing at the time of diagnosis and 2) with at least a mild sensorineural hearing loss. Of this 155 cases, 21 (13.5%) had normal pure tone audiogram. An important characteristic of these patients, in comparison with the group with normal hearing, is the younger age. Tinnitus, instability, sudden hearing loss with complete recovery and vertigo are the most common symptoms. The mean pure tone threshold is 14.7 dB, speech audiometry is positive in very few cases, while a large number of cases show false negative. ABR are positive in 90.5% of cases, and demonstrate its high sensitivity for retrococlear pathology. The mean tumor size shows significant differences between the group with normal hearing and this with hearing loss. We believe that the presence of this symptoms in a young patient should necessitate complete neurotologic examination and in the patients with normal hearing a high level of suspicion represents the first step for early diagnosis of small tumors; the next step is the through evaluation of patient with pure tone audiogram, ABR, and imaging studies, preferably MRI with gadolinium, as this permits the diagnosis of small intracanalicular tumor. Thus, in cases of small tumors with good hearing we feel that will be possible to adopt hearing conservation surgical approach like FCM and retrosigmoid approach in more cases.

  9. Morphometric analysis of density subpopulations of normal human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, K G; Froebel, M; Macpherson, J; Penington, D G

    1988-08-30

    Platelets from seven normal subjects were fractionated on continuous Percoll density gradients and low density (LD), intermediate, and high density (HD) platelets were prepared for transmission electron microscopy followed by computerised morphometric analysis. Normal ultrastructural appearance and discoid shape were preserved by incubation of the platelets in nutrient medium at 37 degrees C immediately before fixation. HD platelet sections had a larger mean cross-sectional area but a lower ratio of the major to the minor axis compared to LD platelet sections. HD platelets contained more alpha granules, dense granules and mitochondria per square micron of section area than LD platelets. The percentage of section area occupied by open canalicular system was greater in the LD platelets while the percentage area occupied by glycogen fields was over ten-fold higher in the HD platelets. The mean cross-sectional areas of individual alpha granules and dense granules increased with density while the opposite trend was found for mitochondria. It is suggested that these ultrastructural differences mainly arise during thrombopoiesis and may indicate some functional specialization among platelets.

  10. RPE cell surface proteins in normal and dystrophic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, V.M.; Hall, M.O.

    1986-02-01

    Membrane-bound proteins in plasma membrane enriched fractions from cultured rat RPE were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Membrane proteins were characterized on three increasingly specific levels. Total protein was visualized by silver staining. A maximum of 102 separate proteins were counted in silver-stained gels. Glycoproteins were labeled with 3H-glucosamine or 3H-fucose and detected by autoradiography. Thirty-eight fucose-labeled and 61-71 glucosamine-labeled proteins were identified. All of the fucose-labeled proteins were labeled with glucosamine-derived radioactivity. Proteins exposed at the cell surface were labeled by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination prior to preparation of membranes for two-dimensional analysis. Forty separate 125I-labeled surface proteins were resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis/autoradiography. Comparison with the glycoprotein map showed that a number of these surface labeled proteins were glycoproteins. Two-dimensional maps of total protein, fucose-labeled, and glucosamine-labeled glycoproteins, and 125I-labeled surface proteins of membranes from dystrophic (RCS rdy-p+) and normal (Long Evans or RCS rdy+p+) RPE were compared. No differences in the total protein or surface-labeled proteins were observed. However, the results suggest that a 183K glycoprotein is more heavily glycosylated with glucosamine and fucose in normal RPE membranes as compared to membranes from dystrophic RPE.

  11. Premedication, preparation, and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, G D

    2002-01-01

    peppermint oil, as well as the value of variable-stiffness colonoscopes, in reducing the need for intravenous sedation is discussed. Case reports of hyponatraemic encephalopathy and hypocalcaemic tetany as complications of oral bowel preparation are presented, as is the challenge associated with adequate bowel preparation in diabetic patients.

  12. Statistical normalization techniques for magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell T. Shinohara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While computed tomography and other imaging techniques are measured in absolute units with physical meaning, magnetic resonance images are expressed in arbitrary units that are difficult to interpret and differ between study visits and subjects. Much work in the image processing literature on intensity normalization has focused on histogram matching and other histogram mapping techniques, with little emphasis on normalizing images to have biologically interpretable units. Furthermore, there are no formalized principles or goals for the crucial comparability of image intensities within and across subjects. To address this, we propose a set of criteria necessary for the normalization of images. We further propose simple and robust biologically motivated normalization techniques for multisequence brain imaging that have the same interpretation across acquisitions and satisfy the proposed criteria. We compare the performance of different normalization methods in thousands of images of patients with Alzheimer's disease, hundreds of patients with multiple sclerosis, and hundreds of healthy subjects obtained in several different studies at dozens of imaging centers.

  13. [Normal aging of frontal lobe functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calso, Cristina; Besnard, Jérémy; Allain, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Normal aging in individuals is often associated with morphological, metabolic and cognitive changes, which particularly concern the cerebral frontal regions. Starting from the "frontal lobe hypothesis of cognitive aging" (West, 1996), the present review is based on the neuroanatomical model developed by Stuss (2008), introducing four categories of frontal lobe functions: executive control, behavioural and emotional self-regulation and decision-making, energization and meta-cognitive functions. The selected studies only address the changes of one at least of these functions. The results suggest a deterioration of several cognitive frontal abilities in normal aging: flexibility, inhibition, planning, verbal fluency, implicit decision-making, second-order and affective theory of mind. Normal aging seems also to be characterised by a general reduction in processing speed observed during neuropsychological assessment (Salthouse, 1996). Nevertheless many cognitive functions remain preserved such as automatic or non-conscious inhibition, specific capacities of flexibility and first-order theory of mind. Therefore normal aging doesn't seem to be associated with a global cognitive decline but rather with a selective change in some frontal systems, conclusion which should be taken into account for designing caring programs in normal aging.

  14. Psychological preparation in sport shooting

    OpenAIRE

    Ledecká, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    Title: Psychological preparation in sport shooting Objectives: The objective of this thesis is usage of psychological preparation by sport shooting representation team in Czech Republic. How they are informed about psychological preparation. What it means to them. Which types of regulation they use and how they behave before and after a competition. Methods: A Questionnaire was used as a method for data obtaining. The questionnaire was compiled for the purposes of this Thesis. The researched ...

  15. Microscale sample preparation for PCR of C. difficile infected stool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillers, Sara; Atkinson, Christopher D.; Bartoo, Aaron C.; Mahalanabis, Madhumita; Boylan, Michael O.; Schwartz, John H.; Klapperich, Catherine; Singh, Satish K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the design of a microfluidic sample preparation chip for human stool samples infected with Clostridium difficile. We established a polymerase chain reaction able to distinguish C. difficile in the presence of several other organisms found in the normal intestinal flora. A protocol for on-chip extraction of nucleic acids from clinical samples is described that can detect target DNA down to 5.0×10−3 ng of template. The assay and sample preparation chip were then validated using known positive and known negative clinical samples. The work presented has potential applications in both the developed and developing world. PMID:19505511

  16. Preoperative preparation of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Reshma Aranha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is a stressful and anxiety provoking experience for children. Millions of children undergo surgery every year. The majority of children experience significant preoperative anxiety which intern can affect their recovery. Preoperative anxiety may bring about physical and physiological changes in children, which can be particularly evident in terms of increased heart rate and blood pressure. To identify various strategies used to minimize the preoperative anxiety of children and update their clinical effectiveness among children undergoing surgery, the authors searched PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Cochrane Library for identifying the relevant studies and retrieved available literature. It is concluded that utilization of the strategies available to reduce the preoperative anxiety of children will be a promising intervention to reduce anxiety, to promote relaxation, satisfaction, and speedy recovery. Many of these techniques are simple, cost-effective and can be easily carried out by nurses. It is essential to use the age appropriate and individualized methods in preparing children for surgery. Further research is required to strengthen the evidence.

  17. Preparation for retirement seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    (Health insurance and wealth and succession planning) During the preparation for retirement seminar in November 2009, the sessions on health insurance in Switzerland and in France unfortunately had to be postponed. Participants in the seminar also expressed interest in an information session on “How to manage your wealth and organize your succession”. The sessions on health insurance will be held on 16 March 2010 and those on managing wealth and succession on 18 March 2010. Programme for Tuesday 16 March 2010 (TH Theory Conference Room, Building 4/3-006): 09:00 Health insurance in Switzerland by Mr. Sandro Breitenstein, Service de l'Assurance Maladie du Canton de Genève 10:00 Coffee break 10:20 Health insurance in France by Mr. Dominique Curtiaud, Caisse Primaire d'Assurance Maladie de l'Ain Programme for Thursday 18 March 2010 (TH Theory Conference Room, Building 4/3-006): 09:00 How to manage your wealth and organize your succession in Switzerland by Mr. Jean-Marc W...

  18. Preparing for the future

    CERN Multimedia

    Panos Charitos

    2016-01-01

    The second annual meeting of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study took place from 11 to 15 April in Rome.   The participants in the second annual meeting of the FCC design study. (Photo: Vinicio Tullio/INFN) More than 450 scientists, researchers and leaders of high-tech industry gathered in Rome to review the progress of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study. The study was kicked off in 2014 as a response to a statement in the European Strategy for Particle Physics, and today embraces 74 institutes from 26 countries. With the LHC programme well under way, particle physicists are at an exciting juncture. New results from the 13 TeV run could show that we are on the threshold of an eye-opening era that presents new challenges and calls for developments. “To prepare for its future, CERN should continue to develop a vibrant R&D programme that should take advantage of its strengths and uniqueness, pursue design studies for...

  19. Prepared for internship?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abuhusain, H

    2009-03-01

    Preparedness of medical school graduates for the intern year is one of the emphasised objectives of undergraduate medical training. We have evaluated the perceived preparedness of graduates undertaking the intern year in the Republic of Ireland. A 9-page questionnaire was mailed to all 497 interns in Ireland following commencement of the intern year in July 2005. Data obtained included demographics, perceived preparedness and assessment of perceived clinical skills (four sub-domains: core competencies, communication, emergencies, and educational environment). Information on intern induction was also collected. 99 questionnaires were returned (19.9%). Most of the cohort were Irish and worked in large medical school teaching hospitals. The majority of interns felt \\'unprepared\\' for the intern year. Interns perceived themselves \\'poor\\' in all areas of clinical skills assessed. Intern induction was attended by the majority and most stated it was too short. Medical schools are actively seeking innovative methods, through early patient contact and sub-internships, to better prepare undergraduates for the intern year. The deficiencies identified in this study are significant and emphasise the need for continued reform in the undergraduate curriculum.

  20. Deterministic joint remote state preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Nguyen Ba, E-mail: nban@iop.vast.ac.vn [Center for Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, 10 Dao Tan, Ba Dinh, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Bich, Cao Thi [Center for Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, 10 Dao Tan, Ba Dinh, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Physics Department, University of Education No. 1, 136 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Don, Nung Van [Center for Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, 10 Dao Tan, Ba Dinh, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Physics Department, Hanoi National University, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2011-09-26

    We put forward a new nontrivial three-step strategy to execute joint remote state preparation via Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs deterministically. At variance with all existing protocols, in ours the receiver contributes actively in both preparation and reconstruction steps, although he knows nothing about the quantum state to be prepared. -- Highlights: → Deterministic joint remote state preparation via EPR pairs is proposed. → Both general single- and two-qubit states are studied. → Differently from all existing protocols, in ours the receiver participates actively. → This is for the first time such a strategy is adopted.

  1. MR imaging of normal hip anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Connie Y; Huang, Ambrose J

    2013-02-01

    Understanding normal anatomy of the hip is important for diagnosing its pathology. MR arthrography is more sensitive for the detection of intra-articular pathology than noncontrast MR imaging. Important elements of the osseous structures on MR imaging include the alignment and the marrow. Acetabular ossicles may be present. Normal variations involving the cartilage include the supra-acetabular fossa and the stellate lesion. Important muscles of the hip are the sartorius, rectus femoris, iliopsoas, gluteus minimus and medius, adductors, and hamstrings. The iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, and pubofemoral ligaments represent thickenings of the joint capsule that reinforce and stabilize the hip joint. Normal variations in the labrum include labral sulcus and absent labrum. The largest nerves in the hip and thigh are the sciatic nerve, the femoral nerve, and the obturator nerve.

  2. A normalization model of multisensory integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshiro, Tomokazu; Angelaki, Dora E; DeAngelis, Gregory C

    2011-06-01

    Responses of neurons that integrate multiple sensory inputs are traditionally characterized in terms of a set of empirical principles. However, a simple computational framework that accounts for these empirical features of multisensory integration has not been established. We propose that divisive normalization, acting at the stage of multisensory integration, can account for many of the empirical principles of multisensory integration shown by single neurons, such as the principle of inverse effectiveness and the spatial principle. This model, which uses a simple functional operation (normalization) for which there is considerable experimental support, also accounts for the recent observation that the mathematical rule by which multisensory neurons combine their inputs changes with cue reliability. The normalization model, which makes a strong testable prediction regarding cross-modal suppression, may therefore provide a simple unifying computational account of the important features of multisensory integration by neurons.

  3. Porosity Governs Normal Stresses in Polymer Gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cagny, Henri C G; Vos, Bart E; Vahabi, Mahsa; Kurniawan, Nicholas A; Doi, Masao; Koenderink, Gijsje H; MacKintosh, F C; Bonn, Daniel

    2016-11-18

    When sheared, most elastic solids including metals, rubbers, and polymer gels dilate perpendicularly to the shear plane. This behavior, known as the Poynting effect, is characterized by a positive normal stress. Surprisingly, fibrous biopolymer gels exhibit a negative normal stress under shear. Here we show that this anomalous behavior originates from the open-network structure of biopolymer gels. Using fibrin networks with a controllable pore size as a model system, we show that the normal-stress response to an applied shear is positive at short times, but decreases to negative values with a characteristic time scale set by pore size. Using a two-fluid model, we develop a quantitative theory that unifies the opposite behaviors encountered in synthetic and biopolymer gels.

  4. How Different are Normal and Barred Spirals?

    CERN Document Server

    Bergh, Sidney van den

    2011-01-01

    No significant color differences are found between normal and barred spirals over the range of Hubble stages a - ab - b - bc. Furthermore, no significant difference is seen between the luminosity distributions of normal and barred galaxies over the same range of Hubble stages. However, SBc galaxies are found to be systematically fainter than Sc galaxies at 99% confidence. The observation that normal and barred spirals with Hubble stages a - ab - b - bc have indistinguishable intrinsic colors hints at the possibility that the bars in such spiral galaxies might be ephemeral structures. Finally, it is pointed out that lenticular galaxies of types S0 and SB0 are systematically fainter than are other early-type galaxies, suggesting that such galaxies are situated on evolutionary tracks that differ systematically from those of galaxies that lie along the E - Sa - Sb -Sc and E - SBa - SBb - SBc sequences.

  5. Masturbation, sexuality, and adaptation: normalization in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Theodore

    2008-03-01

    During adolescence the central masturbation fantasy that is formulated during childhood takes its final form and paradoxically must now be directed outward for appropriate object finding and pair matching in the service of procreative aims. This is a step in adaptation that requires a further developmental landmark that I have called normalization. The path toward airing these private fantasies is facilitated by chumship relationships as a step toward further exposure to the social surround. Hartmann's structuring application of adaptation within psychoanalysis is used as a framework for understanding the process that simultaneously serves intrapsychic and social demands and permits goals that follow evolutionary principles. Variations in the normalization process from masturbatory isolation to a variety of forms of sexual socialization are examined in sociological data concerning current adolescent sexual behavior and in case examples that indicate some routes to normalized experience and practice.

  6. Neuroinflammation in the normal aging hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, R M; Kitt, M M; Watkins, L R; Maier, S F

    2015-11-19

    A consequence of normal aging is a greater susceptibility to memory impairments following an immune challenge such as infection, surgery, or traumatic brain injury. The neuroinflammatory response, produced by these challenges results in increased and prolonged production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the otherwise healthy aged brain. Here we discuss the mechanisms by which long-lasting elevations in pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus produce memory impairments. Sensitized microglia are a primary source of this exaggerated neuroinflammatory response and appear to be a hallmark of the normal aging brain. We review the current understanding of the causes and effects of normal aging-induced microglial sensitization, including dysregulations of the neuroendocrine system, potentiation of neuroinflammatory responses following an immune challenge, and the impairment of memories. We end with a discussion of therapeutic approaches to prevent these deleterious effects.

  7. Metabolomics data normalization with EigenMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya V Karpievitch

    Full Text Available Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry has become one of the analytical platforms of choice for metabolomics studies. However, LC-MS metabolomics data can suffer from the effects of various systematic biases. These include batch effects, day-to-day variations in instrument performance, signal intensity loss due to time-dependent effects of the LC column performance, accumulation of contaminants in the MS ion source and MS sensitivity among others. In this study we aimed to test a singular value decomposition-based method, called EigenMS, for normalization of metabolomics data. We analyzed a clinical human dataset where LC-MS serum metabolomics data and physiological measurements were collected from thirty nine healthy subjects and forty with type 2 diabetes and applied EigenMS to detect and correct for any systematic bias. EigenMS works in several stages. First, EigenMS preserves the treatment group differences in the metabolomics data by estimating treatment effects with an ANOVA model (multiple fixed effects can be estimated. Singular value decomposition of the residuals matrix is then used to determine bias trends in the data. The number of bias trends is then estimated via a permutation test and the effects of the bias trends are eliminated. EigenMS removed bias of unknown complexity from the LC-MS metabolomics data, allowing for increased sensitivity in differential analysis. Moreover, normalized samples better correlated with both other normalized samples and corresponding physiological data, such as blood glucose level, glycated haemoglobin, exercise central augmentation pressure normalized to heart rate of 75, and total cholesterol. We were able to report 2578 discriminatory metabolite peaks in the normalized data (p<0.05 as compared to only 1840 metabolite signals in the raw data. Our results support the use of singular value decomposition-based normalization for metabolomics data.

  8. Cognitive plasticity in normal and pathological aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Botella, Juan; Zamarrón, María Dolores; Molina, María Ángeles; Cabras, Emilia; Schettini, Rocío; Tárraga, Lluis

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of the present study is to examine to what extent age and cognitive impairment contribute to learning performance (cognitive plasticity, cognitive modifiability, or learning potential). To address this question, participants coming from four studies (Longitudinal Study of Active Aging, age range, 55-75 years, N = 458; Longitudinal Study in the very old [90+], age range, 90-102, N = 188, and Cognitive Plasticity within the Course of Cognitive Impairment, 97 "Normal", 57 mild cognitive impairment [MCI], and 98 Alzheimer's disease [AD] patients) were examined through a measure of verbal learning (developed from Rey). The results show that all age, MCI, and AD groups learned across the five learning trials of that test, but significant differences were found due to age, pathology, and education. The effects of pathology (MCI and AD) can be expressed in a metric of "years of normal decline by age"; specifically, being MCI means suffering an impairment in performance that is equivalent to the decline of a normal individual during 15 years, whereas the impact of AD is equivalent to 22.7 years. Likewise, the improvement associated with about 5 years of education is equivalent to about 1 year less of normal aging. Also, the two pathological groups significantly differed from "normal" groups in the delayed trial of the test. The most dramatic difference is that between the "normal" group and the AD patients, which shows relatively poorer performance for the AD group in the delayed trial than in the first learning trial. The potential role of this unique effect for quick detection purposes of AD is assessed (in the 75-89 years age range, sensitivity and specificity equal 0.813 and 0.917, respectively).

  9. New approach for anti-normally and normally ordering bosonic-operator functions in quantum optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-Min; Zhang, Yun-Hai; Xu, Xing-Lei; Li, Hong-Qi; Wang, Ji-Suo

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we provide a new kind of operator formula for anti-normally and normally ordering bosonic-operator functions in quantum optics, which can help us arrange a bosonic-operator function f(λQ̂ + νP̂) in its anti-normal and normal ordering conveniently. Furthermore, mutual transformation formulas between anti-normal ordering and normal ordering, which have good universality, are derived too. Based on these operator formulas, some new differential relations and some useful mathematical integral formulas are easily derived without really performing these integrations. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. ZR2015AM025) and the Natural Science Foundation of Heze University, China (Grant No. XY14PY02).

  10. Cavity preparation machine for the standardization of in vitro preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Soares

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Several in vitro studies employ the confection of cavity preparations that are difficult to standardize by means of manual high speed handpieces. This study presents the development of a cavity preparation machine designed to standardize in vitro cavity preparations. A metal base of 25 mm x 25 mm x 4 mm (length x width x height was coupled to a small mobile table which was designed to be able to move by means of two precision micrometers (0.01-mm accuracy in the horizontal directions (right-left, and back-front. A high speed handpiece was coupled to a metallic connecting rod which had an accurate dial indicator enabling control of the vertical movement. The high speed handpiece is also able to move 180° around its longitudinal axis and 360° around its transversal axis. The suggested cavity preparation machine precisely helps in the standardization of cavity preparations for in vitro studies.

  11. Cavity preparation machine for the standardization of in vitro preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos José; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Gomide, Henner Alberto; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2008-01-01

    Several in vitro studies employ the confection of cavity preparations that are difficult to standardize by means of manual high speed handpieces. This study presents the development of a cavity preparation machine designed to standardize in vitro cavity preparations. A metal base of 25 mm x 25 mm x 4 mm (length x width x height) was coupled to a small mobile table which was designed to be able to move by means of two precision micrometers (0.01-mm accuracy) in the horizontal directions (right-left, and back-front). A high speed handpiece was coupled to a metallic connecting rod which had an accurate dial indicator enabling control of the vertical movement. The high speed handpiece is also able to move 180 degrees around its longitudinal axis and 360 degrees around its transversal axis. The suggested cavity preparation machine precisely helps in the standardization of cavity preparations for in vitro studies.

  12. Dirac operator normality and chiral properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerler, W.

    Normality and γ5-hermiticity are what gives rise to chiral properties and rules. The Ginsparg-Wilson (GW) relation is only one of the possible spectral constraints. The sum rule for chiral differences of real modes has important consequences. The alternative transformation of Lüscher gives the same Ward identity as the usual chiral one (if zero modes are properly treated). Imposing normality on a general function of the hermitean Wilson-Dirac operator H leads at same time to the GW relation and to the Neuberger operator.

  13. Normalized Information Distance is Not Semicomputable

    CERN Document Server

    Terwijn, Sebastiaan A; Vitanyi, Paul M B

    2010-01-01

    Normalized information distance (NID) uses the theoretical notion of Kolmogorov complexity, which for practical purposes is approximated by the length of the compressed version of the file involved, using a real-world compression program. This practical application is called 'normalized compression distance' and it is trivially computable. It is a parameter-free similarity measure based on compression, and is used in pattern recognition, data mining, phylogeny, clustering, and classification. The complexity properties of its theoretical precursor, the NID, have been open. We show that the NID is neither upper semicomputable nor lower semicomputable.

  14. Nonapproximablity of the Normalized Information Distance

    CERN Document Server

    Terwijn, Sebastiaan A; Vitanyi, Paul M B

    2009-01-01

    Normalized information distance (NID) uses the theoretical notion of Kolmogorov complexity, which for practical purposes is approximated by the length of the compressed version of the file involved, using a real-world compression program. This practical application is called `normalized compression distance' and it is trivially computable. It is a parameter-free similarity measure based on compression, and is used in pattern recognition, data mining, phylogeny, clustering, and classification. The complexity properties of its theoretical precursor, the NID, have been open. We show that the NID is neither upper semicomputable nor lower semicomputable up to any reasonable precision.

  15. Evaluation of CT-based SUV normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriese, Joke; Beels, Laurence; Maes, Alex; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Pottel, Hans

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine patients’ lean body mass (LBM) and lean tissue (LT) mass using a computed tomography (CT)-based method, and to compare standardized uptake value (SUV) normalized by these parameters to conventionally normalized SUVs. Head-to-toe positron emission tomography (PET)/CT examinations were retrospectively retrieved and semi-automatically segmented into tissue types based on thresholding of CT Hounsfield units (HU). The following HU ranges were used for determination of CT-estimated LBM and LT (LBMCT and LTCT):  -180 to  -7 for adipose tissue (AT), -6 to 142 for LT, and 143 to 3010 for bone tissue (BT). Formula-estimated LBMs were calculated using formulas of James (1976 Research on Obesity: a Report of the DHSS/MRC Group (London: HMSO)) and Janmahasatian et al (2005 Clin. Pharmacokinet. 44 1051-65), and body surface area (BSA) was calculated using the DuBois formula (Dubois and Dubois 1989 Nutrition 5 303-11). The CT segmentation method was validated by comparing total patient body weight (BW) to CT-estimated BW (BWCT). LBMCT was compared to formula-based estimates (LBMJames and LBMJanma). SUVs in two healthy reference tissues, liver and mediastinum, were normalized for the aforementioned parameters and compared to each other in terms of variability and dependence on normalization factors and BW. Comparison of actual BW to BWCT shows a non-significant difference of 0.8 kg. LBMJames estimates are significantly higher than LBMJanma with differences of 4.7 kg for female and 1.0 kg for male patients. Formula-based LBM estimates do not significantly differ from LBMCT, neither for men nor for women. The coefficient of variation (CV) of SUV normalized for LBMJames (SUVLBM-James) (12.3%) was significantly reduced in liver compared to SUVBW (15.4%). All SUV variances in mediastinum were significantly reduced (CVs were 11.1-12.2%) compared to SUVBW (15.5%), except SUVBSA (15.2%). Only SUVBW and SUVLBM-James show

  16. Magnetic normal modes in nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimsditch, M. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: grimsditch@anl.gov; Giovannini, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara and Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Via del Paradiso 12, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Montoncello, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara and Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Via del Paradiso 12, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Nizzoli, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Ferrara and Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Via del Paradiso 12, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Leaf, G. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Kaper, H. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Karpeev, D. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2004-12-31

    We have recently developed two methods to calculate the magnetic normal modes of a magnetic nano-particle. One of the methods is based on a conventional micromagnetic approach in which the time evolution of the magnetization of each cell is monitored. After filtering in frequency domain, the magnetic normal modes can be reconstructed. The second method is based on solving the same micromagneitc system in a dynamical matrix formulation. The results of the two methods, applied to a rectangular parallelepiped of Fe, will be presented and compared.

  17. Selected haematological changes in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 infected with a Trypansosoma sp. from the Vaal Dam, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryke L. Ferreira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of haematological techniques to assess fish health is generally accepted. The aim of the current study was to determine selected haematological changes that occur in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822. infected with trypanosomes. Blood films were prepared according to standard techniques to confirm trypanosome infections and whole blood was collected, the serum and plasma separated, and prepared for albumin and total protein concentration analysis. Plasma albumin levels were significantly higher in infected wild caught fish than in uninfected wild caught fish and uninfected breeding stock. Serum albumin levels were significantly lower in infected wild caught fish when compared to uninfected breeding stock. The total plasma and serum protein levels were within the normal range for C. gariepinus, that is, 3 g – 6 g/100 mL. The total plasma protein levels varied significantly between the three groups. However, the total serum protein levels were only significantly different between uninfected breeding stock and uninfected wild caught fish, as well as uninfected breeding stock and infected wild caught fish. The total protein levels were significantly higher in infected wild caught fish than in the other groups, a possible indication of an infection or inflammatory host response.

  18. Selected haematological changes in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) infected with a Trypansosoma sp. from the Vaal Dam, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maryke L; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2013-01-01

    The use of haematological techniques to assess fish health is generally accepted. The aim of the current study was to determine selected haematological changes that occur in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). infected with trypanosomes. Blood films were prepared according to standard techniques to confirm trypanosome infections and whole blood was collected, the serum and plasma separated, and prepared for albumin and total protein concentration analysis. Plasma albumin levels were significantly higher in infected wild caught fish than in uninfected wild caught fish and uninfected breeding stock. Serum albumin levels were significantly lower in infected wild caught fish when compared to uninfected breeding stock. The total plasma and serum protein levels were within the normal range for C. gariepinus, that is, 3 g-6 g/100 mL. The total plasma protein levels varied significantly between the three groups. However, the total serum protein levels were only significantly different between uninfected breeding stock and uninfected wild caught fish, as well as uninfected breeding stock and infected wild caught fish. The total protein levels were significantly higher in infected wild caught fish than in the other groups, a possible indication of an infection or inflammatory host response.

  19. Coal preparation. Energy program report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, M.Y.

    1975-06-01

    This is one of several special reports prepared in conjunction with a broad state-of-the-art study on underground coal mining. This report is essentially a review of the current technology of coal preparation and future research needs in this field. (GRA)

  20. Preparing Students for Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbourd, Richard; Peterson, Amelia; Weinstein, Emily

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important aspects in our lives is learning how to have mutual, caring romantic relationships. Yet while schools and many other industries in this country devote tremendous attention and resources to preparing the young for work, they do remarkably little to prepare them for generous, self-respecting sex and love. Educators and…

  1. Recent advances in preparative electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Richard A.; Thormann, Wolfgang; Egen, Ned B.; Couasnon, Pascal; Sammons, David W.

    1987-01-01

    Various approaches for preparative electrophoresis, and three new instruments for preparative electrophoresis are discussed. Consideration is given to isoelectric focusing, isotachophoresis, and zone electrophoresis, three gel-based electrophoresis methods. The design, functions, and performance of the Elphor VaP 21 device of Hannig (1982), the shear-stabilized BIOSTREAM separator of Thompson (1983), and the recycling isoelectric focusing device are described.

  2. Teacher Preparation and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Donald J.; Grossman, Pamela L.; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2009-01-01

    There are fierce debates over the best way to prepare teachers. Some argue that easing entry into teaching is necessary to attract strong candidates, whereas others argue that investing in high quality teacher preparation is the most promising approach. Most agree, however, that we lack a strong research basis for understanding how to prepare…

  3. A Simple Preparation of Hexadeuteriocholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Torkil; Crossland, Ingolf

    1996-01-01

    26,26,26,27,27,27 Hxadeuterio cholesterol has been prepared in 9 stages from pregnenolone and hexadeuterio acetone with an overall yield of 7 %.......26,26,26,27,27,27 Hxadeuterio cholesterol has been prepared in 9 stages from pregnenolone and hexadeuterio acetone with an overall yield of 7 %....

  4. Robust glint detection through homography normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Roholm, Lars; García Ferreiros, Iván

    2014-01-01

    A novel normalization principle for robust glint detection is presented. The method is based on geometric properties of corneal reflections and allows for simple and effective detection of glints even in the presence of several spurious and identically appearing reflections. The method is tested...

  5. Spatial normalization of brain images and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, J-F; Lebenberg, J; Lefranc, S; Labra, N; Auzias, G; Labit, M; Guevara, M; Mohlberg, H; Roca, P; Guevara, P; Dubois, J; Leroy, F; Dehaene-Lambertz, G; Cachia, A; Dickscheid, T; Coulon, O; Poupon, C; Rivière, D; Amunts, K; Sun, Z Y

    2016-10-01

    The deformable atlas paradigm has been at the core of computational anatomy during the last two decades. Spatial normalization is the variant endowing the atlas with a coordinate system used for voxel-based aggregation of images across subjects and studies. This framework has largely contributed to the success of brain mapping. Brain spatial normalization, however, is still ill-posed because of the complexity of the human brain architecture and the lack of architectural landmarks in standard morphological MRI. Multi-atlas strategies have been developed during the last decade to overcome some difficulties in the context of segmentation. A new generation of registration algorithms embedding architectural features inferred for instance from diffusion or functional MRI is on the verge to improve the architectural value of spatial normalization. A better understanding of the architectural meaning of the cortical folding pattern will lead to use some sulci as complementary constraints. Improving the architectural compliance of spatial normalization may impose to relax the diffeomorphic constraint usually underlying atlas warping. A two-level strategy could be designed: in each region, a dictionary of templates of incompatible folding patterns would be collected and matched in a way or another using rare architectural information, while individual subjects would be aligned using diffeomorphisms to the closest template. Manifold learning could help to aggregate subjects according to their morphology. Connectivity-based strategies could emerge as an alternative to deformation-based alignment leading to match the connectomes of the subjects rather than images.

  6. Accounting for the Benefits of Database Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting J.; Du, Hui; Lehmann, Constance M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a teaching approach to reinforce accounting students' understanding of the concept of database normalization. Unlike a conceptual approach shown in most of the AIS textbooks, this approach involves with calculations and reconciliations with which accounting students are familiar because the methods are frequently used in…

  7. Clinical Judgments of Normal Childhood Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Sally Ann

    1976-01-01

    Decisions regarding normality of childhood behaviors are necessary when clinicians attempt to discriminate which children require psychiatric treatment. Elements affecting clinical judgments include the influence of direct observation of the child and the parents' report of the child's behavior. Results show that judgments depended almost entirely…

  8. The variability problem of normal human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjær, Tine

    2012-01-01

    a group of normal subjects and to test whether or not the expected differences would prove to be statistically significant. Fifteen healthy male subjects were recorded on video while they walked across two force platforms. Ten kinematic and kinetic parameters were selected and input to a statistical...

  9. Normal pressure hydrocephalus presenting as delusional disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH is caused by aqueductal stenosis resulting in syndrome of gait disturbance, cognitive impairment, and urinary incontinence. Late onset psychosis should be evaluated thoroughly to rule out any organic cause. We present the case of a female patient presenting with delusions, gait disturbances, urinary incontinence in her 50s.

  10. Challenging the Ideology of Normal in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamma, Subini A.; Boelé, Amy L.; Moore, Brooke A.; Klingner, Janette

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we build on Brantlinger's work to critique the binary of normal and abnormal applied in US schools that create inequities in education. Operating from a critical perspective, we draw from Critical Race Theory, Disability Studies in Education, and Cultural/Historical Activity Theory to build a conceptual framework for…

  11. Normalized Specifications for Identifying Reusable Software

    OpenAIRE

    Luqi

    1987-01-01

    An approach to retrieving reusable software components by means of module specifications is described. The approach depends on normalizing specifications to reduce the variations in the representation of software concepts. The concept is illustrated in terms of both formal and informal approaches to component specifications.

  12. Bender Gestalt Performance of Normal Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacks, Patricia; Storandt, Martha

    1982-01-01

    Provides normative data on the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT) with a sample of 334 normal older adults. Showed that these older adults do not perform on the BGT in a manner that can be called brain damaged. Use of the cut-off score developed with younger persons appears appropriate. (Author)

  13. How Long Is a Normal Labor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Blix, Ellen; Hegaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Normal progress of labor is a subject for discussion among professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the duration of labor in women with a planned home birth and spontaneous onset who gave birth at home or in hospital after transfer. METHODS: This is a population-based study o...

  14. Normal pressure hydrocephalus presenting as delusional disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shruti; Bhatia, Manjeet Singh; Gautam, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is caused by aqueductal stenosis resulting in syndrome of gait disturbance, cognitive impairment, and urinary incontinence. Late onset psychosis should be evaluated thoroughly to rule out any organic cause. We present the case of a female patient presenting with delusions, gait disturbances, urinary incontinence in her 50s.

  15. REGULAR RELATIONS AND MONOTONE NORMAL ORDERED SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU XIAOQUAN; LIU YINGMING

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the classical theorem of Zareckii about regular relations is generalized and an intrinsic characterization of regularity is obtained. Based on the generalized Zareckii theorem and the intrinsic characterization of regularity, the authors give a characterization of monotone normality of ordered spaces. A new proof of the UrysohnNachbin lemma is presented which is quite different from the classical one.

  16. On the importance of the normalization

    CERN Document Server

    Dvoeglazov, V V

    2000-01-01

    We repeat the known procedure of the derivation of the set of Proca equations. It is shown that it can be written in various forms. The importance of the normalization is point out for the problem of the correct description of spin-1 quantized fields. Finally, the discussion of the so-called Kalb-Ramond field is presented.

  17. Power curve report - with turbulence intensity normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn; Vesth, Allan

    , additional shear and turbulence intensitity filters are applied on the measured data. Secondly, the method for normalization to a given reference turbulence intensity level (as described in Annex M of the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [3]) is applied. The measurements have been performed using DTU...

  18. Auction analysis by normal form game approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaisers, Michael; Tuyls, Karl; Thuijsman, Frank; Parsons, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Auctions are pervasive in todaypsilas society and provide a variety of real markets. This article facilitates a strategic choice between a set of available trading strategies by introducing a methodology to approximate heuristic payoff tables by normal form games. An example from the auction domain

  19. Visual attention and flexible normalization pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Odelia; Coen-Cagli, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Attention to a spatial location or feature in a visual scene can modulate the responses of cortical neurons and affect perceptual biases in illusions. We add attention to a cortical model of spatial context based on a well-founded account of natural scene statistics. The cortical model amounts to a generalized form of divisive normalization, in which the surround is in the normalization pool of the center target only if they are considered statistically dependent. Here we propose that attention influences this computation by accentuating the neural unit activations at the attended location, and that the amount of attentional influence of the surround on the center thus depends on whether center and surround are deemed in the same normalization pool. The resulting form of model extends a recent divisive normalization model of attention (Reynolds & Heeger, 2009). We simulate cortical surround orientation experiments with attention and show that the flexible model is suitable for capturing additional data and makes nontrivial testable predictions. PMID:23345413

  20. Hemoglobin levels in normal Filipino pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Natera, M G; Ancheta, L P; Platon, T P; Reyes, G D; Macapinlac, M P

    1981-09-01

    The hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy in Filipinos belonging to the upper income group, who were prescribed 105 mg elemental iron daily, and who had acceptable levels of transferrin saturation, were examined in an attempt to define normal levels. The hemoglobin concentrations for each trimester followed a Gaussian distribution. The hemoglobin values equal to the mean minus one standard deviation were 11.4 gm/dl for the first trimester and 10.4 gm/dl for the second and third trimesters. Using these values as the lower limits of normal, in one group of pregnant women the prevalence of anemia during the last two trimesters was found lower than that obtained when WHO levels for normal were used. Groups of women with hemoglobin of 10.4 to 10.9 gm/dl (classified anemic by WHO criteria but normal in the present study) and those with 11.0 gm/dl and above could not be distinguished on the basis of their serum ferritin levels nor on the degree of decrease in their hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy. Many subjects in both groups, however, had serum ferritin levels less than 12 ng/ml which indicate poor iron stores. It might be desirable in future studies to determine the hemoglobin cut-off point that will delineate subjects who are both non-anemic and adequate in iron stores using serum ferritin levels as criterion for the latter.

  1. Denotational Aspects of Untyped Normalization by Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filinski, Andrzej; Rohde, Henning Korsholm

    2005-01-01

    We show that the standard normalization-by-evaluation construction for the simply-typed ¿ß¿-calculus has a natural counterpart for the untyped ¿ß-calculus, with the central type-indexed logical relation replaced by a "recursively defined" invariant relation, in the style of Pitts. In fact, the co...

  2. The study of normal psychic life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, A.J.J. van de; Derksen, J.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    In the introduction to his Allgemeine Psychopathologie, published in 1913, Karl Jaspers stated that psychology has little value for the psychopathologist because it focuses on all kinds of interesting matters, but not on normal psychic life. In this article we argue that today, in the year 2013, lit

  3. SPERMATOZOAL RNA PROFILES OF NORMAL FERTILE MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Constitutes the Normal Fertile Male?G. Charles Ostermeier1, David J. Dix2, David Miller3, Purvesh Khatri4, and Stephen A. Krawetz1.1Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, & Institute for Scientific Computing, Wa...

  4. Named entity normalization in user generated content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; Khalid, M.A.; Marx, M.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Named entity recognition is important for semantically oriented retrieval tasks, such as question answering, entity retrieval, biomedical retrieval, trend detection, and event and entity tracking. In many of these tasks it is important to be able to accurately normalize the recognized entities, i.e.

  5. Normal tension glaucoma and Alzheimer disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach-Holm, Daniella; Kessing, Svend Vedel; Mogensen, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether normal tension glaucoma (NTG) is associated with increased risk of developing dementia/Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS: A total of 69 patients with NTG were identified in the case note files in the Glaucoma Clinic, University Hospital of Copenhagen (Rigshospitalet...

  6. Principal normal indicatrices of closed space curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    A theorem due to J. Weiner, which is also proven by B. Solomon, implies that a principal normal indicatrix of a closed space curve with nonvanishing curvature has integrated geodesic curvature zero and contains no subarc with integrated geodesic curvature pi. We prove that the inverse problem alw...

  7. Physical Development: What's Normal? What's Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Physical Development: What’s Normal? What’s Not? Page Content Article ... growth . The timing and speed of a child's physical development can vary a lot, because it is ...

  8. Dlk1 in normal and abnormal hematopoiesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakajiri, S; O'kelly, J; Yin, D

    2005-01-01

    megakaryocytic differentiation of both CMK megakaryoblasts as well as normal CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells. High serum levels of Dlk1 occurred in RA (4/10) and essential thrombocythemia (2/10) patients. Functional studies showed that forced expression of Dlk1 enhanced proliferation of K562 cells growing in 1...

  9. COMS normal operation for Earth Observation mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Min

    2012-09-01

    Communication Ocean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the hybrid mission of meteorological observation, ocean monitoring, and telecommunication service was launched onto Geostationary Earth Orbit on June 27, 2010 and it is currently under normal operation service since April 2011. The COMS is located on 128.2° East of the geostationary orbit. In order to perform the three missions, the COMS has 3 separate payloads, the meteorological imager (MI), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Ka-band antenna. Each payload is dedicated to one of the three missions, respectively. The MI and GOCI perform the Earth observation mission of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively. For this Earth observation mission the COMS requires daily mission commands from the satellite control ground station and daily mission is affected by the satellite control activities. For this reason daily mission planning is required. The Earth observation mission operation of COMS is described in aspects of mission operation characteristics and mission planning for the normal operation services of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring. And the first year normal operation results after the In-Orbit-Test (IOT) are investigated through statistical approach to provide the achieved COMS normal operation status for the Earth observation mission.

  10. Automatic Radiometric Normalization of Multitemporal Satellite Imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, Morton J.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Schmidt, Michael

    2004-01-01

    with normalization using orthogonal regression. The procedure is applied to Landsat TM images over Nevada, Landsat ETM+ images over Morocco, and SPOT HRV images over Kenya. Results from this new automatic, combined MAD/orthogonal regression method, based on statistical analysis of test pixels not used in the actual...

  11. Normal sleep and its neurophysiological regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.F. Hofman; L.M. Talamini

    2015-01-01

    Normal sleep consists of two states: NREM (light and deep sleep) and REM, alternating in a cyclical pattern. The sleep/wake rhythm is regulated by two processes: the sleep propensity, building up during wake, and the circadian rhythm, imposed by the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The arousal pathways in t

  12. Role of the normal gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandhyala, Sai Manasa; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Subramanyam, Chivkula; Vuyyuru, Harish; Sasikala, Mitnala; Nageshwar Reddy, D

    2015-08-07

    Relation between the gut microbiota and human health is being increasingly recognised. It is now well established that a healthy gut flora is largely responsible for overall health of the host. The normal human gut microbiota comprises of two major phyla, namely Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Though the gut microbiota in an infant appears haphazard, it starts resembling the adult flora by the age of 3 years. Nevertheless, there exist temporal and spatial variations in the microbial distribution from esophagus to the rectum all along the individual's life span. Developments in genome sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have now enabled scientists to study these microorganisms and their function and microbe-host interactions in an elaborate manner both in health and disease. The normal gut microbiota imparts specific function in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against pathogens. Several factors play a role in shaping the normal gut microbiota. They include (1) the mode of delivery (vaginal or caesarean); (2) diet during infancy (breast milk or formula feeds) and adulthood (vegan based or meat based); and (3) use of antibiotics or antibiotic like molecules that are derived from the environment or the gut commensal community. A major concern of antibiotic use is the long-term alteration of the normal healthy gut microbiota and horizontal transfer of resistance genes that could result in reservoir of organisms with a multidrug resistant gene pool.

  13. Topological Transformation during Normal Grain Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaogang LOU; Michael A.Player

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates topological transformation during normal grain growth by carrying out a computer vertex simulation.Results show that topological correlation agrees with the models proposed by Blanc et al. and Weaire. Topological transformation occurs more often on grains with some topological classes instead of equal probability on each boundary. This can be qualitatively explained by topological correlation.

  14. Perturbations of normally solvable nonlinear operators, I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William O. Ray

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Let X and Y be Banach spaces and let ℱ and be Gateaux differentiable mappings from X to Y In this note we study when the operator ℱ+ is surjective for sufficiently small perturbations of a surjective operator ℱ The methods extend previous results in the area of normal solvability for nonlinear operators.

  15. Quaternion normalization in spacecraft attitude determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschmann, J.; Markley, F. L.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    1993-01-01

    Attitude determination of spacecraft usually utilizes vector measurements such as Sun, center of Earth, star, and magnetic field direction to update the quaternion which determines the spacecraft orientation with respect to some reference coordinates in the three dimensional space. These measurements are usually processed by an extended Kalman filter (EKF) which yields an estimate of the attitude quaternion. Two EKF versions for quaternion estimation were presented in the literature; namely, the multiplicative EKF (MEKF) and the additive EKF (AEKF). In the multiplicative EKF, it is assumed that the error between the correct quaternion and its a-priori estimate is, by itself, a quaternion that represents the rotation necessary to bring the attitude which corresponds to the a-priori estimate of the quaternion into coincidence with the correct attitude. The EKF basically estimates this quotient quaternion and then the updated quaternion estimate is obtained by the product of the a-priori quaternion estimate and the estimate of the difference quaternion. In the additive EKF, it is assumed that the error between the a-priori quaternion estimate and the correct one is an algebraic difference between two four-tuple elements and thus the EKF is set to estimate this difference. The updated quaternion is then computed by adding the estimate of the difference to the a-priori quaternion estimate. If the quaternion estimate converges to the correct quaternion, then, naturally, the quaternion estimate has unity norm. This fact was utilized in the past to obtain superior filter performance by applying normalization to the filter measurement update of the quaternion. It was observed for the AEKF that when the attitude changed very slowly between measurements, normalization merely resulted in a faster convergence; however, when the attitude changed considerably between measurements, without filter tuning or normalization, the quaternion estimate diverged. However, when the

  16. On almost regularity and π-normality of topological spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad Thabit, Sadeq Ali; Kamarulhaili, Hailiza

    2012-05-01

    π-Normality is a weaker version of normality. It was introduced by Kalantan in 2008. π-Normality lies between normality and almost normality (resp. quasi-normality). The importance of this topological property is that it behaves slightly different from normality and almost normality (quasi-normality). π-Normality is neither a productive nor a hereditary property in general. In this paper, some properties of almost regular spaces are presented. In particular, a few results on almost regular spaces are improved. Some relationships between almost regularity and π-normality are presented. π-Generalized closed sets are used to obtain a characterization and preservation theorems of π-normal spaces. Also, we investigate that an almost regular Lindelöf space (resp. with σ-locally finite base) is not necessarily π-normal by giving two counterexamples. An almost normality of the Rational Sequence topology is proved.

  17. Spatial normalization of array-CGH data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennetot Caroline

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH is a recently developed technique for analyzing changes in DNA copy number. As in all microarray analyses, normalization is required to correct for experimental artifacts while preserving the true biological signal. We investigated various sources of systematic variation in array-CGH data and identified two distinct types of spatial effect of no biological relevance as the predominant experimental artifacts: continuous spatial gradients and local spatial bias. Local spatial bias affects a large proportion of arrays, and has not previously been considered in array-CGH experiments. Results We show that existing normalization techniques do not correct these spatial effects properly. We therefore developed an automatic method for the spatial normalization of array-CGH data. This method makes it possible to delineate and to eliminate and/or correct areas affected by spatial bias. It is based on the combination of a spatial segmentation algorithm called NEM (Neighborhood Expectation Maximization and spatial trend estimation. We defined quality criteria for array-CGH data, demonstrating significant improvements in data quality with our method for three data sets coming from two different platforms (198, 175 and 26 BAC-arrays. Conclusion We have designed an automatic algorithm for the spatial normalization of BAC CGH-array data, preventing the misinterpretation of experimental artifacts as biologically relevant outliers in the genomic profile. This algorithm is implemented in the R package MANOR (Micro-Array NORmalization, which is described at http://bioinfo.curie.fr/projects/manor and available from the Bioconductor site http://www.bioconductor.org. It can also be tested on the CAPweb bioinformatics platform at http://bioinfo.curie.fr/CAPweb.

  18. Metabolomics data normalization with EigenMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpievitch, Yuliya V; Nikolic, Sonja B; Wilson, Richard; Sharman, James E; Edwards, Lindsay M

    2014-01-01

    Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry has become one of the analytical platforms of choice for metabolomics studies. However, LC-MS metabolomics data can suffer from the effects of various systematic biases. These include batch effects, day-to-day variations in instrument performance, signal intensity loss due to time-dependent effects of the LC column performance, accumulation of contaminants in the MS ion source and MS sensitivity among others. In this study we aimed to test a singular value decomposition-based method, called EigenMS, for normalization of metabolomics data. We analyzed a clinical human dataset where LC-MS serum metabolomics data and physiological measurements were collected from thirty nine healthy subjects and forty with type 2 diabetes and applied EigenMS to detect and correct for any systematic bias. EigenMS works in several stages. First, EigenMS preserves the treatment group differences in the metabolomics data by estimating treatment effects with an ANOVA model (multiple fixed effects can be estimated). Singular value decomposition of the residuals matrix is then used to determine bias trends in the data. The number of bias trends is then estimated via a permutation test and the effects of the bias trends are eliminated. EigenMS removed bias of unknown complexity from the LC-MS metabolomics data, allowing for increased sensitivity in differential analysis. Moreover, normalized samples better correlated with both other normalized samples and corresponding physiological data, such as blood glucose level, glycated haemoglobin, exercise central augmentation pressure normalized to heart rate of 75, and total cholesterol. We were able to report 2578 discriminatory metabolite peaks in the normalized data (pmetabolomics data.

  19. Normalization for triple-target microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magniette Frederic

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most microarray studies are made using labelling with one or two dyes which allows the hybridization of one or two samples on the same slide. In such experiments, the most frequently used dyes are Cy3 and Cy5. Recent improvements in the technology (dye-labelling, scanner and, image analysis allow hybridization up to four samples simultaneously. The two additional dyes are Alexa488 and Alexa494. The triple-target or four-target technology is very promising, since it allows more flexibility in the design of experiments, an increase in the statistical power when comparing gene expressions induced by different conditions and a scaled down number of slides. However, there have been few methods proposed for statistical analysis of such data. Moreover the lowess correction of the global dye effect is available for only two-color experiments, and even if its application can be derived, it does not allow simultaneous correction of the raw data. Results We propose a two-step normalization procedure for triple-target experiments. First the dye bleeding is evaluated and corrected if necessary. Then the signal in each channel is normalized using a generalized lowess procedure to correct a global dye bias. The normalization procedure is validated using triple-self experiments and by comparing the results of triple-target and two-color experiments. Although the focus is on triple-target microarrays, the proposed method can be used to normalize p differently labelled targets co-hybridized on a same array, for any value of p greater than 2. Conclusion The proposed normalization procedure is effective: the technical biases are reduced, the number of false positives is under control in the analysis of differentially expressed genes, and the triple-target experiments are more powerful than the corresponding two-color experiments. There is room for improving the microarray experiments by simultaneously hybridizing more than two samples.

  20. PHARMACODYNAMIC EFFECTS OF APPLICATION OF POLISILAR PREPARATION IN PIG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenenko M. P.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An accelerated growth of farm animals in order to obtain maximum productivity is possible due to introduction stimulating additives and preparations based on them into the rations. One of such tools is Polisilar - complex preparation, which includes components that have a positive impact on various aspects of the animal metabolism in the conditions of physiological disorders. At the same time components of the preparation due to its high bioavailability exhibit a potentiating effect in the body that allows getting a more pronounced effect on its use. Studies were conducted on pigs 3-3.5 months age and showed that the Polisilar preparation has a positive effect on the clinical and physiological status of the animals and exhibits a pronounced growth stimulating effect, increasing the weight gain of pigs by 14.3%. In addition use of the preparation in rations of growing pigs has a normalizing effect on red blood and blood forming organs, increasing the number of red blood cells by 18.7%, hemoglobin - by 24.5%. Polisilar stimulates protein, carbohydrate and mineral exchanges, stabilizes the functional activity of the liver, reducing the toxic load on hepatocytes. Therefore, the preparation Polisilar has a pronounced biological and pharmacological activity and can be used in animal husbandry as an effective stimulant