WorldWideScience

Sample records for preparation waste utilization

  1. Expedient utilization of wastes from the 'Tverditza' coal preparation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalchev, B.; Kamburova, G.; Terziev, S.

    1982-08-01

    The paper treats the problem of waste utilization at the Tverditza coal preparation plant in the Balkan coal basin, where, due to low coal quality (77.22% ash), more than 60% of the total run-of-mine coal is disposed of as waste on nearby spoil banks. The results of chemical analysis of waste material are given, showing that this material may be used for production of ceramic products and bricks. Results of industrial utilization of prepared waste material (crushed to under 3 mm) at the Demir Slavov ceramic factory are described. Annually more than 230,000 tons of waste material containing 77-80% or 60-65% of carbon may be used for production of ceramic products and bricks in ceramic factories of the Balkan coal basin, bringing about an annual savings of 300,000 BLevs. (4 refs.)

  2. Investigating the Utility of Iron Ore Waste in Preparing Non-fired Bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamani, Shreekant R.; Mangalpady, Aruna; Vardhan, Harsha

    2017-10-01

    Iron ore waste is a major problem for mine owners due to the difficulty involved in its storage, handling and other environmental related issues. An alternative solution to this is utilisation of iron ore waste (IOW) as some value added product in construction industry. An attempt has been made in this paper in examining the possibility of making non-fired bricks from iron ore waste with some additives like cement and fly-ash. Each of the additives were mixed with IOW in different ratios and different sets of bricks were prepared. The prepared IOW bricks were cured for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days and their respective compressive strength and percentage of water absorption were determined. The results show that IOW bricks prepared with 9% and above cement and with 28 days of curing are suitable for brick making and meet the IS specifications. It was also observed that the weight of the prepared bricks with 9% cement with 28 days of curing varies between 2.35 and 2.45 kg whereas the weight of compressed fire clay bricks varies from 2.80 to 2.89 kg. Results also show that the cost of bricks prepared with cement ranging from 9 to 20% is comparable to that of commercially available compressed bricks.

  3. Investigating the Utility of Iron Ore Waste in Preparing Non-fired Bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamani, Shreekant R.; Mangalpady, Aruna; Vardhan, Harsha

    2016-10-01

    Iron ore waste is a major problem for mine owners due to the difficulty involved in its storage, handling and other environmental related issues. An alternative solution to this is utilisation of iron ore waste (IOW) as some value added product in construction industry. An attempt has been made in this paper in examining the possibility of making non-fired bricks from iron ore waste with some additives like cement and fly-ash. Each of the additives were mixed with IOW in different ratios and different sets of bricks were prepared. The prepared IOW bricks were cured for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days and their respective compressive strength and percentage of water absorption were determined. The results show that IOW bricks prepared with 9% and above cement and with 28 days of curing are suitable for brick making and meet the IS specifications. It was also observed that the weight of the prepared bricks with 9% cement with 28 days of curing varies between 2.35 and 2.45 kg whereas the weight of compressed fire clay bricks varies from 2.80 to 2.89 kg. Results also show that the cost of bricks prepared with cement ranging from 9 to 20% is comparable to that of commercially available compressed bricks.

  4. Utilization of waste phosphogypsum to prepare hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and its application towards removal of fluoride from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Deyi, E-mail: xixizhang@lut.cn [College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); State Key Laboratory of Gansu Advanced Non-ferrous Metal Materials, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Luo, Heming; Zheng, Liwen; Wang, Kunjie; Li, Hongxia; Wang, Yi; Feng, Huixia [College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel approach on recycle of waste phosphogypsum was exploited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphogypsum was utilized to prepare hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with high purity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer nHAp derived from PG exhibits excellent adsoprtion capacity for fluoride. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluoride adsorbs onto nHAp mainly by electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bond. - Abstract: In the present study, waste phosphogypsum (PG) was utilized firstly to prepare hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAp) via microwave irradiation technology. The nHAp derived from PG exhibited a hexagonal structure with the particle size about 20 nm Multiplication-Sign 60 nm and high purity. Meanwhile, the adsorption behaviour of fluoride onto the nHAp derived from PG was investigated to evaluate the potential application of this material for the treatment of the wastewater polluted with fluoride. The results indicate that the nHAp derived from PG can be used as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of fluoride from aqueous solution. The maximum adsorption capacities calculated from Langmuir-Freundlich model were 19.742, 26.108, 36.914 and 40.818 mg F{sup -}/g nHAp for 298, 308, 318 and 328 K, respectively. The pseudo-second order kinetic model was found to provide the best correlation of the used experimental data compared to the pseudo-first order and the adsorption isotherm could be well defined by Langmuir-Freundlich equation. The adsorption mechanism investigation shows that electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bond are the main driving force for fluoride uptake onto nHAp derived from waste PG.

  5. Utilization of waste phosphogypsum to prepare hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and its application towards removal of fluoride from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Deyi; Luo, Heming; Zheng, Liwen; Wang, Kunjie; Li, Hongxia; Wang, Yi; Feng, Huixia

    2012-11-30

    In the present study, waste phosphogypsum (PG) was utilized firstly to prepare hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAp) via microwave irradiation technology. The nHAp derived from PG exhibited a hexagonal structure with the particle size about 20 nm × 60 nm and high purity. Meanwhile, the adsorption behaviour of fluoride onto the nHAp derived from PG was investigated to evaluate the potential application of this material for the treatment of the wastewater polluted with fluoride. The results indicate that the nHAp derived from PG can be used as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of fluoride from aqueous solution. The maximum adsorption capacities calculated from Langmuir-Freundlich model were 19.742, 26.108, 36.914 and 40.818 mg F(-)/g nHAp for 298, 308, 318 and 328 K, respectively. The pseudo-second order kinetic model was found to provide the best correlation of the used experimental data compared to the pseudo-first order and the adsorption isotherm could be well defined by Langmuir-Freundlich equation. The adsorption mechanism investigation shows that electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bond are the main driving force for fluoride uptake onto nHAp derived from waste PG.

  6. Solid waste utilization: pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Mixon, W.R.; Dean, C.; Lizdas, D.J.

    1977-08-01

    As a part of the Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) Program, a number of technology evaluations are being prepared on various current and emerging sources of energy. This evaluation considers the use of pyrolysis as a method of producing energy from municipal solid waste. The energy can be in the form of a gas, oil, chars, or steam. Pyrolysis, the decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen (or in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere), has been used to convert organic matter to other products or fuels. This process is also described as ''destructive distillation''. Four processes are described in detail: the ''Landgard'' System (Monsanto Environ-Chem Systems, Inc.); the Occidental Research Corporation Process (formerly the Garrett Research and Development Company; The ''Purox'' System (Union Carbide Corporation); and the ''Refu-Cycler'' (Hamilton Standard Corporation). ''Purox'' and ''Refu-Cycler'' produce a low-Btu gas; the Occidental process produces an oil, and the ''Landgard'' process produces steam using on-site auxiliary boilers to burn the fuel gases produced by the pyrolysis unit. Also included is a listing of other pyrolysis processes currently under development for which detailed information was not available. The evaluation provides information on the various process flowsheets, energy and material balances, product characteristics, and economics. Pyrolysis of municipal solid waste as an energy source can be considered a potential for the future; however little operational or economic information is available at this time.

  7. Preparation and Characteristics of Polyaluminium Chloride by Utilizing Fluorine-Containing Waste Acidic Mother Liquid from Clay-Brine Synthetic Cryolite Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-shan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clay-brine process employing activated clay, NaCl, HCl, and HF as raw materials is the primarily advanced technology to synthesize cryolite in the present industrial grade. However, plenty of byproducts of fluorine-containing waste HCl at the concentration of about 10%~12% could not be utilized comprehensively and are even hazardous to the environment. This work proposed a new two-step technology to prepare inorganic polymer flocculants polyaluminium chloride (PAC from synthetic cryolite mother liquor. Many specific factors such as the variety of aluminide source, reaction temperature and time, reagent ratio, and manner of alkaline addition were taken into consideration and their influences on the performances of produced PAC were discussed. It was found that synthetic cryolite mother liquor could react with bauxite and calcium aluminate directly to prepare cheap PAC, with plenty amount of water insoluble CaF2 and CaSiF6 produced as well. However, once HCl was introduced into synthetic cryolite mother liquor as well as by utilizing bauxite as aluminide source and sodium aluminate as adjusting basicity agent, the resultant PAC would dissolve out higher amount of aluminum while producing little amount of water insoluble materials. The coagulation behavior of the specially produced PAC could even match the industrial grade PAC conforming to national standard.

  8. Remote waste handling and feed preparation for Mixed Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, S.A.; Merrill, R.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Densley, P.J. [Science Applications International Corp., (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will serve as a national testbed to demonstrate mature mixed waste handling and treatment technologies in a complete front-end to back-end --facility (1). Remote operations, modular processing units and telerobotics for initial waste characterization, sorting and feed preparation have been demonstrated at the bench scale and have been selected for demonstration in MWMF. The goal of the Feed Preparation design team was to design and deploy a robust system that meets the initial waste preparation flexibility and productivity needs while providing a smooth upgrade path to incorporate technology advances as they occur. The selection of telerobotics for remote handling in MWMF was made based on a number of factors -- personnel protection, waste generation, maturity, cost, flexibility and extendibility. Modular processing units were selected to enable processing flexibility and facilitate reconfiguration as new treatment processes or waste streams are brought on line for demonstration. Modularity will be achieved through standard interfaces for mechanical attachment as well as process utilities, feeds and effluents. This will facilitate reconfiguration of contaminated systems without drilling, cutting or welding of contaminated materials and with a minimum of operator contact. Modular interfaces also provide a standard connection and disconnection method that can be engineered to allow convenient remote operation.

  9. Utilization of various agricultural wastes for activated carbon preparation and application for the removal of dyes and metal ions from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadirvelu, K; Kavipriya, M; Karthika, C; Radhika, M; Vennilamani, N; Pattabhi, S

    2003-03-01

    Activated carbons were prepared from the agricultural solid wastes, silk cotton hull, coconut tree sawdust, sago waste, maize cob and banana pith and used to eliminate heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solution. Adsorption of all dyes and metal ions required a very short time and gave quantitative removal. Experimental results show all carbons were effective for the removal of pollutants from water. Since all agricultural solid wastes used in this investigation are freely, abundantly and locally available, the resulting carbons are expected to be economically viable for wastewater treatment.

  10. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  11. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  12. Preparation Of Charcoal Using Agricultural Wastes | Bogale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparation Of Charcoal Using Agricultural Wastes. ... alternative to wood charcoal using agricultural wastes (dry leaves, coffee husk, sugarcane trash, ... produced from agricultural wastes are economical, environmentally friendly, healthy (no ...

  13. Recovery and utilization of waste heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rabghi, O.M.; Beirutty, M.; Akyurt, M.; Najjar, Y.; Alp, T. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Coll. of Engineering)

    1993-09-01

    A review of waste heat recovery and utilization is presented. The potential for re-using the otherwise waste heat in different branches of industry is discussed. Traditional and new ways to recover the discharged heat from industrial equipment are illustrated. It is concluded that there exist numerous opportunities for recuperating and using waste heat. (author)

  14. Utilization of pineapple waste for wine making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alian, A.

    1976-01-01

    Wines were produced from pineapple canning waste, viz. pulp, boiled waste and unboiled waste. The constituents for preparing the liquor and results of physical, chemical and organoleptic analyses of clarified wines are shown in tables. The balance of alcohol, sugar and acid for the 3 batches was within the normal range for wines (alcohol 11.4 to 13.5% Brix readings 8 to 11, total acids 0.505 to 0.519 g/100 ml); volatile acids and aldehydes were higher in wines made from waste, esters higher in wines made from pulp. The amounts of volatile acids, esters and aldehydes indicated the absence of bacterial interferene in the fermentation. Organoleptic evaluation on a 10 point scale after 2 months' ageing gave weighted averages of 6.41 (good), 8.55 (very good) and 6.77 (good) for wines from pulp, boiled waste and unboiled waste respectively.

  15. Analysis of Comprehensive Utilization of Coconut Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kan; ZHENG; Dong; LIANG; Xirui; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the coconut cultivation in China,and the current comprehensive utilization of waste resources generated during cultivation and processing of coconut.The wastes generated in the process of cultivation include old coconut tree trunk,roots,withered coconut leaves,coconut flower and fallen cracking coconut,mainly used for biogas extraction,direct combustion and power generation,brewing,pharmacy,and processing of building materials;the wastes generated during processing include coconut water,coconut coat,coconut shell and coconut meal,mainly used for processing beverages,pharmaceutical products,activated carbon,medium and feed.This paper analyzes and explores some problems in the process of comprehensive utilization of coconut waste in China,such as insufficient understanding,inadequate development and lack of research efforts,and finally puts forth the corresponding development countermeasures.

  16. Waste heat utilization in industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichsel, M.; Heitmann, W.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is given of new developments in heat exchangers and heat pumps. With respect to practical applications, internal criteria for plant operation are discussed. Possibilities of government support are pointed out. Waste heat steam generators and waste heat aggregates for hot water generation or in some cases for steam superheating are used. The possibilities of utilization can be classified according to the economic improvements and according to their process applications, for example, gascooling. Examples are presented for a large variety of applications.

  17. Construction utilization of foamed waste glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang LU; Katsutada ONITSUKA

    2004-01-01

    Foamed waste glass(FWG) material is newly developed for the purpose to utilize the waste glassware andother waste glass. FWG has a multi-porous structure that consists of continuous or discontinuous voids. Hencelightweight but considerable stiffness can be achieved. In the present study, the manufacture and engineeringproperties of FWG are introduced first. Then, the utilizations of FWG are investigated in laboratory tests and fieldtests. Some case studies on design and construction work are also reported here. Through these studies we knowthat the discontinuous void material can be utilized as a lightweight fill material, ground improvement material andlightweight aggregate for concrete. On the other hand, the continuous void material can be used as water holdingmaterial for the greening of ground slope and rooftop, and as clarification material for water.

  18. Utilization of Electronic Waste Plastic in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek S. Damal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In India, bitumen pavements are commonly used for highways. Due to the increasing traffic intensity, distress such as rutting and cracking of pavements are very common in Indian roads. Under varying seasonal temperature, flexible pavements tend to become soft in summer and brittle in winter. Investigations revealed that properties of concrete can be better than bitumen roads. But now a day‟s concrete roads are used commonly because concrete roads have more life span than the bitumen roads. In large cities now a day‟s concrete roads are used because concrete roads are more durable, strengthen and having more life span than bitumen roads. Waste plastics and E-waste (electronic waste both by domestic and industrial sectors can be used in the production of asphalt mix. Waste plastic, mainly used for packing are made up of polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene. Electronic waste, abbreviated as e-waste, consists of discarded old computers, TVs, refrigerators; radios, etc are basically any electrical or electronic appliance that has reached its end of life. An experimental study is made on the utilization of E-waste particles as fine aggregates in concrete with a percentage replacement ranging from 0 % to 21.5% i.e. (7.5%, 15% and 21.5% on the strength criteria of M30 Concrete. Compressive strength Concrete with and without E- waste plastic as aggregates was observed which exhibits a good strength. The feasibility of utilizing E-waste plastic particles as partial replacement of fine aggregate has been presented. In the present study, compressive strength was investigated for Optimum Cement Content and 7.5% E-plastic content in mix yielded stability and very good in compressive strength of 43 grade cement.

  19. Overview of waste heat utilization systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    The heavy truck diesel engine rejects a significant fraction of its fuel energy in the form of waste heat. Historically, the Department of Energy has supported technology efforts for utilization of the diesel exhaust heat. Specifically, the Turbocompound and the Organic Rankine Cycle System (ORCS) have demonstrated that meaningful improvements in highway fuel economy can be realized through waste heat utilization. For heat recovery from the high temperature exhaust of future adiabatic diesel engines, the DOE/NASA are investigating a variety of alternatives based on the Rankine, Brayton, and Stirling power cycles. Initial screening results indicate that systems of this type offer a fuel savings advantage over the turbocompound system. Capital and maintenance cost projections, however, indicate that the alternative power cycles are not competitive on an economic payback basis. Plans call for continued analysis in an attempt to identify a cost effective configuration with adequate fuel savings potential.

  20. Current trends of tropical fruit waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Choon Yoong; Mohd Adzahan, Noranizan; Abdul Rahman, Russly; Zainal Abedin, Nur Hanani; Hussain, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Rabiha; Chong, Gun Hean

    2016-05-31

    Recent rapid growth of the world's population has increased food demands. This phenomenon poses a great challenge for food manufacturers in maximizing the existing food or plant resources. Nowadays, the recovery of health benefit bioactive compounds from fruit wastes is a research trend not only to help minimize the waste burden, but also to meet the intensive demand from the public for phenolic compounds which are believed to have protective effects against chronic diseases. This review is focused on polyphenolic compounds recovery from tropical fruit wastes and its current trend of utilization. The tropical fruit wastes include in discussion are durian (Durio zibethinus), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), mango (Mangifera indica L.), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), papaya (Carica papaya), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp), and pineapple (Ananas comosus). Highlights of bioactive compounds in different parts of a tropical fruit are targeted primarily for food industries as pragmatic references to create novel innovative health enhancement food products. This information is intended to inspire further research ideas in areas that are still under-explored and for food processing manufacturers who would like to minimize wastes as the norm of present day industry (design) objective.

  1. Constraints to waste utilization and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steadman, E.N.; Sondreal, E.A.; Hassett, D.J.; Eylands, K.E.; Dockter, B.A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The value of coal combustion by-products for various applications is well established by research and commercial practice worldwide. As engineering construction materials, these products can add value and enhance strength and durability while simultaneously reducing cost and providing the environmental benefit of reduced solid waste disposal. In agricultural applications, gypsum-rich products can provide plant nutrients and improve the tilth of depleted soils over large areas of the country. In waste stabilization, the cementitious and pozzolanic properties of these products can immobilize hazardous nuclear, organic, and metal wastes for safe and effective environmental disposal. Although the value of coal combustion by-products for various applications is well established, the full utilization of coal combustion by-products has not been realized in most countries. The reasons for the under utilization of these materials include attitudes that make people reluctant to use waste materials, lack of engineering standards for high-volume uses beyond eminent replacement, and uncertainty about the environmental safety of coal ash utilization. More research and education are needed to increase the utilization of these materials. Standardization of technical specifications should be pursued through established standards organizations. Adoption of uniform specifications by government agencies and user trade associations should be encouraged. Specifications should address real-world application properties, such as air entrainment in concrete, rather than empirical parameters (e.g., loss on ignition). The extensive environmental assessment data already demonstrating the environmental safety of coal ash by-products in many applications should be more widely used, and data should be developed to include new applications.

  2. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 816.87 Section 816.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine...

  3. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 817.87 Section 817.87 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine...

  4. agricultural waste concept, generation, utilization and management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... Agricultural wastes are non-product outputs of production and processing of agricultural products that may .... process of livestock wastes; the putrefaction process .... attitudes, and better approaches to agricultural waste.

  5. UTILIZATION OF RECYCLED AND WASTE MATERIALS IN VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Johnny Bolden; Taher Abu-Lebdeh; Ellie Fini

    2013-01-01

    More production equals more waste, more waste creates environmental concerns of toxic threat. An economical viable solution to this problem should include utilization of waste materials for new products which in turn minimize the heavy burden on the nationâs landfills. Recycling of waste construction materials saves natural resources, saves energy, reduces solid waste, reduces air and water pollutants and reduces greenhouse gases. The construction industry can start being aware of and take a...

  6. Solid waste utilization: incineration with heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.

    1978-04-01

    As a part of the Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) Program, Technology Evaluations, this evaluation considers the potential utilization of municipal solid wastes as an energy source by use of incineration with heat recovery. Subjects covered include costs, design data, inputs and outputs, and operational problems. Two generic types of heat recovery incinerators are evaluated. The first type, called a waterwall incinerator, is one in which heat is recovered directly from the furnace using water circulated through tubes imbedded in the furnace walls. This design normally is used for larger installations (>200 tons/day). The second type, a starved-air incinerator is used mainly in smaller sizes (<100 tons/day). Burning is performed in the incinerator, and heat recovery is obtained by the use of heat exchangers on the flue gases from the incinerator. Currently there are not many installations of either type in the United States; however, interest in this form of solid-waste handling appears to be increasing.

  7. Pickering Particles Prepared from Food Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Joanne; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Wolf, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the functionality and functionalisation of waste particles as an emulsifier for oil-in-water (o/w) and water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions. Ground coffee waste was chosen as a candidate waste material due to its naturally high content of lignin, a chemical component imparting emulsifying ability. The waste coffee particles readily stabilised o/w emulsions and following hydrothermal treatment adapted from the bioenergy field they also stabilised w/o emulsions. The hydrothermal treatment relocated the lignin component of the cell walls within the coffee particles onto the particle surface thereby increasing the surface hydrophobicity of the particles as demonstrated by an emulsion assay. Emulsion droplet sizes were comparable to those found in processed foods in the case of hydrophilic waste coffee particles stabilizing o/w emulsions. These emulsions were stable against coalescence for at least 12 weeks, flocculated but stable against coalescence in shear and stable to pasteurisation conditions (10 min at 80 °C). Emulsion droplet size was also insensitive to pH of the aqueous phase during preparation (pH 3–pH 9). Stable against coalescence, the water droplets in w/o emulsions prepared with hydrothermally treated waste coffee particles were considerably larger and microscopic examination showed evidence of arrested coalescence indicative of particle jamming at the surface of the emulsion droplets. Refinement of the hydrothermal treatment and broadening out to other lignin-rich plant or plant based food waste material are promising routes to bring closer the development of commercially relevant lignin based food Pickering particles applicable to emulsion based processed foods ranging from fat continuous spreads and fillings to salad dressings. PMID:28773909

  8. Pickering Particles Prepared from Food Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Gould

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate the functionality and functionalisation of waste particles as an emulsifier for oil-in-water (o/w and water-in-oil (w/o emulsions. Ground coffee waste was chosen as a candidate waste material due to its naturally high content of lignin, a chemical component imparting emulsifying ability. The waste coffee particles readily stabilised o/w emulsions and following hydrothermal treatment adapted from the bioenergy field they also stabilised w/o emulsions. The hydrothermal treatment relocated the lignin component of the cell walls within the coffee particles onto the particle surface thereby increasing the surface hydrophobicity of the particles as demonstrated by an emulsion assay. Emulsion droplet sizes were comparable to those found in processed foods in the case of hydrophilic waste coffee particles stabilizing o/w emulsions. These emulsions were stable against coalescence for at least 12 weeks, flocculated but stable against coalescence in shear and stable to pasteurisation conditions (10 min at 80 °C. Emulsion droplet size was also insensitive to pH of the aqueous phase during preparation (pH 3–pH 9. Stable against coalescence, the water droplets in w/o emulsions prepared with hydrothermally treated waste coffee particles were considerably larger and microscopic examination showed evidence of arrested coalescence indicative of particle jamming at the surface of the emulsion droplets. Refinement of the hydrothermal treatment and broadening out to other lignin-rich plant or plant based food waste material are promising routes to bring closer the development of commercially relevant lignin based food Pickering particles applicable to emulsion based processed foods ranging from fat continuous spreads and fillings to salad dressings.

  9. Pickering Particles Prepared from Food Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Joanne; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Wolf, Bettina

    2016-09-21

    In this paper, we demonstrate the functionality and functionalisation of waste particles as an emulsifier for oil-in-water (o/w) and water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions. Ground coffee waste was chosen as a candidate waste material due to its naturally high content of lignin, a chemical component imparting emulsifying ability. The waste coffee particles readily stabilised o/w emulsions and following hydrothermal treatment adapted from the bioenergy field they also stabilised w/o emulsions. The hydrothermal treatment relocated the lignin component of the cell walls within the coffee particles onto the particle surface thereby increasing the surface hydrophobicity of the particles as demonstrated by an emulsion assay. Emulsion droplet sizes were comparable to those found in processed foods in the case of hydrophilic waste coffee particles stabilizing o/w emulsions. These emulsions were stable against coalescence for at least 12 weeks, flocculated but stable against coalescence in shear and stable to pasteurisation conditions (10 min at 80 °C). Emulsion droplet size was also insensitive to pH of the aqueous phase during preparation (pH 3-pH 9). Stable against coalescence, the water droplets in w/o emulsions prepared with hydrothermally treated waste coffee particles were considerably larger and microscopic examination showed evidence of arrested coalescence indicative of particle jamming at the surface of the emulsion droplets. Refinement of the hydrothermal treatment and broadening out to other lignin-rich plant or plant based food waste material are promising routes to bring closer the development of commercially relevant lignin based food Pickering particles applicable to emulsion based processed foods ranging from fat continuous spreads and fillings to salad dressings.

  10. Overview of waste heat utilization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, M.

    1979-04-01

    Power plants annually reject about 11 x 10/sup 9/ GJ (11 x 10/sup 15/ Btu) of low-grade heat to the atmosphere. Typically, this heat is found in the large quantities of cooling water necessary to condense the steam in the power-generating cycle. Such cooling water is generally discharged in the range of 15 to 43/sup 0/C (60 to 110/sup 0/F) depending on the temperature of the available inlet water, quantity circulated, plant load, and heat-rejection system used. A number of possible uses have been suggested for this low-grade heat, including: greenhouse horticulture; soil heating (both open field and in greenhouses); spray irrigation for frost protection; organic waste treatment (particularly for algae or biomass production); and aquaculture/mariculture. To date greenhouse and aquaculture/mariculture systems have received the most attention and have, therefore, progressed farthest. This paper describes several innovative techniques that utilize power-plant reject heat for these applications. Schematic descriptions are given for these techniqes and a brief review of the project status is provided. The major efforts to utilize reject heat for agricultural purposes are described not only for the U.S., but efforts in Canada, France, West Germany, and the USSR are noted.

  11. Recycling and Utilization of Waste Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yan-chao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly introduced the recovery method, classification and comprehensive utilization process of waste glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP. Among the current methods of utilization, the physical method is most promising. After pre-processing of waste GFRP, the short glass fiber can be used in gypsum block to improve the anti-cracking and operation performance of the material; waste GFRP powder can be used in plastic fiber reinforced manhole covers to increase the mechanical strength, and the products conformed to JC 1009-2006. Based on these studies, we also point out some problems concerning the utilization of waste glass fiber reinforced plastics.

  12. Utilization of biocatalysts in cellulose waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J.; Evans, B.R.

    1996-09-01

    Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the principal component of biomass and, therefore, a major source of waste that is either buried or burned. Examples of biomass waste include agricultural crop residues, forestry products, and municipal wastes. Recycling of this waste is important for energy conservation as well as waste minimization and there is some probability that in the future biomass could become a major energy source and replace fossil fuels that are currently used for fuels and chemicals production. It has been estimated that in the United States, between 100-450 million dry tons of agricultural waste are produced annually, approximately 6 million dry tons of animal waste, and of the 190 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated annually, approximately two-thirds is cellulosic in nature and over one-third is paper waste. Interestingly, more than 70% of MSW is landfilled or burned, however landfill space is becoming increasingly scarce. On a smaller scale, important cellulosic products such as cellulose acetate also present waste problems; an estimated 43 thousand tons of cellulose ester waste are generated annually in the United States. Biocatalysts could be used in cellulose waste minimization and this chapter describes their characteristics and potential in bioconversion and bioremediation processes.

  13. Preparation, characterization and utilization of starch nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Sung Soo; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2015-02-01

    Starch is one of the most abundant biopolymers in nature and is typically isolated from plants in the form of micro-scale granules. Recent studies reported that nano-scale starch particles could be readily prepared from starch granules, which have unique physical properties. Because starch is environmentally friendly, starch nanoparticles are suggested as one of the promising biomaterials for novel utilization in foods, cosmetics, medicines as well as various composites. An overview of the most up-to-date information regarding the starch nanoparticles including the preparation processes and physicochemical characterization will be presented in this review. Additionally, the prospects and outlooks for the industrial utilization of starch nanoparticles will be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. UTILIZATION OF PINEAPPLE WASTE AS CARBON SOURCE

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Moch Busairi

    2012-01-01

    The liquid pineapple waste contains mainly sucrose, glucose, fructose and other nutrients. It therefore can potentially be used as carbon source for organic acid fermentation.  The objective of this work is to evaluate the use of pineapple waste as substrate for lactic acid fermentation under variables of aerobic, anaerobic condition and pH controlling. Initial results showed that the liquid pineapple waste can be used as carbon source for lactic acid fermentation using Lactobacillus del...

  15. Powder pneumatic injection as a tool for wastes utilization

    OpenAIRE

    K. Janerka; Jezierski, J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Metallurgical process generates many solid, gaseous and liquid wastes. Nowadays when environmental protection is one of the most important problems and when pollution limits are very tight as well, problem of the metallurgical wastes is a strategic one.Design/methodology/approach: In present days the metallurgical and foundry plant have to utilize their own wastes, especially these which are the most dangerous and toxic or have to render harm of its and transfer to another industry b...

  16. Utilization of Wastes as an Alternative Energy Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of Wastes as an Alternative Energy Source for Sustainable Development: A REVIEW. ... for energy and to address environmental concerns, a conversion from conventional energy systems to renewable resources is essential. For the ...

  17. ECONOMIC AND ENERGETICAL ANALYSIS OF IMPROVED WASTE UTILIZATION PLASMA TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei VAMBOL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Energy and economic evaluation of the improved plasma waste utilization technological process, as well as an expediency substantiation of the use of improved plasma technology by comparing its energy consumption with other thermal methods of utilization. Methodology. Analysis of existing modern and advanced methods of waste management and its impact on environmental safety. Considering of energy and monetary costs to implement two different waste management technologies. Results. Studies have shown regular gasification ensure greater heating value due to differences, a significant amount of nitrogen than for plasma gasification. From the point of view of minimizing energy and monetary costs and environmental safety more promising is to offer advanced technology for plasma waste. To carry out the energy assessment of the appropriateness of the considered technologies-comparative calculation was carried out at the standard conditions. This is because in the processing of waste produced useful products, such as liquefied methane, synthetic gas (94% methane and a fuel gas for heating, suitable for sale that provides cost-effectiveness of this technology. Originality. Shown and evaluated ecological and economic efficiency of proposed improved plasma waste utilization technology compared with other thermal techniques. Practical value. Considered and grounded of energy and monetary costs to implement two different waste management technologies, namely ordinary gasification and using plasma generators. Proposed plasma waste utilization technology allows to obtain useful products, such as liquefied methane, synthetic gas and a fuel gas for heating, which are suitable for sale. Plant for improved plasma waste utilization technological process allows to compensate the daily and seasonal electricity and heat consumption fluctuations by allowing the storage of obtained fuel products.

  18. Review: Utilization of Waste From Coffee Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Sirotiak, Maroš; Bartošová, Alica; Soldán, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    Coffee is one of the most valuable primary products in the world trade, and also a central and popular part of our culture. However, coffees production generate a lot of coffee wastes and by-products, which, on the one hand, could be used for more applications (sorbent for the removal of heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solutions, production of fuel pellets or briquettes, substrate for biogas, bioethanol or biodiesel production, composting material, production of reusable cups, substrat for mushroom production, source of natural phenolic antioxidants etc.), but, on the other hand, it could be a source of severe contamination posing a serious environmental problem. In this paper, we present an overview of utilising the waste from coffee production.

  19. Energy utilization: municipal waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBeck, M.F.

    1981-03-27

    An assessment is made of the technical and economical feasibility of converting municipal waste into useful and useable energy. The concept presented involves retrofitting an existing municipal incinerator with the systems and equipment necessary to produce process steam and electric power. The concept is economically attractive since the cost of necessary waste heat recovery equipment is usually a comparatively small percentage of the cost of the original incinerator installation. Technical data obtained from presently operating incinerators designed specifically for generating energy, documents the technical feasibility and stipulates certain design constraints. The investigation includes a cost summary; description of process and facilities; conceptual design; economic analysis; derivation of costs; itemized estimated costs; design and construction schedule; and some drawings.

  20. Accumulation and subsequent utilization of waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloničný, Jan; Richter, Aleš; Pavloková, Petra

    2016-06-01

    This article aims to introduce a special way of heat accumulation and primary operating characteristics. It is the unique way in which the waste heat from flue gas of biogas cogeneration station is stored in the system of storage tanks, into the heat transfer oil. Heat is subsequently transformed into water, from which is generated the low-pressure steam. Steam, at the time of peak electricity needs, spins the special designed turbine generator and produces electrical energy.

  1. Utilization of chitosan waste in chicken diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pasaribu

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment has been conducted to determine the possibility of using waste from chitosan processing, which contain shrimp soluble, as poultry feed. The fresh waste was immediately mixed with wheat pollard (1:1, w/w and sun dried. Another portion of the waste was stored, at low pH (4.5 for 1 month before sun drying. Experimental rations were formulated to be isoprotein (21% and isoenergy (3000 kcal/kg, with 25% wheat pollard (R1, WPUL 26.3% (R2, wheat polard 12.5% (R3 WPUL 13.2% (R4, WPUB 13.2% (R5. Each ration was fed to 40 doc broiler, divided into 5 cages (4 male and 4 female/cage. Feed and water were given ad lib during the 4 weeks trial period. Body weight gain of treatment R2 (762.8 gram was significantly (P <0.05 lower than the other treatments, while there was no significant difference between treatment R1 (817.2 gram, R3 (816.0 gram, R4 (839.2 gram and R5 (830.1 gram. And the FCR values were significantly different (P<0.05 between treatment R2 with R1, R3, R4, and R5, i.e. is 2.43; 2.24; 2.16; 2.16; and 2.06. Respectively it is concluded that chitosan waste, after sun drying and mixed with wheat pollard, could only be included in the formulation up to 13.2%.

  2. UTILIZATION OF RECYCLED AND WASTE MATERIALS IN VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Bolden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available More production equals more waste, more waste creates environmental concerns of toxic threat. An economical viable solution to this problem should include utilization of waste materials for new products which in turn minimize the heavy burden on the nation’s landfills. Recycling of waste construction materials saves natural resources, saves energy, reduces solid waste, reduces air and water pollutants and reduces greenhouse gases. The construction industry can start being aware of and take advantage of the benefits of using waste and recycled materials. Studies have investigated the use of acceptable waste, recycled and reusable materials and methods. The use of swine manure, animal fat, silica fume, roofing shingles, empty palm fruit bunch, citrus peels, cement kiln dust, fly ash, foundry sand, slag, glass, plastic, carpet, tire scraps, asphalt pavement and concrete aggregate in construction is becoming increasingly popular due to the shortage and increasing cost of raw materials. In this study a questionnaire survey targeting experts from construction industry was conducted in order to investigate the current practices of the uses of waste and recycled materials in the construction industry. This study presents an initial understanding of the current strengths and weaknesses of the practice intended to support construction industry in developing effective policies regarding uses of waste and recycled materials as construction materials.

  3. Utilization of Polyethylene Waste and Polypropylene Wastes for Formation of Fine Copper Ore Concentrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszka, Danuta; Więckowska, Jadwiga

    2016-10-01

    The possibilities for utilization of polyethylene waste and polypropylene waste as a binding material for formation of fine grain of copper ore concentrate in Hake Rheomix were examined. The optimum parameters of the formation processes were established. Strength, thermal and microscopic properties the products obtained were determined.

  4. Utilization of stabilized wastes for reducing methane emission from municipal solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Boonchaiyuttasak, Jindaruch

    2013-08-01

    Stabilized solid wastes were utilized to mitigate methane emission from the landfill. Loose texture of plastic wastes encouraged air diffusion from the soil surface whereas fine organic fraction has good water holding capacity and nutrients to stimulate methane oxidation reaction. Biological methane oxidation capacity in stabilized waste layer was found to be up to 34.1 g/m(3)d. Microbial activity test revealed methanotrophic activities of plastic and degraded organic wastes were in the same order. The mixture of plastic and fine degraded organic waste matrix provided sufficient porosity for oxygen transfer and supported the growth of methanotrophs throughout 0.8m depth of waste layer. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed the presence of methanotrophs and their population was found varied along waste depth.

  5. Ammonium sulfate preparation from phosphogypsum waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hakim T. Kandil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian phosphogypsum waste is treated using sulfuric acid prior the ammonium sulfate production. The relevant factors that would affect the removal efficiencies of some impurities are studied. The optimum conditions of the treatment are 8 M sulfuric acid solution and 1/4 solid/liquid ratio for 30 min contact time at 80 °C. Moreover, the optimum conditions of the ammonium sulfate preparation are 10 g of the suspended impure or purified phosphogypsum in 40 ml of 3% ammonium sulfate solution (as initiator, 1/4 solid/liquid ratio at pH7 at an addition of an excess ammonium carbonate, and 150 rpm stirring speed for 4.0 h contact time at 55 °C as well as the 5 mg of barium chloride is added to remove the radium in the ammonium sulfate product. Finally, the ammonium sulfate is crystallized and the chemical analysis of the product shows 20% nitrogen and 23.6% sulfur. Therefore, the purity of the obtained ammonium sulfate is 95% from the purified phosphogypsum.

  6. System Analysis on Absorption Chiller Utilizing Intermediate Wasted Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Miki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Usui, Hiromoto

    A system analysis has been performed for the multi-effect absorption chiller (MEAC) applied as a bottoming system of 30kW class hybrid system including micro gas turbine (MGT) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) hybrid system. In this paper, an intermediate wasted heat utilization (IWHU) system is suggested for lifting up the energy efficiency of the whole system and coefficient of performance (COP) of MEAC. From the results, the suggested IWHU system was found to show the very high energy efficiency compared with a terminal wasted heat utilization (TWHU) system that uses only the heat exhausted from the terminal of MGT/SOFC system. When TWHU system is applied for MEAC, the utilized heat from the MGT/SOFC system is found to remain low because the temperature difference between the high temperature generator and the wasted heat becomes small. Then, the energy efficiency does not become high in spite of high COP of MEAC. On the other hand, the IWHU system could increase the utilized heat for MEAC as performs effectively. The exergy efficiency of IWHU system is also revealed to be higher than that of a direct gas burning system of MEAC, because the wasted heat is effectively utilized in the IWHU system.

  7. Waste water purification using new porous ceramics prepared by recycling waste glass and bamboo charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Tetsuaki; Morimoto, Akane; Yamamoto, Yoshito; Kubuki, Shiro

    2017-04-01

    New porous ceramics (PC) prepared by recycling waste glass bottle of soft drinks (80 mass%) and bamboo charcoal (20 mass%) without any binder was applied to the waste water purification under aeration at 25 °C. Artificial waste water (15 L) containing 10 mL of milk was examined by combining 15 mL of activated sludge and 750 g of PC. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) showed a marked decrease from 178 to 4.0 (±0.1) mg L-1 in 5 days and to 2.0 (±0.1) mg L-1 in 7 days, which was equal to the Environmental Standard for the river water (class A) in Japan. Similarly, chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased from 158 to 3.6 (±0.1) mg L-1 in 5 days and to 2.2 (±0.1) mg L-1 in 9 days, which was less than the Environmental Standard for the Seawater (class B) in Japan: 3.0 mg L-1. These results prove the high water purification ability of the PC, which will be effectively utilized for the purification of drinking water, fish preserve water, fish farm water, etc.

  8. Utilization of K-technology for waste processing. Nutzung der KS-Technologie fuer die Verarbeitung von Abfallstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelskamp, H.

    1992-03-01

    In addition to continuous inprovements the product range and capacity adaptations to the state of the market, observations are made in sand-lime brick industry to apply existing technology for a further utilization. An interesting aspect is the utilization or further preparation of certain waste materials which cannot be reused at present due to their chemical-physical composition. These investigations show the possibilities as well as the disadvantages, which result from the processing of waste materials by means of KS-technology. These investigations are restricted to a few characteristic residues from power stations waste incineration and steel production. (orig./BBR). 27 figs., 26 tabs.

  9. Ethanol from lignocellulosic wastes with utilization of recombinant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzen, R; Fowler, D E

    1994-01-01

    This article presents the advanced technology that has been developed by BioEnergy International of Gainesville, Florida, utilizing novel recombinant strains of bacteria developed by Lonnie Ingram of the University of Florida. The first commercial applications of these unique fermenting organisms convert 5-carbon sugars, as well as 6-carbon sugars, and oligomers of cellulose (e.g., cellobiose and cellotriose) directly to ethanol. The proposed systems that will be utilized for conversion of agricultural wastes, mixed waste papers, and pulp and paper mill waste in forthcoming commercial installations are now under design. This involves the extensive experience of Raphael Katzen Associates International, Inc. in acid hydrolysis, enzyme production, enzymatic hydrolysis, large-scale fermentation engineering, and distillation/dehydration. Specific examples of this advanced technology will be presented in different applications, namely: 1. Conversion of the hemicellulose content of sugar cane bagasse to 5-carbon sugars by mild-acid prehydrolysis, followed by fermentation of the 5-carbon sugar extract with recombinant Escherichia coli in a commercial installation soon to be under construction in Brazil. This unique process utilizes the surplus hemicellulose fraction of bagasse not required for steam and power generation to produce ethanol, additional to that from the original can juice, which has been converted by conventional sucrose fermentation to ethanol. The process also recovers and converts to ethanol the majority of sucrose normally lost with the bagasse fibers. Resultant beer is enriched in an innovative process to eliminate the need for incremental rectification capacity. 2. Application of this technology to mixed waste paper in Florida, with a moderate loading of newsprint (85% mechanical wood fiber), will involve a mild-acid prehydrolysis, the partial extraction of the 5-carbon sugars produced from hemicellulose as a feedstock for propagation of the recombinant

  10. Study on Preparation of Porous Thermal Insulation Materials by Comprehensive Utilization of Tile Industry Waste%建陶厂废料综合利用制备多孔保温材料研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王前; 杜庆洋; 姚奇恒; 李成峰; 刘俊成

    2015-01-01

    利用建陶厂抛光砖废渣、废熟料和废生料为原料,通过添加高岭土、煤粉和发泡剂制备多孔保温材料。研究了高岭土和煤粉的用量、烧成温度对样品气孔率、抗压强度和微观结构的影响。利用阿基米德法测量样品的气孔率,万能试验机测试样品的抗压强度,体视显微镜分析样品的微观结构。结果表明:添加20%高岭土和15%煤粉,在1100℃烧结可制备气孔率为59.70%,抗压强度为4.12 MPa,发泡均匀的多孔保温材料。%The porous thermal insulation materials was prepared using tile ceramic waste, kaolin, pulverized coal and blowing agent as raw materials in the thesis. The inlfuence of addition amount of kaolin, pulverized coal and sintering temperature on porosity, compressive strength and microstructure of sample were studied. The porosity of sample was measured by archimedes law. The compressive strength was tested using universal testing machine and the microstructure was observed with the stereo microscope. The experimental results showed that the porous thermal insulation materials with porosity of 59.70%, compressive strength of 4.12 MPa and uniformity of bubbles was prepared when the addition amount of kaolin and pulverized coal was 20% and 15%, and the sintering temperature was 1100℃.

  11. Operating room waste: disposable supply utilization in neurosurgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygourakis, Corinna C; Yoon, Seungwon; Valencia, Victoria; Boscardin, Christy; Moriates, Christopher; Gonzales, Ralph; Lawton, Michael T

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Disposable supplies constitute a large portion of operating room (OR) costs and are often left over at the end of a surgical case. Despite financial and environmental implications of such waste, there has been little evaluation of OR supply utilization. The goal of this study was to quantify the utilization of disposable supplies and the costs associated with opened but unused items (i.e., "waste") in neurosurgical procedures. METHODS Every disposable supply that was unused at the end of surgery was quantified through direct observation of 58 neurosurgical cases at the University of California, San Francisco, in August 2015. Item costs (in US dollars) were determined from the authors' supply catalog, and statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS Across 58 procedures (36 cranial, 22 spinal), the average cost of unused supplies was $653 (range $89-$3640, median $448, interquartile range $230-$810), or 13.1% of total surgical supply cost. Univariate analyses revealed that case type (cranial versus spinal), case category (vascular, tumor, functional, instrumented, and noninstrumented spine), and surgeon were important predictors of the percentage of unused surgical supply cost. Case length and years of surgical training did not affect the percentage of unused supply cost. Accounting for the different case distribution in the 58 selected cases, the authors estimate approximately $968 of OR waste per case, $242,968 per month, and $2.9 million per year, for their neurosurgical department. CONCLUSIONS This study shows a large variation and significant magnitude of OR waste in neurosurgical procedures. At the authors' institution, they recommend price transparency, education about OR waste to surgeons and nurses, preference card reviews, and clarification of supplies that should be opened versus available as needed to reduce waste.

  12. Pyrolysis of chromium rich tanning industrial wastes and utilization of carbonized wastes in metallurgical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tôrres Filho, Artur; Lange, Liséte Celina; de Melo, Gilberto Caldeira Bandeira; Praes, Gustavo Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of organic material in oxygen-free or very lean oxygen atmosphere. This study evaluates the use of pyrolysis for conversion of leather wastes from chromium tanning processes into Carbonized Leather Residues (CLR), and the utilization of CLR in metallurgical processes through the production of iron ore pellets. CLR was used to replace mineral coal in proportions of 10% and 25% on fixed carbon basis content in the mixtures for pellets preparation. Experimental conversions were performed on a pilot scale pyrolysis plant and a pelletizing reactor of the "pot grate" type. The results demonstrated the technical feasibility of using the charcoal product from animal origin as an energy source, with recovery of up to 76.47% of chromium contained in CLR in the final produced of iron ore pellets. Pellets with 25% replacement of fixed carbon in the coal showed an enhanced compressive strength, with an average value of 344kgfpellet(-1), compared to 300kgfpellet(-1) for standard produced pellets.

  13. Disposal and utilization of broiler slaughter waste by composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bharathy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To know the feasibility of hygienic and environmentally safe method of disposal of broiler slaughter house waste with coir pith and caged layer manure. Materials and Methods: Compost bins (4 feet x 4 feet x 4 feet were established with concrete blocks with air holes to facilitate aerobic composting. The broiler slaughter waste and coconut coir pith waste were collected from the local market, free of cost. The caged layer manure available from poultry farms were utilized as manure substrate. Physical properties and chemical composition of ingredients were analyzed and a suitable compost recipe was formulated (USDA-NRCS, 2000. Two control bins were maintained simultaneously, using caged layer manure with coir pith waste and water in a ratio of 0.8:3:1.2 (T and another one bin using caged layer manure alone(T . 2 3 Results: At the end of composting, moisture content, weight and the Volume of the compost were reduced significantly (P<0.01, pH, EC, TDS, total organic carbon and total nitrogen content were also significantly (P<0.01 reduced at the finishing of composting. Calcium, phosphorous and potassium content was progressively increased during composting period. The finished compost contains undetectable level of salmonella. Cowpea and sorghum seeds showed positive germination percentage when this finished compost was used. It indicated that all of the finished compost was free from phytotoxin substances. Conclusion: The results indicated that, composting of slaughter waste combined with coir pith waste may be a hygienic and environmentally safe method of disposal of broiler slaughter house waste [Vet. World 2012; 5(6.000: 359-361

  14. Utilization of ash products from combustion of shredded solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, P.F.; Mullen, J.F. (Energy Answers Corp, Albany, NY (US))

    1988-01-01

    One of the major problems with the siting, permitting, construction, and operation of a municipal solid waste-to- energy facility is the disposal of residues. As resource recovery increasingly becomes the disposal option of choice and necessity for municipalities across the country, the foci of environmental concerns has switched from groundwater contamination and inappropriate land use issues associated with landfilling, to air pollution control and residue disposal issues associated with waste combustion. It is suggested that the two separate ash streams can no longer reasonably be considered one and should be analyzed and treated separately, thereby increasing and enhancing the opportunity to recycle from the bottom ash (75 percent) and to focus on a reduced quantity of fly ash material (25 percent) for fixation and reuse or disposal. Such action would conform to the principles of, and the present regulatory trend towards waste minimization. However, there are many regulatory, institutional, and logistical barriers to such promising and seemingly simple waste reduction strategies. While the spirit of solid and hazardous waste legislation may emphasize waste minimization, ambiguities in the regulations have undermined the actual intent, creating an environment of confusion and indecisiveness with respect to treatment and disposal of ash from resource recovery facilities. This book reports on a research and development program to assess the feasibility and possible environmental impacts of utilizing a selected fraction of the bottom ash stream from processed refuse fuel-fired boilers as an aggregate substitute. The purpose of the research program is to develop data on the characteristics of bottom ash during exposure to rain and weathering in proposed applications.

  15. Optimal planning for the sustainable utilization of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santibañez-Aguilar, José Ezequiel [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán 58060 (Mexico); Ponce-Ortega, José María, E-mail: jmponce@umich.mx [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán 58060 (Mexico); Betzabe González-Campos, J. [Institute of Chemical and Biological Researches, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán 58060 (Mexico); Serna-González, Medardo [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán 58060 (Mexico); El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M. [Chemical Engineering Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Adjunct Faculty at the Chemical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80204, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • An optimization approach for the sustainable management of municipal solid waste is proposed. • The proposed model optimizes the entire supply chain network of a distributed system. • A case study for the sustainable waste management in the central-west part of Mexico is presented. • Results shows different interesting solutions for the case study presented. - Abstract: The increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major problem particularly for large urban areas with insufficient landfill capacities and inefficient waste management systems. Several options associated to the supply chain for implementing a MSW management system are available, however to determine the optimal solution several technical, economic, environmental and social aspects must be considered. Therefore, this paper proposes a mathematical programming model for the optimal planning of the supply chain associated to the MSW management system to maximize the economic benefit while accounting for technical and environmental issues. The optimization model simultaneously selects the processing technologies and their location, the distribution of wastes from cities as well as the distribution of products to markets. The problem was formulated as a multi-objective mixed-integer linear programing problem to maximize the profit of the supply chain and the amount of recycled wastes, where the results are showed through Pareto curves that tradeoff economic and environmental aspects. The proposed approach is applied to a case study for the west-central part of Mexico to consider the integration of MSW from several cities to yield useful products. The results show that an integrated utilization of MSW can provide economic, environmental and social benefits.

  16. Optimal planning for the sustainable utilization of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibañez-Aguilar, José Ezequiel; Ponce-Ortega, José María; Betzabe González-Campos, J; Serna-González, Medardo; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M

    2013-12-01

    The increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major problem particularly for large urban areas with insufficient landfill capacities and inefficient waste management systems. Several options associated to the supply chain for implementing a MSW management system are available, however to determine the optimal solution several technical, economic, environmental and social aspects must be considered. Therefore, this paper proposes a mathematical programming model for the optimal planning of the supply chain associated to the MSW management system to maximize the economic benefit while accounting for technical and environmental issues. The optimization model simultaneously selects the processing technologies and their location, the distribution of wastes from cities as well as the distribution of products to markets. The problem was formulated as a multi-objective mixed-integer linear programing problem to maximize the profit of the supply chain and the amount of recycled wastes, where the results are showed through Pareto curves that tradeoff economic and environmental aspects. The proposed approach is applied to a case study for the west-central part of Mexico to consider the integration of MSW from several cities to yield useful products. The results show that an integrated utilization of MSW can provide economic, environmental and social benefits.

  17. Utilizing Radioisotope Power System Waste Heat for Spacecraft Thermal Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantano, David R.; Dottore, Frank; Tobery, E. Wayne; Geng, Steven M.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Palko, Joseph L.

    2005-01-01

    waste heat utilization in several conceptual missions (Lunar Rover, Mars Rover, and Titan Lander). The advantages associated with the SRG110 as they relate to ease of assembly, less complex interfaces, and overall mass savings for a spacecraft will be highlighted.

  18. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM COW WASTE AND UTILIZATION OF BIOGAS WASTE AS ORGANIC FERTILIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Science and technology activities for cattle ranchers and salacca farmers was done with the aim to utilize added-value of cattle waste to energy needs and use of biogas waste as organic fertilizer on salacca crops. Implementation of activities have been done at cattle ranchers in the village of Mlambangan, one of village on Berbah Sub-district at Sleman district in the form of demonstration plots and the salacca of the farmer’s crop in the village of Margososno, one of village on Srumbung Sub-district, at Magelang District, in the form of training and implementation in the field. Results of Demonstration Plot creation digester quite successful, because the material is available in sufficient and sustainable as well as the active force. The results of laboratory tests on the levels of N, P, and K from the waste produced biogas respectively 0.07 percent, 0.29 percent, and 3.21 percent, while for solid waste cow respectively 1.64 percent, 0, 99 percent, and 4.38 percent. Utilization of waste at biogas plants responded positively salacca by farmers, given the limited supply of organic fertilizer in the planting location of salacca, this is due to the limited cattle in the planting location of salacca.

  19. Cogeneration fueled by solid waste utilizing a new technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanton, M.

    1982-10-01

    Energy recovery from solid waste has been common in Europe for many years. In the last 10 years the number of these facilities built in the United States has been increasing. However most of the solid waste energy recovery facilities have been built in large cities such as Nashville, Tennessee, Saugus, Massachusetts, Akron, Ohio, and Chicago, Illinois, using the well-developed water-wall furnaces similar to those found in large utility plants. The technologies available in sizes applicable to smaller communities have been found wanting in reliability and in the capability for producing high pressure steam to drive turbines. The water-wall rotary combustors being installed in a facility in Sumner County, Tennessee, offer the promise of reliability and capability heretofore not available to smaller communities.

  20. Utilization of Eucalyptus Oil Refineries Waste for Cement Particle Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Setiadji

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of eucalyptus oil refinery waste in the manufacture of building material component of cement particle board is expected to reduce the price of housing units. This research used laboratory experimental methods, eucalyptus oil waste in the form of branches an twigs from eucalyptus tree. The variation of the testing were mixtures composition of the particle : cement, additives as accelerators, cold press load during manufacture of cement particle board. Cold press duration of cement board was 24 hours. The size of particle boards were (40 x 40 cm2 and 13 mm thick. The samples were tested for its density, water content, water absorption, flexural strength, thickness swelling, adhesion strength, and the nails pull out strength.

  1. Release of Waste Tire Comprehensive Utilization Industry Access Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On July 31, 2012, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology released the Tire Retread- ing lndustry Access Conditions and Waste Tire Comprehensive Utilization Industry Access Condi- tions with the No. 32 announcement of 2012. The state will lay a foundation for realizing the green, safe, efficient, eco-friendly and energy saving tar- gets in the "12th Five-year Plan" of the industry by raising access conditions, regulating industrial development order, strengthening environmental protection, promoting corporate optimizing and up- grading, improving resources comprehensive utiliza- tion technology and management level and guiding the "harmless recycling and eco-friendly utiliza- tion" of the industry.

  2. Waste recycling: utilization of coffee grounds and kitchen waste in vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi, A J; Noor, Z M

    2009-01-01

    Vermicomposting using Lumbricus rubellus for 49 days was conducted after 21 days of pre-composting. Three different combination of treatments were prepared with eight replicates for each treatment namely cow dung: kitchen waste in 30:70 ratio (T(1)), cow dung: coffee grounds in 30:70 ratio (T(2)), and cow dung: kitchen waste: coffee grounds in 30:35:35 ratio (T(3)). The multiplication of earthworms in terms of numbers and weight were measured at the end of vermicomposting. Consequently, only T(2) showed significant increase (from it initial stage) compared to other treatments. The presence of coffee grounds in T(2) and T(3) showed higher percentage of nutrient elements in vermicompost produced. The data reveal that coffee grounds can be decomposed through vermicomposting and help to enhance the quality of vermicompost produced rather than sole use of kitchen waste in vermicomposting.

  3. Preparation and properties of waste tea leaves particleboard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Jin-shu; Li Jian-zhang; Fan Yong-ming; Ma Hong-xia

    2006-01-01

    Urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesive is the main source of formaldehyde emission from UF-bonded boards. The components in waste tea leaves can react with formaldehyde to serve as a raw material in the production of low formaldehyde emission boards. In our study, waste tea leaves and UF adhesive were employed in the preparation of waste tea leaves particleboard (WTLB). An orthogonal experimental method was applied to investigate the effects of process parameters on formaldehyde emission and mechanical properties of WTLB. The results indicated that: 1) waste tea leaves had the ability to abate formaldehyde emission from boards; and 2) density of the WTLB was a significant factor affecting its modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE) and internal bonding (IB).

  4. Utilization of Agricultural Wastes in Stabilization of Landfill Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidzam Rahmat Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA and Rice Husk Ash (RHA are local agricultural waste material from Palm Oil Industry and from Paddy Industry in Malaysia. Currently, the disposal of these ashes from a burning process is a problem to both industries, and hence leads to environmental pollution. The main aim of this research was to investigate the potential of utilizing POFA and RHA as sustainable stabilizer material as partial replacement of traditional one which is lime and Portland Cement (PC. Laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the potential utilization of Malaysian Agricultural wastes POFA and RHA in stabilizing Teluk Kapas Landfill soil. Landfill soil on its own and combination with laterite clay soil were stabilized using POFA or RHA either on its own or in combination with Lime or Portland Cement (PC. The traditional stabilizers of lime or Portland Cement (PC were used as controls. Compacted cylinder test specimens were made at typical stabilizer contents and moist cured for up to 60 days prior to testing for compressive and water absorption tests. The results obtained showed that landfill soil combined with laterite clay (50:50 stabilized with 20% RHA:PC (50:50and POFA: PC (50:50 recorded the highest values of compressive strength compared to the other compositions of stabilizers and soils. However, when the amount of POFA and RHA increased in the system the compressive strength values of the samples tends to increase. These results suggest technological, economic as well as environmental advantages of using POFA and RHA and similar industrial by-products to achieve sustainable infrastructure development with near zero industrial waste.

  5. Utilization of sludge waste from natural rubber manufacturing process as a raw material for clay-ceramic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichaphund, S; Intiya, W; Kongkaew, A; Loykulnant, S; Thavorniti, P

    2012-12-01

    The possibility of utilization of the sludge waste obtained from the natural rubber manufacturing process as a raw material for producing clay ceramics was investigated. To prepared clay-based ceramic, the mixtures of traditional clay and sludge waste (10-30 wt%) were milled, uniaxilly pressed and sintered at a temperature between 1000 and 1200 degrees C. The effect of sludge waste on the properties of clay-based ceramic products was examined. The results showed that the amount of sludge waste addition had an effect on both sinterability and properties of the clay ceramics. Up to 30 wt% of sludge waste can be added into the clay ceramics, and the sintered samples showed good properties.

  6. Improving the process of preparing waste water at Kamennolozhskiy UPPN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abashev, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The main reasons are examined for low efficient operation of treatment works at the Kamennolozhskiy UPPN and efficient ways to improve quality of waste water by introducing separate collection and preparation of individual types of water, organization of preliminary discharge at the main structures and pinpointing the duration of settling. The process of settling was studied on waste water under field conditions using sampling from a strictly defined level of the settling tank in definite time intervals and analysis of samples for the content of mechanical admixtures and petroleum products. The duration of settling in the reservoir was corrected according to the curve for the dependence of the contaminant content in the waste water on the duration of settling. It was indicated that introduction of recommendations guarantees quality of water of the required condition for injection into productive beds to maintain bed pressure.

  7. ECOLOGICAL AND TECHNOLOGYCAL ASPECTS OF ASH AND SLAG WASTES UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Aleksandrova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of investigation focused on the utilization of ash and slag wastes (ASW in Russia including investigation of chemical and physical properties of ASW and processing products. Many factors influence the technological properties of ash and slag materials: naturals, processes and environments. The integrated treatment of ash and slag wastes of both stored and re-formed types will allow obtaining the following commercial products: coal concentrate, iron concentrate, aluminosilicate cenospheres, aluminosilicate product. In this study we have analyzed the methods for separation of ASW iron-containing part using the different types of the magnetic separation from the ash and slag material from one of the combined heat and power plant (CHPP in the Russian Far East Federal District. The greatest interest is the dry magnetic separation with travelling electromagnetic field. The subject of research was a sample taken from one of ash dump of CHPP in the Far East. In the study iron concentrate containing Fetotal = 64% was obtained recovery 68% in the low intensity (up to 5 kOe travelling magnetic field.

  8. Technical and economic aspects of waste heat utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolen Slavomir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the following presentation is the comparison and evaluation of the conditions for waste heat utilization in Germany and in Poland. This paper presents synthetically the results of economic analysis of the different technical variants. The employment of heat pumps and other heat transformers, respectively, can reduce the energy consumption, but using of those technical possibilities depends mainly on the economic aspects. The main parameters of the financial calculations were the energy and equipment costs but beyond it a number of other factors were also considered and compared, for example calculation interests, profit tax level and similar. Four different technical alternatives were analyzed, it is using of absorption heat pump, compression heat pump, heat transformer (absorption, and a special combined system with gas motor to drive of heat pump compressor. The capital value as main result of the investigations is in Poland generally lower because of relatively high investment cost and lower energy prices compared to the situation in Germany and West Europe. The basis for the presented comparative analysis was an industrial project in Germany which effected in development of concepts for waste heat using. .

  9. Preparation and characterization of hierarchical porous carbons derived from solid leather waste for supercapacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikkara, Niketha; Kennedy, L John; Vijaya, J Judith

    2016-11-15

    Utilization of crust leather waste (CLW) as precursors for the preparation of hierarchical porous carbons (HPC) were investigated. HPCs were prepared from CLW by pre-carbonization followed by chemical activation using KOH at relatively high temperatures. Textural properties of HPC's showed an extent of micro-and mesoporosity with maximum BET surface area of 716m(2)/g. Inducements of graphitic planes in leather waste derived carbons were observed from X-ray diffraction and HR-TEM analysis. Microstructure, thermal behavior and surface functional groups were identified using FT-Raman, thermo gravimetric analysis and FT-IR techniques. HPCs were evaluated for electrochemical properties by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) by three electrode system. CLC9 sample showed a maximum capacitance of 1960F/g in 1M KCl electrolyte. Results achieved from rectangular curves of CV, GCD symmetric curves and Nyquist plots show that the leather waste carbon is suitable to fabricate supercapacitors as it possess high specific capacitance and electrochemical cycle stability. The present study proposes an effective method for solid waste management in leather industry by the way of converting toxic leather waste to new graphitic porous carbonaceous materials as a potential candidate for energy storage devices.

  10. Utilization of waste heat in trucks for increased fuel economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leising, C. J.; Purohit, G. P.; Degrey, S. P.; Finegold, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The waste heat utilization concepts include preheating, regeneration, turbocharging, turbocompounding, and Rankine engine compounding. Predictions are based on fuel-air cycle analyses, computer simulation, and engine test data. All options are evaluated in terms of maximum theoretical improvements, but the Diesel and adiabatic Diesel are also compared on the basis of maximum expected improvement and expected improvement over a driving cycle. The study indicates that Diesels should be turbocharged and aftercooled to the maximum possible level. The results reveal that Diesel driving cycle performance can be increased by 20% through increased turbocharging, turbocompounding, and Rankine engine compounding. The Rankine engine compounding provides about three times as much improvement as turbocompounding but also costs about three times as much. Performance for either can be approximately doubled if applied to an adiabatic Diesel.

  11. Green route for the utilization of chrome shavings (chromium-containing solid waste) in tanning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy; Sreeram, Kalarical Janardhanan; Nair, Balachandran Unni

    2002-03-15

    Chromium-containing wastes from various industrial sectors are under critical review. Leather processing is one such industrial activity that generates chromium-bearing wastes in different forms. One of them is chrome shavings, and this contributes to an extent of 10% of the quantum of raw skins/hides processed, amounting to 0.8 million ton globally. In this study, the high protein content of chrome shavings has been utilized for reduction of chromium(VI) in the preparation of chrome tanning agent. This approach has been exploited for the development of two products: one with chrome shavings alone as reducing agent and the other with equal proportion of chrome shavings and molasses. The developed products exhibit more masking due to the formation of intermediate organic oligopeptides. This has been corroborated through the spectral, hydrolysis, and species-wise distribution studies. The formation of these organic masking agents helps in chrome tanning by shifting the precipitation point of chromium to relatively higher pH levels. Hence, the developed products find use as chrome tanning agents for leather processing, thus providing a means for better utilization of chrome shaving wastes.

  12. Sixth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A conference was held on coal preparation, utilization and environmental control. Topics included: combustion of fuel slurries; combustor performance; desulfurization chemically and by biodegradation; coal cleaning; pollution control of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides; particulate control; and flue gas desulfurization. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases. (CBS).

  13. INTEGRATED POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS FOR COAL MINE WASTE METHANE UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peet M. Soot; Dale R. Jesse; Michael E. Smith

    2005-08-01

    An integrated system to utilize the waste coal mine methane (CMM) at the Federal No. 2 Coal Mine in West Virginia was designed and built. The system includes power generation, using internal combustion engines, along with gas processing equipment to upgrade sub-quality waste methane to pipeline quality standards. The power generation has a nominal capacity of 1,200 kw and the gas processing system can treat about 1 million cubic feet per day (1 MMCFD) of gas. The gas processing is based on the Northwest Fuel Development, Inc. (NW Fuel) proprietary continuous pressure swing adsorption (CPSA) process that can remove nitrogen from CMM streams. The two major components of the integrated system are synergistic. The byproduct gas stream from the gas processing equipment can be used as fuel for the power generating equipment. In return, the power generating equipment provides the nominal power requirements of the gas processing equipment. This Phase III effort followed Phase I, which was comprised of a feasibility study for the project, and Phase II, where the final design for the commercial-scale demonstration was completed. The fact that NW Fuel is desirous of continuing to operate the equipment on a commercial basis provides the validation for having advanced the project through all of these phases. The limitation experienced by the project during Phase III was that the CMM available to operate the CPSA system on a commercial basis was not of sufficiently high quality. NW Fuel's CPSA process is limited in its applicability, requiring a relatively high quality of gas as the feed to the process. The CPSA process was demonstrated during Phase III for a limited time, during which the processing capabilities met the expected results, but the process was never capable of providing pipeline quality gas from the available low quality CMM. The NW Fuel CPSA process is a low-cost ''polishing unit'' capable of removing a few percent nitrogen. It was never

  14. Utilization of Wastes as an Alternative Energy Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2013-04-19

    Apr 19, 2013 ... Biotechnology Development Agency (NABDA), ... European countries was established to promote the exchange of information ... dealing with large amounts of industrial waste. .... making. These waste waters contain sugars,.

  15. Utilization of waste heat from energy conversion and industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.R.; Hamilton, R.W.

    The laws of thermodynamics state that no process of energy transformation can take place with perfect efficiency--some waste heat is always produced. The generation of waste heat from energy conversion and industrial processes are discussed. First-law and second-law efficiencies are defined. After listing the amounts of waste heat produced, some technological options for reducing waste heat or using it for other purposes, such as district heating, are described.

  16. Preparation of clinker from paper pulp industry wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buruberri, Leire H; Seabra, M P; Labrincha, J A

    2015-04-01

    The production of paper pulp by the Kraft method generates considerable amounts of wastes. Namely, lime mud generated in the recovery circuit of chemical reagents, biological sludge from the wastewater treatment of wood digestion process and fly ash collected in the fluidized bed combustor used to generate electricity from biomass burning. The final destination of such wastes is an important concern, since environmental regulations are becoming stricter regarding their landfill. Driven by this fact, industries are looking for more sustainable solutions, such as the recycling in distinct products. This work tested these wastes as secondary raw materials to produce clinker/cement that was then experienced in mortar formulations. The first step involved the residues detailed characterization and a generated amounts survey. Then, specific but simple steps were suggested, aiming to facilitate transport and manipulation. Distinct blends were prepared and fired in order to get belitic and Portland clinkers. The Portland clinkers were processed at lower temperatures than the normally used in the industry due to the presence of mineralizing impurities in some wastes. Belite-based cements were used to produce mortars that developed satisfactory mechanical strength and did not reveal signs of deterioration or durability weaknesses.

  17. Industrial applications study. Volume II. Industrial data base. Final report. [Waste heat recovery and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Harry L.; Hamel, Bernard B.; Karamchetty, Som; Steigelmann, William H.; Gajanana, Birur C.; Agarwal, Anil P.; Klock, Lawrence W.; Henderson, James M.; Calobrisi, Gary; Hedman, Bruce A.; Koluch, Michael; Biancardi, Frank; Bass, Robert; Landerman, Abraham; Peters, George; Limaye, Dilip; Price, Jeffrey; Farr, Janet

    1976-12-01

    An initial evaluation of the waste heat recovery and utilization potential in the manufacturing portion of the industrial sector is presented. The scope of this initial phase addressed the feasibility of obtaining in-depth energy information in the industrial sector. Within this phase, the methodology and approaches for data gathering and assessment were established. Using these approaches, energy use and waste heat profiles were developed at the 2-digit level; with this data, waste heat utilization technologies were evaluated.

  18. Preparation of calcium sulphoaluminate cement using fertiliser plant wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Maneesh; Kapur, P C; Pradip

    2008-08-30

    Phosphochalks from fertiliser plants contain significant amount of calcium sulphate along with P(2)O(5) and fluorine. The presence of these impurities makes them unsuitable for most applications and, hence its availability in millions of tons. We demonstrate that it is possible to prepare calcium sulphoaluminate-aluminoferrite based special cements having strength values comparable to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) using these waste chalks. Such cements are insensitive to the presence of impurities in the raw mixture, clinker at low temperatures (1,230 degrees C) and the clinkers produced are soft and friable. An empirical technique has been developed to predict the phase composition of the clinkers given the chemical composition of the starting raw mixture. The proposed low temperature clinkering route appears to be a promising method for converting waste phosphochalks into construction grade cements.

  19. Utilization of waste glycerin to fuelling of spark ignition engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmasiak, Z.; Pietras, D.

    2016-09-01

    The paper discusses a possibilities of usage a simple alcohols to fuelling of spark ignition engines. Methanol and blends of methanol with glycerin, being a waste product from production of bio-components to fuels based on rapeseed oil, have been used in course of the investigations. The main objective of the research was to determine possibilities of utilization of glycerin to blending of engine fuels. The investigations have been performed using the Fiat 1100 MPI engine. Parameters obtained with the engine powered by pure methanol and by methanol- glycerin mixtures with 10÷30%vol content of glycerin were compared to parameters of the engine fuelled conventionally with the E95 gasoline. The investigations have shown increase of overall efficiency of the engine run on pure methanol with 2.5÷5.0%, and run on the mixture having 10% addition of glycerin with 2.0÷7.8%. Simultaneously, fuelling of the engine with the investigated alcohols results in reduced concentration of toxic components in exhaust gases like: CO, THC and NOx, as well as the greenhouse gas CO2.

  20. Environmentally and economically efficient utilization of coal processing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2017-11-15

    High concentrations of hazardous anthropogenic emissions (sulfur, nitrogen and carbon oxides) from solid fuel combustion in coal burning plants cause environmental problems that have been especially pressing over the last 20-30 years. A promising solution to these problems is a switch from conventional pulverized coal combustion to coal-water slurry fuel. In this paper, we pay special attention to the environmental indicators characterizing the combustion of different coal ranks (gas, flame, coking, low-caking, and nonbaking coals) and coal-water slurry fuels based on the coal processing waste - filter cakes. There have been no consistent data so far on the acceptable intervals for the anthropogenic emissions of sulfur (SOx), nitrogen (NOx) and carbon (CO, CO2) oxides. Using a specialized combustion chamber and gas analyzing system, we have measured the concentrations of typical coal and filter-cake-based CWS combustion products. We have also calculated the typical combustion heat of the fuels under study and measured the ratio between environmental and energy attributes. The research findings show that the use of filter cakes in the form of CWS is even better than coals in terms of environment and economy. Wide utilization of filter cakes solves many environmental problems: the areas of contaminated sites shrink, anthropogenic emissions decrease, and there is no need to develop new coal mines anymore. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Waste printed circuit board recycling techniques and product utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadi, Pejman; Xu, Meng [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Lin, Carol S.K. [School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Hui, Chi-Wai [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon, E-mail: kemckayg@ust.hk [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • There is a major environmental issue about the printed circuit boards throughout the world. • Different physical and chemical recycling techniques have been reviewed. • Nonmetallic fraction of PCBs is the unwanted face of this waste stream. • Several applications of the nonmetallic fraction of waste PCBs have been introduced. - Abstract: E-waste, in particular waste PCBs, represents a rapidly growing disposal problem worldwide. The vast diversity of highly toxic materials for landfill disposal and the potential of heavy metal vapors and brominated dioxin emissions in the case of incineration render these two waste management technologies inappropriate. Also, the shipment of these toxic wastes to certain areas of the world for eco-unfriendly “recycling” has recently generated a major public outcry. Consequently, waste PCB recycling should be adopted by the environmental communities as an ultimate goal. This article reviews the recent trends and developments in PCB waste recycling techniques, including both physical and chemical recycling. It is concluded that the physical recycling techniques, which efficiently separate the metallic and nonmetallic fractions of waste PCBs, offer the most promising gateways for the environmentally-benign recycling of this waste. Moreover, although the reclaimed metallic fraction has gained more attention due to its high value, the application of the nonmetallic fraction has been neglected in most cases. Hence, several proposed applications of this fraction have been comprehensively examined.

  2. An overview on characterization, utilization and leachate analysis of biomedical waste incinerator ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajor, Anita; Xaxa, Monika; Mehta, Ratika; Kunal

    2012-10-15

    Solid waste management is one of the major global environmental issues, as there is continuous increase in industrial globalization and generation of waste. Solid wastes encompass the heterogeneous mass of throwaways from the urban community as well as the homogeneous accumulations of agricultural, industrial and mineral wastes. Biomedical waste pose a significant impact on health and environment. A proper waste management system should be required to dispose hazardous biomedical waste and incineration should be the best available technology to reduce the volume of this hazardous waste. The incineration process destroys pathogens and reduces the waste volume and weight but leaves a solid material called biomedical waste ash as residue which increases the levels of heavy metals, inorganic salts and organic compounds in the environment. Disposal of biomedical waste ash in landfill may cause contamination of groundwater as metals are not destroyed during incineration. The limited space and the high cost for land disposal led to the development of recycling technologies and the reuse of ash in different systems. In order to minimize leaching of its hazardous components into the environment several studies confirmed the successful utilization of biomedical waste ash in agriculture and construction sector. This paper presents the overview on the beneficial use of ash in agriculture and construction materials and its leachate characteristics. This review also stressed on the need to further evaluate the leachate studies of the ashes and slag for their proper disposal and utilization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Industrial applications study. Volume IV. Industrial plant surveys. Final report. [Waste heat recovery and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Harry L.; Hamel, Bernard B.; Karamchetty, Som; Steigelmann, William H.; Gajanana, Birur C.; Agarwal, Anil P.; Klock, Lawrence M.; Henderson, James M.; Calobrisi, Gary; Hedman, Bruce A.; Koluch, Michael; Biancardi, Frank; Bass, Robert; Landerman, Abraham; Peters, George; Limaye, Dilip; Price, Jeffrey; Farr, Janet

    1977-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the waste heat recovery and utilization potential in the manufacturing portion of the industrial sector is presented. The scope of this initial phase addressed the feasibility of obtaining in-depth energy information in the industrial sector. Within this phase, the methodology and approaches for data gathering and assessment were established. Using these approaches, energy use and waste heat profiles were developed at the 2-digit level; with this data, waste heat utilization technologies were evaluated. This study represents an important first step in the evaluation of waste heat recovery potential.

  4. Study of Utilization of Pulp and Paper Industry Wastes in Production of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Fatemeh Seyyedalipour ,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the increasing amount of wastes is a concerning reality and the environmental aspects has become a major priority. Following this worry, the purpose of this study was to investigate the using of pulp and paper industry wastes in various concrete mixes containing various contents of the waste to reduce environmental effects of these wastes disposal. The discussion includes pulp and paper industry waste management which have recently received considerable attention and considers grit, dregs, ash, and fiber. The concrete mixes prepared with adequate amount of these wastes, cement, aggregate and water compared in terms of some tests especially strength with the conventional concrete. At the end, the advantages and disadvantages of the use of pulp and paper industry wastes in concrete formulations as an alternative to landfill disposal were discussed. The research on use of pulp and paper industry wastes can be further carried out in concrete manufacturing as a new recycled material.

  5. Nuclear waste disposal utilizing a gaseous core reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternoster, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of a gaseous core nuclear reactor designed to produce power to also reduce the national inventories of long-lived reactor waste products through nuclear transmutation was examined. Neutron-induced transmutation of radioactive wastes is shown to be an effective means of shortening the apparent half life.

  6. Waste printed circuit board recycling techniques and product utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Pejman; Xu, Meng; Lin, Carol S K; Hui, Chi-Wai; McKay, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    E-waste, in particular waste PCBs, represents a rapidly growing disposal problem worldwide. The vast diversity of highly toxic materials for landfill disposal and the potential of heavy metal vapors and brominated dioxin emissions in the case of incineration render these two waste management technologies inappropriate. Also, the shipment of these toxic wastes to certain areas of the world for eco-unfriendly "recycling" has recently generated a major public outcry. Consequently, waste PCB recycling should be adopted by the environmental communities as an ultimate goal. This article reviews the recent trends and developments in PCB waste recycling techniques, including both physical and chemical recycling. It is concluded that the physical recycling techniques, which efficiently separate the metallic and nonmetallic fractions of waste PCBs, offer the most promising gateways for the environmentally-benign recycling of this waste. Moreover, although the reclaimed metallic fraction has gained more attention due to its high value, the application of the nonmetallic fraction has been neglected in most cases. Hence, several proposed applications of this fraction have been comprehensively examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  8. The waste-to-energy framework for integrated multi-waste utilization: Waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhabhandhu, Ampaitepin; Tezuka, Tetsuo [Energy Economics Laboratory, Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Energy generation by wastes is considered one method of waste management that has the benefit of energy recovery. From the waste-to-energy point of view, waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics have been considered good candidates for feedstocks for energy conversion due to their high heating values. Compared to the independent management of these three wastes, the idea of co-processing them in integration is expected to gain more benefit. The economies of scale and the synergy of co-processing these wastes results in higher quality and higher yield of the end products. In this study, we use cost-benefit analysis to evaluate the integrated management scenario of collecting the three wastes and converting them to energy. We report the total heat of combustion of pyrolytic oil at the maximum and minimum conversion rates, and conduct a sensitivity analysis in which the parameters of an increase of the electricity cost for operating the process and increase of the feedstock transportation cost are tested. We evaluate the effects of economy of scale in the case of integrated waste management. We compare four cases of waste-to-energy conversion with the business as usual (BAU) scenario, and our results show that the integrated co-processing of waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics is the most profitable from the viewpoints of energy yield and economics. (author)

  9. The Flexible Solar Utility. Preparing for Solar's Impacts to Utility Planning and Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, John [Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA), Washington, DC (United States); Davidovich, Ted [Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA), Washington, DC (United States); Cory, Karlynn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aznar, Alexandra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This paper seeks to provide a flexible utility roadmap for identifying the steps that need to be taken to place the utility in the best position for addressing solar in the future. Solar growth and the emergence of new technologies will change the electric utility of tomorrow. Although not every utility, region, or market will change in the same way or magnitude, developing a path forward will be needed to reach the Electric System of the Future in the coming decades. In this report, a series of potential future states are identified that could result in drastically different energy mixes and profiles: 1) Business as Usual, 2) Low Carbon, Centralized Generation, 3) Rapid Distributed Energy Resource Growth, 4) Interactivity of Both the Grid and Demand, and 5) Grid or Load Defection. Complicating this process are a series of emerging disruptions; decisions or events that will cause the electric sector to change. Understanding and preparing for these items is critical for the transformation to any of the future states to be successful. Predicting which future state will predominate 15 years from now is not possible; however, utilities still will need to look ahead and try to anticipate how factors will impact their planning, operations, and business models. In order to dig into the potential transformations facing the utility industry, the authors conducted a series of utility interviews, held a working session at a major industry solar conference, and conducted a quantitative survey. To focus conversations, the authors leveraged the Rapid Distributed Energy Resource (DER) Growth future to draw out how utilities would have to adapt from current processes and procedures in order to manage and thrive in that new environment. Distributed solar was investigated specifically, and could serve as a proxy resource for all distributed generation (DG). It can also provide the foundation for all DERs.

  10. Preparation and utilization of phosphate biofertilizers using agricultural waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-yuan; LIU Shen; ZHAI Li-mei; ZHANG Ji-zong; REN Tian-zhi; FAN Bing-quan; LIU Hong-bin

    2015-01-01

    In this study,Aspergilus niger 1107 was isolated and identiifed as an efifcient phosphate-solubilizing fungus (PSF). This strain generated 689 mg soluble P L–1 NBRIP medium after 10 d of culture. To produce an affordable biofertilizer using A. niger 1107, the potential of widely available carrier materials for growth and maintenance of this strain were evaluated. The effects of sterilization procedures (autoclaving and gamma-ray irradiation) on the suitability of these carriers to maintain growth of the fungus were also investigated. The carrier materials were peat, corn cobs with 20% (w/w) perlite (CCP), wheat husks with 20% (w/w) perlite (WHP), and composted cattle manure with 20% (w/w) perlite (CCMP). In the ifrst 5-6 mon of storage, the carriers sterilized by gamma-ray irradiation maintained higher inoculum loads than those in carriers sterilized by autoclaving. However, this effect was not detectable after 7 mon of storage. For the P-biofertilizer on WHP, more than 2.0×107 viable spores ofA. niger g–1 inoculantsurvived after 7 mon of storage. When this biofertilizer was applied to Chinese cabbage in a pot experiment, there were 5.6×106spores ofA. niger g–1 soil before plant harvesting. In the pot experiment, Chinese cabbage plants grown in soil treated with peat- and WHP-based P-biofertilizers showed signiifcantly greater growth (P<0.05) than that of plants grown in soil treated with free-cel biofertilizer or the CCMP-based biofertilizer. Also, the peat- and WHP-based P-biofertilizers increased the available P content in soil.

  11. Pretreatment and utilization of waste incineration bottom ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Within recent years, researchers and authorities have had increasing focus on leaching properties from waste incineration bottom ashes. Researchers have investigated processes such as those related to carbonation, weathering, metal complexation, and leaching control. Most of these investigations...

  12. Preparation of porous carbon sphere from waste sugar solution for electric double-layer capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhi-Qiang; Cao, Jing-Pei; Wu, Yan; Zhao, Xiao-Yan; Zhuang, Qi-Qi; Wang, Xing-Yong; Wei, Xian-Yong

    2017-09-01

    Waste sugar solution (WSS), which contains abundant 2-keto-L-gulonic acid, is harmful to the environment if discharged directly. For value-added utilization of the waste resource, a novel process is developed for preparation of porous carbon spheres by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of WSS followed by KOH activation. Additionally, the possible preparation mechanism of carbon spheres is proposed. The effects of hydrothermal and activation parameters on the properties of the carbon sphere are also investigated. The carbon sphere is applied to electric double-layer capacitor and its electrochemical performance is studied. These results show that the carbon sphere obtained by HTC at 180 °C for 12 h with the WSS/deionized water volume ratio of 2/3 possess the highest specific capacitance under identical activation conditions. The specific capacitance of the carbon spheres can reach 296.1 F g-1 at a current density of 40 mA g-1. Besides, excellent cycle life and good capacitance retention (89.6%) are observed at 1.5 A g-1 after 5000 cycles. This study not only provides a facile and potential method for the WSS treatment, but also achieves the high value-added recycling of WSS for the preparation of porous carbon spheres with superior electrochemical properties.

  13. A study on the utilization of chromic oxide wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seung Woong; Kim, Chi Kwon; Hwang, Seon Kook; Kim, Byung Gyu; Son, Jeong Soo; Nam, Chul Woo [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This study was carried out to develop the optimum process for recovering precious and valuable metals from chrome oxide wastes. The following subjects such as, (1) feasibility on the recovery of precious and valuable metals, (2) recovery rate of precious and valuable metals, (3) purification of extracted precious and valuable metals, and (4) environmental aspects of recovery process, were investigated and the main results are as follows. (1) With Sem analysis of chrome oxide wastes, it was found that combustion process for eliminating oil and water in wastes, was necessary. (2) After leaching chrome oxide wastes with nitric acid and aqua regia, silver and gold were effectively separated and recovered. But a lot of silver and gold were remaining in the leaching residue. It was considered that chrome oxide powder was coated with organic materials during polishing stage and their products were insoluble in acidic solution. (3) The optimum process for separation and recovery of precious metal and production of new chrome oxide is consist of several process such as perchloric acid leaching, recovery of silver chloride, cementation for gold, reduction of chrome ion, and production of pure chrome oxide. (4) For separating chrome compound from the chrome oxide waste occurred in stainless steel polishing process, alkali roasting process was suggested. (author). 18 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Utilizing waste heat from metal industry for drying of organic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Dobric, Sasa

    2014-01-01

    Growing generation of organic waste is a real problem all over the world. This is specifically expressed in the developed countries because the amounts of the waste are larger. Therefore, it implies problem connected with organic waste disposal. In the modern society it is prohibited to dump the waste on landfills. It was necessary to find the solution how to deal with this situation.One of the options is delivering of the organic waste to the burning facilities. In this way it is possible to...

  15. Utilizing waste heat from metal industry for drying of organic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Dobric, Sasa

    2014-01-01

    Growing generation of organic waste is a real problem all over the world. This is specifically expressed in the developed countries because the amounts of the waste are larger. Therefore, it implies problem connected with organic waste disposal. In the modern society it is prohibited to dump the waste on landfills. It was necessary to find the solution how to deal with this situation.One of the options is delivering of the organic waste to the burning facilities. In this way it is possible to...

  16. Utilization of waste tires as alternative fuel in cement plant

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Cement industry is regulated by legislation in which various measures are specified for prevention and reduction of air pollution as well as protection of human health, due to atmospheric emissions, which occur during cement production. Legislation also holds emission limit values for co-incineration of wastes i.e. alternative fuels. Waste tires as an alternative fuel can be co-incinerated i.e. co-processed in cement plants, where the high calorific value of the rubber is used to substitute f...

  17. Practice of the utilization of biomass from waste materials; Praxis der Verwertung von Biomasse aus Abfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemer, Klaus; Kern, Michael; Raussen, Thomas (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    Within the 4th Witzenhaeuser Biomass Conference from 10th to 11th November, 2010, in Witzenhausen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Consequences of the amendment of the law of life-cycle management and biological waste regulations for the practice of acquisition and utilization of biological wastes (Claus-Gerhard Bergs); (2) An eco-efficient handling with biological wastes and composting wastes (Siegfried Kreibe); (3) Perspectives of the biological waste management (Michael Kern); (4) Assessment of waste biogas plants by environmental verifiers - implementation of the EEG novella (Michael Hub); (5) Fermentation of biogenic residuals - State of the art and perspectives (David Wilken); (6) Energy from cultivation masses and waste biomasses - Perspectives for Europe (Katja Bunzel); (7) Optimization of a biogas plant in practical operation (Michael Buchheit); (8) Odour situation and germ situation before and after an integration of a biogas plant in a composite system (Juergen Roth); (9) Aspects of immission protection rights according to the requirements on the permission and operation of biogas plants (Norbert Suritsch); (10) Actual veterinary regulatory, fertilizer regulatory and waste regulatory requirements on the treatment and utilization of fermentation products (Andreas Kirsch); (11) Utilization of fermentation residues from biological waste: Basic conditions and technology of processing (Thomas Raussen); (12) Practical experiences and new developments using selected examples: Pohlsche Heide, Baar (Switzerland) and Cesena (Italy) (Peter Lutz); (13) New facility concepts of dry fermentation in Lohfelden and Uelzen (Gunnar Ziehmann); (14) New facility concepts of plug flow fermentation (Michael Oertig); (15) Further development of the KOMPOFERM {sup registered} systems (Sandra Striewski); (16) Optimization of the gas yield and reduction of disruptive substances in the processing of biological wastes for the wet fermentation

  18. Modern technologies of waste utilization from industrial tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimov, Yusuf; Gilmanshin, Iskander; Gilmanshina, Suriya

    2016-06-01

    The innovative technology of waste tire production recovery from JSC "Nizhnekamskshina", which determines the possibility of obtaining a new type of composite material in the form fiber filled rubber compound (FFRC) as the raw material, production of rubber products with high technical and operational characteristics.

  19. Optimal utilization of waste-to-energy in an LCA perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Thilde; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    alternatives were comparable for SRF. For organic waste, mass burn incineration with energy recovery was preferable over anaerobic digestion in most impact categories. Waste composition and flue gas cleaning at co-combustion plants were critical for the environmental performance of SRF treatment, while...... the impacts related to utilization of the digestate were significant for the outcome of organic waste treatment. The conclusions were robust in a present-day as well as in a future energy system. This indicated that mass burn incineration with efficient energy recovery is a very environmentally competitive......Energy production from two types of municipal solid waste was evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA): (1) mixed high calorific waste suitable for production of solid recovered fuels (SRF) and (2) source separated organic waste. For SRF, co-combustion was compared with mass burn incineration...

  20. ASPEN+ and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASPEN Plus based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for the on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all available Equine Reh...

  1. EAF Gas Waste Heat Utilization and Discussion of the Energy Conservation and CO2 Emissions Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling-zhi; Zhu, Rong; Ma, Guo-hong

    2016-02-01

    As a large number of energy was taken away by the high temperature furnace gas during the EAF smelting process, a huge economic and environmental benefits would obtained to recycle and utilize. In this paper, the energy of the EAF was analyzed theoretically with the hot metal ratio of 50%. Combined with the utilization of the gas waste heat during the scrap preheating, electricity generation, production of steam and production of coal gas processes, the effect of the energy saving and emission was calculated with comprehensive utilization of the high temperature furnace gas. An optimal scheme for utilization of the waste heat was proposed based on the calculation. The results show that the best way for energy saving and carbon reduction is the production of coal gas, while the optimal scheme for waste heat utilization is combined the production of coal gas with the scrap preheating, which will save 170 kWh/t of energy and decrease 57.88 kg/t of carbon emission. As hot metal ratio in EAF steelmaking is often more than 50%, which will produce more EAF gas waste heat, optimizing EAF gas waste heat utilization will have more obvious effect on energy saving and emission reduction.

  2. STUDIES ON STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS ON UTILIZATION OF WASTE MATERIALS AS COARSE AGGREGATE IN CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. T. SEKAR

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Depletion of natural resources is a common phenomenon in developing countries like India due to rapid urbanization and Industrialization involving construction of Infrastructure and other amenities. In view of this, people have started searching for suitable other viable alternative materials for concrete so that the existing natural resources could be preserved to the possible extent, for the future generation. In this process, different industrial waste materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, quarry dust, tile waste, brick bats, broken glass waste, waste aggregate from demolition of structures, ceramic insulator waste, etc. have been tried as a viablesubstitute material to the conventional materials in concrete and has also been succeeded. This paper describes the studies conducted on strength characteristics of concrete made with utilizing waste materials viz: ceramic tiles, ceramic insulator waste, and broken glass pieces. A total number of 24cubes, 24 cylinders and 24 beamswere cast and tested for compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength using industrial wastes and the results presented. It was found that, the concrete made of waste ceramic tile aggregate produced more strength in compression, split tensile and flexure than ceramic insulator scrap and broken glass material. This paper recommends that waste ceramic tiles can be used as an alternate construction material to coarse aggregate in concrete.

  3. Methane fermentation process for utilization of organic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frąc, M.; Ziemiński, K.

    2012-07-01

    Biogas is a renewable and sustainable energy carrier generated via anaerobic digestion of biomass. This fuel is derived from various biomass resources and depending on its origin it contains methane (40-75%), carbon dioxide (20-45%) and some other compounds. The aim of this paper is to present the current knowledge and prospects of using the methane fermentation process to dispose of various types of organic wastes as well as conditions and factors affecting the methane fermentation process.

  4. Utilization of Industrial Waste Material in GSB Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Arun Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available India has series of steel plant clusters located along its length and breadth of the territory. Several million metric tons of iron and steel are produced in these plants annually. Along with the production of iron and steel, huge quantities of solid wastes like blast furnace slag and steel slag as well as other wastes such as flue dust, blast furnace sludge, and refractories are also being produced in these plants. These solid wastes can be used as non-traditional/non-conventional aggregates in pavement construction due to acute scarcity of traditional/conventional road construction materials. A study was conducted to investigate the possibility of using Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS with various blended mixes of traditional/conventional aggregates in subbase layer with different percentages. This study also presents the result of experimental investigation on the influence of Rice husk ash (RHA on the index properties of Red soil which is used as filler material in subbase layer.

  5. Design of an Optimal Waste Utilization System: A Case Study in St. Petersburg, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Rodionov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Storing municipal solid waste (MSW in landfills is the oldest and still the primary waste management strategy in many countries. Russia is the third largest methane (CH4 emitter country after USA and China, representing 5% of total global CH4 emissions from waste landfilling. Due to high economical growth, the amount of waste generated in Russia has risen sharply over the last ten years. However, waste management in Russia is mainly based on landfilling. In order to design an optimal MSW utilization system considering various aspects related to sustainable MSW management, a linear programming model was introduced for this research. The performance of the proposed MSW utilization system in the target area has been evaluated in light of energy, economic, and environmental (3Es aspects, such as system net cost, annual energy generated from the waste, and the carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions of the system. St. Petersburg city was considered as the target area for the present analysis. The results show that the introduction of the proposed MSW system with energy recovery from waste along with a high level of material recovery has energy, environmental and economic benefits compared to the conventional treatment system. This paper emphasizes the importance of introducing waste treatment methods as an alternative to landfilling, and to improve recycling activities in Russia.

  6. Preparation and Performance of Asphalt Compound Modified with Waste Crumb Rubber and Waste Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three kinds of modified asphalt were prepared by adding waste crumb rubber (WCR, waste polyethylene (WPE, and WCR/WPE to base asphalt, respectively. The influence of different doses on the performance of modified asphalt, such as 25°C penetration, softening point, 5°C ductility, and 135°C, 165°C viscosity, was studied, and the modification mechanism of modified asphalt was discussed through the fluorescence microscope. As the waterproofing materials, the waterproofness of WCR/WPE compound modified asphalt was tested. The results show that the WPE modified asphalt has excellent resistance to high temperature and WCR modified asphalt has good low temperature resistance. The resistance to deformation ability of WPE modified asphalt is better than that of the WCR modified asphalt. The 135°C viscosity of compound modified asphalt is better than that of WPE and WCR modified asphalt. In addition, the waterproofness of compound modified asphalt using waterproofing materials is better than that of common waterproofing materials.

  7. Utilization of immobilized urease for waste water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of using immobilized urease for urea removal from waste water for space system applications is considered, specifically the elimination of the urea toxicity problem in a 30-day Orbiting Frog Otolith (OFO) flight experiment. Because urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, control of their concentrations within nontoxic limits was also determined. The results of this study led to the use of free urease in lieu of the immobilized urease for controlling urea concentrations. An ion exchange resin was used which reduced the NH3 level by 94% while reducing the sodium ion concentration only 10%.

  8. Waste utilization for the controlled synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayar, Suprabha, E-mail: Suprabha.nayar@gmail.com [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur (India); Guha, Avijit [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur (India)

    2009-05-05

    This work uses biomolecules in waste and medicinally important materials for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Orange and potato peel, eggshell, papaya leaf and calendula flower extracts have varied biomolecules, which exert a significant, control on the in situ synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite particles. The biomimetic synthesis of inorganic particles using known matrices is already well established, however, there are only a few reports using compound extracts. The synthesized nanocomposite has been characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy studies. Role of varied biomolecules in controlled inorganic synthesis may have tremendous technological impact.

  9. Whole process reclamation and utilization of wastes produced in the biological fermentation industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ling-jun; LI Da-peng; MA Fang; Chein-chi Chang; XU Shan-wen; QIU Shan

    2008-01-01

    Wastes yielded in the vintage process and the biological fermentation of itaconic acid and sodium gluconate of a winery in Shandong,such as grain stillage,melon lees,cornstarch protein residues,itaconic acid mother liquid,itaconic acid mycelium and sodium gluconate mycelium,were studied.Hish-activity biological protein feed,foliar fertilizer and irrigation fertilizer were generated from these wastes by applying biological/microbial technologies.Meanwhile,a whole set of technological pathways Was put forward.As a result,the optimal economical and social benefits can be obtained with low natural resource consumption and environmental costs by converting wastes into useful matters.In conclusion,through the utilization of limited resources in the whole process of reclamation and utilization of wastes,the harmony promotion Can be achieved between the economic system and the natural ecosystem.

  10. A review of olive mill solid wastes to energy utilization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforou, Elias; Fokaides, Paris A

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, the utilization of olive industry by-products for energy purposes has gained significant research interest and many studies have been conducted focused on the exploitation of olive mill solid waste (OMSW) derived from the discontinuous or continuous processing of olive fruits. In this review study, the primary characteristics of OMSW and the techniques used to define their thermal performance are described. The theoretical background of the main waste-to-energy conversion pathways of solid olive mill wastes, as well as the basic pre-treatment techniques for upgrading solid fuels, are presented. The study aims to present the main findings and major conclusions of previously published works undertaken in the last two decades focused on the characterization of olive mill solid wastes and the utilization of different types of solid olive mill residues for energy purposes. The study also aims to highlight the research challenges in this field.

  11. Utilization of tomato waste as a source of polyphenolic antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savatović Slađana M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the effects of two extraction procedures (using ultrasonic bath and high performance homogenizer on the extraction efficiency of polyphenolics present in the tomato waste. The isolation of flavonoid fraction of obtained extracts was performed by solid-phase extraction. The antioxidant activity of flavonoid fractions was determined using different spectrophotometric tests, including reducing power and 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assays. The content of total polyphenolics and flavonoids in extract obtained employing homogenizer (E2 was higher than in the extract obtained employing ultrasonic bath (E1, and it was 14.33 mg/g and 7.70 mg/g, respectively. The flavonoid fraction (EF2 of extract E2 showed higher antioxidant activity than flavonoid fraction (EF1 of extract E1. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity of fractions EF1 and EF2, expressed as EC50 value, were 0.78 mg/ml and 0.45 mg/ml, respectively. The obtained results show that tomato wastes can be used as an easily accessible source of antioxidant polyphenolics.

  12. Utilization of kaolin processing waste for the production of porous ceramic bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Romualdo R; Brasileiro, Maria I; Santana, Lisiane N L; Neves, Gelmires A; Lira, Helio L; Ferreira, Heber C

    2008-08-01

    The kaolin processing industry generates large amounts of waste in producing countries such as Brazil. The aim of this study was to characterize kaolin processing waste and evaluate its suitability as an alternative ceramic raw material for the production of porous technical ceramic bodies. The waste material was physically and chemically characterized and its thermal behaviour is described. Several formulations were prepared and sintered at different temperatures. The sintered samples were characterized to determine their porosity, water absorption, firing shrinkage and mechanical strength. Fired samples were microstructurally analysed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the waste consisted of quartz, kaolinite, and mica, and that ceramic formulations containing up to 66% of waste can be used for the production of ceramics with porosities higher than 40% and strength of about 70 MPa.

  13. Potentials and problems of the utilization of waste dumps and pit-ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gefferth, K.

    1986-01-01

    The surface damages caused by mining as well as the landscaping duties of the mining enterprises connected with the surface restoration are discussed. The damaging effects of waste dumps on the soil, groundwater and vegetation are enumerated. The possibilities of how to recultivate the waste dumps as well as of how to utilize the flue ash and slacks from thermal power plants are briefly summarized. The required uniform recultivation manner to be applied is emphasized.

  14. Formation cause,composition analysis and comprehensive utilization of rare earth solid wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许涛; 彭会清

    2009-01-01

    Based on practical situation of rare earth industrial chain,production process and rare earth materials that could produce solid wastes on batch were discussed.Formation cause,formation volume,composition analysis and comprehensive utilization of the solid wastes of rare earth hydrometallurgy slag,electrolysis slag,Fe-based rare earth permanent magnetic materials,Co-based rare earth permanent magnetic materials,rare earth hydrogen storage materials,rare earth polishing powders and rare earth catalysts were ...

  15. Study utilization of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrianie, Nuniek; Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Ar-rosyidah, Fanny Husna; Rochman, Hilal Abdur

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays the existence of energy sources of oil and was limited. Therefore, it was important to searching for new innovations of renewable energy sources by utilizing the waste into a source of energy. On the other hand, the process of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation generated sludge that had calorific value and untapped. Because of the need for alternative sources of energy innovation with the concept of zero waste and the fuel potential from extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste, so it was necessary to study the use of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuel. In addition, sawdust is a waste that had a great quantities and also had a high calorific value to be mixed with extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and to determine the potential and a combination of a mixture of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and sawdust which has the best calorific value. The variables of this study was the composition of the waste and sawdust as follows 1:1; 1:3; and 3:1 (mass of sawdust : mass of waste) and time of sawdust carbonization was 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Sawdust was carbonized to get the high heating value. The characteristic of main material and fuel analysis performed with proximate analysis. While the calorific value analysis was performed with a bomb calorimeter. From the research, it was known that extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste had a moisture content of 3.06%; volatile matter 19.98%; ash content of 0.56%; fixed carbon content of 76.4% and a calorific value of 717 cal/gram. And a mixture that had the highest calorific value (4286.5 cal/gram) achieved in comparison sawdust : waste (3:1) by carbonization of sawdust for 20 minutes.

  16. UTILIZATION OF HAZELNUT HUSKS, TEA AND TOBACCO WASTES, AS RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ş. İsmail KIRBAŞLAR

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, moisture, ash, oil and cellulose of hazelnut husks, tea and tobacco wastes were analyzed. The amounts of pentosan, pentose and furfural were determined in the hazelnut husks, tea and tobacco wastes. Furfural was produced from each three waste products by a steam distillation method. IR spectra of each furfural product were measured and compared with standard furfural. Activated carbon prepared from the hazelnut husks at the different temperature, and organic and inorganic pollutants were removed by using the adsorbent obtained from hazelnut husk.

  17. Utility and infrastructure needs for private tank waste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, B.A.

    1996-05-01

    This document supports the development of the Draft TWRS Privatization RFP. The document provides summaries of a wide variety of utility infrastructure and support services that are available at the Hanford Site. The needs of the privatization contractors are estimated and compared to the existing infrastructure. Recommendations are presented on the preferred and alternate routes of supplying the identifies requirements.

  18. Automotive absorption air conditioner utilizing solar and motor waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popinski, Z. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    In combination with the ground vehicles powered by a waste heat generating electric motor, a cooling system including a generator for driving off refrigerant vapor from a strong refrigerant absorbant solution is described. A solar collector, an air-cooled condenser connected with the generator for converting the refrigerant vapor to its liquid state, an air cooled evaporator connected with the condenser for returning the liquid refrigerant to its vapor state, and an absorber is connected to the generator and to the evaporator for dissolving the refrigerant vapor in the weak refrigerant absorbant solution, for providing a strong refrigerant solution. A pump is used to establish a pressurized flow of strong refrigerant absorbant solution from the absorber through the electric motor, and to the collector.

  19. Gradient utilization of coking waste heat%焦化余热的梯级利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐营营; 刘旭明; 赵永宽

    2015-01-01

    利用焦化生产过程中的余热进行冬季采暖,可将采暖后的余热供蔬菜大棚利用,再回收低品质热能,实现热量梯级利用。%This paper presents the method of utilizing the coking waste heat for winter heating, and the waste heat after winter heating is further supplied to vegetable greenhouse, which has recovered low quality heat energy and realized gradient utilization of heat energy.

  20. Utilization of agricultural wastes for production of ethanol. Progress report, October 1979-May 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.

    1980-05-01

    The project proposes to develop methods to utilize agricultural wastes, especially cottonseed hulls and peanut shells to produce ethanol. Initial steps will involve development of methods to break down cellulose to a usable form of substrates for chemical or biological digestion. The process of ethanol production will consist of (a) preparatory step to separate fibrous (cellulose) and non-fibrous (non-cellulosic compounds). The non-cellulosic residues which may include grains, fats or other substrates for alcoholic fermentation. The fibrous residues will be first pre-treated to digest cellulose with acid, alkali, and sulfur dioxide gas or other solvents. (b) The altered cellulose will be digested by suitable micro-organisms and cellulose enzymes before alcoholic fermentation. The digester and fermentative unit will be specially designed to develop a prototype for pilot plant for a continuous process. The first phase of the project will be devoted toward screening of a suitable method for cellulose modification, separation of fibrous and non-fibrous residues, the micro-organism and enzyme preparations. Work is in progress on: the effects of various microorganisms on the degree of saccharification; the effects of higher concentrations of acids, alkali, and EDTA on efficiency of microbial degradation; and the effects of chemicals on enzymatic digestion.

  1. Utilization of Waste Materials for Microbial Carrier in Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. Le

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N removal from the domestic wastewater using the attached growth reactors. Two types of waste material of corncob (biodegradable material and concrete (nonbiodegradable material were used as the carrier for microorganisms’ attachment. During operation, both reactors achieved absolutely high performance of ammonium removal (up to 99% and total nitrogen removal (up to 95%. The significant advantage of corncob carrier was that the corncob was able to be a source of carbon for biological denitrification, leading to no external carbon requirement for operating the system. However, the corncob caused an increasing turbidity of the effluent. On the other hand, the concrete carrier required the minimal external carbon of 3.5 C/N ratio to reach the good performance. Moreover, a longer period for microorganisms’ adaptation was found in the concrete carrier rather than the corncob carrier. Further, the same physiological and biochemical characteristics of active bacteria were found at the two carriers, which were negative gram, cocci shape, and smooth and white-turbid colony. Due to the effluent quality, the concrete was more appropriate carrier than the corncob for wastewater treatment.

  2. Utilizing wood wastes as reinforcement in wood cement composite bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusirat Aderinsola Sadiku

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research work undertaken to study the properties of Wood Cement Composite Bricks (WCCB from different wood wastes and cement / wood content. The WCBBs with nominal density of 1200 kg m-3 were produced from three tropical wood species and at varying cement and wood content of 2:1, 2.5:1 and 3:1 on a weight to weight basis. The properties evaluated were compressive strength, Ultra Pulse Velocity (UPV, water absorption (WA and thickness swelling (TS. The Compressive strength values ranged from 0.25 to 1.13 N mm-2 and UPV values ranged from 18753 to 49992 m s-1. The mean values of WA after 672 hours (28 days of water soaking of the WCCBs ranged from 9.50% to 47.13% where there were no noticeable change in the TS of the bricks. The observed density (OD ranged from 627 to 1159 kg m-3. A. zygia from the three wood/cement content were more dimensionally stable and better in compressive strength than the other two species where T. scleroxylon had the best performance in terms of UPV. All the properties improved with increasing cement content. WCCBs at 3.0:1 cement/wood content are suitable for structural application such as panelling, ceiling and partitioning

  3. Preparation of nonwoven and green composites from tannery solid wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The disposal of solid wastes, such as trimmings and splits generated in various manufacturing processes in a tannery, is a serious challenge to the hides and leather industries. Our effort to address this challenge is to develop new uses and novel biobased products from solid wastes to improve prosp...

  4. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon fiber (ACF) from cotton woven waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jieying; Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared using cotton woven waste as precursor. The cotton woven waste was first partly dissolved by 80% phosphoric acid and then was pre-soaked in 7.5% diammonium hydrogen phosphate solution. Finally, carbonization and activation were proceeded to get ACF. The optimum preparation conditions, including carbonization temperature, carbonization time, activation temperature and activation time, were chosen by orthogonal design. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption test was conducted to characterize the prepared ACF's pore structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) were employed to characterize its chemical properties and morphology. Adsorption of oilfield wastewater was used to evaluate its adsorption properties. The results show that the prepared ACF is in the form of fiber, with the sectional diameters of 11.7 × 2.6 μm and the surface area of 789 m2/g. XPS results show that carbon concentration of the prepared ACF is higher than that of the commercial ACF. When the prepared ACF dosage is 6 g/L, over 80% of COD and over 70% of chrominance can be removed after 24 h of adsorption at 18 °C. We demonstrated the catalytic growth of m-axial InxGa1-xN (0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.17) nanocolumn arrays with high crystallinity on silicon substrates using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition with trimethylindium (TMIn), triethylgallium (TEGa), and ammonia as precursors. The high quality of InGaN nanocolumns (NCs) were believed to be due to the utilization of TEGa that achieved less carbon impurities and offered more comparable vapor pressure with that of TMIn at low temperature. In addition, these NCs were grown in non-polar m-axis, which the internal electric field of the InGaN that often deteriorates the device performances might be able to be eliminated. Furthermore, the bandgap of this InGaN can be modulated from

  5. Utilization of selected industrial waste through co-pyrolysis with coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavla Licakova; Jaroslav Buchtele [VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic). Centre of Environmental Technologies

    2007-07-01

    Difficultly recyclable selected organic waste is possible to process by its co-pyrolysis with coal into the products with high use value. The research subject was to analyse and compare carbonizates yields forming by co-pyrolysis of waste rubber and brown coal mixtures and waste cotton and black coal mixtures. Mixtures were prepared with variable proportion of materials. According to the obtained results both procedures show as technically viable. Addition of rubber to brown coal came to increase specific surface area of activated carbon. The results obtained show that it is possible to prepare by co-pyrolysis of mixtures brown coal with waste rubber granular material with appropriate properties for preparation of sorbent by its sequential activation. The pyrolysis products yields of black coal with the products yields of co-pyrolysis of coal with 30 and 60 % wt. addition of the waste cotton were evaluated and compared. Addition of cotton to black coal came to increase gas volume and tar. 3 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Gasification: An alternative solution for energy recovery and utilization of vegetable market waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narnaware, Sunil L; Srivastava, Nsl; Vahora, Samir

    2017-03-01

    Vegetables waste is generally utilized through a bioconversion process or disposed of at municipal landfills, dumping sites or dumped on open land, emitting a foul odor and causing health hazards. The presents study deals with an alternative way to utilize solid vegetable waste through a thermochemical route such as briquetting and gasification for its energy recovery and subsequent power generation. Briquettes of 50 mm diameter were produced from four different types of vegetable waste. The bulk density of briquettes produced was increased 10 to 15 times higher than the density of the dried vegetable waste in loose form. The lower heating value (LHV) of the briquettes ranged from 10.26 MJ kg(-1) to 16.60 MJ kg(-1) depending on the type of vegetable waste. The gasification of the briquettes was carried out in an open core downdraft gasifier, which resulted in syngas with a calorific value of 4.71 MJ Nm(-3) at the gasification temperature between 889°C and 1011°C. A spark ignition, internal combustion engine was run on syngas and could generate a maximum load up to 10 kWe. The cold gas efficiency and the hot gas efficiency of the gasifier were measured at 74.11% and 79.87%, respectively. Energy recovery from the organic vegetable waste was possible through a thermochemical conversion route such as briquetting and subsequent gasification and recovery of the fuel for small-scale power generation.

  7. A comparison of costs associated with utility management options for dry active waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornibrook, C. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The economics of low level waste management is receiving more attention today than ever before. This is due to four factors: (1) the increases in the cost of processing of these wastes; (2) increases in the cost of disposal; (3) the addition of storage costs for those without access to disposal; and (4) the increasing competitive nature of the electric generation industry. These pressures are forcing the industry to update it`s evaluation of the mix of processing that will afford it the best long term economics and minimize it`s risks for unforeseen costs. Whether disposal is available or not, all utilities face the same challenge of minimizing the costs associated with the management of these wastes. There are a number of variables that will impact how a utility manages their wastes but the problem is the uncertainty of what will actually happen, i.e., will disposal be available, when and at what cost. Using the EPRI-developed WASTECOST: DAW code, this paper explores a variety of LLW management options available to utilities. Along with providing the costs and benefits, other technical considerations which play an important part in the management of these wastes are also addressed.

  8. Utilization of municipal solid and liquid wastes for bioenergy and bioproducts production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Paul; Xie, Qinglong; Addy, Min; Zhou, Wenguang; Liu, Yuhuan; Wang, Yunpu; Cheng, Yanling; Li, Kun; Ruan, Roger

    2016-09-01

    Municipal wastes, be it solid or liquid, are rising due to the global population growth and rapid urbanization and industrialization. Conventional management practice involving recycling, combustion, and treatment/disposal is deemed unsustainable. Solutions must be sought to not only increase the capacity but also improve the sustainability of waste management. Research has demonstrated that the non-recyclable waste materials and bio-solids can be converted into useable heat, electricity, or fuel and chemical through a variety of processes, including gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, and landfill gas in addition to combustion, and wastewater streams have the potential to support algae growth and provide other energy recovery options. The present review is intended to assess and analyze the current state of knowledge in the municipal solid wastes and wastewater treatment and utilization technologies and recommend practical solution options and future research and development needs.

  9. Harvest and utilization of chemical energy in wastes by microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Zhai, Lin-Feng; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-05-21

    Organic wastes are now increasingly viewed as a resource of energy that can be harvested by suitable biotechnologies. One promising technology is microbial fuel cells (MFC), which can generate electricity from the degradation of organic pollutants. While the environmental benefits of MFC in waste treatment have been recognized, their potential as an energy producer is not fully understood. Although progresses in material and engineering have greatly improved the power output from MFC, how to efficiently utilize the MFC's energy in real-world scenario remains a challenge. In this review, fundamental understandings on the energy-generating capacity of MFC from real waste treatment are provided and the challenges and opportunities are discussed. The limiting factors restricting the energy output and impairing the long-term reliability of MFC are also analyzed. Several energy storage and in situ utilization strategies for the management of MFC's energy are proposed, and future research needs for real-world application of this approach are explored.

  10. Comprehensive utilization of waste plastics%废旧塑料的综合利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴自强; 许士洪; 刘志宏

    2001-01-01

    Plastic materials are used widely in many fields of national economy because of its excellent properties.These waste plastics not only pollute the environment but also waste seriously the resources.This paper reviews briefly the importance and the progress of the comprehensive utilization of waste plastics in some fields,such as direct utilization,utilization after its modification,thermal decomposition and coal liquefaction combined with it(co-liquefacation).It is pointed out that the co-liquefaction is the most promising way to utilize the waste plastics,and it will become a hot point in further research work.%综合利用废旧塑料,解决“白色污染”,已成为全球的研究热点。本文从废旧塑料的直接利用、改性利用、热分解、与煤共液化等几个方面综述了废旧塑料的综合利用途径,其中废旧塑料与煤共液化处理技术很有发展前途,将成为今后研究的新热点。

  11. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  12. Plastic waste as a resource. Strategies for reduction and utilization of plastic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqual i Camprubí, Gemma

    2010-01-01

    Plastic materials have experienced a spectacular rate of growth in recent decades, consequently, production of plastics, and likewise their consumption, has increased markedly since 1950. Moreover, they are lightweight and durable, as well as can be moulded into a variety of products that can be manufactured in many different types of plastic and in a wide range of applications. Inevitably, continually increasing amounts of used plastic are originating daily, resulting in a plastic waste prob...

  13. Glass matrix composite material prepared with waste foundry sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zhao-shu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The technology of glass matrix of the composite material manufactured through a sintering process and using waste foundry sand and waste glass as the main raw materials was studied. The effects of technological factors on the performance of this material were studied. The results showed that this composite material is formed with glass as matrix, core particulate as strengthening material, it has the performance of glass and ceramics, and could be used to substitute for stone.

  14. Glass matrix composite material prepared with waste foundry sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhao-shu; XIA Ju-pei; ZHU Xiao-qin; LIU Fan; HE Mao-yun

    2006-01-01

    The technology of glass matrix of the composite material manufactured through a sintering process and using waste foundry sand and waste glass as the main raw materials was studied. The effects of technological factors on the performance of this material were studied. The results showed that this composite material is formed with glass as matrix, core particulate as strengthening material, it has the performance of glass and ceramics, and could be used to substitute for stone.

  15. Utilization of coal fly ash in solidification of liquid radioactive waste from research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the potential utilization of fly ash was investigated as an additive in solidification process of radioactive waste sludge from research reactor. Coal formations include various percentages of natural radioactive elements; therefore, coal fly ash includes various levels of radioactivity. For this reason, fly ashes have to be evaluated for potential environmental implications in case of further usage in any construction material. But for use in solidification of radioactive sludge, the radiological effects of fly ash are in the range of radioactive waste management limits. The results show that fly ash has a strong fixing capacity for radioactive isotopes. Specimens with addition of 5-15% fly ash to concrete was observed to be sufficient to achieve the target compressive strength of 20 MPa required for near-surface disposal. An optimum mixture comprising 15% fly ash, 35% cement, and 50% radioactive waste sludge could provide the solidification required for long-term storage and disposal. The codisposal of radioactive fly ash with radioactive sludge by solidification decreases the usage of cement in solidification process. By this method, radioactive fly ash can become a valuable additive instead of industrial waste. This study supports the utilization of fly ash in industry and the solidification of radioactive waste in the nuclear industry.

  16. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp and paper mill waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockos, Gregory R; Smith, William A; Loge, Frank J; Thompson, David N

    2008-03-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste-activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25 degrees C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  17. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

    2007-04-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  18. The evaluation of chosen properties of ashes created by thermal utilization of hazardous and communal wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Krawczykowski

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available One of methods of the waste neutralization is their thermal transformation in suitable installations or devices in order to achieve the state, which is no longer dangerous for the human health and life or for the environment. In effect of the thermal transformation the “new” wastes are created, which, by law are suppose a to be utilized first. These wastes may be utilized if their properties are suitable. In the paper, the process of thermal utilization of hazardous and municipal wastes is presented, together with the investigation results of the grain composition, surface area, density and of the initial chemical analysis of the created ashes. The research of the grain composition was conducted by using the “Fritsch” apparatus. On the base of the grain composition, the surface area of ashes under investigation was determined, whereas the density was determined by using the helium pycnometer. The purpose of the research was to determine how the properties of ashes are changed and if the differences allow to use these ashes in future.

  19. Optimal utilization of waste-to-energy in an LCA perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruergaard, T; Astrup, T

    2011-03-01

    Energy production from two types of municipal solid waste was evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA): (1) mixed high calorific waste suitable for production of solid recovered fuels (SRF) and (2) source separated organic waste. For SRF, co-combustion was compared with mass burn incineration. For organic waste, anaerobic digestion (AD) was compared with mass burn incineration. In the case of mass burn incineration, incineration with and without energy recovery was modelled. Biogas produced from anaerobic digestion was evaluated for use both as transportation fuel and for heat and power production. All relevant consequences for energy and resource consumptions, emissions to air, water and soil, upstream processes and downstream processes were included in the LCA. Energy substitutions were considered with respect to two different energy systems: a present-day Danish system based on fossil fuels and a potential future system based on 100% renewable energy. It was found that mass burn incineration of SRF with energy recovery provided savings in all impact categories, but co-combustion was better with respect to Global Warming (GW). If all heat from incineration could be utilized, however, the two alternatives were comparable for SRF. For organic waste, mass burn incineration with energy recovery was preferable over anaerobic digestion in most impact categories. Waste composition and flue gas cleaning at co-combustion plants were critical for the environmental performance of SRF treatment, while the impacts related to utilization of the digestate were significant for the outcome of organic waste treatment. The conclusions were robust in a present-day as well as in a future energy system. This indicated that mass burn incineration with efficient energy recovery is a very environmentally competitive solution overall. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Utilizing the PREPaRE Model When Multiple Classrooms Witness a Traumatic Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Lisa J.; Rittle, Carrie; Roberts, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an account of how the Charleston County School District responded to an event by utilizing the PREPaRE model (Brock, et al., 2009). The acronym, PREPaRE, refers to a range of crisis response activities: P (prevent and prepare for psychological trauma), R (reaffirm physical health and perceptions of security and safety), E…

  1. Removal of basic dye (methylene blue) from wastewaters utilizing beer brewery waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, W.-T. [Graduate Institute of Bioresources, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: wttsai@mail.npust.edu.tw; Hsu, H.-C.; Su, T.-Y.; Lin, K.-Y.; Lin, C.-M. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China)

    2008-06-15

    In the work, the beer brewery waste has been shown to be a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of basic dye from the aqueous solution as compared to its precursor (i.e., diatomite) based on its physical and chemical characterizations including surface area, pore volume, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and non-mineral elemental analyses. The pore properties of this waste were significantly larger than those of its raw material, reflecting that the trapped organic matrices contained in the waste probably provided additional adsorption sites and/or adsorption area. The results of preliminary adsorption kinetics showed that the diatomite waste could be directly used as a potential adsorbent for removal of methylene blue on the basis of its adsorption-biosorption mechanisms. The adsorption parameters thus obtained from the pseudo-second-order model were in accordance with their pore properties. From the results of adsorption isotherm at 298 K and the applicability examinations in treating industrial wastewater containing basic dye, it was further found that the adsorption capacities of diatomite waste were superior to those of diatomite, which were also in good agreement with their corresponding physical properties. From the results mentioned above, it is feasible to utilize the food-processing waste for removing dye from the industrial dying wastewater.

  2. Application of Waste Liquids Containing Lignin from Pulp-producing Industry to CWM Preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ding-guo; TADAHIRO Murakata; TAKESHI Higuchi; SHIMIO Sato

    2004-01-01

    Three kinds of craft waste liquids, which are by-products in the pulp industry and contain much lignin,were used as dispersing additives for preparing Horonai coal CWM (coal water mixture). The experiments showed that the CWM exhibited the lowest viscosity when it was diluted with an appropriate amount of water with the waste eiquids added. The experiments also indicated that the maximum coal concentration in the 62.5% (mass fraction), and 56.5% is the maximum coal mass fraction of the CWM prepared without additives. These data show the effectiveness of the waste liquids as the additives for preparing CWMs. The zeta potential of coal particles in the CWMs changed with the addition of lignin. From the change, the steric repulsion effect of the lignin adsorbed on the coal particles is concluded to be mainly responsible for the CWM dispersion. The waste liquids contain less sulfur than PSSNa(polystyrene sulfonate sodium salt), a typical dispersant which is currently used for preparing the commercial CWM, when the sulfur content in the unit mass of the solid matters within the waste liquids is compared with that in unit mass of PSSNa. This fact suggests that the waste liquids are more advantageous than PSSNa as far as air pollutants are concerned.

  3. Preparation of isotopic molybdenum foils utilizing small quantities of material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, A. R.; Lee, L. L.; Liang, J. F.; Mahon, J. C.

    1993-09-01

    A simple method utilizing a small amount of isotopic material for production of molybdenum foils is discussed. An e-gun is used in the procedure. The Mo powder undergoes reduction-sintering and melting-solidifying steps leading to the creation of a metallic droplet suitable for further cold rolling or vacuum deposition.

  4. Characteristics of Vacuum Freeze Drying with Utilization of Internal Cooling and Condenser Waste Heat for Sublimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Alhamid

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum freeze drying is an excellent drying method, but it is very energy-intensive because a relatively long drying time is required. This research investigates the utilization of condenser waste heat for sublimation as a way of accelerating the drying rate. In addition, it also investigates the effect of internal cooling combined with vacuum cooling in the pressure reduction process. Jelly fish tentacles were used as the specimen, with different configurations for condenser heat waste and internal cooling valve opening. The results show that heating with condenser heat waste can accelerate the drying rate up to 0.0035 kg/m2.s. In addition, pre-freezing by internal cooling prevents evaporation until the mass of the specimen is 0.47 g and promotes transition of the specimen into the solid phase.

  5. The methods of management of the local waste utility; Les modes de gestion du service public local des dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    In France, the collection and processing of wastes are local public utility activities. These public utilities can be of two type: administrative when their are financed by a local tax, and industrial/commercial when they are financed by a fee. This document presents the different ways of waste management (public corporation, public market or public utility delegation), the management systems in practice, and the criteria for the choice of a management system. (J.S.)

  6. Selective Enrichment of a Methanol-Utilizing Consortium Using Pulp and Paper Mill Waste Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockos, Gregory R.; Smith, William A.; Loge, Frank J.; Thompson, David N.

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Wasteactivated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/ decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  7. [Preparation and utility of glibenclamide suppository for hospital use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y; Iwata, M; Shirotake, S; Takayama, K; Machida, Y; Nagai, T

    1998-09-01

    Glibenclamide (GC) is widely used as an oral hypoglycemic drug in the treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Since GC is usually taken for a long period, side effects and noncompliance are among the problems. In order to solve those problems, we prepared GC suppositories and examined their usefulness. Suppositories containing 4, 20, and 40 mg of GC were prepared and examined for drug release, drug absorption and blood glucose levels after the rectal administration of suppositories in rabbits. In the release test, GC suppositories released the drug continuously for 6 hours. The areas under the drug release time curve (ADT) of 20 and 40 mg GC suppositories were 3.5 and 6.2 times of 4 mg GC suppositories respectively. The plasma concentrations after administration of 4 and 20 mg GC suppositories showed about the same profiles for 6 hours. After administration of 40 mg GC suppositories, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was observed at 2 hours. All the GC suppositories showed lower blood glucose levels compared with the control. The remainder of the area under the blood glucose concentration time curve between the control (RAUC) in the case of 40 mg GC suppository was 1.3 times larger than that of the 4 mg GC suppository. The GC suppositories sufficiently lowered the blood glucose levels. These results suggest that the GC suppositories should be useful in the hospital preparation for the treatment of NIDDM patients.

  8. UTILIZATION OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTE BY HIGHER MUSHROOMS: MODERN VIEW AND TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Barshteyn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Waste management and providing a world population with rich in protein food are two important problems of which the utilization of agro-industrial (agriculture and food industry waste by higher mushrooms causes the growing interest of researchers around the world. More than 150 individual types of wastes have been investigated last decade as alternative substrates alone or in various compositions (more than 450 substrates for cultivation of 52 higher mushroom species (about 100 strains as evidenced by the results of more than 130 considered in the review scientific publications. All waste is used as a basis for substrates and supplements thereto, are characteristic of the respective continent and region of the world. Publications containing biochemical studies of substrates and fungi confirm that fungi are grown in rich in biologically active substances unconventional substrates, provide a rich biochemical composition of fungi compared with conventional substrates (sawdust, straw, etc.. The disadvantage of many publications is the lack of mention of examined fungi strains, whereas studies of various strains of the same fungus in the same substrate show different results. The prospect of the study of agricultural residues utilization by higher mushrooms consists in the investigations of: productivity, biological efficiency of the process, morphological and biochemical indices of cultivated mushrooms, depending on the biochemical parameters of substrates and the process conditions; safety of cultivated mushrooms.

  9. Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Waste Heat from Distributed Power Generation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan F. Brennecke; Mihir Sen; Edward J. Maginn; Samuel Paolucci; Mark A. Stadtherr; Peter T. Disser; Mike Zdyb

    2009-01-11

    The objective of this research project was the development of ionic liquids to capture and utilize waste heat from distributed power generation systems. Ionic Liquids (ILs) are organic salts that are liquid at room temperature and they have the potential to make fundamental and far-reaching changes in the way we use energy. In particular, the focus of this project was fundamental research on the potential use of IL/CO2 mixtures in absorption-refrigeration systems. Such systems can provide cooling by utilizing waste heat from various sources, including distributed power generation. The basic objectives of the research were to design and synthesize ILs appropriate for the task, to measure and model thermophysical properties and phase behavior of ILs and IL/CO2 mixtures, and to model the performance of IL/CO2 absorption-refrigeration systems.

  10. Utilization of Soft Wood Wastes as a Feed Stock to Produce Fuel Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan M. Khalil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The current research investigated the utilization of soft wood waste as a feedstock to produce a value-added product-fuel ethanol. Approach: The main issue in converting soft wood waste to fuel ethanol is the accessibility of the polysaccharides for breaking down into monosaccharides. This study focused on the use of steam as the pretreatment method. The governing factors for the effectiveness of steam pretreatment are steam temperature and retention times. Following steam pretreatment, soft wood waste was subjected to acid hydrolysis. The sugars released by acid hydrolysis were fermented in series chemical reactions that convert sugars to ethanol. The fermentation reaction was caused by yeast, which feed on the sugars. Results: Steam pretreatment was able to improve both glucose yields from acid hydrolysis and ethanol yields from fermentation. The results obtained from this study showed that steam pretreated soft wood waste are a heterogeneous material. So biomass goes through a size-reduction step to make it easier to handle and to make the ethanol production process more efficient. Steam treatment on soft wood waste increased the hydrolysis of cellulose by acid hydrolysis. Following 24 h of diluted or concentrated acid hydrolysis, a maximum cellulose conversion of 20.5% was obtained. Similarly, sugars to ethanol conversions were improved by steam treatment. Maximum sugar to ethanol conversion of 40.7% was observed. Conclusion: It was recommended that the hydrolysis process be done for 40 min to obtain the maximum sugars yield in a reasonable period of time.

  11. Model of sustainable utilization of organic solids waste in Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solanyi Castañeda Torres

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This article considers a proposal of a model of use of organic solids waste for the department of Cundinamarca, which responds to the need for a tool to support decision-making for the planning and management of organic solids waste. Objective: To perform an approximation of a conceptual technical and mathematician optimization model to support decision-making in order to minimize environmental impacts. Materials and methods: A descriptive study was applied due to the fact that some fundamental characteristics of the studied homogeneous phenomenon are presented and it is also considered to be quasi experimental. The calculation of the model for plants of the department is based on three axes (environmental, economic and social, that are present in the general equation of optimization. Results: A model of harnessing organic solids waste in the techniques of biological treatment of composting aerobic and worm cultivation is obtained, optimizing the system with the emissions savings of greenhouse gases spread into the atmosphere, and in the reduction of the overall cost of final disposal of organic solids waste in sanitary landfill. Based on the economic principle of utility that determines the environmental feasibility and sustainability in the plants of harnessing organic solids waste to the department, organic fertilizers such as compost and humus capture carbon and nitrogen that reduce the tons of CO2.

  12. Utilization of Waste Materials for the Treatment of Waste Water Contaminated with Sulphamethoxazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Lisha

    2014-01-01

    The activities were carried out to develop potential adsorbents from waste material and employ them for the removal of hazardous antibacterial, Sulphamethoxazole from the wastewater by adsorption technique. The selection of this method was done because of its economic viability. The method has the potency of eradicating the perilous chemicals which make their appearance in water and directly or indirectly into the whole biological system, through the ejection of effluents by the industries in flowing water. The adsorption technique was used to impound the precarious antibiotics from wastewater using Deoiled Soya an agricultural waste and Water Hyacinth a prolific colonizer. The adsorption capacity of these adsorbents was further enhanced by treating them with sodium hydroxide solution and it was seen that the adsorption capacity increases by 10% to 25%. Hence a comparative account of the adsorption studies of all the four adsorbents i.e. Deoiled Soya, Alkali treated Deoiled Soya, Water Hyacinth and Alkali treated Water Hyacinth has been discussed in this paper. Different isotherms like Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin Radushkevich were also deduced from the adsorption data. Isotherm studies were in turn used in estimating the thermodynamic parameters. Deoiled Soya (DOS) showed sorption capacity of 0.0007 mol g(-1) while Alkali treated Deoiled Soya (ADOS) exhibited 0.0011 mol g(-1) of sorption capacity which reveals that the adsorption is higher in case of alkali treated adsorbent. The mean sorption energy (E) was obtained between 9 to 12 kJ/mol which shows that the reaction proceeds by ion exchange reaction. Various kinetic studies like order of reaction, mass transfer studies, mechanism of diffusion were also performed for the ongoing processes. The mass transfer coefficient obtained for alkali treated moieties was higher than the parent moieties. The breakthrough curves plotted from the column studies show percentage saturation of 90% to 98%. Moreover the

  13. Preparation and characterization of high-strength calcium silicate boards from coal-fired industrial solid wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Cao; Yong-dan Cao; Jin-shan Zhang; Chun-bao Sun; Xian-long Li

    2015-01-01

    To realize the comprehensive utilization of coal-fired industrial solid wastes, a novel high-strength board was prepared from cal-cium silicate slag, fly ash, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum. The changes in mineral phases, chemical structure, and morphology during hydration were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron mi-croscopy (SEM). A traditional board made from quartz and lime was prepared as a reference. The novel board not only consumes a lot of solid wastes, but also meets the strength requirement of the class-five calcium silicate board according to the Chinese Standard JC/T 564.2—2008. Microanalysis showed that hydrated calcium silicate gel (C−S−H(I)), ettringite, tobermorite, and xonotlite were successivelygenerated in the novel board by synergistic hydration of the mixed solid wastes. The board strength was improved by the formation of tobermorite and xonotlite but decreased by unhydrated quartz. It was demonstrated that quartz was not completely hydrated in the traditional board. As a re-sult, the flexural strength of the traditional board was much lower than that of the novel board.

  14. Recycle Waste Collection Tank (RWCT) simulant testing in the PVTD feed preparation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrigo, G.P.; Daume, J.T.; Halstead, S.D.; Myers, R.L.; Beckette, M.R.; Freeman, C.J.; Hatchell, B.K.

    1996-03-01

    (This is part of the radwaste vitrification program at Hanford.) RWCT was to routinely receive final canister decontamination sand blast frit and rinse water, Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank bottoms, and melter off-gas Submerged Bed Scrubber filter cake. In order to address the design needs of the RWCT system to meet performance levels, the PNL Vitrification Technology (PVTD) program used the Feed Preparation Test System (FPTS) to evaluate its equipment and performance for a simulant of RWCT slurry. (FPTS is an adaptation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility feed preparation system and represents the initially proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant feed preparation system designed by Fluor-Daniel, Inc.) The following were determined: mixing performance, pump priming, pump performance, simulant flow characterization, evaporator and condenser performance, and ammonia dispersion. The RWCT test had two runs, one with and one without tank baffles.

  15. Utilizing patient satisfaction surveys to prepare for Medicaid managed care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, T T; Gomez, P S

    2001-02-01

    To prepare for Medicaid managed care, a community health center incorporated the business principle of continuous quality improvement, often used in the private sector to improve customer service, into its planning process. The initial endeavor was to create a patient satisfaction survey that was appropriate for the uniqueness of the community. The survey, taken monthly, resulted in both staff and patients making active improvements in the clinic environment. Staff showed more enthusiasm, and patients were more assertive in their attitudes toward the clinic. The empowerment of the patient to take ownership in the clinic will be coupled with the next step of the formalized plan, that of educating patients on the steps necessary to ensure that their Medicaid managed care facility will be the local community health center.

  16. Department of Energy plan for recovery and utilization of nuclear byproducts from defense wastes. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-08-01

    Nuclear wastes from the defense production cycle contain many uniquely useful, intrinsically valuable, and strategically important materials. These materials have a wide range of known and potential applications in food technology, agriculture, energy, public health, medicine, industrial technology, and national security. Furthermore, their removal from the nuclear waste stream can facilitate waste management and yield economic, safety, and environmental advantages in the management and disposal of the residual nuclear wastes that have no redemptive value. This document is the program plan for implementing the recovery and beneficial use of these valuable materials. An Executive Summary of this document, DOE/DP-0013, Vol. 1, January 1983, is available. Program policy, goals and strategy are stated in Section 2. Implementation tasks, schedule and funding are detailed in Section 3. The remaining five sections and the appendixes provide necessary background information to support these two sections. Section 4 reviews some of the unique properties of the individual byproduct materials and describes both demonstrated and potential applications. The amounts of byproduct materials that are available now for research and demonstration purposes, and the amounts that could be recovered in the future for expanded applications are detailed in Section 5. Section 6 describes the effects byproduct recovery and utilization have on the management and final disposal of nuclear wastes. The institutional issues that affect the recovery, processing and utilization of nuclear byproducts are discussed in Section 7. Finally, Section 8 presents a generalized mathematical process by which applications can be evaluated and prioritized (rank-ordered) to provide planning data for program management.

  17. Technical and economic feasibility of a solar-bio-powered waste utilization and treatment system in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Alvarez, Ronald Esteban; Bustamante Roman, Mauricio; Kirk, Dana; Miranda Chavarria, Jose Alberto; Baudrit, Daniel; Aguilar Pereira, Jose Francisco; Rodriguez Montero, Werner; Reinhold, Dawn; Liao, Wei

    2016-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate a pilot-scale and closed-loop system that synergistically combines solar thermal collector, anaerobic digester, and constructed treatment wetland to simultaneously treat and utilize organic wastes. The system utilizes 863 kg of mixed animal and food wastes to generate 263 MJ renewable energy, produced 28 kg nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer, and reclaimed 550 kg water per day. The net revenue considering electricity and fertilizer was $2436 annually. The payback period for the system is estimated to be 17.8 years for a relatively dilute waste stream (i.e., 2% total solids). The implemented system has successfully demonstrated a self-efficient and flexible waste utilization and treatment system. It creates a win-win solution to satisfy the energy needs of the community and address environmental concerns of organic wastes disposal in the region.

  18. Sources and potential application of waste heat utilization at a gas processing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehhi, Alyas Ali

    Waste heat recovery (WHR) has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of oil and gas plants, chemical and other processing facilities, and reduce their environmental impact. In this Thesis a comprehensive energy audit at Abu Dhabi Gas Industries Ltd. (GASCO) ASAB gas processing facilities is undertaken to identify sources of waste heat and evaluate their potential for on-site recovery. Two plants are considered, namely ASAB0 and ASAB1. Waste heat evaluation criteria include waste heat grade (i.e., temperature), rate, accessibility (i.e., proximity) to potential on-site waste heat recovery applications, and potential impact of recovery on installation performance and safety. The operating parameters of key waste heat source producing equipment are compiled, as well as characteristics of the waste heat streams. In addition, potential waste heat recovery applications and strategies are proposed, focusing on utilities, i.e., enhancement of process cooling/heating, electrical/mechanical power generation, and steam production. The sources of waste heat identified at ASAB facilities consist of gas turbine and gas generator exhaust gases, flared gases, excess propane cooling capacity, excess process steam, process gas air-cooler heat dissipation, furnace exhaust gases and steam turbine outlet steam. Of the above waste heat sources, exhaust gases from five gas turbines and one gas generator at ASAB0 plant, as well as from four gas turbines at ASAB1 plant, were found to meet the rate (i.e., > 1 MW), grade (i.e., > 180°C), accessibility (i.e., absorption refrigeration unit for gas turbine inlet air cooling, which would result in additional electric or mechanical power generation, and pre-cooling of process gas, which could reduce the need for or eliminate air coolers, as well as reduce propane chiller load, and ii) serve for heating of lean gas, which would reduce furnace load. At ASAB1, it is proposed that exhaust gases from all four gas turbines be used to

  19. Utilization of ferrochrome wastes such as ferrochrome ash and ferrochrome slag in concrete manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Prasanna K; Patro, Sanjaya K

    2016-08-01

    Solid waste management is one of the subjects essentially addressing the current interest today. Due to the scarcity of land filling area, utilization of wastes in the construction sector has become an attractive proposition for disposal. Ferrochrome ash (FA) is a dust obtained as a waste material from the gas cleaning plant of Ferro alloy industries. It possesses the chemical requirements of granulated slag material used for the manufacture of Portland cement. Ferrochrome slag (FS) is another residue that is obtained as a solid waste by the smelting process during the production of stainless steel in Ferroalloy industries. FS possesses the required engineering properties of coarse aggregates. The possibility of using FA with lime for partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and FS for total replacement of natural coarse aggregates is explored in this research. The combined effect of FA with lime and FS-addition on the properties of concrete, such as workability, compressive strength, flexural strength, splitting tensile strength and sorptivity, were studied. Results of investigation revealed improvement in strength and durability properties of concrete on inclusion of FA and FS. Concrete mix containing 40% FA with 7% lime (replacing 47% OPC) and100% of FS (replacing 100% natural coarse aggregate) achieved the properties of normal concrete or even better properties at all ages. The results were confirmed by microscopic study such as X-ray diffraction and petrography examination. Environmental compatibility of concrete containing FA and FS was verified by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. A novel approach in organic waste utilization through biochar addition in wood/polypropylene composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Oisik [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Bhattacharyya, Debes [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Advanced Composite Materials, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Biochar made from waste wood was added with wood polypropylene composites. • 24% biochar gave the best mechanical properties. • 6% biochar had no effect on physico-mechanical properties of composites. • Coupling agent remained unreacted in composites having higher amount of biochar. - Abstract: In an attempt to concurrently address the issues related to landfill gas emission and utilization of organic wastes, a relatively novel idea is introduced to develop biocomposites where biochar made from pyrolysis of waste wood (Pinus radiata) is added with the same wood, plastic/polymer (polypropylene) and maleated anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Experiments were conducted by manufacturing wood and polypropylene composites (WPCs) mixed with 6 wt%, 12 wt%, 18 wt%, 24 wt%, and 30 wt% biochar. Though 6 wt% addition had similar properties to that of the control (composite without biochar), increasing biochar content to 24 wt% improved the composite’s tensile/flexural strengths and moduli. The biochar, having high surface area due to fine particles and being highly carbonised, acted as reinforcing filler in the biocomposite. Composites having 12 wt% and 18 wt% of biochar were found to be the most ductile and thermally stable, respectively. This study demonstrates that, WPCs added with biochar has good potential to mitigate wastes while simultaneously producing biocomposites having properties that might be suited for various end applications.

  1. Process of optimization of district heat production by utilizing waste energy from metallurgical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovšek, Damjan; Fužir, Miran; Slatinek, Matic; Šepul, Tanja; Plesnik, Kristijan; Lečnik, Samo

    2017-07-01

    In a consortium with SIJ (Slovenian Steel Group), Metal Ravne, the local community of Ravne na Koro\\vskem and the public research Institut Jožef Stefan, with its registered office in Slovenia, Petrol Energetika, d.o.o. set up a technical and technological platform of an innovative energy case for a transition of steel industry into circular economy with a complete energy solution called »Utilization of Waste Heat from Metallurgical Processes for District Heating of Ravne na Koro\\vskem. This is the first such project designed for a useful utilization of waste heat in steel industry which uses modern technology and innovative system solutions for an integration of a smart, efficient and sustainable heating and cooling system and which shows a growth potential. This will allow the industry and cities to make energy savings, to improve the quality of air and to increase the benefits for the society we live in. On the basis of circular economy, we designed a target-oriented co-operation of economy, local community and public research institute to produce new business models where end consumers are put into the centre. This innovation opens the door for steel industry and local community to a joint aim that is a transition into efficient low-carbon energy systems which are based on involvement of natural local conditions, renewable energy sources, the use of waste heat and with respect for the principles of sustainable development.

  2. Lean Six Sigma in Health Care: Improving Utilization and Reducing Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almorsy, Lamia; Khalifa, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare costs have been increasing worldwide mainly due to over utilization of resources. The savings potentially achievable from systematic, comprehensive, and cooperative reduction in waste are far higher than from more direct and blunter cuts in care and coverage. At King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center inappropriate and over utilization of the glucose test strips used for whole blood glucose determination using glucometers was observed. The hospital implemented a project to improve its utilization. Using the Six Sigma DMAIC approach (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control), an efficient practice was put in place including updating the related internal policies and procedures and the proper implementation of an effective users' training and competency check off program. That resulted in decreasing the unnecessary Quality Control (QC) runs from 13% to 4%, decreasing the failed QC runs from 14% to 7%, lowering the QC to patient testing ratio from 24/76 to 19/81.

  3. Preparing Attitude Scale to Define Students' Attitudes about Environment, Recycling, Plastic and Plastic Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avan, Cagri; Aydinli, Bahattin; Bakar, Fatma; Alboga, Yunus

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to introduce an attitude scale in order to define students? attitudes about environment, recycling, plastics, plastic waste. In this study, 80 attitude sentences according to 5-point Likert-type scale were prepared and applied to 492 students of 6th grade in the Kastamonu city center of Turkey. The scale consists of…

  4. Petrographic and mineral characterization of Balkan coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yossifova, M. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Applied Mineralogy

    1995-12-31

    This paper is part of a complex petrographic, mineralogical and chemical investigation on Balkan bituminous coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation. The petrographic and phase-mineralogical composition in ten composite samples and four water extracts have been studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. 4 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Utilization of chemically treated municipal solid waste (spent coffee bean powder) as reinforcement in cellulose matrix for packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagamani, Senthil Muthu Kumar; Nagarajan, Rajini; Jawaid, Mohammad; Anumakonda, Varadarajulu; Siengchin, Suchart

    2017-07-31

    As the annual production of the solid waste generable in the form of spent coffee bean powder (SCBP) is over 6 million tons, its utilization in the generation of green energy, waste water treatment and as a filler in biocomposites is desirable. The objective of this article is to analyze the possibilities to valorize coffee bean powder as a filler in cellulose matrix. Cellulose matrix was dissolved in the relatively safer aqueous solution mixture (8% LiOH and 15% Urea) precooled to -12.5°C. To the cellulose solution (SCBP) was added in 5-25wt% and the composite films were prepared by regeneration method using ethyl alcohol as a coagulant. Some SCBP was treated with aq. 5% NaOH and the composite films were also prepared using alkali treated SCBP as a filler. The films of composites were uniform with brown in color. The cellulose/SCBP films without and with alkali treated SCBP were characterized by FTIR, XRD, optical and polarized optical microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile tests. The maximum tensile strength of the composite films with alkali treated SCBP varied between (106-149MPa) and increased with SCBP content when compared to the composites with untreated SCBP. The thermal stability of the composite was higher at elevated temperatures when alkali treated SCBP was used. Based on the improved tensile properties and photo resistivity, the cellulose/SCBP composite films with alkali treated SCBP may be considered for packaging and wrapping of flowers and vegetables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Drying of bio fuel utilizing waste heat; Torkning av biobraenslen med spillvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Inge; Larsson, Sara; Wennberg, Olle [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-10-01

    Many industries today have large sources of low grade heat (waste heat), however this energy is mainly lost with effluents to air and water. The aim of this study has been to investigate the technical and economical aspects of utilizing this low grade heat to dry biofuel. The project has been mainly focused towards the forest industry since they have both large amounts of biofuel and waste heat available. Drying of biofuel could generate added revenue (or reduced purchase costs) and through that also create larger incentives for further energy saving modifications to the main process. Due to the higher moisture content together with the risk of frozen bark in the winter time, additional fuels (such as oil) to combust bark in the existing boiler. This is mainly the case when mechanical dewatering is not available. Drying of bark results in an added energy value, which makes it possible to combust the bark without additional fuel. The primary energy demand, in the form of electricity and optional additional heating at load peaks, is low when waste heat is used for the drying process. In this way it is possible to increase the biofuel potential, since the primary energy input to the drying process is essentially lower then the increased energy value of the fuel. Drying also decreases the biological degradation of the fuel. Taking all the above into consideration, waste heat drying could result in a 25 % increase of the biofuel potential in the forest industry in Sweden, without additional cutting of wood. A survey has been done to state which commercial technologies are available for biofuel drying with waste heat. An inquiry was sent out to a number of suppliers and included a few different cases. Relations for approximating investment cost as well as electric power demand were created based on the answers from the inquiry. These relations have then been used in the economical evaluations made for a number of cases representing both sawmills and pulp and paper mills

  7. Wear Behavior of Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite Prepared from Industrial Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Francis Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With an increase in the population and industrialization, a lot of valuable natural resources are depleted to prepare and manufacture products. However industrialization on the other hand has waste disposal issues, causing dust and environmental pollution. In this work, Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite is prepared by reinforcing 10 wt% and 20 wt% of wet grinder stone dust particles an industrial waste obtained during processing of quarry rocks which are available in nature. In the composite materials design wear is a very important criterion requiring consideration which ensures the materials reliability in applications where they come in contact with the environment and other surfaces. Dry sliding wear test was carried out using pin-on-disc apparatus on the prepared composites. The results reveal that increasing the reinforcement content from 10 wt% to 20 wt% increases the resistance to wear rate.

  8. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Turgay; Ucar, Suat; Karagöz, Selhan

    2009-06-15

    Lignocellulosic materials are good and cheap precursors for the production of activated carbon. In this study, activated carbons were prepared from the pyrolysis of soybean oil cake at 600 and 800 degrees C by chemical activation with K(2)CO(3) and KOH. The influence of temperature and type of chemical reagents on the porosity development was investigated and discussed. K(2)CO(3) was found more effective than KOH as a chemical reagent under identical conditions in terms of both porosity development and yields of the activated carbons. The maximum surface area (1352.86 m(2)g(-1)) was obtained at 800 degrees C with K(2)CO(3) activation which lies in the range of commercial activated carbons. Elemental analyses of the activated carbons indicate insignificant sulphur content for all activated carbons. The ash and sulphur contents of the activated carbons obtained with chemical activation by K(2)CO(3) were lower than those by chemical activation with KOH.

  9. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon fiber (ACF) from cotton woven waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jieying Zheng,; Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang, E-mail: zhengfangye@163.com

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Cotton woven waste can be recycled as precursor to produce activated carbon fiber. • The optimum carbonization and activation temperature are 700 °C and 800 °C. • The prepared ACF is in the form of fiber, with the surface area of 789 m{sup 2}/g. • The prepared ACF can be used to remove over 80% of COD from oilfield wastewater. - Abstract: In this study, the activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared using cotton woven waste as precursor. The cotton woven waste was first partly dissolved by 80% phosphoric acid and then was pre-soaked in 7.5% diammonium hydrogen phosphate solution. Finally, carbonization and activation were proceeded to get ACF. The optimum preparation conditions, including carbonization temperature, carbonization time, activation temperature and activation time, were chosen by orthogonal design. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption test was conducted to characterize the prepared ACF's pore structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) were employed to characterize its chemical properties and morphology. Adsorption of oilfield wastewater was used to evaluate its adsorption properties. The results show that the prepared ACF is in the form of fiber, with the sectional diameters of 11.7 × 2.6 μm and the surface area of 789 m{sup 2}/g. XPS results show that carbon concentration of the prepared ACF is higher than that of the commercial ACF. When the prepared ACF dosage is 6 g/L, over 80% of COD and over 70% of chrominance can be removed after 24 h of adsorption at 18 °C.

  10. Material Characteristic of Lightweight Concretes With Waste PVC Additive and Their Possible Utilization in Agricultural Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Orung

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, characteristics of lightweight concretes prepared adding waste PVC materials at different rates into natural lightweight aggregates of Van Ercis region were investigated. The aims of the study were to propose and produce a construction material with low unit weight, sufficient pressure resistance and low water absorption capacity. The unit weight of leight weight material produced was ranged from 760 to 883 kg/m3, compressive strenght was ranged from 21.4 to 37.7 kgf/cm2, and water absorption values were changed between 23.4 % and 32.3 %. The bulk density and compressive strength of samples were increasing with increasing waste PVC mixture, whereas, water absorbtion was decreased with the same amount of additions. The results of the study indicated that produced lightweight material could safely be used in agricultural structures, especially in animal housing facilities with sensitive environmental conditions, in storage facilities and houses as wall block materials. Introducing a material produced with waste PVC material into the construction market will provide several benefits to economy, and environment.

  11. A food waste utilization study for removing lead(II) from drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan Ince, Olcay; Ince, Muharrem; Yonten, Vahap; Goksu, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This is the first study about removal of lead (Pb(II)) from energy drinks. In this paper, food waste, namely eggshell (hydroxyapatite) utilization, was used to remove Pb(II) from mineral water and energy drinks. Mineral water and energy drinks were chosen for removal of lead since the latter is severely hazardous to human health even in small amounts. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was performed to optimize the application process by practice of the quadratic model united with the Central Composite Design (CCD) and quadratic combined program was utilized to study the most effective parameters on aforementioned liquids. Through the application of variance analysis (ANOVA) factors critical to removing of lead were identified for each experimental design response. Maximum adsorption capacity of eggshell was achieved as 923mgg(-1) for Pb(II). The obtained optimum conditions were applied to drinks. Results showed that used adsorbent was quite effective in removing Pb(II) from drinks.

  12. Greening Industrial Production through Waste Recovery: "Comprehensive Utilization of Resources" in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junming; Chertow, Marian R

    2016-03-01

    Using nonhazardous wastes as inputs to production creates environmental benefits by avoiding disposal impacts, mitigating manufacturing impacts, and conserving virgin resources. China has incentivized reuse since the 1980s through the "Comprehensive Utilization of Resources (CUR)" policy. To test whether and to what extent environmental benefits are generated, 862 instances in Jiangsu, China are analyzed, representing eight industrial sectors and 25 products that qualified for tax relief through CUR. Benefits are determined by comparing life cycle inventories for the same product from baseline and CUR-certified production, adjusted for any difference in the use phase. More than 50 million tonnes of solid wastes were reused, equivalent to 51% of the provincial industrial total. Benefits included reduction of 161 petajoules of energy, 23 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent, 75 000 tonnes of SO2 equivalent, 33 000 tonnes of NOX, and 28 000 tonnes of PM10 equivalent, which were 2.5%-7.3% of the provincial industrial consumption and emissions. The benefits vary substantially across industries, among products within the same industry, and when comparing alternative reuse processes for the same waste. This first assessment of CUR results shows that CUR has established a firm foundation for a circular economy, but also suggest additional opportunities to refine incentives under CUR to increase environmental gain.

  13. Utilization of different waste proteins to create a novel PGPR-containing bio-organic fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Sun, Li; Zhao, Jianshu; Huang, Rong; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-14

    High-quality bio-organic fertilizers (BIOs) cannot be produced without the addition of some proteins, while many waste proteins are haphazardly disposed, causing serious environmental pollution. In this study, several waste proteins were used as additives to assist with the reproduction of the functional microbe (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9) inoculated into matured composts to produce BIOs. An optimized composition of solid-state fermentation (SSF) raw materials was predicted by response surface methodology and experimental validation. The results showed that 7.61% (w/w, DW, the same below) rapeseed meal, 8.85% expanded feather meal, 6.47% dewatered blue algal sludge and 77.07% chicken compost resulted in maximum biomass of strain SQR-9 and the maximum amount of lipopeptides 7 days after SSF. Spectroscopy experiments showed that the inner material structural changes in the novel SSF differed from the control and the novel BIO had higher dissolved organic matter. This study offers a high value-added utilization of waste proteins for producing economical but high-quality BIO.

  14. Utilization of municipal solid waste incineration ash in Portland cement clinker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Charles Hoi King; Barford, John Patrick; McKay, Gordon [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong (China)

    2011-08-15

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ash is used in part as raw materials for cement clinker production by taking advantage of the high contents of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and CaO. It is necessary for environmental reasons to establish a material utilization system for the incineration waste ash residue instead of disposing these ashes into landfill. The aim of this paper is to study the feasibility of replacing clinker raw materials by waste ash residue for cement clinker production. MSWI bottom ash and MSWI fly ash are the main types of ashes being evaluated. The ashes were mixed into raw mixture with different portions of ash residue to produce cement clinker in a laboratory furnace at approximately 1400 C. X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence techniques were used to analyze the phase chemistry and chemical composition of clinkers in order to compare these ash-based clinkers with commercial Portland cement clinker. (orig.)

  15. Utilization of potato starch processing wastes to produce animal feed with high lysine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Liu, Bingnan; Song, Jinzhu; Jiang, Cheng; Yang, Qian

    2015-02-01

    This work aims to utilize wastes from the potato starch industry to produce single-cell protein (SCP) with high lysine content as animal feed. In this work, S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine hydrochloride-resistant Bacillus pumilus E1 was used to produce SCP with high lysine content, whereas Aspergillus niger was used to degrade cellulose biomass and Candida utilis was used to improve the smell and palatability of the feed. An orthogonal design was used to optimize the process of fermentation for maximal lysine content. The optimum fermentation conditions were as follows: temperature of 40°C, substrate concentration of 3%, and natural pH of about 7.0. For unsterilized potato starch wastes, the microbial communities in the fermentation process were determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Results showed that the dominant population was Bacillus sp. The protein quality as well as the amino acid profile of the final product was found to be significantly higher compared with the untreated waste product at day 0. Additionally, acute toxicity test showed that the SCP product was non-toxic, indicating that it can be used for commercial processing.

  16. Utilization of flotation wastes of copper slag as raw material in cement production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, I; Deveci, H; Süngün, H

    2008-11-30

    Copper slag wastes, even if treated via processes such as flotation for metal recovery, still contain heavy metals with hazardous properties posing environmental risks for disposal. This study reports the potential use of flotation waste of a copper slag (FWCS) as iron source in the production of Portland cement clinker. The FWCS appears a suitable raw material as iron source containing >59% Fe(2)O(3) mainly in the form of fayalite (Fe(2)SiO(4)) and magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). The clinker products obtained using the FWCS from the industrial scale trial operations over a 4-month period were characterised for the conformity of its chemical composition and the physico-mechanical performance of the resultant cement products was evaluated. The data collected for the clinker products produced using an iron ore, which is currently used as the cement raw material were also included for comparison. The results have shown that the chemical compositions of all the clinker products including those of FWCS are typical of a Portland cement clinker. The mechanical performance of the standard mortars prepared from the FWCS clinkers were found to be similar to those from the iron ore clinkers with the desired specifications for the industrial cements e.g. CEM I type cements. Furthermore, the leachability tests (TCLP and SPLP) have revealed that the mortar samples obtained from the FWCS clinkers present no environmental problems while the FWCS could act as the potential source of heavy metal contamination. These findings suggest that flotation wastes of copper slag (FWCS) can be readily utilised as cement raw material due to its availability in large quantities at low cost with the further significant benefits for waste management/environmental practices of the FWCS and the reduced production and processing costs for cement raw materials.

  17. Utilization of Activated Carbon for the Removal of Ni Metal from Industrial Liquid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *1H. Tahir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution caused by toxic metals seems to occur globally. Metal intoxicated wastewater can be challenging to health safety. The high concentration of pollutants is required to be removed before the discharge of wastewater into open waste streams. The present study relates the monitoring of heavy metals in the industrial waste coming from Shairshah, Lyari SITE industrial area and control sites selected from Clifton beach of Karachi (Pakistan. Concentrations of selected trace metals, Cr, Fe, Hg, Na, K, Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, Mo, Mn and Cu were estimated by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, Flame Photometer and 200 Multi parameter Ion Specific Meter under standard analytical conditions. Statistical methods of relevance were applied to check the accuracy of the system. Selective removal of Ni metal from waste water was carried out by adsorption process using activated carbon prepared from agricultural waste. The effectiveness of the adsorption process has been tested under the optimized conditions of temperature, concentration, stay time and amount of adsorbent. Adsorption isotherm models like Freundlich and Langmuir were applied to determine the feasibility of process by finding the values oftheir respective constants. The R2 values show that Langmuir model was the best fitted adsorption model. The feasibility of adsorption process was determined by RL factor. Thermodynamic parameters such as free energy (ΔG˚, enthalpy (ΔH˚ and entropy (ΔS˚ of the system were calculated. The sorption free energy (Es was also estimated. The pHpzc of adsorbent was also estimated by adopting pH drift method. The percentage removal and distribution coefficient (KD values for Ni removal were also determined. The present system represents that Ni and other metals can be effectively removed by employing adsorption method using low cost natural adsorbents.

  18. Waste to Wealth; The Utilization of Scrap Tyre as Aggregate in Bituminous Mixes for Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oba, A. L.,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem associated with solid waste management is on the increase both in the industries, urban cities and in the rural areas. In the United States of America, Asia and Europe, there are over hundreds of waste to wealth combustion plants from where solid wastes are incinerated. In Nigeria, amidst the increasing importation of vehicle tyre such plants are scarcely in existence to enhance generation of revenue from waste through the extraction of raw material for the production of light weight aggregates, printing ink, paints, shoe polish, dry cell and battery heads. This research paper seeks to utilize vehicle scrap tyre (VST as aggregates in asphaltic mixture by adopting the dry process to evaluate the effect of rubber-bitumen interaction on asphaltic concrete properties; laboratory investigation using 4.75mm, 2.36mm and 0.600mm chunk tyre particle size modified asphalt mixture containing 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% scrap tyre and 0% tyre content as control mixture. The mixtures were subjected to Marshall Tests where the stability, flow, percentage air void, unit weight, void mineral aggregate, height of specimen and specific gravity were determined. The results obtained shows that as tyre percentage increase the stability, unit weight and specific gravity value decreases. On the other hand, as the tyre content increases, the flow and height of specimen increases while as the tyre content increases the percentage air void and VMA increased for 4.75mm Tyre Particle Size (TPS and 2.36mm TPS while for 0.600mm TPS, reverse is the case. In summary and in comparism with standard specification for road construction material, the Marshall tests conducted on the tyre modified specimens remained intact and by interpretation; material possessing such property indicates good impact resistance when use as surface course in flexible pavement. Conclusively, the use of 10% 4.75mm, 4% 2.36mm or 4% 0.600mm TPS by weight of aggregate in asphaltic concrete is

  19. Chemical and plasma surface modification of lignocellulose coconut waste for the preparation of advanced biobased composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaman, Suheyla; Karaman, Mustafa; Gursoy, Mehmet; Ahmetli, Gulnare

    2017-03-01

    In this study, surface-modified grinded coconut waste (CW) particles were used as bio-fillers to prepare polymeric composite materials with enhanced properties. Epoxy resin modified with acrylated and epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) was used as the polymer matrix. Two different strategies, namely chemical treatment and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) were utilized to modify the surface of CW particles for using them as compatible bio-fillers in composite preparation. Chemical modification involved the treatment of CW particles in a highly alkali NaOH solution, while PECVD modification involved coating of a thin film of hydrophobic poly(hexafluorobutyl acrylate) (PHFBA) around individual CW particle surfaces. Untreated and surface-modified CW particles were used in 10-50wt% for preparation of epoxy composites. FTIR analysis was performed to study the effect of modification on the structures of particles and as-prepared composites. The composite morphologies were investigated by XRD and SE. TGA test was conducted to study the thermal behavior of the composites. Also, the effects of CW particle surface modification on the mechanical and water sorption properties of epoxy resin composites were investigated in detail. It was observed that PECVD-treated CW particles had much more positive effects on the thermal, mechanical, wettability and flammability properties of composites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Co-pyrolysis of hydrothermally upgraded brown coal and wax prepared from waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouichi Miura; Susan A. Roces; Monthicha Pattatapanusak; Hiroyuki Nakagawa; Ryuichi Ashida; Masato Morimoto [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    We have recently presented a hydrothermal extraction method that not only removes water from brown coal but also upgrades the coal and extracts low molecular mass compounds simultaneously. The upgraded coal contained much less oxygen than the raw coal. However, it still needs to be further upgraded to be utilized as a substitute for bituminous coal. In this study co-pyrolysis of the upgraded coals and waxes formed from waste plastics was investigated for this purpose. Waxes were prepared through pyrolysis of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyethylene terephtalate. Upgraded coals were then impregnated with the waxes in an autoclave at 200{sup o}C under pressure. The mixtures of coal and wax were rapidly heated up to 1040{sup o}C at about 3000{sup o}C/s using a Curie point pyrolyzer in an inert atmosphere. The char yield was greatly enhanced by a factor of 1.1 to 1.3 compared to the char yield obtained when the upgraded coals and waxes were pyrolyzed independently. Even under a slower heating rate (0.17{sup o}C/s) the char yields increased by a factor of 1.2 for the all mixtures of the upgraded coal and waxes. Since no such effect was found when the raw brown coal was impregnated with waxes, it was suggested that the modification of the structure of brown coal by the hydrothermal extraction could enhance interactions between the coal and the wax when co-pyrolyzed. Effect of wax mixing ratio on co-pyrolysis behavior was also examined. The char yield dramatically increased when the ratio exceeded about 0.3 g/g for the pyrolysis of both under slow and rapid heating rates. This trend coincided with that of the swelling ratio of the upgraded coal impregnated with wax, indicating that some physical change by wax-impregnation affected the co-pyrolysis behavior. 5 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Use the Polishing Tile Waste to Prepare Thermal Insulation Ceramic Tile%抛光废料制备隔热保温陶瓷砖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华锋; 曾令可; 王慧; 冼志勇

    2014-01-01

    抛光废渣产生量大,回收利用率低,研究大量利用抛光废渣的新途径不仅能解决抛光废渣的处理问题,也将带来巨大的经济效益。本文分析了利用抛光废渣制备隔热保温陶瓷砖的背景、废弃原料处理、抛光渣发泡原理、制备工艺、性能影响因素等。%The production of polishing tile waste is so huge ,while with a low Recovery utilization rate. Research a new way that consuming a huge mass of polishing tile waste can not only solve the problem of waste processing ,but also produce huge economic benefits. This paper analyzed the back-ground ,the waste raw material processing ,the foaming principle ,the preparation technology ,the properties affecting factors of Preparation of Thermal Insulation ceramic tile with Polishing tile Waste.

  2. Multiple utilization of energy in buildings. Utilization of waste heat at the Blood Transfusion Service; Energie im Gebaeude mehrfach nutzen. Abwaermenutzung beim Blutspendedienst Nord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaigalat, Jens

    2012-11-01

    For the Blood Transfusion Service North the German Red Cross (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) utilizes the waste heat from production facilities and laboratories for heating offices. By doing this, the VRV technology for the realization of this solution was used.

  3. Utilization of Shrimp Skin Waste (Sea Lobster) As Raw Material for the Membrane Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyoman Rupiasih, Ni; Sumadiyasa, Made; Suyanto, Hery; Windari, Putri

    2017-05-01

    In view of the increasing littering of the sea banks by shells of crustaceans, a study was carried out to investigate the extraction and characterization of chitosan from skin waste of sea lobster i.e. ‘Bamboo Lobster’ (Panulirus versicolor). Chitosan was extracted using conventional methods such as pretreatment, demineralization, deprotienization, and deacetylation. The result showed that the degree of deacetylation of chitosan obtained is 70.02%. The FTIR spectra of the chitosan gave a characteristic of -NH2 band at 3447 cm-1 and carbonyl group band at 1655 cm-1. This chitosan has been used to prepare membrane. The chitosan membrane 2% has been prepared using phase inversion method with precipitation by solvent evaporation. The membranes were characterized by FTIR spectrophotometer, Nova 1200e using BJH method, and filtration method. The results show that thickness of the membrane is about 134 μm. The FTIR spectra show that functional groups present in the membrane are -NH, -CH, C=O, and -OH. Using BJH method obtained that the pore diameter is 3.382 nm with pore density is 8.95 x 105 pores/m3. By filtration method obtained that pure water flux (PWF) of the membrane are 386.662 and 489.627 1/m2.h at pressure 80-85 kPa and 90-100 kPa, respectively. These results show that skin waste of sea lobster was discovered as a raw material to prepare chitosan membrane. The membrane obtained is belonged to mesoporous group which may use in microfiltration process.

  4. A preliminary analysis of the reduction of chemotherapy waste in the treatment of cancer with centralization of drug preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Hyeda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SummaryIntroduction:chemotherapy is essential to treat most types of cancer. Often, there is chemotherapy waste in the preparation of drugs prescribed to the patient. Leftover doses result in toxic waste production.Objective:the aim of the study was to analyze chemotherapy waste reduction at a centralized drug preparation unit.Methods:the study was cross-sectional, observational and descriptive, conducted between 2010 and 2012. The data were obtained from chemotherapy prescriptions made by oncologists linked to a health insurance plan in Curitiba, capital of the state of Paraná, in southern Brazil. Dose and the cost of chemotherapy waste were calculated in each application, considering the dose prescribed by the doctor and the drug dosages available for sale. The variables were then calculated considering a hypothetical centralized drug preparation unit.Results:there were 176 patients with a cancer diagnosis, 106 of which underwent treatment with intravenous chemotherapy. There were 1,284 applications for intravenous anticancer medications. There was a total of 63,824mg in chemotherapy waste, the cost of which was BRL 448,397.00. The average cost of chemotherapy waste per patient was BRL 4,607.00. In the centralized model, there was 971.80mg of chemotherapy waste, costing BRL 13,991.64. The average cost of chemotherapy waste per patient was BRL 132.00.Conclusion:the use of centralized drug preparation units may be a strategy to reduce chemotherapy waste.

  5. Preparation of activated carbon by microwave heating of langsat (Lansium domesticum) empty fruit bunch waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2012-07-01

    The feasibility of langsat empty fruit bunch waste for preparation of activated carbon (EFBLAC) by microwave-induced activation was explored. Activation with NaOH at the IR ratio of 1.25, microwave power of 600 W for 6 min produced EFBLAC with a carbon yield of 81.31% and adsorption uptake for MB of 302.48 mg/g. Pore structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated the physical and chemical characteristics of EFBLAC. Equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm, with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 402.06 mg/g, and the adsorption kinetics was well fitted to the pseudo-second-order equation. The findings revealed the potential to prepare high quality activated carbon from langsat empty fruit bunch waste by microwave irradiation.

  6. Rational preparation of waste coal mixture for production of bricks by the method of compression molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Ivanov, A. I.; Temlyantsev, M. V.; Fomina, O. A.

    2016-10-01

    Rational preparation of the mixture containing technogenic raw material - waste coal for the production of wall ceramics is developed. It was established that the technology of high-quality ceramic bricks requires: grinding of raw materials to class 0.3 + 0 mm, its aggregation in the intensive mixers into granules 1-3 mm, compression molding of adobe to plastic deformation of granules, drying and firing.

  7. Preparation of sustainable photocatalytic materials through the valorization of industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugrañez, Rafael; Cruz-Yusta, Manuel; Mármol, Isabel; Morales, Julián; Sánchez, Luis

    2013-12-01

    A new value-added material was developed from wastes to aim for appropriate waste management and sustainable development. This paper reports the valorization of industrial sandblasting operation wastes (SOWs) as new photocatalytic materials. This waste is composed of Fe2 O3 (60.7 %), SiO2 (29.1 %), and Al2 O3 (3.9 %) as the main components. The high presence of iron oxides was used to develop photocatalytic properties through their thermal transformation into α-Fe2 O3 . The new product, SOW-T, exhibited a good behavior towards the photochemical degradation of organic dyes. The preparation of advanced photocatalytic materials that exhibit self-cleaning and depolluting properties was possible by the inclusion of SOW-T and TiO2 in a cement-based mortar. The synergy observed between both materials enhanced their photocatalytic action. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that describes the use of transformed wastes based on iron oxide for the photochemical oxidation of NOx gases.

  8. Ninth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Papers are grouped under the following sessions: compliance technology; high-efficiency preparation; characterization; advanced technologies; alternative fuels; coal utilization; industrial/commercial combustor development; combustion; superclean emission systems; carbon dioxide recovery and reuse; air toxics and fine particulates; air toxics sampling and analysis workshop; and combined poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. Activated carbons prepared from wood particleboard wastes: characterisation and phenol adsorption capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girods, P; Dufour, A; Fierro, V; Rogaume, Y; Rogaume, C; Zoulalian, A; Celzard, A

    2009-07-15

    The problems of valorisation of particleboard wastes on one hand, and contamination of aqueous effluents by phenolic compounds on the other hand, are simultaneously considered in this work. Preparation of activated carbons from a two steps thermo-chemical process, formerly designed for generating combustible gases, is suggested. The resultant carbonaceous residue is activated with steam at 800 degrees C. Depending on the preparation conditions, surface areas within the range 800-1300 m(2)/g are obtained, close to that of a commercial activated carbon (CAC) specially designed for water treatment and used as a reference material. The present work shows that particleboard waste-derived activated carbons (WAC) are efficient adsorbents for the removal of phenol from aqueous solutions, with maximum measured capacities close to 500 mg/g. However, most of times, the adsorption capacities are slightly lower than that of the commercial material in the same conditions, i.e., at equilibrium phenol concentrations below 300 ppm. Given the extremely low cost of activated carbons prepared from particleboard waste, it should not be a problem to use it in somewhat higher amounts than what is required with a more expensive commercial material. Phenol adsorption isotherms at 298 K were correctly fitted by various equations modelling type I and type II isotherms for CAC and WAC, respectively. Phenol adsorption isotherms of type II were justified by a 3-stages adsorption mechanism.

  10. Utilization of calcium carbonate particles from eggshell waste as coating pigments for ink-jet printing paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sukjoon; Hsieh, Jeffery S; Zou, Peter; Kokoszka, John

    2009-12-01

    The effective treatment and utilization of biowaste have been emphasized in our society for environmental and economic concerns. Recently, the eggshell waste in the poultry industry has been highlighted because of its reclamation potential. This study presents an economical treatment process to recover useful bioproducts from eggshell waste and their utilization in commercial products. We developed the dissolved air floatation (DAF) separation unit, which successfully recovered 96% of eggshell membrane and 99% of eggshell calcium carbonate (ECC) particles from eggshell waste within 2 h of operation. The recovered ECC particles were utilized as coating pigments for ink-jet printing paper and their impact on the ink density and paper gloss were investigated. The addition of the ECC particles as coating pigments enhances the optical density of cyan, magenta and yellow inks while decreasing the black ink density and the gloss of the coated paper.

  11. Production of Controlled Low Strength Material Utilizing Waste Paper Sludge Ash and Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi A. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the best method to make the concrete industry more sustainable was using the waste materials to replace the natural resources. Currently waste paper sludge is a major economic and environmental problem in this country. In this research, the alternative method is to dwindle the usage of natural resources and the usage of cement in the construction. This method is to replace the usage of cement with the waste paper sludge ash (WPSA and to use the recycle aggregate collected from the construction is used. The WPSA has ingredient likely cement such as self-cementation but for a low strength. The research was conducted at heavy laboratory UITM Pulau Pinang. Meanwhile, the WPSA is collected at MNI Industries at Mentakab, Pahang. The recycle aggregate is a separated half, which were fine aggregate and the coarse aggregate with the specific size. In this research, the ratio is divided into two (2 which is 1:1 and 1:2 for the aggregate and difference percentage levels of WPSA. The percentage levels of WPSA that use in this research are 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60%. A total of 36 cubes were prepared. Aim of this research is to develop a simple design approach for the mixture proportioning of WPSA and recycle concrete aggregate (RCA within the concrete and to assess the effect of concrete mix with different percentage of WPSA and RCA ratio on the properties. It is found that the best design mix that achieves control low strength material (CLSM is on 30% of WPSA with the ratio 1:2 on day 28 of compression test.

  12. Effective utilization of incinerated municipal solid waste incineration ash: zeolitic material synthesis and silica extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bac, Bui Hoang; Song, Yungoo; Moon, Yonghee; Kim, Myung Hun; Kang, Il Mo

    2010-08-01

    In this study the effective utilization of two types of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ashes, namely air-cooled ash (ACS) and water-cooled ash (WCS) samples obtained from a municipal solid waste incineration plant, was examined by applying zeolitic material synthesis and silica extraction. The influence of the experimental conditions including the ratio of sample : NaOH solution, the reaction temperature and time, and the concentration of NaOH solution were investigated. The results for the 25 experimental trials can be summarized as: (1) the formation of tobermorite and/or pectolite-1A as a major component in most conditions; (2) the synthesis of hydroxycancrinite as a major phase at 200 degrees C; (3) a dramatic increase in the extracted SiO(2) yield at 1 : 30 value of sample : NaOH ratio and 200 degrees C, even at short reaction times; and (4) relatively high SiO(2) yields for WCS ashes rather than ACS ashes. An increase in the reaction time improved the quantity of synthesized zeolitic materials. The reaction temperature determined the type of zeolite. An increase in the NaOH concentration can be an essential factor to improve zeolitic material synthesis, but it significantly reduced the yield of SiO(2) extraction. In conclusion, suitable conditions for obtaining both SiO(2) extraction and synthesized zeolites from the ashes of the incinerated solid waste materials should be: 200 degrees C reaction temperature; a 1 : 30 (g : mL) value for the sample : NaOH ratio; 2 mol L(-1) NaOH concentration; and a reaction time of more than 24 h.

  13. Energy recovery from waste glycerol by utilizing thermal water vapor plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamošiūnas, Andrius; Valatkevičius, Pranas; Gimžauskaitė, Dovilė; Jeguirim, Mejdi; Mėčius, Vladas; Aikas, Mindaugas

    2017-04-01

    Glycerol, considered as a waste feedstock resulting from biodiesel production, has received much attention in recent years due to its properties, which offer to recover energy. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of a thermal water vapor plasma for waste (crude) glycerol conversion to synthesis gas, or syngas (H2 + CO). In parallel of crude glycerol, a pure glycerol (99.5%) was used as a reference material in order to compare the concentrations of the formed product gas. A direct current (DC) arc plasma torch stabilized by a mixture of argon/water vapor was utilized for the effective glycerol conversion to hydrogen-rich synthesis gas. It was found that after waste glycerol treatment, the main reaction products were gases with corresponding concentrations of H2 50.7%, CO 23.53%, CO2 11.45%, and CH4 3.82%, and traces of C2H2 and C2H6, which concentrations were below 0.5%. The comparable concentrations of the formed gas products were obtained after pure glycerol conversion-H2 46.4%, CO 26.25%, CO2 11.3%, and CH4 4.7%. The use of thermal water vapor plasma producing synthesis gas is an effective method to recover energy from both crude and pure glycerol. The performance of the glycerol conversion system was defined in terms of the produced gas yield, the carbon conversion efficiency, the cold gas efficiency, and the specific energy requirements.

  14. The Utilization of Waste Date Seed as Bio-Oil and Activated Carbon by Pyrolysis Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Uzzal Hossain Joardder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The renovation of biomass waste in the form of date seed waste into activated carbon and biofuel by fixed bed pyrolysis reactor has been focused in this study to obtain gaseous, liquid, and solid products. The date seed in particle form is pyrolysed in an externally heated fixed bed reactor with nitrogen as the carrier gas. The reactor is heated from 400°C to 600°C. A maximum liquid yield of 50 wt.% and char of 30 wt.% are obtained at a reactor bed temperature of 500°C with a running time of 120 minutes. The oil is found to possess favorable flash point and reasonable density and viscosity. The higher calorific value is found to be 28.636 MJ/kg which is significantly higher than other biomass derived. Decolonization of 85–97% is recorded for the textile effluent and 75–90% for the tannery effluent, in all cases decreasing with temperature increase. Good adsorption capacity of the prepared activated carbon in case of diluted textile and tannery effluent was found.

  15. Utilization of biodiesel waste as a renewable resource for activated carbon. Application to environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, University of Science Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-12-15

    Stepping into the new globalized and paradigm shifted era, a huge revolution has been undergone by the oil palm industry. From a humble source of the edible oil, today oil palm has demonstrated a wide variety of uses, almost by every part of its plant. With the price of the crude petroleum hitting record height every other day, the feasibility of palm oil and oil palm biomass as renewable substitutes for the production of biodiesel has been proposed. Lately, its development has received various criticisms, mainly hinges on the huge generation of solid residues which are currently no profitable use. In view of the aforementioned reason, this paper presents a state-of-the-art review of oil palm industry, its fundamental background studies, propagation and industrial applications. Moreover, the recent developments on the preparation of activated carbons from oil palm waste, its major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expansion of oil palm waste in the field of adsorption science represents a potentially viable and powerful tool, leading to the superior improvement of pollution control and environmental conservation. (author)

  16. Utilization of ash from municipal solid waste combustion. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.M.; Hartman, R.M.; Kort, D.; Rapues, N.

    1994-09-01

    This ash study investigates several aspects of Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC) ash utilization to develop an alternative to the present disposal practice of landfilling in a lined monofill. Ash was investigated as a daily or final cover for municipal waste in the landfill to prevent erosion and as a road construction aggregate. Samples of eight mixtures of ash and other materials, and one sample of soil were analyzed for chemical constituents. Biological tests on these mixters were conducted, along with erosion tests and sieve analyses. A chemical analysis of each sieve size was conducted. Geotechnical properties of the most promising materials were made. Findings to this point include: all ash samples take have passed the EPA TCLP testing; chemical analysis of bottom and combined ash samples indicate less than expected variability; selected ash mixtures exhibited very low coefficients of hydraulic conductivity; all but one of the ash mixtures exhibited greater erosion resistance than the currently used landfill cover material; MWC combined analysis indicates this is a viable alternative for landfill cover; MWC ash size reactions and chemical analysis show bottom and combined ash to be a viable alternative for road construction.

  17. Utilization of Baggase Waste Based Materials as Improvement for Thermal Insulation of Cement Brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminudin Eeydzah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Building materials having low thermal load and low thermal conductivity will provide thermal comforts to the occupants in building. In an effort to reduce the use of high energy and waste products from the agricultural industry, sugarcane bagasse and banana bagasse has been utilize as an additive in the manufacture of cement brick. The aim of this study is to investigate the insulation and mechanical properties of brick that has been mixed with bagasse and its effectiveness as thermal insulation using heat flow meter. Waste bagasse is being treated using sodium hydroxide (NaOH and is characterized using SEM and XRF. The samples produced with two different dimensions of 50 mm × 50 mm × 50 mm and 215mm × 102.5mm × 65mm for thermal conductivity test. Next, the sample varies from 0% (control sample, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% in order to determine the best mix proportion. The compressive strength is being tested for 7, 14 and 28 days of water curing. Results showed that banana bagasse has lower thermal conductivity compared to sugarcane bagasse used, with compressive strength of 15.6MPa with thermal conductivity 0.6W/m.K.

  18. UTILIZATION OF AGARWOOD DISTILLATION WASTE IN OILWELL CEMENT AND ITS EFFECT ON FREE WATER AND POROSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Sauki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The intent of this research is to utilize the waste produced by distillation process of Agarwood oil and convert it into a profitable oilwell cement additive. Common problem during oilwell cementing is free wáter separation. This problem could weaken cement at the top, gas migration problem and non uniform density of cement slurry that are even worst in cementing deviated well. Another concern on cementing design is the porosity of the hardened cement. If the cement is too porous, it can lead to gas migration and casing corrosion. All tests were conducted according to API Specification-10B. Free water test was determined at different concentrations of Agarwood Waste Additive (AWA, different inclination angles and different temperatures. Based on the findings, it was observed that zero free water was produced when 2% BWOC of AWA was used at all angles. The findings also revealed that AWA can maintain good thermal stability as it could maintain zero free water at increased temperature up to 60˚C.  The porosity of AWA cement was comparable with standard API neat cement as the porosity did not differ much at 2% BWOC of AWA. Therefore, it can be concluded that the AWA is suitable to  be used as an additive in oil well cement (OWC  with 2% BWOC is taken as the optimum concentration.

  19. Organic Rankine Cycle Analysis: Finding the Best Way to Utilize Waste Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim Chakroun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC is a type of power cyclethat uses organic substances such as hydrocarbons orrefrigerants as the working fluid. ORC technology is usedto generate electricity in waste heat recovery applications,because the available heat is not at a high enoughtemperature to operate with other types of cycles. Theoptimum amount of working fluid required for the cycle(i.e., optimum charge level was investigated. Three chargelevels (13, 15, and 18 lbm were tested, and their effect onefficiency and performance of the system was analyzed.The heat source for the fluid was waste steam from thePurdue Power Plant, which had an average temperatureof 120oC. Regular city tap water at a temperature of 15oCwas used as the heat sink. For each charge level, multipletests were performed by measuring the temperaturesand pressures at all state points in the cycle, in order tounderstand any overarching patterns within the data.An important parameter that was analyzed is the 2nd lawefficiency. This efficiency is a measure of the effectivenessof the energy utilization compared to that of an idealcase. The peak efficiency increased from 24% to 27% asthe charge in the system decreased. Therefore, movingforward, this research suggests that a lower charge levelin the system will increase efficiency. However, testingbelow 13 lbm might cause mechanical complications inthe equipment as there may not be enough fluid to flowaround; thus, a compromise had to be made.

  20. Effective utilization of waste water through recycling, reuse, and remediation for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Rajamani; Krishnamoorthy, Renga

    2014-01-01

    Water is vital for human, animal, and plant life. Water is one of the most essential inputs for the production of crops. Plants need it in enormous quantities continuously during their life. The role of water is felt everywhere; its scarcity causes droughts and famines, its excess causes floods and deluge. During the next two decades, water will increasingly be considered a critical resource for the future survival of the arid and semiarid countries. The requirement of water is increasing day by day due to intensive agriculture practices, urbanization, population growth, industrialization, domestic use, and other uses. On the other hand, the availability of water resources is declining and the existing water is not enough to meet the needs. To overcome this problem, one available solution is utilization of waste water by using recycling, reuse, and remediation process.

  1. Framework for evaluating the utility of incentive systems for radioactive waste repository siting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, S. A.; Soderstrom, J.; Sorensen, J.; Peelle, E.; Reed, J. H.; Bjornstad, D. J.; Copenhaver, E. D.

    The importance of social and institutional issues in siting radioactive waste repositories has been recognized in recent years. Within this set of issues, the siting of repositories over the objections of members of potential host communities is viewed as especially problematic. Incentives to potential host communities have been suggested as a means of increasing local support for and offsetting local opposition to such facilities. Incentives are classified according to their function as mitigation, compensation or reward. Analysis of results of a 1980 survey (conducted by John Kelly, Complex Systems Group, University of New Hampshire) of 420 rural Wisconsin residents indicates that incentives may achieve the purpose of increasing support for and decreasing opposition to accepting a repository. Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives are identified. It is suggested that meaningful evaluations of incentives can only be performed by members of potential host communities.

  2. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B Production as Landfill Liner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müfide Banar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded into strips by using a lab-scale corotating twin screw extruder (L/D: 40 followed by die casting (2 mm × 100 mm. Glass fleece or nonwoven polyester was used as reinforcement material and while die casting, both sides of the reinforcement materials were covered with bituminous mixture. Thickness, mass per unit area, tensile strength, elongation at yield, and hydraulic conductivity were used to characterize the geomembranes. Among all geomembranes, nonwoven polyester covered with 30% bitumen-70% boron waste clay mixture (PK-BTM30CW70 was found to be the most promising in terms of structure and mechanical behaviour. After that, consequences of its exposure to distilled water (DW, municipal solid waste landfill leachate (L-MSW, and hazardous waste landfill leachate (L-HW were examined to use for an innovative impermeable liner on solid waste landfills.

  3. Utilization of VAE Waste Water and Waste Residue%VAE废水和废渣的利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红卫

    2000-01-01

    the situation of VAE waste water and waste residue applied in the process of paints, adhesive, modified cement, thermal insulation materials is introduced in this paper.%介绍了VAE废水和废渣在涂料、粘合剂、水泥改性以及保温材料加工中的应用情况。

  4. Industrial wastes for firing Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhanXuanye; LuGuansheng; Gaojun

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the feasibility on utilizing high-calcium industrial wastes in firing brick. In China, industrial wastes with over 10% calcium oxide is not regarded as raw materials for producing brick, so it is limited to use industrial wastes. The paper gives out the ideas that high-calcium industrial wastes can be used to produce fired brick by good raw material preparation process and proper methods.

  5. Preparation of High Density Polyethylene/Waste Polyurethane Blends Compatibilized with Polyethylene-Graft-Maleic Anhydride by Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Seok Park

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane (PU is a very popular polymer that is used in a variety of applications due to its good mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties. However, PU recycling has received significant attention due to environmental issues. In this study, we developed a recycling method for waste PU that utilizes the radiation grafting technique. Grafting of waste PU was carried out using a radiation technique with polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA. The PE-g-MA-grafted PU/high density polyethylene (HDPE composite was prepared by melt-blending at various concentrations (0–10 phr of PE-g-MA-grafted PU. The composites were characterized using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and their surface morphology and thermal/mechanical properties are reported. For 1 phr PU, the PU could be easily introduced to the HDPE during the melt processing in the blender after the radiation-induced grafting of PU with PE-g-MA. PE-g-MA was easily reacted with PU according to the increasing radiation dose and was located at the interface between the PU and the HDPE during the melt processing in the blender, which improved the interfacial interactions and the mechanical properties of the resultant composites. However, the elongation at break for a PU content >2 phr was drastically decreased.

  6. Utilization possibilities of hydrocarbon fractions obtained by waste plastic pyrolysis: energetic utilization and applications in polymer composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miskolczi, Norbert; Borsodi, Nikolett; Angyal, Andras [University of Pannonia, MOL Department of Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing (Hungary)], email: mnorbert@almos.uni-pannon.hu, email: borsodinikolett@almos.uni-pannon.hu, email: angyala@almos.uni-pannon.hu

    2011-07-01

    With the energy crisis and the rising concerns about the environment, energy-saving measures are urgently needed. Each year about 300M tons of plastic wastes are produced world-wide and governments are now focusing on recycling and reusing these products to save significant amounts of energy. The aim of this paper was to analyze the products which can be obtained from waste plastic and determine their possible uses. Pyrolysis of commercial waste plastics was done in a reactor at 500-600 degree celsius and the products were then analyzed using several methods. Results showed that the pyrolysis produces gases, naphtha, middle distillates and heavy oils. The properties of these products were also determined and it was found that they have the potential to be used in fuel-like and additive producing applications. This study highlighted that pyrolysis of waste polymers can yield useful products.

  7. Design of an Optimal Waste Utilization System: A Case Study in St. Petersburg, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail Rodionov; Toshihiko Nakata

    2011-01-01

    Storing municipal solid waste (MSW) in landfills is the oldest and still the primary waste management strategy in many countries. Russia is the third largest methane (CH 4 ) emitter country after USA and China, representing 5% of total global CH 4 emissions from waste landfilling. Due to high economical growth, the amount of waste generated in Russia has risen sharply over the last ten years. However, waste management in Russia is mainly based on landfilling. In order to design an optimal MSW...

  8. Waste Preparation and Transport Chemistry: Results of the FY 2001 Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R.D.

    2002-03-25

    of researchers from AEA Technology, Florida International University (FIU), Fluor Hanford, Mississippi State University (MSU), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to evaluate various aspects of the waste preparation and transport chemistry. The majority of this effort was focused on saltcake dissolution and saltwell pumping. The results of the AEA Technology, FIU, and MSU studies of saltcake dissolution and slurry transfers for Hanford are discussed in detail in a companion report prepared by T. D. Welch in 2001 (ORNIJTM-2001097). Staff members at Fluor Hanford have continued to conduct saltcake dissolution tests on actual tank waste (documented in reports prepared by D. L. Herting in 2000 and 2001). It should be noted that full-scale saltcake dissolution at Hanford is scheduled to begin in FY 2002. While the Hanford effort is focused on the transfer of waste from one tank to another, the objective of the SRTC study is the formation of aluminosilicates at elevated temperatures, which are present in the waste evaporator.

  9. Formulation and preparation on Hanford Waste Treatment Plan direct feed low activity waste effluent management facility core simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL

    2016-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other problems such a recycle stream present. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to formulate and prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter

  10. Formulation and preparation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant direct feed low activity waste Effluent Management Facility core simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL

    2016-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other problems such a recycle stream present. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to formulate and prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter

  11. Preparation of shrimp waste as aqua feedstuff: a study of physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karun Thongprajukeaw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different preparation methods (boiling, microwave irradiation, oven-drying, soaking, and sun-drying for improving the protein quality of shrimp waste (SW when used as aqua feedstuff were observed. The findings from this study indicate that microwave irradiation maintained both the chemical composition and total carotenoid concentration of the SW. This method controlled the appropriate physicochemical characteristics thus promoting proteolytic digestion, as indicated by measurement of changes in pH, water solubility, microstructures, and thermal transition. The protein digestibility based on the use of digestive enzymes from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus also increased after preparation with microwave irradiation. Based on this study, improvement in the protein quality in SW may be achieved by microwave irradiation and this method may be used as an alternative method for preparing aqua feedstuff.

  12. Preparation of sulfurized powdered activated carbon from waste tires using an innovative compositive impregnation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chung-Shin; Lin, Hsun-Yu; Wu, Chun-Hsin; Liu, Ming-Han; Hung, Chung-Hsuang

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an innovative compositive impregnation process for preparing sulfurized powdered activated carbon (PAC) from waste tires. An experimental apparatus, including a pyrolysis and activation system and a sulfur (S) impregnation system, was designed and applied to produce sulfurized PAC with a high specific surface area. Experimental tests involved the pyrolysis, activation, and sulfurization of waste tires. Waste-tire-derived PAC (WPAC) was initially produced in the pyrolysis and activation system. Experimental results indicated that the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of WPAC increased, and the average pore radius of WPAC decreased, as water feed rate and activation time increased. In this study, a conventional direct impregnation process was used to prepare the sulfurized PAC by impregnating WPAC with sodium sulfide (Na2S) solution. Furthermore, an innovative compositive impregnation process was developed and then compared with the conventional direct impregnation process. Experimental results showed that the compositive impregnation process produced the sulfurized WPAC with high BET surface area and a high S content. A maximum BET surface area of 886 m2/g and the S content of 2.61% by mass were obtained at 900 degrees C and at the S feed ratio of 2160 mg Na2S/g C. However, the direct impregnation process led to a BET surface area of sulfurized WPAC that decreased significantly as the S content increased.

  13. A comprehensive review on removal of arsenic using activated carbon prepared from easily available waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Monoj Kumar; Garg, Ravi

    2017-05-01

    Arsenic contamination in water bodies is a serious problem and causes various health problems due to which US Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) set its maximum permissible limit of 10 ppb. The present review article starts with the removal of toxic arsenic using adsorbents prepared from easily available waste materials. Adsorbent either commercial or low-cost adsorbent can be used for arsenic removal but recent research was focused on the low-cost adsorbent. Preparation and activation of various adsorbents were discussed. Adsorption capacities, surface area, thermodynamic, and kinetics data of various adsorbents for As(III) and As(V) removal were compiled. Desorption followed by regeneration and reuse of adsorbents is an important step in adsorption and leads to economical process. Various desorbing and regenerating agents were discussed for arsenic decontamination from the adsorbent surface. Strong acids, bases, and salts are the main desorbing agents. Disposal of arsenic-contaminated adsorbent and arsenic waste was also a big problem because of the toxic and leaching effect of arsenic. So, arsenic waste was disposed of by proper stabilization/solidification (S/S) technique by mixing it in Portland cement, iron, ash, etc. to reduce the leaching effect.

  14. Adsorption of direct dye onto activated carbon prepared from areca nut pod--an agricultural waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswami, P; Sivakumar, N; Ponnuswamy, S; Venkateswaren, V; Kavitha, G

    2010-10-01

    Activated carbons are made from various agricultural wastes by physical and chemical activation. The preparation of activated carbon from agricultural waste could increase economic return and also provides an excellent method for the solid waste disposal thereby reduce pollution. Areca nut pod, which is an agricultural waste, has been used as a raw material to produce activated carbon (AAC) by four different methods. The adsorption of Direct blue dye used in textile industry on the porous areca nut pod activated carbon was investigated. The activated carbon AAC has an average surface area of 502 m2/g. CAC, the commercial reference was mainly micro porous with a surface area of 1026 m2/g .The study investigated the removal of direct dye from simulated water. The effects of adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were studied. The results showed that as the amount of the adsorbent was increased, the percentage of dye removal increased accordingly. The results indicate that AAC could be employed as low-cost alternative to commercial activated carbon in wastewater treatment for the removal of acid dyes.

  15. Utilization of Paneer Whey Waste for Cost-Effective Production of Rhamnolipid Biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Rupshikha; Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Deka, Suresh

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed at isolating rhamnolipid biosurfactant-producing bacteria that could utilize paneer whey, an abundant waste source as sole medium for the production purpose. Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain, SR17, was isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil that could efficiently utilize paneer whey for rhamnolipid production and reduce surface tension of the medium from 52 to 26.5 mN/m. The yield of biosurfactant obtained was 2.7 g/l, upgraded to 4.8 g/l when supplemented with 2 % glucose and mineral salts. Biochemical, FTIR, and LC-MS analysis revealed that extracted biosurfactant is a combination of both mono and di-rhamnolipid congeners. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) was measured to be 110 mg/l. Emulsification activity of the biosurfactant against n-hexadecane, olive oil, kerosene, diesel oil, engine oil, and crude oil were found to be 83, 88, 81, 92, 86, and 100 %, respectively. The rhamnolipid was detected to be non-toxic against mouse fibroblastic cell line L292.

  16. Utilization of cellulosic waste from tequila bagasse and production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) bioplastics by Saccharophagus degradans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva Munoz, Luis Esteban; Riley, Mark R

    2008-08-01

    Utilization of wastes from agriculture is becoming increasingly important due to concerns of environmental impact. The goals of this work were to evaluate the ability of an unusual organism, Saccharophagus degradans (ATCC 43961), to degrade the major components of plant cell walls and to evaluate the ability of S. degradans to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs, also known as bioplastics). S. degradans can readily attach to cellulosic fibers, degrade the cellulose, and utilize this as the primary carbon source. The growth of S. degradans was assessed in minimal media (MM) containing glucose, cellobiose, avicel, and bagasse with all able to support growth. Cells were able to attach to avicel and bagasse fibers; however, growth on these insoluble fibers was much slower and led to a lower maximal biomass production than observed with simple sugars. Lignin in MM alone did not support growth, but did support growth upon addition of glucose, although with an increased adaptation phase. When culture conditions were switched to a nitrogen depleted status, PHA production commences and extends for at least 48 h. At early stationary phase, stained inclusion bodies were visible and two chronologically increasing infrared light absorbance peaks at 1,725 and 1,741 cm(-1) confirmed the presence of PHAs. This work demonstrates for what we believe to be the first time, that a single organism can degrade insoluble cellulose and under similar conditions can produce and accumulate PHA. Additional work is necessary to more fully characterize these capabilities and to optimize the PHA production and purification.

  17. Combined incineration of industrial wastes with in-plant residues in fluidized-bed utility boilers--decision relevant factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragossnig, Arne M; Lorber, Karl E

    2005-10-01

    In Austria more than 50% of the high-calorific industrial residues and wastes generated are utilized for energy recovery in industrial utility boilers. This study investigated full-scale trials of combined incineration of in-plant residues with various industrial wastes. These trials were carried out in order to learn how the alternatively used fuel influences the incineration process itself as well as the quantity and quality of the various incineration products. The currently used fuel, which consisted of in-plant residues as well as externally acquired waste wood and the refuse-derived fuel (RDF) mixtures used during the full-scale trials are characterized in terms of material composition as well as chemical and physical parameters. An input-output mass balance for the incineration plant (two fluidized bed combustion units, 20 and 30 MW, respectively) has been established, based on the data collected during the full-scale incineration trials. Furthermore, pollutant concentrations in the off-gas as well as the solid incineration residue are reported. It is not only the pollutant content but also a variety of other internal as well as external factors that have to be considered if a company is to decide whether or not to thermally utilize specific waste types. Therefore a strengths and weaknesses profile for several types of waste and the specific industrial boiler is also presented.

  18. Material stream management of biomass wastes for the optimization of organic wastes utilization; Stoffstrommanagement von Biomasseabfaellen mit dem Ziel der Optimierung der Verwertung organischer Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knappe, Florian; Boess, Andreas; Fehrenbach, Horst; Giegrich, Juergen; Vogt, Regine [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Dehoust, Guenter; Schueler, Doris; Wiegmann, Kirsten; Fritsche, Uwe [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The effective use of the valuable substances found in waste materials can make an important contribution to climate protection and the conservation of fossil and mineral resources. In order to harness the potential contribution of biomass waste streams, it is necessary to consider the potential of the waste in connection with that of the total biomass. In this project, relevant biogenous material streams in the forestry, the agriculture as well as in several industries are studied, and their optimization potentials are illustrated. Scenarios are then developed, while taking various other environmental impacts into considerations, to explore possible optimized utilization of biomass streams and biomass waste substances for the future. Straw that is not needed for humus production and currently left on the field can be used for its energy content. The realisation of this potential would be significant contribution towards climate protection. The energetic use of liquid manure without negatively influencing its application as commercial fertilizer can also be similarly successful because of its large volume. The results of our study also support an increased energetic use of saw residues as fuel (in form of pellets) in small furnaces. For household organic wastes, the report suggests the fermentation with optimized energy use and intensified marketing of the aerobically treated compost as peat substitution. While for waste cooking fat that is currently disposed in the residual waste, a separate collection and direct use in motors that are used as combined heat and power generation are recommended. For meat and bone meal and communal sludge that are not being used substantial currently or in the future, phosphorus can be recovered with promising success from the ash produced when the waste is burnt in mono incinerators. These technical options should however be tested against disposal standard. (orig.)

  19. An Experimental Investigation on Utilization of Waste Plastic as a Modifier in Rigid Pavements for Improving Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Chandu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The percent study investigates the effective use of waste plastic as a modifier for cement concrete roads. Civilization produces waste products disposals issue of the waste products is a challenge. Solid waste management is the thrust area. The various waste materials, plastic waste and principle solid waste are of great concern these leads to disposal crisis and environmental pollution. On the other side, road traffic is increasing. The load bearing capacity of the roads are to be increased. Our present work is helping to take care of both these aspects. Plastic waste consists of carry bags cups and disposals. Plastic waste which is cleaned is cut into a size such that it passes through 2.3mm sieve using shredding machine. The aggregates mix is heated and the plastic is coated over aggregates and this coated stones can be used for road constructing. By this process a road of 1km length 3.375m width of single lane can consumes 10,00000 carry bags and road strength is increased and found no pot holes. Commonly soil, aggregates, sand, cement can be used in road construction. Natural materials being exhaustible in nature, its quantity is declining gradually. If our material can be utilized in highway construction, the pollution and disposal problems may be partly reduced. The use of the innovative technology will not only strengthen the road construction but also increase the road life as well as will help to improve the environment. In my research work I have done a thorough study on the methodology of using plastic waste coat over aggregates and presented various tests performed on aggregates.

  20. 马铃薯废弃物的资源化利用%Utilization of potato processing waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安志刚; 韩黎明; 刘玲玲; 童丹; 孙永军

    2015-01-01

    The potato processing waste which produced from the potato harvesting and potato processing has a serious impact on the environment.By studying scientific articles,this study discussed the technology on utilization of potato waste in four aspects,including potato stems and leaves,potato-starch wastewater,potato-starch residue and potato-peel waste.Potato waste has a good potential to be used due to its rich compounds.%通过检索大量科学文献,从马铃薯的茎叶、废水、废渣、废皮4个方面论述了资源化利用马铃薯废弃物的技术.马铃薯废弃物有效成分丰富,具有良好的开发利用价值.

  1. A novel shielding material prepared from solid waste containing lead for gamma ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Mehmet; Baykara, Oktay; Doğru, Mahmut; Kuluöztürk, Fatih

    2010-09-01

    Human beings are continuously exposed to cosmogenic radiation and its products in the atmosphere from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) within Earth, their bodies, houses and foods. Especially, for the radiation protection environments where high ionizing radiation levels appear should be shielded. Generally, different materials are used for the radiation shielding in different areas and for different situations. In this study, a novel shielding material produced by a metallurgical solid waste containing lead was analyzed as shielding material for gamma radiation. The photon total mass attenuation coefficients ( μ/ ρ) were measured and calculated using WinXCom computer code for the novel shielding material, concrete and lead. Theoretical and experimental values of total mass attenuation coefficient of the each studied sample were compared. Consequently, a new shielding material prepared from the solid waste containing lead could be preferred for buildings as shielding materials against gamma radiation.

  2. The Effect of the SCAMPER Technique in Raising Awareness Regarding the Collection and Utilization of Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelikler, Dilek; Harman, Gonca

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the SCAMPER technique in raising awareness among science students regarding the collection and utilization of solid waste. The participants included a total of 65 third-year students. According to the study results, the science students described schools and visual media as their main source of…

  3. Utilization possibilites of waste products from fishing and hunting to biogas and bio-oil production in Uummannaq County

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur; Jørgensen, Marianne Willemoes

    2008-01-01

    In spring 2007 a project was carried out at the Arctic Technology Centre in which research of various possibilities of utilizing waste products from fishing and hunting generated in Uummannaq County was performed. Numerous alternatives were identified in the project, which were weighed against...

  4. From waste to value - direct utilization of limonene from orange peel in a biocatalytic cascade reaction towards chiral carvolactone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberleitner, N.; Ressmann, A. K.; Bica, K.; Gaertner, P.; Fraaije, M. W.; Bornscheuer, U. T.; Rudroff, F.; Mihovilovic, M. D.

    2017-01-01

    In this proof of concept study we demonstrate direct utilization of limonene containing waste product orange peel as starting material for a biocatalytic cascade reaction. The product of this cascade is chiral carvolactone, a promising building block for thermoplastic polymers. Four different concep

  5. Eleventh annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The 75 papers contained in this volume are divided into the following sections: compliance technology; technology base activities; high efficiency preparation; air toxics (especially mercury); air toxics and CO{sub 2} control; superclean emissions; Combustion 2000; advanced research; commercial and industrial combustion systems; alternative fuels; environmental control; and coal utilization. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. 利用马铃薯淀粉生产的废水及废渣发酵制备蛋白饲料%The Preparation of Fermented Protein Feed from Waste Water and Wastes of Potate Starch Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈辉; 李虹; 冯雷; 张露; 宋国勇

    2011-01-01

    Microorganism fermentation method was used to produce high value-added protein feed from waste-water and wastes of potato starch production. This can lower COD content in waste-water and comprehensive utilized the potato starch processing wastes. A yeast strain was screened in our laboratory, and the optimum preparation conditions of protein feed was determined as: 20% wastes in waste-water(W/V) , natural pH, 28℃, inoculation amount 10% , cultivation time 72 h. In the optimum condition, protein content of the protein feed production was 37.40% and waste-water COD decreased 72.29%.%以马铃薯淀粉生产的废水及废渣为原料,采用微生物发酵的方法,制备高附加值的蛋白饲料,同时降低废水的COD值,达到综合利用的目的。经试验筛选得到1株酵母,并确定了蛋白饲料的制各条件:废水中薯渣添加量20%、pH自然、温度28℃、接种量10%、发酵时间72h。在适宜条件下,制备的蛋白饲料蛋白含量达37.40%,废水COD降低72.29%。

  7. Study of calendula and Gaillardia growth in two composts prepared from agroindustrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudsari, O Nouri; Akbari, B

    2007-05-01

    Two composts prepared from agroindustrial wastes were assayed as substrates: C1 from brewing waste (yeast and malt) plus lemon tree pruning and C2 from the solid fraction of olive mill wastewater plus olive leaves. Sixteen substrates were prepared by combining each compost with Sphagnum peat or a Commercial Substrate (CS) in different proportions. The nutrients (N and K) provided by the composts, which acted as slow-release fertilizers, influenced especially the development of calendula, although the physical and physicochemical properties such as total pore space and Electrical Conductivity (EC) were also relevant. On the other hand, in the salt-sensitive Gaillardia hybrid, EC and chloride concentration were the main factors influencing growth. The best results were found in substrates prepared by mixing C1 at up to 75% with peat, or at up to 50% with CS, or by mixing C2 at up to 50% with peat or CS, for calendula. For salt-sensitive species such as Gaillardia, adequate substrates for plant development were found for C1 at up to 50% with peat or CS, but the use of C2 should be limited to 25% in mixtures with peat or CS. Therefore, composts of agroindustrial origin such as these can be used as an alternative to peat and CSs for growing ornamental plants, provided the mixture contains at least 25% peat or CS.

  8. Indium tin oxide nanosized composite powder prepared using waste ITO target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiaxiang; GAN Yong; ZENG Shengnan

    2005-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (TTO) nano-particles were prepared directly using waste ITO target, which had been coated by magnetron controlled sputtering. The waste ITO target was cleaned with de-ionized water, and then dissolved in acid, filtrated, neutralized, manipulated through azeotropic distillation and finally dried, and in this way the precursor of indium tin hydroxide was obtained. The nanosized ITO composite powder was prepared after the precursor heat-treated at 500C for 2h. TEM images show a narrow distribution of particle size is 5-20 nm and the particle size can be controlled. Its granule has a spherical shape and the dispersion of the particle is well. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate the only cubic In2O3 phase in the ITO powder heat-treated at 500C. The purity of ITO composite powder is 99.9907%. The content of indium within filtrate was detected by using the EDTA titration of determination of indium in the ITO powder and ITO target. Apfully prepared by heat-treating.

  9. Non-destructive assay of drum package radioactive wastes utilizing tomographic gamma scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausbrooks, K. L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A methodology for nondestructive assay of drum packaged radioactive waste materials is investigated using Emission Computed Tomography procedures. A requirement of this method is accurate gamma attenuation correction. This is accomplished by the use of a constant density distribution for the drum content, thereby requiring the need for a homogeneous medium. The current predominant NDA technique is the use of the Segmented Gamma Scanner. Tomographic Gamma Scanning improves upon this method by providing a low resolution three-dimensional image of the source distribution, yielding both spatial and activity information. Reconstruction of the source distribution is accomplished by utilization of algebraic techniques with a nine by six voxel model with detector information gathered over scanning intervals of ninety degrees. Construction of a linear system to describe the scenario was accomplished using a point-source response function methodology, where a 54 x 120 matrix contained the projected detector responses for each source-detector geometry. Entries in this matrix were calculated using the point-kernal shielding code QAD-CGGP. Validation was performed using the MCNP photon transport code. Solutions to the linear system were determined using the Non-Negative Least Squares (NNLS) algorithm and the LSMOD algorithm. A series of four scans were performed, each reconstructing the source distribution of a mock-up waste package containing a single 73 mCi 137Cs point source. For each scan, the source was located in a different location. Results of the reconstruction routines accurately predict the location and activity of the source. The range of activity calculated using the NNLS routine is 0.2681 mCi with an average value of 77.7995 mCi. The range of values calculated using LSMOD is 5.1843 mCi with an average of 72.8018 mCi.

  10. Preparation and Application of Chitosan Membranes to Filter Silver from X-ray Film Processing Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyoman Rupiasih, N.; Rustam Purnomo, Rendra; Sumadiyasa, Made

    2016-04-01

    Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide biopolymer which has been widely used in different processes and applications. Chitosan based membranes have been used in reverse osmosis, gas separation, dialysis and pervaporation. The object of this research was investigating the possibility of chitosan membrane used as a filter for removing silver (Ag) from X-ray film processing wastes. Several of chitosan membranes such as M1, M2, M3 and M4 have been prepared for the purpose and filtration was done using dead-end filtration method. The filtration experiments were performed on a flat sheet membrane using pure water and X-ray film processing wastes as feeds. The analysis of silver concentration has been done by atomic absorption spectrometers (AAS). The results show that chitosan membrane M2 gave the highest filtration coefficient (Rcoeff ) i.e. 99.9%, with the pure water flux (PWF) and product flux (PF) are 2972.56 L/m2h and 1761.18 L/m2h respectively. The rejection coefficient of the membranes decreases with increasing the amount of chitosan, while the pure water flux and product flux are increased. The filtration coefficients show that the chitosan membranes are able to filter silver waste from X-ray film processing wastes with performance dependent on their characteristic such as pores size. This suggests that, chitosan membrane can be used as one method that is safe and friendly environment for recovering silver from X-ray film processing waste to improve the quality of treated to an acceptable quality level.

  11. A Two-Stage Waste Gasification Reactor for Mars In-Situ Resource Utilization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build, and test a two-stage waste processing reactor for space applications. Our proposed technology converts waste from space missions into...

  12. Utility of Rice Bran Mixed with Fermentation Extract of Vegetable Waste Unconditioned as Probiotics from Vegetable Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahya Setya Utama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aimed of the study was to enhance utilization of Lactobacillus Sp. and Saccharomyces sp. as starter for fermentation of waste cabbage and green mustard to enhance the utility of rice bran as an ingredient of poultry feed. The first stage of the study was to characterize the extract of fermented wasted vegetable with difference concentration of glucose and different period of time for incubation. Completely randomized design using 3 x 3 factorial with three replications was used for the first stage of the study. The second stage of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the extract of fermented wasted vegetable to improve the quality and utility of rice bran. Completely randomized design with four treatments and 4 replications. The third stage of the study was to obtain the value of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus retention, as well as metabolic energy of rice bran after fermentation in broiler hatching. The third stage analysis was conducted by t-test analysis. The results of the study showed that the microbial characteristics on the extract of fermented wasted vegetable in two days incubation time and 2% concentration of glucose was able to produce pH of 3.80, log of total lactic acid bacteria 7.38 and types of microbes that grow predominantly were Lactobacillus Sp. and Saccharomyces Sp. The effectiveness of the extract fermented wasted vegetable for the fermentation of rice bran were shown in additional concentration of extract wasted vegetable of 40% with a moisture content of  toluene 65.24%, 13.36% ash, 14.93% protein, 7.61% crude fat, 12.39% crude fiber, nitrogen free extract material (NFE 51.59% and 0.07% biomass. The biological value and the availability of fermented rice bran were higher than unfermented rice bran on the broiler chickens after hatching. The values were justified from nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus retention also metabolic energy. The study concluded that the benefits and utility of rice bran could

  13. Removal of lead ions using hydroxyapatite nano-material prepared from phosphogypsum waste

    OpenAIRE

    Mousa, S.M.; N.S. Ammar; H.A. Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Nano-material of calcium hydroxyapatite (n-CaHAP), with particle size ranging from 50 to 57 nm which was prepared from phosphogypsum waste (PG), was used for the removal of lead ions (Pb (II)) from aqueous solutions. It was investigated in a batch reactor under different experimental conditions. Effects of process parameters such as pH, initial Pb ion concentration and adsorbent dose were studied. Also, various types of kinetic modeling have been studied where the lead uptake was quantitative...

  14. Toward environmentally-benign utilization of nonmetallic fraction of waste printed circuit boards as modifier and precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadi, Pejman; Ning, Chao; Ouyang, Weiyi; Xu, Meng [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Lin, Carol S.K. [School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon, E-mail: kemckayg@ust.hk [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad bin Khalifa University, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Environmental impacts of electronic waste and specifically waste printed circuit boards. • Review of the recycling techniques of waste printed circuit boards. • Advantages of physico-mechanical recycling techniques over chemical methods. • Utilization of nonmetallic fraction of waste printed circuit boards as modifier/filler. • Recent advances in the use of nonmetallic fraction of waste printed circuit boards as precursor. - Abstract: Electronic waste, including printed circuit boards, is growing at an alarming rate due to the accelerated technological progress and the shorter lifespan of the electronic equipment. In the past decades, due to the lack of proper economic and environmentally-benign recycling technologies, a major fraction of e-waste generated was either destined to landfills or incinerated with the sole intention of its disposal disregarding the toxic nature of this waste. Recently, with the increasing public awareness over their environment and health issues and with the enaction of more stringent regulations, environmentally-benign recycling has been driven to be an alternative option partially replacing the traditional eco-unfriendly disposal methods. One of the most favorable green technologies has been the mechanical separation of the metallic and nonmetallic fraction of the waste printed circuit boards. Although metallic fraction, as the most profitable component, is used to generate the revenue of the separation process, the nonmetallic fraction (NMF) has been left isolated. Herein, the recent developments in the application of NMF have been comprehensively reviewed and an eco-friendly emerging usage of NMF as a value-added material for sustainable remediation has been introduced.

  15. Utilization of citrus crops processing by-products in the preparation of tarhana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Magala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available After processing of citrus fruits (e.g. lemon, orange, grapefruit, mandarin for juice and essential oils production, approximately 50% of the original fruit mass is left as waste material. Citrus crops processing by-products are valuable components as they contain nutrients such as pectins, saccharides, carotenoids, some vitamins, minerals, polyphenols and substances with antioxidant activity. Utilisation of these kind of side products in the recipe of various cereal product led to enhancement of final product nutritional value and better sensory attributes as well as improvement of product functional properties. In this work was studied the effect of orange and mandarin dietary fibre application at level 5 and 10% (w/w in tarhana preparation and the influence on tarhana fermentation process. Chemical analysis showed, that dietary fibre preparations reached higher concentration of ash, fat and total dietary fibre compared to wheat flour. Wheat flour exhibited higher moisture content and protein concentration than citrus dietary fibre preparations. Orange and mandarin dietary fibre preparations showed higher values of water and oil absorption capacity, swelling capacity and least gellation concentration compared to wheat flour. Application of fruit dietary fibre preparations to tarhana recipe caused a rapid decrease in pH from 4.70 - 5.02 to values 4.31 - 4.51 during fermentation process. Reducing saccharides served as an available source of energy for fermenting microbiota and their concentration decreased from 24.5 - 32.8 to 2.2 - 0.2 g/kg after 144 h incubation. Fermentation also led to lactic acid (1.67 - 2.09 g/kg and acetic acid (1.91 - 2.53 g/kg production as a consequence of present microorganisms metabolic activity. Sensory evaluation of samples showed, that higher proportion of citrus dietary fibre preparations (10% negatively affected taste, odour, consistency and sourness. Among all prepared tarhana samples with proportion of citrus

  16. Iron oxide nanoparticles embedded in activated carbons prepared from hydrothermally treated waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wenming; Björkman, Eva; Yun, Yifeng; Lilliestråle, Malte; Hedin, Niklas

    2014-03-01

    Particles of iron oxide (Fe3O4 ; 20–40 nm) were embedded within activated carbons during the activation of hydrothermally carbonized (HTC) biomasses in a flow of CO2. Four different HTC biomass samples (horse manure, grass cuttings, beer production waste, and biosludge) were used as precursors for the activated carbons. Nanoparticles of iron oxide formed from iron catalyst included in the HTC biomasses. After systematic optimization, the activated carbons had specific surface areas of about 800 m2g1. The pore size distributions of the activated carbons depended strongly on the degree of carbonization of the precursors. Activated carbons prepared from highly carbonized precursors had mainly micropores, whereas those prepared from less carbonized precursors contained mainly mesopores. Given the strong magnetism of the activated carbon–nano-Fe3O4 composites, they could be particularly useful for water purification.

  17. Carbon-mineral adsorbents prepared by pyrolysis of waste materials in the presence of tetrachloromethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leboda, Roman; Charmas, Barbara; Skubiszewska-Zieba, Jadwiga; Chodorowski, Stanislaw; Oleszczuk, Patryk; Gun'ko, Vladimir M; Pokrovskiy, Valery A

    2005-04-01

    Natural bentonite spent in the process of plant oil bleaching was used as an initial material for preparation of carbon-mineral adsorbents. The spent bleaching earth was treated using four procedures: T (thermal treatment); H (hydrothermal treatment); C (thermal treatment with addition of CCl4 vapor); M (modification of porous structure). Raw bentonite, RB (raw bleaching earth), and carbon materials prepared using plant oil were compared. The physicochemical characteristics of the adsorbents were determined using different methods: nitrogen adsorption/desorption, XRD, TEM, and MS-TPD. Carbon-mineral adsorbents contain from 5.23 to 19.92% C (w/w) and carbon adsorbents include from 84.2 to 91.18% C (w/w). Parallel processes of organic substance carbonization, porous structure modification, sublimation or evaporation of metal chlorides, and removal of hydrogen chloride take place during pyrolysis of waste mineral materials in the CCl4 atmosphere.

  18. Simulated Waste for Leaching and Filtration Studies--Laboratory Preparation Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Harry D.; Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2009-10-27

    This report discusses the simulant preparation procedure for producing multi-component simulants for leaching and filtration studies, including development and comparison activities in accordance with the test plan( ) prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590-WTP-TSP-RT-06-006, Rev 0 (Smith 2006). A fundamental premise is that this approach would allow blending of the different components to simulate a wide variety of feeds to be treated in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). For example, a given feed from the planned feed vector could be selected, and the appropriate components would then be blended to achieve a representation of that particular feed. Using the blending of component simulants allows the representation of a much broader spectrum of potential feeds to the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP).

  19. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA.

  20. Utilization of mustard waste isolates for improved production of astaxanthin by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoi, J; Rakariyatham, N; Deming, R L

    2006-04-01

    Astaxanthin production in the wild strain Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous TISTR 5730 was investigated using different mustard waste media, including mustard waste residue extract (MRE), mustard waste residue hydrolysate (MRH), mustard waste precipitated extract (MPE), and mustard waste precipitated hydrolysate (MPH). The growth of X. dendrorhous and the production of astaxanthin were dependent on the type and initial concentrations of mustard waste media. The MPH medium was the best substrate resulting in yields of biomass and astaxanthin of 19.6 g/L and 25.8 mg/L, respectively, under optimal conditions. MPH medium improved astaxanthin production 11-fold compared to the commonly used commercial yeast malt medium, and 1.3-2.1-fold compared to other mustard waste media.

  1. Utilization of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash for sulfoaluminate cement clinker production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Shi, Huisheng; Guo, Xiaolu

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of partially substituting raw materials with municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash in sulfoaluminate cement (SAC) clinker production was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), compressive strength and free expansion ratio testing. Three different leaching tests were used to assess the environmental impact of the produced material. Experimental results show that the replacement of MSWI fly ash could be taken up to 30% in the raw mixes. The good quality SAC clinkers are obtained by controlling the compositional parameters at alkalinity modulus (C(m)) around 1.05, alumina-sulfur ratio (P) around 2.5, alumina-silica ratio (N) around 2.0~3.0 and firing the raw mixes at 1250 °C for 2h. The compressive strengths of SAC are high in early age while that develop slowly in later age. Results also show that the expansive properties of SAC are strongly depended on the gypsum content. Leaching studies of toxic elements in the hydrated SAC-based system reveal that all the investigated elements are well bounded in the clinker minerals or immobilized by the hydration products. Although some limited positive results indicate that the SAC prepared from MSWI fly ash would present no immediate thread to the environment, the long-term toxicity leaching behavior needs to be further studied.

  2. Removal of organic dyes using Cr-containing activated carbon prepared from leather waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luiz C A; Coura, Camila Van Zanten; Guimarães, Iara R; Gonçalves, Maraisa

    2011-09-15

    In this work, hydrogen peroxide decomposition and oxidation of organics in aqueous medium were studied in the presence of activated carbon prepared from wet blue leather waste. The wet blue leather waste, after controlled pyrolysis under CO(2) flow, was transformed into chromium-containing activated carbons. The carbon with Cr showed high microporous surface area (up to 889 m(2)g(-1)). Moreover, the obtained carbon was impregnated with nanoparticles of chromium oxide from the wet blue leather. The chromium oxide was nanodispersed on the activated carbon, and the particle size increased with the activation time. It is proposed that these chromium species on the carbon can activate H(2)O(2) to generate HO radicals, which can lead to two competitive reactions, i.e. the hydrogen peroxide decomposition or the oxidation of organics in water. In fact, in this work we observed that activated carbon obtained from leather waste presented high removal of methylene blue dye combining the adsorption and oxidation processes.

  3. On the Utilization of Pozzolanic Wastes as an Alternative Resource of Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rezaul Karim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, as a supplement of cement, the utilization of pozzolanic materials in cement and concrete manufacturing has increased significantly. This study investigates the scope to use pozzolanic wastes (slag, palm oil fuel ash and rice husk ash as an alkali activated binder (AAB that can be used as an alternative to cement. To activate these materials, sodium hydroxide solution was used at 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 molar concentration added into the mortar, separately. The required solution was used to maintain the flow of mortar at 110% ± 5%. The consistency and setting time of the AAB-paste were determined. Mortar was tested for its flow, compressive strength, porosity, water absorption and thermal resistance (heating at 700 °C and investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results reveal that AAB-mortar exhibits less flow than that of ordinary Portland cement (OPC. Surprisingly, AAB-mortars (with 2.5 molar solution achieved a compressive strength of 34.3 MPa at 28 days, while OPC shows that of 43.9 MPa under the same conditions. Although water absorption and porosity of the AAB-mortar are slightly high, it shows excellent thermal resistance compared to OPC. Therefore, based on the test results, it can be concluded that in the presence of a chemical activator, the aforementioned pozzolans can be used as an alternative material for cement.

  4. Utilization of ground eggshell waste as an adsorbent for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien; Hsien, Kuo-Jong; Hsu, Hsin-Chieh; Lin, Chien-Ming; Lin, Keng-Yu; Chiu, Chun-Hsiang

    2008-04-01

    The adsorption of cationic basic blue 9 and anionic acid orange 51 from aqueous solution onto the calcified eggshell (ES) and its ground eggshell powder (ESP) was carried out by varying the process parameters such as agitation speed, initial dye concentration, adsorbent mass and temperature. The adsorption potential for basic blue 9 onto ESP is far lower than that for acid orange 51, mainly due to the ionic interaction between the acid dye with the sulfonate groups and the positively charged sites on the surface of ESP. The adsorption capacity of acid orange 51 onto ES is significantly smaller than that onto ESP, which is in line with their pore properties (i.e., 1 vs. 21 m(2)/g). The experimental results showed that the adsorption process can be well described with a simple model, the pseudo-second-order model. According to the equilibrium adsorption capacity from the fitting of pseudo-second order reaction model, it was further found that the Freundlich model yields a somewhat better fit than the Langmuir model in the adsorption of acid orange 51 onto ESP. In addition, an increase in adsorption temperature from 15 to 45 degrees C significantly enhances the adsorption capacity of acid orange 51 onto ESP, revealing that the adsorption should be an endothermic or chemisorption process. From the results, it is feasible to utilize the ground eggshell waste as an effective adsorbent for removal of anionic dye from aqueous solution.

  5. The utilization of waste by-products for removing silicate from mineral processing wastewater via chemical precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jianhua; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua; Gao, Zhiyong; Liu, Runqing; Zhang, Qingpeng; Liu, Hang; Meng, Xiangsong

    2017-08-22

    This study investigates an environmentally friendly technology that utilizes waste by-products (waste acid and waste alkali liquids) to treat mineral processing wastewater. Chemical precipitation is used to remove silicate from scheelite (CaWO4) cleaning flotation wastewater and the waste by-products are used as a substitute for calcium chloride (CaCl2). A series of laboratory experiments is conducted to explain the removal of silicate and the characterization and formation mechanism of calcium silicate. The results show that silicate removal reaches 90% when the Ca:Si molar ratio exceeds 1.0. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the characterization and formation of calcium silicate. The pH is the key factor for silicate removal, and the formation of polysilicic acid with a reduction of pH can effectively improve the silicate removal and reduce the usage of calcium. The economic analysis shows that the treatment costs with waste acid (0.63 $/m(3)) and waste alkali (1.54 $/m(3)) are lower than that of calcium chloride (2.38 $/m(3)). The efficient removal of silicate is confirmed by industrial testing at a plant. The results show that silicate removal reaches 85% in the recycled water from tailings dam. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm to Perform Nuclear Waste Cleanup of Underground Waste Storage Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, J.A.; Burks, B.L.; DePew, R.E.; Falter, D.D.; Glassell, R.L.; Glover, W.H.; Killough, S.M.; Lloyd, P.D.; Love, L.J.; Randolph, J.D.; Van Hoesen, S.D.; Vesco, D.P.

    1999-04-01

    The Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) is a selectable seven or eight degree-of-freedom robot arm with a 16.5 ft (5.03 m) reach and a payload capacity of 200 lb. (90.72 kg). The utility arm is controlled in either joystick-based telerobotic mode or auto sequence robotics mode. The MLDUA deployment system deploys the utility arm vertically into underground radioactive waste storage tanks located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These tanks are constructed of gunite material and consist of two 25 ft (7.62 m) diameter tanks in the North Tank Farm and six 50 ft (15.24 m) diameter tanks in the South Tank Farm. After deployment inside a tank, the utility arm reaches and grasps the confined sluicing end effecter (CSEE) which is attached to the hose management arm (HMA). The utility arm positions the CSEE within the tank to allow the HMA to sluice the tank's liquid and solid waste from the tank. The MLDUA is used to deploy the characterization end effecter (CEE) and gunite scarifying end effecter (GSEE) into the tank. The CEE is used to survey the tank wall's radiation levels and the physical condition of the walls. The GSEE is used to scarify the tank walls with high-pressure water to remove the wall scale buildup and a thin layer of gunite which reduces the radioactive contamination that is embedded into the gunite walls. The MLDUA is also used to support waste sampling and wall core-sampling operations. Other tools that have been developed for use by the MLDUA include a pipe-plugging end effecter, pipe-cutting end effecter, and pipe-cleaning end effecter. Washington University developed advance robotics path control algorithms for use in the tanks. The MLDUA was first deployed in June 1997 and has operated continuously since then. Operational experience in the first four tanks remediated is presented in this paper.

  7. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  9. Preparation of tetrapod-like ZnO whiskers from waste hot dipping zinc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艺锋; 唐谟堂; 杨声海; 张保平; 杨建广

    2004-01-01

    Large and uniform tetrapod-like ZnO whiskers (T-ZnO) were prepared from waste hot dipping zinc by vapor oxidation and examined by means of X-ray diffraction and ICP-AES analysis and scanning electron microscope.The products are pure hexagonal wurtzite crystals with tetrapod shape and edge size of center body 5 - 6μm and needle length of 100 - 130 μm. The size and shape of ZnO particles are fully controlled by the growth conditions and TZnO can be obtained only at 850 - 1 000 ℃ and total gas flow rate ranging from 40 to 250 L @ h-1 in which the size of the T-ZnO particles varies slightly with temperature. The process of the formation of T-ZnO is that T-ZnO may nucleate at the initial stage with a complete tetrapod shape and develop to the large size, but not the process of preferential growth of octahedral nuclei and subsequent growth of the needles. The experiment presents a new method to prepare T-ZnO economically by using the waste hot dipping zinc.

  10. Preparation and physicochemical characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from industrial waste cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambiraj, S.; Ravi Shankaran, D.

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to develop a simple and low-cost method for the production of high-performance cellulose nanomaterials from renewable and sustainable resources. Here, cellulose microcrystals (CMCs) were prepared by controlled acidic and basic hydrolysis of cotton from textile industry wastes. The resulted CMCs were further converted into cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with high crystallinity by acidic hydrolysis. The physicochemical characteristics and morphological feature of CMCs and CNCs were studied by various analytical techniques such as UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fluorescence spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The isolated CNCs possess a needle-like morphological structure with the longitudinal and lateral dimensions of 180 ± 60 nm, 10 ± 1 nm, respectively. The AFM result reveals that the CNCs have a high aspect ratio of 40 ± 14 nm and the average thickness of 6.5 nm. The XRD and TEM analysis indicate that the synthesized CNCs possess face-centered cubic crystal structure. Preliminary experiments were carried out to fabricate CNCs incorporated poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) film. The results suggest that the concept of waste to wealth could be well executed from the prepared CNCs, which have great potential for various applications including bio-sensors, food packaging and drug delivery applications.

  11. Preparation of creating active carbon from cigarette filter waste using microwave-induced KOH activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Yanuar; Umar, Lazuardi

    2017-05-01

    For the first time, cigarette filter waste, which is an environmental hazardous material, is used as basic material prepared for creating activated carbon (AC) via KOH chemical activation using a microwave input power of 630 W and irradiation time of 20 minutes. Active carbon was characterized by TGA, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and absorption of methylene blue (MB). The results of x-ray diffraction showed that active carbon has a semi-crystalline structure with peaks of 2θ of 22.87° and 43.70°. Active carbon microstructure analysis showed that the layer height (Lc ) is inversely proportional to the width of the layer (La ), and the distance between the two layers is d002 and d100 , which depends significantly on the ratio of AC: KOH. It was found that the optimum BET surface area and adsorption capacity for MB were 328.13 m2 / g and 88.76 m2 / g, respectively. The results revealed the potential to prepare activated carbon from cigarette filter waste using microwave irradiation.

  12. Utilization of red mud for the purification of waste waters from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luka, Mikelic; Visnja, Orescanin; Stipe, Lulic [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Lab. for radioecology, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    Sorption of the radionuclides and heavy metals from low level liquid radioactive waste on the coagulant produced from bauxite waste (red mud and waste base) was presented. Research was conducted on composite annual samples of waste water collected in the Waste Monitor Tank (W.M.T.) from Kro Nuclear Power Plant during each month. Activities of radionuclide in W.M.T. were measured before and after purification using high purity germanium detector. Also, elemental concentrations in W.M.T. before and after purification were measured by source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (E.D.X.R.F.). It has been showed that activated red mud is excellent purification agent for the removal of radionuclides present in low level liquid radioactive waste. Removal efficiency was 100% for the radionuclides {sup 58}Co and {sup 60}Co 100%, and over 60% for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs. (authors)

  13. Tank waste remediation system operation and utilization plan,vol. I {ampersand} II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkbride, R.A.

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (RL) is in the first stages of contracting with private companies for the treatment and immobilization of tank wastes. The components of tank waste retrieval, treatment, and immobilization have been conceived in two phases (Figure 1.0-1). To meet RL's anticipated contractual requirements, the Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) companies will be required to provide waste feeds to the private companies consistent with waste envelopes that define the feeds in terms of quantity, and concentration of both chemicals and radionuclides. The planning that supports delivery of the feed must be well thought out in four basic areas: (1) Low-activity waste (LAW)/high-level waste (HLW) feed staging plans. How is waste moved within the existing tanks to deliver waste that corresponds to the defined feed envelopes to support the Private Contractor's processing schedule and processing rate? (2) Single-shell tank (SST) retrieval sequence. How are Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1994) milestones for SST retrieval integrated into the Phase I processing to set the stage for Phase II processing to complete the mission? (3) Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flowsheet. How do materials flow from existing tank inventories through: (1) blending and pretreatment functions in the double-shell tanks (DSTs), (2) contractor processing facilities, and (3) stored waste forms (Figure 1.0-2); (4) Storage and disposal of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) and immobilized high-level waste (IHLW) product. How is the ILAW and IHLW product received from the private companies, the ILAW disposed onsite, and the IHLW stored onsite until final disposal?

  14. A novel recovery method of copper from waste printed circuit boards by supercritical methanol process: Preparation of ultrafine copper materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Fu-Rong; Weng, Huiwei; Qi, Yingying; Yu, Gending; Zhang, Zhigang; Zhang, Fu-Shen; Chen, Mengjun

    2017-02-01

    In this study, supercritical methanol (SCM) process was successfully used for the preparation of ultrafine copper materials from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) after nitric acid pretreatment. Waste PCBs were pretreated twice in nitric acid. Sn and Pb were recovered by the first nitric acid pretreatment. The leach liquor with a high concentration of copper ions after the second nitric acid leaching was subjected to SCM process. The mixture of Cu and Cu2O with poor uniformity of particle size was formed due to the effect of ferric iron contained in the leach liquor of waste PCBs, while more uniform and spherical Cu particles with high monodispersity and smaller size could be prepared after the removal of Fe. The size of Cu particles increased obviously with the decline of SCM temperature, and particles became highly aggregated when the reaction temperature decreased to 300°C. The size of Cu particles decreased markedly with the decrease of initial concentration of copper ion in the leach liquor of waste PCBs. It is believed that the process developed in this study is simple and practical for the preparation of ultrafine copper materials from waste PCBs with the aim of recycling these waste resources as a high value-added product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Leaching tests as a tool in waste management to evaluate the potential for utilization of waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloot, H.A. van der [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Kosson, D.S. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Several waste materials from large scale industrial processes possess technical properties that would allow their use in certain construction applications, e.g. coal fly ash, slags from large scale industrial melting and ore processing, and incinerator residues. The disposal of such materials requires space and controlled landfills to minimize long term environmental risks. The beneficial use of such bulk materials is an attractive alternative, if it can be shown that such applications are environmentally acceptable. For this management of wastes and the decision to either dispose or use, information on the environmental properties of materials is needed. Leaching tests have been developed to assess such properties. These have been designed typically in relation to regulatory tools, not as instruments to guide the management of wastes and the possibilities to improve material properties. New methods have been designed to address this aspect, in which maximum benefit can be derived from knowledge of the systematic behaviour of materials and the already existing knowledge in other countries producing similar residues. After initial detailed characterization, concise procedures can be used for control purposes focused on the typical aspects of a certain residue stream. Examples of existing knowledge in this field will be presented.

  16. Novel utilization of waste marine sponge (Demospongiae) as a catalyst in ultrasound-assisted transesterification of waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindryawati, Noor; Maniam, Gaanty Pragas

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the potential of Na-silica waste sponge as a source of low cost catalyst in the transesterification of waste cooking oil aided by ultrasound. In this work an environmentally friendly and efficient transesterification process using Na-loaded SiO2 from waste sponge skeletons as a solid catalyst is presented. The results showed that the methyl esters content of 98.4±0.4wt.% was obtainable in less than an hour (h) of reaction time at 55°C. Optimization of reaction parameters revealed that MeOH:oil, 9:1; catalyst, 3wt.% and reaction duration of 30min as optimum reaction conditions. The catalyst is able to tolerant free fatty acid and moisture content up to 6% and 8%, respectively. In addition, the catalyst can be reused for seven cycles while maintaining the methyl esters content at 86.3%. Ultrasound undoubtedly assisted in achieving this remarkable result in less than 1h reaction time. For the kinetics study at 50-60°C, a pseudo first order model was proposed, and the activation energy of the reaction is determined as 33.45kJ/mol using Arrhenius equation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Recovery of plastic wastes from dumpsite as refuse-derived fuel and its utilization in small gasification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Charnnok, Boonya; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

    2010-03-01

    An effort to utilize solid wastes at dumpsite as refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was carried out. The produced RDF briquette was then utilized in the gasification system. These wastes were initially examined for their physical composition and chemical characteristics. The wastes contained high plastic content of 24.6-44.8%, majority in polyethylene plastic bag form. The plastic wastes were purified by separating them from other components through manual separation and trommel screen after which their content increased to 82.9-89.7%. Subsequently, they were mixed with binding agent (cassava root) and transformed into RDF briquette. Maximum plastic content in RDF briquette was limit to 55% to maintain physical strength and maximum chlorine content. The RDF briquette was tested in a down-draft gasifier. The produced gas contained average energy content of 1.76 MJ/m(3), yielding cold gas efficiency of 66%. The energy production cost from this RDF process was estimated as USD0.05 perkWh.

  18. Demonstration of an on-site PAFC cogeneration system with waste heat utilization by a new gas absorption chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Tatsuo [Tokyo Gas Company, LTD, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Analysis and cost reduction of fuel cells is being promoted to achieve commercial on-site phosphoric acid fuel cells (on-site FC). However, for such cells to be effectively utilized, a cogeneration system designed to use the heat generated must be developed at low cost. Room heating and hot-water supply are the most simple and efficient uses of the waste heat of fuel cells. However, due to the short room-heating period of about 4 months in most areas in Japan, the sites having demand for waste heat of fuel cells throughout the year will be limited to hotels and hospitals Tokyo Gas has therefore been developing an on-site FC and the technology to utilize tile waste heat of fuel cells for room cooling by means of an absorption refrigerator. The paper describes the results of fuel cell cogeneration tests conducted on a double effect gas absorption chiller heater with auxiliary waste heat recovery (WGAR) that Tokyo Gas developed in its Energy Technology Research Laboratory.

  19. Enrichment of PCDDs/PCDFs in peripheral utilities of the municipal solid waste incineration facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sam-Cwan; Song, Geum-Ju; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Ko, Yun-Hwa; Hunsinger, Hans

    2013-05-01

    This study was performed to suggest the improvements through measuring the amounts of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), re-synthesized in peripheral utilities (PUs) of a commercial-scale municipal solid waste incineration facility (MSWIF) where a few research results existed. The PUs examined in this study consisted of air pre-heaters (APHs) and gas/gas re-heater (GGRH) and kerosene-fired duct burner for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process. PCDDs/PCDFs in flue gas were simultaneously measured at the inlet and outlet of PUs. Flue gas was cooled down from 380 °C to 249 °C by exchanging the heat with fresh air in APHs, and then heated up to 383 °C by GGRH and duct burner from 164 °C at the outlet of bag filter. The results showed that PCDDs/PCDFs were 3-4 times higher within this temperature range of PUs. In comparison of PCDDs/PCDFs concentrations at the inlet with those at the outlet of PUs, particulate-phase PCDDs/PCDFs were about 9.5-10 times enriched while gaseous-phase ones were decreased by about 33-41%. The PCDDs/PCDFs re-synthesized in the PUs, where PCDDs were relatively higher than PCDFs, showed somewhat different patterns compared to those formed at incinerators and emitted at stack. Through the investigations for PUs, we conclude that the PUs used in MSWIFs was a potential source for de novo synthesis of PCDDs/PCDFs.

  20. Combined energy production and waste management in manned spacecraft utilizing on-demand hydrogen production and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitzur, Shani; Rosenband, Valery; Gany, Alon

    2016-11-01

    Energy supply and waste management are among the most significant challenges in human spacecraft. Great efforts are invested in managing solid waste, recycling grey water and urine, cleaning the atmosphere, removing CO2, generating and saving energy, and making further use of components and products. This paper describes and investigates a concept for managing waste water and urine to simultaneously produce electric and heat energies as well as fresh water. It utilizes an original technique for aluminum activation to react spontaneously with water at room temperature to produce hydrogen on-site and on-demand. This reaction has further been proven to be effective also when using waste water and urine. Applying the hydrogen produced in a fuel cell, one obtains electric energy as well as fresh (drinking) water. The method was compared to the traditional energy production technology of the Space Shuttle, which is based on storing the fuel cell reactants, hydrogen and oxygen, in cryogenic tanks. It is shown that the alternative concept presented here may provide improved safety, compactness (reduction of more than one half of the volume of the hydrogen storage system), and management of waste liquids for energy generation and drinking water production. Nevertheless, it adds mass compared to the cryogenic hydrogen technology. It is concluded that the proposed method may be used as an emergency and backup power system as well as an additional hydrogen source for extended missions in human spacecraft.

  1. Hydrogen Production By Anaerobic Fermentation Using Agricultural and Food Processing Wastes Utilizing a Two-Stage Digestion System

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Reese S

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen production by means of anaerobic fermentation was researched utilizing three different substrates. Synthetic wastewater, dairy manure, and cheese whey were combined together at different concentrations under batch anaerobic conditions to determine the optimal hydrogen producing potential and waste treatment of each. Cheese whey at a concentration of 55% was combined with dairy manure at a concentration of 45% to produce 1.53 liters of hydrogen per liter of substrate. These results...

  2. The use of Waste Materials in Utility Poles, Crossarms, Paver, and Reef Balls Concrete Structures: Advantages and Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Franke Portella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial residues such as sludge from water treatment plants (Swtp from centrifuged method; electrical porcelain residues (Pw; silica fume (Sf1 and Sf2; tire-rubber waste were evaluated in order to be used in concrete structures of electrical energy and environmental sectors, such as utility poles, crossarms, and reef balls technology. The results showed the necessity for evaluating different recycling concentrations in concrete, concomitantly to physicochemical tests allowing to diagnose natural and accelerated aging.

  3. Synergistic Utilization of Coal Fines and Municipal Solid Waste in Coal-Fired Boilers. Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Zamansky; P. Maly; M. Klosky

    1998-06-12

    A feasibility study was performed on a novel concept: to synergistically utilize a blend of waste coal fines with so-called E-fuel for cofiring and reburning in utility and industrial boilers. The E-fuel is produced from MSW by the patented EnerTech's slurry carbonization process. The slurry carbonization technology economically converts MSW to a uniform, low-ash, low-sulfur, and essentially chlorine-free fuel with energy content of about 14,800 Btu/lb.

  4. Utilization of HTR reflector graphite as embedding matrix for radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fachinger, J., E-mail: fachinger@fnag.eu [Furnaces Nuclear Applications Grenoble, Wilhelm-Rohn-Strasse 35, 63450 Hanau (Germany); Grosse, K.H. [Furnaces Nuclear Applications Grenoble, Wilhelm-Rohn-Strasse 35, 63450 Hanau (Germany); Hrovat, M.; Seemann, R. [ALD, Wilhelm-Rohn-Strasse 35, 63450 Hanau (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The reflector graphite of an HTR reactor has to be handled as radioactive waste after the operational period of the reactor. However the waste management of irradiated graphite from Magnox reactors shows, that waste management of even low contaminated graphite could be expensive and requires special retrieval, treatment and disposal technologies for safe long term storage as low or medium radioactive waste. However the reflector graphite could be transferred into long term stable embedding matrix for high level radioactive waste especially for HTR fuel elements. This can be achieved by closing the pore system of the graphite with a stable inorganic binder, e.g. glass. First investigations proved the sealing of the pore system and the potential for embedding HTR fuel pebbles.

  5. The Utilization of Banana Peel in the Fermentation Liquid in Food Waste Composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Azhari, N. W.

    2016-07-01

    Municipal solid waste in Malaysia contains a high amount of organic matters, particularly food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% from the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Food waste can be converted into useful materials such as compost. However, source separation of food waste for recycling is not commonly practiced in Malaysia due to various constraints. These constraints include low awareness among the waste generators and low demand of the products produced from the food waste such as composts. Composting is one of the alternatives that can be used in food waste disposal from Makanan Ringan Mas. The aim of the study is to convert food waste generated from Makanan Ringan Mas which is a medium sale industry located at Parit Kuari Darat, Batu Pahat by using composting method. The parameters which include temperature, pH value, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium) values has been examined. Banana peel is being used as the fermentation liquid whilst soil and coconut husk were used as the composting medium. Based on the results during the composting process, most of the pH value in each reactor is above 5 and approximately at neutral. This shown that the microbial respiration in the well controlled composting reactor was inhibited and had approached the mature phase. On the other hand, during the period of composting, the overall temperature range from 25 °C to 47 °C which shown the active phase for composting will occoured. As for NPK content Nitrogen value range is 35325 mg/L to 78775 mg/L, Phosphorus, 195.83 mg/L to 471 mg/L and potassium is 422.3 mg/L to 2046 mg/L which is sufficient to use for agricultural purpose. The comparison was made with available organic compost in the market and only showed slightly difference. Nevertheless, in comparison with common fertilizer, the NPK value of organic compost are considerably very low.

  6. Preparing Attitude Scale to Define Students‟ Attitudes about Environment, Recycling, Plastic andPlastic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagri AVAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to introduce an attitude scale in order to define students‟ attitudes about environment, recycling, plastics, plastic waste. In this study, 80 attitude sentences according to 5-point Likert-type scale were prepared and applied to 492 students of 6th grade in the Kastamonu city center of Turkey. The scale consists of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills domains. After the factor analysis it was found that they have 3, 4 and 5 factors accordingly. After the reliability analysis the alpha values for cognitive, affective and psychomotor scales are .854, .871 and .826 respectively. As a result, it is found that the scale can be used to define cognitive, affective and psychomotor attitudes.

  7. Preparation of a Cation Exchanger from Cork Waste: Thermodynamic Study of the Ion Exchange Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An ion exchanger was prepared by sulfonation of cork-waste chars. The exchange properties of the resultant materialwere characterized using Na+, Ca2+ or Fe3+ aqueous solutions, The content of metal ions in the solutions weredetermined by atomic absorption spectrometry. On the basis of the results obtained, the chemical equilibrium andits thermodynamic aspects related to the ion exchange process were studied. It was found that equilibrium constantK varies by the order: Na+<Ca2+<Fe3+, its value increasing with increasing temperature, and that △H°>0 and△S°>0, with -△G° following the sequence: Ca2+>Na+>Fe3+,

  8. Removal of lead ions using hydroxyapatite nano-material prepared from phosphogypsum waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mousa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nano-material of calcium hydroxyapatite (n-CaHAP, with particle size ranging from 50 to 57 nm which was prepared from phosphogypsum waste (PG, was used for the removal of lead ions (Pb (II from aqueous solutions. It was investigated in a batch reactor under different experimental conditions. Effects of process parameters such as pH, initial Pb ion concentration and adsorbent dose were studied. Also, various types of kinetic modeling have been studied where the lead uptake was quantitatively evaluated using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Kaganer–Radushkevich (DKR model. The Pb ions adsorption onto n-CaHAP could best fit the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity (qmax for Pb ions was 769.23 mg/g onto n-CaHAP particles.

  9. Preparation of Porous Ceramisite for Waste Water Treatment Made from Red Mud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Bo; WU Shenbiao; SHI Xiaoyan; YANG Jiakuan

    2007-01-01

    The porous ceramisites for wastewater treatment were made from red mud, which is the industrial waste discharged from the production ofAl2O3. The sintering process and the degreasing experiments with porous ceramisites have been finished. The results show that the sintering temperature control is dominant for the preparation of the porous ceramisites. The optimal sintering temperature is between 1 110-1 120℃,a narrow range. The surface of ceramists is distributed with a lot of coarse holes with diameters of about 1-10μm. Moreover, the sintering temperatures have a great influence on the efficiency of degreasing, and the curve between the sintering temperature and the efficiency of degreasing is like a parabola.

  10. Preparation and performance of rare earth Zr catalyst for reforming waste plastics cracking product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁兴中; 曾光明; 陈晓青; 陈志勇; 鄢钢

    2003-01-01

    The rare earth Zr catalyst, whose carrier was Al2O3, was prepared by co-precipitation with Zr(NO3)2,Al(NO3 )3, and(NH2)2CO as the raw materials. The obtained catalyst was used to reform the waste plastic crackingproduct. As the Zr content in the catalyst increases, the yields of gasoline, gas, and the rate of carbon deposition in-crease, but the yields of diesel and heavy oil decrease. The optimum Zr content of the catalyst is 5%. At 290 ℃,with this most suitable catalyst, the yield of liquid fuel oil is the highest, about 86.10%, and research octance num-ber(RON) of the gasoline is 92.15.

  11. Preparation of Microcapsules Containing β-Carotene with Thermo Sensitive Curdlan by Utilizing Reverse Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinari Taguchi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have tried to microencapsulate β-carotene with curdlan of a thermogelation type polysaccharide. Microcapsules were prepared by utilizing reverse dispersion, in which salada oil was the continuous phase (O’ and the curdlan water slurry (W was the dispersed phase. β-carotene (O as a core material was broken into fine oil droplets in the dispersed phase to form the (O/W dispersion. The (O/W dispersion was poured in the continuous phase (O’ and stirred to form the (O/W/O’ dispersion at room temperature and then, temperature of the dispersion was raised to 80 °C to prepare curdlan-microcapusles containing β-carotene. In this microencapsulation process, the concentrations of curdlan and oil soluble surfactant and the impeller speed to form the (O/W/O’ dispersion were mainly changed stepwise. We were able to prepare microcapsules by the microencapsulation method adopted here. The content of core material was increased with the curdlan concentration and decreased with the impeller speed and the oil soluble surfactant concentration. With the curdlan concentration, the drying rate of microcapsules was decreased and the retention ability for water was increased due to the stable preservation of β-carotene.

  12. Thermal treatment and utilization of Al-rich waste in high calcium fly ash geopolymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Rattanasak, Ubolluk; Vongvoradit, Pimdao; Jenjirapanya, Supichart

    2012-09-01

    The Al-rich waste with aluminium and hydrocarbon as the major contaminant is generated at the wastewater treatment unit of a polymer processing plant. In this research, the heat treatment of this Al-rich waste and its use to adjust the silica/alumina ratio of the high calcium fly ash geopolymer were studied. To recycle the raw Al-rich waste, the waste was dried at 110°C and calcined at 400 to 1000°C. Mineralogical analyses were conducted using X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the phase change. The increase in calcination temperature to 600, 800, and 1000°C resulted in the phase transformation. The more active alumina phase of active γ-Al2O3 was obtained with the increase in calcination temperature. The calcined Al-rich waste was then used as an additive to the fly ash geopolymer by mixing with high calcium fly ash, water glass, 10 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and sand. Test results indicated that the calcined Al-rich waste could be used as an aluminium source to adjust the silica/alumina ratio and the strength of geopolymeric materials. The fly ash geopolymer mortar with 2.5wt% of the Al-rich waste calcined at 1000°C possessed the 7-d compressive strength of 34.2 MPa.

  13. [Preparation of porous ceramics based on waste ceramics and its Ni2+ adsorption characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Li; Wang, Cheng-Zhi; Shi, Ce; Shang, Ling-Ling; Ma, Rui; Dong, Wan-Li

    2013-07-01

    The preparation conditions of porous ceramics were determined by SEM, XRD and FT-IR characterizations as well as the nickel removal ability of porous ceramics to be: the mass fraction w of sesbania powder doped was 4%, and the calcination temperature was 800 degrees C. SEM and pore structure characterization illustrated that calcination caused changes in the structure and morphology of waste ceramics. With the increase of calcination temperature, the specific surface area and pore volume decreased, while the aperture increased. EDS analyses showed that the main elements of both the original waste porcelain powder and the porous ceramics were Si, Al and O. The SEM, XRD and FT-IR characterization of porous ceramics illustrated that the structure of porous ceramics was stable before and after adsorption. The series of experiments of Ni2+ adsorption using these porous ceramics showed that when the dosage of porous ceramics was 10 g x L(-1), the adsorption time was 60 min, the pH value was 6.32, and the concentration of nickel-containing wastewater was below 100 mg x L(-1), the Ni2+ removal of wastewater reached 89.7%. Besides, the porous ceramics showed higher removal efficiency on nickel in the wastewater. The Ni(2+)-containing wastewater was processed by the porous ceramics prepared, and the adsorption dynamics and adsorption isotherms of Ni2+ in wastewater by porous ceramics were investigated. The research results showed that the Ni2+ adsorption process of porous ceramics was in accordance with the quasi second-order kinetic model (R2 = 0.999 9), with Q(e) of 9.09 mg x g(-1). The adsorption process can be described by the Freundlich equation and Langmuir equation, and when the temperature increased from 20 degrees C to 40 degrees C, the maximum adsorption capacity Q(m) increased from 14.49 mg x g(-1) to 15.38 mg x g(-1).

  14. 废碳酸锶制备八水氢氧化锶联产硝酸钠研究%STUDY ON PREPARATION OF STRONTIUM HYDROXIDE AND SODIUM NITRATE FROM WASTE STRONTIUM CARBONATE.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志余

    2001-01-01

    The process for preparation of strontium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from waste strontium, which comes from industrial strontium carbonate production, is introduced. It provides a new way for utilizing waste strontium carbonate.%介绍了利用工业SCO3生产过程中产生的废次碳酸锶生产八水氢氧化锶及硝酸钠的工艺,为废锶的综合利用提出了一条新的途径。

  15. Utilization of Agro-industrial Wastes for the Simultaneous Production of Amylase and Xylanase by Thermophilic Actinomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Singh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agro-industrial wastes such as sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran, rice bran, corn cob and wheat straw are cheapest and abundantly available natural carbon sources. The present study was aimed to production of amylase and xylanase simultaneously using agro-industrial waste as the sole carbon source. Seven thermophilic strains of actinomycete were isolated from the mushroom compost. Among of these, strain designated MSC702 having high potential to utilize agro-industrial wastes for the production of amylase and xylanase. Strain MSC702 was identified as novel species of Streptomyces through morphological characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Enzyme production was determined using 1% (w/v of various agro-industrial waste in production medium containing (g/100mL: K2HPO4(0.1, (NH42SO4(0.1, NaCl (0.1, MgSO4(0.1 at pH 7.0 after incubation of 48 h at 50°C. The amylase activity (373.89 IU/mL and xylanase activity (30.15 IU/mL was maximum in rice bran. The decreasing order of amylase and xylanase activity in different type of agro-industrial wastes were found rice bran (RB > corn cob (CC > wheat bran (WB > wheat straw (WS > sugarcane bagasse (SB and rice bran (RB > wheat bran (WB > wheat straw (WS > sugarcane bagasse (SB > corn cob (CC, respectively. Mixed effect of different agro-industrial wastes was examined in different ratios. Enzyme yield of amylase and xylanase was ~1.3 and ~2.0 fold higher with RB: WB in 1:2 ratio.

  16. Proceedings of the DOE residue and waste fuels utilization program contract or review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    Commercialization of wood combustion was discussed at this meeting. The use of agricultural and wood wastes as energy sources was also discussed. Separate abstracts were written for individual items. (DC)

  17. Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, E.; Duguid, J.; Henry, R.; Karell, E.; Laidler, J.; McDeavitt, S.; Thompson, M.; Toth, M.; Williamson, M.; Willit, J.

    1999-08-12

    In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD&D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years.

  18. SOLID AND LIQUID PINEAPPLE WASTE UTILIZATION FOR LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION USING Lactobacillus delbrueckii

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    The liquid and solid  pineapple wastes contain mainly sucrose, glucose, fructose and other nutrients. It therefore can potentially be used as carbon source for fermentation to produce organic acid. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for production of biodegradable lactate polymer. The experiments were  carried out in batch fermentation using  the  liquid and solid pineapple wastes to produce lactic acid. The anaerobic fermentation of ...

  19. UTILIZATION OF POULTRY, COW AND KITCHEN WASTES FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Animasahun

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The amount of solid wastes generated in developing countries such as Nigeria has steadily increased over the last two decades as a result of population explosion and continuous growth of industries and agricultural practices. In agriculture, particularly cattle rearing, large quantities of cow wastes are generated, which could be used as biogas inputs to compliment the fuel usage alternative. In addition, a large number of families generate heavy wastes in the kitchen on a daily basis, which could be converted to economic benefits. In this work, a comparative study of biogas production from poultry droppings, cattle dung, and kitchen wastes was conducted under the same operating conditions. 3kg of each waste was mixed with 9L of water and loaded into the three waste reactors. Biogas production was measured for a period of 40 days and at an average temperature of 30.5oC. Biogas production started on the 7th day, and attained maximum value on the 14th days for reactor 1. Production reached its peak on the 14th day with 85´10-3dm3 of gas produced in reactor 2. For reactor 3, biogas production started on the 8th day and production reached a peak value on the 14th day. The average biogas production from poultry droppings, cow dung and kitchen waste was 0.0318dm3/day, 0.0230dm3/day and 0.0143dm3/day, respectively. It is concluded that the wastes can be managed through conversion into biogas, which is a source of income generation for the society.

  20. Using tobacco waste extract in pre-culture medium to improve xylose utilization for l-lactic acid production from cellulosic waste by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuxi; Wang, Yuanliang; Zhang, Jianrong; Pan, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the high-titer l-lactic acid production from cellulosic waste using Rhizopus oryzae. The tobacco waste water-extract (TWE) added with 5g/L glucose and 0.1g/L vitamin C was optimized as pre-culture medium for R. oryzae. Results found that compared to traditional pre-culture medium, it improved xylose consumption rate up to 2.12-fold and enhanced l-lactic acid yield up to 1.73-fold. The highest l-lactic acid concentration achieved was 173.5g/L, corresponding to volumetric productivity of 1.45g/Lh and yield of 0.860g/g total reducing sugar in fed-batch fermentation. This process achieves efficient production of polymer-grade l-lactic acid from cellulosic feedstocks, lowers the cost of fungal cell pre-culture and provides a novel way for re-utilization of tobacco waste.

  1. The upcycling of post-industrial PP/PET waste streams through in-situ microfibrillar preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delva, Laurens, E-mail: Laurens.Delva@ugent.be; Ragaert, Kim, E-mail: Kim.Ragaert@ugent.be; Cardon, Ludwig, E-mail: Ludwig.Cardon@ugent.be [Centre for Polymer and Materials Technologies (CPMT), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark 915, 9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium)

    2015-12-17

    Post-industrial plastic waste streams can be re-used as secondary material streams for polymer processing by extrusion or injection moulding. One of the major commercially available waste stream contains polypropylene (PP) contaminated with polyesters (mostly polyethylene tereftalate - PET). An important practical hurdle for the direct implementation of this waste stream is the immiscibility of PP and PET in the melt, which leads to segregation within the polymer structure and adversely affects the reproducibility and mechanical properties of the manufactured parts. It has been indicated in literature that the creation of PET microfibrils in the PP matrix could undo these drawbacks and upcycle the PP/PET combination. Within the current research, a commercially available virgin PP/PET was evaluated for the microfibrillar preparation. The mechanical (tensile and impact) properties, thermal properties and morphology of the composites were characterized at different stages of the microfibrillar preparation.

  2. Compilation of reports prepared for the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Task Force on Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This report contains reports prepared for the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Task Force on Radioactive Waste Management, from experts in the United States. The contents of the report focus mainly on public opinion, and government policies as perceived by the public.

  3. Fermentation of a Malaysian Bacillus thuringiensis serotype H-14 isolate, a mosquito microbial control agent utilizing local wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H L; Seleena, P

    1991-03-01

    A screening program searching for indigenous microbial control agents of mosquitos in Malaysia is initiated since 1987 and to date at least 20 isolates of mosquitocidal Bacillus thuringiensis serotypes have been obtained. Preliminary field evaluation of several isolates indicated that they are highly effective in the control of medically important mosquito species. For operational purposes, there is an urgent need to produce this agent utilizing cheap and locally available wastes through fermentation biotechnology. Fermentation studies in shake-flasks containing standard nutrient broth and soya bean waste, respectively, indicate that it takes about 37 hours for a Malaysian isolate of B. thuringiensis serotype H-14 to mature. In the grated coconut waste, fishmeal and rice bran, the bacteria took 28 hours, 26 hours and 126 hours respectively to mature. The endotoxin was harvested from the standard nutrient broth at 55 hours and at 50 hours from soybean, grated coconut waste and fishmeal. The endotoxin could only be harvested 150 hours after inoculation from rice bran medium. However, no bacterial growth was detected in palm oil effluent. In terms of endotoxin and biomass production, fishmeal appears to be a suitable medium. Variations in the pH of the fermenting media were also noted.

  4. Experimental performance of a waste heat recovery and utilization system with a looped water-in-steel heat pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeebullah, M.H.; Akyurt, M.; Najjar, Y.S.H.; El-Kalay, A.K. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). College of Engineering

    1998-07-01

    An experimental facility is described for the recovery, by means of heat-pipes, of waste-heat from exhaust gases, and the utilization of the recovered energy to cool ambient air. To this end, heat of combustion gases, generated in a stainless-steel combustion chamber, is recovered from the stack by means of a heat-pipe system. The recovered heat is utilized to run a modified commercial aqua-ammonia absorption chiller. Chilled water from the chiller is supplied to a fan-coil type cooling tunnel to cool the intake air of a (conceptual) gas turbine engine to boost its performance. It is concluded from test results that the experimental facility performs well, and that it behaves as predicted by modeling and simulation studies. The system is able to extract between 70 and 93% of the technically recoverable energy from exhaust gases, and utilizes the extracted energy to cool air. (Author)

  5. A Study on the Density of Agglomerates Prepared from Cork Wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The density of black regranulate (BR) of cork and of black agglomerate (BA) and composite agglomerate (CA) prepared fromsuch a waste by different methods was investigated. The preparation of the agglomerates was undertaken by controlling thespecimen thickness for BA and the particle size for BR and the binder dosage for CA. The mass changes produced in theoven-drying treatment at 376.15 K of the agglomerates and in their subsequent stabilization under ambient conditions werealso analyzed. The density was determined by standard methods. For BR, the bulk density first decreased and then increasedwith decreasing particle size. It was much lower than the apparent density of the agglomeration products of cork. Although toa lesser extent, the density was also lower for BA than for CA. It was higher for the smaller thickness specimens of BA. In thecase of CA, the density followed the same variation trends as for BR. Furthermore it increased significantly with the increasein resin dosage. This resulted in a noticeable increase in the weight loss during the oven-drying and in a significant decreasein the degree of moisture adsorption during the stabilization period of the agglomerate.

  6. Preparation of a crosslinked bioimprinted lipase for enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish processing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinyong; Li, Lifan; Tang, Qianli; Jiang, Manzhou; Jiang, Shenzhou

    2010-10-01

    Geotrichum sp. lipase modified with a combined method composed of crosslinking and bioimprinting was employed to selectively hydrolyze waste fish oil for enrichment of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in glycerides. Crosslinked polymerization by monomer (polyethylene glycol 400 dimethyl acrylate), crosslinker (trimethylolpropane trimethylacrylate), and photoinitiator (benzoin methyl ether) coupled to bioimprinting using palmitic acid as imprint molecule, resulted in much more effective enzyme preparation used in aqueous hydrolysis reaction. Since the crosslinked polymerization modification maintained bioimprinted property and gave good dispersion of enzyme in reaction mixture, the crosslinked bioimprinted enzyme exhibited higher hydrolysis temperature, enhanced specific activity, shorter hydrolysis time, and better operational stability compared to free lipase. Crude fish oil was treated at 45 degrees C with this crosslinked bioimprinted lipase for 8 h, and 46% hydrolysis degree resulted in the production of glycerides containing 41% of EPA and DHA (EPA+DHA), achieving 85.7% recovery of initial EPA and DHA. The results suggested that bioimprinted enzymes did not lose their induced property in aqueous environment when prepared according to the described crosslinking-bioimprinting method. It could also be seen that the crosslinked bioimprinted lipase was effective in producing glycerides that contained a higher concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acid with better yield.

  7. Comprehensive Utilization of Filter Residue from the Preparation Process of Zeolite-Based Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Qin Zheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel utilization method of filter residue from the preparation process of zeolite-based catalysts was investigated. Y zeolite and a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC catalyst were synthesized from filter residue. Compared to the Y zeolite synthesized by the conventional method, the Y zeolite synthesized from filter residue exhibited better thermal stability. The catalyst possessed wide-pore distribution. In addition, the pore volume, specific surface area, attrition resistance were superior to those of the reference catalyst. The yields of gasoline and light oil increased by 1.93 and 1.48 %, respectively. At the same time, the coke yield decreased by 0.41 %. The catalyst exhibited better gasoline and coke selectivity. The quality of the cracked gasoline had been improved.

  8. Comprehensive quality assessment of municipal organic waste composts produced by different preparation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognetti, C; Mazzarino, M J; Laos, F

    2011-06-01

    In the first part of this work, the effect of municipal organic waste (MOW) composts on plant growth was evaluated in a greenhouse trial. The treatments included soil amended with 14 different composts (prepared by shredding, adding wood shavings, cocomposting with biosolids or vermicomposting), an inorganically fertilized soil, and a control soil. All of the treatments significantly increased plant growth compared to the control, and yields of three of the amended treatments were as high as that of the inorganic fertilizer treatment. When comparing differently prepared composts to the conventional compost, it was found that cocomposting MOW with biosolids was the method which most positively influenced yields (26-41% yield increases). In the second part of this work, we evaluated the effects of the different preparation methods on compost quality, using a multivariate approach. Three main quality aspects were considered collectively in a principal component analysis: organic matter and nutrient concentrations, degradability and capacity to mineralize these nutrients, and plant growth. The model was restricted to the first and second components (PC1 and PC1) which accounted for 94% of data variance. On the resulting factorial plane, four groups were distinguished. Each of the groups was compared to the reference compost to determine quality increases or decreases. Based on this analysis, it was found that cocomposting MOW with biosolids produced the highest quality products (higher total nutrient and OM concentration, nutrient mineralization potential, and plant growth). Addition of wood shavings increased OM concentration, but reduced quality in terms of the other aspects studied. Shredding was only effective to increase product quality when it was not combined with other methods, whereas vermicomposting only increased quality when MOW was not mixed with biosolids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Utilization of industrial dairy waste as microalgae cultivation medium : a potential study for sustainable energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmayani, S.; Sugiarti, Y.; Putra, R. H.

    2016-04-01

    Microalgae is one of biodiesel resources and call as third generation biofuel. Biodiesel is one alternative energy that being developed. So study about resource of biodiesel need a development, for the example is development the basic material such as microalgae. In this paper we explain the potential use of dairy waste from industry as a cultivation medium of microalgae for biodiesel production. Dairy waste from dairy industry contains 34.98% protein, 4.42% lactose, 9.77% fiber, 11.04% fat, 2.33% calcium, 1.05% phosfor, and 0.4 % magnesium, meaning that the dairy waste from dairy industry has a relatively high nutrient content and complete from a source of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus as macro nutrients. The method in this paper is literature review to resulting a new conclusion about the potency of waste water from dairy industry as microalgae cultivation medium. Based on the study, the dairy waste from dairy industry has potency to be used as cultivation medium of Botryococcus braunii in the production of biodiesel, replacing the conventional cultivation medium.

  10. Utilization of food industry wastes for the production of zero-valent iron nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, S; Grosso, J P; Nouws, H P A; Albergaria, J T; Delerue-Matos, C

    2014-10-15

    The proper disposal of the several types of wastes produced in industrial activities increases production costs. As a consequence, it is common to develop strategies to reuse these wastes in the same process and in different processes or to transform them for use in other processes. This work combines the needs for new synthesis methods of nanomaterials and the reduction of production cost using wastes from citrine juice (orange, lime, lemon and mandarin) to produce a new added value product, green zero-valent iron nanoparticles that can be used in several applications, including environmental remediation. The results indicate that extracts of the tested fruit wastes (peel, albedo and pulp fractions) can be used to produce zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVIs). This shows that these wastes can be an added value product. The resulting nZVIs had sizes ranging from 3 up to 300 nm and distinct reactivities (pulp>peel>albedo extracts). All the studied nanoparticles did not present a significant agglomeration/settling tendency when compared to similar nanoparticles, which indicates that they remain in suspension and retain their reactivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Utilization of waste crab shell (Scylla serrata) as a catalyst in palm olein transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boey, Peng-Lim; Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Hamid, Shafida Abd

    2009-01-01

    Aquaculture activity has increased the population of crab, hence increasing the generation of related wastes, particularly the shell. In addition, the number of molting process in crabs compounds further the amount of waste shell generated. As such, in the present work, the application of the waste crab shell as a source of CaO in transesterification of palm olein to biodiesel (methyl ester) was investigated. Preliminary XRD results revealed that thermally activated crab shell contains mainly CaO. Parametric study has been investigated and optimal conditions were found to be methanol/oil mass ratio, 0.5:1; catalyst amount, 4 wt. %; and reaction temperature, 338 K. As compared to laboratory CaO, the catalyst from waste crab shell performs well, thus creating another low-cost catalyst source for producing biodiesel as well as adding value to the waste crab shell. Reusability of crab shell CaO has also been studied and the outcome confirmed that the catalyst is capable to be reutilized up to 11 times, without any major deterioration.

  12. Utilization of waste cooking oil as an alternative fuel for Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ridvan; Ulusoy, Yahya

    2017-04-03

    This study is based on three essential considerations concerning biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil: diesel engine emissions of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil, its potential in Turkey, and policies of the Turkish government about environmentally friendly alternative fuels. Emission tests have been realized with 35.8 kW, four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection diesel tractor engine. Test results are compared with Euro non-road emission standards for diesel fuel and five different blends of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The results of the experimental study show that the best blends are B10 and B20 as they show the lowest emission level. The other dimensions of the study include potential analysis of waste cooking oil as diesel fuels, referring to fuel price policies applied in the past, and proposed future policies about the same issues. It was also outlined some conclusions and recommendations in connection with recycling of waste oils as alternative fuels.

  13. Aspen Plus® and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Nicole L; Boateng, Akwasi A; Mullen, Charles A; Wheeler, M Clayton

    2013-10-15

    Aspen Plus(®) based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all the available waste from the site's 41 horses requires a 6 oven dry metric ton per day (ODMTPD) pyrolysis system but it will require a 15 ODMTPD system for waste generated by an additional 150 horses at the expanded area including the College and its vicinity. For this a dual fluidized bed combustion reduction integrated pyrolysis system (CRIPS) developed at USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) was identified as the technology of choice for pyrolysis oil production. The Aspen Plus(®) model was further used to consider the combustion of the produced pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) in the existing boilers that generate hot water for space heating at the Equine Center. The model results show the potential for both the equine facility and the College to displace diesel fuel (fossil) with renewable pyrolysis oil and alleviate a costly waste disposal problem. We predict that all the heat required to operate the pyrolyzer could be supplied by non-condensable gas and about 40% of the biochar co-produced with bio-oil. Techno-economic Analysis shows neither design is economical at current market conditions; however the 15 ODMTPD CRIPS design would break even when diesel prices reach $11.40/gal. This can be further improved to $7.50/gal if the design capacity is maintained at 6 ODMTPD but operated at 4950 h per annum.

  14. Utilization and management of organic wastes in Chinese agriculture: Past, present and perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU; Xiaotang

    2005-01-01

    the Sustainable Development of China,Nannin:Guangxi Science and Technology Press,2000,5-6.[13]Shi,Y.C.,Cheng,X.,The three transformations of Chinese agriculture:two past,one present,in Dare to Dream-Vision of 2050 Agriculture in China (ed.Tso,T.C.& He,K.),Beijing:China Agricultural University Press,2004,19- 31.[14]Bao,X.M.,Zhang,F.S.,Gao,X.Z.et al.,Evaluation of application status of organic fertilizer in China,Review of China Agricultural Science and Technology (in Chinese with English abstract),2003,5 (Supplement):3-8.[15]Smil,V.,China's Environmental Crisis,An Inquiry into the Limits of National Development,M.E.Sharpe,NY-London:Armonk,1993,257.[16]Li,G.X.,Li,Y.M.,Li,Y.C.H.,The treatment and utilization of organic solid wastes as resources in China,in China Ecological Agriculture (in Chinese),Beijing:Chemical Industry Press,2003,499-520.[17]Li G.X.(eds.),MSW Compost Market Research Report by Eric'sons Naturnomics Company,and College of Resources and Environmental Sciences of China Agricultural University (English translation),Beijing,China,2004,106.[18]FAOSTAT,FAO Statistical Databases,Agriculture Data,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,2004,http://apps.fao.org/page/collections ?subset=agriculture.[19]Bao,X.M.,Zhang,F.S.Ma,W.Q.,The resources of crop straw and their recycling nutrients in China,Review of China Agricultural Science and Technology (in Chinese with English abstract),2003b,5 (Supplement):14- 17.[20]Li,G.X.,Li,Y.C.H.,The treatment and utilization of organic solid wastes in China,in Lu Ming (ed.),Model Ecological Agriculture in China (in Chinese),Beijing:China Agricultural Press,2002,292-316.[21]Xie,J.C.,Prospects for plant nutrient supply form organic residues in China,in International Potash Institute (ed.):Potassium in Asia.Proc.24th Colloquium of the International Potash Institute,Chiang Mai,Thailand,Feb.21-24,Basel:International Potash Institute,1995,397-411.[22]Schulz,R.,A1-Najar,H.,Breuer,J.et al.,The effect of bio

  15. Evaluation of Waste Heat Recovery and Utilization from Residential Appliances and Fixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlinson, John J [ORNL; Christian, Jeff [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

    2012-09-01

    Executive Summary In every home irrespective of its size, location, age, or efficiency, heat in the form of drainwater or dryer exhaust is wasted. Although from a waste stream, this energy has the potential for being captured, possibly stored, and then reused for preheating hot water or air thereby saving operating costs to the homeowner. In applications such as a shower and possibly a dryer, waste heat is produced at the same time as energy is used, so that a heat exchanger to capture the waste energy and return it to the supply is all that is needed. In other applications such as capturing the energy in drainwater from a tub, dishwasher, or washing machine, the availability of waste heat might not coincide with an immediate use for energy, and consequently a heat exchanger system with heat storage capacity (i.e. a regenerator) would be necessary. This study describes a two-house experimental evaluation of a system designed to capture waste heat from the shower, dishwasher clothes washer and dryer, and to use this waste heat to offset some of the hot water energy needs of the house. Although each house was unoccupied, they were fitted with equipment that would completely simulate the heat loads and behavior of human occupants including operating the appliances and fixtures on a demand schedule identical to Building American protocol (Hendron, 2009). The heat recovery system combined (1) a gravity-film heat exchanger (GFX) installed in a vertical section of drainline, (2) a heat exchanger for capturing dryer exhaust heat, (3) a preheat tank for storing the captured heat, and (4) a small recirculation pump and controls, so that the system could be operated anytime that waste heat from the shower, dishwasher, clothes washer and dryer, and in any combination was produced. The study found capturing energy from the dishwasher and clothes washer to be a challenge since those two appliances dump waste water over a short time interval. Controls based on the status of the

  16. Evaluation of Waste Heat Recovery and Utilization from Residential Appliances and Fixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlinson, John J [ORNL; Christian, Jeff [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

    2012-09-01

    Executive Summary In every home irrespective of its size, location, age, or efficiency, heat in the form of drainwater or dryer exhaust is wasted. Although from a waste stream, this energy has the potential for being captured, possibly stored, and then reused for preheating hot water or air thereby saving operating costs to the homeowner. In applications such as a shower and possibly a dryer, waste heat is produced at the same time as energy is used, so that a heat exchanger to capture the waste energy and return it to the supply is all that is needed. In other applications such as capturing the energy in drainwater from a tub, dishwasher, or washing machine, the availability of waste heat might not coincide with an immediate use for energy, and consequently a heat exchanger system with heat storage capacity (i.e. a regenerator) would be necessary. This study describes a two-house experimental evaluation of a system designed to capture waste heat from the shower, dishwasher clothes washer and dryer, and to use this waste heat to offset some of the hot water energy needs of the house. Although each house was unoccupied, they were fitted with equipment that would completely simulate the heat loads and behavior of human occupants including operating the appliances and fixtures on a demand schedule identical to Building American protocol (Hendron, 2009). The heat recovery system combined (1) a gravity-film heat exchanger (GFX) installed in a vertical section of drainline, (2) a heat exchanger for capturing dryer exhaust heat, (3) a preheat tank for storing the captured heat, and (4) a small recirculation pump and controls, so that the system could be operated anytime that waste heat from the shower, dishwasher, clothes washer and dryer, and in any combination was produced. The study found capturing energy from the dishwasher and clothes washer to be a challenge since those two appliances dump waste water over a short time interval. Controls based on the status of the

  17. Utilization of metal oxide-containing waste materials for hot coal gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slimane, R.B. [Gas Processing Research Group, Gas Technology Institute, 1700 S. Mount Prospect Road, 60018-1804 Des Plaines, IL (United States); Abbasian, J. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, 10 West, 33rd Street, 60616 Chicago, IL (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Four metal oxide waste materials from metal processing operations and one coal bottom ash sample were procured and their reactivities toward hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) were evaluated in the temperature range of 400C to 600C. A low-cost sorbent pelletization/granulation technique was applied to produce preliminary sorbent formulations in the form of attrition-resistant granules that were also evaluated. The results indicate that sorbents based on an iron oxide waste material, in the as-received as well as processed form, were the most reactive and exhibited the highest effective capacities for sulfur. The regeneration of these sorbents could be carried out over a relatively moderate temperature range, suggesting that the iron oxide waste material might be a viable candidate for the development of low-cost regenerable sorbents for H{sub 2}S removal from hot coal gases under conditions of current practical interest.

  18. Preparation of activated carbon from waste plastics polyethylene terephthalate as adsorbent in natural gas storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Nasruddin; Sanal, A.; Bernama, A.; Haris, F.; Ramadhan, I. T.

    2017-02-01

    The main problem is the process of natural gas storage and distribution, because in normal conditions of natural gas in the gas phase causes the storage capacity be small and efficient to use. The technology is commonly used Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The weakness of this technology safety level is low because the requirement for high-pressure CNG (250 bar) and LNG requires a low temperature (-161°C). It takes innovation in the storage of natural gas using the technology ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas) with activated carbon as an adsorbent, causing natural gas can be stored in a low pressure of about 34.5. In this research, preparation of activated carbon using waste plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET). PET plastic waste is a good raw material for making activated carbon because of its availability and the price is a lot cheaper. Besides plastic PET has the appropriate characteristics as activated carbon raw material required for the storage of natural gas because the material is hard and has a high carbon content of about 62.5% wt. The process of making activated carbon done is carbonized at a temperature of 400 ° C and physical activation using CO2 gas at a temperature of 975 ° C. The parameters varied in the activation process is the flow rate of carbon dioxide and activation time. The results obtained in the carbonization process yield of 21.47%, while the yield on the activation process by 62%. At the optimum process conditions, the CO2 flow rate of 200 ml/min and the activation time of 240 minutes, the value % burn off amounted to 86.69% and a surface area of 1591.72 m2/g.

  19. Environmental waste site characterization utilizing aerial photographs and satellite imagery: Three sites in New Mexico, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Pope, P.; Becker, N.; Wells, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Lewis, A.; David, N. [Environmental Research Inst. of Michigan, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The proper handling and characterization of past hazardous waste sites is becoming more and more important as world population extends into areas previously deemed undesirable. Historical photographs, past records, current aerial satellite imagery can play an important role in characterizing these sites. These data provide clear insight into defining problem areas which can be surface samples for further detail. Three such areas are discussed in this paper: (1) nuclear wastes buried in trenches at Los Alamos National Laboratory, (2) surface dumping at one site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and (3) the historical development of a municipal landfill near Las Cruces, New Mexico.

  20. Pharmaceutical films made from the waste material from the preparation of propolis extracts: development and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Alcântara Sica de Toledo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract This study investigated the development and characterized the physicochemical properties of films obtained from by-products (BP from the preparation of propolis extracts. Films were produced in the presence and absence of a polymeric adjuvant (gelatin or ethylcellulose and propylene glycol by a solvent casting method. Density, surface topography by scanning electron microscopy, mechanical properties (folding endurance, tensile strength and percentage elongation, water vapour permeability (WVP, moisture uptake capacity, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were determined. The films were a transparent, light greenish-yellow colour, with a uniform surface, and were flexible and easy to handle. The thickness and density of the preparations indicated that the compounds were homogeneously dispersed throughout the film. Mechanical properties were influenced by the film composition; films containing gelatin were more resistant to stress, while those containing ethylcellulose were more flexible. Increasing the adjuvant concentration decreased the elasticity and the rupture resistance, but increased the moisture uptake capacity and WVP of the formulations. BP was thermally stable as were the films. FTIR tests suggested interactions between BP and the adjuvants. This work could contribute to the utilization of BP to prepare films for food and pharmaceutical uses

  1. Proceedings of Symposium on Utilization of Waste Glass in Secondary Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Papers are reported which were presented at the conference on waste glass recovery and re-use in secondary products. The uses considered include: road surfacing, asphaltic concretes, road construction, terrazzo, cement concrete, pozzolan, glass wool, glass-polymer composites, and tiles. Problems of recycling glass in remote areas, and the economics and markets for secondary glass products are discussed.

  2. Environmental impact assessment of combustible wastes utilization in rotary cement kilns

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the environmental impact assessment of the coal combustion and its substitution by alternative fuels from combustible wastes during Portland cement clinker sinterization in rotary cement kiln. Environmental impact assessment was carried out based on the fuels chemical composition and operating parameters of a rotary cement kiln in accordance with EURITS and IMPACT 2002+ methods.

  3. Plasma ARC/SCWO Sysems for Waste-to-Energy Applications Utilizing Milwaste Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) technology. While SCWO is for the treatment of liquid wastes, Vitracycle was designed as a treatment technology...4 3.2. Industrial Supercritical Water Oxidation (iSCWO...6 3.2.1. Design and Build an Advanced Industrial Supercritical Water Oxidation (iSCWO

  4. Utilizing environmental management information systems to monitor chemical usage and facilitate waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazer, T.L.; Kinney, R.W. [Modern Technologies Corporation, Dayton, OH (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Waste minimization and pollution prevention activities have proven to be valuable to the chemical industry`s and the chemical user`s bottom line. Many companies have found that, with a modest initial capital investment and product modifications, mounds of bureaucratic liability can be removed and substantial cost savings can be realized.

  5. Selection of Thai starter components for ethanol production utilizing malted rice from waste paddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirilux Chaijamrus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of mixed herbs in Thai rice wine starter (Loog-pang were investigated in order to directly maintain theefficiency of the microbial community (Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Amylomyces sp., Gluconobacter sp. and Pediocccuspentosaceus. The optimum formula was galanga, garlic, long pepper, licorice, and black pepper at the ratio of 0.5:8:1:4:1,respectively. Previously, waste paddy has been used directly as a renewable resource for fuel ethanol production using solidstate fermentation (SSF with Loog-pang. In this study, hydrolyzed malted rice starch was used as the sole nutrient source insubmerged fermentation (SmF to enhance the process yield. The maximum ethanol productivity (4.08 g/kg waste paddy h-1and the highest ethanol concentration (149±7.0 g/kg waste paddy were obtained after 48 hrs of incubation. The resultsindicated that starch saccharification provided a higher ethanol yield (48.38 g/100g sugar consumed than SSF. In addition,the efficiency of ethanol fermentation was 67% which is similar to that of the malted rice made from normal paddy (68%.This result suggests that waste paddy could be used as an alternative raw material for ethanol production.

  6. Utilization of open pit burned household waste ash--a feasibility study in Dhaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Obaidul; Sharif, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Informal incineration or open pit burning of waste materials is a common practice in the peripheral area of Dhaka, one of the fastest growing mega-cities in the world. This study deals with the effect of open pit burned (i.e. open burned) household waste bottom ash on fired clay bricks. Between 0 to 50% (by weight) of open pit burned household waste bottom ash was mixed with clay to make bricks. The molded specimens were air-dried at room temperature for 24 h and then oven dried at 100 °C for another 24 h to remove the water. The raw bricks were fired in a muffle furnace to a designated temperature (800, 900 and 1000 °C, respectively). The firing behaviour (mechanical strength, water absorption and shrinkage) was determined. The microstructures, phase compositions and leachates were evaluated for bricks manufactured at different firing temperatures. These results demonstrate that open pit burned ash can be recycled in clay bricks. This study also presents physical observations of the incinerated ash particles and determination of the chemical compositions of the raw materials by wet analysis. Open pit burned ash can be introduced easily into bricks up to 20% wt. The concentrations of hazardous components in the leachates were below the standard threshold for inert waste category landfill and their environmental risk during their use-life step can be considered negligible.

  7. Adsorption of Reactive Blue 171 from Aqueous Solution using Low Cost Activated Carbon Prepared from Agricultural Solid Waste: Albizia amara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anitha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of Reactive Blue 171 (Reactive Dye from aqueous solution using activated carbon prepared from Albizia amara pod shell waste as an adsorbent have been carried out. The experimental adsorption data fitted reasonably well to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Kinetic parameters as a function of Initial dye concentration have been calculated and the kinetic data were substituted in Pseudo First Order, Elovich and Pseudo Second order equations. A probable explanation is offered to account for the results of kinetic study. The thermodynamic parameter enthalpy change (∆H suggests the exothermic nature of absorption of Reactive Blue 171 onto activated Albizia amara pod shell waste carbon.

  8. Evaluation of high-level waste vitrification feed preparation chemistry for an NCAW simulant, FY 1994: Alternate flowsheets (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.D.; Merz, M.D.; Wiemers, K.D.; Smith, G.L.

    1996-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste stored in tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site will be pretreated to concentrate radioactive constituents and fed to the vitrification plant A flowsheet for feed preparation within the vitrification plant (based on the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) design) called for HCOOH addition during the feed preparation step to adjust rheology and glass redox conditions. However, the potential for generating H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} during treatment of high-level waste (HLW) with HCOOH was identified at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Studies at the University of Georgia, under contract with Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and PNL, have verified the catalytic role of noble metals (Pd, Rh, Ru), present in the waste, in the generation of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}. Both laboratory-scale and pilot-scale studies at SRTC have documented the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} generation phenomenal Because H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} may create hazardous conditions in the vessel vapor space and offgas system of a vitrification plant, reducing the H{sub 2} generation rate and the NH{sub 3} generation to the lowest possible levels consistent with desired melter feed characteristics is important. The Fiscal Year 1993 and 1994 studies were conducted with simulated (non-radioactive), pre-treated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW). Neutralized current acid waste is a high-level waste originating from the plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) plant that has been partially denitrated with sugar, neutralized with NaOH, and is presently stored in double-shell tanks. The non-radioactive simulant used for the present study includes all of the trace components found in the waste, or substitutes a chemically similar element for radioactive or very toxic species. The composition and simulant preparation steps were chosen to best simulate the chemical processing characteristics of the actual waste.

  9. The reclamation and reprocessing of cotton wastes produced during yarn preparation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bathie, LA

    1984-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste is an undesirable but inevitable by-product in any manufacturing process and is frequently undervalued. The production of waste yarns by the waste spinner was traditionally carried out by condenser spinning in which the material was processed...

  10. Phytoremediation: a novel approach for utilization of iron-ore wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Monalisa; Dhal, Nabin Kumar; Patra, Parikshita; Das, Bisweswar; Reddy, Palli Sita Rama

    2010-01-01

    Large quantities of iron-ore tailings are being generated annually in the world from mining and processing of iron ores. It has been estimated that around 10-15% of the iron ore mined in India has remained unutilized and discarded as slimes during mining and subsequent processing. Soil contamination resulting from mining activities affects surrounding flora and fauna and presents a large clean-up challenge to the mining industry. Innovative new methodologies have been proposed and among the most promising are those that rely on new phytoremediation technology. In this paper we address and review the status of phytoremediation as a technology to reduce and control contaminated mine wastes. Several different approaches and different plant species are used to remove environmentally toxic metals from mine waste sites. Such approaches have the objective of restoring mining waste sites to human and animal use, or at least, to curtail or eliminate the off-site movement of toxic entities that potentially could reach humans. How well phytoremediation performs as an alternative soil restoration technology depends on several factors, including the composition of soil, toxicity level of the contaminant, degree to which plant species fit natural local growth patterns and type of concentration of metal/contaminant in such plants. Phytoremediation has opened prospects for less costly, yet practicable approaches to clean-up contaminated waste sites, particularly those associated with mineral extraction mining. We discuss several plant species that are capable of phytoextracting and/or phytostabilizing harmful elements from contaminated soil and water; such processes are prospectively effective for addressing waste problems that derive from mining and processing activities, as well as those that derive from mitigating the threat posed by waste that surrounds mining sites. Unfortunately, phytoremediation is still in the embryonic stage, and more research is needed to find the plant

  11. 浅谈园林绿化废弃物的处置利用%Disposal and Utilization of the Garden Landscaping Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽

    2012-01-01

    园林废弃物的利用问题日益引起人们的重视。阐述了园林绿化废弃物利用的现状,指出了园林绿化废弃物处置利用存在的问题,简述了园林绿化废弃物的应用前景。%Landscaping waste problems caused by more and more people's attention. This paper elaborated the present situation of landscaping waste disposal and utilization, pointed out existing problems of landscaping waste disposal and utilization, and sketched application prospect of landscaping waste disposal and utilization.

  12. [Application of high-efficient cellulose utilization microorganisms in co-composting of vegetable wastes and flower stalk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, De-yang; Lu, Wen-jing; Wang, Hong-tao; Zhou, Hui-yu; Wang, Zhi-chao

    2004-03-01

    An inoculation composing 17 species of cellulose utilization microorganisms was used in co-composting of vegetable wastes and flower stalk, and the efficiency of the inoculation on lignocellulose degradation was studied. The experiments result show that at the beginning of the first stage of composting, inoculating cellulose utilization microorganism in the substrates with 0.5% (V/V) can improve the biomass of the microorganisms into the substrates greatly and make them dominant ones. When the temperature was controlled as 55 degrees C, the biomass of cellulose utilization microorganisms can keep between [symbol: see text] 3.84 x 10(9)-1.80 x 10(10) CFU/g. At the beginning of the second stage, inoculating with 1% (V/V) can improve the temperature during this period effectively. Monitoring of the content of lignocelluloses in the substrate shows that the inoculation of cellulose utilization microorganism can accelerate the degradation of cellulose. The degradation efficiency of cellulose under inoculation condition is 23.64% higher than those without inoculation. This shows that inoculating with cellulose utilization microorganisms in each stage of the composting can greatly decompose the lignocellulose in the substrates, accelerate the co-composting process and improve the quality of composting production.

  13. Adsorption-desorption characteristics of phenol and reactive dyes from aqueous solution on mesoporous activated carbon prepared from waste tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanthapanichakoon, W; Ariyadejwanich, P; Japthong, P; Nakagawa, K; Mukai, S R; Tamon, H

    2005-04-01

    Liquid-phase adsorption-desorption characteristics and ethanol regeneration efficiency of an activated carbon prepared from waste tires and a commercial activated carbon were investigated. Water vapor adsorption experiments reveal that both activated carbons showed hydrophobic surface characteristics. Adsorption experiments reveal that the prepared activated carbon possessed comparable phenol adsorption capacity as the commercial one but clearly larger adsorption capacity of two reactive dyes, Black 5 and Red 31. It was ascertained that the prepared activated carbon exhibited less irreversible adsorption of phenol and the two dyes than its commercial counterpart. Moreover, ethanol regeneration efficiency of the prepared AC saturated with either dye was higher than that of the commercial AC. Because of its superior liquid-phase adsorption-desorption characteristics as well as higher ethanol regeneration efficiency, the prepared activated carbon is more suitable for wastewater treatment, especially for adsorbing similarly bulky adsorbates.

  14. Utilization of silkworm litter and pupal waste-an eco-friendly approach for mass production of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sarvamangala R; Amena, S; Vikas, A; Rahul, P; Jagadeesh, K; Praveen, K

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the utilization of pupal waste and silkworm litter separately as production media for the mass cultivation of the potential biopesticide, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Bt is the most successful commercial biopesticide accounting for 90% of all biopesticides sold all over the world. Biochemical analysis of the dry pupal waste revealed to be consisting of 4% carbohydrates, 44.9% proteins and 40% lipids. Similarly the biochemical composition of dry silkworm litter was found to be 4% carbohydrates, 57.5% proteins and 30.5% lipids. B. thuringiensis NCIM No. 2159 was mass cultivated in a semi-solid-state fermentation at a pH 7.0 and temperature 32°C. Changes in the pH and biochemical composition of the substrates were evaluated during the course of the fermentation. The reliability of the two substrates as production media was evaluated by determination of growth at regular intervals. Maximum growth was recorded at 96h incubation showing a spore count in the order of 3.5×10(10) and 3.0×10(10)CFU/g in pupal waste and silkworm litter respectively.

  15. Standard Guide for Preparing Waste Management Plans for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide addresses the development of waste management plans for potential waste streams resulting from decommissioning activities at nuclear facilities, including identifying, categorizing, and handling the waste from generation to final disposal. 1.2 This guide is applicable to potential waste streams anticipated from decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities whose operations were governed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or Agreement State license, under Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, or Department of Defense (DoD) regulations. 1.3 This guide provides a description of the key elements of waste management plans that if followed will successfully allow for the characterization, packaging, transportation, and off-site treatment or disposal, or both, of conventional, hazardous, and radioactive waste streams. 1.4 This guide does not address the on-site treatment, long term storage, or on-site disposal of these potential waste streams. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address ...

  16. Ca(2+) and OH(-) release of ceramsites containing anorthite and gehlenite prepared from waste lime mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Juan; Yang, Chuanmeng; Cui, Chong; Huang, Jiantao; Hussain, Ahmad; Ma, Hailong

    2016-09-01

    Lime mud is a kind of solid waste in the papermaking industry, which has been a source of serious environmental pollution. Ceramsites containing anorthite and gehlenite were prepared from lime mud and fly ash through the solid state reaction method at 1050°C. The objective of this study was to explore the efficiency of Ca(2+) and OH(-) release and assess the phosphorus and copper ion removal performance of the ceramsites via batch experiments, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that Ca(2+) and OH(-) were released from the ceramsites due to the dissolution of anorthite, gehlenite and available lime. It is also concluded that gehlenite had stronger capacity for Ca(2+) and OH(-) release compared with anorthite. The Ca(2+) release could be fit well by the Avrami kinetic model. Increases of porosity, dosage and temperature were associated with increases in the concentrations of Ca(2+) and OH(-) released. Under different conditions, the ceramsites could maintain aqueous solutions in alkaline conditions (pH=9.3-10.9) and the release of Ca(2+) was not affected. The removal rates of phosphorus and copper ions were as high as 96.88% and 96.81%, respectively. The final pH values of both phosphorus and copper ions solutions changed slightly. The reuse of lime mud in the form of ceramsites is an effective strategy.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose and Nanocellulose from Agro-industrial Waste - Cassava Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiarto, S.; Yuwono, S. D.; Rochliadi, A.; Arcana, I. M.

    2017-02-01

    Cassava peel is an agro-industrial waste which is available in huge quantities in Lampung Province of Indonesia. This work was conducted to evaluate the potential of cassava peel as a source of cellulose and nanocellulose. Cellulose was extracted from cassava peel by using different chemical treatment, and the nanocellulose was prepared by hydrolysis with the use of sulfuric acid. The best methods of cellulose extraction from cassava peels are using alkali treatment followed by a bleaching process. The cellulose yield from this methods was 17.8% of dry base cassava peel, while the yield from nitric and sulfuric methods were about 10.78% and 10.32% of dry base cassava peel respectively. The hydrolysis was performed at the temperature of 50 °C for 2 hours. The intermediate reaction product obtained after each stage of the treatments was characterized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the removal of non-cellulosic constituent. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the crystallinity of cellulose increased after hydrolysis. Morphological investigation was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The size of particle was confirmed by Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).

  18. Influence of Compressor Station Waste-Heat Recovery Section on Operational Efficiency of Gas Turbine Drive with Isobaric Heat Supply and Regenerative Heat Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nesenchuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to utilize existing secondary energy resources for heat supply of an industrial enterprise has been proposed on the basis of the analysis on operation of compressor stations of a cross-country gas pipe-line. The paper considers an influence of waste heat recovery section on operational efficiency of gas turbine drive with regenerative heat utilization.

  19. Recovery and Reutilization of Waste Matter from Coffee Preparation. An Experiment for Environmental Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orecchio, Santino

    2001-12-01

    This work is designed as an experience for organic and analytical chemistry laboratories in environmental science courses. Coffee grounds were chosen because they are easily available, they are a fine example of a waste product, and the students are familiar with them. The coffee bean is a source of a number of by-products. By comparing the physicochemical characteristics of coffee oil (from the grounds) with those of common oils, it is found that coffee oil shows similarity to palm oil. We hydrolysed the coffee oil and obtained a soap that had good detergent and foaming properties similar to olive oil soap or commercial products. Another beneficial aspect of the coffee bean results from the high content in organic matter (C = 48.9%) of the degreased coffee grounds, which allows their utilization to improve the fertility of soils. The total nitrogen content of the residue is higher than that of many composts and is similar to the nitrogen content of some commercial products employed for house plants. The economical, technical, and environmental advantages that frequently can derive from the recovery of some by-products of foods and beverages, such as the coffee grounds in this example, are evident.

  20. Performance Analysis of Organic Rankine-vapor Compression Ice Maker Utilizing Food Industry Waste Heat

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Hu; Yuanshu Cao; Weibin Ma

    2015-01-01

    To develop the organic Rankine-vapor compression ice maker driven by food industry exhaust gases and engine cooling water, an organic Rankine-vapor compression cycle system was employed for ice making and a thermodynamic model was developed and the effects of working fluid types, hot water temperature and condensation temperature on the system performance were analyzed and the ice making capacity from unit mass hot water and unit power waste heat were evaluated. The calculated results show th...

  1. Utilization of waste heat from rotary kiln for burning clinker in the cement plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sztekler Karol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement subsector next to the glass industry is counted among one of the most energy-intensive industries, which absorbs approx. 12-15% of the total energy consumed by the industry. In the paper various methods of energy consumption reduction of in the cement industry are discussed. Cement production carries a very large emissions of greenhouse gases, where CO2 emissions on a global scale with the industry than approx. 5%. Great opportunity in CO2 emissions reduction in addition to the recovery of waste heat is also alternative fuels co-firing in cement kilns [1], [2]. In the cement sector interest in fitting-usable waste energy is growing in order to achieve high rates of savings and hence the financial benefits, as well as the environment ones [3]. In the process of cement production is lost irretrievably lot of energy and reduction of these losses on a global scale gives a visible saving of consumed fuel. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of waste heat use in Rudniki Cement Plant near to Czestochowa. After analyzing of all waste heat sources will be analyzed the heat emitted by radiation from the surface of the rotary kiln at the relevant facility. On the basis of thermal-flow calculations the most favorable radiative heat exchanger will be designed. The calculations based on available measurements provided by the cement plant, a thermal power of the heat exchanger, the heat exchange surface, the geometry of the heat exchanger, and other important parameters will be established. In addition the preliminary calculations of hydraulic losses and set directions for further work will be carried out. Direct benefits observed with the introduction of the broader heat recovery technology, is a significant increase in energy efficiency of the industrial process, which is reflected in the reduction of energy consumption and costs. Indirectly it leads to a reduction of pollution and energy consumption.

  2. 食品包装废弃物的综合利用%Comprehensive Utilization of Food Packaging Wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仲谨; 余丽丽

    2011-01-01

    Food packaging is one of the most important parts in packaging industry,which leads to increasingly serious environment pollution.The contaminations in food packaging were pointed out and the comprehensive utilization of food packaging wastes were also introduced by analyzing many examples of domestic and overseas.It would give reference for the effective utilization of food packaging wastes in China,and alleviation of the resource and environment restriction.%食品包装业是包装工业的重要组成部分,它带来的环境污染问题日益严重.介绍了食品包装材料种类,并结合国内外实例综述了不同种类食品包装废弃物的综合利用,为保障食品包装废弃物资源得到有效利用,以及缓解我国经济社会发展面临的资源与环境制约提供参考.

  3. Energy and Exergy Analysis of Kalina Cycle for the Utilization of Waste Heat in Brine Water for Indonesian Geothermal Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasruddin Nasruddin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of waste heat in a power plant system—which would otherwise be released back to the environment—in order to produce additional power increases the efficiency of the system itself. The purpose of this study is to present an energy and exergy analysis of Kalina Cycle System (KCS 11, which is proposed to be utilized to generate additional electric power from the waste heat contained in geothermal brine water available in the Lahendong Geothermal power plant site in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. A modeling application on energy and exergy system is used to study the design of thermal system which uses KCS 11. To obtain the maximum power output and maximum efficiency, the system is optimized based on the mass fraction of working fluid (ammonia-water, as well as based on the turbine exhaust pressure. The result of the simulation is the optimum theoretical performance of KCS 11, which has the highest possible power output and efficiency. The energy flow diagram and exergy diagram (Grassman diagram was also presented for KCS 11 optimum system to give quantitative information regarding energy flow from the heat source to system components and the proportion of the exergy input dissipated in the various system components.

  4. [Industrial waste as indicator of population size: possible utilization in mountain resort tourist stations?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, F; Rey, S; Zmirou, D

    1998-09-01

    Epidemiological studies, conducted in touristic resorts, often face the difficulty of assessing the size of the referent population. Recently, some population size indicators, have been tested. Among them, the amount of municipal waste seems to be easy and readily accessible. The purpose of the study is to describe how this indicator can be used in touristic mountain resorts. Four touristic resorts were chosen in Isère departement (France): Alpe d'Huez, Deux Alpes, Chamrousse, plateau du Vercors. The evolution of municipal waste over several years was used to compute an individual output level for residents and for tourists. This waste indicator was compared with data on tourists reservations in hotels in the resorts. We found a good fit during touristic seasons in three resorts (Spearman test). For the last one (Chamrousse), the correlation rate was low. We think that the type of tourism is different in this resort with many non residents. This indicator is reliable but needs further validation by sample surveys across several sites and several types of lodging. We propose to estimate the size of the referent population, based on an individual output of 1 kg per person and per day for residents and 0.5 kg per person per day for tourists.

  5. Desulfurization of chemical waste gases and flue gases with economic utilization of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1983-09-01

    The technological state of recovery of sulfur dioxide from waste and flue gases in the GDR is discussed. Two examples of plants are presented: a pyrosulfuric acid plant in Coswig, recovering sulfur dioxide from gases by absorption with sodium hydroxide, followed by catalytic oxidation to sulfur trioxide, and a plant for waste sulfuric acid recovery from paraffin refining, where the diluted waste acid is sprayed into a furnace and recovered by an ammonium-sulfite-bisulfite solution from the combustion gas (with 4 to 10% sulfur dioxide content). Investment and operation costs as well as profits of both plants are given. Methods employed for power plant flue gas desulfurization in major industrial countries are further assessed: about 90% of these methods uses wet flue gas scrubbing with lime. In the USA flue gas from 25,000 MW of power plant capacity is desulfurized. In the USSR, a 35,000 m/sup 3//h trial plant at Severo-Donetzk is operating using lime, alkali and magnesite. At the 150 MW Dorogobush power plant in the USSR a desulfurization plant using a cyclic ammonia process is under construction.

  6. Potential utilization of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste as a novel source of pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides is an ancestor type of watermelon. It was investigated as a new source of pectin. It was cultivated in Egypt for seeds only, while the remaining fruits are discarded as waste. Effect of different extraction conditions such as pH, solid: liquid ratio, temperature and extraction time on pectin yield of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste was investigated in the present study. The highest yield (19.75 % w/w) was achieved at pH 2, solid: liquid ratio1:15 and 85 °C, for 60 min. Methylation degree and galacturonic acid content of extracted pectin were 55.25 %, w/w and 76.84 %, w/w. The main neutral sugars were galactose followed by arabinose and rhamnose. In addition, glucose, xylose and mannose existed as constituents in the pectin hydrolysate. The results indicated that Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoide waste is a potential new source of pectin.

  7. Operating experience with CFB technology for waste utilization at a cement production plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirthwein, R.; Scur, P.; Scharf, K.F. [Rudersdorfer Zement GmbH, (Germany); Hirschfelder, H. [Lurgi Energie und Entsorgung GmbH, (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The Rudersdorf cement plant in Germany strives for high environmental standards, a high quality product and low production costs. The plant was the first to use circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology in combination with a cement kiln. The following objectives were defined for the CFB: (1) use of waste as a low-cost raw materials and fuel for cement production, (2) ensure good combustion conditions even when using low quality fuels, and (3) produce raw material components which can be homogeneously integrated into the cement kiln feed stream. A gasification process was developed for processing a diverse waste stream to produce lean gas for use as a secondary fuel along with an inert ash that serves as a raw material component. The CFB unit was put into service in 1996. Since its launch, various plant components and waste pre-processing equipment have been optimized. The CFB unit has an availability of more than 90 per cent, and can process 120,000 tpa of secondary fuels, 150,000 tpa of ash, and 50,000 tpa of other mineral residues. Its use has contributed significantly to fuel costs savings and improved environmental performance at the cement production plant. 9 figs.

  8. Feasibility study on utilization of palm fibre waste into fired clay brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Sarani, N. A.; Zaman, N. N.; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-04-01

    Malaysia is the second largest of palm oil producer after Indonesia, which contribute to 50 % of palm oil production. With this demand, the increasing of palm oil plantation over the years has led to the large production of agricultural waste, for example palm fibre waste. This study investigates different percentages of palm fibre (0 %, 1 %, 5 % and 10 %) to be incorporated into fired clay brick. Manufactured bricks were fired at 1 °C/min heating rate up to 1050 °C. The effects of manufacture bricks on the physical and mechanical properties of manufactured brick were also determined. All brick samples were tested due to the physical and mechanical properties which include dry density, firing shrinkage, initial rate of suction (IRS), water absorption, porosity and compressive strength. Findings show that increasing palm fibre waste affected the properties of brick, which decreased their density, besides increased firing shrinkage, IRS, water absorption, porosity and compressive strength. However, all the manufactured brick still followed the requirement.

  9. Complex processing and utilization of waste as the basis for sustainable economic development district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.М. Ilchenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main environmental problems of Ukraine. The problems that are connected with complex processing and recycling, the example Dnieper economic paradise-one, which allows more detailed present environmental situation of the country at this stage. The article is used and analyzed recent environmental performance and the basic problems of on-disposal and recycling. Basic research methods: observation, analysis and comparison. The aim was to find ways to overcome the ecological crisis in Ukraine. As a result of the research, it was determined that most types of waste-tion prevail in Ukraine and found the best solutions to problems related to waste and their processing. It was possible to find the main problem that has caused serious environmental situation, and the main task for the country at this stage. The main problems and tasks Dnieper economic region. Also indicate how to save, due to complex processing waste. The article is very relevant and important because it is here that the basic problems and tasks of Ukraine concerning the ecological situation. It also focuses on eco-logical problems, which the government does not pay enough attention.

  10. Utilization of vegetable dumplings waste from industrial production by anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarska, Agnieszka A.; Pilarski, Krzysztof; Ryniecki, Antoni; Tomaszyk, Kamila; Dach, Jacek; Wolna-Maruwka, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides the analysis of results of biogas and methane yield for vegetable dumplings waste: dough with fat, vegetable waste, and sludge from the clarifier. Anaerobic digestion of food waste used in the experiments was stable after combining the substrates with a digested pulp composed of maize silage and liquid manure (as inoculum), at suitable ratios. The study was carried out in a laboratory scale using anaerobic batch reactors, at controlled (mesophilic) temperature and pH conditions. The authors present the chemical reactions accompanying biodegradation of the substrates and indicate the chemical compounds which may lead to acidification during the anaerobic digestion. An anaerobic digestion process carried out with the use of a dough-and-fat mixture provided the highest biogas and methane yields. The following yields were obtained in terms of fresh matter: 242.89 m3 Mg-1 for methane and 384.38 m3 Mg-1 for biogas, and in terms of volatile solids: 450.73 m3 Mg-1 for methane and 742.40 m3 Mg-1 for biogas. Vegetables and sludge from the clarifier (as fresh matter) provided much lower yields.

  11. Utilization of Construction Waste Composite Powder Materials as Cementitious Materials in Small-Scale Prefabricated Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuizhen Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction and demolition wastes have increased rapidly due to the prosperity of infrastructure construction. For the sake of effectively reusing construction wastes, this paper studied the potential use of construction waste composite powder material (CWCPM as cementitious materials in small-scale prefabricated concretes. Three types of such concretes, namely, C20, C25, and C30, were selected to investigate the influences of CWCPM on their working performances, mechanical properties, and antipermeability and antifrost performances. Also the effects of CWCPM on the morphology, hydration products, and pore structure characteristics of the cement-based materials were analyzed. The results are encouraging. Although CWCPM slightly decreases the mechanical properties of the C20 concrete and the 7 d compressive strengths of the C25 and C30 concretes, the 28 d compressive strength and the 90 d flexural strength of the C25 and C30 concretes are improved when CWCPM has a dosage less than 30%; CWCPM improves the antipermeability and antifrost performances of the concretes due to its filling and pozzolanic effects; the best improvement is obtained at CWCPM dosage of 30%; CWCPM optimizes cement hydration products, refines concrete pore structure, and gives rise to reasonable pore size distribution, therefore significantly improving the durability of the concretes.

  12. Performance Analysis of Organic Rankine-vapor Compression Ice Maker Utilizing Food Industry Waste Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Hu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To develop the organic Rankine-vapor compression ice maker driven by food industry exhaust gases and engine cooling water, an organic Rankine-vapor compression cycle system was employed for ice making and a thermodynamic model was developed and the effects of working fluid types, hot water temperature and condensation temperature on the system performance were analyzed and the ice making capacity from unit mass hot water and unit power waste heat were evaluated. The calculated results show that the working fluid type and the temperatures of heat source and condensation have important effects on the system performance. The system can achieve optimal performance when use R245fa as power and refrigeration medium. The ice quantity generated from per ton hot water is 86.42 kg and the ice-making rate for per kW waste heat is 2.27 kg/h, when the temperatures of hot water and condensation are respectively 100 and 40°C. A conclusion can be draw by the calculation and analysis that using organic Rankine-vapor compression system for ice making from food industry waste heat is feasible.

  13. Possibilities and limitations of life cycle assessment (LCA) in the development of waste utilization systems - Applied examples for a region in Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmaier, M; Langer, S; Sawilla, B

    2009-05-01

    Against the background of increasing concerns about climate change, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has become an integral part of processes in both the waste management and the energy industries. This is reflected in the development of new waste treatment concepts, in which domestic and commercial waste is treated with the aim of utilizing its energy content, while at the same time recycling as much of its material content as possible. Life cycle assessment (LCA) represents a method of assessing the environmental relevance of a waste management system, the basis of which is a material flow analysis of the system in question. GHG emissions from different options for thermal treatment and energy recovery from waste as applied to a region in Northern Germany have been analyzed by the LCA approach and an indicative LCA, which only considers those emissions resulting from operating stages of the system. Operating stages have the main share of emissions compared to pre-processing stages. Results show that through specific separation of waste material flows and highly efficient energy recovery, thermal treatment and energy generation from waste can be optimized resulting in reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases. There are also other areas of waste utilization, currently given little attention, such as the solar drying of sewage sludge, which can considerably contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Evaluation of the status of fluidized-bed combustion in the thermal utilization of waste. Stellenwert der Wirbelschichtverbrennung bei der thermischen Abfallverwertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitzerow, H.G. (ABT Gesellschaft fuer Abfall-Beseitigungs-Technologien mbH, Limburg (Germany)); Hoelter, G. (Hoelter GmbH, Gladbeck (Germany))

    1993-10-01

    Thermal utilization of waste is understood to embrace all applications of refuse incineration across the field of sewage sludge utilization to the energy utilization of residual materials from industrial applications. The demand for small decentralized energy conversion plants is increasing. Fluidized bed combustion offers advantages here. This technology has been tried for many years for relatively homogenous fuels such as coal and sewage sludge in the European area. (orig.)

  15. PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF COPOLYMERS OF 2-ACRYLAMIDO-2-METHYL PROPANE SULFO ACID AS WASTE WATER TREATMENT AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FushanChen; HongjieZhang; HuirenHu; QiushiHe

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the preparation and application of copolymers of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfo acid (AMPS) were discussed. The results showed that the copolymers with molecular weight 18.10 million can be prepared. In treating waste water from deinked pulp, the dosage of copolymers was 0.75ppm, the optimum dosage of PAC was 100ppm; dosage of the amphoteric polyacylamide (AmPAM) with molecular weight 11.34 million was 0.75ppm, the optimum dosage of PAC was 75ppm. Theremoved rate of CODcr was above 70%.

  16. PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF COPOLYMERS OF 2-ACRYLAMIDO-2-METHYL PROPANE SULFO ACID AS WASTE WATER TREATMENT AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fushan Chen; Hongjie Zhang; Huiren Hu; Qiushi He

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the preparation and application ofcopolymers of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfoacid (AMPS) were discussed. The results showed thatthe copolymers with molecular weight 18.10 millioncan be prepared. In treating waste water fromdeinked pulp, the dosage of copolymers was0.75ppm, the optimum dosage of PAC was 100ppm;dosage of the amphoteric polyacylamide (AmPAM)with molecular weight 11.34 million was 0.75ppm,the optimum dosage of PAC was 75ppm. Theremoved rate of CODcr was above 70%.

  17. Utilization of logging waste from mechanical spruce dominated final cuttings; Koneellisen puunkorjuun hakkuutaehteiden hyoedyntaeminen biopolttoaineena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebeling, J [Jaakko Poeyry Consulting Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the project has been to improve the economy of collecting logging waste from spruce dominated mechanised final felling. This section of the biomass is regarded as the most promising alternative biofuel source. The project compared different systems of collecting this raw material and concluded, that the most economical way to do this was (1) to integrate the transport of logging waste from the forest to the road side with the transport of logs using the equipment already at the site. The use of a separate tractor proved uneconomical compared to the integrated system. (2) Chip the logging waste at the road side with an integrated chipping and transport lorry (truck) equipped with three 20 feet standard or modified containers. The total cargo space in the lorry is thus around 100 m{sup 3} loose volume. The economical transport distance of this equipment is around under 100 km one way distance. The report contains also detailed drawings of the technical solution arrived at. The main idea is to use a module structure, where the chipper - the Bruks 803CT - is located together with most of the hydraulics, crane and the control equipment. The only outside connections needed are the hydraulic pressure from the pump and the operational unit with the necessary electrical panel. Thus the assembly and installation of the module on the lorry is rapid and the quality of the work can be maintained high. The operation is designed on the basis of one man operation and in such away that the need to for the driver-operator to step down from the controls is minimised. In normal situation the operation can be fully accomplished from the drivers cab - even when changing the containers

  18. PROCESSING, UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL OF WASTE IN THE STEEL INDUSTRY IN ISFAHAN, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouri

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollutions are in considerable attention in steel industries in Iran, where mostly are located around Isfahan. Therefore, an investigation was done mainly on the industrial pollution and waste related to the Isfahan Steel Complex. A plant was installed to collect the uncontrolled fumes, gases and particulates from blast furnace number II during tapping. This plant collects about 2 tons of dust each shift which previously were directed into the atmosphere. The efficiency of the system is going to be improved with some correction currently under way. Asbestos was used very widely for different purposes (about 124 tons per year as powder, sheets, ropes and woven materials. In steel ladles, preheating furnaces of rolling mills and the power generating plant, asbestos is used as a heat insulator. The small amount of asbestos still being used is kept strictly under control and asbestos and waste is disposed of in a suitable manner. Blast furnace slag is used in the cement industry and construction works and in the slag wool plant especially built for this purpose close to the complex. Efforts have been made to replace dangerous solvents like carbon tetrachloride and other hazardous organic solvents with less toxic ones. The environmental management emphasizes the maintenance and repair of electrofilters, venture scrubbers, bag filter houses, mulicyclones and other means of pollution control which almost all are under way. The use of a venture scrubber with and adjustable throat is being considered to enhance the efficiency of the converters. Converter slag and other waste containing chemicals including cyanide ions are the main subjects being examined at present.

  19. Part 1: Participatory Ergonomics Approach to Waste Container Handling Utilizing a Multidisciplinary Team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalk, D.M.; Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Biggs, T.W.; Perry, C.M.; Tageson, R.; Barsnick, L.

    2000-02-07

    This multidisciplinary team approach to waste container handling, developed within the Grassroots Ergonomics process, presents participatory ergonomic interpretations of quantitative and qualitative aspects of this process resulting in a peer developed training. The lower back, shoulders, and wrists were identified as frequently injured areas, so these working postures were a primary focus for the creation of the workers' training. Handling procedures were analyzed by the team to identify common cycles involving one 5 gallon (60 pounds), two 5 gallons (60 and 54 pounds), 30 gallon (216 pounds), and 55 gallon (482 pounds) containers: lowering from transporting to/from transport vehicles, loading/unloading on transport vehicles, and loading onto pallet. Eleven experienced waste container handlers participated in this field analysis. Ergonomic exposure assessment tools measuring these field activities included posture analysis, posture targeting, Lumbar Motion Monitor{trademark} (LMM), and surface electromyography (sEMG) for the erector spinae, infraspinatus, and upper trapezius muscles. Posture analysis indicates that waste container handlers maintained non-neutral lower back postures (flexion, lateral bending, and rotation) for a mean of 51.7% of the time across all activities. The right wrist was in non-neutral postures (radial, ulnar, extension, and flexion) a mean of 30.5% of the time and the left wrist 31.4%. Non-neutral shoulder postures (elevation) were the least common, occurring 17.6% and 14.0% of the time in the right and left shoulders respectively. For training applications, each cycle had its own synchronized posture analysis and posture target diagram. Visual interpretations relating to the peak force modifications of the posture target diagrams proved to be invaluable for the workers' understanding of LMM and sEMG results (refer to Part II). Results were reviewed by the team's field technicians and their interpretations were developed

  20. APPLICATION OF PHYTOREMEDIATION FOR HERBAL MEDICINE WASTE AND ITS UTILIZATION FOR PROTEIN PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Soetrisnanto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Herbal industry in Indonesia is progressing very rapidly. Increasing number of herbal medicineindustries lead to an increase of the waste which are normally processed in anaerobic ponds by usingchemical and biological process. However this process are not economical feasible and therefore analternative method by using natural resource is required. Phytoremediation is an environmentalfriendly method to reduce contaminant using aquatic plant. This method uses water plant to reduceCOD and nutrients content in the waste. Since the waste still high content of nutrient, therefore it ispotential for medium growth of algae Spirulina. This study was aimed to evaluate the use of variousplant species (water hyacinth and lotus in decreasing contaminant and to determine optimal nutrientcomposition of the growth media. The phytoremediation was performed in 3-8 days and height ofliquid in the tank was maintained constant at 5 cm. The effluent of first phytoremediation wastransferred to second stage for cultivation of Spirulina with 15 days of cultivation time. The externalnutrients were added each 2 days and the concentration of biomass was measured for its opticaldensity. Spirulina grow well in herbal medicine waste that has been phytoremediation with lotus for 3days and had a CNP ratio amounted to 57.790 : 9.281 : 1 with a growth rate of 0.271/day. Industri obat di Indonesia tumbuh sangat cepat. Pertumbuhan inimengakibatkan meningkatnya limbah yang umumnya dilakukan dalam kolam anaerobik denganmenggunakan proses kimia dan biologi. Namun demikian, proses tersebut belum menunjukkan hasilekonomis sehingga diperlukan metode lain yang relatif aman dan ekonomis. Salah satu cara yangdapat digunakan adalah phytoremediasi mengguanakn tanaman air untuk mengurangi kandunganCOD dalam limbah dan nutrient. Dikarenakan limbah masih mengandung nutrient yang cukup banyak,maka limbah tersebut juga sangat potensial untuk digunakan sebagai medium mikroalga. Penelitianini

  1. Viability of utilization of waste materials from ceramic products in precast concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez de Rojas, M. I.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The recycled and re-valuation process of waste materials involves studies lead to a deep acknowledges of them, finding applications for their intended use. The waste materials from ceramic products can be recycled into the construction sector, as arid or pozzolanic materials. The current work deals with the incorporation of ceramic materials in these two different ways, checking the behaviour of the elaborated mortar by mean of laboratory tests. Also, tests are developed in factory, using these as components for precast concrete tiles.

    Todo proceso de reciclado y revalorización de residuos implica estudios encaminados a un conocimiento profundo de los mismos, de forma que se busquen aplicaciones concretas de uso. Los materiales de desecho procedentes de productos cerámicos pueden ser reciclados dentro del sector de la construcción, ya sea como áridos o como materiales puzolánicos. El presente trabajo aborda la incorporación de materiales cerámicos desde estas dos vertientes, comprobando, en cada caso, el comportamiento de los morteros elaborados mediante ensayos de laboratorio. También se llevan a cabo pruebas en fábrica, siendo utilizados como componentes en prefabricados de hormigón.

  2. Utilization of agroindustrial waste for biosurfactant production by native bacteria from chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yañez-Ocampo Gustavo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, two agro-industrial wastes, namely Waste Cooking Oil (WCO and Coffee Wastewater (CW have been used as the carbon source for the production of biosurfactants, due to their low cost and high availability. Biosurfactant-producing bacterial isolates from the Mexican state of Chiapas were used. The selected biosurfactant-producer strains were evaluated in a liquid medium with 2% (v/v of WCO as the carbon source. The assay was conducted in an Erlenmeyer flask containing 300 mL aliquots of mineral salt media (MSM + residue and incubated at 100 rpm at room temperature for 96 hours. The biosurfactant produced in the samples reduced the surface tension from 50 to 30-29 mN/m. Strains A and 83 showed the maximum emulsification index at 58-59%. Strain A showed the highest biosurfactant yield with a production of 3.7 g/L in comparison with strains B, 83 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853. Our results suggest that the biosurfactant produced by strain A has great potential in the treatment of wastewater with a high content of fatty acids, and of soils contaminated by pesticides or oil hydrocarbons.

  3. Utilization of cast seaweed and waste from pectin production for anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Christensen, Thomas Budde; Kjær, Tyge

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a preliminary study on the environmental consequences of realizing a biogas plant using locally available biomass fractions in Solrød, Denmark. The biomass, which will be used at the plant, will consist of: cast seaweed (app. 20,000 tons year-1), waste from pectin production...... (app. 80,000 tons year-1) and manure (app. 50,000 tons year-1) and other materials in lesser amounts. Methane potentials of the two “new” biomass fractions were measured to predict their contribution to the biogas production. Measured methane potentials were: Pectin waste: 370 to 460 ml CH4 g VS-1...... and cast seaweed (winter sample): 118 ml CH4 g VS-1. The predicted annual biogas production of the plant was 5.4 million m3 CH4. An environmental assessment concluded that a biogas plant using the aforementioned organic materials will reduce greenhouse gas emissions between 25,000 tons CO2 year-1 and 40...

  4. Bioethanol Production By Utilizing Cassava Peels Waste Through Enzymatic And Microbiological Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witantri, R. G.; Purwoko, T.; Sunarto; Mahajoeno, E.

    2017-07-01

    Cassava peels waste contains, cellulose which is quite high at 43.626%, this is a potential candidate as a raw for bioethanol production. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of the enzymatic hydrolysis, microbiological (Effective microbe) and fermentation in cassava peel waste is known from the results of quantitative measurement of multiple ethanol parameters (DNS Test, pH, ethanol concentration). This research was carried out in stages, the first stage is hydrolysis with completely randomized design with single factor variation of the catalyst, consisting of three levels ie cellulase enzymes, multienzyme and effective microbial EM4. The second stage is fermentation with factorial randomized block design, consisting of three groups of variations of catalyst, and has two factors: variations of fermipan levels 1, 2, 3% and the duration of fermentation, 2,4,6 days. The parameters in the test is a reducing sugar, pH and concentration of ethanol. The results showed that variation of hydrolysis treatment, fermentation time, and fermipan levels has real effect on the fermentation process. On average the highest ethanol content obtained from the treatment with multienzyme addition, with the addition of 2% fermipan levels and on the 2nd day of fermentation that is equal to 3.76%.

  5. Utilization of rural wastes for algal biomass production with Scenedesmus acutus and Spirulina platensis in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkataraman, L.V.; Devi, K.M.; Mahadevaswamy, M.; Mohammed Kunhi, A.A.

    1982-03-01

    A technology for the production of the green alga, Scenedesmus acutus, and blue-green alga, Spirulina platensis, in clean water has been developed to suit Indian conditions. Experience gained on algal production technology in India indicates the scope for applying this at the rural level for use in the production of animal feed. Spirulina is the most promising alga in view of its amenability to low level technology. Nutrient input to the cultures is one of the most expensive steps. It is shown that agricultural and domestic wastes can be effectively recycled for algal biomass production by replacing, at least partly, the nutrient inputs. Urine and bonemeal reduce the inputs of nitrate, calcium and phosphate salts into the culture medium. Sheep's blood has a growth promoting effect on algal cultures and a good potential for application. Carbon dioxide enriched air-'aerobic biogas'-produced by composting cow dung, can be used as a carbon source for algal cultivation. Several experiments carried out in India indicate the possibility of developing an integrated algal production system in rural areas by means of which wastes can be effectively recycled. The use of algae in poultry and fish feeds is a distinct possibility for the future. (Refs. 25).

  6. Direct utilization of waste water algal biomass for ethanol production by cellulolytic Clostridium phytofermentans DSM1183.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathima, Anwar Aliya; Sanitha, Mary; Kumar, Thangarathinam; Iyappan, Sellamuthu; Ramya, Mohandass

    2016-02-01

    Direct bioconversion of waste water algal biomass into ethanol using Clostridium phytofermentans DSM1183 was demonstrated in this study. Fermentation of 2% (w/v) autoclaved algal biomass produced ethanol concentration of 0.52 g L(-1) (solvent yield of 0.19 g/g) where as fermentation of acid pretreated algal biomass (2%, w/v) produced ethanol concentration of 4.6 g L(-1) in GS2 media (solvent yield of 0.26 g/g). The control experiment with 2% (w/v) glucose in GS2 media produced ethanol concentration of 2.8 g L(-1) (solvent yield of 0.25 g/g). The microalgal strains from waste water algal biomass were identified as Chlamydomonas dorsoventralis, Graesiella emersonii, Coelastrum proboscideum, Scenedesmus obliquus, Micractinium sp., Desmodesmus sp., and Chlorella sp., based on ITS-2 molecular marker. The presence of glucose, galactose, xylose and rhamnose were detected by high performance liquid chromatography in the algal biomass. Scanning Electron Microscopy observations of fermentation samples showed characteristic morphological changes in algal cells and bioaccessibility of C. phytofermentans.

  7. The pyrolytic-plasma method and the device for the utilization of hazardous waste containing organic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Opalińska, Teresa; Wnęk, Bartłomiej; Witowski, Artur; Juszczuk, Rafał; Majdak, Małgorzata; Bartusek, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on the new method of waste processing. The waste, including hazardous waste, contain organic compounds. The method consists in two main processes: the pyrolysis of waste and the oxidation of the pyrolytic gas with a use of non-equilibrium plasma. The practical implementation of the method requires the design, construction and testing of the new device in large laboratory scale. The experiments were carried out for the two kinds of waste: polyethylene as a model waste and...

  8. The possibilities of the microwave utilization of wastes on the example of materials containing the asbestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pigiel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper introduce some of the results of the investigations in the utilization of the materials containing asbestos in the existingin Wroclaw University of Technology Institute’s of Technology of Machines and the Automation Foundry and Automation Group themicrowave reactor. In the reactor’s heating chamber there is possible to recycle from 3 up to 5 kg of the batch at once. The temperaturewith which is possible to receive in it is approx. 1400 oC. The time of it’s achievement (in dependence from utilized material can take outfrom 25 up to 40 minutes.

  9. Current situation and developing direction of textile waste comprehensive utilization%我国废旧纺织品综合利用现状及发展方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾明明; 唐世君

    2012-01-01

    通过分析废旧纺织品综合利用现状,总结了纯棉废旧纺织品、废旧民用纺织品、废旧军服等领域综合利用的初步进展,提出了我国目前废旧纺织品综合利用存在的主要问题,明确了废旧纺织品综合利用的发展方向,即废旧纺织品综合利用必须紧紧围绕“合理规划、分类回收、技术保障、市场拓展、政策引导、舆论宣传、全社会广泛参与”的指导方针,通过长期而系统的推进,最终实现行业规范化、专业化、集约化的健康科学发展。%Based on an analysis of the current situation of textile waste comprehensive utilization, the paper summarized the initial utilization progress of cotton waste, civilian waste and military uniforms waste. The major problems in textile waste utilization were pointed out, and the developing direction of textile waste comprehensive utilization was proposed. Comprehensive utilization of textile waste must focus on "rational planning, sorting recovery, technical support, market expansion, policy guidance, media publicity and extensive public participation", so as to realize normalized, specialized, intensified scientific development of the industry.

  10. Utilization of ground waste seashells in cement mortars for masonry and plastering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertwattanaruk, Pusit; Makul, Natt; Siripattarapravat, Chalothorn

    2012-11-30

    In this research, four types of waste seashells, including short-necked clam, green mussel, oyster, and cockle, were investigated experimentally to develop a cement product for masonry and plastering. The parameters studied included water demand, setting time, compressive strength, drying shrinkage and thermal conductivity of the mortars. These properties were compared with those of a control mortar that was made of a conventional Portland cement. The main parameter of this study was the proportion of ground seashells used as cement replacement (5%, 10%, 15%, or 20% by weight). Incorporation of ground seashells resulted in reduced water demand and extended setting times of the mortars, which are advantages for rendering and plastering in hot climates. All mortars containing ground seashells yielded adequate strength, less shrinkage with drying and lower thermal conductivity compared to the conventional cement. The results indicate that ground seashells can be applied as a cement replacement in mortar mixes and may improve the workability of rendering and plastering mortar.

  11. A contribution to the problems of utilizing coal combustion wastes from the EVO Vojany power station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Benková

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In the contribution the procedures mineral processing technologies are presented. By their application, individual valuable components are of gained from the solid waste of black coalfired in a power station. The flotation product of unburned coal rests is characterized by 85 – 86 % loss ignition. The magnetic product (usually is it a new mineral formation of magnetite includes 47 – 49 % Fe. The fly ash which is free of the unburned coal rests and magnetite iron includes only 1.02 – 1.34 % loss ignition and 5.38 – 4.71 % Fe. The products from the can be usable in several industrial areas (building industry, metallurgy, etc.

  12. GRANULATION TRIALS OF WASTE THE DUST SILICON CARBIDE FOR UTILIZATION IN METALLURGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Borowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of laboratory granulation tests of dust silicon carbide and the results of research on the selection of the binder and the properties of the granules obtained. The research material was a waste of the silicon carbide powder with a high fragmentation, mixed with a cement or an organic modified starch specimen. Six tests were performed in a disc granulator with 100 cm in diameter. In each series of trial specified: the type and share of the binder, the diameter of the granules, tenderness, type of structure and mechanical properties. Good granules of silicon carbide obtained with the addition of cement binder with 4% of the mass fraction and at least 24 hours of seasoning. The binder should be added twice by powdering, first in a stirred granulator, and again after manufacture. It was found that the resulting granules may be used as a replacement of ferrosilicon in the process of steelmaking.

  13. Utilization of winery wastes for Trichoderma viride biocontrol agent production by solid state fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Zhihui; JIN Bo; LI Yuejie; CHEN Jian; LI Zuming

    2008-01-01

    Biocontrol agents are safe and environmental friendly alternatives for pesticides in agriculture application.Trichoderma v/ride WEBL0703 performed a high level of antagonistic activity toward a broad spectrum of phytopathogens and was determined as a biocontrol agent,which was produced by solid state fermentation using grape marc and wine lees.The maximum yield of T.viride conidia was up to 6.65×109 CFU/g initial dry substrate (IDS) after 10 d fermentation.As important enzymes for protecting plants from disease,ehitinase,β-glucanase,and pectinase yields were 47.8 U/g IDS,8.32 U/g IDS and 9.83 U/g IDS,respectively.These results show that it is feasible to convert winery wastes to a value-added and environmental friendly biocontrol agent.

  14. Utilization of oil palm empty bunches waste as biochar-microbes for improving availibity of soil nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G . I . Ichriani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are about 23% waste oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB of total waste generated from the production of crude palm oil in oil palm plantations. Pyrolysis technology can be used to convert waste into biochar and further can be utilized for the improvement of soil. Biochar-microbes of OPEFB are biochar from OPEFB biomass that enriched with soil microbes. Biochar-microbes is expected to be used for the improvement of the soil and plants. Therefore the purpose of this research was to study the ability of biochar-microbes OPEFB to increase availability of the nutrients in sandy soils. The process of making biochar done by using slow pyrolysis technology by heating 300oC and 400oC for 2 and 3 hours, and with sizes 40 and 80 mesh, as well as indigenous microbial Bulkhorderia nodosa G.52.Rif1 and Trichoderma sp. added. The biochar production and research were conducted in the Department of Forestry Laboratory and in the Department of Agronomy Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Palangka Raya University. In general, the study showed that biochar-microbes could maintain the soil pH value and tends to increase the soil pH, increasing the holding capacity of sandy soil to the elements of P and K as well as increasing the availability of nutrients N, P and K. Furthermore, this study showed that the biochar process by 400oC heating for 3 hours and 40 mesh with microbes or without microbes were the best effect on the improvement of the quality of holding capacity and the nutrients supply in sandy soils.

  15. Utilization and management of organic wastes in Chinese agriculture: Past, present and perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Xiaotang; ZHANG Fusuo; BAO Xuemei; R(o)mheld V.; Roelcke M.

    2005-01-01

    Recycling and composting of organic materials such as animal waste, crop residues and green manures has a long tradition in China. In the past, the application of organic manures guaranteed a high return of organic materials and plant mineral nutrients and thus maintained soil fertility and crop yield. As a result of rapid economic development coupled with the increasing urbanization and labour costs, the recycling rate of organic materials in Chinese agriculture has dramatically declined during the last two decades, in particular in the more developed eastern and southeastern provinces of China. Improper handling and storage of the organic wastes is causing severe air and water pollution. Because farmers are using increasing amounts of mineral fertilizer, only 47% of the cropland is still receiving organic manure, which accounted for 18% of N,28% of P and 75% of K in the total nutrient input in 2000. Nowadays, the average proportion of nutrients (N+P+K) supplemented by organic manure in Chinese cropland is only 35% of the total amount of nutrients from both inorganic and organic sources.In China, one of the major causes is the increasing de-coupling of animal and plant production.This is occurring at a time when "re-coupling" is partly being considered in Western countries as a means to improve soil fertility and reduce pollution from animal husbandry. Re-coupling of modern animal and plant production is urgently needed in China. A comprehensive plan to develop intensive animal husbandry while taking into account the environmental impact of liquid and gaseous emissions and the nutrient requirements of the crops as well as the organic carbon requirements of the soil are absolutely necessary. As a consequence of a stronger consideration of ecological aspects in agriculture, a range of environmental standards has been issued and various legal initiatives are being taken in China. Their enforcement should be strictly monitored.

  16. Effective utilization of waste ash from MSW and coal co-combustion power plant: Zeolite synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yun; Zhang, Fu-Shen; Zhu, Jianxin; Liu, Zhengang

    2008-05-01

    The solid by-product from power plant fueled with municipal solid waste and coal was used as a raw material to synthesize zeolite by fusion-hydrothermal process in order to effectively use this type of waste material. The effects of treatment conditions, including NaOH/ash ratio, operating temperature and hydrothermal reaction time, were investigated, and the product was applied to simulated wastewater treatment. The optimal conditions for zeolite X synthesis were: NaOH/ash ratio=1.2:1, fusion temperature=550 degrees C, crystallization time=6-10 h and crystallization temperature=90 degrees C. In the synthesis process, it was found that zeolite X tended to transform into zeolite HS when NaOH/ash ratio was 1.8 or higher, crystallization time was 14-18 h, operating temperature was 130 degrees C or higher. The CEC value, BET surface area and pore volume for the synthesized product at optimal conditions were 250 cmol kg(-1), 249 m(2) g(-1) and 0.46 cm(3) g(-1) respectively, higher than coal fly ash based zeolite. Furthermore, when applied to Zn(2+) contaminated wastewater treatment, the synthesized product presented larger adsorption capacity and bond energy than coal fly ash based zeolite, and the adsorption isotherm data could be well described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. These results demonstrated that the special type of co-combustion ash from power plant is suitable for synthesizing high quality zeolite, and the products are suitable for heavy metal removal from wastewater.

  17. Augmentation of Cooling Output by Silica Gel-Water Adsorption Cycle Utilizing the Waste Heat of GHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Hiroki; Araki, Nobuyuki

    The GHP (Gas engine Heat Pump) system is expected to have high energy-efficiency in utilizing the waste heat exhausted from a gas engine. In summer season, a silica gel-water adsorption cooling unit driven by the exhaust heat is considered as a cooling system for saving energy. In this work, an attempt was made to improve the COP of a silica gel-water adsorption cooling system by enhancing heat and mass transfer in the silica gel adsorption layer. A unit cell was introduced as a simplified model of adsorber for analyzing the phenomena of heat and mass transfer in the adsorbent. This cell was composed of a single tube with a silica gel layer bonded on its external surface. Optimization of heat and mass transfer characteristics for the unit cell was carried out by experimental and analytical approach.

  18. Parametric Limits of Efficient Use of a Centrifugal Water Atomizer in Contact Waste-Gas Heat-Utilization Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrodnyi, M. K.; Rachinskii, A. Yu.; Barabash, P. A.; Goliyad, N. N.

    2016-07-01

    The relation for the limiting temperature of water heating in a contact gas-droplet-type apparatus with a centrifugal atomizer has been determined experimentally in relation to the conditions of utilization of heat of power plant waste-gases. Investigations were carried out in the range of excess water pressures in front of the atomizer 0.2-0.6 MPa and of the volume fraction of steam in the vapor-gas mixture at the inlet of the apparatus from 0.02 to 0.45. The possibility of using the obtained dependence for calculating the limiting values of the vapor-gas flow parameters that limit the range of efficient operation of the contact apparatus with steam condensation and in the absence of heated liquid droplet evaporation is shown.

  19. Microbial network for waste activated sludge cascade utilization in an integrated system of microbial electrolysis and anaerobic fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wenzong; He, Zhangwei; Yang, Chunxue

    2016-01-01

    and Parabacteroides, which showed a delayed contribution to the extracellular electron transport leading to a slow cascade utilization of WAS. Conclusions: Efficient pretreatment could supply more short-chain fatty acids and higher conductivities in the fermentative liquid, which facilitated mass transfer in anodic......Background: Bioelectrochemical systems have been considered a promising novel technology that shows an enhanced energy recovery, as well as generation of value-added products. A number of recent studies suggested that an enhancement of carbon conversion and biogas production can be achieved...... in an integrated system of microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) and anaerobic digestion (AD) for waste activated sludge (WAS). Microbial communities in integrated system would build a thorough energetic and metabolic interaction network regarding fermentation communities and electrode respiring communities...

  20. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste

    OpenAIRE

    K. Ashok Kumar; Narayani, M.; A. Subanthini; Jayakumar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water) prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon) were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel e...

  1. RE-UTILIZATION OF INORGANIC SOLID WASTE (LIME MUD AS FOREST ROAD STABILIZER FROM THE CHEMICAL RECOVERY PROCESS IN KRAFT PULP MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habip Eroğlu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste handling is a concern in all pulp and paper mills. Best available techniques for reducing waste is to minimize the generation of solid waste and/or reuse these materials, wherever practicable. One of the most important solid wastes is lime mud which is generated from the kraft pulping in its chemical recovery process. This paper explores the composition of lime mud resulting from the chemical recovery unite of kraft pulp mill and investigation of this waste for re-using beneficially on sub grade and pavement of forest road as a alternative disposal method. Lime mud obtained from the re-causticising process in SEKA pulp mill that utilizes wheat straw and reed as the principal raw material was supplied with % 47 water content and its chemical and physical characterisations was performed according to standard methods. Dried waste to environmental condition was mixed with certain amount to composite cement for using on pavement and sandy clay, loamy clay and clay soils for enriching forest road sub grade properties. In order to investigate the lime mud addition on pavement and sub grade properties necessary physical tests were performed. As a consequence this study reveals that while waste of lime mud causes environmental and economical problem with conventional disposal techniques and/or abandoning to environment, this waste can be used as good stabilisation materials on forest road sub-grade and pavement without any environmental problem.

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF HETEROGENEOUS UTILIZATION OF THORIUM IN PWRS TO ENHANCE PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND REDUCE WASTE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TODOSOW,M.; KAZIMI,M.

    2004-08-01

    Issues affecting the implementation, public perception and acceptance of nuclear power include: proliferation, radioactive waste, safety, and economics. The thorium cycle directly addresses the proliferation and waste issues, but optimization studies of core design and fuel management are needed to ensure that it fits within acceptable safety and economic margins. Typical pressurized water reactors, although loaded with uranium fuel, produce 225 to 275 kg of plutonium per gigawatt-year of operation. Although the spent fuel is highly radioactive, it nevertheless offers a potential proliferation pathway because the plutonium is relatively easy to separate, amounts to many critical masses, and does not present any significant intrinsic barrier to weapon assembly. Uranium 233, on the other hand, produced by the irradiation of thorium, although it too can be used in weapons, may be ''denatured'' by the addition of natural, depleted or low enriched uranium. Furthermore, it appears that the chemical behavior of thoria or thoria-urania fuel makes it a more stable medium for the geological disposal of the spent fuel. It is therefore particularly well suited for a once-through fuel cycle. The use of thorium as a fertile material in nuclear fuel has been of interest since the dawn of nuclear power technology due to its abundance and to potential neutronic advantages. Early projects include homogeneous mixtures of thorium and uranium oxides in the BORAX-IV, Indian Point I, and Elk River reactors, as well as heterogeneous mixtures in the Shippingport seed-blanket reactor. However these projects were developed under considerably different circumstances than those which prevail at present. The earlier applications preceded the current proscription, for non-proliferation purposes, of the use of uranium enriched to more than 20 w/o in {sup 235}U, and has in practice generally prohibited the use of uranium highly enriched in {sup 235}U. They were designed when

  3. Synthesis of Biomass and Utilization of Plant Wastes in a Physical Model of a Biological Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Lisovsky, G. M.; Kudenko, Yu A.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gribovksaya, I. V.; Tirranen, L. S.; Zolotukkhin, I. G.; Gros, J. B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    Biological life support systems (LSS) with highly closed intrasystem mass ex change mass ex change hold much promise for long-term human life support at planetary stations (Moon, Mars, etc.). The paper considers problems of biosynthesis of higher plants' biomass and "biological incineration" of plant wastes in a working physical model of biological LSS. The plant wastes are "biologically incinerated" in a special heterotroph block involving Californian worms, mushrooms and straw. The block processes plant wastes (straw, haulms) to produce soil-like substrate (SLS) on which plants (wheat, radish) are grown. Gas ex change in such a system consists of respiratory gas ex change of SLS and photosynthesis and respiration of plants. Specifics of gas ex change dynamics of high plants -SLS complex has been considered. Relationship between such a gas ex change and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and age of plants has been established. SLS fertility has been shown to depend on its thickness and phase of maturity. The biogenic elements (potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen) in Liebig minimum have been found to include nitrogen which is the first to impair plants' growth in disruption of the process conditions. The SLS microflora has been found to have different kinds of ammonifying and denitrifying bacteria which is indicative of intensive transformation of nitrogen-containing compounds. The number of physiological groups of microorganisms in SLS was, on the whole, steady. As a result, organic substances -products of ex change of plants and microorganisms were not accumulated in the medium, but mineralized and assimilated by the biocenosis. Experiments showed that the developed model of a man-made ecosystem realized complete utilization of plant wastes and involved them into the intrasystem turnover. In multiple recycle of the mat ter (more than 5 cycles) under the irradiance intensity of 150 W/m2 PAR and the SLS mass (dry weight) of 17.7 -19.9 kg/m2 average total harvest of

  4. 建筑垃圾的管理与资源化%Construction waste management and resource utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏秀萍; 赖芨宇; 张仁胜

    2013-01-01

    建筑行业是高耗材、高排放的行业,生态文明建设对建筑行业提出了更高的要求,建筑垃圾资源化利用成为了发展目标.为促进城市垃圾的产业化发展,提高建筑行业资源化管理水平,文章详细归纳了国外建筑垃圾资源化处理及再生利用的成功管理经验,总结了建筑垃圾从“产生、清运、中间处理、回收再利用”四个阶段的规制措施,分析了国内现存主要管理难题,对建设项目全生命周期包括项目立项、规划设计、施工、运营管理、后期处置等阶段所涉及的政府机关、建设单位及环卫服务企业提出相应的资源化管理措施,针对政府单位提倡协调管理与监督问政结合、直接惩治与间接诱导结合的政府监管措施,建议建设单位进行项目全生命周期减量化管理;在回收利用管理方面,提出构建建筑垃圾产业循环体系,通过推行环境标志与引入市场竞争机制提升再生产品的优势等相应的管理对策,以期实现建筑垃圾资源化、减量化处理.%Construction industry is a high consumables and high emissions industry, ecological civilization construction puts forward higher requirements to the construction industry, then construction waste utilization turns to be the development goal. To promote the development of urban garbage industrialization, successful experiences abroad about construction waste management were briefly summarized , and the existing problems of China were analyzed, thus suitable management countermeasures to the development of the construction waste industry through the project life cycle, including project planning and design, construction, operation and management, post-disposal stage, were proposed,especially to the government agencies, construction and sanitation services enterprises. Resource management measures comprise the coordination of legal regulation and administrative supervision, directly punishment and

  5. Development of an innovative approach for management of coal processing waste with natural resource utilization byproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Raju, C.B.; Patwardhan, A. [Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, Carbondale, IL (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The paper summarizes studies to develop and demonstrate suitable bulk mixes of tailings or fine coal processing waste (FCPW) and coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) that will minimize environmental impacts on the land, water and air in the short-term as well as in the long-term. Samples of FCPW and slurry pond water were characterized for total and pyritic sulfur, trace elements, and water chemistry. Important characteristics of desired mixes were also identified based on planned use at each study mine. Tailings were characterized for particle size distribution, calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE) oxide composition, and ASTM leaching characterization tests. A series of mixes were developed. The test data was developed using standardized test procedures. These studies were first conducted on a small scale (100-200 gm sample size) and then scaled up to 500-1000 gm size samples. The final developed mixes were tested for their environmental properties in columns developed accounting to ASTM standards. Vegetation studies on the developed mixes were initiated in ice-cube trays and eventually upscaled to 2-gallon size aquariums. The studies involved plant-height growth, soil studies, water-pH and changes in soil mineralogy. 5 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Resource Utilization of Chromium Containing Leather Waste%含铬革屑的资源化利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗凤香

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metal chromium containing leather waste shavings, if not effectively treated, will cause environmental pollution and human health damage. In the increasingly serious environmental problems and increasingly scarce resource today, the resource utilization of above mentioned chrome tanned leather shavings has enormous environmental and economic value. This paper describes the methods to utilize chromium leather shavings in recent years.%含有重金属铬的含铬革屑制革废弃物,如果不能有效处理,将会造成环境污染及人类等健康损害。在环境问题日益严重和资源日趋贫乏的今天,对含铬革屑的资源化利用具有巨大的环境和经济价值。本文简述了近年来对含铬革屑的利用方法。

  7. An Analysis of Waste Management Policies on Utilizing Biosludge as Material Resources in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biosludge is a by-product of secondary wastewater treatment processes. Due to its high contents of organic carbon and plant nutrients, this bioresource can be practically reused as raw feedstock for making organic fertilizers and building materials. The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of biosludge utilization in Taiwan, including food processing sludge, wine brewery sludge, textile sludge, pulp sludge and agricultural sludge. The discussion focused on the status of biosludge generation in recent years (2004–2010, and its sustainable management principle. This paper also presents updated information about the governmental regulations and policies for promoting these biosolids as material resources, as well as validating the regulatory levels of toxic constituents in the biosludge and its derived product (e.g., organic fertilizer. Based on the preliminary benefit analysis of utilizing biosludge as raw material for organic fertilizer, reusing biosludge, being a beneficial resource, should be superior to those by traditional treatments (i.e., incineration and sanitary landfill.

  8. Utilization of bagasse and coconut fibers waste as fillers of sandwich composite for bridge railway sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehardjo, K. A.; Basuki, A.

    2017-07-01

    The bridge railway sleepers is an essential component in the construction of railways, as the foundation of the rail support in order to withstand the load a train that runs above it. Sleepers used in bridge construction are expected to have a longer service life, lighter weight and durable so that can be used more efficient. This research was carried out to create a model of bridges railway sleepers made of sandwich structured composite from fiber glass, epoxy resin with fillers waste of bagasse (sugar cane pulp mill) or coconut fiberboard (copra industry) that using polyurethane as an adhesive. The process of making was conditioned for small and medium industrial applications. Railway sleepers’ specifications adapted to meet the requirements of end user. The process steps in this research include; lay-up fiberglass combined with bagasse/coconut fiberboard (as fillers), gluing with epoxy resin, molded it with pressure to be solid, curing after solidification process. The specimens of composite, bagasse and coconut fiber board were tested for tensile and compressive strength. The prototype were tested of mechanical test: flexural moment test to the stand rail, flexural moment test to the middle of the sleepers and tensile strength test on one side of the sleepers, in accordance to SNI 11-3388-1994 Method testing of single block concrete sleepers and bearing single rail fastening systems. The results of mechanical testing all variations meet the technical specifications of end user such as test results for flexural moment on all prototypes, after load test, there is no visible crack. While in the tensile strength test, it seem the prototype with coconut fiberboard filler, shows better performance than bagasse fiberboard filler, the decisions is just depended on techno economic and lifetime.

  9. ComprehenSive Utilization Technique of Solid Leather Wastes%皮革固体废弃物的综合利用技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国锋; 马兴元

    2001-01-01

    本文叙述了皮革固体废弃物的来源和综合利用途径,提出了具有实用价值的回收方法和利用技术。%In this paper, source and comprehensive utilization way of solid leather wastes werediscussed. And at the same time the new recycling method and practical utilization technique wereput forward.

  10. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ashok kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel extract of Citrus limon. The peel extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon can be considered to be as equally potent as the antibiotics, such as metacillin and penicillin. MICs were tested at concentrations ranging from 50-6.25 mg/ml as wells as their MBCs. The phytochemical analysis of the citrus peel extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids

  11. UTILIZING WASTE PLASTIC POLYPROPYLENE AND POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE AS ALTERNATIVE AGGREGATES TO PRODUCE LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IBRAHIM H. ALFAHDAWI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, there is an increasing need for the fabrication of mortar and concrete that can be characterised as sustainable and environmentally friendly. Ideally, this concrete should be inexpensive, lightweight, and outstanding in terms of its physical and mechanical specifications. Plastic materials have increasingly been used in the fabrication of different types of concrete admixtures and mortar constituents. These plastic materials take the form of fillers or shredded fibres derived from polypropylene and polyethylene terephthalate. The use of plastic materials presents the following benefits: (i enhanced mixture quality and (ii a reduction in the amount of accumulated single-use plastic materials that negatively impact the environment. This work reviews several previous studies on the utilisation and preparations of plastic materials and their effects on the physical and mechanical properties of concrete. Other topics, including hardened concrete, fresh concrete, application, and thermo-physical characteristics, are also elaborated.

  12. Utilization of composted sugar industry waste (pressmud) to improve properties of sodic soil for rice cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Rashi; Chandra, R; Kumar, Narendra; Tyagi, A K

    2005-07-01

    Sulphitation pressmud (SPM) and its composts were prepared by heap, pit, NADEP and vermicomposting methods and their effects were compared with soil properties and growth, yield and nutrient uptake by rice in a sodic soil under pot conditions. Application of 15 t ha(-1) SPM and its different composts significantly increased the plant height and dry matter accumulation at different intervals, grain and straw yields and N, P and K uptake by the crop over the control. NADEP compost of SPM alone recorded the maximum and significant plant height by 8.5 to 19.3% and plant dry matter by 14.6 to 32.8% over the raw SPM at different intervals. NADEP composts of SPM alone and SPM + rice straw were also found to be superior than raw SPM by recording 34.8 and 27.8% more grain yield respectively. The SPM composts prepared by NADEP and SPM by vermicomposting methods significantly accumulated higher N and K in rice grains and straw, while NADEP compost of SPM and SPM + rice straw recorded more P in grains and straw than raw SPM. Application of SPM and its composts reduced the pH, EC and bulk density of the soil after rice harvesting, though the reductions were not significant in comparison to the control. However, these treatments increased the soil organic C by 33.33 to 69.0%, available N by 41.4 to 74.8%, available P by 47.1 to 97.8%, available K by 11.8 to 59.2% and available S by 10.3 to 90.7% over the control. NADEP composts, in general, were found to be superior than the raw SPM and other composts in residual soil nutrient content after rice crop.

  13. 餐厨废弃物资源化利用研究进展%Research Progress of Comprehensive Utilization for Food Waste Resource

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振花; 王兴峰; 吴世洋; 张军英; 郭小芳

    2013-01-01

    The source and the conventional treatment technologies of food waste resource are summarized. The comprehensive utilization of food waste in production of animal feed, compost, bio-diesel, anaerobic fermentation and biogas were reviewed. Moreover, the method of resource utilization and harmless treatment of food waste are elaborated in this paper.%综述了餐厨废弃物的来源及目前传统的处理方法。对餐厨废弃物在生产饲料、堆肥、生物柴油、厌氧发酵和沼气等方面的资源化综合利用进行了评述,同时对餐厨废弃物资源化利用和无害化处理提出了建议。

  14. Waste management plan for pipeline construction works: basic guideline for its preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serricchio, Claudio; Caldas, Flaviana V. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Izabel C.A. de; Araujo, Ronaldo G. de [TELSAN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Tania Mara [IMC-SASTE, Sao Paulo,SP (Brazil); Veronez, Fernanda A. [Bourscheid, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    During the stage of implementation of the land pipes enterprise, one of the main environmental aspects to be considered was the creation of solid and liquid waste. To mitigate the possible impacts to the environment, the main adopted mitigate measure was the implementation of a Waste Management Plan - WMP. Thus, the management of waste from pipes construction has the challenge of a great variety of stages and phases for the implementation of pipes and the diversity of local situations related to the topographic and hydro-geologic conditions. Considering the peculiarity of the pipes activities, this article proposes the elaboration of a Basic Guide to be used as reference for the creation of WMP's for similar enterprises, using as foundation the data from the three Gas Pipelines: Cabiunas - Vitoria; Vitoria - Cacimbas and Cacimbas - Catu. After the analysis of the three mentioned enterprises, it was verified that the waste management generated on the building and assembling of the land pipes normally occurs in accord with previous planning, but there's no systematization for the waste to be better recycled and reutilized, thus mitigating their creation. (author)

  15. The production and utilization of leather fertilizer manufactured from the leather solid waste%制革固态废料生产皮肥及其用途

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵泽恩; 解守岭; 李士英

    2001-01-01

    本文综述了制革固体废料制取皮肥的生产工艺和在农业上的应用。%The article describes the producing technology of leather fertilizer which made from the solid waste in leather industry, and its utilization in farming.

  16. Utilization of airborne imaging spectrometers for spectral characterization of waste water plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljeberg, M.; Ekstrand, S.

    1999-01-01

    This study report on an investigation of the performance of high resolution imaging sensors in the field of water quality monitoring in coastal waters affected by industrial wastewater plumes. The aim is to develop methods for detection and identification of different kinds of water discharges and to make these methods applicable to the next generation satellite systems. In this work data from two imaging spectrometers have been evaluated and compared. The study areas are located at the northern part of the Swedish East Coast. Heavy industries with large amounts of industrial waste water discharges, together with the outlets of several major Swedish rivers characterise this part of the Swedish coast. In situ measurements of chlorophyll -a, suspended matter and dissolved organic carbon are performed together with measurements of phosphorus, NO{sub x} and light absorption at 260 nm and 280 nm. Spectral profiles for sampling points and plume affected waters are extracted and analysed. Results from simple regression analysis show that best correlation are achieved for chlorophyll -a and suspended sediments, no significant correlation were found for dissolved organic carbon. It is shown that spectral difference between plume affected water and `clean` water reaches its maximum between 650 and 700 nm for this data set. Furthermore it is shown that spectral variations between different plumes is greatest between 400 and 550 nm. Correlation was confirmed for chlorophyll and suspended sediments but correlation coefficients were weaker than expected. High geometric resolution combined with a multitude of wavelength bands with narrow bandwidths is obviously not sufficient for high performance monitoring of the coastal zone. It is evident that image quality and thus information content, is in a high degree dependent on god weather conditions during registration. It is also important to gather information regarding optical properties of both the atmosphere and the water body

  17. Utility-value intervention with parents increases students’ STEM preparation and career pursuit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rozek, Christopher S; Svoboda, Ryan C; Harackiewicz, Judith M; Hulleman, Chris S; Hyde, Janet S

    2017-01-01

    ...) is critically important as preparation to pursue STEM careers, yet students in the United States lag behind other countries, ranking 35th in mathematics and 27th in science achievement internationally...

  18. Robotic, MEMS-based Multi Utility Sample Preparation Instrument for ISS Biological Workstation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a multi-functional, automated sample preparation instrument for biological wet-lab workstations on the ISS. The instrument is based on a...

  19. The Mississippi University Research Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass: Production of Alternative Fuels from Waste Biomass Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drs. Mark E. Zapp; Todd French; Lewis Brown; Clifford George; Rafael Hernandez; Marvin Salin (from Mississippie State University); Drs. Huey-Min Hwang, Ken Lee, Yi Zhang; Maria Begonia (from Jackson State University); Drs. Clint Williford; Al Mikell (from the University of Mississippi); Drs. Robert Moore; Roger Hester (from the University of Southern Mississippi).

    2009-03-31

    The Mississippi Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass was formed via funding from the US Department of Energy's EPSCoR Program, which is administered by the Office of Basic Science. Funding was approved in July of 1999 and received by participating Mississippi institutions by 2000. The project was funded via two 3-year phases of operation (the second phase was awarded based on the high merits observed from the first 3-year phase), with funding ending in 2007. The mission of the Consortium was to promote the utilization of biomass, both cultured and waste derived, for the production of commodity and specialty chemicals. These scientific efforts, although generally basic in nature, are key to the development of future industries within the Southeastern United States. In this proposal, the majority of the efforts performed under the DOE EPSCoR funding were focused primarily toward the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks and biogas from waste products. However, some of the individual projects within this program investigated the production of other products from biomass feeds (i.e. acetic acid and biogas) along with materials to facilitate the more efficient production of chemicals from biomass. Mississippi is a leading state in terms of raw biomass production. Its top industries are timber, poultry production, and row crop agriculture. However, for all of its vast amounts of biomass produced on an annual basis, only a small percentage of the biomass is actually industrially produced into products, with the bulk of the biomass being wasted. This situation is actually quite representative of many Southeastern US states. The research and development efforts performed attempted to further develop promising chemical production techniques that use Mississippi biomass feedstocks. The three processes that were the primary areas of interest for ethanol production were syngas fermentation, acid hydrolysis followed by hydrolyzate fermentation, and

  20. Utilization of DNA as functional materials: preparation of filters containing DNA insolubilized with alginic acid gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, K; Sawadaishi, T; Nishimura, S I; Tokura, S; Nishi, N

    1996-02-01

    Thin films composed of DNA and alginic acid were prepared by casting their mixed solution on glass plate followed by coagulation with aqueous solution of calcium chloride. DNA could be conveniently insolubilized by this method. DNA in the films adsorbed intercalating materials, such as ethidium bromide. This phenomenon was successfully applied to the preparation of filters for the selective removal or accumulation of harmful intercalating pollutants.

  1. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P absorption and retention were similar among treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO which N absorption was lower (P < 0.05) than among treatments while the difference between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. Based on this study, CGWVO levels up to 4 % in total mixed ration could be efficiently utilized for goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  2. Utilization of biogas produced by anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste: Energy, economic and environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hublin, Andrea; Schneider, Daniel Rolph; Džodan, Janko

    2014-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste is of significant interest in order to facilitate a sustainable development of energy supply. Using of material and energy potentials of agro-industrial waste, in the framework of technical, economic, and ecological possibilities, contributes in increasing the share of energy generated from renewable energy sources. The paper deals with the benefits arising from the utilization of biogas produced by co-digestion of whey and cow manure. The advantages of this process are the profitability of the plant and the convenience in realizing an anaerobic digestion plant to produce biogas that is enabled by the benefits from the sale of electric energy at favorable prices. Economic aspects are related to the capital cost (€ 2,250,000) of anaerobic digestion treatment in a biogas plant with a 300 kW power and 510 kW heating unit in a medium size farm (450 livestock units). Considering the optimum biogas yield of 20.7 dm(3) kg(-1) of wet substrate and methane content in the biogas obtained of 79%, the anaerobic process results in a daily methane production of 2,500 kg, with the maximum power generation of 2,160,000 kWh y(-1) and heat generation of 2,400,000 kWh y(-1) The net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period for implementation of profitable anaerobic digestion process is evaluated. Ecological aspects related to carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission reduction are assessed.

  3. UTILIZATION OF AREN (Arenga pinnata Merr. SAWMILLING WASTE FOR EDIBLE MUSHROOM CULTIVATION MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djarwanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aren (Arenga pinnata Merr. is a multipurpose tree that can be utilized for palm sugar, alcoholic drinks, beverages and construction wood. The use of aren sawdust has not been studied intensively. This study examines the utilization of aren sawdust as cultivation media for edible mushrooms. Aren sawdust was mixed with rice bran, CaCO3, gypsum, fertilizers and distilled water before sterilization in 30 minutes pressurized autoclave at 1210C and 1.5atm. The mixed media was inoculated with pure cultures containing four mushrooms species (Pleurotus flabellatus, P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju and Lentinula edodes and incubated for five weeks to allow mycelium growth producing fruit bodies. The fruit bodies were harvested everyday within four months and examined for its gained mushroom-weight and biological conversion efficiency/BE. The core part of aren trunk was cut into smaller pieces of 10 cm (width by 5 cm (thickness, by 120 cm (length. Each core sample was bored from the surface inward, creating holes with a particular distance apart. Each hole was inoculated with pure cultures containing 6 mushroom species (four species above, P. cystidiosus and Auricularia polytricha. The inoculated samples were slanted on bamboo support, and placed in a bamboo hut. Harvesting was carried out everyday after the fruiting body became mature and examined for its gained mushroom weight. Results show that the use of sawdust supplemented with nutritious material is more likely to improve the mushroom yield than that of aren sawn-timber core. In this case, the BE values with aren-sawdust media were 21.97-89.45% (P. flabellatus, 15.36-105.36% (P. ostreatus, 63.88-76.86% (P. sajor-caju, and up to 62.88% (L. edodes. Meanwhile, the yields (gained mushroom weight with aren sawn-timber media were 210g (P. ostreatus, 368g (P. flabellatus, 331g (P. sajor-caju and 48g (A. polytricha; however, P. cystidiosus and L. edodes inoculated on aren stem core failed to grow.

  4. Utilization of sepiolite materials as a bottom liner material in solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Yucel; Cetin, Bora; Aydilek, Ahmet H; Tanyu, Burak F; Koparal, Savas

    2014-01-01

    Landfill bottom liners are generally constructed with natural clay soils due to their high strength and low hydraulic conductivity characteristics. However, in recent years it is increasingly difficult to find locally available clay soils that satisfy the required engineering properties. Fine grained soils such as sepiolite and zeolite may be used as alternative materials in the constructions of landfill bottom liners. A study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using natural clay rich in kaolinite, sepiolite, zeolite, and their mixtures as a bottom liner material. Unconfined compression tests, swell tests, hydraulic conductivity tests, batch and column adsorption tests were performed on each type of soil and sepiolite-zeolite mixtures. The results of the current study indicate that sepiolite is the dominant material that affects both the geomechanical and geoenvironmental properties of these alternative liners. An increase in sepiolite content in the sepiolite-zeolite mixtures increased the strength, swelling potential and metal adsorption capacities of the soil mixtures. Moreover, hydraulic conductivity of the mixtures decreased significantly with the addition of sepiolite. The utilization of sepiolite-zeolite materials as a bottom liner material allowed for thinner liners with some reduction in construction costs compared to use of a kaolinite-rich clay.

  5. Waste Utilization as Fine Coconut Fiber for Core and Wood Waste Bayur to The Face Layer of The Physical and Mechanical Properties of Particle Board Produced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahadi Didi Ismanto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of wood particle bayur comparison to the outer layer of coconut husk particle board smooth the physical and mechanical properties of the resulting particle board . The design used was completely randomized design ( CRD with 5 treatments with 3 replications for each treatment used is the use of wood particles bayur as the outer layer of particle board and refined coconut fiber as a core that is 80 % : 20 % , 70 % : 30 % , 60 % : 40 % , 50 % : 50 % , 40 % : 60 % observational data physical and mechanical properties were analyzed using analysis of variance if significantly different then performed with a further test of Duncan's New Multiple Range Test ( DMNRT at the 5% significance level . Observations made on the physical properties of particle board include : water content , water absorption and thickness expansion. The mechanical properties of particle board : strength broken , the pressure parallel and bonding strength. Based on the research that has been carried out showed that the utilization of wood waste bayur as the outer layer of particle board on a percentage varying significantly different effect on strength broken , water content , water absorption , expansion of thick , strength pressure bonding parallel to the internal surface . The results show the percentage of particle board with wood bayur with delicate coconut husk ( 40:60 is the best board with a water content of 6.11% , water absorption 20.56 % 10.93 % thicker expansion, density of 0.84 % , bonding strength of 56.90 kg / cm 2 pressure and parallel fiber determination 146.65 kg /cm 2.

  6. Preparation of polysulfone hollow microspheres encapsulating DNA and their functional utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C; Liu, X D; Nomizu, M; Nishi, N

    2004-05-01

    Polysulfone hollow microspheres encapsulating DNA were prepared using a liquid-liquid phase separation technique. The microspheres were then used to absorb a DNA-binding intercalating material--ethidium bromide. The amount of DNA encapsulated in the microspheres depended on the concentration of the DNA solution used to prepare the microspheres, and the microsphere morphology depended on both the polymer concentration and the preparation conditions. The amount of ethidium bromide in the microspheres depended mainly on the amount of encapsulated DNA, and the microsphere morphology also affected the removal of the ethidium bromide. The new method of DNA encapsulation is proposed, and the microspheres encapsulating the DNA have the potential to be used in environmental applications.

  7. Utility-value intervention with parents increases students’ STEM preparation and career pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozek, Christopher S.; Svoboda, Ryan C.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Hulleman, Chris S.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2017-01-01

    During high school, developing competence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is critically important as preparation to pursue STEM careers, yet students in the United States lag behind other countries, ranking 35th in mathematics and 27th in science achievement internationally. Given the importance of STEM careers as drivers of modern economies, this deficiency in preparation for STEM careers threatens the United States’ continued economic progress. In the present study, we evaluated the long-term effects of a theory-based intervention designed to help parents convey the importance of mathematics and science courses to their high-school–aged children. A prior report on this intervention showed that it promoted STEM course-taking in high school; in the current follow-up study, we found that the intervention improved mathematics and science standardized test scores on a college preparatory examination (ACT) for adolescents by 12 percentile points. Greater high-school STEM preparation (STEM course-taking and ACT scores) was associated with increased STEM career pursuit (i.e., STEM career interest, the number of college STEM courses, and students’ attitudes toward STEM) 5 y after the intervention. These results suggest that the intervention can affect STEM career pursuit indirectly by increasing high-school STEM preparation. This finding underscores the importance of targeting high-school STEM preparation to increase STEM career pursuit. Overall, these findings demonstrate that a motivational intervention with parents can have important effects on STEM preparation in high school, as well as downstream effects on STEM career pursuit 5 y later. PMID:28096393

  8. Utility-value intervention with parents increases students' STEM preparation and career pursuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozek, Christopher S; Svoboda, Ryan C; Harackiewicz, Judith M; Hulleman, Chris S; Hyde, Janet S

    2017-01-31

    During high school, developing competence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is critically important as preparation to pursue STEM careers, yet students in the United States lag behind other countries, ranking 35th in mathematics and 27th in science achievement internationally. Given the importance of STEM careers as drivers of modern economies, this deficiency in preparation for STEM careers threatens the United States' continued economic progress. In the present study, we evaluated the long-term effects of a theory-based intervention designed to help parents convey the importance of mathematics and science courses to their high-school-aged children. A prior report on this intervention showed that it promoted STEM course-taking in high school; in the current follow-up study, we found that the intervention improved mathematics and science standardized test scores on a college preparatory examination (ACT) for adolescents by 12 percentile points. Greater high-school STEM preparation (STEM course-taking and ACT scores) was associated with increased STEM career pursuit (i.e., STEM career interest, the number of college STEM courses, and students' attitudes toward STEM) 5 y after the intervention. These results suggest that the intervention can affect STEM career pursuit indirectly by increasing high-school STEM preparation. This finding underscores the importance of targeting high-school STEM preparation to increase STEM career pursuit. Overall, these findings demonstrate that a motivational intervention with parents can have important effects on STEM preparation in high school, as well as downstream effects on STEM career pursuit 5 y later.

  9. Preparation and Utilization of Kapok Hull Carbon for the Removal of Rhodamine-B from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Syed Shabudeen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A carbonaceous sorbent prepared from the indegeneous agricultural waste (which is facing solid waste disposal problem Kapok Hull, by acid treatment was tested for its efficiency in removing basic dyes. Batch kinetic and isotherm experiments were conducted to determine the sorption and desorption of the Rhodamine-B from aqueous solution with activated carbon. The factors affecting the rate processes involved in the removal of dye for initial dye concentration, agitation time, and carbon dose and particle size have been studied at ambient temperature. The adsorption process followed first order rate kinetics. The first-order rate equation by Lagergren was tested on the kinetic data, and isotherm data was analyzed for possible agreement with the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm equations. The intraparticle diffusion rate equation from which adsorption rate constants, diffusion rate constants and diffusion coefficients were determined. Intraparticle diffusion was found to be the rate-limiting step. The structural and morphological of activated carbon were characterized by XRD and SEM studies respectively.

  10. Conceptual designs of near surface disposal facility for radioactive waste arising from the facilities using radioisotopes and research facilities for nuclear energy development and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Akihiro; Yoshimori, Michiro; Okoshi, Minoru; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Abe, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Various kinds of radioactive waste is generating from the utilization of radioisotopes in the field of science, technology, etc. and the utilization and development of nuclear energy. In order to promote the utilization of radionuclides and the research activities, it is necessary to treat and dispose of radioactive waste safely and economically. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), which are the major waste generators in Japan in these fields, are promoting the technical investigations for treatment and disposal of the radioactive waste co-operately. Conceptual design of disposal facility is necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of waste disposal business and to determine the some conditions such as the area size of the disposal facility. Three institutes share the works to design disposal facility. Based on our research activities and experiences of waste disposal, JAERI implemented the designing of near surface disposal facilities, namely, simple earthen trench and concrete vaults. The designing was performed based on the following three assumed site conditions to cover the future site conditions: (1) Case 1 - Inland area with low groundwater level, (2) Case 2 - Inland area with high groundwater level, (3) Case 3 - Coastal area. The estimation of construction costs and the safety analysis were also performed based on the designing of facilities. The safety assessment results show that the safety for concrete vault type repository is ensured by adding low permeability soil layer, i.e. mixture of soil and bentonite, surrounding the vaults not depending on the site conditions. The safety assessment results for simple earthen trench also show that their safety is ensured not depending on the site conditions, if they are constructed above groundwater levels. The construction costs largely depend on the depth for excavation to build the repositories. (author)

  11. Conceptual designs of near surface disposal facility for radioactive waste arising from the facilities using radioisotopes and research facilities for nuclear energy development and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Akihiro; Yoshimori, Michiro; Okoshi, Minoru; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Abe, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Various kinds of radioactive waste is generating from the utilization of radioisotopes in the field of science, technology, etc. and the utilization and development of nuclear energy. In order to promote the utilization of radionuclides and the research activities, it is necessary to treat and dispose of radioactive waste safely and economically. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), which are the major waste generators in Japan in these fields, are promoting the technical investigations for treatment and disposal of the radioactive waste co-operately. Conceptual design of disposal facility is necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of waste disposal business and to determine the some conditions such as the area size of the disposal facility. Three institutes share the works to design disposal facility. Based on our research activities and experiences of waste disposal, JAERI implemented the designing of near surface disposal facilities, namely, simple earthen trench and concrete vaults. The designing was performed based on the following three assumed site conditions to cover the future site conditions: (1) Case 1 - Inland area with low groundwater level, (2) Case 2 - Inland area with high groundwater level, (3) Case 3 - Coastal area. The estimation of construction costs and the safety analysis were also performed based on the designing of facilities. The safety assessment results show that the safety for concrete vault type repository is ensured by adding low permeability soil layer, i.e. mixture of soil and bentonite, surrounding the vaults not depending on the site conditions. The safety assessment results for simple earthen trench also show that their safety is ensured not depending on the site conditions, if they are constructed above groundwater levels. The construction costs largely depend on the depth for excavation to build the repositories. (author)

  12. Tenth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: high efficiency preparation; advanced physical coal cleaning; superclean emission systems; air toxics and mercury measurement and control workshop; and mercury measurement and control workshop. Selected papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. Preparation of titania particles utilizing the insoluble phase interface in a microchannel reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Uehara, Masato; Miyazaki, Masaya; Maeda, Hideaki

    2002-07-21

    A stable interface between two insoluble currents in a microchannel reactor has been obtained by selecting the solvents and adjusting the flow rate; titania particles with a size of less than 10 nm could be prepared continuously on this interface; this new method shows great advantage for the control and measurement of particle sizes.

  14. Preparation and utilization of wheat straw anionic sorbent for the removal of nitrate from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Gao, Bao-yu; Yue, Wen-wen; Yue, Qin-yan

    2007-01-01

    In order to reduce the impact of eutrophication caused by agricultural residues (i.e., excess nitrate) in aqueous solution, economic and effective anionic sorbents are required. In this article, we prepared anionic sorbent using wheat straw. Its structural characteristics and adsorption properties for nitrate removal from aqueous solution were investigated. The results indicate that the yield of the prepared anionic sorbent, the total exchange capacity, and the maximum adsorption capacity were 350%, 2.57 mEq/g, and 2.08 mmol/g, respectively. The Freundlich isotherm mode is more suitable than the Langmuir mode and the adsorption process accords with the first order reaction kinetic rate equation. When multiple anions (SO4(2-), H2PO4(-), NO3(-), and NO2(-)) were present, the isotherm mode of prepared anionic sorbent for nitrate was consistent with Freundlich mode; however, the capacity of nitrate adsorption was reduced by 50%. In alkaline solutions, about 90% of adsorbed nitrate ions could be desorbed from prepared anionic sorbent. The results of this study confirmed that the wheat straw anionic sorbent can be used as an excellent nitrate sorbent that removes nitrate from aqueous solutions.

  15. Adsorbents made from waste ashes and post-consumer PET and their potential utilization in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fu-Shen; Itoh, Hideaki

    2003-08-01

    This study was carried out to prepare low-cost adsorbents from different types of waste ashes and post-consumer PET for use in industrial wastewater treatment. PET was melted and blended with ashes. The mixture was then carbonized to form different types of adsorbents. Heavy metal leaching from the adsorbents was greatly reduced compared to leaching from the bulk ashes. The BET surface area of the adsorbents ranged from 115 to 485m(2)/g. The acidic sites on the adsorbents varied from 0.84 to 1.56meq./g, higher than that of the PET carbon. The adsorption of methylene blue (MB) or heavy metals on the adsorbents was not in accordance with their surface areas because acidic sites reaction, affinity adsorption and cation exchange all contribute to the adsorption of the adsorbents. The isotherm for MB adsorption on the adsorbents can be well described by the Langmuir or Freundlich equation but heavy metal adsorption cannot. It is believed that the adsorbents produced in this manner can be used in wastewater treatments for discoloration and heavy metal removal.

  16. Preparation, Characterization and Utilization of Electrodes Coated with Polymeric Networks Formed by Gamma Radiation Crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    CHARACTERIZATION, AND UTILIZATION OF ELECTRODES COATED WITH POLYMERIC NETWORKS FORMED BY GAMMA RADIATION CROSSLINKING FINAL REPORT Accession For NTIS GRA... radiation crosslinking . The polymers and their structures are shown in Table I. All of these have been found to form cross-linked networks when exposed

  17. Tenth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: combustion 2000 session; advanced research and technology development session; commercial/industrial combustion systems session; alternative fuels utilization session; environmental control poster session; and advanced combustion technology poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Promoting the Utilization of Educational Leadership Research in Preparation, Practice, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michelle D.; Rorrer, Andrea K.

    2012-01-01

    Within this article, the authors explore the disconnect between research production, dissemination, and utilization, particularly within the field of educational leadership in the United States. Their exploration begins with an examination of the macro-level contexts within which such activities currently take place. They then turn to an…

  19. Utilization of orange peel, a food industrial waste, in the production of exo-polygalacturonase by pellet forming Aspergillus sojae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukkileci, Ali Oguz; Lahore, Marcello Fernandez; Tari, Canan

    2015-04-01

    The production of exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG) from orange peel (OP), a food industrial waste, using Aspergillus sojae was studied in submerged culture. A simple, low-cost, industrially significant medium formulation, composed of only OP and (NH4)2SO4 (AS) was developed. At an inoculum size of 2.8 × 10(3) spores/mL, growth was in the form of pellets, which provided better mixing of the culture broth and higher exo-PG activity. These pellets were successfully used as an inoculum for bioreactors and 173.0 U/mL exo-PG was produced. Fed-batch cultivation further enhanced the exo-PG activity to 244.0 U/mL in 127.5 h. The final morphology in the form of pellets is significant to industrial fermentation easing the subsequent downstream processing. Furthermore, the low pH trend obtained during this fermentation serves an advantage to fungal fermentations prone to contamination problems. As a result, an economical exo-PG production process was defined utilizing a food industrial by-product and producing high amount of enzyme.

  20. Utilization of waste materials, non-refined materials, and renewable energy in in situ remediation and their sustainability benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favara, Paul; Gamlin, Jeff

    2017-04-05

    In the ramp-up to integrating sustainability into remediation, a key industry focus area has been to reduce the environmental footprint of treatment processes. The typical approach to integrating sustainability into remediation projects has been a top-down approach, which involves developing technology options and then applying sustainability thinking to the technology, after it has been conceptualized. A bottom-up approach allows for systems thinking to be included in remedy selection and could potentially result in new or different technologies being considered. When using a bottom-up approach, there is room to consider the utilization of waste materials, non-refined materials, and renewable energy in remediation technology-all of which generally have a smaller footprint than processed materials and traditional forms of energy. By integrating more systems thinking into remediation projects, practitioners can think beyond the traditional technologies typically used and how technologies are deployed. To compare top-down and bottom-up thinking, a traditional technology that is considered very sustainable-enhanced in situ bioremediation-is compared to a successful, but infrequently deployed technology-subgrade biogeochemical reactors. Life Cycle Assessment is used for the evaluation and shows the footprint of the subgrade biogeochemical reactor to be lower in all seven impact categories evaluated, sometimes to a significant degree. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Utilization of inulin-containing waste in industrial fermentations to produce biofuels and bio-based chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen R; Qureshi, Nasib; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Jones, Marjorie A; Jarodsky, Joshua M; Galindo-Leva, Luz Ángela; Lindquist, Mitchell R

    2017-04-01

    Inulins are polysaccharides that belong to an important class of carbohydrates known as fructans and are used by many plants as a means of storing energy. Inulins contain 20 to several thousand fructose units joined by β-2,1 glycosidic bonds, typically with a terminal glucose unit. Plants with high concentrations of inulin include: agave, asparagus, coffee, chicory, dahlia, dandelion, garlic, globe artichoke, Jerusalem artichoke, jicama, onion, wild yam, and yacón. To utilize inulin as its carbon and energy source directly, a microorganism requires an extracellular inulinase to hydrolyze the glycosidic bonds to release fermentable monosaccharides. Inulinase is produced by many microorganisms, including species of Aspergillus, Kluyveromyces, Penicillium, and Pseudomonas. We review various inulinase-producing microorganisms and inulin feedstocks with potential for industrial application as well as biotechnological efforts underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from processing inulin-containing crops. A multi-stage biorefinery concept is proposed to convert cellulosic and inulin-containing waste produced at crop processing operations to valuable biofuels and bioproducts using Kluyveromyces marxianus, Yarrowia lipolytica, Rhodotorula glutinis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as thermochemical treatments.

  2. Never Let the Opportunity to Prepare for a Crisis Go to Waste: The Need for Proactive Measures in the Asia-Pacific Region to Mitigate the Impacts of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Never Let the Opportunity to Prepare for a Crisis Go to Waste: The Need for Proactive Measures in the Asia- Pacific Region to Mitigate the...DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2014 – MAY 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Never Let the Opportunity to Prepare for a Crisis Go to Waste: The Need for...to Prepare for a Crisis go to Waste: The Need for Proactive Measures in the Asia-Pacific Region to Mitigate the Impacts of Climate Change

  3. Preparation of magnesium phosphate cement by recycling the product of thermal transformation of asbestos containing wastes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Asbestos containing wastes have been employed for the first time in the formulation of magnesium phosphate cements. Two samples were mixed with magnesium carbonate and calcined at 1100 and 1300 C. Under these conditions, complete destruction of asbestos minerals is known to occur. The product, containing MgO, after reaction with water-soluble potassium di-hydrogen phosphate, led to the formation of hydrated phases at room temperature. Crystalline and amorphous reaction products were detected,...

  4. PROCESS VARIABLES OPTIMIZATION FOR PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL ADSORBENT FROM LIGNOCELLULOSIC WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Zaira Zaman Chowdhury; Sharifuddin Mohd Zain; Rashid Atta Khan,; Arash Arami-Niya,; Khalisanni Khalid

    2012-01-01

    In this study, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was produced from agricultural waste biomass of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) core or stalk, and the process variables were optimized by applying central composite design (CCD). The influences of carbonization temperature, duration of activation, and impregnation ratio on removal percentage of copper Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution and carbon yield were investigated. A quadratic model for adsorption percentage and a 2FI model for carbon yield ...

  5. Utilizing Collaborative Analysis of Student Learning in Educator Preparation Programs for Continuous Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Colby

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this results-oriented era of accountability, educator preparation programs are called upon to provide comprehensive data related to student and program outcomes while also providing evidence of continuous improvement. Collaborative Analysis of Student Learning (CASL is one approach for fostering critical inquiry about student learning. Graduate educator preparation programs in our university used collaborative analysis as the basis for continuous improvement during an accreditation cycle. As authors of this study, we sought to better understand how graduate program directors and faculty used collaborative analysis to inform practice and improve programs. Our findings suggested that CASL has the potential to foster collective responsibility for student learning, but only with a strong commitment from administrators and faculty, purposefully designed protocols and processes, fidelity to the CASL method, and a focus on professional development. Through CASL, programs have the ability to produce meaningful data related to student and program outcomes and meet the requirements for accreditation.

  6. Utilization of microfluidic V-junction device to prepare surface itraconazole adsorbed nanospheres.

    OpenAIRE

    Kucuk, I.; Ahmad, Z.; Edirisinghe, M.; Orlu-Gul, M.

    2014-01-01

    Itraconazole is widely used as an anti-fungal drug to treat infections. However its poor aqueous solubility results in low bioavailability. The aim of the present study was to improve the drug release profile by preparing surface itraconazole adsorbed polymethylsilsesquioxane (PMSQ) nanospheres using a V-junction microfluidic (VJM) device. In order to generate nanospheres with rough surface, the process flow rate of Perfluorohexane (PFH) was set between 50 and 300 μl min(-1) while the flow ra...

  7. UTILIZATION OF BAGASSE FIBER FOR PREPARATION OF BIODEGRADABLE FLAME RETARDING COMPOSITES (BFRCS)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Bagasse is a renewable resource characterized by its low cost and environmental friendliness. In this work a novel technological process was proposed to make flame retarding composites (BFRCs) by using bagasse fiber. The bagasse was disintegrated by twisting it up and applying high consistency refining, and then it was used to prepare BFRCs via hot pressure. Chemical groups and thermal properties of bagasse fiber were studied through the use of FTIR spectroscopy, a universal mechanical testin...

  8. Comparative study on density gradients and swim-up preparation techniques utilizing neat and cryopreserved spermatozoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyam S.R. Allamaneni; Ashok Agarwal; Sreedhar Rama; Pavithra Ranganathan; Rakesh K. Sharma

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To 1) compare post-wash and post-thaw parameters of sperm processed with PureSperm density gradient technique and swim-up method; and 2) test the efficacy of two commonly available density gradient media PureSperm and Isolate. Methods: This prospective study used semen specimens from 22 patients. Specimens from nine patients were processed by both PureSperm density gradient and swim-up method. These specimens were then cryopreserved.Thirteen specimens were processed by both PureSperm (40 % and 80 %) and Isolate (50 % and 90 %) double density gradient techniques. The two fractions processed by both PureSperm and swim-up were analyzed for post-wash sperm characteristics. Post-thaw analysis was done after 24 hours. Sperm fractions obtained after processing with PureSperm and Isolate were compared for post-wash sperm characteristics and ROS levels. Results: Specimens prepared with PureSperm had significantly higher median total motile sperm counts (TMSC) (32.2 × 106 vs.17.6 × 106), recovery rates (69.2 % vs. 50.0 %), and longevity at 4 hours (83.0 % vs. 55.0 %) compared to specimen prepared by swim-up. Post-thaw specimens also had a higher recovery and longevity at 4 hours with PureSperm as compared to the swim-up. Semen specimens processed by PureSperm had significantly higher total sperm count,TMSC, and percentage recovery rates (30.0 % vs. 19.7 %) than Isolate. Conclusion: Semen quality is better preserved in fresh and cryopreserved semen prepared with PureSperm density gradient compared to swim-up. A significant enrichment of sperm is observed with PureSperm compared to Isolate. Higher recovery rates of mature motile sperm obtained after PureSperm sperm preparation may be beneficial for successful ART.

  9. Preparation of lithium ion-sieve and utilizing in recovery of lithium from seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu WANG; Changgong MENG; Wei MA

    2009-01-01

    Lithium is one of the most important light metals, which is widely used as raw materials for large-capacity rechargeable batteries, light aircraft alloys and nuclear fusion fuel. Seawater, which contains 250 billion tons of lithium in total, has thus recently been noticed as a possible resource of lithium. While, since the aver-age concentration of lithium in seawater is quite low (0.17mg.L-1), enriching it to an adequate high density becomes the primary step for industrial applications. The adsorption method is the most prospective technology for increasing the concentration of lithium in liquid. Among the adsorbents for lithium, the ion-sieve is a kind of special absorbent which has high selectivity for Li+, especially the spinel manganese oxides (SMO), which among the series of ion-sieves, has become the most promising adsorption material for lithium. In this study, the SMO ion-sieve was prepared by a coprecipitation method. The preparation conditions were discussed and the sample characters were analyzed. Recovery of Li+ from seawater were studied in batch experiments using prepared ion-sieve, and the effect of solution pH and the uptake rates were also investigated in different Li+ solutions.

  10. A Novel approach for Low temperature Condenser waste heat Utilization in winter air conditioning for overall Performance Improvement of a Power Plant in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Kumar Yadav

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper to highlight the scope of utilization of waste heat of condenser for winter air conditioning in and around thermal power stations. The vast amount of low grade condenser waste heat can be used to provide winter air conditioning by utilizing the existing system of year round central air conditioning without additional heavy capital expenditure .The present case study is about North India where peak winter lasts about 90 days . The waste heat utilization for winter conditioning will not only save large amount of electrical energy being used in electrical heaters but also generate additional revenue by selling out extra/spared power ,increase thermal energy utilization ,improve performance of the plant .The novel method of winter air conditioning will also reduce the heat load of the cooling towers, avoid pumping and blow down power as the returning water from air conditioning system can be used as blow down to maintain cooling water parameters in the plant.

  11. Preparation of Ceramic Tiles with Electrolytic Manganese and Waste Glass Admicture%利用电解锰渣-废玻璃制备陶瓷砖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉岚; 刘少友; 杨红芸; 张扬

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the pollution of electrolytic manganese residue, the environment and improve the utilization of manganese slag, the preparation of ceramic tiles was studied by using electrolytic manganese and waste glass as the main raw material. The basic formulas were obtained in terms of the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 termary system phase diagram, then they were optimized through a lot of experiments and the text of crystallization. The results indicated that the calcining temperature was 950℃electrolysis manganese when adding 32%electrolytic manganese and 10 g waste glass, the main crystals composition were quartz, cristobalite, mullite and anorthite, the shrinkage is 0.27%, it complied with the standard of GB/T 4100-2006 ceramic tiles.%为了解决电解锰渣对环境的污染,提高锰渣的利用率,研究了以电解锰渣-废玻璃为主要原料制备陶瓷砖。首先利用CaO-Al2O3-SiO2三相图获得初始配方,然后进行了大量的实验,并对产品的晶相进行分析,确定陶瓷砖的最优配方。结果证明,锰渣的添加量为32%,废玻璃含量为25%,煅烧温度为950℃,煅烧时间为30 min时,陶瓷坯的主晶相为石英、钙长石、莫来石和方石英,收缩率为0.27%,符合GB/T 4100-2006陶瓷砖的标准。

  12. 渔船动力余热制冷技术%Refrigeration Technology Utilizing Engine Waste Heat in Fishing Vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈少杰; 陈光明

    2014-01-01

    Ice and compression refrigeration are normally used to preserve caught fish on fishing vessels.At the same time, waste heat dissipated in hot exhaust gas on fishing vessels is rejected to the atmosphere.Utilizing the vast amount of the waste energy for refrigeration is both economical and energy saving.Three kinds of heat driven refrigeration cycles as adsorption, absorption and ejection are introduced in this paper.Advantages and disadvantages of the three cycles are analyzed based on the working condition of ice making on fishing ves_sels.Emphases have been made on the feasibility of transforming the existing compression refrigeration cycle on fishing vessels by ejection technology.The result shows that 54.5﹪ of fuel for refrigeration system can be saved after combining ejection and compression cycle and the transforming cost can be recovered in 1 year.%渔船通常需要带冰或使用压缩式制冷来满足渔获冷藏保鲜的需要,而渔船发动机尾气中有大量的热能被排放到环境中去,利用渔船发动机尾气余热制冷是一种既经济又节能的好方法。本文介绍了吸附式﹑吸收式和喷射式三种热能驱动的制冷循环,并针对渔船制冰工况对这三种循环在渔船中应用的优缺点进行了分析;重点讨论了使用喷射式制冷技术对渔船现有压缩式制冷系统进行改造的可行性。研究结果表明,将喷射制冷与压缩制冷结合,可减少渔船制冷系统燃料消耗54.5﹪,在1年内即可收回改造成本。

  13. HANFORD FACILITY ANNUAL DANGEROUS WASTE REPORT CY2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKOLRUD, J.O.

    2006-02-15

    The Hanford Facility Annual Dangerous Waste Report (ADWR) is prepared to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative Code Sections 173-303-220, Generator Reporting, and 173-303-390, Facility Reporting. In addition, the ADWR is required to meet Hanford Facility RCR4 Permit Condition I.E.22, Annual Reporting. The ADWR provides summary information on dangerous waste generation and management activities for the Calendar Year for the Hanford Facility EPA ID number assigned to the Department of Energy for RCRA regulated waste, as well as Washington State only designated waste and radioactive mixed waste. An electronic database is utilized to collect and compile the large array of data needed for preparation of this report. Information includes details of waste generated on the Hanford Facility, waste generated offsite and sent to Hanford for management, and other waste management activities conducted at Hanford, including treatment, storage, and disposal. Report details consist of waste descriptions and weights, waste codes and designations, and waste handling codes, In addition, for waste shipped to Hanford for treatment and/or disposal, information on manifest numbers, the waste transporter, the waste receiving facility, and the original waste generators are included. In addition to paper copies, the report is also transmitted electronically to a web site maintained by the Washington State Department of Ecology.

  14. Utilization of touch preparations and whole genome amplification for loss of heterozygosity analysis in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, M.J.; Halling, K.; Thibodeau, S.N. [Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analyses have been used extensively to identify tumor suppressor genes in a variety of tumor systems. In an effort to localize such genes in prostate cancer, we have examined tissue for LOH with the use of PCR-based assays for a variety of microsatellites. However, the highly infiltrative nature of prostate carcinoma makes it virtually impossible, by conventional methods, to obtain tumor DNA that is uncontaminated with DNA from normal cells. Thus, we have examined the use of touch preparations as a means to increase the percentage of tumor DNA for our LOH analyses. This method, which involves lightly touching the cut surface of fresh prostate tissue to the surface of a microscope slide, allows for selection of tumor cell clusters. DNA from these cells can then be used in a variety of PCR-based assays. In this study, we demonstrate that tumor cell clusters can be used effectively for LOH analysis. Our studies also demonstrate that use of the touch preparation technique reduces or eliminates normal cell contamination. However, the small quantity of DNA in these clusters prohibits analysis at multiple loci. Therefore, we have examined whole genome amplification (WGA) of tumor cells clusters as a method of avoiding this difficulty. Random 15 base oligonucleotides were used as primers for WGA of cell cluster DNA. Aliquots of the WGA were then subjected to a second round of PCR in which microsatellite markers demonstrating allelic loss in prostate cancer were amplified. Our studies indicate that analysis of limited quantities of prostate tumor DNA at multiple loci can be accomplished through coupling of the touch preparation technique with WGA. This method may have ramifications for the analysis of tissue in which procurement of sufficient quantities of DNA is difficult.

  15. Utilization of microfluidic V-junction device to prepare surface itraconazole adsorbed nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuk, Israfil; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Edirisinghe, Mohan; Orlu-Gul, Mine

    2014-09-10

    Itraconazole is widely used as an anti-fungal drug to treat infections. However, its poor aqueous solubility results in low bioavailability. The aim of the present study was to improve the drug release profile by preparing surface itraconazole adsorbed polymethylsilsesquioxane (PMSQ) nanospheres using a V-junction microfluidic (VJM) device. In order to generate nanospheres with rough surface, the process flow rate of perfluorohexane (PFH) was set between 50 and 300 μl min(-1) while the flow rate of PMSQ and itraconazole solution were constant at 300 μl min(-1). Variations in the PFH flow rate enable the controlled size generation of nanospheres. PMSQ nanospheres adsorbing itraconazole were characterized by SEM, FTIR and Zetasizer. The release of itraconazole from PMSQ nanosphere surface was measured using UV spectroscopy. Nanosphere formulations with a range of sphere size (120, 320 and 800 nm diameter) were generated and drug release was studied. 120 nm itraconazole coated PMSQ nanospheres were found to present highest drug encapsulation efficiency and 13% drug loading in a more reproducible manner compared to 320 nm and 800 nm sized nanosphere formulations. Moreover, 120 nm itraconazole coated PMSQ nanospheres (encapsulation efficiency: 88%) showed higher encapsulation efficiency compared to 320 nm (encapsulation efficiency: 74%) and 800 nm (encapsulation efficiency: 62%) sized nanosphere formulations. The itraconazole coated PMSQ nanospheres were prepared continuously at the rate of 2.6 × 10(6) per minute via VJM device. Overall the VJM device enabled the preparation of monodisperse surface itraconazole adsorbed nanospheres with controlled in vitro drug release profile.

  16. [Study of Preparation and Utility of Suppository Containing Carbamazepine Tablet for Hospital Use in Rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Isamu; Arai, Narutoshi; Fukushima, Aishi; Saito, Astuko; Inoue, Yutaka; Kimura, Masayuki; Kanamoto, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients often report a decreased quality of life due to cancer-related pain, especially neuropathic pain, which is difficult to manage and often develops resistance to morphine. Thus a supplementary analgesic can play an important role in the treatment of cancer-related pain. Carbamazepine (CBZ), for example, can be effective, but only if the patient can take medication orally because it is limited to oral administration. In this study we investigated the efficacy of a suppository containing CBZ tablet in hospital preparations. We selected a base for the suppository of either polyethylene glycol (P), Witepsol VOSCO(®) H-15 (H), or Witepsol VOSCO(®) S-55 (S). Six to eight in vitro and in vivo groups were divided randomly based on route of administration and treatment: intravenous (i.v.), per os (p.o.), and intrarectal administration (i.r.) (composed of CBZ powder and tablet formulations, CBZp and CBZt) prepared in either a base of P, H, or S (CBZp/P, CBZp/H, CBZp/S, CBZt/P, CBZt/H, and CBZt/S). The hardness levels of the CBZt suppository group were significantly lower than the CBZp suppository group. The drug release profiles of the CBZt suppository group were high in order of P, H, and S; there were no significant differences between these groups and the CBZp suppository group. The maximum drug concentration time levels of the CBZt suppository group significantly increased compared with the p.o. group. These two groups had equivalent maximum drug concentration and bioavailability levels. These results suggest that a suppository containing CBZ tablet can be useful for hospital preparations.

  17. The pyrolytic-plasma method and the device for the utilization of hazardous waste containing organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalińska, Teresa; Wnęk, Bartłomiej; Witowski, Artur; Juszczuk, Rafał; Majdak, Małgorzata; Bartusek, Stanilav

    2016-11-15

    This paper is focused on the new method of waste processing. The waste, including hazardous waste, contain organic compounds. The method consists in two main processes: the pyrolysis of waste and the oxidation of the pyrolytic gas with a use of non-equilibrium plasma. The practical implementation of the method requires the design, construction and testing of the new device in large laboratory scale. The experiments were carried out for the two kinds of waste: polyethylene as a model waste and the electronic waste as a real waste. The process of polyethylene decomposition showed that the operation of the device is correct because 99.74% of carbon moles contained in the PE samples was detected in the gas after the process. Thus, the PE samples practically were pyrolyzed completely to hydrocarbons, which were completely oxidized in the plasma reactor. It turned out that the device is useful for decomposition of the electronic waste. The conditions in the plasma reactor during the oxidation process of the pyrolysis products did not promote the formation of PCDD/Fs despite the presence of the oxidizing conditions. An important parameter determining the efficiency of the oxidation of the pyrolysis products is gas temperature in the plasma reactor.

  18. The utility of system-level RAM analysis and standards for the US nuclear waste management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rod, S.R.; Adickes, M.D.; Paul, B.K.

    1992-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for developing a system to manage spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and its subsequent amendments. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is assisting OCRWM in its investigation of whether system-level reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) requirements are appropriate for the waste management system and, if they are, what appropriate form should be for such requirements. Results and recommendations are presented.

  19. Evaluation of the potential of different high calorific waste fractions for the preparation of solid recovered fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés, Diego; Díaz, Eva; Ordóñez, Salvador; Sastre, Herminio; González-La, J.M. (José)

    2016-01-01

    Solid recovered fuels constitute a valuable alternative for the management of those non-hazardous waste fractions that cannot be recycled. The main purpose of this research is to assess the suitability of three different wastes from the landfill of the local waste management company (COGERSA), to be used as solid recovered fuels in a cement kiln near their facilities. The wastes analyzed were: End of life vehicles waste, packaging and bulky wastes. The study was carried out in two different p...

  20. Preparation and evaluation of double-phased mucoadhesive suppositories of lidocaine utilizing Carbopol and white beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahagi, R; Onishi, H; Machida, Y

    1999-08-27

    In an attempt to restrict drug absorption from suppositories to only the lower rectum, mucoadhesive lidocaine (LID) suppositories were prepared using Witepsol H-15 as a base, and Carbopol 934P (CP) and white beeswax (WAX) as additives. CP has a mucoadhesive property and WAX gives the suppositories stiffness. The suppositories containing 10% CP and 20% WAX stayed in the lower recta of rats for at least 2 h. Double-phased suppositories consisting of a front layer containing 10% CP and 20% WAX and a terminal layer containing LID and various amounts of CP were prepared. In vitro release profiles of LID from double-phased suppositories were similar to conventional single-phased suppositories containing CP alone. Values of AUC(0-6 h) and MRT of LID after administration of double-phased suppositories to rabbits were larger than those for single-phased suppositories with or without CP. On the other hand, the initial plasma metabolites concentrations after administration of double-phased suppositories were significantly lower and tended to exhibit delayed T(max) compared to single-phased suppositories. These results suggest that the double-phased mucoadhesive suppositories suppress initial metabolism of LID, and may be useful for improving bioavailabilities of drugs, like LID, which accept first-pass effect considerably.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Amorphous Silica and Calcium Oxide from Agricultural Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Supachai Sompech; Thananchai Dasri; Sukhontip Thaomola

    2016-01-01

    Rice husk ash and bagasse ash were agricultural wastes that provide an abundanceof the silica (SiO2) source and the chicken eggshells and duck eggshells were important sources forcalcium oxide (CaO). Therefore, in this study the rice husk ash and bagasse ash were used as raw materials for synthesisofsilica powder,while chicken eggshells and duck eggshells were synthesized forthe calcium oxide.The results from the XRD pattern clearly showedthe structural formation of amorphous SiO2 and CaO pha...

  2. Preparation of Pure Copper Powder from Acidic Copper Chloride Waste Etchant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The method for the recycling of copper from copper chloride solution was developed. This process consists of extraction of copper, purification and particle size reduction. In the first step, reductive metal scraps were added to acidic copper chloride waste enchants produced in the PCB industry to obtain copper powder.Composition analysis showed that this powder contained impurities such as Fe, Ni, and water. So, drying and purification were carried out by using microwave and a centrifugal separator. Thereby the copper powder had a purity of higher than 99% and spherical form in morphology. The copper powder size was decreased by ball milling.

  3. Open-cycle heat pumps for industrial waste-heat utilization. Project technical report, May 12, 1980-October 10, 1980. Phase I. Feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Open-Cycle Industrial Process Heat Pumps (IPHP) are potentially a cost-effective method of utilizing an industrial plant's waste heat. The objective of Phase I of the work was to determine the feasibility of an open-cycle industrial process heat pump. This was accomplished by the evaluation of four potential sites for the installation of open-cycle industrial process heat pump equipment. While it was the original plan to evaluate only three sites, the need for a fourth site became apparent upon completion of studies of the Amstar applications. On the basis of initial screening, it was decided to concentrate on the large waste stream at General Electric's NORYL facility (Selkirk, NY) and a smaller waste stream at the Schoeller Paper Company (Pulaski, NY). These two sites provided opportunities to exploit the features of the open-cyle IPHP without major site constraints. Site studies were conducted to obtain process information such as flow rates, process temperatures, dynamic behavior of the process streams, process control functions, and capacity/time schedules. Information relating to structure and utilities, floor loadings, physical space constraints, electric service, piping runs between equipment location, and waste water tapping points was gathered. These data were analyzed and resulted in the selection of two applications with acceptable thermodynamic performance.

  4. The Mississippi University Research Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass: Production of Alternative Fuels from Waste Biomass Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drs. Mark E. Zapp; Todd French; Lewis Brown; Clifford George; Rafael Hernandez; Marvin Salin (from Mississippie State University); Drs. Huey-Min Hwang, Ken Lee, Yi Zhang; Maria Begonia (from Jackson State University); Drs. Clint Williford; Al Mikell (from the University of Mississippi); Drs. Robert Moore; Roger Hester (from the University of Southern Mississippi).

    2009-03-31

    The Mississippi Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass was formed via funding from the US Department of Energy's EPSCoR Program, which is administered by the Office of Basic Science. Funding was approved in July of 1999 and received by participating Mississippi institutions by 2000. The project was funded via two 3-year phases of operation (the second phase was awarded based on the high merits observed from the first 3-year phase), with funding ending in 2007. The mission of the Consortium was to promote the utilization of biomass, both cultured and waste derived, for the production of commodity and specialty chemicals. These scientific efforts, although generally basic in nature, are key to the development of future industries within the Southeastern United States. In this proposal, the majority of the efforts performed under the DOE EPSCoR funding were focused primarily toward the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks and biogas from waste products. However, some of the individual projects within this program investigated the production of other products from biomass feeds (i.e. acetic acid and biogas) along with materials to facilitate the more efficient production of chemicals from biomass. Mississippi is a leading state in terms of raw biomass production. Its top industries are timber, poultry production, and row crop agriculture. However, for all of its vast amounts of biomass produced on an annual basis, only a small percentage of the biomass is actually industrially produced into products, with the bulk of the biomass being wasted. This situation is actually quite representative of many Southeastern US states. The research and development efforts performed attempted to further develop promising chemical production techniques that use Mississippi biomass feedstocks. The three processes that were the primary areas of interest for ethanol production were syngas fermentation, acid hydrolysis followed by hydrolyzate fermentation, and

  5. Utilization of central nervous system resources for preparation and performance of complex walking tasks in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Clark

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionWalking in the home and community often involves performance of complex walking tasks. Understanding the control of such tasks is crucial to preserving independence and quality of life in older adults. However, very little research has been conducted in this area. Here we assess the extent to which two measures of central nervous system (CNS activity are responsive to the challenges posed by preparation and performance of complex walking tasks. Prefrontal cortical activity was measured by functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS and sympathetic nervous system arousal was measured by skin conductance level (SCL.Materials and MethodsSixteen older men and women (age 77.2 ± 5.6 years with mild mobility deficits participated in this study. Participants walked at their preferred speed without distractions along an unobstructed, well-lit course (control task and also walked on the same course under five separate challenging conditions: performing a cognitive verbal fluency task (verbal task, dim lighting (dim task, carrying a tray (carry task, negotiating obstacles (obstacles task and wearing a weighted vest (vest task. Mean prefrontal activation and SCL were calculated during the preparation and performance phases of each task. Gait spatiotemporal measurements were acquired by an instrumented gait mat.ResultsPrefrontal cortical activity and SCL were elevated during the preparation phase of complex walking tasks relative to the control task. During the performance phase, prefrontal activity remained elevated to a similar level as during task preparation. In contrast, SCL continued to increase beyond the level observed during task preparation. A larger increase in prefrontal activity was found to be linked to preserved quality of gait during complex walking tasks.DiscussionThese findings indicate that availability and utilization of CNS resources are important for optimizing performance of complex walking tasks in older adults.

  6. Enhanced hydrogen production from waste activated sludge by cascade utilization of organic matter in microbial electrolysis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Xing, Defeng; Liu, Bingfeng; Ren, Nanqi

    2012-03-15

    Fermentative hydrogen production from waste activated sludge (WAS) has low H2 yield because WAS contains limited amounts of carbohydrate suitable for use by hydrogen-producing bacteria. Here, augmentation of hydrogen production from WAS by microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) was implemented. H2 yields of 3.89±0.39 mg-H2/g-DS (5.67±0.61 mg-H2/g-VSS) from raw WAS and 6.78±0.94 mg-H2/g-DS (15.08±1.41 mg-H2/g-VSS) from alkaline-pretreated WAS were obtained in the two-chamber MECs (TMECs). This was several times higher than yields obtained previously by fermentation. Single-chamber MECs (SMECs) with low internal resistance showed a H2 production rate that 13 times that of TMECs with similar H2 yield when alkaline-pretreated WAS was used. However, methanogenesis was detected after several batch cycles. A yield balance calculation revealed that carbohydrates were not the only substrates for electrohydrogenesis. Protein and its acidification products, such as volatile fatty acids are also responsible for a portion of H2 generation in MEC. Characterization of WAS in TMECs by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis indicated that electrohydrogenesis reacted on the extracellular polymeric substances and intracellular substances of WAS. Cascade utilization of organic matter in MECs increased hydrogen production from WAS. MECs showed high hydrogen yield from WAS, fewer H2 sinks, and insensitivity to temperature. Optimizing MEC configurations and operation conditions and improving the pretreatment processes of WAS are necessary before practical application can take place on a large scale.

  7. Hydrochar from sewage sludge and urban wastes as a peat replacement in growing media preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Maria Luisa; Méndez, Ana; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Soler-Rovira, Pedro; García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Plaza, César; Gascó, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, there is an important trend in Europe for peat replacement with biochar in growing media formulation in order to reduce the environmental impact of peat exploitation. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermochemical process of converting organic feedstock into a high carbon rich solid product named hydrochar. It is performed in water mild temperature (180-260°C) under pressure conditions (2-6MPa) for 5-250 min. The reaction pressure is not controlled in the process and is autogenic with the saturation vapour pressure of water corresponding to the reaction temperature. In recent years, the possibility of subjecting organic wastes to HTC has attracted the scientific community attention due to their interesting advantages over other thermal treatments such as pyrolysis, torrefaction or gasification. The aim of the present paper is to study the possible use of two hydrochars produced by Ingelia (Spain) from sewage sludge and urban waste treatment as growing media material in horticulture. For this, thermal, chemical and hydrophysical properties were determined and compared with that of brown commercial peat.

  8. Preparation and characterization of masonry units, lightweight concrete based and agro-industrial wastes: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Fuentes, C. X.

    2013-11-01

    Discussion about the new composite materials that integrate agro industrial residues for the masonry unit's production, which are directed towards its implementation in projects of affordable housing, is a subject of interest to the public and productive sector of the country. For this reason, it presents a descriptive review of primary and secondary sources, which support the project under study. The methodology consisted in finding research articles in databases supported by the scientific community, which are ordered, integrated and prioritized, creating a matrix synthesis, which condensed the objectives, type of material, studied properties and main results found. It was found that the composite materials for masonry use mainly clay or cement as matrix and as reinforcement, agro waste like paper fibers, bamboo, rice husks, among others are used. Moreover, the properties that determine its potential use are low density, stress resistance and low thermal conductivity. Comparing the results with traditional specimens as the block of clay, concrete, adobe vs. experimental models made of the compounds analyzed, favorable results were obtained in the case of integrating waste materials into its composition, optimized their properties. Thus, science and architecture converge through recognition of the properties of materials that expand the alternatives of building spaces, economic and environmentally sustainable.

  9. Preparation, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties of Spinel-Corundum-Sialon Composite Materials from Waste Fly Ash and Aluminum Dross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid wastes fly ash and aluminum dross were used to prepare the low cost, high added-value product spinel-corundum-Sialon with an in situ aluminothermic reduction-nitridation reaction. The effects of varying raw material components and heating temperatures on the phase compositions, microstructure, bulk density, apparent porosity, and bending strength of products were investigated. The presence of hazardous or impure elements in the products was also evaluated. The sintered materials mainly consisted of micro-/nanosized plate corundum, octahedral spinel, and hexagonal columnar β-Sialon. The bulk density and bending strength of product samples initially increased and then decreased as Al content increased. Product samples with an Al content exceeding 10 mass% that were sintered at 1450°C exhibited the highest bending strength (288 MPa, the lowest apparent porosity (1.24%, and extremely low linear shrinkage (0.67%. The main impurity present was Fe5Si3 with hazardous elements P, Cr, Mn, and Ni doping. This work could provide a new method to reduce environmental pollution and manufacture low cost high performance refractory materials using the abundant waste materials fly ash and aluminum dross.

  10. Comparative adsorption of metal and dye on flake- and bead-types of chitosans prepared from fishery wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F C; Tseng, R L; Juang, R S

    2000-03-13

    The adsorption capacities and rates of Cu(II) and a commercial reactive dye RR222 on flake- and bead-types of chitosans prepared from three fishery wastes (shrimp, crab, and lobster shells) were compared at 30 degrees C. It was shown that all equilibrium isotherms could be well fitted by the Langmuir equation. The adsorption capacity of Cu(II) on flake- and bead-types of chitosans appeared to be comparable, but the adsorption capacity of RR222 on bead type was much larger than that on flake type by a factor of 2. 0-3.8. The rates of dye adsorption on both types of chitosans indicated different controlling mechanisms. In addition, the bead type of chitosans exhibited a greater rate compared to the flake type.

  11. Separation of Tetramethyl Ammonium Hydroxide in Waste Water with Ion Exchange Using Activated Carbon Prepared by Bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ayako; Nishihama, Syouhei; Yoshizuka, Kazuharu

    Activated carbon is prepared by bamboo for the selective recovery of tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH), contained in waste water from semiconductive industry, at the end of pipe of the plant. The adsorption ability of the activated carbon from bamboo (BAC) is comparable to the commercial activated carbons. The adsorption of TMAH with BAC in batchwise system increases with increase in pH value of the aqueous solution, and the effective adsorption and elution yield is also obtained in column system. Quantitative adsorption-elution processing can be achieved with the present BAC, and thus indicating the BAC is effective material as the adsorbent of TMAH at the end of pipe of the plant.

  12. Effective removal of tetracycline from aqueous solution using activated carbon prepared from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) industrial processing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayğılı, Hasan; Güzel, Fuat

    2016-09-01

    Activated carbon (TAC) prepared under optimized conditions with ZnCl2 activation from a new precursor; tomato industrial processing waste (TW), was applied as an adsorbent to remove tetracycline (TC) from aqueous solution. The factors (TAC dosage, initial TC concentration, contact time, ionic strength and solution temperature) affecting the adsorption process were examined at natural pH (5.7) of TAC-TC system in aqueous solution. Kinetic data was found to be best complied by the pseudo-second order model. The isotherm analysis indicated that the equilibrium data could be represented by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity was identified as 500.0mgg(-1) at 308K.

  13. Advancement in shampoo (a dermal care product): preparation methods, patents and commercial utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeksha; Malviya, Rishabha; Sharma, Pramod K

    2014-01-01

    Shampoo is a cleaning aid for hair and is the most evolving beauty products in the present scenario. Today's shampoo products are of great importance as they provide cleaning of hair with the benefits of conditioning, smoothing and good health of hair i.e. dandruff, dirt, grease and lice free hair. Various types of shampoos depending upon function, nature of ingredient, and their special effects are elaborated in this study. Generally shampoos are evaluated in terms of physical appearance, detergency, surface tension, foam quality, pH, viscosity, and percent of solid content, flow property, dirt dispersion, cleaning action, stability and wetting time. The attention should be paid at its patent portion which attracts towards itself as it provides wide knowledge related to shampoo. This article reviews the various aspects of shampoo in terms of preparation methods, various patents and commercial value.

  14. THE UTILIZATION OF Fe(III WASTE OF ETCHING INDUSTRY AS QUALITY ENHANCHEMENT MATERIAL IN CERAMIC ROOFTILE SYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vaulina Yulistia Delsy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste is produced from various industrial activities. FeCl3 used in this study as an addition to the material quality in synthesis of ceramic rooftile from Kalijaran village clay, Purbalingga. Etching industrial waste FeCl3 contacted with clay. Waste being varied waste as diluted and undiluted while clay grain size varied as 60, 80, 100, 140, and 230 mesh. Both clay and waste are contacted at 30-100 minutes. The results showed that the optimum of time and grain size variation is clay with 80 mesh grain size within 70 minutes. While physical properties of the rooftile contained Fe meet all ISO standards and are known to tile, the best quality is to use clay that has been in contact with the waste that is created 1000 times dilution. The stripping test of Fe (III by rain water and sea water showed that the average rate of Fe-striped of the tile body that is made with soaked with diluted waste are 0.068 ppm/day and 0.055 ppm/day while for tile bodies soaked with waste is not diluted are 0.0722 ppm/day and 0.0560 ppm/day.

  15. Utilization of inorganic industrial wastes in producing construction ceramics. Review of Russian experience for the years 2000-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltakova, N V; Faseeva, G R; Kabirov, R R; Nafikov, R M; Zakharov, Yu A

    2017-02-01

    This paper analyzes the significant scientific publications worldwide for the last 15years concerning construction ceramics (predominantly brick) made with various inorganic industrial wastes added to the ceramic raw material for the improvement of properties and for eco-friendly disposal. The information gap resulting from the lack of mentions of the Russian publications on this subject in English-language reviews is filled. The paper includes brief summaries of 34 dissertations and 29 patents issued in Russia since 2000. The waste additives described in these summaries are grouped by origin type (mining industry waste, ore enrichment waste, metallurgical waste, sludge, ashes, cullet, large-capacity building wastes and waste from various chemical production processes) with the ceramic mixture compositions, molding and firing conditions, final strength, water absorption and other parameters of the final ceramic samples reported. Russian scientists have expanded the nomenclature of each group of wastes significantly upon addition to the list described in English-language reviews for 2000-2015. References to the recent Russian developments in the field of ecological management in ceramic industry are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Utilization of Stone Waste in the Development of Value Added Products: A State of the Art Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Lakhani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilisation of stone waste, in the form of mineral admixture as a pozzolanic and non-pozzolanic material for mortar and concrete has received considerable attention in recent years. This interest is part of the widely spread attention directed towards the utilisation of wastes and industrial by-products in order to minimise Portland cement (PC and sand consumption, the utilisationof which being environmentally damaging. Another reason is that mortar and concrete, which contain pozzolanic as well as non-pozzolanic materials, exhibit considerable enhancement in durability properties. This paper reviews work carried out on the use of stone waste as a partial non-pozzolanic replacement for sand in mortar and concrete and in the containment of hazardous wastes. The literature demonstrates that different stone wastes is an effective inert filler which causes great improvement in the pore structure and hence the resistance of the concrete to the action of harmful solutions.

  17. 电站烟气余热利用系统浅析%Initial Analysis on Flue Gas Waste Heat Utilization System in Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓文; 杜文智; 熊英莹; 谭厚章

    2014-01-01

    With the growing use of energy and awareness of environmental protection around the world, more and more attention has been attracted by the utilization of waste heat from flue gas. In order to provide theoretical guidance for cascade utilization of waste heat in power plant efficiently and reasonably by setting a flue gas waste heat utilization system for our country, this article not only showed the design criteria of the system, but also analyzed heat transfer equation, ways of heat transfer, types of cold source and setting locations of that.%随着全球范围内能源需求量持续增加,环保意识不断增强,电站烟气余热利用越来越受到重视。本文介绍了电站烟气余热利用系统的设计原则,并分析了烟气余热利用系统的换热方程、换热方式、冷源种类以及可设置位置,可以作为我国电站设置烟气余热利用系统、高效合理地梯级回收烟气余热过程的参考。

  18. Trade study for water and waste management concepts. Task 7: Support special analysis. [cost analysis of life support systems for waste utilization during space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Cost analyses and tradeoff studies are given for waste management in the Space Station, Lunar Surface Bases, and interplanetary space missions. Crew drinking water requirements are discussed and various systems to recycle water are examined. The systems were evaluated for efficiency and weight savings. The systems considered effective for urine water recovery were vapor compression, flash evaporation, and air evaporation with electrolytic pretreatment. For wash water recovery, the system of multifiltration was selected. A wet oxidation system, which can process many kinds of wastes, is also considered.

  19. Recovery of silica from electronic waste for the synthesis of cubic MCM-48 and its application in preparing ordered mesoporous carbon molecular sieves using a green approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Tzong-Horng

    2012-07-01

    The electronics industry is one of the world's fastest growing manufacturing industries. However, e-waste has become a serious pollution problem. This study reports the recovery of e-waste for preparing valuable MCM-48 and ordered mesoporous carbon for the first time. Specifically, this study adopts an alkali-extracted method to obtain sodium silicate precursors from electronic packaging resin ash. The influence of synthesis variables such as gelation pH, neutral/cationic surfactant ratio, hydrothermal treatment temperature, and calcination temperature on the mesophase of MCM-48 materials is investigated. Experimental results confirm that well-ordered cubic MCM-48 materials were synthesized in strongly acidic and strongly basic media. The resulting mesoporous silica had a high surface area of 1,317 m2/g, mean pore size of about 3.0 nm, and a high purity of 99.87 wt%. Ordered mesoporous carbon with high surface area (1,715 m2/g) and uniform pore size of CMK-1 type was successfully prepared by impregnating MCM-48 template using the resin waste. The carbon structure was sensitive to the sulfuric acid concentration and carbonization temperature. Converting e-waste into MCM-48 materials not only eliminates the disposal problem of e-waste, but also transforms industrial waste into a useful nanomaterial.

  20. Preparation of Nickel/Active Carboncatalyst and its Utilization for Benzene Hydrogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enggelena Septiawati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The research on the preparation of nickel catalyst impregnated on active carbon by two methods has been carried out. The impregnation of Ni metal was done using nickel(II chloride as a precursor. The impregnated of Ni metal on samples in A method was made in varying of percentage i.e., 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% (w/w as the weight proportion of Ni to active carbon and NiCl2.6H20. The concentration of Ni that would be impregnated on samples in B method was made close to Ni content of samples in A method determined by atomic adsorption spectrometry. Preparation of nickel/active carbon catalyst with A method was done with dipping the active carbon in the nickel(II chloride solution followed by filtering and then drying at 110 °C for 4 hours, and then calcination by flowing nitrogen and reduction by hydrogen, each at 400 °C at 4 hours. The treatments made on samples in A method was also done on samples in B method, the only difference was evaporating all of precursor solution after dipping active carbon in that precursor solution was done in B method. The characterization includes: iodium adsorption test, determination of nickel content by means of atomic adsorption spectrometry, and acidity by adsorption of ammonia methods. Test of catalyst activity was done by means of hydrogenation of benzene to cyclohexane at 150, 200 and 250 °C, the pressure of 1 atm and the flow rate of hydrogen 6 mL/minute. The products were analyzed by gas chromatographic method. The results show that A method produced a catalyst with relatively low nickel content. However the acidity and ability to convert benzene to cyclohexane were relatively high and it increased as increasing the content of nickel. The temperature of the reaction was achieved at 250 °C which gave the yield on conversion of 25.3678%. The catalyst obtained by B method in the same condition of hydrogenation gave only smaller results.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Amorphous Silica and Calcium Oxide from Agricultural Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supachai Sompech

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice husk ash and bagasse ash were agricultural wastes that provide an abundanceof the silica (SiO2 source and the chicken eggshells and duck eggshells were important sources forcalcium oxide (CaO. Therefore, in this study the rice husk ash and bagasse ash were used as raw materials for synthesisofsilica powder,while chicken eggshells and duck eggshells were synthesized forthe calcium oxide.The results from the XRD pattern clearly showedthe structural formation of amorphous SiO2 and CaO phase. While the FTIR results indicated that the spectrums which displayedthe characteristic peaks of the functional groups presenting in the SiO2 and CaOpowder. However, the SEM images revealed that the particles agglomerated, various sizes and the particle size were found to be in micron level.

  2. Processing of waste material of radix physochlainae for preparation of fine chemicals after extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, A.; Yohannes, A.; Feng, X. T.; Yao, S.

    2017-02-01

    Waste residues of Chinese traditional medicine radix physochlainae (Huashanshen) contain a large amount of hemicelluloses after extraction. After the removal of the cellulose and lignin, main components of the solution are different degree of hydrolysis products of hemicelluloses. In the degradation process, hemicelluloses firstly become pentose, and then pentose loses 3 molecules of water and turns into furfural. This study explored a series of conditions of the method; finally the yield of furfural can reach 8.5% (calculated with the weight of raw residues) under the condition of pH of 0.2-0.3, temperature of 104-106°C, hydrolysis duration for 10 minutes. Furfural can be further processed to be resin materials.

  3. Usefulness of Activated Carbon Prepared from Industrial Wastes in the Removal of Nickel from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajalakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Elimination of heavy metals like nickel from waste water is an important subject in view of public health. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the applicability of industrial by-products as potential metal adsorbents to remove nickel from aqueous solutions and polluted water. A direct proportionality between the percentage of Ni(II removal and adsorbent dosage was noted. Maximum removal ⁄ recovery of nickel was achieved at pH range of 10-12 for all adsorbents. An optimum temperature of 40 °C for efficient removal of Ni(II was observed. The effect of nickel adsorption was affected by salinity. The adsorption isotherm data confirmed to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Conformation of data to the Lagergren᾽s rate equation indicated first order kinetics. The suitability of the industrial by-products in the successful removal of nickel from aqueous solution is quite obvious from the study.

  4. UTILIZATION OF BAGASSE FIBER FOR PREPARATION OF BIODEGRADABLE FLAME RETARDING COMPOSITES (BFRCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjia Han

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bagasse is a renewable resource characterized by its low cost and environmental friendliness. In this work a novel technological process was proposed to make flame retarding composites (BFRCs by using bagasse fiber. The bagasse was disintegrated by twisting it up and applying high consistency refining, and then it was used to prepare BFRCs via hot pressure. Chemical groups and thermal properties of bagasse fiber were studied through the use of FTIR spectroscopy, a universal mechanical testing machine, and TGA, while properties of BFRCs were also analyzed by SEM, and the surface water resistance and burning characteristics were measured. Results showed the pyrolysis temperature of bagasse fibers to be about 273oC. Chemical groups were not changed, while the content of groups was reduced a little during the manufacturing process. The BFRCs showed good performance for water resistance, and the optimum value was 1.7g. They also had good flame retardant performance. The index of flame spread was 13.6 and the smoke index was 108, which reaches Class A by the ASTM E84-08 Standard.

  5. A comparison of how behavioral health organizations utilize training to prepare for health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Victoria; Choy-Brown, Mimi; Barrenger, Stacey; Manuel, Jennifer; Mercado, Micaela; McKay, Mary; Marcus, Steven C

    2017-02-14

    Under the Affordable Care Act, States have obtained Medicaid waivers to overhaul their behavioral health service systems to improve quality and reduce costs. Critical to implementation of broad service delivery reforms has been the preparation of organizations responsible for service delivery. This study focused on one large-scale initiative to overhaul its service system with the goal of improving service quality and reducing costs. The study examined the participation of behavioral health organizations in technical assistance efforts and the extent to which organizational factors related to their participation. This study matched two datasets to examine the organizational characteristics and training participation for 196 behavioral health organizations. Organizational characteristics were drawn from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS). Training variables were drawn from the Clinical Technical Assistance Center's master training database. Chi-square analyses and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the proportion of organizations that participated in training, the organizational characteristics (size, population served, service quality, infrastructure) that predicted participation in training, and for those who participated, the type (clinical or business) and intensity of training (webinar, learning collaborative, in-person) they received. Overall 142 (72. 4%) of the sample participated in training. Organizations who pursued training were more likely to be large in size (p = .02), serve children in addition to adults (p organizational readiness for health care reform initiatives among behavioral health organizations.

  6. Evaluation of Soil Manipulation to Prepare Engineered Earthen Waste Covers for Revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, W Joseph; Benson, Craig H; Albright, William H; Smith, Gregory M; Bush, Richard P

    2015-11-01

    Seven ripping treatments designed to improve soil physical conditions for revegetation were compared on a test pad simulating an earthen cover for a waste disposal cell. The field test was part of study of methods to convert compacted-soil waste covers into evapotranspiration covers. The test pad consisted of a compacted layer of fine-textured soil simulating a barrier protection layer overlain by a gravelly sand bedding layer and a cobble armor layer. Treatments included combinations of soil-ripping implements (conventional shank [CS], wing-tipped shank [WTS], and parabolic oscillating shank with wings [POS]), ripping depths, and number of passes. Dimensions, dry density, moisture content, and particle size distribution of disturbance zones were determined in two trenches excavated across rip rows. The goal was to create a root-zone dry density between 1.2 and 1.6 Mg m and a seedbed soil texture ranging from clay loam to sandy loam with low rock content. All treatments created V-shaped disturbance zones as measured on trench faces. Disturbance zone size was most influenced by ripping depth. Winged implements created larger disturbance zones. All treatments lifted fines into the bedding layer, moved gravel and cobble down into the fine-textured protection layer, and thereby disrupted the capillary barrier at the interface. Changes in dry density within disturbance zones were comparable for the CS and WTS treatments but were highly variable among POS treatments. Water content increased in the bedding layer and decreased in the protection layer after ripping. The POS at 1.2-m depth and two passes created the largest zone with a low dry density (1.24 Mg m) and the most favorable seedbed soil texture (gravely silt loam). However, ripping also created large soil aggregates and voids in the protection layer that may produce preferential flow paths and reduce water storage capacity.

  7. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-06-07

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed.

  8. Novel technology for sewage sludge utilization: preparation of amino acids chelated trace elements (AACTE) fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangsheng; Kong, Sifang; Li, Yaqiong; Zeng, Hui

    2009-11-15

    This study developed a novel technology for sewage sludge utilization. The bacteria proteins in the sewage sludge were extracted to produce the amino acid chelated trace elements (AACTE) fertilizer by virtue of several chemical processes. Firstly, the sewage sludge was hydrolyzed under hot hydrochloric acid solution to obtain protein solution. The effects of hydrolysis temperature, reaction time and pH on the extraction ratio of protein from the sewage sludge were investigated. Secondly, the protein solution was further hydrolyzed into amino acids under hot acid condition. The effects of the HCl dosage, hydrolysis temperature and reaction time on the yields of amino acids were investigated in detail. Thirdly, the raw amino acids solution was purified by activated carbon decolorization and glacial acetic acid dissolution. Finally, the purified amino acids were used to produce the AACTE fertilizer by chelating with trace elements. Results showed that, under optimum hydrolysis conditions, 78.5% of protein was extracted from the sewage sludge and the amino acids yield was 10-13 g per 100g of dry sludge. The AACTE fertilizer produced was in accordance with China Standard for Amino Acids Foliar Fertilizer. This novel technology is more environmentally friendly compared with the conventional sludge treatments.

  9. Utilization of waste polyethylene terephthalate as a reducing agent in the reduction of iron ore composite pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Gökhan; Birol, Burak; Sarıdede, Muhlis Nezihi

    2014-08-01

    The increasing consumption of plastics inevitably results in increasing amounts of waste plastics. Because of their long degradation periods, these wastes negatively affect the natural environment. Numerous studies have been conducted to recycle and eliminate waste plastics. The potential for recycling waste plastics in the iron and steel industry has been underestimated; the high C and H contents of plastics may make them suitable as alternative reductants in the reduction process of iron ore. This study aims to substitute plastic wastes for coal in reduction melting process and to investigate their performance during reduction at high temperature. We used a common type of waste plastic, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), because of its high carbon and hydrogen contents. Composite pellets containing PET wastes, coke, and magnetite iron ore were reduced at selected temperatures of 1400 and 1450°C for reduction time from 2 to 10 min to investigate the reduction melting behavior of these pellets. The results showed that an increased temperature and reduction time increased the reduction ratio of the pellets. The optimum experimental conditions for obtaining metallic iron (iron nuggets) were reduction at 1450°C for 10 min using composite pellets containing 60% PET and 40% coke.

  10. Utilization of waste polyethylene terephthalate as a reducing agent in the reduction of iron ore composite pellets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gökhan Polat; Burak Birol; Muhlis Nezihi Sarıdede

    2014-01-01

    The increasing consumption of plastics inevitably results in increasing amounts of waste plastics. Because of their long degrada-tion periods, these wastes negatively affect the natural environment. Numerous studies have been conducted to recycle and eliminate waste plastics. The potential for recycling waste plastics in the iron and steel industry has been underestimated;the high C and H contents of plas-tics may make them suitable as alternative reductants in the reduction process of iron ore. This study aims to substitute plastic wastes for coal in reduction melting process and to investigate their performance during reduction at high temperature. We used a common type of waste plastic, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), because of its high carbon and hydrogen contents. Composite pellets containing PET wastes, coke, and magnetite iron ore were reduced at selected temperatures of 1400 and 1450°C for reduction time from 2 to 10 min to investigate the re-duction melting behavior of these pellets. The results showed that an increased temperature and reduction time increased the reduction ratio of the pellets. The optimum experimental conditions for obtaining metallic iron (iron nuggets) were reduction at 1450°C for 10 min using composite pellets containing 60%PET and 40%coke.

  11. Analysis of a Waste Minimization Program for Nonhazardous Solid Wastes Utilizing Source Reduction and Recycling Techniques and Its Application to Air Force Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    nonhazardous wastes. Using good housekeeping procedures such as selective buying habits and reusing products or materials that normally would be...Operations and Re orts. 1215 Jefferson Davt Hgh -ay, Sute 1204 Armngton. VA 22202-4302 and to the Office .f’ Management and Budget Paper ,cr Reduction

  12. 我国工业余热回收利用技术综述%An Overview of Domestic Technologies for Waste Heat Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连红奎; 李艳; 束光阳子; 顾春伟

    2011-01-01

    节能减排主要依靠工业领域,工业余热利用是重要内容.本文从余热利用过程能量转换情况角度,概述了国内用于余热利用的热交换技术、热功转换余热发电技术及余热制冷制热技术及其设备的技术特点及应用概况,分析了工业余热利用中的存在的问题,认为需进一步推广余热锅妒及低温汽轮机余热发电技术,提高中高温余热的利用率,需要强化研究并掌握有机朗肯循环等300℃以下低温余热发电技术,积极向工程应用推广,提高低品位余热利用率.%Waste heat recovery in industry is indispensable in saving energy, lowering energy consumption and reducing pollutants. This paper overviewed the characteristics and applications of waste heat recovery technologies in China such as heat transfer utilization, power generation technologies, refrigeration and heat pump. The dissemination of waste heat boiler and power generation technologies is necessary for increasing the ratio of midium/high temperature waste heat utilization; meanwhile Organic Rankine Cycle system is an effective solution to the low temperature waste heat recovery and the development is a pressing need.

  13. Experimental Study on the Waste Heat Utilization of Air Compressor in Coal Mine%煤矿空压机废热利用实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建学; 牛永胜; 袁静

    2012-01-01

    针对目前空压机排风废热的回收利用存在的问题,设计了采用热泵技术对空压机废热的回收方案。分析了空压机废热源热泵系统的工作原理,并建立了实验台进行实验研究,测试了不同的空压机排风温度、热水出水温度等因素对空压机废热源热泵系统性能的影响。通过对空压机废热源热泵系统在山西某煤矿的应用的举例,分析了煤矿空压机废热利用可收获的经济效益和社会效益。%Aiming at the current problems for the recycling and utilization of air compressor exhaust waste heat,it designed the recycling plan of air compressor waste heat with heat pump technology.The working principle of the heat pump system of air compressor waste heat source was analyzed,and the experiment table was established to do experimental research,test factors such as different air compressor exhaust temperature,outlet temperature of hot water which influence on the performance of the heat pump system.Through the exemplifying of the air compressor waste heat source heat pump system application to a coal mine in Shanxi province,it analyzed the economic benefit and social benefit which could be obtained by the air compressor waste heat utilization in the coal mine.

  14. Complementary blending of meadowfoam seed oil methyl esters with biodiesel prepared from soybean and waste cooking oils to enhance fuel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complementary blending of meadowfoam seed oil methyl esters (MFME) with soybean and waste cooking oil methyl esters (SME and WCME) was investigated. MFME prepared from cold-pressed meadowfoam oil exhibited an exceptionally high induction period (IP) of 66.2 h whereas SME and WCME yielded conside...

  15. CHARACTERIZATION AND SELECTION OF CEREALS FOR PREPARATION AND UTILIZATION OF FERMENTED FIBER-BETAGLUCAN PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Duchoňová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Whole grains flours of diverse colored wheat species (Triticum sp. and various varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare and oat (Avena sativa were analysed for their nutritional composition. The highest protein values were observed in wheat yellow variety BONA DEA (14% and also in blue variety UC 66049 (13%. Lower content of starch was determined in barley and oat varieties in compared to wheat varieties. The lowest levels of betaglucans were observed in wheat (0.3 – 0.6% and the highest content was assessed in barley and oat (2.5 – 3.8%. Variation in dietary fiber was considerable in barley and oat varieties. Barley varieties possessed significantly the highest content of total dietary fiber among all monitored cereals (≈17%, while oat grains showed significantly the lowest values (≤7%. Knowledge of the composition of healthy substances was used to select the best variety for the development of fermented product which was developed using specially prepared oat flour and potentially probiotic lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum. The series of fermentation experiments resulted in a final gelatinous product with vital bacterial cell count about 1010 CFU.g-1, significantly reduced level of starch (1.7% and following nutritional characteristics: dry matter of 12.91%, water activity of 0.977, pH value 4.6 and lactic acid content of 2.95 g/l. Final product was added into the dough in different quantities and served also as a starter culture. Rheological properties of dough were evaluated for the purpose of finding a suitable recipe.

  16. Preparation and properties of SYNROC D containing simulated Savannah River Plant high-level defense waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenig, C.; Rozsa, R.; Bazan, F.; Otto, R.; Grens, J.

    1981-07-23

    We describe in detail the formulation and processing steps used to prepare all SYNROC D samples tested in the Comparative Leach Testing Program at the Savannah River Laboratory. We also discuss how the composition of the Savannah River Plant sludge influences the formulation and ultimate preparation of SYNROC D. Mechanical properties are reported in the categories of elastic constants, flexural and compressive strengths, and microhardness; thermal expansion and thermal conductivity results are presented. The thermal expansion data indicated the presence of significant residual strain and the possibility of an unidentified amorphous or glassy phase in the microstructure. We summarize the standardized (MCC) leaching results for both crushed Synroc and monoliths in deionized water, silicate water, and salt brine at 90/sup 0/C and 150/sup 0/C.

  17. THE PREPARATION AND COMPOSITION ANALYSIS OF ALITE-YE'ELIMITE WITH INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    OpenAIRE

    Yueyang Hu; Suhua Ma; Li Weifeng; Shen Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Alite-ye'elimite clinker is a high cementing clinker that is prepared by introducing calcium sulfoaluminate, a non-silicate mineral, into cement clinker. The industrial residue was used to produce cement clinker. The relationship of the aluminate modulus (IM) and the mineral composition and mechanics of tricalcium silicate-rich sulfur aluminate cement is reported. The effects of the aluminate modulus on the phase compositions, morphology and compressive strength were investigated. The phase m...

  18. Composite films based on biorelated agro-industrial waste and poly(vinyl alcohol). Preparation and mechanical properties characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiellini, E; Cinelli, P; Imam, S H; Mao, L

    2001-01-01

    As a part of an ongoing project on the production of composite materials based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polymeric materials from renewable resources, the present paper reports on the incorporation of agricultural waste materials as organic fillers in a film matrix based on PVA as continuous phase. In this study lignocellulosic fibers byproducts, derived from sugar cane (SC) and apple (AP) and orange (OR) fruit juice extraction, were cast from PVA aqueous solutions. The effect of fiber type and composition on the relative properties of cast films was evaluated and compared. OR resulted to be suitable for blending in higher amounts by weight than SC and AP. Glycerol and urea were added as plasticizing agents and were observed to be effective in giving flexible films. Additionally, cornstarch was added to further increase the composition of polymers from renewable resources in cost-effective and ecoefficient composite film formulations. The prepared films resulted sensitive to moisture and water. To reduce water sensitivity, hexamethoxymethylmelamine (HMMM) was tested as a cross-linking agent for the present composite formulations. Cross-linked films exhibited significant improvement in water-resistance that can be taken as a tuneable structural feature for customized applications. The mechanical properties of the prepared composite films (elongation at break, tensile strength, Young modulus) were found to be dependent upon the nature and content of the filler and on environmental conditions.

  19. Preparation of activated carbon from Tunisian olive-waste cakes and its application for adsorption of heavy metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccar, R. [Laboratoire Eau Energie Environnement, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax, BP W 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)], E-mail: rym.baccar@tunet.tn; Bouzid, J. [Laboratoire Eau Energie Environnement, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax, BP W 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)], E-mail: jalel.bouzid@tunet.tn; Feki, M. [Unite de Recherche de Chimie Industrielle et Materiaux, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax, BP W 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)], E-mail: mongi.feki@yahoo.fr; Montiel, A. [Laboratoire Eau Energie Environnement, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax, BP W 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)], E-mail: montiel.antoine@free.fr

    2009-03-15

    The present work explored the use of Tunisian olive-waste cakes, a by-product of the manufacture process of olive oil in mills, as a potential feedstock for the preparation of activated carbon. Chemical activation of this precursor, using phosphoric acid as dehydrating agent, was adopted. To optimize the preparation method, the effect of the main process parameters (such as acid concentration, impregnation ratio, temperature of pyrolysis step) on the performances of the obtained activated carbons (expressed in terms of iodine and methylene blue numbers and specific surface area) was studied. The optimal activated carbon was fully characterized considering its adsorption properties as well as its chemical structure and morphology. To enhance the adsorption capacity of this carbon for heavy metals, a modification of the chemical characteristics of the sorbent surface was performed, using KMnO{sub 4} as oxidant. The efficiency of this treatment was evaluated considering the adsorption of Cu{sup 2+} ions as a model for metallic species. Column adsorption tests showed the high capacity of the activated carbon to reduce KMnO{sub 4} into insoluble manganese (IV) oxide (MnO{sub 2}) which impregnated the sorbent surface. The results indicated also that copper uptake capacity was enhanced by a factor of up to 3 for the permanganate-treated activated carbon.

  20. Preparation of Geography Teaching Materials through the Utilization of Geographic Information Systems (GIS Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İSKENDER DÖLEK

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a model through a sample implementation the intention of which is to teach Geography teachers how to develop learning materials by using the Arc GIS rather than instructing them about material development of all sorts. Within this context different phases of material development such as maps, landforms and settlements are explained step by step along with the digitizing process of screen maps. A great number of geographical materials can be enhanced by teachers of Geography if they follow the steps illustrated by the Arc GIS programme. The materials prepared by Geography teachers and three dimensional images can be enlarged or zoomed out on the screen to figure out the effect of the scale on the map. The fact that our eyesight becomes narrow and details disappeare as we gain height can be concretized through this example. Besides teachers can explain visually how physical features are shown by using contour lines. For instance, it is observed on three dimensional images that the slope increases where the contour lines become more frequent in areas like hillsides,or vice versa. The appearance of contour lines or other landforms can be highlighted by these images as well. In a class at which topics like river valleys, plains, plateaus, etc. are supposed to be explained, these can be presenented with the help of visuals. Furthermore the relation between settlements and landforms can be made clear and easy to grasp through already developed materials.Geography teachers can develop materials or process certain data with various techniques (satellite images, air photographs as they improve their skills of using the GIS. They can even digitize the images of Google Earth, an increasingly popular internet device and turn them into an easy-to-examine datum by means of the GIS. In this manner they provide acquired information and developed materials to their students and help them use an advantegous device in the long and tiring

  1. Preparation, Characterization and Hot Storage Stability of Asphalt Modified by Waste Polyethylene Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changqing Fang; Ying Zhang; Qian yu; Xing Zhou; Dagang Guo; Ruien Yu; Min Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Waste polyethylene packaging (WPE) was used to modify asphalt,and hot storage stability of the modified asphalt was studied in this paper.The morphological change and component loss of WPE modified asphalt were characterized by fluorescence microscopy,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR),differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),thermogravimetry (TG) and isolation testing.In addition,the mechanism of the hot storage stability of WPE modified asphalt was discussed.The results showed that the modification of asphalt with WPE was a physical process.It was found that the filament or partly network-like structure formed in the modified asphalt system was beneficial to improving the hot storage stability.Moreover,the addition of WPE resulted in a decrease in both the light components volatilization and the macromolecules decomposition of asphalt.It was demonstrated that when the content of WPE in matrix asphalt was less than 10 wt%,the service performances of modified asphalt could be better.

  2. Preparation of high performance ceramic tiles using waste tile granules and ceramic polishing powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gong-xun; SU Da-gen

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach to reusing waste tile granules (TG) and ceramic polishing powder (PP) to produce high performance ceramic tiles. We studied formulations each with a TG mass fraction of 25.0% and a different PP mass fraction between 1.0% and 7.0%. The formulations included a small amount of borax additive of a mass fracton between 0.2%and 1.2%. The effects of these industrial by-products on compressive strength, water absorption and microstructure of the new ceramic tiles were investigated. The results indicate that the compressive strength decreases and water absorption increases when TG with a mass fraction of 25.0% are added. Improvement of the compressive strength may be achieved when TG (up to 25.0%)and PP (up to 2.0%) are both used at the same time. In particular, the compressive strength improvement can be maximized and water absorption reduced when a borax additive of up to 0.5% is used as a flux. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that a certain amount of fine PP granules and a high content of fluxing oxides from borax avail the formation of glassy phase that fills up the pores in the new ceramic tiles, resulting in a dense product with high compressive strength and low water absorption.

  3. Managing Expectations: Results from Case Studies of US Water Utilities on Preparing for, Coping with, and Adapting to Extreme Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller-Simms, N.; Metchis, K.

    2014-12-01

    Water utilities, reeling from increased impacts of successive extreme events such as floods, droughts, and derechos, are taking a more proactive role in preparing for future incursions. A recent study by Federal and water foundation investigators, reveals how six US water utilities and their regions prepared for, responded to, and coped with recent extreme weather and climate events and the lessons they are using to plan future adaptation and resilience activities. Two case studies will be highlighted. (1) Sonoma County, CA, has had alternating floods and severe droughts. In 2009, this area, home to competing water users, namely, agricultural crops, wineries, tourism, and fisheries faced a three-year drought, accompanied at the end by intense frosts. Competing uses of water threatened the grape harvest, endangered the fish industry and resulted in a series of regulations, and court cases. Five years later, new efforts by partners in the entire watershed have identified mutual opportunities for increased basin sustainability in the face of a changing climate. (2) Washington DC had a derecho in late June 2012, which curtailed water, communications, and power delivery during a record heat spell that impacted hundreds of thousands of residents and lasted over the height of the tourist-intensive July 4th holiday. Lessons from this event were applied three months later in anticipation of an approaching Superstorm Sandy. This study will help other communities in improving their resiliency in the face of future climate extremes. For example, this study revealed that (1) communities are planning with multiple types and occurrences of extreme events which are becoming more severe and frequent and are impacting communities that are expanding into more vulnerable areas and (2) decisions by one sector can not be made in a vacuum and require the scientific, sectoral and citizen communities to work towards sustainable solutions.

  4. Preparation of Molecular Sieve Catalyst and Application in the Catalytic Oxidation Treatment of Waste Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG RongMin; XIE Xin; HE YuFeng; WANG YunPu; HE NaiPu; ZHANG ZhengLin; SONG PengFei; LIU WenJun

    2001-01-01

    @@ Citric acid is an important additive in foods, cosmetics, medicine and so on, but it discharges about 10 ton of factory effluent when 1 ton of citric acid is produced. The COD of the factory effluent is near 20000 mg/L. The treatment of citric acid factory effluent is a serious problem in environmental chemistry. It is found that molecular sieve support metal complexes have high catalytic activity in aerobic oxidation of alkene [1,2]. In this paper, a kind of molecular sieve catalyst was prepared. The catalyst was used for the treatment of citric acid factory effluent by method of catalytic oxygen oxidation.

  5. [Preparation of Copper and Nickel from Metallurgical Waste Products with the Use of Acidophilic Chemolithotrophic Microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomchenko, N V; Murav'ev, M I

    2015-01-01

    The study concerns the leaching of copper, nickel, and cobalt from metallurgical production slag with trivalent iron sulphates prepared in the process of oxidation of bivalent iron ions with the use of associations of acidophilic chemolithotrophic microorganisms. At the same time, copper extraction in the solution reached 91.2%, nickel reached 74.9%, and cobalt reached 90.1%. Copper was extracted by cementation, and nickel as sulphate was extracted by electrolysis. Associations of microorganisms can then completely bioregenerate the solution obtained after leaching.

  6. Discussion on waste heat comprehensive utilization of heat transfer oil and waste gas%导热油-烟气综合余热利用工艺探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜学仕; 倪军亮; 范孟洲; 郭黎明

    2015-01-01

    梁式竖窑导热油余热由于热量小、温度低而易被忽视。通过对梁式竖窑热工分析及导热油余热分析,提出了导热油-烟气综合余热利用方案,并对经济效益进行分析。指出导热油烟气综合利用投资省,回报率高,操作简单,节能减排。%With low calories and low temperature,the waste heat of the heat transfer oil in beam shaft kiln was easy to overlook. Based on thermal analysis and waste heat analysis of the heat transfer oil, the article proposed a comprehensive utilization program of the waste heat of heat transfer oil and waste gas,which had the features such as low invest,high return,simple operation,energy saving and emission reduction.

  7. Waste heat utilization in the thermal spa of Lavey-les-Bains; Etude de la valorisation des rejets thermiques des Bains de Lavey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy looks at the possibilities for improved waste water utilization in the Lavey-les-Bains thermal spa, Switzerland. According to the regulations in force, the temperature of the waste water rejected into the Rhone river shall not exceed 30 {sup o}C, what is currently not the case. Also the operational cost shall be reduced and the waste water quality improved. The installations are presented. From the two geothermal wells, mineral water comes out at an average flow rate of 940 l/min and a temperature of 63 {sup o}C. Actual waste water data are reported. The measured thermal water consumption data, including seasonal variations, are analysed by computerized simulation and measures to reduce the consumed volume by the optimization of internal procedures are evaluated. Measures to reduce the quantity of the rejected free chlorine are discussed. Several possible adaptations of the existing space heating, domestic water heating and pools' heating are evaluated, including cost. In addition, extensions of the thermal spa center to recreational activities are discussed, as the construction of a tropical greenhouse is.

  8. 工业过程余热回收利用技术研究进展%Review of Waste Heat Utilization Technologies for Industry Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯惠生; 徐菲菲; 刘叶凤; 单纯

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviewed the characteristics and applications of waste heat recovery technologies such as heat transfer utilization, refrigeration and heat pump, power generation by organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system and Kalina cycle. The thermodynamic principle and research method existing in the recovery of waste heats were carried out. The dissemination of ORC system and Kalina cycle system are necessary for increasing the effective of waste heat utilization. Meanwhile, refrigeration and heat pump technologies should be combined with specific industry process, application of simulation to the design also should be enhanced.%概述了余热利用的热交换技术、余热制冷制热技术、低温有机朗肯循环及Kaliana循环余热发电技术的应用,并对其热力学原理以及研究方法进行了分析.认为研究推广低温有机朗肯循环及Kalina循环等低温余热发电技术对提高余热利用率更加有效,余热制冷制热技术的应用必须与工艺过程相结合,加强计算机模拟在制冷过程的设计中的应用.

  9. 水产品下脚料高值化利用技术研究现状%High-value Utilization Technology of Aquatic Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶

    2012-01-01

    The deep development and utilization of aquatic waste is summarized briefly, these aquatic waste can be used in food natural fungicide, chymosin, thioguanine, chondroitin sulfate, dennatan sulfate, oligomeric peptides, small peptides oral solution, CMC, meaty flavor, fish enzyme, glyeopruteins and taurine, which provided a reference for further development and utilization of fish waste resources.%简单综述了水产品下脚料深度开发利用的研究情况,主要可应用在食品天然防霉剂、凝乳酶、硫鸟嘌呤(6 -TG)、硫酸软骨素、硫酸皮肤素、寡聚肽、小分子肽口服液、高吸收性钙剂(CMC)、热反应型肉香调味基料、鱼酶、糖蛋白、牛磺酸中,为进一步开发利用鱼下脚料资源提供参考.

  10. 热作废弃纤维资源利用与发展研究%Comprehensive Utilization and Development of Waste Tropical Crop Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晓奕; 李积华; 欧春莹; 苏俊波

    2012-01-01

    Tropical waste fibers are one of the most abundant,renewable and biodegradable natural resources,and their development and utilization has great ecological and economic value.This paper presents a review of the research and development for comprehensive utilization of tropical waste fibers in recent years,mainly expounding to use fibers as the feed or fertilizer manufacture,extracting functional food,biofuel,green chemicals,nanocellulose,and so on.On the base of these situations,a future development view of tropical waste fiber is prospected.%我国热作废弃纤维资源丰富,其开发利用具有巨大的生态和经济价值。本文阐述近年来热作废弃纤维的综合利用现状,主要涉及饲料、肥料、功能性食品开发、制浆造纸、绿色化学品、生物质燃料开发、纳米纤维素等多个领域。对我国热作废弃纤维的资源化利用过程中存在的问题进行分析和讨论,并对其发展前景进行展望。

  11. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  12. Sorption of Atrazine in Tropical Soil by Biochar Prepared from Cassava Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Deng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biochar (BC is a carbonaceous and porous product generated from the incomplete combustion of biomass and has been recognized as an efficient adsorbent. This study evaluated the ability of BC to sorb atrazine pesticide in tropical soil, and explored potential environmental values of BC on mitigating organic micro-pollutants. BC was produced from cassava waste via pyrolyzation under oxygen-limiting conditions at 350, 550, and 750 °C (MS350, MS550, and MS750, respectively. Three biochars were characterized and investigated as sorbents for the removal atrazine from tropical soil. BC pyrolyzed at higher temperatures more quickly reached equilibrium. The pseudo-second-order model perfectly simulated the sorption kinetics for atrazine with the coefficients R2 above 0.996, and the sorption amount at equilibrium (qe was 0.016 mg/g for MS350, 0.025 mg/g for MS550 and 0.050 mg/g for MS750. The isotherms of MS350 displayed relatively linear behavior, whereas the sorption of atrazine on MS550 and MS750 followed a nonlinear isotherm. The sorption data were well described by the Freundlich model with logKF of 0.476 for MS350, 0.771 for MS550, 1.865 for MS750. A thermodynamic study indicated that the sorption of atrazine in BC-added soil was a spontaneous and endothermic process and was primarily controlled by physisorption. In addition, lower pH was conducive to the sorption of atrazine in BC-added soil.

  13. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water Using Nanoporous Material Prepared from Waste Avian Egg Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmumin A. Nuhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time a biocompatible calcium carbonate vateritic polymorph was recrystallized from eggshell waste and its application for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples was demonstrated. This nanoporous calcium carbonate was used as sorbent in dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction method. In this approach 50 mg of the calcium carbonate material having about 25 nm pores was placed in a 5 mL of water sample and ultrasonicated for 30 min. The cloudy sample was centrifuged at 13500 rpm for 2 min. The aqueous layer was then discarded and the CaCO3 material was dabbed dry with a lint-free tissue. The analytes were then desorbed with 100 μL of dichloromethane by ultrasonication for 5 min. Finally, the extract was analyzed by gas chromatography flame ionization detector. Experimental parameters affecting the extraction recoveries were optimized. Using optimum extraction conditions, calibration curves were linear with correlation coefficients of 0.9853 to 0.9973 over the concentration range of 0.05 to 30 ng/mL. This method showed a detection limit as low as 0.004 ng/mL (at signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Performance of the dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction was compared with a previously optimized solid-phase extraction technique. The developed method displayed good extraction recoveries (85 ± 8–110 ± 4% with high enhancement factors (388–1433-fold and good repeatability (% RSD < 13 and involved the use of minimal solvents. Analysis of seawater from Dammam Port revealed the presence of the analytes at concentrations between 0.15±0.01 and 13.43±1.54 ng/mL.

  14. Preparation of Molecular Sieve Catalyst and Application in the Catalytic Oxidation Treatment of Waste Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; RongMin

    2001-01-01

    Citric acid is an important additive in foods, cosmetics, medicine and so on, but it discharges about 10 ton of factory effluent when 1 ton of citric acid is produced. The COD of the factory effluent is near 20000 mg/L. The treatment of citric acid factory effluent is a serious problem in environmental chemistry.  It is found that molecular sieve support metal complexes have high catalytic activity in aerobic oxidation of alkene [1,2]. In this paper, a kind of molecular sieve catalyst was prepared. The catalyst was used for the treatment of citric acid factory effluent by method of catalytic oxygen oxidation.  ……

  15. Preparation of cationic waste paper and its application in poisonous dye removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Song, Xiaojie; Yan, Lifeng

    2013-01-01

    Cationic paper was prepared by reaction of paper with 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride in aqueous suspension, and tested as low-cost adsorbent for wastewater treatment. The experimental results revealed that anionic dyes (Acid Orange 7, Acid Red 18, and Acid Blue 92) were adsorbed on the cationic paper nicely. The maximum amount of dye Acid Orange 7 adsorbed on cationic paper was 337.2 mg/g in experimental conditions. The effects of initial dye concentration, temperature, and initial pH of dye solution on adsorption capacity of cationic paper were studied. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were applied to describe the kinetic data. The Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were used to describe adsorption equilibrium. The thermodynamic data indicated that the adsorption process of dye on cationic paper occurred spontaneously.

  16. THE PREPARATION AND COMPOSITION ANALYSIS OF ALITE-YE'ELIMITE WITH INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueyang Hu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Alite-ye'elimite clinker is a high cementing clinker that is prepared by introducing calcium sulfoaluminate, a non-silicate mineral, into cement clinker. The industrial residue was used to produce cement clinker. The relationship of the aluminate modulus (IM and the mineral composition and mechanics of tricalcium silicate-rich sulfur aluminate cement is reported. The effects of the aluminate modulus on the phase compositions, morphology and compressive strength were investigated. The phase morphology was analyzed by optical microscopy. The results show that the increase of IM in the clink can accelerate the formation of calcium sulfoaluminate; calcium sulfoaluminate can form at the temperature of 1250 °C when the IM value is lower than 2.50, while it exists at a temperature of 1300 °C without reheating when the IM value is higher than 2.50.

  17. Development of a decision model for the techno-economic assessment of municipal solid waste utilization pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Mohib-Ul-Haque; Jain, Siddharth; Vaezi, Mahdi; Kumar, Amit

    2016-02-01

    Economic competitiveness is one of the key factors in making decisions towards the development of waste conversion facilities and devising a sustainable waste management strategy. The goal of this study is to develop a framework, as well as to develop and demonstrate a comprehensive techno-economic model to help county and municipal decision makers in establishing waste conversion facilities. The user-friendly data-intensive model, called the FUNdamental ENgineering PrinciplEs-based ModeL for Estimation of Cost of Energy and Fuels from MSW (FUNNEL-Cost-MSW), compares nine different waste management scenarios, including landfilling and composting, in terms of economic parameters such as gate fees and return on investment. In addition, a geographic information system (GIS) model was developed to determine suitable locations for waste conversion facilities and landfill sites based on integration of environmental, social, and economic factors. Finally, a case study on Parkland County and its surrounding counties in the province of Alberta, Canada, was conducted and a sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the influence of the key technical and economic parameters on the calculated results.

  18. Utilization of concrete as a construction material in the concept of Radioactive Waste Storage in Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Hudoba

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear power energy for the production of electricity seems to be, along with the alterantive ways like the wind, solar and geothermal energy, the only possibility how to cover the increasing needs for the energy in the human population. The adoption of nuclear power energy concept for the production of electricity is always a hot topic of discussion not only on the professional, but also on the political level. The join of problem of the electricity production in nuclear power plants is the disposal and storing of radioactive waste. The increasing amount of low and medium radioactive waste needs a serious concept of a long term policy in the radioactive waste management. In general, a period of 300 years is a minimum time span in which the storing facilities have to guarantie the safety of human population and environment against radiation and radiation-chemical danger. A correct design of the storage place for the radioactive waste is a challenge for experts in the fields of material science, geoscience, construction etc. This paper is dealing with the basic information about the concept, material and construction basis of the low a medium radioactive waste storage in Slovak Republic.

  19. Progress in Resource Utilization of Tannery Solid Wastes%制革固体废弃物的资源化利用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅学忠

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviewed the resource utilization of tannery sludge and leather shaving in tannery solid wastes and put forward a view that the sustainable development of the leather industry could be achieved by the realization of the high-value transformation of tannery solid wastes and the control of chrome pollution from the source.%本文综述了制革固体废弃物中的制革污泥和废革屑的资源化利用情况,提出只要实现制革固体废弃物的高值转化,从源头上控制铬污染,就能实现制革工业的可持续发展.

  20. Evaluation of the potential of different high calorific waste fractions for the preparation of solid recovered fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés, Diego; Díaz, Eva; Sastre, Herminio; Ordóñez, Salvador; González-LaFuente, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Solid recovered fuels constitute a valuable alternative for the management of those non-hazardous waste fractions that cannot be recycled. The main purpose of this research is to assess the suitability of three different wastes from the landfill of the local waste management company (COGERSA), to be used as solid recovered fuels in a cement kiln near their facilities. The wastes analyzed were: End of life vehicles waste, packaging and bulky wastes. The study was carried out in two different periods of the year: November 2013 and April 2014. In order to characterize and classify these wastes as solid recovered fuels, they were separated into homogeneous fractions in order to determine different element components, such as plastics, cellulosic materials, packagings or textile compounds, and the elemental analysis (including chlorine content), heavy metal content and the heating value of each fraction were determined. The lower heating value of the waste fractions on wet basis varies between 10 MJ kg(-1) and 42 MJ kg(-1). One of the packaging wastes presents a very high chlorine content (6.3 wt.%) due to the presence of polyvinylchloride from pipe fragments, being the other wastes below the established limits. Most of the wastes analyzed meet the heavy metals restrictions, except the fine fraction of the end of life vehicles waste. In addition, none of the wastes exceed the mercury limit content, which is one of the parameters considered for the solid recovered fuels classification. A comparison among the experimental higher heating values and empirical models that predict the heating value from the elemental analysis data was carried out. Finally, from the three wastes measured, the fine fraction of the end of life vehicles waste was discarded for its use as solid recovered fuels due to the lower heating value and its high heavy metals content. From the point of view of the heating value, the end of life vehicles waste was the most suitable residue with a lower

  1. Preparing Coal-water Slurry by Using Concentrated Waste Water%高浓度废水配制水煤浆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱志英; 李明; 孙慈忠

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes five kinds of waste water in my company replacing industrial water,and they are used to prepare coal water slurry for TEXACO gasifier,in order to reduce the drain of waste water and the environmental burden.%叙述了利用我公司内的五股废水取代工业用水配制水煤浆,供德士古燃烧,从而减少污水的排放,减轻对环保的负担。

  2. Synthesis of PHB nanoparticles from optimized medium utilizing dairy industrial waste using Brevibacterium casei SRKP2: a green chemistry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Kumar Pandian, Sureshbabu; Deepak, Venkatraman; Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Muniyandi, Jeyaraj; Rameshkumar, Neelamegam; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2009-11-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are natural, biodegradable polymers accumulated by bacteria under nutritional exhausted condition where carbon source is in excess. A gram positive bacterium (designated strain SRKP2) that potentially accumulated polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was isolated from dairy industrial waste. From its morphological and physiological properties and nucleotide sequence of its 16S rRNA, it was suggested that strain SRKP2 was similar to Brevibacterium casei. PHAs were synthesized from a medium containing dairy waste, yeast extract and sea water. The synthesized PHAs were characterized by FT-IR as Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the production of PHB. From the optimized medium the yield of PHB was found to be 2.940 g/L. Here we report the direct use of dairy waste and sea water as potential sources for the production of PHB. Produced PHB was used to synthesize nanoparticles using solvent displacement technique.

  3. A comparative overview of coal-water slurry fuels produced from waste coal fines for utility-scale co-firing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    The recovery and utilization of coal fines, both impounded and in cleaning plant effluent streams, have received close attention from both coal producers and coal-fixed utilities during the last few years. Many coal producers view impounded fines as an environmental liability and the discarded fines in plant effluent streams as contributing to a loss in Btu recovery. In addition, the rejected coal fines increase the quantity and cost of refuse disposal. The handleability of fine coal has always been a problem. Dewatering cleaned fine coal is costly. Excessive fugitive dust emissions are commonly associated with handling dry fine coal. Wet fine coal sticks to conveyor belts, blocks fuel chutes, and may limit pulverizer capacity. The preparation of coal water slurry fuel (CWSF) from wet coal fines alleviates the necessity of drying while at the same time eliminates the flow problems that wet fine coal poses to the end user. Furthermore, the utilization of CWSF as an opportunity fuel converts coal fines into a revenue source rather than a liability. Several utilities are evaluating the co-firing of low solids, low viscosity CWSF with their normal coal feedstock in an effort to lower fuel cost and/or as a NO{sub x} reduction technique. The utilization of this opportunity fuel is being driven by a changing electric industry in which utilities continually strive to reduce plant emissions while simultaneously reducing their operating costs to become more competitive as the generation side of the industry prepares for deregulation.

  4. THE IMPROVEMENT OF LOW-WASTE TECHNOLOGIES OF WORKING BODY OF WATER PREPARATION AT THERMAL AND NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Rymasheuskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the main directions of water desalination technologies improving have been analyzed. Possible techniques of high-quality treatment of water that enable the reduction of amounts of environmentally hazardous substances to be discharged into the hydrosphere are indicated. The purpose of the work was to improve the ecological efficiency and the effectiveness of water treatment equipment at heat power plants when designing new and the modernizing existing water treatment schemes. In order to achieve this goal the following problems have been solved: the one of analyzing the main directions of the improvement of technologies of working body of water preparation at thermal and nuclear power plants; of analyzing the main directions of reduction of total volume of highly mineralized power plant wastewaters; of developing the technological scheme of recycling of concentrate of membrane installations and regenerants of ionite filters in acid and alkali; of developing the technological scheme of transformation of the sludge in pre-processing waste into valuable commodity products. The results of research can be applied for the design of new and the modernization of existing water treatment installations of thermal and nuclear power plants. It will enable to reduce considerably the use of natural water and the amount of chemicals added as well as the volume of wastewater and the concentration of dissolved solids in it. As a consequence, the negative impact of thermal and nuclear power plants on the hydrosphere will be reduced. 

  5. Characterization and ciprofloxacin adsorption properties of activated carbons prepared from biomass wastes by H3PO4 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Li, Hong; Li, Guangci; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Xuebing

    2016-10-01

    As biomass wastes, Arundo donax Linn and pomelo peel were used as precursors for activated carbons (ALAC and PPAC) preparation by phosphoric acid activation. The pore structure and surface acidic functional groups of both carbons were characterized by nitrogen adsorption/desorption experiment, NH3-temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A batch of experiments was carried out to investigate the adsorption performances of ciprofloxacin under different conditions. Results showed that PPAC exhibited larger surface area (1252m(2)/g) and larger portion of mesoporous, while ALAC was typical of microporous materials. Results from NH3-TPD suggested that ALAC was characteristic of more acidic functional group than PPAC. The maximum monolayer adsorption capability was 244mg/g for ALAC and 400mg/L for PPAC. Kinetics studies showed intra-particle diffusion was not the unique rate-controlling step. Boundary layer resistance existed between adsorbent and adsorbate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Toward environmentally-benign utilization of nonmetallic fraction of waste printed circuit boards as modifier and precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Pejman; Ning, Chao; Ouyang, Weiyi; Xu, Meng; Lin, Carol S K; McKay, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Electronic waste, including printed circuit boards, is growing at an alarming rate due to the accelerated technological progress and the shorter lifespan of the electronic equipment. In the past decades, due to the lack of proper economic and environmentally-benign recycling technologies, a major fraction of e-waste generated was either destined to landfills or incinerated with the sole intention of its disposal disregarding the toxic nature of this waste. Recently, with the increasing public awareness over their environment and health issues and with the enaction of more stringent regulations, environmentally-benign recycling has been driven to be an alternative option partially replacing the traditional eco-unfriendly disposal methods. One of the most favorable green technologies has been the mechanical separation of the metallic and nonmetallic fraction of the waste printed circuit boards. Although metallic fraction, as the most profitable component, is used to generate the revenue of the separation process, the nonmetallic fraction (NMF) has been left isolated. Herein, the recent developments in the application of NMF have been comprehensively reviewed and an eco-friendly emerging usage of NMF as a value-added material for sustainable remediation has been introduced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR AN ELECTRICAL UTILITY TRANSMISSION SYSTEM MONITORING AND MAINTENANCE FACILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small- to medium-sized businesses in the state of New Jersey. ne of the ...

  8. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  9. Comparison of alkylamide yield in ethanolic extracts prepared from fresh versus dry Echinacea purpurea utilizing HPLC-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelman, Kevin; Wetschler, Matthew H; Cech, Nadja B

    2009-07-12

    Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, a top selling botanical medicine, is currently of considerable interest due to immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) binding activities of its alkylamide constituents. The purpose of these studies was to comprehensively profile the alkylamide (alkamide) content of E. purpurea root, and to compare yields of alkylamide constituents resulting from various ethanolic extraction procedures commonly employed by the dietary supplements industry. To accomplish this goal, a high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) method was validated for quantitative analysis of several E. purpurea alkylamides. Using this method, at least 15 alkylamides were identified and it was shown that fresh and dry E. purpurea extracts prepared from equivalent amounts (dry weight) of roots, with exceptions, exhibited similar yield of specific alkylamides. However, the amount of total dissolved solids in the dry extract was higher (by 38%) than the fresh extract. Two extracts prepared from dried roots at different ratios of root:solvent (1:5, w:v and 1:11, w:v) were similar in yield of total dissolved solids, but, there were differences in quantities of specific alkylamides extracted using these two root:solvent ratios. In addition, the important bioactive dodecatetraenoic acid isobutylamides are fully extracted from dry E. purpurea root in 2 days, suggesting that the manufacturing practice of macerating Echinacea extracts for weeks may be unnecessary for optimal alkylamide extraction. Finally, the identification of a new alkylamide has been proposed. These results demonstrate the differences of the described extractions and utility of the analytical methods used to determine the wide-ranging individual alkylamide content of commonly consumed Echinacea extracts.

  10. The other side of utilization. Unwanted radioactivity in wastes and scrap metal; Die andere Seite des Gebrauchs. Ungewollte Radioaktivitaet in Abfaellen und Altmetallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, Robert [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Niederzier (Germany); Gellermann, Rainer [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    Natural radionuclides in industrial wastes and mining residues cannot be neglected in the frame of radiation protection and are therefore part of the radiation protection system in the sense of the IAEA definition. In case of purposely added uranium or thorium or utilization of ionizing radiation these products are also part of the radiation protection system since 2001. The historically grown radiation protection system is incomplete with respect to radiation sources, contaminated objects or materials with enriched natural radioactivity. These materials are detected by radiation monitoring systems that are targeted to find lost technical radiation sources. Experiences with the survey of respective incidents show the multifaceted image of utilization and consumption if natural radionuclide containing products.

  11. Production of hydrogen driven from biomass waste to power Remote areas away from the electric grid utilizing fuel cells and internal combustion engines vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, Hazem [Farmingdale State College, NY (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Recent concerns over the security and reliability of the world’s energy supply has caused a flux towards the research and development of renewable sources. A leading renewable source has been found in the biomass gasification of biological materials derived from organic matters such as wood chips, forest debris, and farm waste that are found in abundance in the USA. Accordingly, there is a very strong interest worldwide in the development of new technologies that provide an in-depth understanding of this economically viable energy source. This work aims to allow the coupling of biomass gasification and fuel cell systems as well as Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) to produce high-energy efficiency, clean environmental performance and near-zero greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass gasification is a process, which produces synthesis gas (syngas) that contains 19% hydrogen and 20% carbon monoxide from inexpensive organic matter waste. This project main goal is to provide cost effective energy to the public utilizing remote farms’ waste and landfill recycling area.

  12. Utilization of composite membrane polyethyleneglycol-polystyrene-cellulose acetate from pineapple leaf fibers in lowering levels of methyl orange batik waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsy, E. V. Y.; Irmanto; Kazanah, F. N.

    2017-02-01

    Pineapple leaves are agricultural waste from the pineapple that the fibers can be utilized as raw material in cellulose acetate membranes. First, made pineapple leaf fibers into pulp and then converted into cellulose acetate by acetylation process in four stages consisting of activation, acetylation, hydrolysis and purification. Cellulose acetate then used as the raw material to manufacture composite membrane with addition of polystyrene and poly (ethylene glycol) as porogen. Composite membrane is made using phase inversion method with dichloromethane-acetone as a solvent. The result of FTIR analysis (Fourier transform infra-red) showed that the absorption of the carbonyl group (C=O) is at 1643.10 cm-1 and acetyl group (C-O ) at 1227.01 cm-1, with a molecular weight of 8.05 x 104 g/mol and the contents (rate) of acetyl is 37.31%. PS-PEG-CA composite membrane had also been characterized by measuring the water flux values and its application to decrease methyl orange content (level) in batik waste. The results showed that the water flux value is of 25.62 L/(m2.hour), and the decrease percentage of methyl orange content in batik waste is 71.53%.

  13. ROLE OF SOME TREATMENTS ON ENHANCING THE ECO-FRIENDLY UTILIZATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC WASTES IN PRODUCTION OF CEMENT-FIBER BRICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Halim Basta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw (RS and sawdust (SD were evaluated for the manufacturing of fiber-cement bricks. The utilization of these bio-wastes will contribute to the reduction of the environmental impact of waste disposal. Pre-treating the fiber wastes, mechanically and/or chemically, was carried out before mixing them with cement and the appropriate amount of water. This approach was done for trials to reduce the tendency of fibers to absorb water, and consequently overcome the side effects of exposing the fiber-bricks to humidity. Different chemical treating agents, based on organic and inorganic materials, were used, e.g., gelatin-hexamine mixture, sodium silicate, and linseed oil. The results obtained show that the investigated organic treatments, especially linseed oil, were effective to reduce the water retention value (WRV of RS and SD by 60% and 65%, respectively. The treatment provided bricks with compressive strengths of 4.9 MPa and 5.4 MPa, respectively. According to the Engineering Encyclopedia of Building standards, these values are suitable for construction purposes. The bricks manufactured from linseed oil-treated fibers with cement and Nitobond AR may be suited for load-bearing walls, since the compressive strength reached is 7.8 to 8.6 MPa.

  14. 香蕉秸秆资源化利用的研究进展%Research progress on utilization of banana stalk waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国欢; 邝继云; 李超; 王翀; 梁其栋; 成喜雨

    2012-01-01

    The research advance on utilization of Banana stalk waste including fiber production, compost, forage production as well as gasification and biogas prodution is reviewed in this paper. Result showed that the anaerobic digestion of Banana stalk waste is a potential development direction for resource and energy of use. In China, biogas production potential of all Banana stalk waste can reach about 0.4 billion cubic metres annually, and its extensive application is expected to generate huge economic, social and ecological benefits.%对香蕉秸秆在纤维生产、堆肥、饲料、气化和厌氧发酵等方面的利用情况进行了综述,指出了香蕉秸秆厌氧发酵生产沼气是其资源化和能源化利用的途径和潜力.我国香蕉秸秆年产沼气潜力高达4亿m3,其推广和应用将产生巨大的经济、社会和生态效益.

  15. The partitioning behavior of trace element and its distribution in the surrounding soil of a cement plant integrated utilization of hazardous wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenzhou; Chen, Yan; Sun, Yongqi; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Zuotai; Ge, Xinlei

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the trace elements partitioning behavior during cement manufacture process were systemically investigated as well as their distribution behaviors in the soil surrounding a cement plant using hazardous waste as raw materials. In addition to the experimental analysis, the thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were simultaneously conducted. The results demonstrate that in the industrial-scale cement manufacture process, the trace elements can be classified into three groups according to their releasing behaviors. Hg is recognized as a highly volatile element, which almost totally partitions into the vapor phase. Co, Cu, Mn, V, and Cr are considered to be non-volatile elements, which are largely incorporated into the clinker. Meanwhile, Cd, Ba, As, Ni, Pb, and Zn can be classified into semi-volatile elements, as they are trapped into clinker to various degrees. Furthermore, the trace elements emitted into the flue gas can be adsorbed onto the fine particles, transport and deposit in the soil, and it is clarified here that the soil around the cement plant is moderately polluted by Cd, slightly polluted by As, Cr, Ba, Zn, yet rarely influenced by Co, Mn, Ni, Cu, Hg, and V elements. It was also estimated that the addition of wastes can efficiently reduce the consumption of raw materials and energy. The deciphered results can thus provide important insights for estimating the environmental impacts of the cement plant on its surroundings by utilizing wastes as raw materials.

  16. Effect of plate preparation on active-material utilization and cycleability of positive plates in automotive lead/acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgun, H.; Lam, L. T.; Rand, D. A. J.; Bhargava, S. K.

    The power demands from automotive lead/acid batteries are rising steadily with the increasing number of electronic accessories that are being fitted to modern vehicles. In order to meet new levels of performance, automotive batteries have been redesigned to use low-ohmic microporous separators, as well as thinner plates (to increase the number of plates per cell) that are made with a low paste density. This approach, however, has led to a separate problem, namely, an appreciable reduction in battery service life. To redress this situation, a research programme has been implemented in our laboratories to examine, in detail, the effect of plate preparation on the active-material utilization and cycleability of automotive positive plates with grids made from low-antimony alloy. The cycleability is evaluated in terms of repetitive reserve-capacity. The results suggest that a paste formula with a combination of high density and low acid-to-oxide ratio is the most appropriate technology for the production of the thin positive plates that are required in advanced designs of automotive batteries.

  17. 火力发电厂采暖空调系统余热利用优化设计%The Optimum Design of the Waste Heat Utilization of Heating&Air-conditioning System in Thermal Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费洪磊; 刘欢; 薛岑

    2015-01-01

    我国能源紧缺,一次能源及各种余热资源利用水平较低,深度挖掘利用电厂余热,制定合理的回收利用方案,优化设计采暖空调系统,提高电厂余热利用率十分重要. 基于电厂采暖空调系统余热利用存在的问题,详细介绍了火力发电厂采暖空调系统余热利用的优化设计.%Because of the energy shortage and a lower utilization level of primary energy and various waste heat resources utilization in China, the deep excavation and utilization of the waste heat in thermal power plant, the formulation of reasonable recycling scheme, the optimum design of heating & air-conditioning system and the improvement of utilization rate of waste heat are very important.Based on the problems existing in the waste heat utilization of heating&air-conditioning system in thermal power plant, this paper introduces in detail the optimum design of the waste heat utilization of heating&air-conditioning system in thermal power plant.

  18. Study on physico - chemical properties of Korean anthracite for utilization development - application to filtering materials for waste water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hong Soo; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Suk Whan [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    This research was initiated for the development of filtering materials those can be used in waste water treatment sites. The selected Jangseong coal for filtering material has low Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI : 38.38) and crushed two granule size. One is 1-2 mm size (effective size : 0.77 mm, uniformity coefficient : 1.70) and the other is 2-4 mm size (2.04 mm, 1.37) First, we had application test to find out the possibility of 2-4 mm sample for using water filtering material instead of silica sand in Sandflo filter. The result were unsuitable for treatment efficiency and micron size granule. But it will be solution with control of granule size and washing of coal. For feasibility study, the small scale of filtration tester was built on the waste water treatment plant of Lotte-chilsung beverage Co. to use the precipitated water during filtration test processed by purifying system. Measurement items are filtration rate, temperature of waste water, Electric Conductivity (EC), pH, turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Nitrogen Nitrate (NO{sub 3}-N), Organophosphorus and trace elements content (Zn, Al, Fe, Mg, K) of the supplied water and filtered water were carried out to find the filtration capacity of coal. The results indicated decreasing degree in turbidity (1-2 mm : 15.08 %, 2-4 mm : 11.58 %), COD (1-2 mm : 5.76 %, 2-4 mm : 5.49 %) and increasing degree in DO (1-2 mm : 11.25 %, 2-4 mm : 10 %). Trace elements removal degree of filtered waste water were about 30 % for Fe and 5 % for K. (author). 32 refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Energy and economic analysis of total energy systems for residential and commercial buildings. [utilizing waste heat recovery techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, W. L.; Bollenbacher, G.

    1974-01-01

    Energy and economic analyses were performed for an on-site power-plant with waste heat recovery. The results show that for any specific application there is a characteristic power conversion efficiency that minimizes fuel consumption, and that efficiencies greater than this do not significantly improve fuel consumption. This type of powerplant appears to be a reasonably attractive investment if higher fuel costs continue.

  20. Expression and characterization of Pantoea CO dehydrogenase to utilize CO-containing industrial waste gas for expanding the versatility of CO dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Sil; Min, Kyoungseon; Kim, Geun-Joong; Kwon, Inchan; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2017-03-01

    Although aerobic CO dehydrogenases (CODHs) might be applicable in various fields, their practical applications have been hampered by low activity and no heterologous expression. We, for the first time, could functionally express recombinant PsCODH in E. coli and obtained a highly concentrated recombinant enzyme using an easy and convenient method. Its electron acceptor spectra, optimum conditions (pH 6.5 and 30 °C), and kinetic parameters (kcat of 12.97 s-1, Km of 0.065 mM, and specific activity of 0.86 Umg-1) were examined. Blast furnace gas (BFG) containing 20% CO, which is a waste gas from the steel-making process, was tested as a substrate for PsCODH. Even with BFG, the recombinant PsCODH retained 88.2% and 108.4% activity compared with those of pure CO and 20% CO, respectively. The results provide not only a promising strategy to utilize CO-containing industrial waste gases as cheap, abundant, and renewable resources but also significant information for further studies about cascade reactions producing value-added chemicals via CO2 as an intermediate produced by a CODH-based CO-utilization system, which would ultimately expand the versatility of CODH.