WorldWideScience

Sample records for preparation violence vouchers

  1. Exploring the effectiveness of the output-based aid voucher program to increase uptake of gender-based violence recovery services in Kenya: A qualitative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njuki Rebecca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies in Africa have explored in detail the ability of output-based aid (OBA voucher programs to increase access to gender-based violence recovery (GBVR services. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in 2010 and involved: (i in-depth interviews (IDIs with health managers, service providers, voucher management agency (VMA managers and (ii focus group discussions (FGDs with voucher users, voucher non-users, voucher distributors and opinion leaders drawn from five program sites in Kenya. Results The findings showed promising prospects for the uptake of OBA GBVR services among target population. However, a number of factors affect the uptake of the services. These include lack of general awareness of the GBVR services vouchers, lack of understanding of the benefit package, immediate financial needs of survivors, as well as stigma and cultural beliefs that undermine reporting of cases or seeking essential medical services. Moreover, accreditation of only hospitals to offer GBVR services undermines access to the services in rural areas. Poor responsiveness from law enforcement agencies and fear of reprisal from perpetrators also undermine treatment options and access to medical services. Low provider knowledge on GBVR services and lack of supplies also affect effective provision and management of GBVR services. Conclusions The above findings suggest that there is a need to build the capacity of health care providers and police officers, strengthen the community strategy component of the OBA program to promote the GBVR services voucher, and conduct widespread community education programs aimed at prevention, ensuring survivors know how and where to access services and addressing stigma and cultural barriers.

  2. Education Vouchers: Boon or Bane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David G.

    The idea of educational vouchers goes back to Adam Smith in 1778, according to this examination of past and present discussions about vouchers. The author begins by defining educational vouchers and summarizing the idea's history, especially since its revival in 1955 by economist Milton Friedman. Seven models of voucher systems are briefly…

  3. Vouchers in Dutch Higher Education : from debate to experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossensteyn, Johan J.

    2001-01-01

    As market-like mechanisms become more important in higher education, demand driven funding, and more specific vouchers, gain a lot of attention. As such, the advantages and disadvantages of vouchers have been discussed in a wide variety of settings. However, hardly any country has been prepared to

  4. Vouchers in Dutch Higher Education : from debate to experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossensteyn, Hans

    2001-01-01

    As market-like mechanisms become more important in higher education, demand driven funding, and more specific vouchers, gain a lot of attention. As such, the advantages and disadvantages of vouchers have been discussed in a wide variety of settings. However, hardly any country has been prepared to i

  5. Voucher Programs. Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wixom, Micah Ann

    2017-01-01

    This education Policy Analysis provides a comprehensive look at eligibility requirements, accountability and funding for voucher programs across the states, and includes research findings and legal challenges for this private school choice option.

  6. Prepared for School Violence: School Counselors' Perceptions of Preparedness for Responding to Acts of School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Rebecca Anne; Zyromski, Brett; Asner-Self, Kimberly K.; Kimemia, Muthoni

    2010-01-01

    Analyses of 103 St. Louis metro area school counselors' using the National School Violence Survey (Astor et al., 1997; Astor et al., 2000; Furlong et al., 1996) suggests school counselors' perceptions of school violence and their preparedness to respond to said violence vary by both community setting and years of experience. Discussion frames the…

  7. Vouchers Revisited: The Prospects for Education Vouchers in the Eighties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, John H.

    Political and social changes that have increased the public's interest in educational vouchers are summarized in three categories. The first category, new support for the arguments made by voucher advocates, includes Milton Friedman's suggestion of a free and competitive market for education, and John E. Coons and Stephen D. Sugarman's…

  8. Education Vouchers: Problems and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Robert W.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the concept of the Educational Voucher, which is a proposed system for financing schools through payment, directly to parents, of vouchers which would be redeemable at schools of their choice, and with which they could purchase educational services for their children. (Author/DR)

  9. Maryland Day Care Voucher System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Joan M.

    This manual was written to assist States and other governmental units wishing to replicate the Maryland Day Care Voucher Program, a system of providing child care subsidies to eligible families. Chapter I provides brief histories of day care in Maryland and that State's grant to demonstrate the viability of a day care voucher system. Chapter II…

  10. Public Voucher Plans. Trends and Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadderman, Margaret

    This document provides an overview of public-school voucher plans. Educational vouchers originated in the 1960s when Milton Friedman argued that vouchers would improve educational efficiency. Parents would receive the equivalent of per-pupil expenditures in the form of vouchers that could then be used at any school, either public and private. But…

  11. Launch vouchers for space science research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Molly K.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to the proposed use of space transportation vouchers for space science payloads. The vouchers would be financially backed by the government, and would be issued to researches for redemption on any mode of space transportation. The possible impact of vouchers on the pace of space science and developments in space transportation are examined, focusing on the costs and benefits of vouchers and strategies for designing a voucher program.

  12. Electronic Voucher Approval - Financial Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This process provides a workflow and eSignature capability which allows the CFO to router vouchers for review and electronic signature approval to COTRs in AIDW. It...

  13. Vouchers for chronic disease care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Jennifer J; Segal, Leonie

    2008-08-01

    This paper explores the economic implications of vouchers for chronic disease management with respect to achieving objectives of equity and efficiency. Vouchers as a payment policy instrument for health care services have a set of properties that suggest they may address both demand-side and supply-side issues, and contribute to equity and efficiency. They provide a means whereby health care services can be targeted at selected groups, enabling consumer choice of provider, and encouraging competition in the supply of health services. This analysis suggests that, when structured appropriately, vouchers can support consumers to choose services that will meet their health care needs and encourage competition among providers. Although they may not be appropriate across the entire health care system, there are features of vouchers that make them a potentially attractive option, especially for the management of chronic disease.

  14. Schedule of voucher delivery influences initiation of cocaine abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, K C; Marlowe, D B; Festinger, D S; Lamb, R J; Platt, J J

    1998-10-01

    This study examined whether voucher delivery arrangements affect treatment outcome. First, 90 cocaine-dependent adults were randomly assigned to behavioral counseling or counseling plus vouchers for cocaine-free urine samples. The value of each voucher was low at the beginning but increased as the patient progressed (Voucher Schedule 1). Voucher Schedule 1 produced no improvements relative to counseling only. Next, 23 patients received vouchers on either Voucher Schedule 1 or Voucher Schedule 2. Voucher Schedule 2 began with high voucher values, but requirements for earning vouchers increased as the patient progressed. Average durations of cocaine abstinence were 6.9 weeks on Voucher Schedule 2 versus 2.0 weeks on Voucher Schedule 1 (p = .02). This confirms that vouchers can assist in initiating abstinence and that voucher delivery arrangements are critical.

  15. Constitutional Analysis of Educational Vouchers in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    Voucher plans that involve payments of tax funds to private schools are suspect on both constitutional and public policy grounds. Analyzes the constitutional issues raised by a recent attempt at voucher legislation in Minnesota. (MLF)

  16. The Commercial Market For Priority Review Vouchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, David B; Régnier, Stephane A

    2016-05-01

    In 2007 the US Congress created the priority review voucher program to encourage the development of drugs for neglected diseases. Under the program, the developer of a drug that treats a neglected disease receives both a faster review of the drug by the Food and Drug Administration and a voucher for a faster review of a different drug. The developer can sell the voucher. We estimated the commercial value of the voucher using US sales of new treatments approved in the period 2007-09. A third of the commercial value of a voucher comes from capturing market share from competitors, nearly half from the value of earlier sales because of the expedited review, and less than a quarter from lengthening the time between approval and the launch of a generic competitor. We estimate that if only one priority review voucher is available in a year, it will be worth more than $200 million, but if four vouchers are available, the value could fall below $100 million. Congress should be cautious about expanding the voucher program, because increasing the number of vouchers sharply decreases the expected price. Lower voucher prices could undermine the incentive to develop new medicines for neglected diseases.

  17. Why Indiana Voucher Parents Choose Private Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, Indiana enacted the broadest school voucher program in the country. In the program's first year, almost 4,000 families used vouchers to attend participating private schools, with the number of students applying for vouchers more than doubling in each of the following two years, to 9,324 students in 2012-13, and 19,809 in 2013-14. The…

  18. Use of housing vouchers in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Golda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of Housing Purchase Vouchers offers IDPs durablehousing and community integration, while allowing theman opportunity to choose their own homes and their owndurable solution.

  19. Voucher Payments and the Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colleen

    This report presents the case for competition in education, tenders the voucher plan as a means of fostering competition and providing choice in education, and discusses some problems associated with education voucher proposals. Two primary problems -- segregation and church-state conflict -- are given particular attention. The author also…

  20. Educational Vouchers: Freedom to Choose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Reel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Milton Friedman is famous for his book title: “Free to Choose.” He also favors educational vouchers, which denies the freedom to choose to people who do not wish to subsidize the education of other people’s children. Thus, he is guilty of a logical contradiction. Why is it important to assess whether Friedman’s views on educational vouchers are logically consistent with his widespread reputation as an advocate of free enterprise, and, thus, freedom to chose? It is important to assess all figures in political economy, and indeed all of scholarship, for logical consistency. It is particularly important to do so in the present case, given the prestige in certain quarters accorded to this Nobel prize-winning economist. We argue in this paper that Friedman’s reputation for logical consistency, and adherence to the philosophy of laissez faire capitalism, are both overblown. Our solution to this challenge is to completely privatize education. Friedman does not advocate that vouchers be utilized for food, clothing or shelter; we see no relevant difference in the case of education. What is the justification of the undertaken topic? This topic is important because education of the next generation is crucial for the upkeep and improvement of society. What is the aim of the present study? It is to demonstrate that the solution offered by M. Friedman and R. Friedman (1990 is highly problematic. What is the methodology used in the study? We quote from this author, and criticize his analysis. What are our main results and conclusions/recommendations? We conclude that the last best hope for the educational industry is laissez faire capitalism, not the mixed economy recommended by Friedman.

  1. The Voucher Movement as a Freedom of Choice Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picus, Larry

    After describing the history of the educational voucher movement, this paper briefly discusses the various voucher models that have been proposed and considers some of the issues for and against the establishment of voucher systems. Tracing the voucher concept back to Adam Smith, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mill, the author notes that after the…

  2. The Voucher Movement as a Freedom of Choice Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picus, Larry

    After describing the history of the educational voucher movement, this paper briefly discusses the various voucher models that have been proposed and considers some of the issues for and against the establishment of voucher systems. Tracing the voucher concept back to Adam Smith, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mill, the author notes that after the…

  3. Housing Choice Voucher Program Support Division (PSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Program Management Programmatic Report for April to June 2010. This is inofrmation collected from Housing Authorities across the nation...

  4. Vouchers for health: A demand side output-based aid approach to reproductive health services in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janisch, C P; Albrecht, M; Wolfschuetz, A; Kundu, F; Klein, S

    2010-01-01

    Reaching the United Nation's Millennium Development Goals has been a focus for many countries and development partners. In Kenya, as in many other countries with low levels of development, access to and equity of basic quality health services is limited, especially for the very poor. Among poor populations, maternal mortality is high as access to medical care and financial means are lacking. In 2005, the Governments of Kenya and Germany in cooperation with KfW Banking Group made funds available for the Reproductive Health OBA Voucher Programme offering vouchers for Safe Motherhood, Family Planning and Gender Violence Recovery Services. This programme, herein referred to as Vouchers for Health, was launched in June of 2006 in five Kenyan districts with the aim of providing health services for safe deliveries, long-term family planning methods and victims of gender violence. The way that the programme is being implemented in Kenya demonstrates that the voucher-based approach comprises a variety of key structural elements of a national health insurance scheme: accreditation; quality assurance; reimbursement system; claims processing; integrating the private sector; client choice; provider competition; and access to and equity of services provided.

  5. Vouchers for Day Care of Children: Evaluating a Program Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Michael D.

    1989-01-01

    Examined effects of a pilot voucher program on the price, supply, and quality of day care. Findings offered no conclusive evidence concerning expected benefits. Discusses vouchers' potential for easing the day care crisis. (RJC)

  6. The Value of Agricultural Voucher Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Barkworth,Mary; Wolf, Paul; Kinosian,Sylvia; Dyreson, Curtis; Pearse, Will; Brandt, Ben; Cobb,Neil

    2017-01-01

    Voucher specimens are the ultimate raw data of biodiversity studies because they document the interpretation of the names used in papers and reports resulting from such studies. The value of voucher specimens is increased by making their records web-accessible but they can be further enhanced by linking them to other online resources, particularly if the links are birectional.  In this presentation, we discuss the potential benefits of such links for a group of agricultural significance, the ...

  7. Fact Sheet on Vouchers. Argument and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Educator, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Much controversy surrounds the idea of vouchers parents could apply to private education. Information about existing private school admission policies, student characteristics, student achievement, market competition, and costs is summarized in this fact sheet. The superiority claimed for private school education can be explained by student…

  8. Is Colorado's Voucher System Worth Vouching for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Brian T.

    2010-01-01

    In 2004 Colorado passed legislation enacting the nation's first voucher-based approach to financing higher education, known as the College Opportunity Fund (COF). The work of an unusual coalition that included higher education leaders, generally conservative policymakers, and others, COF completely replaced the traditional approach of subsidizing…

  9. The "Developing" Achievement Gap: Colombian Voucher Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jonathan M. B.

    2014-01-01

    The achievement gap in many developing countries is defined in terms of rich/poor and public/private. The prevailing explanation for the "developing" achievement gap is an underfunded, inefficient, and/or inadequately supplied public school sector. Via an analysis of a Colombian voucher experiment, this article examines the extent to…

  10. The Educational Voucher Intrigue: An Analysis of Its Impact on the Alum Rock Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Felix; Chacon, Gloria

    The 2 essays on educational vouchers given in this publication are: (1) "The Economics of Educational Vouchers: Schools and Parents", and (2) "The Alum Rock Voucher Program". "The Economics of Educational Vouchers: Schools and Parents" traces the roots of the voucher concept from Adam Smith to the conservative…

  11. The Educational Voucher Intrigue: An Analysis of Its Impact on the Alum Rock Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Felix; Chacon, Gloria

    The 2 essays on educational vouchers given in this publication are: (1) "The Economics of Educational Vouchers: Schools and Parents", and (2) "The Alum Rock Voucher Program". "The Economics of Educational Vouchers: Schools and Parents" traces the roots of the voucher concept from Adam Smith to the conservative economist, Milton Friedman, to its…

  12. The Preparation of Schools for Serious School Violence: An Analysis of New Mexico Public High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMatteo, Henry

    2012-01-01

    This study surveyed New Mexico high school principals on their current state of preparedness for serious school violence. The researcher surveyed 119 public high schools, receiving a 65% return rate from a 25-question survey. Specifically, this study analyzed the relationships of three predictor variables: prevention, response, and building of…

  13. The Preparation of Schools for Serious School Violence: An Analysis of New Mexico Public High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMatteo, Henry

    2012-01-01

    This study surveyed New Mexico high school principals on their current state of preparedness for serious school violence. The researcher surveyed 119 public high schools, receiving a 65% return rate from a 25-question survey. Specifically, this study analyzed the relationships of three predictor variables: prevention, response, and building of…

  14. 75 FR 37825 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment for the Housing Choice Voucher...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Voucher Program; Application, Allowances for Tenant- Furnished Utilities, Inspections, Financial Reports, Request for Tenancy Approval, Housing Voucher, Portability Information, Housing Assistance Payments... Approval, Housing Voucher, Portability Information, Housing Assistance Payments (HAP) Contracts,...

  15. 76 FR 52675 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Housing Choice Voucher Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... based on direct measurement of the work actually performed by voucher administrators. The study will... on direct measurement of the work actually performed by voucher administrators. The study...

  16. Proving the Viability of a School Choice Voucher. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Scott

    2015-01-01

    A recent Pioneer Institute report written by Ken Ardon and Cara Stilling Candal, "Modeling Urban Scholarship Vouchers in Massachusetts," explores the viability of a school choice voucher program in the Commonwealth. Nationally, school choice has been shown to improve parent satisfaction and student achievement, reduce racial segregation,…

  17. A Nineteenth-Century French Proposal to Use School Vouchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vliet, W.; Smyth, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    In light of the current American interest in school vouchers as proposed by economist Milton Friedman, recapitulates the origins, content, and fate of an 1872 law drafted by a French parliamentary commission to establish a countrywide voucher scheme for primary schools. (NEC)

  18. 24 CFR 982.604 - SRO: Voucher housing assistance payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false SRO: Voucher housing assistance... Types Single Room Occupancy (sro) § 982.604 SRO: Voucher housing assistance payment. (a) For a person residing in SRO housing, the payment standard is 75 percent of the zero-bedroom payment standard amount on...

  19. Vouchers and Educational Freedom: A Debate. Policy Analysis No. 269.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Joseph L.; And Others

    Advocates of educational freedom disagree about whether school vouchers would liberate schools and families and lead to greater freedom of choice or trap private schools in a web of subsidy and regulation that would destroy their independence and quality. In this exchange of opinions, Joseph L. Bast and David Harmer argue that voucher plans would…

  20. Percepciones de los estudiantes de education en Venezuela sobre su preparacion e intervencion en violencia domestica. [Perceptions of Education Students in Venezuela about Their Preparation and Intervention in Domestic Violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Anna P.; Cellitti, Anarella; Perez de Linares, Sonia

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated Venezuelan university students' perceptions regarding domestic violence and possible encounters with domestic violence in programs for young children. Students indicated that they expected to encounter only those situations they were prepared to confront, indicating needs for curriculum changes in teacher-training programs.…

  1. Percepciones de los estudiantes de education en Venezuela sobre su preparacion e intervencion en violencia domestica. [Perceptions of Education Students in Venezuela about Their Preparation and Intervention in Domestic Violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Anna P.; Cellitti, Anarella; Perez de Linares, Sonia

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated Venezuelan university students' perceptions regarding domestic violence and possible encounters with domestic violence in programs for young children. Students indicated that they expected to encounter only those situations they were prepared to confront, indicating needs for curriculum changes in teacher-training programs.…

  2. From Theory to Practice: Considerations for Implementing a Statewide Voucher System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Denis P.

    This monograph analyzes trends in American educational philosophy and history in its proposal to implement an all-public statewide school voucher system. Following an introduction, section 1, "Alternative Voucher Systems," discusses three concepts: universal unregulated vouchers, favored by Milton Friedman; regulated compensatory vouchers,…

  3. Targeted vouchers and its effects El sistema de "Targeted Vouchers" y sus efectos O Sistema de "Targeted Vouchers" e seus efeitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Carvalho Andrade

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the benefits of the "Targeted Vouchers" system in relation to the actual one. It analyses the Chilean experience and emphasizes the importance of the appropriate design of the vouchers system in order to achieve the expected results. The analyses also suggest that the implementation of this system may face opposition due to two consequences of its implementation: reduction in the welfare of specific groups and the closure of some Public universities which are less efficient.Este trabajo discute las ventajas del sistema de "targeted vouchers" vis-à-vis el actual. Analiza la experiencia chilena y destaca la importancia del diseño apropiado del sistema de vouchers para obtener los resultados deseados. El análisis sugiere que la introducción del sistema de "targeted voucher" puede sufrir oposición debido a dos consecuencias potenciales de su implementación: la reducción en el bienestar de grupos especficos y del cerrado de las universidades públicas menos competitivas.Este trabalho discute os benefícios do sistema de "targeted vouchers" vis-à-vis o atual. Ele analisa a experiência chilena e enfatiza a importância do desenho apropriado do sistema de vouchers de maneira a alcançar os resultados esperados. A análise também sugere que a introdução do sistema de "targeted vouchers" pode enfrentar oposição devido a duas conseqüências potenciais de sua implementação: a redução no bem-estar de grupos especficos e o fechamento das universidades públicas menos eficientes.

  4. A note on sampling chironomids for RNA-based studies of natural populations that retains critical morphological vouchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt N Krosch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid uptake of transcriptomic approaches in freshwater ecology has seen a wealth of data produced concerning the ways in which organisms interact with their environment on a molecular level. Typically, such studies focus either at the community level and so don’t require species identifications, or on laboratory strains of known species identity or natural populations of large, easily identifiable taxa. For chironomids, impediments still exist for applying these technologies to natural populations because they are small-bodied and often require time-consuming secondary sorting of stream material and morphological voucher preparation to confirm species diagnosis. These procedures limit the ability to maintain RNA quantity and quality in such organisms because RNA degrades rapidly and gene expression can be altered rapidly in organisms; thereby limiting the inclusion of such taxa in transcriptomic studies. Here, we demonstrate that these limitations can be overcome and outline an optimised protocol for collecting, sorting and preserving chironomid larvae that enables retention of both morphological vouchers and RNA for subsequent transcriptomics purposes. By ensuring that sorting and voucher preparation are completed within <4 hours after collection and that samples are kept cold at all times, we successfully retained both RNA and morphological vouchers from all specimens. Although not prescriptive in specific methodology, we anticipate that this paper will assist in promoting transcriptomic investigations of the sublethal impact on chironomid gene expression of changes to aquatic environments.

  5. Hearing children's voices? Including children's perspectives on their experiences of domestic violence in welfare reports prepared for the English courts in private family law proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Gillian S

    2017-03-01

    This research examined Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service (Cafcass) reports prepared for private family court proceedings in domestic violence cases in England. The research found that in cases where children's accounts identified them as victims of violence, these disclosures regularly disappeared from report recommendations. Particular discourses regarding 'child welfare' and 'contact' were identified, which routinely impacted on the ways in which children's voices were taken into account. Whilst culturally there has undoubtedly been an influential move towards including children's perspectives in decision-making that affects them, how these views are interpreted and represented is subject to adult 'gate-keeping' and powerful cultural and professional ideologies regarding 'child welfare' and 'post-separation family relationships'. This research found that the unrelenting influence of deeply embedded beliefs regarding the preservation or promotion of relationships with fathers continues to have the effect of marginalising issues of safeguarding, including children's voiced experiences of violence, in all but the most exceptional of cases. Rather, safeguarding concerns in respect of domestic violence and child abuse were persistently overshadowed by a dominant presumption of the overall benefits of contact with fathers. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Colorado's Voucher Law:Examining the Claim of Fiscal Neutrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G. Welner

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Colorado's voucher law was declared unconstitutional by the Colorado Supreme Court on June 28, 2004. Voucher supporters have begun drafting revised legislation designed to address the legal problem. This article calls into question the key financial claim of revenue neutrality'a claim that was central to the promotion and passage of the departing voucher law. The author concludes that the voucher law was not revenue neutral, even though it attempts to exclude from eligibility those children already enrolled in private schools. In fact, this law, as well as any revised law with similar eligibility provisions, would actually cost taxpayers an additional $10 million per year once fully implemented because the eligibility provision provides little more than a short-term damper on the law's long-term fiscal impact.

  7. The Quality of Work in the Belgian Service Voucher System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousaid, Sarah; Huegaerts, Kelly; Bosmans, Kim; Julià, Mireia; Benach, Joan; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Several European countries implemented initiatives to boost the growth of the domestic cleaning sector. Few studies investigated the quality of work in these initiatives, although effects on workers' health and on social health inequalities can be expected. This study contributes to the scant research on this subject, by investigating the quality of work in the Belgian service voucher system - a subsidized system for domestic work. The applied research methodology includes a qualitative content analysis of parliamentary debates, legislation and previous research about the service voucher system and of 40 in-depth interviews with service voucher workers. The study shows that the legal framework that regulates the system must be further enhanced in order to improve the quality of work in the service voucher system. In addition, the actors involved must be better controlled, and sanctioned in case of non-compliance with legislation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Domestic Violence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙犁

    2014-01-01

    <正>Most of the attention on domestic violence is on the violence perpetrated by the husband towards the wife.It seems that little attention is paid on the infliction of domestic violence on children.Domestic violence on children should not be neglected.Domestic violence on children is everywhere.A survey

  9. 76 FR 59711 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Housing Choice Voucher Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... direct measurement of the work actually performed by voucher administrators. The study will measure and... measurement of the work actually performed by voucher administrators. The study will measure and identify...

  10. 75 FR 19417 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment for Housing Choice Voucher (HCV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... Voucher (HCV) Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public... also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family...

  11. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also be ... child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  12. Educational Vouchers When There Are Peer Group Effects--Size Matters

    OpenAIRE

    Caucutt, Elizabeth M.

    2002-01-01

    In this article, I study the effects various educational voucher policies have on the sorting of children across schools and the per-student expenditure levels at these schools, when a child's peer group matters and students differ over income and ability. I find that, depending on the magnitude of the voucher, switching from a public system to a voucher system could entail either welfare gains or losses. All voucher policies under consideration lead to greater inequality than the public syst...

  13. On the Political Economy of Educational Vouchers. NBER Working Paper No. 17986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epple, Dennis N.; Romano, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Two significant challenges hamper analyses of collective choice of educational vouchers. One is the multi-dimensional choice set arising from the interdependence of the voucher, public education spending, and taxation. The other is that household preferences between public and private schooling vary with the policy chosen. Even absent a voucher,…

  14. 77 FR 2682 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... vouchers not selected for a pre-payment review will be considered to be provisionally approved and will be... after a pre-payment review. Interim vouchers not selected for a pre-payment review will be considered to... Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department...

  15. 77 FR 20122 - Proposed Collection of Information: Voucher for Payment of Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... Fiscal Service Proposed Collection of Information: Voucher for Payment of Awards AGENCY: Financial... ``Voucher for Payment of Awards.'' DATES: Written comments should be received on or before June 4, 2012... Service solicits comments on the collection of information described below: Title: Voucher for Payment...

  16. 78 FR 31972 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Request Voucher for Grant Payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... comments on the subject proposal. Payment request vouchers for distribution of grant funds using the... notice also lists the following information: Title Of Proposal: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and.... Description of the need for the information and proposed use: Payment request vouchers for distribution...

  17. 24 CFR 401.556 - Leasing units to voucher holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leasing units to voucher holders. 401.556 Section 401.556 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Implementation of the Restructuring Plan After Closing § 401.556 Leasing units...

  18. Measuring Competitive Effects from School Voucher Programs: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egalite, Anna J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the competition effects from voucher or tuition tax credit scholarship programs on public school student academic outcomes have taken place in seven locations throughout the United States, with the majority of studies taking place in Florida, followed by Wisconsin. This article reviews 21 total studies of the impacts on student academic…

  19. Trivializing violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina Eske; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes narratives of violence based on interviews with 43 marginalized young Danish people. Their narratives reveal that violence is not only experienced as singular, dramatic encounters; violence is also trivialized in their everyday lives. By drawing on anthropological perspectives...... on everyday violence, we propose a sensitizing framework that enables the exploration of trivialized violence. This framework integrates three perspectives on the process of trivialization: the accumulation of violence; the embodiment of violence; and the temporal and spatial entanglement of violence....... This analysis shows how multiple experiences of violence—as victim, witness, or perpetrator—intersect and mutually inform each other, thereby shaping the everyday lives and dispositions of the marginalized youth. The concept of trivialized violence is a theoretical contribution to cultural and narrative...

  20. Teen Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teen violence refers to harmful behaviors that can start early and continue into young adulthood. The young person can be a victim, an offender, or a witness to the violence. Violent acts can include Bullying Fighting, including punching, kicking, slapping, ...

  1. Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual Violence Facts at a Glance 2012 Adults In a nationally representative survey of adults: 1 • Nearly ... men (5.6% and 5.3%, respectively) experienced sexual violence other than rape, such as being made ...

  2. Media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, V C

    1999-01-01

    For decades, media violence has been viewed as largely a Western problem. New studies indicate that Indian children have increasing access to the media and that media violence will subject them to the same problems as Western children: imitation, desensitization, fear, and inappropriate attitudes about violence and aggression. Solutions exist but will have to be implemented within the next decade to protect Indian children and adolescents from the harmful effects of media violence.

  3. School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is threefold. First, the chapter summarizes what is known about the prevalence of violence and weapons in U.S. schools. Second, the chapter examines theories that bear on school violence and the empirical evidence linked to those theories. Third, the chapter looks at attempts to prevent school violence and,…

  4. Media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, J

    2000-08-01

    Research on the effects of media violence is not well understood by the general public. Despite this fact, there is an overwhelming consensus in the scientific literature about the unhealthy effects of media violence. Meta-analyses show that media-violence viewing consistently is associated with higher levels of antisocial behavior, ranging from the trivial (imitative violence directed against toys) to the serious (criminal violence), with many consequential outcomes in between (acceptance of violence as a solution to problems, increased feelings of hostility, and the apparent delivery of painful stimulation to another person). Desensitization is another well-documented effect of viewing violence, which is observable in reduced arousal and emotional disturbance while witnessing violence, the reduced tendency to intervene in a fight, and less sympathy for the victims of violence. Although there is evidence that youth who are already violent are more likely to seek out violent entertainment, there is strong evidence that the relationship between violence viewing and antisocial behavior is bidirectional. There is growing evidence that media violence also engenders intense fear in children which often lasts days, months, and even years. The media's potential role in solutions to these problems is only beginning to be explored, in investigations examining the uses and effects of movie ratings, television ratings, and the V-chip, and the effects of media literacy programs and public education efforts. Future research should explore important individual differences in responses to media violence and effective ways to intervene in the negative effects.

  5. The service voucher system as a means to regulate domestic cleaning in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Ramioul, Monique

    2013-01-01

    In 2000, the Belgian government introduced the service voucher system for domestic cleaning with two key objectives: (1) to promote regular employment in the neighbourhood services for groups at risk of social exclusion (2) to formalise undeclared work. Service vouchers are used as a payment system for cleaning services offered by organisations to private persons. Service voucher companies may be profit as well as not-for-profit (public or private) organisations. In the EU FP7 project WALQING...

  6. Followup Audit: Additional Actions Needed to Effectively Provide Complete Audit Trails for Air Force Journal Vouchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-10

    objective was to determine whether Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) Columbus officials modified the journal vouchers (JV) for the Air Force... Journal Vouchers (Report No. DODIG-2015-145) We are providing this report for your information and use. Defense Finance and Accounting Service...objective was to determine whether Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) Columbus officials modified the journal vouchers (JV) for the Air

  7. Doctoral student receives grant to analyze housing choice voucher

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, Heather Riley

    2005-01-01

    Kimberly Mitchell, of Blacksburg, Va., a second-year doctoral student in Virginia Tech's College of Architecture and Urban Studies Environmental Design and Planning Program, has been awarded an Early Doctoral Student Research Grant by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Mitchell's research, "Whose Choice Is It Really? An Analysis of Property Owner and Manager Characteristics and Their Impact on Housing Choice Voucher Acceptance," will investigate the impact of individu...

  8. The transferability of housing voucher system in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yiu-kei; 鄧耀基

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is about the use of in-cash housing subsidy, in the form of housing voucher, to deliver housing welfare in Hong Kong. This type of subsidy is currently the major type of housing assistance implemented in the United States since 1970s for improving the deteriorating public housing stock as well as the concentrated poverty and racial segregated neighbourhoods developed in the public housing projects. As a foreign policy, the research has taken the academic approach of policy t...

  9. Voucher-based contingent reinforcement of marijuana abstinence among individuals with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmon, Stacey C; Higgins, Stephen T

    2006-06-01

    Previous studies by our group have used money given contingent on abstinence to reduce drug use by individuals with schizophrenia. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of marijuana use by individuals with serious mental illness to voucher-based contingent reinforcement, which represents the first study to date investigating the efficacy of voucher incentives with this population. This within-subject reversal design consisted of three conditions: 4-week baseline, 12-week voucher intervention, and 4-week baseline. During baseline periods, subjects received 10 US dollars vouchers per urine specimen, independent of urinalysis results. During voucher intervention, only specimens testing negative for marijuana earned vouchers, with total possible earnings of 930 US dollars. Seven adults with schizophrenia or other serious mental illnesses participated in the study. The percentage of marijuana-negative specimens was significantly greater during voucher intervention than during baseline periods. These results provide evidence that marijuana use among individuals with serious mental illness is sensitive to voucher-based incentives and further support the potential feasibility of using voucher-based contingency management to reduce substance abuse in this challenging population.

  10. The Future of Vouchers as Educational Reform, Political Strategy, Economic Solution, and Public Policy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan Brown, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the burden of vouchers to be all things to all constituencies. Proponents and opponents envision vouchers as accomplishing many objectives. To some, vouchers represent an educational reform that brings change to public schools and saves children from monopolistic bureaucrats. To others, they signify a threat to the very…

  11. 75 FR 30845 - Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System (LOCCS) Voice Response System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System (LOCCS) Voice... is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. Payment request vouchers for distribution of.... This Notice Also Lists the Following Information Title of Proposal: Request Voucher for Grant...

  12. 77 FR 9617 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing (DFARS Case 2011-D054)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... WorkFlow to process vouchers. DATES: Comments on the proposed rule published January 19, 2012, at 77 FR... disbursing office after the pre-payment review. Interim vouchers not selected for a pre-payment review will... vouchers are subject to an audit of actual costs incurred after payment. The sampling process will...

  13. 77 FR 52258 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing (DFARS Case 2011-D054)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... review. Interim vouchers not selected for a pre-payment review will be considered to be provisionally... vouchers not selected for a pre-payment review will be considered to be provisionally approved and will be... payment and sending them to the disbursing office after a pre-payment review. Interim vouchers...

  14. 78 FR 46360 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Request Voucher for Grant Payment... of Information Collection: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System (LOCCS... proposed use: Payment request vouchers for distribution of grant funds using the automated Voice...

  15. 77 FR 17086 - Section 8 Housing Choice Vouchers: Revised Implementation of the HUD-VA Supportive Housing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... and maintain this code on the HUD-50058. Data will also be captured in the Voucher Management System... where both PHAs have received HUD-VASH vouchers, portability moves when case management is no longer required, reallocation of HUD-VASH vouchers, and Housing Quality Standards (HQS) initial inspections....

  16. Why Don't Housing Choice Voucher Recipients Live Near Better Schools? Insights from Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Horn, Keren Mertens; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Housing choice vouchers provide low-income households with additional income to spend on rental housing in the private market. The assistance vouchers provide is substantial, offering the potential to dramatically expand the neighborhood--and associated public schools--that low-income households can reach. However, existing research on the program…

  17. 75 FR 52303 - Notice of Funding Availability: Rural Development Voucher Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ...: Rural Development Voucher Program AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; Correction..., announcing the funding available for the Rural Development Voucher Program. A correction to the document is..., SW., STOP 0782, Washington, DC 20250-0782, telephone (202) 720-1615. Persons with hearing or speech...

  18. Vouchers, Tests, Loans, Privatization: Will They Help Tackle Corruption in Russian Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in Russia is currently being reformed. A standardized computer-graded test and educational vouchers were introduced to make higher education more accessible, fund it more effectively, and reduce corruption in admissions to public colleges. The voucher project failed and the test faces furious opposition. This paper considers…

  19. Vouchers, Tests, Loans, Privatization: Will They Help Tackle Corruption in Russian Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in Russia is currently being reformed. A standardized computer-graded test and educational vouchers were introduced to make higher education more accessible, fund it more effectively, and reduce corruption in admissions to public colleges. The voucher project failed and the test faces furious opposition. This paper considers…

  20. 75 FR 39035 - Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program AGENCY: Office of... Title of Proposal: Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family Self- Sufficiency (FSS) Program. OMB...

  1. Free Marketeers, Policy Wonks, and Yankee Democracy: School Vouchers in New Hampshire, 1973-1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Jim

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Jim Carl uses archival sources and interviews to chronicle the effort to bring school vouchers to New Hampshire. In 1973, the New Hampshire Department of Education initiated a plan, funded by the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity, to institute vouchers in a handful of school districts. Though the initiative had the support of…

  2. 77 FR 13619 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Housing Choice Voucher Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Housing Choice Voucher... acceptability, lease and housing assistance payments, and budget and payment documentation. In some cases, PHAs voluntarily divest their voucher programs to a receiving PHA. PHAs may also project-base a portion of...

  3. 75 FR 55596 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Housing Choice Voucher Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Housing Choice Voucher... acceptability, lease and/or housing assistance payments, and budget and payment documentation. In some cases PHAs voluntarily divest their voucher programs to a receiving PHA. PHAs may also project-base a...

  4. 75 FR 14455 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Request Voucher for Grant Payment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System (LOCCS) Voice Response System Access Authorization AGENCY... responses. This Notice also lists the following information: Title of proposal: Request Voucher for...

  5. Clients' Experience with Vouchered On-The-Job Training in the Portland Win Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Douglas; And Others

    From 1974 through 1976, a program to test the feasibility of vouchering manpower training was incorporated into the existing Work Incentive (WIN) program in Portland, Oregon. The purpose of the second phase of the program was to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating vouchers into an on-the-job (OJT) program as an optional component that…

  6. Pluck & Tenacity: How Five Private Schools in Ohio Have Adapted to Vouchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    State-funded voucher programs have stoked political controversy, culture clashes, and pitched court battles. Sometimes referred to as "scholarships," these vouchers enable students of limited means (or without access to a good public school) to attend a private school. Roughly 30,000 children in Ohio take advantage of a publicly funded…

  7. Private School Enrollment in an Italian Region after Implementing a Change in the Voucher Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Barbieri, Gianna; Murtinu, Samuele

    2015-01-01

    This article estimates the effect of an administrative change in a voucher policy implemented by an Italian Regional government. The voucher was initiated in 2000, and is intended to help families that want to enroll their children in private schools. In 2008, the policy was changed, making the administrative procedure required for obtaining the…

  8. Freedom of Choice: Vouchers in American Education. Praeger Series on American Political Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This book reveals that, far from being the result of a groundswell of support for parental choice in American education, the origins of school vouchers are seated in identity politics, religious schooling, and educational entrepreneurship. As the most radical form of "school choice," vouchers remain controversial in education today. The U.S.…

  9. Randomized Trial of Contingent Prizes versus Vouchers in Cocaine-Using Methadone Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Hanson, Tressa; Sierra, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions frequently utilize vouchers as reinforcers, but a prize-based system is also efficacious. This study compared these approaches. Seventy-four cocaine-dependent methadone outpatients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (ST), ST plus a maximum of $585 in contingent vouchers, or ST plus an expected…

  10. Training Experiences and Early Employment Patterns: Experiences with the Portland WIN Voucher Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Lottie

    A program to test the feasibility of vouchering vocational training for clients of the Work Incentive Program (WIN) was conducted in Portland, Oregon. (Vouchering places the buying power for institutional training into the hands of the clients, thus allowing them greater autonomy in deciding their own occupational destiny.) One hundred and…

  11. School Voucher Program and Its Enlightenments to the Education Reform in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youlu

    2005-01-01

    This article roughly retrospects the idea of school voucher program proposed by Milton Friedman, lately developed by Peacock, Wiseman and Jencks. The reasons like privatization in education, deterioration of public schooling and school choice promote this program. Then taking a simple look at the ramification of voucher program and its value…

  12. Freedom from Racial Barriers: The Empirical Evidence on Vouchers and Segregation. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    This report collects the results of all available studies using valid empirical methods to compare segregation in public and private schools, both in general and in the context of school voucher programs. Examining the widespread claims that private schools have high segregation levels and vouchers will lead to greater segregation, this report…

  13. Dollars to Discriminate: The (Un)Intended Consequences of School Vouchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Suzanne E.; Mead, Julie; Ulm, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Some private, religious schools that accept vouchers have been accused of discriminating against certain populations of students through their admissions processes. Discriminating against disfavored groups (e.g., racial minorities, LGBT students, students with disabilities, religious minorities) in voucher programs raises both legal and policy…

  14. Can Markets Make Citizens? School Vouchers, Political Tolerance, and Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David J.; Mitchell, William; McNally, Michael

    2014-01-01

    School voucher programs challenge the traditional role of the public school as the builder of citizens, raising the question of whether private schools can provide a civic education of equal quality. In this study, we use survey data from the Milwaukee voucher program to investigate the relative benefits in civic outcomes of attending a voucher…

  15. Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, Alan J.; Moore, Brent A.; Rocha, Heath L.; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2006-01-01

    Ninety cannabis-dependent adults seeking treatment were randomly assigned to receive cognitive-behavioral therapy, abstinence-based voucher incentives, or their combination. Treatment duration was 14 weeks, and outcomes were assessed for 12 months post treatment. Findings suggest that (a) abstinence-based vouchers were effective for engendering…

  16. 48 CFR 13.306 - SF 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SF 44, Purchase Order... Methods 13.306 SF 44, Purchase Order—Invoice—Voucher. The SF 44, Purchase Order—Invoice—Voucher, is a multipurpose pocket-size purchase order form designed primarily for on-the-spot, over-the-counter purchases...

  17. 48 CFR 413.306 - SF 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SF 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher. 413.306 Section 413.306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE....306 SF 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher. The Standard Form 44 (and the previously prescribed...

  18. 48 CFR 1413.306 - Standard Form 44, Purchase order-invoice-voucher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Acquisition Methods 1413.306 Standard Form 44, Purchase order-invoice-voucher. HCAs are responsible for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard Form 44, Purchase order-invoice-voucher. 1413.306 Section 1413.306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...

  19. Robin Hood Goes to School: The Case for a Federal Voucher Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzzell, Lawrence A.

    An education voucher system would be more egalitarian than the existing tax code and would force the educational establishment to pursue needed reforms. The current property tax deduction system favors the rich, but the voucher system would offer the same relief to every taxpayer regardless of income and even would provide assistance to poor,…

  20. The Effectiveness of Private Voucher Education: Evidence from Structural School Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Bernardo; Mizala, Alejandra; Repetto, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    In this article the authors analyze the effect of private voucher education on student academic performance using new data on Chilean students and a novel identification strategy. Most schools in Chile provide either primary or secondary education. The authors analyze the effect of private voucher education on students who are forced to enroll at…

  1. Violence and TV Shows

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Şinasi

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to discuss theories on theviolent effects of TV shows on viewers, especiallyon children. Therefore, this study includes a briefdiscussion of definitions of violence, discussionof violence theories, main results of researcheson televised violence, measuring TV violence,perception of televised violence, individualdifferences and reactions to TV violence,aggressiveness and preferences for TV violence.

  2. Workplace violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    Workplace violence refers to incidents where workers are abused, threatened or assaulted, either by people from within or outside their workplace. Workplace violence may have severe negative consequences for the workers affected, their co-workers and families; as well as for organisations and the

  3. Workplace violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    Workplace violence refers to incidents where workers are abused, threatened or assaulted, either by people from within or outside their workplace. Workplace violence may have severe negative consequences for the workers affected, their co-workers and families; as well as for organisations and the so

  4. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

  5. Workplace violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    Workplace violence refers to incidents where workers are abused, threatened or assaulted, either by people from within or outside their workplace. Workplace violence may have severe negative consequences for the workers affected, their co-workers and families; as well as for organisations and the so

  6. [Family violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoudi, F; Chagh, R; Es-soussi, M; Asri, F; Tazi, I

    2013-09-01

    Family violence is a serious public health problem, the scale of which is seriously increasing in Morocco. Although it has existed for a long time, we ignore the real characteristics of this plague in our country; our work consisted in an epidemiological approach of family violence in Marrakech during 2006. After elaborating a questionnaire, which allows the study of the demographic and social profile of the families, the study of violence exercised in the family and the evaluation of the depression in the women, we led an inquiry amongst 265 women. Analysis of the results obtained has allowed us to underline the following characteristics: 16.6% of the women in our sample had been physically beaten; the young age is a risk factor; the age range most affected by violence is in women between the ages of 30 and 40 and which represent 39% of the battered women; domestic violence touches all the social, economic and cultural classes: in our study, 63% of the women having undergone violence were housewives, 25% were managers and 3% senior executives; family problems were the most important cause of violence in our study, representing 32.32%. Requests for money was the cause in 11.3% of the cases, and imposed sexual relations were found in 6.8% of the cases; alcoholism is an aggravating factor of family violence; 27.3% of the spouses who assaulted their wives were drunk; 52% of the assaulted women were victims of violence in childhood and 36% had been witness to their father's violence; in 63.6% of the cases of violence, the children were witnesses, and in 25% of the cases the children were victims of violence at the same time as their mothers; 50% of the women victims of violence did not react, while 38.6% left home, and 9.1 filed for divorce. Thirty-two percent of the assaulted woman had been traumatised by the aggression; the association of depression and violence was very high, 343% of the battered women in our study suffered from severe depression. This work

  7. Virtual Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In the United States, exposure to media violence is becoming an inescapable component of children's lives. With the rise in new technologies, such as tablets and new gaming platforms, children and adolescents increasingly are exposed to what is known as "virtual violence." This form of violence is not experienced physically; rather, it is experienced in realistic ways via new technology and ever more intense and realistic games. The American Academy of Pediatrics continues to be concerned about children's exposure to virtual violence and the effect it has on their overall health and well-being. This policy statement aims to summarize the current state of scientific knowledge regarding the effects of virtual violence on children's attitudes and behaviors and to make specific recommendations for pediatricians, parents, industry, and policy makers.

  8. Contingency Management for Cocaine Treatment: Cash vs. Vouchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, David S.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Kirby, Kimberly C.; Seymour, Brittany L.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of contingency management (CM) for treating drug abuse is well supported. The most widely used form of CM is voucher-based reinforcement therapy (VBRT), where clients receive an escalating schedule of vouchers that can be redeemed for goods and services for meeting treatment goals. Though generally rejected due to concerns about potential harms to drug using participants, research suggests that cash may be a more effective reinforcer. This three-group randomized trial compared the efficacy of cash-based reinforcement therapy (CBRT) to VBRT and a non-CM condition on cocaine abstinence and treatment attendance; and examined whether CBRT resulted in greater levels of harm than VBRT. Findings indicated that the CBRT was as effective as VBRT when compared to the non-CM condition and that it did not increase rates of drug use, cravings, or high-risk behaviors. Future research should examine potential cost savings associated with a cash-based CM approach as this could have important implications for the wider adoption of the CM model. PMID:24746956

  9. Contingency management for cocaine treatment: cash vs. vouchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Kirby, Kimberly C; Seymour, Brittany L

    2014-08-01

    The efficacy of contingency management (CM) for treating drug abuse is well supported. The most widely used form of CM is voucher-based reinforcement therapy (VBRT), where clients receive an escalating schedule of vouchers that can be redeemed for goods and services for meeting treatment goals. Though generally rejected due to concerns about potential harms to drug using participants, research suggests that cash may be a more effective reinforcer. This three-group randomized trial compared the efficacy of cash-based reinforcement therapy (CBRT) to VBRT and a non-CM condition on cocaine abstinence and treatment attendance; and examined whether CBRT resulted in greater levels of harm than VBRT. Findings indicated that the CBRT was as effective as VBRT when compared to the non-CM condition and that it did not increase rates of drug use, cravings, or high-risk behaviors. Future research should examine potential cost savings associated with a cash-based CM approach as this could have important implications for the wider adoption of the CM model.

  10. VoSeq: a voucher and DNA sequence web application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Carlos; Malm, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    There is an ever growing number of molecular phylogenetic studies published, due to, in part, the advent of new techniques that allow cheap and quick DNA sequencing. Hence, the demand for relational databases with which to manage and annotate the amassing DNA sequences, genes, voucher specimens and associated biological data is increasing. In addition, a user-friendly interface is necessary for easy integration and management of the data stored in the database back-end. Available databases allow management of a wide variety of biological data. However, most database systems are not specifically constructed with the aim of being an organizational tool for researchers working in phylogenetic inference. We here report a new software facilitating easy management of voucher and sequence data, consisting of a relational database as back-end for a graphic user interface accessed via a web browser. The application, VoSeq, includes tools for creating molecular datasets of DNA or amino acid sequences ready to be used in commonly used phylogenetic software such as RAxML, TNT, MrBayes and PAUP, as well as for creating tables ready for publishing. It also has inbuilt BLAST capabilities against all DNA sequences stored in VoSeq as well as sequences in NCBI GenBank. By using mash-ups and calls to web services, VoSeq allows easy integration with public services such as Yahoo! Maps, Flickr, Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) and GBIF (by generating data-dumps that can be processed with GBIF's Integrated Publishing Toolkit).

  11. Using a voucher system to extend health services to migrant farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesinger, D P; Ofstead, C

    1996-01-01

    FAMILY HEALTH/LA CLINICA de los Campesinos, Inc., is a federally funded migrant health clinic in the heart of Wisconsin's farmland that has offered outpatient health care since 1973 and an accompanying "voucher" program since 1988. The charges for outpatient care are based on the ability to pay. The clinic issues vouchers not only to migrant workers living and working in remote parts of the State but also to patients needing services the clinic does not offer. Between 1 April 1992 and 30 March 1993, 677 participants submitted 1,794 vouchers that provided for $83,833 in partial health care payments. La Clinica paid a median amount of $22 for each voucher, its reimbursement value ranging from $1 to $979. Hospitals received the highest median payment and pharmacies the lowest. Voucher payments generally covered 60% of the bill, but dentists commanded a higher percentage(70%) and clinics and medical groups a lower one (42%). Most vouchers paid for procedures and services La Clinica could not provide. This program shows how a health care provider in one location, with a patient population scattered throughout a sizeable geographic area, can coordinate services not offered at its facility. With the national spotlight on health care reform, the concept of vouchers for people in outlying or underserved regions deserves further investigation.

  12. SISTEM INFORMASI PENJUALAN VOUCHER BELANJA PADA PT. PLAZA INDONESIA REALITY Tbk. JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baginda Oloan Lubis

    2016-05-01

      ABSTRAK - PT. Plaza Indonesia Realty Tbk. Jakarta dalam penjualan voucher yang transaksinya dimulai dari pencatatan voucher yang masuk, pencatatan data pelanggan, pembuatan faktur penjualan voucher, pencatatan serah terima voucher dengan pelanggan  sampai pembuatan laporan  masih dilakukan secara manual, sehingga memungkinkan pada saat proses berlangsung sering terjadi kesalahan dalam pencatatan, kurang akuratnya laporan yang dibuat dan keterlambatan dalam pencarian data pada saat dibutuhkan. Untuk itu dibutuhkan adanya suatu rancangan program yang akan menunjang kegiatan sistem penjualan voucher yang memudahkan user dan mempercepat transakasi dengan pelanggan dan pembuatan laporan. Model pengembangan sistem yang digunakan dalam pembuatan sistem informasi ini adalah SDCL (System Development Life Cycle air terjun (Waterfall atau alur hidup klasik atau classic life. Tahapan-tahapan yang dilalui dalam proses analisis dan perancangan sistem antara lain: analisa kebutuhan sistem, desain, kode generator, testing dan pendukung. Dari hasil penelitian ini diharapkan dengan adanya sistem informasi penjualan voucher ini dapat membantu user dalam hal ini disebut concierge pada PT. Plaza Indonesia Realty Tbk. Jakarta dalam melakukan transaksi penjualan sampai dengan pembuatan laporan terakomodasi Kata kunci: Sistem Informasi, Penjualan Voucher, SDLC

  13. Domestic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapierre, Simon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, there has been growing awareness regarding the issue of domestic violence as a form of violence against women, which has been largely influenced by the work of feminist activist and scholars in North America and Europe (Dobash and Dobash 1992. Other terms have been used to describe the same phenomenon, including domestic abuse, spousal abuse, wife battering, marital violence, intimate partner violence. Though there is no doubt that this problem has existed for much more than five decades, the tendency to label it as ‘private matters’ or ‘marital disagreements’ has obscured the reality of women living with abuse in their home. At a general level, domestic violence can be defined as the means used by a man in order to assert his control and domination over his intimate partner, whether they are married or not (Mullender 1996. It can involve incidents of physical and sexual violence, as well as verbal, psychological and financial abuse. Though some of its manifestations may be associated with particular cultural or religious groups – e.g. forced marriage and honour killing in South-Asian communities – domestic violence affects women from all classes and backgrounds.

  14. Can reproductive health voucher programs improve quality of postnatal care? A quasi-experimental evaluation of Kenya's safe motherhood voucher scheme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Watt

    Full Text Available This study tests the group-level causal relationship between the expansion of Kenya's Safe Motherhood voucher program and changes in quality of postnatal care (PNC provided at voucher-contracted facilities. We compare facilities accredited since program inception in 2006 (phase I and facilities accredited since 2010-2011 (phase II relative to comparable non-voucher facilities. PNC quality is assessed using observed clinical content processes, as well as client-reported outcome measures. Two-tailed unpaired t-tests are used to identify differences in mean process quality scores and client-reported outcome measures, comparing changes between intervention and comparison groups at the 2010 and 2012 data collection periods. Difference-in-differences analysis is used to estimate the reproductive health (RH voucher program's causal effect on quality of care by exploiting group-level differences between voucher-accredited and non-accredited facilities in 2010 and 2012. Participation in the voucher scheme since 2006 significantly improves overall quality of postnatal care by 39% (p=0.02, where quality is defined as the observable processes or components of service provision that occur during a PNC consultation. Program participation since phase I is estimated to improve the quality of observed maternal postnatal care by 86% (p=0.02, with the largest quality improvements in counseling on family planning methods (IRR 5.0; p=0.01 and return to fertility (IRR 2.6; p=0.01. Despite improvements in maternal aspects of PNC, we find a high proportion of mothers who seek PNC are not being checked by any provider after delivery. Additional strategies will be necessary to standardize provision of packaged postnatal interventions to both mother and newborn. This study addresses an important gap in the existing RH literature by using a strong evaluation design to assess RH voucher program effectiveness on quality improvement.

  15. Violence Against Women: Same-Sex Relationship Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... assault and abuse Stalking Violence against immigrant and refugee women Violence against women at work Violence against women with disabilities Get help for violence Mental Health effects of violence Laws on violence against women ...

  16. Workplace Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Possible Solutions It is recommended that management and employees work together to reduce workplace violence. Management Commitment: Provides ... program in place to offer: counseling, support groups, stress debriefing, ... employee assistance programs OSHA provides some sample forms in: ...

  17. Media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, E; Strasburger, V C

    1998-04-01

    American media are the most violent in the world, and American society is now paying a high price in terms of real life violence. Research has confirmed that mass media violence contributes to aggressive behavior, fear, and desensitization of violence. Television, movies, music videos, computer/video games are pervasive media and represent important influences on children and adolescents. Portraying rewards and punishments and showing the consequences of violence are probably the two most essential contextual factors for viewers as they interpret the meaning of what they are viewing on television. Public health efforts have emphasized public education, media literacy campaign for children and parents, and an increased use of technology to prevent access to certain harmful medial materials.

  18. VoSeq: a voucher and DNA sequence web application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Peña

    Full Text Available There is an ever growing number of molecular phylogenetic studies published, due to, in part, the advent of new techniques that allow cheap and quick DNA sequencing. Hence, the demand for relational databases with which to manage and annotate the amassing DNA sequences, genes, voucher specimens and associated biological data is increasing. In addition, a user-friendly interface is necessary for easy integration and management of the data stored in the database back-end. Available databases allow management of a wide variety of biological data. However, most database systems are not specifically constructed with the aim of being an organizational tool for researchers working in phylogenetic inference. We here report a new software facilitating easy management of voucher and sequence data, consisting of a relational database as back-end for a graphic user interface accessed via a web browser. The application, VoSeq, includes tools for creating molecular datasets of DNA or amino acid sequences ready to be used in commonly used phylogenetic software such as RAxML, TNT, MrBayes and PAUP, as well as for creating tables ready for publishing. It also has inbuilt BLAST capabilities against all DNA sequences stored in VoSeq as well as sequences in NCBI GenBank. By using mash-ups and calls to web services, VoSeq allows easy integration with public services such as Yahoo! Maps, Flickr, Encyclopedia of Life (EOL and GBIF (by generating data-dumps that can be processed with GBIF's Integrated Publishing Toolkit.

  19. Adding voucher-based incentives to community reinforcement approach improves outcomes during treatment for cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Gloria; Secades-Villa, Roberto; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Sánchez-Hervás, Emilio; Fernández-Hermida, José R; Higgins, Stephen T

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the efficacy of the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) with and without an incentive program for cocaine-dependent patients in Spain. A total of 58 patients were randomly assigned to the CRA or CRA plus vouchers condition. In the CRA plus vouchers group, mean percentage of cocaine-negative samples was 97.07%, versus 79.76% in the no-voucher group. Those treated in the CRA plus vouchers condition also achieved greater improvements in psychosocial functioning than those treated in the CRA condition. The present results show that treatment outcome is better if incentives are delivered contingent upon the submission of cocaine-free urine specimens. 

  20. A voucher system that enables persons with severe mental illness to purchase community support services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, E F

    1992-11-01

    Fragmentation in the delivery of community support services is often identified as a major barrier to persons with severe mental illness, preventing them from living productive lives in the community. In Nassau County, New York, in 1989 a voucher process was created to allow service users to develop individualized support networks by purchasing services directly and by pooling funds to start new services. The voucher process is part of an intensive case management program. Goals set in the individual service plans of users guide voucher purchases. The local Mental Health Association manages funds based on a bank credit card model. The user, the case manager, and a staff member from an agency designated by the user review expenditures quarterly. The first year of operation is described, and suggestions for developing a voucher process, such as the need for extensive retraining of users and providers, are offered.

  1. Assisted Housing - Housing Choice Vouchers by Tract - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD) Housing Choice Voucher Program (HCVP) is the federal government's major program for assisting very...

  2. 75 FR 39561 - Administrative Guidelines; Subsidy Layering Reviews for Proposed Section 8 Project-Based Voucher...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... of 1992 (Pub. L. 102-550, approved October 28, 1992) (HCDA), allows State HCAs to perform subsidy... receiving Section 8 project-based vouchers. While Section 911 of the HCDA is a discretionary provision...

  3. 48 CFR 53.301-44 - Standard Form 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Purchase Order—Invoice—Voucher. EC01MY91.021 EC01MY91.022 EC01MY91.023 EC01MY91.024 ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard Form 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher. 53.301-44 Section 53.301-44 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  4. Funding Antibiotic Innovation With Vouchers: Recommendations On How To Strengthen A Flawed Incentive Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outterson, Kevin; McDonnell, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    A serious need to spur antibiotic innovation has arisen because of the lack of antibiotics to combat certain conditions and the overuse of other antibiotics leading to greater antibiotic resistance. In response to this need, proposals have been made to Congress to fund antibiotic research through a voucher program for new antibiotics, which would delay generic entry for any drug, even potential blockbuster lifesaving generics. We find this proposal to be inefficient, in part because of the mismatch between the private value of the voucher and the public value of the antibiotic innovation. However, vouchers have the political advantage in the United States of being able to raise sufficient amounts of money without annual appropriations from Congress. We propose that if antibiotic vouchers are to be considered, the design should include dollar and time caps to limit their volatility, sufficient advance notice to protect generic manufacturers, and market-based linkages between the value of the voucher and the value of the antibiotic innovation. We also explore a second option: The federal government could auction vouchers to the highest bidders and use the money to create an antibiotics innovation fund.

  5. Effects of school reformon education and labor market performance: Evidence from Chile's universal voucher system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, David; Mukhopadhyay, Sankar; Todd, Petra E

    2010-07-01

    This paper studies the effects of school reform in Chile, which adopted a nationwide school voucher program along with school decentralization reforms in 1981. Since then, Chile has had a relatively unregulated, competitive market in primary and secondary education. It therefore provides a unique setting in which to study how these reforms affected school attainment and labor market outcomes. This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of school attendance and work decisions using panel data from the 2002 and 2004 waves of the Encuesta de Protección Social survey. Some individuals in the sample completed their schooling before the voucher reforms were introduced, while others had the option of using the vouchers over part or all of their schooling careers. The impacts of the voucher reform are identified from differences in the schooling and work choices made and earnings returns received by similar aged individuals who were differentially exposed to the voucher system. Simulations based on the estimated model show that the voucher reform significantly increased the demand for private subsidized schools and decreased the demand for both public and nonsubsidized private schools. It increased high school (grades 9-12) graduation rates by 3.6 percentage points and the percentage completing at least two years of college by 2.6 percentage points. Individuals from poor and non-poor backgrounds on average experienced similar schooling attainment gains. The reform also increased lifetime utility and modestly reduced earnings inequality.

  6. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  7. Wireless Sensor for Measuring Pump Efficiency: Small Business Voucher Project with KCF Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division; Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division; Gehl, Anthony C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division; Koopmann, Gary [KCF Technologies, State College, PA (United States)

    2017-01-23

    This document is to fulfill the final report requirements for the Small Business Voucher (SBV) CRADA project with ORNL and KCF Technologies (CRADA/NFE-16-06133). Pumping systems account for nearly 20% of the world’s electrical energy demand and range from 25-50% of the energy usage in many industrial and building power plants. The energy cost is the largest element in the total cost of owning a pump (~40%). In response to a recent DOE mandate for improved pump efficiency pump manufacturers are preparing for the changes that the impending regulations will bring, including design improvements. This mandate also establishes a need for new low cost pump efficiency measurement systems. The standard industry definition of pump efficiency is the mechanical water horsepower delivered divided by the electrical horsepower input to the motor. KCF Technologies has developed a new sensor measurement technique to estimate fluid pump efficiency using a thermodynamic approach. KCF Technologies applied for a SBV grant with ORNL as the research partner. KCF needed a research partner with the proper facilities to demonstrate the efficacy of its wireless sensor unit for measuring pump efficiency. The ORNL Building Technologies Research and Integration Center (BTRIC) test resources were used to test and demonstrate the successful measurement of pump efficiency with the KCF sensor technology. KCF is now working on next steps to commercialize this sensing technology.

  8. Television Violence: Implications for Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the scientific and public-opinion debate on the impact television violence in America has on aggression and violence. Research supports the view that television violence contributes to children's level of aggressiveness and subsequent violence and criminality. Describes attempts to improve the quality of television programming for children…

  9. Television Violence: Implications for Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the scientific and public-opinion debate on the impact television violence in America has on aggression and violence. Research supports the view that television violence contributes to children's level of aggressiveness and subsequent violence and criminality. Describes attempts to improve the quality of television programming for children…

  10. Targeted subsidy for malaria control with treated nets using a discount voucher system in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushi, Adiel K; Schellenberg, Joanna R M Armstrong; Mponda, Haji; Lengeler, Christian

    2003-06-01

    During the last decade insecticide-treated nets have become a key strategy for malaria control. Social marketing is an appealing tool for getting such nets to poor rural African communities who are most afflicted by malaria. This approach usually involves subsidized prices to make nets and insecticide more affordable and help establish a commercial market. We evaluated a voucher system for targeted subsidy of treated nets in young children and pregnant women in two rural districts of southern Tanzania. Qualitative work involved focus group discussions with community leaders, male and female parents of children under 5 years. In-depth interviews were held with maternal and child health clinic staff and retail agents. Quantitative data were collected through interviewing more than 750 mothers of children under 5 years during a cluster sample survey of child health. The voucher return rate was extremely high at 97% (7720/8000). However, 2 years after the start of the scheme awareness among target groups was only 43% (45/104), and only 12% of women (12/103; 95% CI 4-48%) had used a voucher towards the cost of a net. We found some evidence of increased voucher use among least poor households, compared with the poorest households. On the basis of these results we renewed our information, education and communication (IEC) campaign about vouchers. Discount vouchers are a feasible system for targeted subsidies, although a substantial amount of time and effort may be needed to achieve high awareness and uptake - by which we mean the proportion of eligible women who used the vouchers - among those targeted. Within a poor society, vouchers may not necessarily increase health equity unless they cover a high proportion of the total cost: since some cash is needed when using a voucher as part-payment, poorer women among the target group are likely to have lower uptake than richer women. The vouchers have two important additional functions: strengthening the role of public health

  11. Vouchers in Fragile States: Reducing Barriers to Long-Acting Reversible Contraception in Yemen and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddam-Whetham, Luke; Gul, Xaher; Al-Kobati, Eman; Gorter, Anna C

    2016-08-11

    In conflict-affected states, vouchers have reduced barriers to reproductive health services and have enabled health programs to use targeted subsidies to increase uptake of specific health services. Vouchers can also be used to channel funds to public- and private-service providers and improve service quality. The Yamaan Foundation for Health and Social Development in Yemen and the Marie Stopes Society (MSS) in Pakistan-both working with Options Consultancy Services-have developed voucher programs that subsidize voluntary access to long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and permanent methods (PMs) of family planning in their respective fragile countries. The programs focus on LARCs and PMs because these methods are particularly difficult for poor women to access due to their cost and to provider biases against offering them. Using estimates of expected voluntary uptake of LARCs and PMs for 2014 based on contraceptive prevalence rates, and comparing these with uptake of LARCs and PMs through the voucher programs, we show the substantial increase in service utilization that vouchers can enable by contributing to an expanded method choice. In the governorate of Lahj, Yemen, vouchers for family planning led to an estimated 38% increase in 2014 over the expected use of LARCs and PMs (720 vs. 521 expected). We applied the same approach in 13 districts of Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), and Sindh provinces in Pakistan. Our calculations suggest that vouchers enabled 10 times more women than expected to choose LARCs and PMs in 2014 in those areas of Pakistan (73,639 vs. 6,455 expected). Voucher programs can promote and maintain access to family planning services where existing health systems are hampered. Vouchers are a flexible financing approach that enable expansion of contraceptive choice and the inclusion of the private sector in service delivery to the poor. They can keep financial resources flowing where the public sector is prevented from offering services

  12. "Domestic violence".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhizar, Ruth; Giger, Joy Newman

    2002-01-01

    Domestic violence is no respector of persons but may involve spouses or cohabiting adults across all socioeconomic, ethnic, and religious groups. It is no respect or of community. The abuse can be physical, sexual, or emotional/psychological. It can be economic and be demonstrated by neglect. Nursing care for the problem of domestic abuse needs to be directed at primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Care for victims and victimizers of domestic violence involves a collaborative relationship with other professionals as well as interagency cross referrals that involve health, welfare, refuge, and judicial protective services.

  13. Net Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío del Carmen Serrano Barquín

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we make some reflections on the ways and means used by young men and women to communicate and interact college online and in social networks. In this sense, it is argued that youth socialization from electronic communication contributes to the manifestation of covert acts, sometimes symbolic violence foster or harsh environments, even at the level of representation of that identity. Expand knowledge and achievements that have such networks in youth socialization processes is an important contribution to the field of communication, new technologies and of course the violence.

  14. Sexual Violence

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-04

    This podcast discusses sexual violence - what it is, the long-term health problems it can contribute to, and tips to stop it before it begins.  Created: 4/4/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 4/4/2011.

  15. A study on the experiences and causes of school violence amongst middle school students in korea

    OpenAIRE

    都, 基鳳; 全, 宰一; 野島, 一彦

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to prepare effective measures to successfully cope with school violence by examining student experiences of school violence and its causes. The participants were middle school students in Korea. An investigation was made into how male and female students are different from each other in patterns of violence experienced or committed and the causes of that violence. The results are as follows: 1) Students who were victims of school violence suffered more than those ...

  16. Vouchers as demand side financing instruments for health care: a review of the Bangladesh maternal voucher scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jean-Olivier; Ensor, Tim; Hossain, Atia; Khan, Salam

    2010-07-01

    Demand side financing (DSF) mechanisms transfer purchasing power to specified groups for defined goods and services in order to increase access to specified services. This is an important innovation in health care systems where access remains poor despite substantial subsidies towards the supply side. In Bangladesh, a maternal health DSF pilot in 33 sub-districts was launched in 2007. We report the results of a rapid review of this scheme undertaken during 2008 after 1 year of its setup. Quantitative data collected by DSF committees, facilities and national information systems were assessed alongside qualitative data, i.e. key informant interviews and focus group discussions with beneficiaries and health service providers on the operation of the scheme in 6 sub-districts. The scheme provides vouchers to women distributed by health workers that entitle mainly poor women to receive skilled care at home or a facility and also provide payments for transport and food. After initial setbacks voucher distribution rose quickly. The data also suggest that the rise in facility based delivery appeared to be more rapid in DSF than in other non-DSF areas, although the methods do not allow for a strict causal attribution as there might be co-founding effects. Fears that the financial incentives for surgical delivery would lead to an over emphasis on Caesarean section appear to be unfounded although the trends need further monitoring. DSF provides substantial additional funding to facilities but remains complex to administer, requiring a parallel administrative mechanism putting additional work burden on the health workers. There is little evidence that the mechanism encourages competition due to the limited provision of health care services. The main question outstanding is whether the achievements of the DSF scheme could be achieved more efficiently by adapting the regular government funding rather than creating an entirely new mechanism. Also, improving the quality of health

  17. A taxonomy and results from a comprehensive review of 28 maternal health voucher programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Ben W; Conlon, Claudia M; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Townsend, John W; Nahed, Matta G; Cavanaugh, Karen; Grainger, Corinne G; Okal, Jerry; Gorter, Anna C

    2013-12-01

    It is increasingly clear that Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5 will not be achieved in many low- and middle-income countries with the weakest gains among the poor. Recognizing that there are large inequalities in reproductive health outcomes, the post-2015 agenda on universal health coverage will likely generate strategies that target resources where maternal and newborn deaths are the highest. In 2012, the United States Agency for International Development convened an Evidence Summit to review the knowledge and gaps on the utilization of financial incentives to enhance the quality and uptake of maternal healthcare. The goal was to provide donors and governments of the low- and middle-income countries with evidence-informed recommendations on practice, policy, and strategies regarding the use of financial incentives, including vouchers, to enhance the demand and supply of maternal health services. The findings in this paper are intended to guide governments interested in maternal health voucher programmes with recommendations for sustainable implementation and impact. The Evidence Summit undertook a systematic review of five financing strategies. This paper presents the methods and findings for vouchers, building on a taxonomy to catalogue knowledge about voucher programme design and functionality. More than 120 characteristics under five major categories were identified: programme principles (objectives and financing); governance and management; benefits package and beneficiary targeting; providers (contracting and service pricing); and implementation arrangements (marketing, claims processing, and monitoring and evaluation). Among the 28 identified maternal health voucher programmes, common characteristics included: a stated objective to increase the use of services among the means-tested poor; contracted-out programme management; contracting either exclusively private facilities or a mix of public and private providers; prioritizing community

  18. Men's Health: Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Violence prevention for men Get help for violence in your ... help. Return to top More information on Violence prevention for men Explore other publications and websites Are ...

  19. Understanding Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Sexual Violence Fact Sheet 2014 Sexual violence refers to any sexual activity where consent is not obtained or freely given. Anyone can experience or perpetrate sexual violence. Most ...

  20. Guidelines for collecting vouchers and tissues intended for genomic work (Smithsonian Institution: Botany Best Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Funk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Next Generation Sequencing into the disciplines of plant systematics, ecology, and metagenomics, among others, has resulted in a phenomenal increase in the collecting and storing of tissue samples and their respective vouchers. This manual suggests standard practices that will insure the quality and preservation of the tissue and vouchers and their respective data. Although written for use by the Smithsonian Institution botanists it suggests a framework for collecting tissues and vouchers that other research programs can adapt to their own needs. It includes information on collecting voucher specimens, collecting plant tissue intended for genomic analysis, how to manage these collections, and how to incorporate the data into a database management system. It also includes many useful references for collecting and processing collections. We hope it will be useful for a variety of botanists but especially those who know how to collect plants and want to collect tissue samples that will be useful for genomic research, and those who are skilled in lab work and want to know how to properly voucher and record their tissue collections.

  1. 75 FR 11553 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... use of FMRs or voucher payment standards should be directed to the respective local HUD program staff... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate... Market Rents published on August 4, 2009 (74 FR 38716), HUD conducted Random Digit Dialing (RDD)...

  2. 77 FR 71195 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... related to use of FMRs or voucher payment standards should be directed to the respective local HUD program... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and...

  3. Segregation Levels in Cleveland Public Schools and the Cleveland Voucher Program. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Examining the widespread claims that private schools have high segregation levels and vouchers will lead to greater segregation, this study finds that both assertions are empirically unsupportable. Private schools participating in Cleveland's voucher program are much less segregated than Cleveland's public schools. This means that students using…

  4. Lessons from sexual and reproductive health voucher program design and function: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Corinne; Gorter, Anna; Okal, Jerry; Bellows, Ben

    2014-04-29

    Developing countries face challenges in financing healthcare; often the poor do not receive the most basic services. The past decade has seen a sharp increase in the number of voucher programs, which target output-based subsidies for specific services to poor and underserved groups. The dearth of literature that examines lessons learned risks the wheel being endlessly reinvented. This paper examines commonalities and differences in voucher design and implementation, highlighting lessons learned for the design of new voucher programmes. The methodology comprised: discussion among key experts to develop inclusion/exclusion criteria; up-dating the literature database used by the DFID systematic review of voucher programs; and networking with key contacts to identify new programs and obtain additional program documents. We identified 40 programs for review and extracted a dataset of more than 120 program characteristics for detailed analysis. All programs aimed to increase utilisation of healthcare, particularly maternal health services, overwhelmingly among low-income populations. The majority contract(ed) private providers, or public and private providers, and all facilitate(d) access to services that are well defined, time-limited and reflect the country's stated health priorities. All voucher programs incorporate a governing body, management agency, contracted providers and target population, and all share the same incentive structure: the transfer of subsidies from consumers to service providers, resulting in a strong effect on both consumer and provider behaviour. Vouchers deliver subsidies to individuals, who in the absence of the subsidy would likely not have sought care, and in all programs a positive behavioural response is observed, with providers investing voucher revenue to attract more clients. A large majority of programs studied used targeting mechanisms. While many programs remain too small to address national-level need among the poor, large programs

  5. Public-private delivery of insecticide-treated nets: a voucher scheme in Volta Region, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Ian

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coverage of vulnerable groups with insecticide-treated nets (ITNs in Ghana, as in the majority of countries of sub-Saharan Africa is currently low. A voucher scheme was introduced in Volta Region as a possible sustainable delivery system for increasing this coverage through scale-up to other regions. Successful scale-up of public health interventions depends upon optimal delivery processes but operational research for delivery processes in large-scale implementation has been inadequate. Methods A simple tool was developed to monitor numbers of vouchers given to each health facility, numbers issued to pregnant women by the health staff, and numbers redeemed by the distributors back to the management agent. Three rounds of interviews were undertaken with health facility staff, retailers and pregnant women who had attended antenatal clinic (ANC. Results During the one year pilot 25,926 vouchers were issued to eligible women from clinics, which equates to 50.7% of the 51,658 ANC registrants during this time period. Of the vouchers issued 66.7% were redeemed by distributors back to the management agent. Initially, non-issuing of vouchers to pregnant women was mainly due to eligibility criteria imposed by the midwives; later in the year it was due to decisions of the pregnant women, and supply constraints. These in turn were heavily influenced by factors external to the programme: current household ownership of nets, competing ITN delivery strategies, and competition for the limited number of ITNs available in the country from major urban areas of other regions. Conclusion Both issuing and redemption of vouchers should be monitored as factors assumed to influence voucher redemption had an influence on issuing, and vice versa. More evidence is needed on how specific contextual factors influence the success of voucher schemes and other models of delivery of ITNs. Such an evidence base will facilitate optimal strategic decision making

  6. Factors which predict violence victimization in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln J Fry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence is a major public health issue, globally as well as in the African continent. This paper looks at Nigeria and begins the process of identifying the factors that predict interpersonal violence in that country. The purpose is to interpret the implications of the results presented here for violence prevention programmes in Nigeria. Materials and Methods : The study is based on the responses of 2324 Nigerians included in Round Four of the Afrobarometer surveys. The study concentrates on 579 respondents who reported either they or someone else in their family had been the victim of violence, defined as being physically attacked, in the past year. Results: A logistical regression analysis revealed five significant factors that predicted interpersonal violence: being the victim of a property crime, the fear of crime, the respondents faith, whethera police station was in the local area and poverty. The findings revealed that 43.7% of the sample had been victimised within the past year and 18.8% had been the victim of both violent and property crimes. One surprising findingwas the number of respondents who were re-victimised; 75% of violence victims also had been property crime victims. Conclusions: These findings suggest that target hardening should be the basis to plan, implement and evaluate violence prevention programmes in Nigeria. Prevention personnel and/or law enforcement need to respond to reported incidents of property and/or violence victimisation and attempt to prepare victims to protect both their premises and their persons in the future.

  7. Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... English Dating Violence - español (Spanish) MP4 Healthy Roads Media Domestic Violence: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Violencia doméstica: Tema de ... Abuse (An Introduction) - español (Spanish) PDF Healthy Roads Media Healthy Living Toolkit: Violence In the Home - English Healthy Living Toolkit: Violence ...

  8. Sexuality and Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanctuary, Gerald

    The author examines specific manifestations of violence in relation to sexuality: (1) forcible rape rate; (2) war atrocities; (3) sexual violence in prisons; and (4) pornography. Drawing much from Hannah Arendt's book on violence, he views sexual violence as symptomatic of a lack of sexual power, not a sign of its possession. The causes are seen…

  9. Relationship violence in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alison J; Raymond, Marissa; Catallozzi, Marina; Ryan, Owen; Rickert, Vaughn I

    2007-12-01

    Previous experience with violence or a deficit in interpersonal skills may lead to violence in adolescent relationships. In this article we focus on various forms of interpersonal violence (bullying, sexual harassment, coercion, and relationship violence) that adolescents may experience and pay special attention to risk factors, help-seeking behaviors, and sequelae.

  10. Adolescent to Parent Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Claire Pedrick; Gelles, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the extent of violence toward parents by adolescent children in relation to: (1) sex and age of the child; (2) the likelihood that mothers, more than fathers, are victims of children's violence; (3) social factors that may influence child to parent violence; and (4) stress as a factor in family violence. (Author/MJL)

  11. Bridging the gaps: a global review of intersections of violence against women and violence against children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Guedes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The international community recognises violence against women (VAW and violence against children (VAC as global human rights and public health problems. Historically, research, programmes, and policies on these forms of violence followed parallel but distinct trajectories. Some have called for efforts to bridge these gaps, based in part on evidence that individuals and families often experience multiple forms of violence that may be difficult to address in isolation, and that violence in childhood elevates the risk of violence against women. Methods: This article presents a narrative review of evidence on intersections between VAC and VAW – including sexual violence by non-partners, with an emphasis on low- and middle-income countries. Results: We identify and review evidence for six intersections: 1 VAC and VAW have many shared risk factors. 2 Social norms often support VAW and VAC and discourage help-seeking. 3 Child maltreatment and partner violence often co-occur within the same household. 4 Both VAC and VAW can produce intergenerational effects. 5 Many forms of VAC and VAW have common and compounding consequences across the lifespan. 6 VAC and VAW intersect during adolescence, a time of heightened vulnerability to certain kinds of violence. Conclusions: Evidence of common correlates suggests that consolidating efforts to address shared risk factors may help prevent both forms of violence. Common consequences and intergenerational effects suggest a need for more integrated early intervention. Adolescence falls between and within traditional domains of both fields and deserves greater attention. Opportunities for greater collaboration include preparing service providers to address multiple forms of violence, better coordination between services for women and for children, school-based strategies, parenting programmes, and programming for adolescent health and development. There is also a need for more coordination among

  12. Domestic violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  13. The Gun Violence Database

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlick, Ellie; Callison-Burch, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We describe the Gun Violence Database (GVDB), a large and growing database of gun violence incidents in the United States. The GVDB is built from the detailed information found in local news reports about gun violence, and is constructed via a large-scale crowdsourced annotation effort through our web site, http://gun-violence.org/. We argue that centralized and publicly available data about gun violence can facilitate scientific, fact-based discussion about a topic that is often dominated by...

  14. Intolerance for withdrawal discomfort and motivation predict voucher-based smoking treatment outcomes for smokers with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohsenow, Damaris J; Tidey, Jennifer W; Kahler, Christopher W; Martin, Rosemarie A; Colby, Suzanne M; Sirota, Alan D

    2015-04-01

    Identifying predictors of abstinence with voucher-based treatment is important for improving its efficacy. Smokers with substance use disorders have very low smoking cessation rates so identifying predictors of smoking treatment response is particularly important for these difficult-to-treat smokers. Intolerance for Smoking Abstinence Discomfort (IDQ-S), motivation to quit smoking, nicotine dependence severity (FTND), and cigarettes per day were examined as predictors of smoking abstinence during and after voucher-based smoking treatment with motivational counseling. We also investigated the relationship between IDQ-S and motivation to quit smoking. Smokers in residential substance treatment (n=184) were provided 14days of vouchers for complete smoking abstinence (CV) after a 5-day smoking reduction lead-in period or vouchers not contingent on abstinence. Carbon monoxide readings indicated about 25% of days abstinent during the 14days of vouchers for abstinence in the CV group; only 3-4% of all participants were abstinent at follow-ups. The IDQ-S Withdrawal Intolerance scale and FTND each significantly predicted fewer abstinent days during voucher treatment; FTND was nonsignificant when controlling for variance shared with withdrawal intolerance. The one significant predictor of 1-month abstinence was pretreatment motivation to quit smoking, becoming marginal (pmotivation to quit smoking. Implications for voucher-based treatment include the importance of focusing on reducing these expectancies of anticipated smoking withdrawal discomfort, increasing tolerance for abstinence discomfort, and increasing motivation.

  15. Innovation Vouchers and LEP Structural Funds Strategies. Innovation and Growth Factsheet Series. No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This factsheet, the first in a series on innovation and growth, provides an overview of the benefits of innovation vouchers, and gives some examples of how universities and Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEPs) are including them in their European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) strategies. [For the second factsheet in the series,…

  16. Understanding How Universal Vouchers Have Impacted Urban School Districts' Enrollment in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portales, Jaime; Heilig, Julian Vasquez

    2014-01-01

    Findings from this study show that educational and mobility opportunities for families and students participating in the Chilean voucher system are not homogenously distributed. Some families and students use and benefit from the system, while others will remain marginalized. The quantitative results in this study demonstrate that students of…

  17. Bringing the Schools Back in: The Stratification of Educational Achievement in the Chilean Voucher System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizala, Alejandra; Torche, Florencia

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the socioeconomic stratification of achievement in the Chilean voucher system using a census of 4th and 8th graders, a multilevel methodology, and accounting for unobserved selectivity into school sector. Findings indicate that the association between the school's aggregate family socioeconomic status (SES) and test scores is…

  18. 78 FR 45257 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family Self...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public and Indian...

  19. Voucher-Based Reinforcement for Alcohol Abstinence Using the Ethyl-Glucuronide Alcohol Biomarker

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonell, Michael G.; Howell, Donelle N,; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M.; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase.…

  20. Introduction of European priority review vouchers to encourage development of new medicines for neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, David B; Sánchez, Alfonso Calles

    2010-09-11

    Every year 1 billion people worldwide are affected by traditionally neglected diseases, such as malaria, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, and lymphatic filariasis, which impose tremendous public health burdens. Governments, foundations, and drug manufacturers have, however, started to support development of new treatments. European Union Member States have been leaders in implementing so-called push mechanisms (payment for drug development) and pull funding (reward for output), such as the advance market commitment, which creates a market for vaccines by guaranteeing prices. We propose an additional step that could be taken to encourage development of medicines for neglected diseases. A priority review voucher scheme, as is already in place in the USA, would reward a manufacturer that developed a new medicine for neglected diseases with a voucher that could be redeemed for priority review of a future medicine, probably a potential blockbuster drug. Unlike the US system a European voucher would also accelerate pricing and reimbursement decisions. This scheme would be likely to provide substantial benefits to voucher holders, society, and public health organisations.

  1. Innovation Vouchers and LEP Structural Funds Strategies. Innovation and Growth Factsheet Series. No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This factsheet, the first in a series on innovation and growth, provides an overview of the benefits of innovation vouchers, and gives some examples of how universities and Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEPs) are including them in their European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) strategies. [For the second factsheet in the series,…

  2. Vouchers for Private Schooling in Colombia: Evidence from a Randomized Natural Experiment. NBER Working Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrist, Joshua D.; Bettinger, Eric; Bloom, Erik; King, Elizabeth; Kremer, Michael

    This paper examines the impact of Colombia's Programa de Ampliacion de Cobertura de la Educacion Secundaria (PACES), which provided over 125,000 poor students with private secondary school vouchers, many of which were awarded by lottery. Researchers surveyed lottery winners and losers to compare educational and other outcomes. Results showed no…

  3. Preserving and vouchering butterflies and moths for large-scale museum-based molecular research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soowon; Epstein, Samantha W; Mitter, Kim; Hamilton, Chris A; Plotkin, David; Mitter, Charles; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2016-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) comprise significant portions of the world's natural history collections, but a standardized tissue preservation protocol for molecular research is largely lacking. Lepidoptera have traditionally been spread on mounting boards to display wing patterns and colors, which are often important for species identification. Many molecular phylogenetic studies have used legs from pinned specimens as the primary source for DNA in order to preserve a morphological voucher, but the amount of available tissue is often limited. Preserving an entire specimen in a cryogenic freezer is ideal for DNA preservation, but without an easily accessible voucher it can make specimen identification, verification, and morphological work difficult. Here we present a procedure that creates accessible and easily visualized "wing vouchers" of individual Lepidoptera specimens, and preserves the remainder of the insect in a cryogenic freezer for molecular research. Wings are preserved in protective holders so that both dorsal and ventral patterns and colors can be easily viewed without further damage. Our wing vouchering system has been implemented at the University of Maryland (AToL Lep Collection) and the University of Florida (Florida Museum of Natural History, McGuire Center of Lepidoptera and Biodiversity), which are among two of the largest Lepidoptera molecular collections in the world.

  4. The Effect of Private School Vouchers on Political Participation: Experimental Evidence from New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Deven; Chingos, Matthew M.; Campbell, David E.

    2017-01-01

    In 1997, the New York School Choice Scholarships Foundation Program (SCSF) randomly offered three-year scholarships to attend private schools to approximately 1,000 low-income families in New York City. In this paper we leverage exogenous variation generated by the SCSF to estimate the causal effect of the private school voucher offer--and the…

  5. Voucher Users and Revitalized Public-Housing Residents 6 Years after Displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Fred; Lewinson, Terri; Aszman, Jennifer; Wolk, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A total of 6 years after displacement by a Housing Opportunities for People Everywhere (HOPE VI) project, this research examines residents who returned to the redeveloped community and residents who decided to keep their vouchers and were living in private sector housing. Respondents were compared on the following variables: application…

  6. After 60 Years, Do the Arguments for K-12 Vouchers Still Hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitsch, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In 1955, Milton Friedman authored a foundational paper proposing a shift in funding and governance mechanisms for public K-12 schools, suggesting that parents be awarded tuition vouchers that they could use to pay for private sector education services for their children, rather than relying on government provided neighborhood schools. Friedman…

  7. Vender/Voucher Systems: A Parent Selected Child Care Subsidy Program That Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freis, Ruth; Miller, Miriam

    The vendor/voucher, or purchase of service, system for child care delivery is discussed as a logical model for communities which are looking for a method of developing a new system or have outgrown their current program. Discussion initially focuses on the increasing need for child care, cost/benefit aspects of child care, the regulation of child…

  8. 77 FR 3435 - Notice of Funding Availability: Rural Development Voucher Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ..., Rural Development will extend the voucher search period beyond the 120 days. If the Rural Development..., sex, (including gender identity and expression) marital status, familial status, parental status.... 3501-3520) and assigned OMB control number 2577-0169. In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act...

  9. 48 CFR 213.306 - SF 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SF 44, Purchase Order... PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 213.306 SF 44, Purchase Order-Invoice-Voucher. (a)(1) The micro-purchase limitation applies to all purchases, except that purchases not exceeding the...

  10. Competitive Effects of Means-Tested School Vouchers. Working Paper 46

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figlio, David N.; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2010-01-01

    Voucher options like tuition tax credit-funded scholarship programs have become increasingly popular in recent years. One argument for such school choice policies is that public schools will improve the quality of education they offer when faced with competition for their students. This study examines the effects of private school competition on…

  11. Early Childhood Education Voucher in Hong Kong: Perspectives from Online Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wong, Jessie Ming Sin; Wang, X. Christine

    2008-01-01

    Educational authorities in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) of China introduced an early childhood education voucher system in 2007 with two implicit goals: to turn profit kindergartens into non-profit ones and to curtail parental choice. This initiative has caused a great deal of controversy locally and internationally, so the…

  12. Affordability, Accessibility, and Accountability: Perceived Impacts of the Pre-Primary Education Vouchers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wong, Jessie Ming Sin; Wang, X. Christine

    2010-01-01

    Hong Kong launched the "Pre-primary Education Voucher Scheme" (PEVS) in 2007 to promote the "3A's" of early childhood education (ECE): affordability, accessibility, and accountability. The PEVS has three unique features: discriminating against profit kindergartens, promoting teacher professional development, and limiting parents' choice to only…

  13. High-Stakes Choice: Achievement and Accountability in the Nation's Oldest Urban Voucher Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Carlson, Deven E.; Fleming, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the impact of a high-stakes testing and reporting requirement on students using publicly funded vouchers to attend private schools. We describe how such a policy was implemented during the course of a previously authorized multi-year evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program, which provided us with data on voucher…

  14. Education Tax Credits in a Post-"Zelman" Era: Legal, Political, and Policy Alternatives to Vouchers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Luis A.; d'Entremont, Chad

    2007-01-01

    This article examines an emerging preference for education tax credit programs in a post-"Zelman" era. First, the authors detail the origin of tax credits and the types of existing plans. Second, they review the assumptions underlying the supposed advantages that may favor tax credits as a feasible alternative to vouchers. Third, they analyze…

  15. The Impact of Violence on Television on Children: A Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Patricia; And Others

    Based on a review of relevant literature, a report was prepared which examines the impact of viewing violence on television on the social behavior of the viewer. An introduction discusses a definition of violence and proposes reasons why violence may appeal to viewers. The remainder of the text examines three major research questions: (l) the…

  16. Domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiurski Jasmina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article author examines a definition of a family, the role of a family as a social and legal institution as well as state reaction in a situation of mal function of a family. Special attention is given to a definition of a family, its protective function and criminal law in modern legal systems. Author also analyzes recent reform of our legislation firstly new criminal offence (Article 118a of the Criminal Code of Republic of Serbia - Domestic Violence - and its relation to other similar criminal offences. Finally, author gives an overview of up-to-now practice from District and Municipal Prosecutors Offices in Belgrade and suggestions for solving observed problems in implementation of this criminal offence.

  17. Witnessing Interparental Violence and Acceptance of Dating Violence as Predictors for Teen Dating Violence Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marie E; Temple, Jeff R; Weston, Rebecca; Le, Vi Donna

    2016-04-01

    We examined the association between witnessing interparental violence, attitudes about dating violence, and physical and psychological teen dating violence (TDV) victimization. Participants were 918 teens with dating experience. Witnessing interparental violence and acceptance of dating violence were significant predictors of TDV victimization. Acceptance of dating violence was also a partial mediator between witnessing interparental violence and TDV victimization. Witnessing mother-to-father violence and acceptance of female-perpetrated violence were the most consistent predictors. TDV programs aiming to prevent victimization could benefit from targeting youth exposed to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence, targeting attitudes about violence, and tailoring interventions to gender-specific risk factors.

  18. Male violence or patriarchal violence? Global Trends in Men and Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Policies and research have focused recently on men's use of violence against women, and the terms "gender-based violence" or "domestic violence" have often been used rather than "patriarchal violence." This article argues that instead of talking about "male violence," or gender-based violence, a more useful analytical framework is "patriarchal violence." Applying this lens examines how violence is based in complex power relations - with low-income men and men in specific groups, such...

  19. 'Cet arrière-goût de violence': On violence against violence

    OpenAIRE

    Bojanić Petar

    2010-01-01

    I will attempt to explain the connection between violence (someone's violence) and my own or Levinas's or the State's violence as a response to the initial violence (Violence against Violence) and finally the violence which remains in the mouth, throat, aftertaste [gout] or in disgust [degout]. 'Cet arrière-goût de violence' or 'un quelconque arrière-goût de degout' [a sort of aftertaste of disgust].

  20. Gender and age are associated with healthy food purchases via grocery voucher redemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin-Fanning, Frances; Gokun, Yevgeniya

    2014-01-01

    Grocery vouchers that specifically target foods associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk result in increased consumption of those foods. In regions with disproportionately high CVD rates, there is little research concerning the impact of vouchers on purchases of risk-reducing foods when there are no restrictions placed on grocery voucher redemption. Since many food assistance programs place few restrictions on type of foods that can be purchased, identifying demographic factors associated with purchasing habits is a prerequisite to promoting healthy eating. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations of age, gender, education and income level with purchasing of healthful foods through the use of a grocery voucher in a rural food desert (poverty rate of ≥20% and ≥33% of residents living >16 km from a large grocery store) with high rates of chronic disease. The effectiveness of an intervention that included a media campaign, a $5 grocery voucher, local heart healthy food branding and a grocery store event was tested. Brief nutritional articles were published in both local newspapers during four consecutive weeks. These articles explained the physiological actions of healthy foods and listed a health-promoting recipe. During the fourth week of the media campaign, a voucher for a $5 grocery gift card redeemable at one of either community grocery stores was also printed in both local newspapers. In each store, foods that are known to be associated with a reduced risk of CVD were marked with a blue logo. Participants (N=311) completed a questionnaire that assessed demographics and usual servings of fruits, vegetables and grains. Participants received a $5 grocery card and a list of labelled foods. Returned grocery receipts were stapled to the questionnaires to analyse the relationship between demographics and food choices. Participants who bought at least one labelled food item were older (M=48.5, SD=14.7) than those who did not buy

  1. School Violence: Data & Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Social Media Publications Injury Center School Violence: Data & Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The first ... fact sheet provides up-to-date data and statistics on youth violence. Data Sources Indicators of School ...

  2. Effects of school reformon education and labor market performance: Evidence from Chile’s universal voucher system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, David; Mukhopadhyay, Sankar; Todd, Petra E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of school reform in Chile, which adopted a nationwide school voucher program along with school decentralization reforms in 1981. Since then, Chile has had a relatively unregulated, competitive market in primary and secondary education. It therefore provides a unique setting in which to study how these reforms affected school attainment and labor market outcomes. This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of school attendance and work decisions using panel data from the 2002 and 2004 waves of the Encuesta de Protección Social survey. Some individuals in the sample completed their schooling before the voucher reforms were introduced, while others had the option of using the vouchers over part or all of their schooling careers. The impacts of the voucher reform are identified from differences in the schooling and work choices made and earnings returns received by similar aged individuals who were differentially exposed to the voucher system. Simulations based on the estimated model show that the voucher reform significantly increased the demand for private subsidized schools and decreased the demand for both public and nonsubsidized private schools. It increased high school (grades 9–12) graduation rates by 3.6 percentage points and the percentage completing at least two years of college by 2.6 percentage points. Individuals from poor and non-poor backgrounds on average experienced similar schooling attainment gains. The reform also increased lifetime utility and modestly reduced earnings inequality. PMID:22059095

  3. Borders, Violence, Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER DE LUCAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between violence, law and borders by analyzing both the violence at the borders and the violence of the borders. In both cases, the author states that violence exerted by means of law, as well as migratory and asylum policies, threaten the universal human rights of the most vulnerable people and cannot be seen as exercising the legitimate monopoly of force, resulting in the destruction of the Rule of Law.

  4. [Sexuality and violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, G; Vlatkovic, D

    2011-03-23

    Violence is only a form of excessive aggressiveness, hence we ask ourselves if it is something naturel or if it is something produced by society. Sexual violence in particular could express a sort of vehemence as well as attain a destructive intention, losing even any eroticism, as observed very frequently in rape. Instead of describing different manifestations of violence, it is more profitable to try to explain the deep origin of violence itself.

  5. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (

  6. A Nation of Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Richard M.; Chalker, Donald M.

    1999-01-01

    The United States leads the developed world in youth violence, with the highest homicide and suicide rates among young people. Exposure starts early. To reduce violence in U.S. schools, we must control handguns, abolish television violence, isolate violent students, and change the ways that juvenile offenders are punished. (MLH)

  7. Financing long term care under Medicaid: competitive bidding, vouchers and expenditure matching in an HMO framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, A J

    1983-01-01

    Within the framework of a Long Term Care--HMO, a series of innovative financing mechanisms are proposed to encourage efficiency, reduce cost increases and promote the quality of long term care. Competitive bidding is used to set prices for long term care. Based upon these competitively set prices, HMO enrollees are given long term care vouchers with which to purchase care. Cost savings, arising from choices of care less expensive than the value of the voucher, are shared with the enrollee and the case management team. Incentive payments to this team are made only after a quality of care review. A portion of the payment to the long term care provider is set aside as a quality assurance withhold. If quality of care is inadequate, the withhold is forfeit.

  8. Day treatment for cocaine dependence: incremental utility over outpatient counseling and voucher incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Douglas B; Kirby, Kimberly C; Festinger, David S; Merikle, Elizabeth P; Tran, Giao Q; Platt, Jerome J

    2003-03-01

    Urban, poor, crack cocaine-dependent clients were randomly assigned to outpatient addiction counseling (n=39) or day treatment (n=40). Participants in both conditions received equivalent individual cognitive-behavioral counseling and earned equivalent payment vouchers for providing cocaine-negative urine samples. However, day treatment participants attended significantly more psychoeducational and recreational groups and received two meals per day. Prior to random assignment, more participants expressed a preference for day treatment and participants were more likely to return for an initial appointment following assignment to day treatment. However, no significant between-groups differences in tenure or abstinence were detected during the 3-month course of treatment. These null findings were attributable to an absence of a dose-response effect for the group interventions in the day treatment condition. In addition, there may have been a ceiling effect from the vouchers, which masked the influence of the additional day treatment components.

  9. Purchases Made with a Fruit and Vegetable Voucher in a Rural Mexican-Heritage Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanbury, Meagan M; Gomez-Camacho, Rosa; Kaiser, Lucia; Sadeghi, Banafsheh; de la Torre, Adela

    2017-03-31

    Recent recommendations for US food assistance programs are intended to ensure foods provided through these programs help households consume a varied, healthful diet. From a policy viewpoint, it is important to examine the impact of economic incentives to purchase healthy foods across subpopulations, particularly low-income Latinos, who comprise 40% of the WIC program nationwide. Our aim was to determine how rural, Mexican-heritage households (N = 227) residing in California's Central Valley distributed fruit and vegetable (F/V) voucher spending among F/V subgroups and specific items over a 1-year period. Households contained at least one child who was between 3 and 8 years old at baseline and had a parent of Mexican-heritage. F/V voucher purchase data were collected via grocery store scanners. Expenditure and frequency shares of subgroups and individual items were analyzed to determine purchasing habits. Fruits were the most commonly purchased subgroup, representing 55% of spending and 45% of frequency. Households allocated low percentages of their voucher to dark green and red/orange vegetables-7 and 9% respectively. Approximately 20% of purchases were good potassium sources and 30% of purchases were good fiber sources. Many of the most frequently purchased items were of cultural significance (tomatillo, chayote, chili/jalapeño pepper, and Mexican squash). This study suggests that economic incentives can contribute important nutrients to participants' diets and targeted vouchers provided by food assistance programs should continue to include culturally important foods and be aware of the cultural values of their participants.

  10. Costs and effects of the Tanzanian national voucher scheme for insecticide-treated nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Kara

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cost-effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs in reducing morbidity and mortality is well established. International focus has now moved on to how best to scale up coverage and what financing mechanisms might be used to achieve this. The approach in Tanzania has been to deliver a targeted subsidy for those most vulnerable to the effects of malaria while at the same time providing support to the development of the commercial ITN distribution system. In October 2004, with funds from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS Tuberculosis and Malaria, the government launched the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS, a nationwide discounted voucher scheme for ITNs for pregnant women and their infants. This paper analyses the costs and effects of the scheme and compares it with other approaches to distribution. Methods Economic costs were estimated using the ingredients approach whereby all resources required in the delivery of the intervention (including the user contribution are quantified and valued. Effects were measured in terms of number of vouchers used (and therefore nets delivered and treated nets years. Estimates were also made for the cost per malaria case and death averted. Results and Conclusion The total financial cost of the programme represents around 5% of the Ministry of Health's total budget. The average economic cost of delivering an ITN using the voucher scheme, including the user contribution, was $7.57. The cost-effectiveness results are within the benchmarks set by other malaria prevention studies. The Government of Tanzania's approach to scaling up ITNs uses both the public and private sectors in order to achieve and sustain the level of coverage required to meet the Abuja targets. The results presented here suggest that the TNVS is a cost-effective strategy for delivering subsidized ITNs to targeted vulnerable groups.

  11. Impulsivity and voucher versus money preference in polydrug-dependent participants enrolled in a contingency-management-based substance abuse treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, M P; Roll, J M; Downey, K K

    2000-10-01

    Thirty-four polydrug-dependent participants enrolled in a voucher-based substance abuse treatment program were given choices between hypothetical amounts of money and hypothetical amounts of vouchers, which are traded for goods and services, to determine their preferences for the two payment modalities. It was hypothesized that the majority of participants would prefer money to voucher because under the circumstances of the treatment program, the delay associated with money exchange is shorter than the delay associated with voucher exchange. It was further hypothesized that those participants who selected money over voucher also would have greater levels of impulsivity as assessed by the Barratt Impulsiveness Rating Scale (BIS) (Barratt, 1965). The results show large individual differences in money/voucher preference with approximately half of the participants preferring money to voucher when the two amounts are equivalent. In addition, as the magnitude of the money/voucher comparisons increased from 0.50 dollars to 32.00 dollars, the percentage of participants that preferred money increased. No correlations were found between money/voucher preference and impulsivity scores.

  12. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizire, J

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the prevalence of violence against women in Uganda. The incidence of violence against women has been increasing despite efforts by law enforcement orders. In the broadest sense, violence against women is any violation of a woman's personhood, mental or physical integrity or freedom of movement. Violence against women is considered as an obstacle to the achievement of the objectives of equality, development and peace. Moreover, the act violates and impairs women's rights and fundamental freedoms. The low social and economic status of women can be both a cause and a consequence of violence against women. Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, limit the ability to make choices on women's lives.

  13. Violence exposure and teen dating violence among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence.

  14. Symbolic Violence and Gendered Sexualised Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    individualising and pathologising gendered sexualised violence and personal difficulties connected hereto, consequently disregarding the important involvement of gendered and gendering societal processes (S. Ronkainen 2001). Also, its focus on the symbolic points to the central position of mass media...

  15. Veto Violence - Violence Education Tools Online

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VetoViolence.cdc.gov has been developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide grantees and partners with access to training and tools...

  16. Prevention of youth violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Philip J

    2005-01-01

    Youth violence is widely recognized as a major public health problem. Concern over the number of youth affected by violence in their homes, communities, and in schools has precipitated considerable discussion in the popular press and in professional journals. This article reviews recent activity to reduce youth violence with an emphasis on activity taking place in Maryland. The number of youth murdered or exposed to violence in Maryland remains too high. Although most of our youth are resilient, they are not unaffected by the violence that surrounds them. Exposure to violence places children at high risk for a variety of emotional and behavioral problems, such as poor academic performance, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and inadequate socialization and development.

  17. Extending Access to Low-Cost Private Schools through Vouchers: An Alternative Interpretation of a Two-Stage "School Choice" Experiment in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, James

    2016-01-01

    Muralidharan and Sundararaman report a randomised controlled trial of a school voucher experiment in Andhra Pradesh, India. The headline findings are that there are no significant academic differences between voucher winners and losers in Telugu, mathematics, English, and science/social studies, although because the private schools appear to use…

  18. Can a comprehensive voucher programme prompt changes in doctors' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to sexual and reproductive health care for adolescents? A case study from Latin America.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, L.E.; Gorter, A.C.; Kester, A.D.M.; Knottnerus, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether participation in a competitive voucher programme designed to improve access to and quality of sexual and reproductive health care (SRH-care), prompted changes in doctors' knowledge, attitudes and practices. METHODS: The voucher programme provided free access to SRH-ca

  19. Can a comprehensive voucher programme prompt changes in doctors' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to sexual and reproductive health care for adolescents? A case study from Latin America.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, L.E.; Gorter, A.C.; Kester, A.D.M.; Knottnerus, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether participation in a competitive voucher programme designed to improve access to and quality of sexual and reproductive health care (SRH-care), prompted changes in doctors' knowledge, attitudes and practices. METHODS: The voucher programme provided free access to SRH-ca

  20. Extending Access to Low-Cost Private Schools through Vouchers: An Alternative Interpretation of a Two-Stage "School Choice" Experiment in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, James

    2016-01-01

    Muralidharan and Sundararaman report a randomised controlled trial of a school voucher experiment in Andhra Pradesh, India. The headline findings are that there are no significant academic differences between voucher winners and losers in Telugu, mathematics, English, and science/social studies, although because the private schools appear to use…

  1. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts....... In this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....

  2. Violence and Mental Illness

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, includi...

  3. Political Power and Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca Mitu; Pamfil Nichiţelea

    2011-01-01

    Political violence plays a huge role in public affairs and people's behavior, requiring both knowledge and rigorous research in many of its occurrences and its consequences for the proper management, organization and functioning of a society as a whole. Although political violence is a problem of a particular importance in our social life it is not analyzed and investigated in the scientific literature. Political violence it is a subject that usually passes into oblivion. This study presents ...

  4. Violence against Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experience); witnessing family violence (perpetration and experience); antisocial personality disorder (perpetration); harmful use of alcohol (perpetration and experience); having multiple partners or suspected by their partners of infidelity ( ...

  5. Violence as Situational Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle H. Treiber

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Violence comes in many forms and occurs in many different circumstances for many different reasons. Is it really possible to develop a single theory that can explain all these disparate acts? In this paper, we argue it is. We make the case that acts of violence are essentially moral actions and therefore can, and should, be analysed and explained as such. We maintain that all acts of violence can be explained within the general framework of a theory of moral action. We present just such a theory – Situational Action Theory – and demonstrate how it can be applied to the explanation and study of violence.

  6. Media violence and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresin, E V

    1999-06-01

    This column reviews the literature on violence in the media and its effects on youth. The author summarizes the findings of naturalistic, longitudinal, and population-based studies conducted over the last 30 years. The literature provides compelling evidence that exposure of media violence to children plays a major role in the etiology of aggressive behavior. Psychiatrists can facilitate primary prevention of violence in our society by discussing the problem of media violence with parents, medical students, residents, and allied health and school professionals.

  7. A Ubiquitous NFC Solution for the Development of Tailored Marketing Strategies Based on Discount Vouchers and Loyalty Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Gómez-Nieto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of the global economic turmoil, nowadays a lot of companies are adopting a “deal of the day” business model, some of them with great success. Generally, they try to attract and retain customers through discount coupons and gift cards, using, generally, traditional distribution media. This paper describes a framework, which integrates intelligent environments by using NFC, oriented to the full management of this kind of businesses. The system is responsible for diffusion, distribution, sourcing, validation, redemption and managing of vouchers, loyalty cards and all kind of mobile coupons using NFC, as well as QR codes. WingBonus can be fully adapted to the requirements of marketing campaigns, voucher providers, shop or retailer infrastructures and mobile devices and purchasing habits. Security of the voucher is granted by the system by synchronizing procedures using secure encriptation algorithms. The WingBonus website and mobile applications can be adapted to any requirement of the system actors.

  8. A ubiquitous NFC solution for the development of tailored marketing strategies based on discount vouchers and loyalty cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego-Jaraba, Francisco; Garrido, Pilar Castro; García, Gonzalo Cerruela; Ruiz, Irene Luque; Gómez-Nieto, Miguel Angel

    2013-05-14

    Because of the global economic turmoil, nowadays a lot of companies are adopting a "deal of the day" business model, some of them with great success. Generally, they try to attract and retain customers through discount coupons and gift cards, using, generally, traditional distribution media. This paper describes a framework, which integrates intelligent environments by using NFC, oriented to the full management of this kind of businesses. The system is responsible for diffusion, distribution, sourcing, validation, redemption and managing of vouchers, loyalty cards and all kind of mobile coupons using NFC, as well as QR codes. WingBonus can be fully adapted to the requirements of marketing campaigns, voucher providers, shop or retailer infrastructures and mobile devices and purchasing habits. Security of the voucher is granted by the system by synchronizing procedures using secure encriptation algorithms. The WingBonus website and mobile applications can be adapted to any requirement of the system actors.

  9. A Policy Analysis of the implementation of a Reproductive Health Vouchers Program in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuya Timothy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Innovative financing strategies such as those that integrate supply and demand elements like the output-based approach (OBA have been implemented to reduce financial barriers to maternal health services. The Kenyan government with support from the German Development Bank (KfW implemented an OBA voucher program to subsidize priority reproductive health services. Little evidence exists on the experience of implementing such programs in different settings. We describe the implementation process of the Kenyan OBA program and draw implications for scale up. Methods Policy analysis using document review and qualitative data from 10 in-depth interviews with facility in-charges and 18 with service providers from the contracted facilities, local administration, health and field managers in Kitui, Kiambu and Kisumu districts as well as Korogocho and Viwandani slums in Nairobi. Results The OBA implementation process was designed in phases providing an opportunity for learning and adapting the lessons to local settings; the design consisted of five components: a defined benefit package, contracting and quality assurance; marketing and distribution of vouchers and claims processing and reimbursement. Key implementation challenges included limited feedback to providers on the outcomes of quality assurance and accreditation and budgetary constraints that limited effective marketing leading to inadequate information to clients on the benefit package. Claims processing and reimbursement was sophisticated but required adherence to time consuming procedures and in some cases private providers complained of low reimbursement rates for services provided. Conclusions OBA voucher schemes can be implemented successfully in similar settings. For effective scale up, strong partnership will be required between the public and private entities. The government’s role is key and should include provision of adequate funding, stewardship and looking for

  10. The effects of cash transfers and vouchers on the use and quality of maternity care services: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Benjamin M.; Harrison, Sean; Portela, Anayda; Bick, Debra

    2017-01-01

    Background Cash transfers and vouchers are forms of ‘demand-side financing’ that have been widely used to promote maternal and newborn health in low- and middle-income countries during the last 15 years. Methods This systematic review consolidates evidence from seven published systematic reviews on the effects of different types of cash transfers and vouchers on the use and quality of maternity care services, and updates the systematic searches to June 2015 using the Joanna Briggs Institute approach for systematic reviewing. The review protocol for this update was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42015020637). Results Data from 51 studies (15 more than previous reviews) and 22 cash transfer and voucher programmes suggest that approaches tied to service use (either via payment conditionalities or vouchers for selected services) can increase use of antenatal care, use of a skilled attendant at birth and in the case of vouchers, postnatal care too. The strongest evidence of positive effect was for conditional cash transfers and uptake of antenatal care, and for vouchers for maternity care services and birth with a skilled birth attendant. However, effects appear to be shaped by a complex set of social and healthcare system barriers and facilitators. Studies have typically focused on an initial programme period, usually two or three years after initiation, and many lack a counterfactual comparison with supply-side investment. There are few studies to indicate that programmes have led to improvements in quality of maternity care or maternal and newborn health outcomes. Conclusion Future research should use multiple intervention arms to compare cost-effectiveness with similar investment in public services, and should look beyond short- to medium-term service utilisation by examining programme costs, longer-term effects on service utilisation and health outcomes, and the equity of those effects. PMID:28328940

  11. Voucher-based reinforcement for alcohol abstinence using the ethyl-glucuronide alcohol biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonell, Michael G; Howell, Donelle N; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M; Ries, Richard K

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase. The percentage of negative urines was 35% during the first baseline phase, 69% during the C phase, and 20% during the return-to-baseline phase. Results suggest that EtG urine tests may be a feasible method to deliver CM to promote alcohol abstinence.

  12. Family Violence and Violence against Children. Research Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghate, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the research literature on physical violence against children, including disciplinary tactics and abusive violence. Considers the incidence and prevalence of violence against children, key themes in research on causes, correlates and consequences of this violence, and future research needs. (JPB)

  13. Stopping the Violence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Atwo-day seminar on legislation aimed at curbing domestic violence was held in Nanjing in east China's Jiangsu Province on December 9-11,2009. Foreign and domestic experts discussed a proposed law on the prevention and control of domestic violence that was drafted by the All-China Women's Federation (ACWF).

  14. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts. ...

  15. Domestic violence against men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Christopher F

    This article reviews the literature relating to domestic violence against men and examines some of the reasons why men are reluctant to report violent episodes. The article focuses on men as the victims and women as the perpetrators of domestic violence and identifies gaps in service provision. The role of the nurse in supporting male victims is also discussed.

  16. [Children, television and violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zann, M

    2000-03-01

    The relationships between children and television are a source of heated debate. Several studies, mainly conducted in North America, have found a correlation between television violence viewing and aggressive behavior, preadolescents appearing as the most vulnerable. However, in France opinions are more nuanced and one generally considers that television-induced violence in children mainly depends upon individual and educative socio-familial factors.

  17. Children and Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Timothy P.

    1973-01-01

    The question of whether violence depicted on television causes viewers to act aggressively is meaningless because it implies a simple "yes" or "no" response. Effects of mass media depend on the types of viewers and content as well as the conditions of message reception. Television violence can affect the behavior of children on some occasions.…

  18. School Violence in Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Naomi

    This booklet is intended to help parents and teacher activists think critically about the problem of violence in their schools and about how to respond. The booklet offers a framework for analyzing violence prevention programs that may already be in place in the schools, and it provides ideas for improving programs or starting new ones. The…

  19. Preventing School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

    2011-01-01

    School violence has mushroomed into a devastating epidemic and is deteriorating the basic foundation of education. In this article, the author will present several teaching strategies for preventing school violence from becoming an arduous enigma within the classroom and school environments, and focus on assessment and reflection in order to…

  20. Children and Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Timothy P.

    1973-01-01

    The question of whether violence depicted on television causes viewers to act aggressively is meaningless because it implies a simple "yes" or "no" response. Effects of mass media depend on the types of viewers and content as well as the conditions of message reception. Television violence can affect the behavior of children on some occasions.…

  1. Researching Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtzel, Alan; Lometti, Guy

    1984-01-01

    Two officals from the American Broadcasting Companies (ABC) (1) review a 1982 National Institute of Mental Health Study on television and violence, and (2) summarize the broadcast standards, practices, policies, and procedures employed by the network regarding the depiction of violence. (GC)

  2. [Violence against children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegenhain, Ute; Künster, Anne Katrin; Besier, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Violence against children is a widespread phenomenon. Interpersonal violence within the family context is typical in childhood, whereas violence occurs more frequently in the leisure and peer context during adolescence, often involving new media. The risk for experiencing violence is associated with many different factors, for example the age, psychosocial context, and cultural background of a child. Data on the prevalence of violence vary by country, depending on the available documentation systems. It is estimated that the number of unreported cases is high. Meta-analyses comprising mainly retrospective self-report studies indicate prevalence estimates between 12 and 19% for neglect, physical, and sexual abuse. Emotional child abuse is reported far more often, with a prevalence as high as 36.3%. German studies, however, weren't able to replicate these international findings. Here, child emotional abuse is reported less often. Violence against children has many negative consequences for physical, emotional, and psychosocial development. Violence prevention therefore comprises different international and national programs and strategies, which are able to successfully reduce violence against children. Programs focusing on the promotion of adequate parenting behavior show especially promising results.

  3. Media Violence: Q & A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock; Strasburger

    1993-10-01

    In a question-and-answer format, the authors survey the problem of violence in American television and movies. Central themes include the extent of violent content, the manner in which violence is portrayed, research methodology for studying the effects of violent content on children and adolescents, common myths related to the issue, and strategies for effecting change.

  4. Media Violence and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebel, Jo

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of the UNESCO global study on media violence and children which was conducted between 1996 and 1997. Highlights include the role of the media, media heroes as role models, media violence and aggression, differences by gender, rural versus urban environments, the pervasiveness of television, and recommendations. (Author/LRW)

  5. [Violence against children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The Convention of Human Rights defines violence as "all forms of physical or mental violence, injury and abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse". Violence against children cuts across boundaries of geography, race, class, religion and culture. It occurs in homes, schools and streets ; in places of work and entertainment, and in care and detention centers. Perpetrators include parents, family members, teachers, caretakers, law enforcement authorities and other children. Some children are particularly vulnerable because of gender, race, ethnic origin, disability or social status. And no country is immune, whether rich or poor. Although the consequences of violence for children may vary according to its nature and severity, the short- and long-term repercussions are very often grave and damaging. Violence may result in greater susceptibility to lifelong social, emotional, and cognitive impairments and to health-risk behaviors, such as substance abuse and early initiation of sexual behavior. Governments are ultimately responsible for the protection of children. It is therefore up to governments to act now, to fulfill their human rights obligations and other commitments, to ensure the protection of children from all forms of violence. Violence against children is never justifiable. Nor is it inevitable. After providing a global picture of violence against children, we propose recommendations to prevent and respond to this issue.

  6. Various Viewpoints on Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Bonita; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents four articles addressing various aspects of violence in the context of children's everyday life: video game violence, gun play, violent children's television programming, and war play. Proposes possible developmentally appropriate solutions. Urges teachers, parents, and the community in general to actively work to provide a safer, saner…

  7. Ethnicities and violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    Ethnicities and Violence Bodil Pedersen, University of Roskilde A recent publication (Thiara, Condon and Schröttle 2011) presents and discusses questions concerning diverse forms of violence against women from ethnic minorities in Europe. The issue raises unsolved questions of how to study...... as violence and what meanings do we attribute to it? What meanings does gender and ethnicities have for diverse participants in violent relations? What are their societal consequences and how do we study these? Central is also how we conceptualise and study questions concerning violence in minorised as well...... as against ethnic communities. On one hand our research should allow for conceptualising and studying specific practices in these communities. On the other hand - risking repeating and supporting dominant discourses of gendered violence as characteristic for them – we do not intend to represent them...

  8. Ethnicities and violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    Ethnicities and Violence Bodil Pedersen, University of Roskilde A recent publication (Thiara, Condon and Schröttle 2011) presents and discusses questions concerning diverse forms of violence against women from ethnic minorities in Europe. The issue raises unsolved questions of how to study...... as violence and what meanings do we attribute to it? What meanings does gender and ethnicities have for diverse participants in violent relations? What are their societal consequences and how do we study these? Central is also how we conceptualise and study questions concerning violence in minorised as well...... as against ethnic communities. On one hand our research should allow for conceptualising and studying specific practices in these communities. On the other hand - risking repeating and supporting dominant discourses of gendered violence as characteristic for them – we do not intend to represent them...

  9. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  10. Symbolic Violence and Gendered Sexualised Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    sexualised phenomena such as rape and prostitution, it is often assumed that full equality of the sexes has been achieved. The concept of symbolic violence implies the participation of both men and women in aspects of discourses and other social practices related to gendering and thus to gendered sexualised...... individualising and pathologising gendered sexualised violence and personal difficulties connected hereto, consequently disregarding the important involvement of gendered and gendering societal processes (S. Ronkainen 2001). Also, its focus on the symbolic points to the central position of mass media......It has been suggested, that Bourdieu ´s concept of symbolic violence is useful in explaining gendered phenomena of late modern western societies, which can no longer simply be understood as classic patriarchies (B. Krais 1993). In these societies, and in spite of the existence of gendered...

  11. Violence against emergency department employees and the attitude of employees towards violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çıkrıklar, H Í; Yürümez, Y; Güngör, B; Aşkın, R; Yücel, M; Baydemir, C

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of violent incidents in the workplace among the various professional groups working in the emergency department. We characterised the types of violence encountered by different occupation groups and the attitude of individuals working in different capacities. This cross-sectional study included 323 people representing various professional groups working in two distinct emergency departments in Turkey. The participants were asked to complete questionnaires prepared in advance by the researchers. The data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (Windows version 15.0). A total of 323 subjects including 189 (58.5%) men and 134 (41.5%) women participated in the study. Their mean (± standard deviation) age was 31.5 ± 6.5 years and 32.0 ± 6.9 years, respectively. In all, 74.0% of participants had been subjected to verbal or physical violence at any point since starting employment in a medical profession. Moreover, 50.2% of participants stated that they had been subjected to violence for more than 5 times. Among those who reported being subjected to violence, 42.7% had formally reported the incident(s). Besides, 74.3% of participants did not enjoy their profession, did not want to work in the emergency department, or would prefer employment in a non-health care field after being subjected to violence. According to the study participants, the most common cause of violence was the attitude of patients or their family members (28.7%). In addition, 79.6% (n=257) of participants stated that they did not have adequate safety protection in their working area. According to the study participants, there is a need for legal regulations to effectively deter violence and increased safety measures designed to reduce the incidence of violence in the emergency department. Violence against employees in the emergency department is a widespread problem. This situation has a strong negative effect on employee

  12. 78 FR 64245 - AG Survey of Transitional Housing Assistance for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Survey of Transitional Housing Assistance for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Stalking, or... Transitional Housing Assistance Program Grant for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Stalking, or... 300 Transitional Housing Assistance Program Grant for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating...

  13. The "wild shot": photography for more biology in natural history collections, not for replacing vouchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrouste, Romain

    2017-05-24

    Recently a correspondence in Zootaxa (Ceríaco et al., 2016) with more than 450 signatories including taxonomists, curators and other taxonomy users from all continents has received wide attention and has stimulated extensive discussion (a true buzz) around the possible interpretations of the Code (ICZN) about photography in taxonomy (Researchgate website link). This short note was necessary to recall the necessity of preserved specimens as vouchers for taxonomy, in response to photography-based taxonomy (PBT) as defended by Pape et al. (2016), and in a broad sense, for all the life sciences. This had been widely discussed and argued by Dubois & Nemésio (2007) who concluded on the importance of vouchers in taxonomy. But if the subject of these papers and discussions are about photography as the only way to document a new species, none of them discussed really what photography could represent in enhancing knowledge in natural sciences based on collections of specimens including type series and in association with other media (video and sound).

  14. Voucher educacional: nova e discutível panacéia para a América Latina Educational voucher: a new and debatable panacea for Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cosse

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe-se a analisar as matrizes teóricas do sistema de voucher educacional, o qual consiste no subsídio oferecido pelo Estado às famílias, para que elas paguem a escola em que desejam que seus filhos estudem. Formula uma crítica aos vários pressupostos do sistema, fornece informações que desmentem conclusões centrais da proposta e sintetiza resultados de algumas experiências de adoção do voucher em diferentes países, detendo-se particularmente nas realizadas na Argentina, Chile e Uruguai.The purpose of this article is to analyze the theoretical matrixes of the educational voucher system that consists of subsidies provided by the state, so families can pay for the school in which they want their children to study. It criticizes several premises of the system, provides information which challenges central conclusions of the proposal and synthesizes results of some experiments in adopting the voucher system in different countries, examining especially the ones carried out in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay.

  15. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior) abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and developmen...

  16. Does a competitive voucher program for adolescents improve the quality of reproductive health care? A simulated patient study in Nicaragua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, L.E.; Gorter, A.C.; Kester, A.D.M.; Knottnerus, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how sexual and reproductive (SRH) health can be made accessible and appropriate to adolescents. This study evaluates the impact and sustainability of a competitive voucher program on the quality of SRH care for poor and underserved female adolescents and the usefuln

  17. Religious Values and Tuition Vouchers: An Empirical Case Study of Parent Religiosity as a Factor of School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether parent religiosity is a statistically significant school choice factor. The Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) was administered to 215 parents in an urban, PreK-12 religious private school that participated in the Ohio Educational Choice (EdChoice) voucher program. The null hypothesis that there was…

  18. Short-Run Effects of Accountability Pressures on Teacher Policies and Practices in the Voucher System in Santiago, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Martínez, Matías; Santos, Humberto; Urbina, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This research analyzes the impact of the Adjusted Voucher Law´s school rankings on low-performing schools in Santiago, Chile, and provides evidence on the effects of the pressures of accountability systems on teacher policies and practices. The empirical strategy is based on the fact that schools are ranked according to their position on a set of…

  19. Religious Values and Tuition Vouchers: An Empirical Case Study of Parent Religiosity as a Factor of School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether parent religiosity is a statistically significant school choice factor. The Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) was administered to 215 parents in an urban, PreK-12 religious private school that participated in the Ohio Educational Choice (EdChoice) voucher program. The null hypothesis that there was…

  20. Educational Vouchers and Social Cohesion: A Statistical Analysis of Student Civic Attitudes in Sweden, 1999-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Myers, John P.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the Swedish national educational voucher scheme and changes in social cohesion. We conduct a statistical analysis using data from the 1999 and 2009 rounds of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's civic education study of 14-year-old students and their attitudes toward the rights of ethnic…

  1. Perceived quality of reproductive care for girls in a competitive voucher programma: a quasi-experimental intervention study, Managua, Nicaragua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, S.G.M.; Gorter, A.C.; Knottnerus, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether female adolescents from low-income areas in Managua were satisfied with the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care provided through a competitive voucher programme and to analyse the determinants of their satisfaction. Design: A community-based quasi-experimental i

  2. Market-Based Higher Education: Does Colorado's Voucher Model Improve Higher Education Access and Efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Tandberg, David A.; Gross, Jacob P. K.

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, Colorado introduced the nation's first voucher model for financing public higher education. With state appropriations now allocated to students, rather than institutions, state officials expect this model to create cost efficiencies while also expanding college access. Using difference-in-difference regression analysis, we find…

  3. Segregation Levels in Milwaukee Public Schools and the Milwaukee Voucher Program. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    This study compares segregation levels in Milwaukee public schools and in private schools participating in the Milwaukee voucher program. Using a segregation index that measures the difference between the percent of students in a school who are white and the percentage of school-age children in the greater metro area who are white, it finds that…

  4. The Tension between Parents' Informed Choice and School Transparency: Consumerism in the Hong Kong Education Voucher Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Kit Ho; Lam, Chi Chung

    2012-01-01

    Voucher systems are based on the theoretical assumption that giving parents a choice of schools subjects institutions to the mechanism of market forces, which, in turn, pushes them to reform their services. While the ability of parents to make sound educational choices on behalf of their children is questioned by opponents of school choice,…

  5. Educational Vouchers and Social Cohesion: A Statistical Analysis of Student Civic Attitudes in Sweden, 1999-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Myers, John P.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the Swedish national educational voucher scheme and changes in social cohesion. We conduct a statistical analysis using data from the 1999 and 2009 rounds of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's civic education study of 14-year-old students and their attitudes toward the rights of…

  6. 78 FR 25295 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... for Policy Development and Research, HUD. ACTION: Notice of Final Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 Fair Market.... Kahn, Economic and Market Analysis Division, Office of Economic Affairs, Office of Policy Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and...

  7. Does a competitive voucher program for adolescents improve the quality of reproductive health care? A simulated patient study in Nicaragua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, L.E.; Gorter, A.C.; Kester, A.D.M.; Knottnerus, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how sexual and reproductive (SRH) health can be made accessible and appropriate to adolescents. This study evaluates the impact and sustainability of a competitive voucher program on the quality of SRH care for poor and underserved female adolescents and the usefuln

  8. Evaluation of the impact of the voucher and accreditation approach on improving reproductive behaviors and RH status: Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Moshiur

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost of delivering reproductive health services to low-income populations will always require total or partial subsidization by the government and/or development partners. Broadly termed "Demand-Side Financing" or "Output-Based Aid", includes a range of interventions that channel government or donor subsidies to the service user rather than the service provider. Initial findings from the few assessments of reproductive health voucher-and-accreditation programs suggest that, if implemented well, these programs have great potential for achieving the policy objectives of increasing access and use, reducing inequities and enhancing program efficiency and service quality. At this point in time, however, there is a paucity of evidence describing how the various voucher programs function in different settings, for various reproductive health services. Methods/Design Population Council-Nairobi, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, intends to address the lack of evidence around the pros and cons of 'voucher and accreditation' approaches to improving the reproductive health of low income women in five developing countries. In Bangladesh, the activities will be conducted in 11 accredited health facilities where Demand Side Financing program is being implemented and compared with populations drawn from areas served by similar non-accredited facilities. Facility inventories, client exit interviews and service provider interviews will be used to collect comparable data across each facility for assessing readiness and quality of care. In-depth interviews with key stakeholders will be conducted to gain a deeper understanding about the program. A population-based survey will also be carried out in two types of locations: areas where vouchers are distributed and similar locations where vouchers are not distributed. Discussion This is a quasi-experimental study which will investigate the impact of the voucher approach on improving

  9. Introducing vouchers for malaria prevention in Ghana and Tanzania: context and adoption of innovation in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Savigny, Don; Webster, Jayne; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Mwita, Alex; Bart-Plange, Constance; Baffoe-Wilmot, Aba; Koenker, Hannah; Kramer, Karen; Brown, Nick; Lengeler, Christian

    2012-10-01

    There are striking similarities in health system and other contexts between Tanzania and Ghana that are relevant to the scaling up of continuous delivery of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) for malaria prevention. However, specific contextual factors of relevance to ITN delivery have led implementation down very different pathways in the two countries. Both countries have made major efforts and investments to address this intervention through integrating consumer discount vouchers into the health system. Discount vouchers require arrangements among the public, private and non-governmental sectors and constitute a complex intervention in both health systems and business systems. In Tanzania, vouchers have moved beyond the planning agenda, had policies and programmes formulated, been sustained in implementation at national scale for many years and have become as of 2012 the main and only publicly supported continuous delivery system for ITNs. In Ghana national-scale implementation of vouchers never progressed beyond consideration on the agenda and piloting towards formulation of policy; and the approach was replaced by mass distribution campaigns with less dependency on or integration with the health system. By 2011, Ghana entered a phase with no publicly supported continuous delivery system for ITNs. To understand the different outcomes, we compared the voucher programme timelines, phases, processes and contexts in both countries in reference to the main health system building blocks (governance, human resources, financing, informatics, technologies and service delivery). Contextual factors which provided an enabling environment for the voucher scheme in Tanzania did not do so in Ghana. The voucher scheme was never seen as an appropriate national strategy, other delivery systems were not complementary and the private sector was under-developed. The extensive time devoted to engagement and consensus building among all stakeholders in Tanzania was an important and

  10. Evaluation of the impact of the voucher and accreditation approach on improving reproductive health behaviors and status in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njue Rebecca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abtsract Background Alternatives to the traditional 'supply-side' approach to financing service delivery are being explored. These strategies are termed results-based finance, demand-side health financing or output-based aid which includes a range of interventions that channel government or donor subsidies to the user rather than the provider. Initial pilot assessments of reproductive health voucher programs suggest that, they can increase access and use, reducing inequities and enhancing program efficiency and service quality. However, there is a paucity of evidence describing how the programs function in different settings, for various reproductive health services. Population Council, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, intends to generate evidence around the 'voucher and accreditation' approaches to improving the reproductive health of low income women in Kenya. Methods/Design A quasi-experimental study will investigate the impact of the voucher approach on improving reproductive health behaviors, reproductive health status and reducing inequities at the population level; and assessing the effect of vouchers on increasing access to, and quality of, and reducing inequities in the use of selected reproductive health services. The study comprises of four populations: facilities, providers, women of reproductive health age using facilities and women and men who have been pregnant and/or used family planning within the previous 12 months. The study will be carried out in samples of health facilities - public, private and faith-based in: three districts; Kisumu, Kiambu, Kitui and two informal settlements in Nairobi which are accredited to provide maternal and newborn health and family planning services to women holding vouchers for the services; and compared with a matched sample of non-accredited facilities. Health facility assessments (HFA will be conducted at two stages to track temporal changes in quality of care and utilization

  11. Impact of social franchising on contraceptive use when complemented by vouchers: a quasi-experimental study in rural Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Khurram Azmat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pakistan has had a low contraceptive prevalence rate for the last two decades; with preference for natural birth spacing methods and condoms. Family planning services offered by the public sector have never fulfilled the demand for contraception, particularly in rural areas. In the private sector, cost is a major constraint. In 2008, Marie Stopes Society - a local NGO started a social franchise programme along with a free voucher scheme to promote uptake of IUCDs amongst the poor. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of this approach, which is designed to increase modern long term contraceptive awareness and use in rural areas of Pakistan. METHODOLOGY: We used a quasi-experimental study design with controls, selecting one intervention district and one control district from the Sindh and Punjab provinces. In each district, we chose a total of four service providers. A baseline survey was carried out among 4,992 married women of reproductive age (MWRA in February 2009. Eighteen months after the start of intervention, an independent endline survey was conducted among 4,003 women. We used multilevel logistic regression for analysis using Stata 11. RESULTS: Social franchising used alongside free vouchers for long term contraceptive choices significantly increased the awareness of modern contraception. Awareness increased by 5% in the intervention district. Similarly, the ever use of modern contraceptive increased by 28.5%, and the overall contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 19.6%. A significant change (11.1% was recorded in the uptake of IUCDs, which were being promoted with vouchers. CONCLUSION: Family planning franchise model promotes awareness and uptake of contraceptives. Moreover, supplemented with vouchers, it may enhance the use of IUCDs, which have a significant cost attached. Our research also supports a multi-pronged approach- generating demand through counselling, overcoming financial constraints by offering vouchers

  12. Increasing Healthy Start food and vitamin voucher uptake for low income pregnant women (Early Years Collaborative Leith Pioneer Site).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Graham; Dougall, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Poverty has a detrimental impact on health and wellbeing. Healthy Start food and vitamin vouchers provide support for low income families across the UK, but at least 25% of eligible women and children miss out. We set out to increase uptake, with an aim of 90% of eligible women and children (n~540 eligible, varying over time) receiving vouchers in the initial team's catchment area by December 2015. Starting with one midwife and one pregnant woman in March 2014 we used the model for improvement to identify ways to improve documentation, sign up, and referral. Weekly data on process measures and monthly data on voucher receipt were plotted on run charts. Comparing medians for January-June 2014 and March-August 2015 there was a 13.3% rise in voucher receipt in Lothian (increase from 313 to 355 women), versus an 8.4% decline for the rest of Scotland (fall from 1688 to 1546 women). Figures varied by team, influenced by staff, family, and area factors. The initial aim proved unrealistic, as signing up a woman for vouchers increases both the numerator and denominator. Accordingly, the percentage uptake has not increased at a regional level (remains at 75%), though the figure for the initiating team ("team 3" in graphs) has increased from 73.0% (January 2014) to 79.0% (November 2015). We have continued testing, achieving recent increases in the number of women referred for welfare rights advice on benefits, tax credits, employment rights, childcare, and debt, securing on average £4,500 per client during 2015/16 (£404k for 89 clients by mid September 2015). This improvement project, part of the Early Years Collaborative in Scotland, has had a measureable impact on pregnant women across Lothian. Success has relied on testing, an electronic maternity record, rapid dissemination of findings through direct engagement with clinical teams, and persistence. Our findings have relevance across the UK, particularly at a time of worsening finances for many families.

  13. Markets, voucher subsidies and free nets combine to achieve high bed net coverage in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrets Rene PM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania has a well-developed network of commercial ITN retailers. In 2004, the government introduced a voucher subsidy for pregnant women and, in mid 2005, helped distribute free nets to under-fives in small number of districts, including Rufiji on the southern coast, during a child health campaign. Contributions of these multiple insecticide-treated net delivery strategies existing at the same time and place to coverage in a poor rural community were assessed. Methods Cross-sectional household survey in 6,331 members of randomly selected 1,752 households of 31 rural villages of Demographic Surveillance System in Rufiji district, Southern Tanzania was conducted in 2006. A questionnaire was administered to every consenting respondent about net use, treatment status and delivery mechanism. Findings Net use was 62.7% overall, 87.2% amongst infants (0 to1 year, 81.8% amongst young children (>1 to 5 years, 54.5% amongst older children (6 to 15 years and 59.6% amongst adults (>15 years. 30.2% of all nets had been treated six months prior to interview. The biggest source of nets used by infants was purchase from the private sector with a voucher subsidy (41.8%. Half of nets used by young children (50.0% and over a third of those used by older children (37.2% were obtained free of charge through the vaccination campaign. The largest source of nets amongst the population overall was commercial purchase (45.1% use and was the primary means for protecting adults (60.2% use. All delivery mechanisms, especially sale of nets at full market price, under-served the poorest but no difference in equity was observed between voucher-subsidized and freely distributed nets. Conclusion All three delivery strategies enabled a poor rural community to achieve net coverage high enough to yield both personal and community level protection for the entire population. Each of them reached their relevant target group and free nets only temporarily

  14. Trauma-Informed Response in the Age of Title IX: Considerations for College Counselors Working with Survivors of Power-Based Personal Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Abigail H.; Griffith, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and stalking are pervasive in the United States, and college women are disproportionately affected by this power-based personal violence (PBPV). Title IX mandates that colleges and universities offer support services to trauma survivors, and college counselors should be prepared to meet this need.…

  15. Trauma-Informed Response in the Age of Title IX: Considerations for College Counselors Working with Survivors of Power-Based Personal Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Abigail H.; Griffith, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and stalking are pervasive in the United States, and college women are disproportionately affected by this power-based personal violence (PBPV). Title IX mandates that colleges and universities offer support services to trauma survivors, and college counselors should be prepared to meet this need.…

  16. Symbolic Violence and Victimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2009-01-01

    has been criticised for over-generalisations, as well as for disregarding culture and the embeddedness of psychological problems in situated societal processes. The proposed paper is a contribution to this critique. It will draw on Bourdieu's concept of symbolic violence (1992). The concept connects......Nay (1999). It also undertakes a critical discussion of symbolic violence in the meanings given to victimisation and its aftermaths, as when conceptualised with the help of PTSD (e.g. may the use of concepts of this kind and the practices developed in relation to it constitute symbolic violence...... and contribute to victimisation?) Furthermore the analysis aims at unfolding an understanding of victimisation inclusive of connections between cultural/ societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence and lives of concrete subjects. The discussion takes its point of departure in theoretical deliberations...

  17. Masculinity, War and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...

  18. The video violence debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, R G

    1993-04-01

    Some researchers and theorists are convinced that graphic scenes of violence on television and in movies are inextricably linked to human aggression. Others insist that a link has not been conclusively established. This paper summarizes scientific studies that have informed these two perspectives. Although many instances of children and adults imitating video violence have been documented, no court has imposed liability for harm allegedly resulting from a video program, an indication that considerable doubt still exists about the role of video violence in stimulating human aggression. The author suggests that a small group of vulnerable viewers are probably more impressionable and therefore more likely to suffer deleterious effects from violent programming. He proposes that research on video violence be narrowed to identifying and describing the vulnerable viewer.

  19. Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because they are afraid to tell friends and family. A 2011 CDC nationwide survey found that 23% of females and 14% of males who ever experienced rape, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner, first experienced ...

  20. Derrida, Democracy and Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Mansfield

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Democracy is usually identified with openness, order and pluralism and thus peace. Yet, everywhere, from the political convulsions that bring it into being to the wars that aim to extend it, democracy is violent. Usually this violence is seen as accidental or forced upon democracy. The aim of this paper is to argue that the violence of democracy springs from its inextricable if denied relationship to revolution, the drive to re-found the political order properly and definitively. Through a reading of Derrida’s account of the relationship between violence and justice in Walter Benjamin, violence is identified as the unstable founding moment which democracy must both pass through in order to emerge and also endlessly recall in its drive to both expand and complete its mission.

  1. violence of voicelessness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    a response to the “violence of voicelessness”. Brigitta Busch ... Whereas societies are still conceived of in categories of relative demographic stability and ... individuality, which, deprived of expression within and action upon a common world,.

  2. What Is Aggressive Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Dorothy G.; Luca, Wendy

    1985-01-01

    Responses to a questionnaire dealing with what constitutes aggressive violence on television indicate that health care providers tend to rate items describing acts on television as more aggressive than television writers, producers, and executives do. (MBR)

  3. Symbolic Violence and Victimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2009-01-01

    has been criticised for over-generalisations, as well as for disregarding culture and the embeddedness of psychological problems in situated societal processes. The proposed paper is a contribution to this critique. It will draw on Bourdieu's concept of symbolic violence (1992). The concept connects......Nay (1999). It also undertakes a critical discussion of symbolic violence in the meanings given to victimisation and its aftermaths, as when conceptualised with the help of PTSD (e.g. may the use of concepts of this kind and the practices developed in relation to it constitute symbolic violence...... and contribute to victimisation?) Furthermore the analysis aims at unfolding an understanding of victimisation inclusive of connections between cultural/ societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence and lives of concrete subjects. The discussion takes its point of departure in theoretical deliberations...

  4. Political Power and Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Mitu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Political violence plays a huge role in public affairs and people's behavior, requiring both knowledge and rigorous research in many of its occurrences and its consequences for the proper management, organization and functioning of a society as a whole. Although political violence is a problem of a particular importance in our social life it is not analyzed and investigated in the scientific literature. Political violence it is a subject that usually passes into oblivion. This study presents some ideas and themes about the role and functions of political power, displaying the types of political violence and their consequences for the management and functioning of a society, which can be subject to wider debates and researchs.

  5. Is violence in part a lithium deficiency state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Mark R; Mascitelli, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Violence, particularly firearm violence, leading to suicide and homicide is a significant problem worldwide. A majority of suicidal and homicidal violence involves males; homicidal violence is prevalent among young men and suicide is the leading cause of violence worldwide. Lithium, in pharmacological doses, has been used successfully for decades in treating bipolar disorders, and has been shown to decrease violent crime in this situation. Interestingly, lithium, in trace amounts, as occurs in some drinking water, has been inversely related to aggression, and suicidal and homicidal violence. Lithium is naturally found in vegetables, grains and drinking water, and dietary intake varies from nearly zero to 3mg daily. Elemental lithium, in trace doses, has been shown to improve mood in weeks. Moreover, lithium, in trace amounts, has no toxicity. In order to ensure adequate dietary intakes of elemental lithium daily for the purpose of decreasing aggression and violence, we propose considering the fortification of cereal grain products with lithium and also the addition of lithium to vitamin preparations for adults. Importantly, randomized trials in various populations are needed to test this hypothesis.

  6. Exposure of Students to Emotional and Physical Violence in the School Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Şahbal; Özan, Sema; Timbil, Sevgi; Şemin, Semih; Kasapçi, Oya

    2016-12-01

    While peer abuse or physical violence in school is emphasized more, the physical and emotional violence caused by school staff has been emphasized less. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variables related to emotional and physical violence that students are exposed to in the school environment. This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted by applying a questionnaire to 434 fifth-grade students receiving education in the primary schools in Konak district of Izmir province. Being prepared by the researchers of this study, the questionnaire consisted of questions about the socio-demographic features of the child and the family, the place where the child has been raised, family income, average grade, and the emotional and physical violence of teachers, parents, and peers s/he has been exposed to within the last year. The Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analyses. The study group consisted of 214 (49.3%) female and 220 (50.7%) male students. Students reported that they were exposed to at least one type of emotional violence from 59.4% of teachers, 52.8% of parents, and 61.8% of children at school; they were exposed to at least one type of physical violence from 42.9% of teachers, 33.6% of parents, and 24.9% of children at school. While the rate of encountering with the beating of another child was 53%, the rate of watching this in television/cinema was 52.8%. Regarding exposure to at least one type of violence, males were found to be significantly more exposed to emotional and physical violence from male teachers, female teachers, and fathers and physical violence from children at school. The factors regarding the exposure to emotional and physical violence by teachers were evaluated using logistic regression analysis, and it was determined that the physical violence from teachers, emotional violence from children in school, and emotional violence from parents could predict the

  7. Reflexions sur la violence

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Qu’on ne s’y trompe pas : si le titre a été emprunté à Georges Sorel, l’un des fondateurs de l’anarcho-syndicalisme et le théoricien de la violence entre le prolétariat et la bourgeoisie, le propos est tout autre, puisqu’il concerne l’utilisation de la violence armée dans la société internationale actuelle Instituto de Relaciones Internacionales

  8. Reducing violence in healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellani, Karim H

    2014-01-01

    Looking behind the statistics on increases in healthcare violence incidents, the author finds that these incidents directly impact a small percentage of employees. However he sees an opportunity for administrators and security professionals to use this heightened awareness to collaborate on comprehensive plans to manage workplace violence, not only to reduce the direct impact of workplace violence incidents, but also to mitigate the indirect impacts such as employee morale degradation, fear of workplace violence, and costs of workplace violence. In this article he provides the elements of an effective workplace violence management plan.

  9. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Domestic violence constitutes historical behavior in accord with patriarchal systems. Family and domestic violence includes female infanticide, higher female mortality, female genital mutilation, bride burning, rape, wife battering, and early marriage. These practices are commonly integrated into values and beliefs. Women accept domestic violence in violation of their basic human rights due to social prejudice and low self esteem. Mothers who perpetuate female genital mutilation believe that they are acting in the best interests of the child by adhering to centuries-long traditions. Women who allow female infanticide or female abortion are motivated to do so in order to maintain the security of their marriage. Women are in unequal power relationships and submit to their own detriment. Negative attitudes against women are perpetuated through incorrect interpretations of religious principles and myths. Economic self-reliance gives women the courage to stand up against domestic violence. Empowerment through education and appropriate and protective legislation also gives women the means to fight violence. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) at the national, regional, and international levels are active in creating awareness of domestic violence and influencing policy change. The NGO Working Group on Traditional Practices and the Inter-African Committee have a 10-year history of fighting against practices such as female genital mutilation. In order to bring about change, there must be cooperative and joint action among governmental and inter-governmental groups and NGOs.

  10. ColectoR, a digital field notebook for voucher specimen collection for smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya-Lastra, Carlos A

    2016-07-01

    ColectoR was developed to aid botanists in the collection of data for voucher specimens using smartphones, accelerating the process of data capture in situ and its subsequent organization. ColectoR features a minimalist design that uses an intuitive iconic interface. The integration of external application programming interfaces (APIs) and an automated spreadsheet extends its functionality and increases the information and tools available to the user. This app is currently supported by any Android device. ColectoR provides an efficient method for capturing data in the field while also serving to organize the information into a coherent database, thereby greatly reducing the time required for postcapture data organization and label printing.

  11. ColectoR, a digital field notebook for voucher specimen collection for smartphones1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya-Lastra, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: ColectoR was developed to aid botanists in the collection of data for voucher specimens using smartphones, accelerating the process of data capture in situ and its subsequent organization. Methods and Results: ColectoR features a minimalist design that uses an intuitive iconic interface. The integration of external application programming interfaces (APIs) and an automated spreadsheet extends its functionality and increases the information and tools available to the user. This app is currently supported by any Android device. Conclusions: ColectoR provides an efficient method for capturing data in the field while also serving to organize the information into a coherent database, thereby greatly reducing the time required for postcapture data organization and label printing. PMID:27437169

  12. Differential Health and Social Needs of Older Adults Waitlisted for Public Housing or Housing Choice Vouchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Paula; Luhr, Gretchen; Kohon, Jacklyn

    2016-01-01

    Affordable housing is an important form of income security for low-income older persons. This article describes characteristics of older persons waitlisted for either public housing or a housing choice voucher (HCV; previously Section 8) in Portland, Oregon. 358 persons (32% response rate) completed a mailed survey with questions about demographics, health and housing status, food insecurity, and preference for housing with services. Findings indicate that many waitlisted older persons experienced homelessness or housing instability, poor health, high hospital use, and food insecurity. Public housing applicants were significantly more likely to report lower incomes, homelessness, and food insecurity than HCV applicants. We conclude with policy implications for housing and health agencies that serve low-income older persons.

  13. An integrated approach to fast and informative morphological vouchering of nematodes for applications in molecular barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ley, Paul; De Ley, Irma Tandingan; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe, Eyualem; Mundo-Ocampo, Manuel; Yoder, Melissa; Heras, Joseph; Waumann, Dora; Rocha-Olivares, Axayácatl; Jay Burr, A H; Baldwin, James G; Thomas, W Kelley

    2005-10-29

    Molecular surveys of meiofaunal diversity face some interesting methodological challenges when it comes to interstitial nematodes from soils and sediments. Morphology-based surveys are greatly limited in processing speed, while barcoding approaches for nematodes are hampered by difficulties of matching sequence data with traditional taxonomy. Intermediate technology is needed to bridge the gap between both approaches. An example of such technology is video capture and editing microscopy, which consists of the recording of taxonomically informative multifocal series of microscopy images as digital video clips. The integration of multifocal imaging with sequence analysis of the D2D3 region of large subunit (LSU) rDNA is illustrated here in the context of a combined morphological and barcode sequencing survey of marine nematodes from Baja California and California. The resulting video clips and sequence data are made available online in the database NemATOL (http://nematol.unh.edu/). Analyses of 37 barcoded nematodes suggest that these represent at least 32 species, none of which matches available D2D3 sequences in public databases. The recorded multifocal vouchers allowed us to identify most specimens to genus, and will be used to match specimens with subsequent species identifications and descriptions of preserved specimens. Like molecular barcodes, multifocal voucher archives are part of a wider effort at structuring and changing the process of biodiversity discovery. We argue that data-rich surveys and phylogenetic tools for analysis of barcode sequences are an essential component of the exploration of phyla with a high fraction of undiscovered species. Our methods are also directly applicable to other meiofauna such as for example gastrotrichs and tardigrades.

  14. Mild-Vectolysis: A Nondestructive DNA Extraction Method for Vouchering Sand Flies and Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giantsis, Ioannis A; Chaskopoulou, Alexandra; Bon, Marie Claude

    2016-05-01

    Nondestructive techniques allow the isolation of genomic DNA, without damaging the morphological features of the specimens. Though such techniques are available for numerous insect groups, they have not been applied to any member of the medically important families of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae). This study presents Mild-Vectolysis, the first nondestructive DNA extraction methodology for vouchering taxa of mosquitoes and sand flies, which provided sufficient amounts of DNA, tested in a verified barcode (cytochrome oxidase I gene), while preserving their morphological integrity. Application of the method to sand flies allowed successful insect identification post DNA extraction, as all basic taxonomical structures necessary for identification (pharynx, cybarium, and genitalia) remained intact. The development of the methodology was more challenging in mosquitoes, due to the fragility of key morphological characters (scales and color). A small modification of the lysis buffer concentration, in combination with the adjustment of the incubation time, a postlysis freezing stage, and the avoidance of ethanol, achieved the extraction of sufficient DNA quantity, while preserving the integument of the mosquitoes, although a small proportion of the scales and the color still appeared to have been lost. In addition to the practicality and efficiency of our methodology, preserving of the original insect specimen post DNA extraction is highly advantageous, as it allows for 1) utilization of the specimen for further analysis and 2) storage for vouchering. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Domestic violence as a development issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R

    1993-06-01

    Northern development agencies must provide practical support to the efforts of southern women to deal with domestic violence. In some ways, domestic violence wears the same face in the north and in the south: it is not an "abnormal" occurrence, it is not confined to any particular socioeconomic class, and it is a complex occurrence in which other women are sometimes complicities. Northern analyses, however, often refer to "battered wives," whereas in other parts of the world assaults may be made by brothers, uncles, or male in-laws. Development initiatives may also affect those power relations that trigger domestic violence. In Sri Lanka, a credit scheme allowed women who processed cashew nuts for export to expand their efforts and achieve remarkable increases in income and in living conditions. This increase, however, was taking place in the context of male unemployment (the men would not engage in the "women's work" of nut processing). Men in the villages where credit was available, therefore, consumed more alcohol. Thus, interventions are rarely gender-neutral. This must be recognized by those who prepare material on domestic violence.

  16. Domestic Violence and Private Family Court Proceedings: Promoting Child Welfare or Promoting Contact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Gillian S

    2016-06-01

    Despite improved understanding regarding domestic violence, child welfare and child contact, and related policy developments, problems persist regarding how the family courts deal with fathers' violence in contested contact/residence cases. In the study reported here, analysis was undertaken of welfare reports prepared for the courts in such cases to investigate how and to what extent issues of domestic violence and children's perspectives on these issues were taken into account when making recommendations to the courts. Analysis found that despite evidence of domestic violence and child welfare concerns, contact with fathers was viewed as desirable and inevitable in the vast majority of cases.

  17. Understanding sexual violence as a form of caste violence

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi Patil

    2016-01-01

    The paper attempts to understand narratives of sexual violence anchored within the dynamics of social location of caste and gender. Apparent caste-patriarchy and gender hierarchies which are at play in cases of sexual violence against lower-caste and dalit women speak about differential experiences of rape and sexual abuse that women have in India. The paper endeavours to establish that sexual violence is also a form of caste violence by rereading the unfortunate cases of Bhanwari Devi, Khair...

  18. The Interactive Relationship among Adolescent Violence, Street Violence, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Robert D.; Swisher, Raymond R.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has shown community violence to be detrimental to adolescent well-being, yet relatively little is known about how adolescents respond to violence in their community. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examines the interactive associations among exposure to street violence, adolescent…

  19. violence on South African society

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thinking: being hijacked, armed gangs invading our homes, being ... The impact of 'acceptable' violence on South .... (assaults, homicides) takes place in conflicts between ... violence is a socially learned behaviour.34 Children who grow up ...

  20. Sexual violence in the media

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Matloff

    2007-01-01

    Reporting on sexual violence is a challenge even for seasoned war journalists. How should correspondents, news editors and producers report the impact of sexual violence on individuals and communities without causing further distress or danger?

  1. Violence as a Vicious Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Gulec

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the conclusion that the violence as a behavior is not (cannot be determined within an absolute genetic determinism has been reached for long years, environmental factors are increasingly examined. We witness that human behavior in society can easily convert into coping with stressful events with violence. Individual or social violence as a behavior has a similar pattern with violence committed in primitive society and by children. After a brief review of violence, its description, etiological theories and types, this article majorly focuses on children and their early and late response to violence. The purpose here is to draw attention to the individuals who were previously exposed to violence (either directly or indirectly resort to violence, perpetuating a vicious cycle.

  2. Animal violence demystified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Natarajan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/ biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent’s body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent. Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. To begin with, we address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely 1. Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. 2. Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent’s submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. 3. Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. 4. Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding 5. Low pre-frontal serotonin (5-HT levels upon repeated aggression. 6. Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL mice suggesting a qualitative

  3. Domestic violence shelter partnerships and veterinary student attitudes at North American veterinary schools and colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creevy, Kate E; Shaver, Stephanie L; Cornell, Karen K

    2013-01-01

    Animal abuse and domestic violence are linked issues, and pet ownership is reported to play a crucial role in the choice to leave an abusive situation. Although veterinarians witness the effects of abuse and violence over the course of their careers, they have limited training regarding these issues. One mechanism for educating veterinary students while providing a service for victims of domestic violence is the creation of partnerships between domestic violence shelters and veterinary schools. These extracurricular programs can provide both care for pets belonging to victims of domestic violence and an educational platform for student participants. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence and characteristics of domestic violence shelter partnerships (DVSPs) at North American veterinary teaching hospitals and to determine whether the presence of a DVSP was associated with increased awareness among veterinary students regarding animal abuse and domestic violence. Nine of 33 veterinary schools surveyed described a DVSP program. Students at schools with DVSPs associated with their veterinary teaching hospitals were significantly more likely to indicate that their awareness of the link between animal abuse and domestic violence had increased during veterinary school. Most veterinary students reported that they felt poorly prepared to handle domestic violence and animal abuse issues in the workplace. This study indicates that extracurricular DVSPs are a viable means of educating veterinary students regarding domestic violence and animal abuse. A need for improved education on these topics in veterinary schools across North America is identified.

  4. Factors affecting workplace bullying and lateral violence among clinical nurses in Korea: descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyunjin; Uhm, Dong Choon; Yoon, Young Joo

    2016-04-01

    Workplace bullying and lateral violence are serious issues affecting the work life of hospital nurses. The purpose of this study was to identify the selected individual and institutional characteristics for workplace bullying and lateral violence using a conceptual framework. A descriptive survey design was used. A convenience sample of 255 nurses in tertiary hospitals, who had a minimum of 6 months clinical experience, completed the survey. Regression analysis was used to determine factors significantly associated with workplace bullying and lateral violence. The Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised and the Lateral Violence scale were used to measure workplace bullying and lateral violence. A negative affect, individualism and working in hospital specialty units predicted workplace bullying. Individualism, a negative affect, affiliated hospital and working hours predicted verbal abuse whereas the place of employment was significantly associated with lateral violence. The results of this study identified factors that are associated with bullying and violence but did not fully support the conceptual framework. The individual characteristic negative affect was significantly associated with most types of workplace bullying and lateral violence bully whereas the place of employment was an important factor in lateral violence. Nurse managers need to be aware that both individual and institutional factors may impact levels of workplace bullying and lateral violence in their hospitals and need to prepare specific strategies to address these multiple factors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, D.J.; Jong-A-Pin, R.

    2013-01-01

    Bezemer, Dirk, and Jong-A-Pin, Richard Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence Do democratization and globalization processes combine to increase the incidence of violence in developing and emerging economies? The present paper examines this hypothesis by a study of internal violence in Sub-Sah

  6. Teaching about Women and Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kathy

    A course entitled "Women and Violence in Literature and the Media" extends the definition of violence to include not only physical and emotional abuse but psychological manipulation and destruction as well. The course has two major objectives: to establish that violence against women does occur in our society and is culturally approved of and…

  7. Domestic violence in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bash, K L; Jones, F

    1994-09-01

    Domestic violence is an underrecognized problem of immense cost. It is a crime; its victims must be identified and protected. The medical and judicial communities share responsibility in addressing this issue and providing support for victims. The role of health care workers in recognizing and preventing domestic violence cannot be overestimated. Direct questioning of patients, especially about the source of any injuries and about safety at home, is the first step in uncovering abuse. Educational programs for health care providers and the general public can change society's view and tolerance of this problem. Physicians must take an active role in changing community attitudes about domestic violence and in instituting programs to reduce its incidence. Medical treatment of the injuries resulting from domestic violence is not sufficient. Abused women need the care of a team of professionals who can address psychological, emotional, and physical injuries. They must also be provided with safe housing and financial and legal assistance in order to escape the abusive relationship. Physicians and legislators must work together to effect change. Domestic violence is a public health menace. We need to break the cycle of abuse that has become an integral part of our society.

  8. Understanding sexual violence as a form of caste violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Patil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to understand narratives of sexual violence anchored within the dynamics of social location of caste and gender. Apparent caste-patriarchy and gender hierarchies which are at play in cases of sexual violence against lower-caste and dalit women speak about differential experiences of rape and sexual abuse that women have in India. The paper endeavours to establish that sexual violence is also a form of caste violence by rereading the unfortunate cases of Bhanwari Devi, Khairlanji, Lalasa Devi and Delta Meghwal Keywords: caste-patriarchy, Dalit women, POA Act, rape, sexual violence

  9. Image et violence

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy, Jean-Luc

    2005-01-01

    Deux affirmations nous sont aujourd’hui familières : celle selon laquelle il y a une violence des images (nous parlons volontiers de « matraquage publicitaire », et la publicité évoque d’abord un déferlement d’images), et celle selon laquelle des images de la violence, de cette violence sans cesse rallumée aux quatre coins du monde, sont omniprésentes et sont, à la fois ou alternativement, indécentes, choquantes, nécessaires, déchirantes. L’une et l’autre affirmation renvoient très vite à l’é...

  10. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    - to praxis, and drawing on the concept of symbolic violence, this article contributes to their critique. In order to develop the analysis of difficulties victims may experience, they will be reconceptualised using critical psychological concepts such as 1st person perspectives and participation. The analysis...... seeks to undertake a discussion of personal meanings attributed to 'traumatisation'. It raises questions as to whether concepts of this kind and related practices may constitute symbolic violence and contribute to victimisation through looping-processes. Furthermore it aims at unfolding an understanding...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion....

  11. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    - to praxis, and drawing on the concept of symbolic violence, this article contributes to their critique. In order to develop the analysis of difficulties victims may experience, they will be reconceptualised using critical psychological concepts such as 1st person perspectives and participation. The analysis...... seeks to undertake a discussion of personal meanings attributed to 'traumatisation'. It raises questions as to whether concepts of this kind and related practices may constitute symbolic violence and contribute to victimisation through looping-processes. Furthermore it aims at unfolding an understanding...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion. Key Words:...

  12. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    - to praxis, and drawing on the concept of symbolic violence, this article contributes to their critique. In order to develop the analysis of difficulties victims may experience, they will be reconceptualised using critical psychological concepts such as 1st person perspectives and participation. The analysis...... seeks to undertake a discussion of personal meanings attributed to 'traumatisation'. It raises questions as to whether concepts of this kind and related practices may constitute symbolic violence and contribute to victimisation through looping-processes. Furthermore it aims at unfolding an understanding...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion. Key Words:...

  13. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    - to praxis, and drawing on the concept of symbolic violence, this article contributes to their critique. In order to develop the analysis of difficulties victims may experience, they will be reconceptualised using critical psychological concepts such as 1st person perspectives and participation. The analysis...... seeks to undertake a discussion of personal meanings attributed to 'traumatisation'. It raises questions as to whether concepts of this kind and related practices may constitute symbolic violence and contribute to victimisation through looping-processes. Furthermore it aims at unfolding an understanding...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion....

  14. Violence in society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Pedro de Andrade Dores

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent interest in the sociology of violence has arisen at the same time that western societies are being urged to consider the profound social crisis provoked by global financial turmoil. Social changes demand the evo- lution of sociological practices. The analysis herein proposed, based on the studies of M. Wieviorka, La Violence (2005, and of R. Collins, Violence: A Micro-sociological Theory (2008, concludes that violence is subject to sociological treatments cen- tered on the aggressors, on the struggles for power and on male gender. There is a lack of connection between prac- tical proposals for violence prevention and the sociol- ogy of violence. It is accepted that violence as a subject of study has the potential, as well as the theoretical and social centrality, to promote the debate necessary to bring social theory up to date. This process is more likely to oc- cur in periods of social transformation, when sociology is open to considering subjects that are still taboo in its study of violence, such as the female gender and the state. The rise of the sociology of violence confronts us with a dilemma. We can either collaborate with the construc- tion of a sub discipline that reproduces the limitations and taboos of current social theory, or we can use the fact that violence has become a “hot topic” as an opportunity to open sociology to themes that are taboo in social the- ory (such as the vital and harmonious character of the biological aspects of social mechanisms or the normative aspects of social settings. ResumenEl interés reciente en la sociología de la violencia ha surgido al mismo tiempo que las sociedades occidenta- les están requiriendo considerar la profunda crisis social provocada por la agitación financiera global. Los cambios sociales demandan la evolución de las prácticas socioló- gicas. El análisis aquí expuesto, basado en los estudios de M. Wieviorka, La Violence (2005, and of R. Collins

  15. Violence in childhood, attitudes about partner violence, and partner violence perpetration among men in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yount, K.M.; Huyen, T.P.; Tran, H.M.; Krause, K.H.; Schuler, S.R.; Hoang, T.A.; VanderEnde, K.; Kramer, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We assess the association of men’s exposure to violence in childhood—witnessing physical violence against one’s mother and being hit or beaten by a parent or adult relative—with their attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. We explore whether men’s perpetration of IPV

  16. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Scott

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and development of projects. Activities funded by the seven federal departments and agencies involved in the Initiative emphasize partnerships with the professional, voluntary, corporate, non-government and government sectors.

  17. Relative efficacy of cash versus vouchers in engaging opioid substitution treatment clients in survey-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, Libby; Islam, M Mofizul; Day, Carolyn Ann

    2013-04-01

    Concerns that cash payments to people who inject drugs (PWID) to reimburse research participation will facilitate illicit drug purchases have led some ethical authorities to mandate department store/supermarket vouchers as research reimbursement. To examine the relative efficacy of the two forms of reimbursement in engaging PWID in research, clients of two public opioid substitution therapy clinics were invited to participate in a 20-30 min, anonymous and confidential interview about alcohol consumption on two separate occasions, 4 months apart. Under the crossover design, at Time 1, clients of Clinic 1 were offered $A20 cash as reimbursement, while clients of Clinic 2 were offered an $A20 voucher; at Time 2, the form of reimbursement was reversed. Using clinic records to determine the denominator (number of clients dosed), we found that compared with clients offered a voucher, a significantly higher proportion of clients who were offered cash participated in the survey (58% (139/241) vs 74% (186/252); χ(2)=14.27; p=0.0002). At first participation, respondents most commonly reported planning to purchase food/drinks/groceries (68%), cigarettes (21%) and transport/fuel (11%) with their payments, with those reimbursed in cash more likely to report planning to fund transport/fuel (19% vs 1%; ppayment. Results demonstrate that modest cash payments enhanced recruitment of this group, an important consideration given the challenges of delineating the parameters of a population defined by illegal activity, seemingly without promoting excessive additional drug use.

  18. Analysis of Friedman's School Voucher System%浅析弗里德曼教育券制度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁瑞玉

    2012-01-01

    教育券制度是弗里德曼为了改革美国公立学校的教育制度的弊端而设计的,主张在教育中引入市场与竞争原则,赋予学生和家长自由选择教育服务的权利。但是,教育券能否改善提高学生成绩、教育券的“公助私学”以及教育公平等问题在教育券实施过程中仍倍受争议。%The school voucher system is Milton Friedman, in order to reform the abuses of the system of public school education in the United States advocated the introduction of market competition principles in education, giving students and parents the right to free choice of education services. However, the coupon can be improved to improve student achievement, school vouchers, "public aid of private schools" and educational equity issues in the implementation of school vouchers is still controversial.

  19. Children and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Domeena C

    2006-01-01

    In this "information era" it can no longer be said that children are being raised in Eden or in a gentle environment of kindness and love. However rural their home, children will undoubtedly see depictions of violence on television, in the movies, or in newspapers, or hear about it on the radio or while at school or on classroom computers. All children require safety education in order to learn how to protect themselves from harm at home, at school, or in the neighborhood. This article outlines how violence may impact today's children who seek medical care.

  20. Violence, shame and humiliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of shame came into the focus of psychology and psychiatry only a few years ago. Psychopathology recognizes many shame related syndromes and disorders. Recognition of the scientific importance of shame is connected with the change in theoretical understanding of neuroses. Scientific evidence confirm the connection between violence and humiliation of human dignity. Humiliation seems to effect the individual through destruction of social competence and psychosocial identity. But, humiliation and exclusion of individuals and groups have also an important sociocultural effect. The author tries to describe the interaction between violence, shame, humiliation and related psychopathological disturbances in an attempt to contribute to a victim oriented mental health discourse.

  1. The Semantics of "Violence"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    kilimand faetem with the newly imported English word vaeolens (violence). My study provides newevidence for how cognitive and semantic change co-occur in the context of postcolonial linguisticcommunities, and my paper addresses an important, ongoing controversy related to the notion of“Anglocentric bias...... counterparts in many (most) languages, and thatPinker’s claims are Anglocentric in nature. My papir studies the intricate details of vaeolens, as a new word that has attracted a number ofother English-based phraseologies such as vaeolens againsem woman ‘violence against women’,and vaeolens againsem pikinini...

  2. Violence and Asthma: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujiwara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that exposure to community violence is, directly and indirectly, associated with asthma. This article reviews the findings on the impact of violence on asthma, and the pathways for the association of violence and asthma are suggested: 1 exposure to violence is directly associated with asthma, mainly through dysregulation of sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, 2 exposure to violence is associated with the change of susceptibility of outdoor air pollution on asthma, probably through the change of an immune response, and 3 behavioral change due to exposure to violence (e.g. keeping children indoors leads to more exposure to indoor pollutants. The suggested framework may be useful to develop health policy on asthma in high-violence communities.

  3. Sensation Seeking in Street Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    Sensation seeking leads to violence—runs an influential hypothesis in the social scientific study of violent behavior. Although studies confirm that violence is sometimes structured by sensation-seeking motives, the literature seldom comments on the limits to this explanation of violence....... The present study examines the scale of violence motivated by sensation seeking and the degree to which there are several distinct forms of sensation seeking motives operative in violence, rather than a sensation-seeking motive in the singular. The study draws on a sample of situations from Copenhagen...... involving street violence, which are coded quantitatively and qualitatively. Our analysis shows that sensation seeking only seldom seems to play a role in the structuring of street violence. Moreover, the data indicate that sensation seeking finds expression in street violence situations in two different...

  4. Women's primary care nursing in situations of gender violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Visentin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective.Identify the actions conducted by primary health care nurses for women in situations of domestic violence. Methodology. Exploratory-descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Participants were 17 nurses who worked in the Basic Health Unit in a city in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and the information processing was performed using the interview content analysis technique. Results. By acting in a context of the violence, the nurses describe some elements and strategies they use that allow recognition and action to combat violence, namely: acceptance and empathy, establishing a bond of trust between the professional and the woman, dialogue, and intent listening. The limitations mentioned by participants were: lack of professional training to address the situation, feeling of unpreparedness, lack of time for the workload, the professional's difficulty in recognizing and dealing with violence given its complexity, low efficiency of the service network, and the sense of professional impotence against the gravity and complexity involved in violence. Conclusion. The participants are not adequately prepared to care for women in situations of domestic violence. It is necessary that this issue be addressed in the training of nursing professionals.

  5. Preventing Youth Violence: Opportunities for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Simon, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    All forms of violence, including youth violence, suicidal behavior, child maltreatment, sexual violence, intimate partner violence, and elder abuse, negatively affect the health and well-being of this country. Youth violence, in particular, is a significant public health problem. Many young people and communities view the grim facts about youth…

  6. Does a competitive voucher program for adolescents improve the quality of reproductive health care? A simulated patient study in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorter Anna C

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how sexual and reproductive (SRH health can be made accessible and appropriate to adolescents. This study evaluates the impact and sustainability of a competitive voucher program on the quality of SRH care for poor and underserved female adolescents and the usefulness of the simulated patient (SP method for such evaluation. Methods 28,711 vouchers were distributed to adolescents in disadvantaged areas of Managua that gave free-of-charge access to SRH care in 4 public, 10 non-governmental and 5 private clinics. Providers received training and guidelines, treatment protocols, and financial incentives for each adolescent attended. All clinics were visited by female adolescent SPs requesting contraception. SPs were sent one week before, during (with voucher and one month after the intervention. After each consultation they were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. Twenty-one criteria were scored and grouped into four categories. Clinics' scores were compared using non-parametric statistical methods (paired design: before-during and before-after. Also the influence of doctors' characteristics was tested using non-parametric statistical methods. Results Some aspects of service quality improved during the voucher program. Before the program started 8 of the 16 SPs returned 'empty handed', although all were eligible contraceptive users. During the program 16/17 left with a contraceptive method (p = 0.01. Furthermore, more SPs were involved in the contraceptive method choice (13/17 vs.5/16, p = 0.02. Shared decision-making on contraceptive method as well as condom promotion had significantly increased after the program ended. Female doctors had best scores before- during and after the intervention. The improvements were more pronounced among male doctors and doctors older than 40, though these improvements did not sustain after the program ended. Conclusion This study illustrates provider

  7. A cycle of violence? Examining family-of-origin violence, attitudes, and intimate partner violence perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Li; Mazerolle, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to violence in the family-of-origin has consistently been linked to intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration in adulthood. However, whether the transmission of violence across generations is role- and gender-specific still remains unclear. The current study examined the effects of experiencing child abuse and observing parental violence on IPV perpetration among a sample of male arrestees (N = 303). The differential effects of observing violence perpetrated by same-sex (father to mother), opposite-sex (mother to father), and both parents on subsequent IPV perpetration were examined. Logistic regression analyses showed that while observing father-only violence and bidirectional interparental violence was predictive of IPV perpetration, observing mother-only violence and direct experiences of child abuse was not. These findings suggest that the transmission of violence across generations is both role- and gender-specific and highlight the importance of examining unique dimensions of partner violence to assess influences on children. The study further examined whether attitudes justifying wife beating mediate the effect of exposure to violence and subsequent IPV perpetration. Results showed that although attitudes were predictive of perpetration, these attitudes did not mediate the relationship.

  8. Children and TV Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and War: How to Talk to Children Movies, Media, and Children Internet Use in Children WatchingTV/Screen Time and Children Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists Video Games and Children: Playing with Violence Music and Music Videos Violent Behavior in Children ...

  9. Islam and Political Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Esposito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The global threat of Al Qaeda post 9/11 and ISIL, increased Sunni-Shia conflicts, and violence in the Middle East and Pakistan dominate headlines and challenge governments in the region and globally. Both Muslim extremists and some Western experts and observers speak of a clash of civilizations or a culture war in Muslim-West relations. Both the discourse and violence yet again raise questions about the relationship of Islam to violence and terrorism: is Islam a particularly violent religion? Critics cite Quranic passages, doctrines like jihad and events in Muslim history as strong indicators and proof that Islam is the primary driver of Muslim extremism and terrorism. What do the Quran and Islamic law have to say about violence, jihad and warfare? What are the primary drivers of terrorism in the name of Islam today? This article will address these questions in the context of development of global jihadist movements, in particular Al Qaeda and ISIL, their roots, causes, ideology and agenda.

  10. Understanding Youth Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these factors does not always mean that a young person will become an offender. Risk factors for youth violence include: • Prior history ... a positive role model and helps guide the young person’s ... and social environment. These changes address the social and economic causes ...

  11. Preventing Violence in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Dean

    1995-01-01

    Elementary school principals are in a key position to prevent school violence. This document reviews five publications that feature strategies administrators and teachers can use to create a safe school. In "Creating Safe Environments for Learning in North Carolina's Public Schools," Tanya M. Suarez reviews the literature on school safety and…

  12. ~ elonging and violence in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an Experience for Colombia, in Bogota, D.C., Colombia, November 8-9, 2004. ... speak about Race in South Africa and its connection to violence and peace. But .... and the European population groups into a common society must be endured'.

  13. Understanding Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problem by gathering and studying data. Step 2: Identify risk and protective factors It is not enough to ... DM, Breiding M. Beyond correlates: A review of risk and protective factors for adolescent dating violence perpetration. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 2013; 42:633-649. ...

  14. Health services for survivors of gender-based violence in northern Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henttonen, Mirkka; Watts, Charlotte; Roberts, Bayard; Kaducu, Felix; Borchert, Matthias

    2008-05-01

    The 20-year war in northern Uganda has resulted in up to 1.7 million people being internally displaced, and impoverishment and vulnerability to violence amongst the civilian population. This qualitative study examined the status of health services available for the survivors of gender-based violence in the Gulu district, northern Uganda. Semi-structured interviews were carried out in 2006 with 26 experts on gender-based violence and general health providers, and availability of medical supplies was reviewed. The Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) guidelines on gender-based violence interventions in humanitarian settings were used to prepare the interview guides and analyse the findings. Some legislation and programmes do exist on gender-based violence. However, health facilities lacked sufficiently qualified staff and medical supplies to adequately detect and manage survivors, and confidential treatment and counselling could not be ensured. There was inter-sectoral collaboration, but greater resources are required to increase coverage and effectiveness of services. Intimate partner violence, sexual abuse of girls aged under 18, sexual harassment and early and forced marriage may be more common than rape by strangers. As the IASC guidelines focus on sexual violence by strangers and do not address other forms of gender-based violence, we suggest the need to explore this issue further to determine whether a broader concept of gender-based violence should be incorporated into the guidelines.

  15. Violence on canadian television networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Guy

    2004-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, the question of the effects of violence on television has figured prominently in public opinion and hundreds of studies have been devoted to this subject. Many researchers have determined that violence has a negative impact on behavior. The public, broadcasters and political figures all support the idea of reducing the total amount of violence on television - in particular in shows for children. A thousand programs aired between 1993 and 2001 on major non-specialty television networks in Canada were analyzed: TVA, TQS, as well as CTV and Global, private French and English networks, as well as the English CBC Radio and French Radio-Canada for the public networks. The methodology consists of a classic analysis of content where an act of violence constitutes a unit of analysis. The data collected revealed that the amount of violence has increased regularly since 1993 despite the stated willingness on the part of broadcasters to produce programs with less violence. The total number of violent acts, as well as the number of violent acts per hour, is increasing. Private networks deliver three times more violence than public networks. Researchers have also noted that a high proportion of violence occurs in programs airing before 21:00 hours, thereby exposing a large number of children to this violence. Psychological violence is taking on a more significant role in Canadian Television.

  16. Symbiota - A virtual platform for creating voucher-based biodiversity information communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Corinna; Gilbert, Edward E; Franz, Nico M

    2014-01-01

    We review the Symbiota software platform for creating voucher-based biodiversity information portals and communities. Symbiota was originally conceived to promote small- to medium-sized, regionally and/or taxonomically themed collaborations of natural history collections. Over the past eight years the taxonomically diverse portals have grown into an important resource in North America and beyond for mobilizing, integrating, and using specimen- and observation-based occurrence records and derivative biodiversity information products. Designed to mirror the conceptual structure of traditional floras and faunas, Symbiota is exclusively web-based and employs a novel data model, information linking, and algorithms to provide highly dynamic customization. The themed portals enable meaningful access to biodiversity data for anyone from specialist to high school student. Symbiota emulates functionality of modern Content Management Systems, providing highly sophisticated yet intuitive user interfaces for data entry, batch processes, and editing. Each kind of content provision may be selectively accessed by authenticated information providers. Occupying a fairly specific niche in the biodiversity informatics arena, Symbiota provides extensive data exchange facilities and collaborates with other development projects to incorporate and not duplicate functionality as appropriate.

  17. Violence in the Street, Violence of the Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    While in his early and general theory of interaction rituals Randall Collins emphasised that social situations are both ’symbolic’ and ’material’, the latter dimension is largely absent from Collins’ theory of violence(Collins 2004; 1993: 214). Compared with criminology’s more recent situational...... studies of violence, it is noticeable that the analytical success of these studies is closely linked with understanding street violence as a spatial-situational phenomenon (Clarke 1997; Eck & Weisburd 1995; Bragand & Weisburd; 2010; Wikström et al. 2012; Sampson et al. 1997). In light of evidence...... for the spatial concentration of street violence, this paper takes its point of departure in a large study of Street Violence among youth in Copenhagen, Denmark (combining quantitative data from filed police reports (N = 501), data from CCTV (N=100) and qualitative analysis of selected cases of street violence...

  18. FAMILY VIOLENCE – MARRIAGE VIOLENCE WITH A FATAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Kostic-Banovic

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Family violence represents an especially dangerous social form of violence by means of which the rights of an individual – a member of a family – to live, to have psychic, physical and sexual integrity, freedom, security and human dignity, have been violated. The term marriage violence entails every form of physical, sexual, psychic and economic abuse of women by husbands or illegitimate partner. The family violence represents a widespread form of crime, and since it has become dramatic and dynamic during the recent years, the need for a direct forensic processing of the violence consequences within this specific and sensitive social group has arisen. In accordance with what has been outlined above, three cases of extreme, systematic and continuous marriage violence with fatal consequences of the abused women, whose bodies have been abducted at the Forensics Institute in Nis, have been presented in this paper.

  19. Exploring Variations Within Situational Couple Violence and Comparisons With Coercive Controlling Violence and No Violence/No Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Samantha K; Hardesty, Jennifer L; Raffaelli, Marcela

    2016-02-01

    We examined variations within situational couple violence among 23 divorcing mothers and compared them with mothers with coercive controlling violence and no violence/no control. Situational couple violence had great variability in frequency and severity of violence, fear, harassment, and protective strategies. In some cases, situational couple violence was frequent and severe and resembled coercive controlling violence in its consequences. The dynamics of fear and harassment in situational couple violence and in the divorce process in general warrant attention. Finally, mothers reported mental health symptoms that did not differ by group, which is likely due to the stresses of divorce.

  20. Gaming Against Violence: A Grassroots Approach to Teen Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crecente, Drew

    2014-08-01

    Teen dating violence is a pervasive problem that affects millions of adolescents worldwide. Although there have been various approaches to addressing this problem, using videogames had not been employed before 2008, when Jennifer Ann's Group, an Atlanta, GA-based nonprofit organization, created an annual competition. The Life.Love. Game Design Challenge rewards game developers for creating videogames about teen dating violence without using any violence in the games themselves. The resulting videogames have increased awareness about teen dating violence and provided educational information to assist adolescents, parents, and teachers in identifying abusive relationships.

  1. Reducing violence against nurses: the violence prevention community meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Marilyn L; Rierdan, Jill; Forester, Linda; Zeiss, Robert A

    2009-12-01

    Research was undertaken to validate the efficacy of a new, nurse-led treatment, the Violence Prevention Community Meeting (VPCM), for reducing patient violence on an acute-care inpatient psychiatry unit. Nursing staff members carried event counters and recorded verbal and physical violence as it occurred over the 20-week study. Significant decreases in patient violence were found across day, evening, and night shifts for pre-treatment vs. treatment and pre-treatment vs. post-treatment comparisons. For the day shift, when twice-weekly VPCM treatment took place, violent incidents decreased 89% from pre-treatment to treatment and 57% from pre-treatment to post-treatment.

  2. Obstetricians and violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Sonya

    2011-12-01

    I argue that the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), as an organization and through its individual members, can and should be a far greater ally in the prevention of violence against women. Specifically, I argue that we need to pay attention to obstetrical practices that inadvertently contribute to the problem of violence against women. While intimate partner violence is a complex phenomenon, I focus on the coercive control of women and adherence to oppressive gender norms. Using physician response to alcohol use during pregnancy and court-ordered medical treatment as examples, I show how some obstetrical practices mirror the attitudes of abusive men insofar as they try to coercively control women's behavior through manipulation and violence. To be greater allies in the prevention of violence against women, obstetricians should stop participating in practices that inadvertently perpetuate violence against women.

  3. [Psychopathology of violence in prisons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreau, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The issue of violence in prisons concerns the people detained there, the conditions of the imprisonment and the relations which are established between the prisoners and the guards. The deprivation of liberty in prison, by suppressing desire, stirs up violence. Security contingency measures are not sufficient to control aggressive urges. Violence in prison stems from the internal regulations, the architecture of the building, the organisation of the surveillance and from the psychopathological dynamics of the deprivations resulting from being locked up.

  4. Preventing Interpersonal Violence in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To describe the burden of interpersonal violence, risk factors and discuss the need for evidence based action to reduce the public health threat of interpersonal violence. METHODS: Global Health Estimates data were used to describe the mortality and meta-analyses from previous reports were used to describe the prevalence of the different types of interpersonal violence and to discuss the options for evidence informed prevention programmes.  RESULTS: In the 53 countries of the WHO...

  5. Heavy Alcohol Use and Dating Violence Perpetration During Adolescence: Family, Peer and Neighborhood Violence as Moderators

    OpenAIRE

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating viol...

  6. [Forensic assessment of violence risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol Robinat, Amadeo; Mohíno Justes, Susana; Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 20 years there have been steps forward in the field of scientific research on prediction and handling different violent behaviors. In this work we go over the classic concept of "criminal dangerousness" and the more current of "violence risk assessment". We analyze the evolution of such assessment from the practice of non-structured clinical expert opinion to current actuarial methods and structured clinical expert opinion. Next we approach the problem of assessing physical violence risk analyzing the HCR-20 (Assessing Risk for Violence) and we also review the classic and complex subject of the relation between mental disease and violence. One of the most problematic types of violence, difficult to assess and predict, is sexual violence. We study the different actuarial and sexual violence risk prediction instruments and in the end we advise an integral approach to the problem. We also go through partner violence risk assessment, describing the most frequently used scales, especially SARA (Spouse Assault Risk Assessment) and EPV-R. Finally we give practical advice on risk assessment, emphasizing the importance of having maximum information about the case, carrying out a clinical examination, psychopathologic exploration and the application of one of the described risk assessment scales. We'll have to express an opinion about the dangerousness/risk of future violence from the subject and some recommendations on the conduct to follow and the most advisable treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. SCHOOL VIOLENCE: A COMPLEX PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Ayala-Carrillo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available School violence is one type of violence that reflects the breakdown of current society. It is impossible to speak of school violence as an isolated phenomenon without establishing nexuses between public and private life, between collective and individual behaviors, between family and community aspects, without making reference to differences in gender and the life stories of those who are the aggressors or the victims, and without considering the patriarchal culture and interpersonal relationships. When all these factor are interrelated, they make the problem of violence a very complex one that requires us to know the different factors in order to understand it and deal with it.

  8. [Domestic violence: any progress?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of the French national survey of violence against women in 2000, the fight against domestic violence has made steady progress. Knowledge of the phenomenon has significantly improved. A nationwide study of murders and manslaughters perpetrated by one partner of a couple against the other has been published annually since 2006. In 2012, domestic violence resulted in the deaths of 314 persons: 166 women, 31 men, 25 children, 9 collateral victims, 14 rivals, and two former spouses killed by their ex-fathers in law. In addition, 67 perpetrators committed suicide (51 men and3 women). The number of victims fluctuates from year to year but has remained fairly stable since 2006 (n=168). Legislation has improved significantly: eight new laws have been passed since 2004, all designed to protect women and to ensure that violent men are restrained and treated. New measures to inform and protect women have been implemented and others have been improved, such as the anonymous helpline (phone no 3919, "domestic violence information"). An inter-ministerial committee on the protection of women from violence and the prevention of human trafficking (MIPROF) was created on 3 January 2013. A website entitled "Stop violence against women " (Stop violences faites aux femmes) is now available. The "Imminent Danger" mobile phone system, designed to alert police if a suspected or known perpetrator breaches restraint conditions, will be extended to the entire country from January 2014. Referees charged with coordinating comprehensive long-tern care of women victims have been deployed at the county level. Information centers on the rights of women and families (CIDFF) now form a local nationwide network. Routine interviews with a midwife during the fourth month of pregnancy, focusing on the woman's emotional, economic and social conditions, have been implemented in 21 % of maternity units and should gradually be generalized. The authorities who have enforced the law have

  9. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only been undertaken in the past 25 years. In the article the most important mechanisms, by which alcohol affects behavior, are explained. Aggression in persons with alcohol dependence and the connection between antisocial (dissocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression are described. In addition different forms of aggression or violence, that have been committed under the influence of alcohol, such as inter-partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse, crime and traffic accidents are described.Conclusions: The research findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related aggression.

  10. Pervasive media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooler, C; Flora, J A

    1996-01-01

    In this review, we focus our discussion on studies examining effects on children and young adults. We believe that the current epidemic of youth violence in the United States justifies a focus on this vulnerable segment of society. We consider media effects on individual children's behaviors, such as imitating aggressive acts. In addition, we examine how the media influence young people's perceptions of norms regarding interpersonal relationships. Next, we assess mass media effects on societal beliefs, or what children and adolescents think the "real world" is like. We suggest these media influences are cumulative and mutually reinforcing, and discuss the implications of repeated exposure to prominent and prevalent violent media messages. Finally, we catalog multiple intervention possibilities ranging from education to regulation. From a public health perspective, therefore, we evaluate the effects that pervasive media messages depicting violence have on young people and present multiple strategies to promote more healthful outcomes.

  11. Inquiry and Print Design of Accounting Voucher in EXCEL Accounting%EXCEL会计核算中记账凭证的查询与打印设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方倩; 卢晓强

    2014-01-01

    在电算化会计核算中,记账凭证查询与打印是不可缺少的一个环节。本文通过建立凭证框架,设置查询公式,引入VBA代码操作来实现会计记账凭证的查询以及批量打印工作。%In the computerized accounting, the inquiry and print of accounting voucher is an indispensable link. By establishing voucher framework, this paper set the inquiry formula, and introduced VBA code operation to achieve the inquiry and batch printing of accounting vouchers.

  12. Hunger and violence

    OpenAIRE

    Özenoğlu, Aliye; Ünal, Gökçe

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient deficiencies and disturbances in metabolism of neurotransmitters and hormones, induced by nutrient deficiencies, affect the behavior of individuals. In this review, the effect of deficiencies that occur in the body as a result of hunger on the formation of aggression and violent behavior are intended to be explained by biological processes. Articles published between the years 1993-2014 using keywords hunger, lack of nutrients, aggression, violence were scanned on Pubmed database, ho...

  13. Invisible violence in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Emma Carmona Valdés

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Different areas surrounding the elderly where structural violence isexpressed, are presented in this paper, considering the factors that influence theirdevelopment, harmony and well-being; and those elements that involve the existence ofunequal access and use of the material and social resources which impact adversely ontheir quality of life. So an analysis of the actions taken by the state to reduce existinginequalities and their impact on the welfare of the elderly is also presented.

  14. Psychological violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Jurkovič, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    The topic of my thesis is a study of how parents and primary school teachers perceive and identify psychological abuse of children. Psychological abuse is an especially sensitive area because children do not perceive interpersonal relations and activities in their environment in the same way as adults. Children also do not possess the physical or psychological power required to withstand or defend themselves against different forms of violence, abuse and harassment. Children who are the victi...

  15. Honour, Violence and Heteronormativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Asquith

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Popular representations of Honour Based Violence (HBV and honour killings construct this violence as an artefact of an uncivilised code of morality. Here ird, sharaf or izzat and shame are adhered to particular moral codes that are more likely to be found in the Quran. This clichéd version of HBV frames Muslim women’s sexual autonomy as exceptionally regulated, most commonly by male family members with the complicity of female relatives. In its most extreme (and publicly known form, HBV is epitomised by the ‘honour’ killings that come to the attention of the criminal justice system and, as a consequence, the media. Yet emerging research shows that HBV unfolds through increasingly punitive systems of social punishment, which is neither unique to Islam, nor religious communities more generally. In this paper, it is argued that the construction of HBV as a matter of deviant and antiquated Muslim honour codes is Islamophobic and that a more productive lens through which to understand collective familial violence may lie in the conceptual framework of heteronormativity.

  16. Policing violence in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, E

    1999-03-01

    This article is an excerpted summary of a speech on female police and domestic violence. The speech was given by a woman affiliated with the Association of Women Workers at an Oxfam workshop in northern Brazil. This organization successfully lobbied for female police, which resulted in more reports of domestic violence, especially rape. The organization is active in 13 counties. Female police are trained and usually given respect by police chiefs. In one city, in 1997, the appointment of female police resulted in registered reports of 387 cases of violence and hospital reports of 503 cases, of which 14% were child rape. During January-April 1998, there were 126 registered cases and 168 hospital cases. Policewomen formed a partnership over the past 2 years with the Human Rights Group and other popular political groups to train female police about laws. The compulsory course focused on four areas: legal concepts, penalties, and procedures on registration of complaints; the Brazilian Penal Code; civil law; and world judicial bureaucracies. Training includes a 1 month internship with the program's lawyer. Over 20 women have completed the course to date. Training in some cases resulted in greater expertise among the female police than their Police Chiefs. Female police have experienced harassment by local authorities.

  17. [Preventing school violence: an evaluation of an intervention program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Carla Silva

    2011-06-01

    School violence (bullying), is currently considered a growing public health issue across the globe. It is essential to intervene in order to improve the quality of life of children/adolescents at school. Therefore, it should be a research priority to include the issue in the agenda of nurses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of an anti-violence program implemented with 307 secondary level students in a school in Lisbon. The evaluation before and after the program was performed using a questionnaire that was elaborated and validated for this study. We found that before the intervention, there was a high level of bullying (50% victims and 35% aggressors), and that the aggressions also included teachers (7%) and other school workers (9%). The program consisted of building awareness/preparation in teachers and parents and practicing social competencies among the students. After the intervention significant results were observed in the global reduction of school violence.

  18. Structural violence in Afghanistan: gendered memory, narratives, and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, Parin

    2013-01-01

    Afghanistan has been subject to political amnesia by the occupying powers of the United States and its North Atlantic Treaty Organization allies. Using the Taliban as a reference point, they have ensured that they are not implicated in the everyday and structural violence to which the people of Afghanistan have been subject over the past three decades. But Afghan women remember. Based on my ethnographic research in Kabul (in fall 2008 and 2009), I show how women in Afghanistan engage in memory work through narratives and food preparation within spaces of devastation. I argue that through these mediums, structural violence becomes knowable. I also argue that memory work is a politicized enterprise through which people remember to seek justice, in the process evoking the attention of a listening audience. This focus fosters a conversation on how the anthropology of violence can engage with issues of representation and engaged accountability.

  19. Understanding sexual and reproductive violence: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzelatto, J

    1998-12-01

    International agreements recognizing different forms of violence as violations of human rights and the definition provided by the 1993 UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women are taken as a starting point and its implications analyzed, emphasizing gender roles and stereotypes. Violence against women is related to violence in general, to the so-called culture of violence. Factors influencing a culture of violence are discussed, as well as the differences between public and private violence, emphasizing the need to understand their interaction to be effective in preventing violence against women. It is concluded that all violence stems from unbalanced exercise of power, creating injustice and lack of real democratic interaction. When left unchallenged such situations become part of the culture of individuals and societies, reinforcing the use of violence to solve conflicts. Hence, preventing violence against women requires cultural, social, economic, and political changes that are only possible by mobilizing society as a whole.

  20. An ex-ante economic evaluation of the Maternal and Child Health Voucher Scheme as a decision-making tool in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingkaew, Pritaporn; Werayingyong, Pitsaphun; Aye, San San; Tin, Nilar; Singh, Alaka; Myint, Phone; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2016-05-01

    Reducing child and maternal mortality in order to meet the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 remains a major challenge in Myanmar. Inadequate care during pregnancy and labour plays an important role in the maternal mortality rate in Myanmar. A Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Voucher Scheme comprising a subsidization for pregnant women to receive four antenatal care (ANC), delivery and postnatal care (PNC) free-of-charge was planned to help women overcome financial barriers in addition to raising awareness of ANC and delivery with skilled birth attendants (SBA), which can reduce the rate of maternal and neonatal death. This study is part of an ex-ante evaluation of a feasibility study of the MCH Voucher Scheme. A cost-utility analysis was conducted using a decision tree model to assess the cost per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted from the MCH Voucher Scheme compared with the current situation. Most input parameters were obtained from Myanmar context. From the base-case analysis, where the financial burden on households was fully subsidized, the MCH Voucher Scheme increased utilization for ANC from 73% up to 93% and for delivery from SBAs from 51% up to and 71%, respectively; hence, it is considered to be very cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 381 027 kyats per DALY averted (2010, price year). From the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the MCH Voucher Scheme had a 52% chance of being a cost-effective option at 1 GDP per capita threshold compared to the current situation. Given that the Voucher Scheme is currently being implemented in one township in Myanmar as a result of this study, ongoing evaluation of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this scheme is warranted. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  1. Child-to-Parent Violence: Challenging Perspectives on Family Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Declan

    2011-01-01

    Until relatively recently, the focus of research, policy and intervention responses to abuse and violence within families has been almost exclusively on the behaviour of adults rather than on the violence within families carried out by children and adolescents. As a consequence, the aggressive and violent behaviour of children and adolescents at…

  2. Violence Breeds Violence: Childhood Exposure and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Chelsea M.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 88 primiparous adolescent mothers and their children. Regression analyses revealed that witnessing violence and victimization prior to age 10 predicted delinquency and violent behaviors, even after controlling for prenatal…

  3. From violence to more violence in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Medina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many Central American migrants flee their home country as a result of violence and threats from the criminal gangs. A large number of them also encounter the same type of violence that they are fleeing when on the migratory routes through Mexico.

  4. Men who use violence: intimate violence versus non-intimate violence profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, David M; Weber, Deborah; Beckner, Helen Minnette; Robinson, Lori; Marsh, Neal; Cool, Angela

    2003-06-01

    The current study examined the differences between three types of violent men based on Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart's (1994) tripartite typology and a group of non-intimate violent men. First, a cluster analysis was conducted on a sample of 91 domestically violent men, resulting in three clusters that approximated the tripartite model for psychopathology as measured by the MMPI-2, that is, non-pathological, borderline/dysphoric, and antisocial. Based on the violence variables (i.e., severity of violence, family-only violence, and exposure to family of origin violence) only severity of violence approximated what would be expected across the three clusters, that is, the less the psychopathology, the less severe the violence. The other two violence variables had approximate frequencies/percentages of occurrence that would be expected for individual typologies with some but not all three typologies. In comparing the three intimate violent typologies to the non-intimate violent group, the non-intimate and non-pathological groups were within normal limits and did not differ significantly on any of the MMPI-2 scales. These non-intimate and non-pathological groups differed significantly from the antisocial and borderline/dysphoric groups on all the scales that defined the psychopathology of these two groups. On the violence variables, the non-intimate groups reported significantly less severe violence than the borderline/dysphoric and antisocial groups.

  5. The Dynamics of Violence and Homelessness among Young Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin James

    2008-01-01

    Violence is one of the most prevalent elements in the lives of homeless families with young children. This violence may come in various forms: domestic violence, street violence, violence in one's childhood, witnessing violence, and other avenues and modes. Violence disrupts the normal bonding between parent and child. It isolates and degrades…

  6. Crime and Violence in American Society: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Edith Elisabeth; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Six articles focus on various aspects on violence in American society. Titles are "Evolving a Science of Violence,""Violence by Youth; Violence Against Youth,""Victims and Aggressors in Marital Violence,""Television Violence, Victimization, and Power," and "Violence in Business Settings." (DB)

  7. Anger Mediates the Relation between Violence Exposure and Violence Perpetration in Incarcerated Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimonis, Eva R.; Ray, James V.; Branch, Jessica R.; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Youth who are exposed to violence are more likely to perpetrate violence. Incarcerated youth are a special population that is at a significantly greater risk for violent offending because of their relatively greater rates of violence exposure. Two important outcomes of violence exposure that may help explain its link with violence perpetration are…

  8. The Relationship between Violence in the Family of Origin and Dating Violence among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, Angela R.; Kaukinen, Catherine; Fox, Kathleen A.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research has established that violence in dating relationships is a serious social problem among adolescents and young adults. Exposure to violence during childhood has been linked to dating violence victimization and perpetration. Also known as the intergenerational transmission of violence, the link between violence during childhood and…

  9. Dysfunctional anger and sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A G

    2014-06-01

    Sexual offenses with or without aggression attract attention from the popular media and the scientific community. Empirical research suggests a relationship between anger and sexual violence. This article describes the key themes of dysfunctional anger and sexual violence, and how dysfunctional anger relates to sexual fantasies, sexual offending, and sexual recidivism. The implications of the findings for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  10. Adolescents, Parents, and Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Steven H.; McLeod, Jack M.

    Three hypotheses could explain a positive correlation between violence viewing and social aggressiveness in adolescents: 1) Heavy exposure to television (TV) violence somehow reinforces or induces aggressive tendencies; 2) An aggressive child is more likely to be attracted to violent TV programs; 3) Some third factors exist which could cause both…

  11. The Othering of Domestic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montoya, Celeste; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2013-01-01

    Violence against women is a universal problem, affecting women at all levels of society; however, differently situated women have unique experiences with violence. Theoretically, this calls for the necessity to balance universality with intersectionality. Analyzing EU policy texts, we argue that ...

  12. Cutting the Roots of Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziey, Paul W.

    1996-01-01

    Violence is rooted in obedience to authority and in comparisons--foundations of our institutions of parenting and schooling. Obedience brings reward and punishment, comparison perpetuates a cycle of competition and conflict. Television violence is especially harmful because children easily understand visual images. The Reality Research approach to…

  13. TV Violence: Myth and Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Mary A.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, with an average national television viewing time of more than seven hours daily, the prevalence of violence in broadcasts is a serious concern. Summarizes research on the effects of television violence on children. Includes eight suggested student activities to develop critical media skills. (CFR)

  14. Screen Violence and America's Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, David S.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that studies have shown that murder rates have risen in response to televised violence, not only in the United States but elsewhere as well. Contends that, despite this correlation, the broadcast industry continues to saturate children's programing with violence. (Author/NB)

  15. Guns and Violence. Current Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Henny H., Ed.

    This book focuses on gun violence and gun control, presenting both sides of arguments about firearms ownership and gun control. Each of five chapters poses a question about gun control and provides answers for both sides of the question. The following essays are included: (1) "Gun Violence Is Becoming an Epidemic" (Bob Herbert); (2) "Gun Violence…

  16. Media Violence and Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaks, Harold R.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the possibility of a connection between violence in the media and actual adolescent behavior. Explores the nature of the connection, why it exists, and possible courses of action to correct the problem. States that 3,000 studies have explored the link between media violence and adolescent behavior. Concludes that the media should show…

  17. [Violence Profiles for Fall Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Citizens Committee for Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

    This document presented by the National Citizens' Committee for Broadcasting at a 1976 press conference provides an assortment of materials concerned with violence in television. Among the materials included are "Who Sponsors the New Fall Violence?" by Nicholas Johnson, a description of and rationale for the study of advertisers who sponsor…

  18. Television Violence and Violent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnagel, Timothy F.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Discusses a survey investigation of whether exposure to television violence is associated with an increased probability of engaging in violent behavior. Questionnaire data collected in 1970 in junior and senior high schools in Maryland, included self-reports of favorite television show, amount of violence in that show, and respondent's violent…

  19. Youth Violence in Middle America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Peter L.; Roehlkepartain, Eugene

    1992-01-01

    Although most of the national concern about violence has focused on major cities, no community is free from violence. Violent acts in suburbs, small towns, and rural areas may not be as severe as in urban areas, yet they exist. The Profiles of Student Life survey of 47,000 students in grades 6-12 included questions about violent behavior. The…

  20. Domestic Violence as Everyday Terrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Cunningham, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society.......Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society....

  1. VIOLENCE, INTIMIDATION AND PROTEST. DESEGREGATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEESON, JIM

    THIS ARTICLE IS A SHORT ANECDOTAL COLLECTION OF SCHOOL DESEGREGATION INCIDENTS WHERE VIOLENCE HAS BEEN EITHER PRESENT OR THREATENED. THE VIOLENCE HAS INCLUDED THE BEATING OF NEGRO CHILDREN, BOMBINGS AND SHOOTINGS, AND NUMEROUS TELEPHONE THREATS AND KU KLUX KLAN INTIMIDATIONS. NEGRO TEACHERS IN PREVIOUSLY WHITE SCHOOLS HAVE BEEN TARGETS OF VIOLENCE…

  2. Media Violence and Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaks, Harold R.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the possibility of a connection between violence in the media and actual adolescent behavior. Explores the nature of the connection, why it exists, and possible courses of action to correct the problem. States that 3,000 studies have explored the link between media violence and adolescent behavior. Concludes that the media should show…

  3. International Perspectives on Family Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelles, Richard J.; Cornell, Claire Pedrick

    This paper reviews a sampling of the literature on child abuse, spouse abuse, and family violence from around the world. The 72 books, journal articles, newspaper articles, and legislative reports which are included cover the period 1960-1981. A section on where family violence research has been conducted includes studies on child abuse and…

  4. Dating Violence among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Dating violence is a significant problem on college campuses. More than one-fifth of the undergraduate dating population are physically abused by their dating partners and an even greater percentage are psychologically abused. Researchers have identified risk factors for college student dating violence. Preventive interventions are strongly…

  5. Violence in Adolescent Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Platt, Cora; McDonald, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with a definition of dating and dating violence among adolescents, this article explores the factors which impact such violence. It concludes with a review of two school-based prevention/intervention programs (Safe Dates and The Youth Relationships Project). (Contains 1 table.)

  6. Critical incident stress debriefing: a health promotion model for workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antai-Otong, D

    2001-01-01

    To view the global impact of violence as a critical incident. Published literature, author's experience. Psychiatric nurses can use the critical incident stress debriefing protocol to minimize adverse outcomes after a traumatic event. Workplace violence threatens the safety and well-being of nurses. Psychiatric nurses are more likely to encounter workplace violence than nurses in other settings and must prepare themselves using proactive health-promoting activities, for example the critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) model. This health-promotion model provides immediate emotional support and education about normal stress reactions, and may reduce the risk of chronic and disabling emotional and physical consequences.

  7. Eastern Orthodox perspectives on violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton Saggau, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the post-communist era, the contemporary national Eastern Orthodox churches have often been accused of taking either direct or ideological part in violence across Eastern Europe. In several scholarly analyses, the churches have been linked with ethnic and national violence. They have...... thus been identified as an ideological root for a distinctive ethno-religious nationalism either blocking the way for a pluralistic society or simply defying it. These cases of violence and conflicts, as well as their subsequent analysis, only point to a practical and visible manifestation of conflicts......, and they therefore don’t answer a broader theological question, namely the question of the general position of the Eastern Orthodox churches regarding violence. This article will address this broader question of what the Orthodox churches’ position is on violence and discuss the co-relation and intersection between...

  8. Media violence: advice for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscari, Mary

    2002-01-01

    By the time they reach age 18, American children will have seen 16,000 simulated murders and 200,000 acts of violence (American Psychiatric Association, 1998). Media violence can be hazardous to children's health, and studies point overwhelmingly to a causal connection between media violence and aggressive attitudes, values and behaviors in some children (Congressional Public Health Summit, 2000). Through education in clinics, schools, and primary care offices, pediatric nurses can minimize the impact of media violence. They can obtain comprehensive media histories on children and families. They can teach children and parents about the effects of media violence and advise them how to avoid exposure. Nurses can also encourage the entertainment industry to exercise more responsibility in the ways they entertain children.

  9. Can we compare violence data across countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundaram, Vanita; Curtis, Tine; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2004-01-01

    The paper aims to explore what knowledge can be obtained about violence through population-based data and additionally, through inter-country comparisons of violence data.......The paper aims to explore what knowledge can be obtained about violence through population-based data and additionally, through inter-country comparisons of violence data....

  10. TV Violence: What's All the Fuss About?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Dorothy G.; Singer, Jerome L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems posed by television violence; how behavioral and social scientists became interested in television violence and its effects on children; how psychologists study relationships between television violence and behavior; how television violence can be counteracted by television industry, parents, and educators; and results from the…

  11. Psychopathology in Women Arrested for Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychopathology among women arrested for violence and whether the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with Axis I psychopathology. Women who were arrested for domestic violence perpetration and court referred to violence intervention programs (N=103) completed measures of IPV…

  12. Conflict, Power, and Violence in Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin L.

    2010-01-01

    Research on conflict, power, and violence in families in the 2000s developed a promising focus on the interconnections between types of violence and between the experience of violence and locations in larger structures of power and inequality. I examine research on poly-victimization, typologies of violence, dyadic research, and links between…

  13. Conflict, Power, and Violence in Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin L.

    2010-01-01

    Research on conflict, power, and violence in families in the 2000s developed a promising focus on the interconnections between types of violence and between the experience of violence and locations in larger structures of power and inequality. I examine research on poly-victimization, typologies of violence, dyadic research, and links between…

  14. TV Violence: What's All the Fuss About?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Dorothy G.; Singer, Jerome L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems posed by television violence; how behavioral and social scientists became interested in television violence and its effects on children; how psychologists study relationships between television violence and behavior; how television violence can be counteracted by television industry, parents, and educators; and results from the…

  15. Violence towards children as a social issue

    OpenAIRE

    Korolyova K. Y.; Kovalchuk O. V.

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the issues of violence of social institutions and family towards children. The authors observe different theoretical approaches as a background for the violence studies, and also regard sociocultural factors of violence. The paper presents the actual tendencies of family violence as a social issue in the contemporary Russian society and shows possible ways of solving the problem.

  16. Childhood and violence: the sociocultural aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalchuk O. V.

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the issues of violence of social institutions and family towards children. The authors observe different theoretical approaches as a background for the violence studies, and also regard sociocultural factors of violence. The paper presents the actual tendencies of family violence as a social issue in the contemporary Russian society and shows possible ways of solving the problem.

  17. Media Violence: The Search for Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoman, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the influence of mass media depictions of violence on children and provides suggestions for media literacy education. Calls for reducing children's exposure to media violence; changing the impact of violent images; stressing alternatives to violence for resolving conflicts; challenging the social supports for media violence; and…

  18. What Can We Do about the Violence?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Margie

    1995-01-01

    Discusses incidents of violence in communities and describes the relationship between poverty, media violence, easy access to handguns, violence at home and on the streets, and neglect and abuse of children. Advocates living nonviolently and viewing the prevention of violence as a multifaceted task. (DR)

  19. Medicolegal characteristics of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antović Aleksandra R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Domestic violence is a phenomenon as old as the history of human civilization, present in all cultures, epochs and social systems. Despite the fact that domestic violence represents a dangerous and unacceptable social phenomenon, as well as a significant medical problem, there are still no precise data on the prevalence of this phenomenon in our country. This study aims to determine the elementary forensic characteristics of domestic violence that would represented the basis for future medical research in this field. Methods. A total of 4,593 records of forensic autopsy (n = 3,120 and clinical forensic medical examinations (n = 1,473 were analyzed in the 1996–2005 period in order to determine the cases of domestic violence. Results. The analysis encompassed 300 cases (6.5% of clinically examined (n = 211; 70.3% and autopsied (n = 89; 29.7% victims of domestic violence. A statistically significant increase in domestic violence cases (χ2 = 12.74; p = 0.00036 was determined in the observed period. The victims were mostly females (78%, with the mean age of 45.8 years (min = 0.3; max = 85; SD = 17.7, married (45%, with personal income (74.4%, and urban residence (66.3%. The majority of abusers were males (89.3%. Intimate partner violence was present in 58.3% of the cases. Physical abuse was the most common form of violence (97.7%, while sexual violence (2.3% and child abuse (4.3% were rarely recorded. Conclusion. The results of this research indicate that forensic medicine can be of great help in designing appropriate standards for conducting clinical medical examination, preventive programs, and strategies in fighting domestic violence.

  20. Conceptualizing violence for health and medical geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVerteuil, Geoffrey

    2015-05-01

    Despite the fact that violence is a major threat to public health, the term itself is rarely considered as a phenomenon unto itself, and rarely figures explicitly in work by health and medical geographers. In response, I propose a definitionally and conceptually more robust approach to violence using a tripartite frame (interpersonal violence, structural violence, mass intentional violence) and suggest critical interventions through which to apply this more explicit and conceptually more robust approach: violence and embodiment via substance abuse in health geography, and structural violence via mental illness in medical geography.

  1. Groups and Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavnani, Ravi; Miodownik, Dan; Riolo, Rick

    Violence can take place along a multitude of cleavages, e.g., (1) between political groups like the Kach Movement, pitting West Bank settlers against Israeli governments supporting the land-for-peace agenda; (2) between religious groups, such as Christians and Muslims in the Nigerian cities of Jos and Kaduna; (3) along class lines, as in India between Dalits and members of the Brahminical upper castes, upwardly mobile intermediate castes, and even other backward castes such as the Thevars; and (4) between ethnic groups such as the Hutu and Tutsi, both within and across state boundaries in Rwanda and neighboring Burundi.

  2. Video games and violence

    OpenAIRE

    Moebus José Retondar; Elisabeth Rose Assumpção Harris

    2013-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8042.2013v25n40p183O objetivo do estudo é refletir sobre a possível relação entre jogos eletrônicos e violência à luz da resignificação das aulas de Educação Física Escolar, considerando novas subjetividades formadas pela realidade virtual. The aim is to reflect on the appropriation of video games and violence. Also, think ofthe physical education classes, considering the universe of virtual reality.

  3. [Schizophrenia and violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudriot, Friederike; Guldimann, Angela; Habermeyer, Elmar

    2013-12-31

    As compared to the general population schizophrenic patients are at increased risk of becoming delinquent. The majority of schizophrenic patients do not commit any crime, and the risk of the general population to be a target of a violent act by a person with schizophrenia is low. The causes of delinquency in schizophrenia are complex, but certain risk characteristics (e. g. an accompanying substance abuse) have been identified. The treatability and legal prognosis of schizophrenic offenders are good, which suggests that establishing a suitable helpers network could also be used for violence prevention in patients at risk.

  4. Violence the Western way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, B E

    1997-10-01

    Despite the quiet revolution in response to changing conceptualizations of gender in psychoanalysis, the Western has remained the domain of aggressive phallic masculinity. The iconic imagery of the Western, when combined with its narrative trajectory, is used to tell stories of violent encounters between men. The acceptance of the genre, and its duplication by other cultures and film makers, indicates that the Westerns' imagery and moral solutions tap into some basic deep structures of anxiety and pleasure in violence between men. As long as societies require subtle sublimations of aggressive and violent drives, it is likely that men will seek imaginary regressive experiences to discharge frustrations.

  5. Surviving Violence, Contesting Victimhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, Atreyee

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the emergence of violent child identity politics in a communally sensitive urban slum in Hyderabad, a city in southern India. My ethnographic landscape is Sultanpur, a Muslim-dominated ghetto in the northern quarters of Hyderabad, which has been marked by decades of hostilities...... between local Hindus and Muslims. These tensions had everyday and extreme manifestations (ranging from quotidian expressions of symbolic violence to rioting, looting and bomb blasts) which increased the vulnerabilities of Muslim male children in the slums; the latter being humiliated by ordinary passers......, and sustained nascent masculinities within the moral and social economy of impoverished Muslim male children....

  6. Violence and mental illness: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Heather

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the relationship of mental illness and violence by asking three questions: Are the mentally ill violent? Are the mentally ill at increased risk of violence? Are the public at risk? Mental disorders are neither necessary nor sufficient causes of violence. Major determinants of violence continue to be socio-demographic and economic factors. Substance abuse is a major determinant of violence and this is true whether it occurs in the context of a concurrent ...

  7. Media violence, gun control, and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, D M

    1996-07-01

    Public concern with the national level of violence is discussed, and the complexity of the issue delineated. Research findings in two key areas of the topic, media violence and availability of firearms, are examined, as is their applicability to public policy efforts and recommendations for the prevention of violence. An approach that combines efforts to counteract media violence with those aimed at effective gun control is outlined in terms of bringing about changes in attitudes toward violence and firearm possession.

  8. OKUL ÖNCESİ DÖNEMDEKİ ÇOCUKLAR İÇİN HAZIRLANAN HİKÂYE KİTAPLARINDAKİ KORKU VE ŞİDDET ÖĞELERİNİN İNCELENMESİ / EXAMINATION OF PICTURED STORY BOOKS PREPARED FOR PRESCHOL CHILDREN REGARDING ELEMENTS OF FEAR AND VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed ÖZTÜRK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Okul öncesi dönemden itibaren, çocukların kitap sevgisini ve okuma alışkanlığını edinmelerinde karşılaştıkları kitapların niteliği oldukça etkilidir. Bu anlamda, küçük çocuklar için kitap seçiminde yetişkinlerin tutumu ve bilgisi önemli rol oynamaktadır. Araştırmada, Aksaray’da yaşayan ailelerin ve öğretmenlerin okul öncesi dönemdeki çocuklar için seçebilecekleri hikâye kitaplarında şiddet ve korku öğelerinin kullanım sıklığı ve varlığının belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırma var olan durumu olduğu gibi aktarmayı amaçladığı için survey (tarama-betimleme yöntemi kullanılarak gerçekleştirilmiştir. Aksaray İl Halk Kütüphanesi ve kitabevlerinde yer alan, okul öncesi dönemdeki çocuklar için hazırlanarak 2009-2015 yılları arasında yayınlanmış 54 hikâye kitabı, Dağlıoğlu ve Çakmak (2009 tarafından geliştirilen değerlendirme formu ile incelenmiştir. Verilerin analizi sonucunda, korku ve şiddet, resim ve metin olmak üzere kategoriler oluşmuştur. Korku ve şiddet öğelerinin varlığı ile kitaplardaki kullanım sıklığı yüzde ve frekans değerleri verilerek açıklanmıştır. Araştırma sonucuna göre; incelenen hikâye kitaplarında metin ve resim kısımlarında az da olsa şiddet ve korku öğelerinin yer aldığı belirlenmiştir. / From the preschool period, the quality of book is important for children to acquire reading habits and love of book. In this sense, attitude and knowledge of adults in book selection for children, play an important role. In the research, it is intended to determine frequency of occurrence and existence of fear and violence in story books that families and teachers could select for children who in preschool period in Aksaray. As the research aims defining of a given situation as it is, descriptive survey model is adopted for this study. Randomly selected 54 story books that published between 2009-2015 which prepared

  9. The Effect of Private School Vouchers on Political Participation: Experimental Evidence from New York City. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Paper Series. PEPG 16-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Deven; Chingos, Matthew M.; Campbell, David E.

    2016-01-01

    In 1997, the New York School Choice Scholarships Foundation Program (SCSF) randomly offered three-year scholarships to attend private schools to approximately 1,000 low-income families in New York City. In this paper we leverage exogenous variation generated by the SCSF to estimate the causal effect of the private school voucher offer--and the…

  10. Multi-perpetrator domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Michael

    2014-04-01

    A significant proportion of reports of domestic violence against women involve multiple perpetrators. Although the number of perpetrators has been consistently identified as a measure of abuse severity, only a minority of studies of domestic violence examine the role of multiple offenders. Data on multi-perpetrator domestic violence (MDV) is frequently removed from analysis in domestic violence studies, or multi-perpetrator incidents are treated as single-perpetrator incidents. However, the available research links MDV to negative mental and physical health outcomes, intimate partner homicide, homelessness among women, and severe mental illness and suicidality. This article reviews the available prevalence data on MDV and draws together research on the contexts in which MDV takes place. It highlights two groups that are particularly vulnerable to MDV: (1) girls and women partnered to members of gangs and organized crime groups and (2) girls and women in some ethnic minority communities. While discussions of honor in relation to domestic violence are often racialized in Western media, this article highlights the cross-cultural role of masculine honor in collective violence against women in the working class and impoverished communities of majority cultures as well as in migrant and ethnic minority communities. It is clear that such complex forms of violence present a range of challenges for intervention and treatment and the article emphasizes the need for specialized and coordinated modes of investigation, support, and care.

  11. How much choice is there in housing choice vouchers? Neighborhood risk and free market rental housing accessibility for active drug users in Hartford, Connecticut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Convey Mark

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the mid-1970s, the dominant model for U.S. federal housing policy has shifted from unit-based programs to tenant based vouchers and certificates, intended to allow recipients a choice in their housing and neighborhoods. Surprisingly little research has examined the question of where those with Section 8 housing vouchers are able to live, but some research suggests that voucher holders are more likely to reside in distressed neighborhoods than unsubsidized renter households. Further, federal housing policy has limited drug users' access to housing subsidies. In turn, neighborhood disorder has been associated with higher levels of injection drug risk behaviors, and higher drug-related mortality. This paper explores rental accessibility and neighborhood characteristics of advertised rental housing in Hartford CT. Methods Brief telephone interviews were conducted with landlords or management companies with units to rent in Hartford to explore housing accessibility measured as initial move in costs, credit and criminal background checks, and whether rental subsidies were accepted. These data were supplemented with in-depth interviews with landlords, shelter staff and active users of heroin, crack or cocaine. Apartments for rent were geocoded and mapped using ArcGIS. We used location quotients to identify areas where low-income rental housing is concentrated. Finally, we mapped apartments in relation to drug and violent arrest rates in each neighborhood. Results High security deposits, criminal background and credit checks limit housing accessibility even for drug users receiving vouchers. While most landlords or management companies accepted housing subsidies, several did not. Voucher units are concentrated in neighborhoods with high poverty neighborhoods. Landlords reported little incentive to accept rental subsidies in neighborhoods with low crime rates, but appreciated the guarantee provided by Section 8 in high crime

  12. Stop Domestic Violence Against Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    IN the beautiful autumn of 1995, women from all over the world gathered at the NGO Forum of the UN Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing to discuss the ugly topic of "women and violence." An American woman said angrily that domestic violence was "as common as giving birth to babies." She denounced the prevalence of the violent behavior that was hidden in families and called upon the participants to strive for women’s dignity and safety. The participants all recognized that domestic violence had become a global

  13. Between Agency and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    The Role of Symbolic Violence in Research and Policy: In Denmark it is a common assumption that gender equality, especially concerning sexual practices and other personal relations, has been fully accomplished. Consequently, public as well as professional discourses and practices concerning rape...... of this kind in public policies concerning gendered and gendering violence, it is necessary to develop critiques of aspects of symbolic violence (Beate Krais 1993), that have been conceptualised as ‘genderless gender’ by Suvi Ronkainen (2001). Thus statistic and other forms of research approaches wishing...

  14. VIOLENCE DRESSED IN HUMOR: COMEDIC VIOLENCE IN ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Gradinaru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the concepts of humor and violence and their complex relationships contextualised in the advertising domain. Thus, the main theories of humor and the most important elements from media violence paradigms are critically pointed out. The effects of comedic violence in advertising may be positive (great involvement with the ad message, retention of brand information, higher pass-along probability, and also negative (offending the audience, desensitization, damaging the reputation and the brand equity. A lot of factors change the perception of comedic violent ads (gender, social norm beliefs etc., so that a multidimensional analysis of consumer perceptions is needed if we want to draw a more accurate picture of this phenomenon. The analysis of the specific ad that I developed in the second part of this paper showed clearly the interplay between perceived humor and perceived violence and also the relevance of the cultural background in its interpretation.

  15. Adolescent violence exposure, gender issues and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munni, Ray; Malhi, P

    2006-07-01

    Youth violence is a growing problem worldwide. Research on adolescent violence in India is limited. Fifteen hundred high school students were investigated to study the prevalence and demographic characteristics of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of violence and to see the impact of violence exposure on their psychosocial adjustments. Sixty nine percent of students had witnessed violence in real life and 28% were of serious nature. Media violence exposure was universal. The prevalence of victims and perpetrators was 27% and 13% respectively. Bullying was prevalent. Male sex was the most important predictive risk factor for witnessing and perpetrating violence (P violence had poorer school performance and adjustment scores (P violence exposure is prevalent even in the lives of Indian adolescents and gender differences exist. Its impact on their psychosocial adjustments is detrimental. Early identification and corrective interventions of these adolescents is vital.

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a voucher scheme combined with obstetrical quality improvements: quasi experimental results from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Y Natalia; Bishai, David; Bua, John; Mutebi, Aloysius; Mayora, Crispus; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Uganda has declined significantly during the last 20 years, but Uganda is not on track to reach the millennium development goal of reducing MMR by 75% by 2015. More evidence on the cost-effectiveness of supply- and demand-side financing programs to reduce maternal mortality could inform future strategies. This study analyses the cost-effectiveness of a voucher scheme (VS) combined with health system strengthening in rural Uganda against the status quo. The VS, implemented in 2010, provided vouchers for delivery services at public and private health facilities (HF), as well as round-trip transportation provided by private sector workers (bicycles or motorcycles generally). The VS was part of a quasi-experimental non-randomized control trial. Improvements in institutional delivery coverage (IDC) rates can be estimated using a difference-in-difference impact evaluation method and the number of maternal lives saved is modelled using the evidence-based Lives Saved Tool. Costs were estimated from primary and secondary data. Results show that the demand for births at HFs enrolled in the VS increased by 52.3 percentage points. Out of this value, conservative estimates indicate that at least 9.4 percentage points are new HF users. This 9.4% bump in IDC implies 20 deaths averted, which is equivalent to 1356 disability-adjusted-life years (DALYs) averted. Cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the status quo and VS's most conservative effectiveness estimates shows that the VS had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per DALY averted of US$302 and per death averted of US$20 756. Although there are limitations in the data measures, a favourable cost-effectiveness ratio persists even under extreme assumptions. Demand-side vouchers combined with supply-side financing programs can increase attended deliveries and reduce maternal mortality at a cost that is acceptable. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School

  17. Family violence and psychiatric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, R; Orn, H

    1986-03-01

    The relationship between family violence and psychiatric disorders was examined using standardized diagnostic interviews of 1200 randomly selected residents of a large Canadian city. The results showed that higher than expected proportions of those exhibiting violent behavior had a psychiatric diagnosis and the rate of violent behaviors in those with diagnoses (54.4%) significantly (p less than .0001) exceeds the rate in the remainder of the sample (15.5%). Particularly high rates of violence are found in those where alcoholism is combined with antisocial personality disorder and/or recurrent depression (80-93%). Also at high risk for violence are those who have made suicide attempts (over 50%) and those who have been arrested for non-traffic offences (two-thirds). These data suggest that psychiatric disorders have a strong relationship to violent behavior, and are not in agreement with the predominantly sociological explanations of family violence.

  18. PSA: Topic of gender violence

    OpenAIRE

    Accensi Martínez, Maria Cinta

    2016-01-01

    Breu reflexió sobre la violència existent actualment envers les dones. Breve reflexión sobre la violencia existente actualmente hacia las mujeres. Brief reflection on currently existing violence against women.

  19. PSA: Topic of gender violence

    OpenAIRE

    Accensi Martínez, Maria Cinta

    2016-01-01

    Breu reflexió sobre la violència existent actualment envers les dones. Breve reflexión sobre la violencia existente actualmente hacia las mujeres. Brief reflection on currently existing violence against women.

  20. Preventing Interpersonal Violence in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Sethi

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSION: Community surveys can play an important role to better understand the scale and risk factors of different types of interpersonal violence. Readers are called upon to support a coordinated public health response to prevent this societal and health threat.

  1. Between Agency and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    The Role of Symbolic Violence in Research and Policy: In Denmark it is a common assumption that gender equality, especially concerning sexual practices and other personal relations, has been fully accomplished. Consequently, public as well as professional discourses and practices concerning rape...... - could be exposed to sexualised violence. Another example is that therapy and other forms of help do not draw on critical perspectives on gender conditions. Rather, frequently and in essencialising approaches to concepts of femininity and masculinity, they individualise or over...... of this kind in public policies concerning gendered and gendering violence, it is necessary to develop critiques of aspects of symbolic violence (Beate Krais 1993), that have been conceptualised as ‘genderless gender’ by Suvi Ronkainen (2001). Thus statistic and other forms of research approaches wishing...

  2. Targeting Civilians with Indiscriminate Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Theologies, States of Mind, ed. Walter Reich, (Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1998), 18. 11 Quintan Wiktorowicz, Islamic Activism...atrocities turned popular support dramatically against the Islamic movement. Quintan Wiktorowicz speculates that “Unable to limit the scale of the violence...Marginalization to Massacres: A Political Process Explanation of GIA Violence in Algeria,” in Quintan Wiktorowicz, Islamic Activism: A Social Movement

  3. Workplace violence in nursing today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Susan; Sofield, Laura

    2011-12-01

    Workplace violence is not a new phenomenon and is often sensationalized by the media when an incident occurs. Verbal abuse is a form of workplace violence that leaves no scars. However, for nurses, the emotional damage to the individual can affect productivity, increase medication errors, incur absenteeism, and decrease morale and overall satisfaction within the nursing profession. This results in staffing turnover and creates a hostile work environment that affects the culture within the organization.

  4. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Neena; Sharma, Indira; Srivastava, Shruti; Bhatia, M S; Chaudhuri, Uday; Parial, Sonia; Sharma, Avdesh; Kataria, Dinesh

    2015-07-01

    Violence against women (VAW) is a major public health problem in the country. The problem is grossly under-reported. A number of factors have been blamed for crimes against women. An inefficient law enforcing machinery has often been targeted for the increasing number of cases being reported. There is little recognition that psychiatric morbidity can perpetuate such crimes. Of late, there appears to a continuous increase in the number of crimes committed against women; especially the very serious ones like gang rapes. The latter have shaken the very conscience of people. Even harsher legislation does not seem to have made any effect. One wonders how this could be possible in a society heading toward high education, economic and technological development. Media has played a pivotal role by highlighting the problem to the masses. The need for the hour is for mental health professionals to take the challenge and present a comprehensive proposal for definite action to prevent all forms of VAW.

  5. Measuring Willingness to Pay by Means of the Trade-off between Free Available Cash and Specific-Purpose Vouchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Lieven

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Primarily because of the hypothetical character of interview situations, respondents are often unable to state their true willingness to pay (WTP. This inability results in the so-called hypothetical bias. To address this bias, incentive-compatible methods have been proposed, but such methods are applicable only to real products. We propose a new method for measuring WTP based on disposable cash and specific purpose vouchers that are earmarked for particular goods that, contrary to incentive-compatible methods, can be used for hypothetical products and services that are less affected by the hypothetical bias. Empirical studies show that the new procedure provides WTP results that are equal to the results of alternative incentive-compatible elicitation procedures, such as the Vickrey auction and the Becker–DeGroot–Marschak (BDM procedure.

  6. Rural youth and violence: a gender perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Barry L; Kulig, Judith; Grant Kalischuk, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    The public health system must consider violence as an all too common reality in modern life. Violence can contribute to long-lasting negative consequences for individuals and communities. Research on violence has primarily focused on urban environments. Research examining youth violence within rural communities is limited. This is particularly the case for the links between gender and violence in small rural settings. The purpose of this study was to examine rural violence from a gender perspective by examining four variables: meaning, causes, consequences and solutions. A survey was completed in Central Alberta, Canada with 178 students from grades 6 to 12. The schools' geographic locations represented two distinct economic settings: one natural resources and the other agriculture. The mean age of the participants was 16 years with 60% of the youth female and 40% male. The survey instrument was composed of demographic questions and 70 questions that focused on violence. Violence was a concern for all youth, but there were gender differences. Females viewed the meaning of violence as having the intent to harm others and causes contributing to violence included television, movies, video games and the internet. Females were more concerned than males about the emotional consequences of violence. For solutions, females were more accepting of intrusive means to control violence such as increased security and stricter school rules, and involving non-peer helpers such as teachers and community based agencies as a means to help combat violence. The results of this study indicate that violence exists among rural youth and causes a great deal of concern. In particular, the study underscores the fact that there are potential gender differences in relation to causes, meaning, impact and solutions to violence. All the youth believed that violence in their lives needs to be addressed and want to develop anti-violence strategies. Females in particular see the development of such

  7. Sources of workplace violence against nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvas, Andreja; Seljak, Janko

    2015-01-01

    Health care employees, especially nurses, are often victims of workplace violence. The objective of this research is to study the frequency and degree of violence against nurses and to analyze correlations between various sources and types of violence. A survey was carried out using a representative sample of nurses in Slovenia. Data was collected using a questionnaire designed specifically for the purposes of the survey. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive, correlational and inferential statistics. A total of 692 nurses participated in the survey. Verbal violence (n = 416) and physical violence (n = 180) were identified. The most frequent perpetrators of verbal violence were patients (listed as a source of violence by 39.3% of the respondents) and peers (39.6%), with the most forceful identified as physicians and patients. Physical violence against nurses was most often initiated by patients (20.8%) who were also the most forceful source in this category. Nurse leaders were found to be the most frequent and forceful sources of violence in terms of leadership level. A positive correlation between external (patient and relatives) and internal (physician and nurse) sources of violence was determined. A better understanding of the association between different types and sources of violence may support the development of action-oriented violence management. Health care organisations should limit violence at its less severe levels and at its primary source.

  8. Adult Violence with the Mother and Sibling as Predictors of Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M.; Burns, Mary K.; Can, S. Hakan; Scherer, Cory R.

    2012-01-01

    The present study provides the first available evaluation of how violence with the mother and siblings during adulthood is associated with the occurrence of partner violence in young adults. Because a pattern of reciprocal partner violence is well documented, the authors hypothesized that reciprocal violence would also be found for adults and…

  9. Violence as Understandable, Deserved or Unacceptable? Listening for Gender in Teenagers' Talk about Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Vanita

    2013-01-01

    Youth violence is a topic of increasing global concern. Research has primarily focused on young people's responses to existing definitions of violence in seeking to understand how best to develop violence prevention. Little work has explored how young people themselves define violence and the factors which influence their acceptance, and use, of…

  10. Adult Violence with the Mother and Sibling as Predictors of Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M.; Burns, Mary K.; Can, S. Hakan; Scherer, Cory R.

    2012-01-01

    The present study provides the first available evaluation of how violence with the mother and siblings during adulthood is associated with the occurrence of partner violence in young adults. Because a pattern of reciprocal partner violence is well documented, the authors hypothesized that reciprocal violence would also be found for adults and…

  11. Heavy alcohol use and dating violence perpetration during adolescence: family, peer and neighborhood violence as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T

    2012-08-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating violence perpetration across grades 8 through 12. The effects of heavy alcohol use on dating violence tended to diminish over time and were stronger in the spring than in the fall semesters. Consistent with hypotheses, across all grades, relations between heavy alcohol use and dating violence were stronger for teens exposed to higher levels of family violence and friend dating violence. However, neither friend peer violence nor neighborhood violence moderated relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Taken together, findings suggest that as adolescents grow older, individual and contextual moderators may play an increasingly important role in explaining individual differences in relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Implications for the design and evaluation of dating abuse prevention programs are discussed.

  12. Violence against Women on the College Campus: Evaluating Anti-Violence Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Roberta E.

    2010-01-01

    Violence against women is a significant problem on America's college campuses. In response to this violence, many universities have developed direct service programs to assist the survivors of violence as well as educational programs to raise awareness about and/or reduce the likelihood of such violence. There has been no scholarly inquiry…

  13. Violence as Understandable, Deserved or Unacceptable? Listening for Gender in Teenagers' Talk about Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Vanita

    2013-01-01

    Youth violence is a topic of increasing global concern. Research has primarily focused on young people's responses to existing definitions of violence in seeking to understand how best to develop violence prevention. Little work has explored how young people themselves define violence and the factors which influence their acceptance, and use,…

  14. Violence as Understandable, Deserved or Unacceptable? Listening for Gender in Teenagers' Talk about Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Vanita

    2013-01-01

    Youth violence is a topic of increasing global concern. Research has primarily focused on young people's responses to existing definitions of violence in seeking to understand how best to develop violence prevention. Little work has explored how young people themselves define violence and the factors which influence their acceptance, and use, of…

  15. Partner Violence and Street Violence among Urban Adolescents: Do the Same Family Factors Relate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Tolan, Patrick H.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Henry, David B.

    2001-01-01

    Studied how participation in street violence as part of criminal/delinquent behavior relates to violence within dating or marital relationships. Found that subjects were more likely to report use of violence in relationships if they were also participating in violence as part of other criminal behavior. However, half the 141 subjects had not…

  16. Mainstreaming domestic and gender-based violence into sociology and the criminology of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, Sylvia; Towers, Jude; Francis, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Sociological and criminological views of domestic and gender-based violence generally either dismiss it as not worthy of consideration, or focus on specific groups of offenders and victims (male youth gangs, partner violence victims). In this paper, we take a holistic approach to violence, extending the definition from that commonly in use to encompass domestic violence and sexual violence. We operationalize that definition by using data from the latest sweep of the Crime Survey for England and Wales. By so doing, we identify that violence is currently under-measured and ubiquitous; that it is gendered, and that other forms of violence (family violence, acquaintance violence against women) are equally of concern. We argue that violence studies are an important form of activity for sociologists.

  17. Violence against women: global scope and magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2002-04-06

    An increasing amount of research is beginning to offer a global overview of the extent of violence against women. In this paper we discuss the magnitude of some of the most common and most severe forms of violence against women: intimate partner violence; sexual abuse by non-intimate partners; trafficking, forced prostitution, exploitation of labour, and debt bondage of women and girls; physical and sexual violence against prostitutes; sex selective abortion, female infanticide, and the deliberate neglect of girls; and rape in war. There are many potential perpetrators, including spouses and partners, parents, other family members, neighbours, and men in positions of power or influence. Most forms of violence are not unique incidents but are ongoing, and can even continue for decades. Because of the sensitivity of the subject, violence is almost universally under-reported. Nevertheless, the prevalence of such violence suggests that globally, millions of women are experiencing violence or living with its consequences.

  18. National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC) is a national information and resource hub relating to all aspects of sexual violence. NSVRC staff collect and...

  19. Gender symmetry, sexism, and intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher T; Swan, Suzanne C; Raghavan, Chitra

    2009-11-01

    This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in their relationships with intimate partners, the path models suggest that women's violence tends to be in reaction to male violence, whereas men tend to initiate violence and then their partners respond with violence. Benevolent sexism was shown to have a protective effect against men's violence toward partners. Findings highlight the importance of studying women's violence not only in the context of men's violence but also within a broader sociocultural context.

  20. Prevalence & Correlates of Intimate Partner physical violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and ... Witnessing family violence as a girl child, education, place of residence, parity, duration of marriage ... also known as domestic violence, is the ..... Social Science.

  1. Violence on television. Unpleasant, interesting or morbid?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    C Fernández Villanueva

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Many research studies have contributed to the study of the effects of violence on TV, but very few of them have paid attention to the reasons why violence arouses interest or rejection among viewers...

  2. A Seminar on Curbing Family Violence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANDY; ZHU

    2000-01-01

    CURBING family violence has become a priority for Chinese women's federations since 1995, when the concept of family violence was accepted by Chinese women's organizations. At the basic level, it is one of many tasks for safeguarding women's

  3. iliomestic violence around Gondar in Northwest Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to parental domestic violence as a girl was the strongest risk factor for being victim of violence later ... women havunf some authority and power outside the family combine to ... A pretested Amharic version questionnaire was used for.

  4. Clamping down on clinic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-16

    The editorial remarked that anti abortion groups using violence must be stopped through legislation currently under consideration by the House and Senate of the US Congress. An important distinction is made between expressing freedom of speech on a deeply held belief and intimidation and violence that directly impacts on the rights of others. Women's health clinics where abortions are performed have repeatedly been the setting for intimidation and violence. There have been over 1000 reports of violence against these facilities and the people working at abortion centers since 1977. The most extreme act was the March 1993 murder of Dr. David Gunn outside a Pensacola, Florida, clinic and the wounding in August 1993 of a doctor in Wichita, Kansas. Unfortunately, the clinic violence not only interfere with abortion seekers, but also interferes with normal routine procedures such as Pap smears, prenatal care, well baby visits, and contraceptive counseling. Politically motivated violence antagonizes many women who rely on these clinics as the only source of care. The House and Senate bills would make it a federal criminal act to use force or physical obstruction to prevent a woman from getting an abortion or to damage a medical facility that provides abortion-related services. The Senate voted November 16, 1993 and the House vote will follow within the week. Anti abortion activists have cited the change to a pro-choice president as one of the reasons for the increase in violence against clinics, which amounted to a tripling of acts between 1990 and 1992. It is quixotic that movement to protect life would use extreme acts such as murder to protect life. Persuasion and appeals to hearts and minds would serve the abortion foes better as a viable strategy in the exercise of their right of free speech.

  5. Violence and youth in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Jelic

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the following article you will be able to see how the violence among youth is manifested in society and the causes for the occurrence of aggression and violence. Aggression in children is evolving from an early age, later it increases in school and grew into violence, verbal and physical, then is expressed through the community and also historically violence is passed on generations in the creation of stereotypes and speech of hate against other nations.

  6. The Violence Factors in American Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董陶

    2015-01-01

    Violence symbolized the dark side of America culture. The theme of this article is to explore the causes of the violence factors in American culture. American violence exists as a result of a complex network of elements from American history, American value, various social factors such as economic inequality, racial discrimination, mass media, wide spread of guns as well as drug abuse. Besides, the governmental policy plays an essential role in American violence to some extent.

  7. Urban Jamaican children's exposure to community violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samms-Vaughan, M E; Jackson, M A; Ashley, D E

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with aggression in adulthood. The high level of community violence in Jamaica is likely to expose Jamaican children to violence. There has been no detailed study of the exposure of Jamaican children to violence in their daily lives. Some 1674 urban 11-12-year-old children, previously part of a national birth cohort study, completed a questionnaire detailing their exposure to violence as witnesses, victims and aggressors. Their parents completed a socio-economic questionnaire. Jamaican children had high levels of exposure to physical violence. A quarter of the children had witnessed severe acts of physical violence such as robbery, shooting and gang wars, a fifth had been victims of serious threats or robbery and one in every twelve had been stabbed. Children reported being least exposed to sexual violence and to being shot at. Robbery was an almost universal experience affecting children from all schools and socio-economic groups. The single commonest experience as a victim of violence was the loss of a family member or close friend to murder, affecting 36.8% of children. Children's experiences of witnessing violence occurred chiefly in their communities but their personal experiences of violence occurred at school. Boys and children attending primary school had greater exposure to violence as witnesses and victims. Socio-economic status discriminated exposure to physical violence as witnesses but not as victims. Intervention strategies to reduce children's exposure to violence should include community education on the impact of exposure to violence on children, particularly the loss of a significant person, and the development of a range of school-based violence prevention programmes.

  8. Sahel State Political Violence in Comparative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Caitriona Dowd; Clionadh Raleigh

    2013-01-01

    Policy, media and academic attention on violence in the Sahel region has been widespread since the onset of the Arab Spring, and the escalating violence in recent months in Mali. This research explores the nature, patterns and dynamics of this violence in regional and national comparative perspective, contrasting divergent dynamics of violence both within and across the region. Data is drawn from the Armed Conflict Location & Event Dataset (ACLED), which facilitates analysis of both conte...

  9. Detecting Violence in Video using Subclasses

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xirong; Huo, Yujia; Xu, Jieping; Jin, Qin

    2016-01-01

    This paper attacks the challenging problem of violence detection in videos. Different from existing works focusing on combining multi-modal features, we go one step further by adding and exploiting subclasses visually related to violence. We enrich the MediaEval 2015 violence dataset by \\emph{manually} labeling violence videos with respect to the subclasses. Such fine-grained annotations not only help understand what have impeded previous efforts on learning to fuse the multi-modal features, ...

  10. Violence against women: the phenomenon of workplace violence against nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, R J Howerton; Mentes, Janet C

    2010-02-01

    Registered nurses have been the recipients of an alarming increase in workplace violence (WPV). Emergency and psychiatric nurses have been found to be the most vulnerable and yet few solid reporting procedures exist to fully account for a true number of incidents. Further compounding the problem is the lack of a standard definition of violence to guide reporting procedures, interventions, legislation, and research. While there are certain risk factors that not only predispose the nurse and the patient to WPV, research continues to attempt to parse out which risk factors are the key determinants of WPV and also which interventions prove to be significant in reducing WPV. The nursing shortage is expected only to increase; recruitment and retention of qualified staff members may be deterred by WPV. This necessitates focused research on the phenomenon of workplace violence in health care.

  11. [Experiencing familiar violence: men who commit violence against their mates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira; Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Freire, Normélia Maria

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand which elements are present on the construction of the identity of men who commit violence against their mates. This qualitative study took as theoretical reference the Social Representations. It was carried out on Calafate community, San Martin, Salvador, BA. Its population was composed by 7 men who committed violence against their mates. Semi-structured interview provided data, which was organized through Bardin's Content Analysis, specifically thematic analysis, in the axis Familiar Relation. The study enabled us to identify elements that interfere on the construction of the identity of men who commit violence against their mates. Its origin is in the familiar relationship, marked by factors as lack of dialogue and physical aggressions.

  12. The economics of violence in natural states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Besouw, B.; Ansink, J.H.; van Bavel, B.J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Violence is key to understanding human interaction and societal development. The natural state of societal organization is that a subset of the population, capable of mustering organized large-scale violence, forms an elite coalition that restrains both violence and coercive appropriation. We

  13. Violence Exposure among Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is children with disabilities exposed to a broad range of violence types including child maltreatment, domestic violence, community violence, and war and terrorism. Because disability research must be interpreted on the basis of the definitional paradigm employed, definitions of disability status and current prevalence…

  14. National Television Violence Study. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  15. National Television Violence Study. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  16. National Television Violence Study. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  17. Violence in the Media: One Teacher's Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenberg, Harvey

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses and shares his opinion about violence in the media. He states that many of the students in class have honestly responded to his inquiries about violence in culture, that they are "fascinated" with violence in movies, in television shows, in video games, and in the music they listen to away from school.…

  18. Risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.Ph.L.; Bruijn, de J.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence v

  19. Students against Violence Everywhere: A National Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Center for the Prevention of School Violence, Raleigh.

    The Center for Prevention of School Violence, the national clearinghouse for Students Against Violence Everywhere (SAVE), developed a profile of SAVE chapters, which involve students in school and community violence prevention efforts. This report provides background information about SAVE and reviews the literature addressing school connectedness…

  20. Violence against Teachers: Prevalence and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Catherine M.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Lyon, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Data collected from 731 teachers were used to examine the consequences of violence directed toward teachers while in the workplace. Analyses showed that the majority of respondents (n = 585, 80.0%) had experienced school-related violence--broadly defined--at one point in their careers. Serious violence (actual, attempted, or threatened physical…

  1. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence...

  2. The economics of violence in natural states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Besouw, B.; Ansink, J.H.; van Bavel, B.J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Violence is key to understanding human interaction and societal development. The natural state of societal organization is that a subset of the population, capable of mustering organized large-scale violence, forms an elite coalition that restrains both violence and coercive appropriation. We highli

  3. Stop the Violence: Overcoming Self-Destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Nelson, Ed.

    The story of the Stop the Violence movement among rap music artists and music industry colleagues is told, along with the story of a video that was produced as part of this initiative. The Stop the Violence project grew out of the reaction to violence among concert goers at a 1987 rap concert on Long Island (New York). Rap musicians have joined…

  4. School Violence: Prevalence, Precursors, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvonen, Jaanna

    2002-01-01

    Reviews types of school violence students confront, including a frequent precursor thereto: bullying. Discusses positive and negative aspects of current approach to school violence prevention such as surveillance, zero-tolerance policies, anti-bullying programs. Describes components of model school violence-prevention program. (Contains 38…

  5. Sexual violence; post-conflict; Sierra Leone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    including intimate partner violence, sexual assault, child sexual abuse, wife ... This study explored narratives of sexual violence and obstacles to the .... to affirm their masculinity through irresponsible sexual behaviour and domestic violence, .... Netherlands Institute of International Relations and the Social Science Research ...

  6. Mobbing: Workplace Violence in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Jeanmarie; McDermott, J. Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Incidents of workplace violence are becoming all too common at colleges and universities. Generally, one thinks of shootings and assaults in relation to campus workplace violence. However, mobbing and bullying of faculty by other faculty are types of workplace violence that, while very common, are rarely discussed or reported. This article raises…

  7. Violence in the Media: One Teacher's Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenberg, Harvey

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses and shares his opinion about violence in the media. He states that many of the students in class have honestly responded to his inquiries about violence in culture, that they are "fascinated" with violence in movies, in television shows, in video games, and in the music they listen to away from school.…

  8. National Television Violence Study. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  9. National Television Violence Study. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  10. National Television Violence Study. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  11. Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Nancy G., Ed.; Smith, Emilie Phillips, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Preventing Youth Violence in a Multicultural Society" highlights the importance of creating culturally compatible interventions to stop violence among the youngest members of diverse populations. Chapters explore how ethnicity and culture can increase or decrease risk for violence among youth depending on contextual factors such as a…

  12. Third-Person Perception and School Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, John; Coleman, Grace

    This study is the first of its kind to study third-person perception within the context of school violence. Linkages to the health psychology literature (optimistic bias) provide the basis for further understanding of adolescents' perceptions of school violence and the influence of media violence in their lives. Results from a survey of 1,500…

  13. Mobbing: Workplace Violence in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Jeanmarie; McDermott, J. Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Incidents of workplace violence are becoming all too common at colleges and universities. Generally, one thinks of shootings and assaults in relation to campus workplace violence. However, mobbing and bullying of faculty by other faculty are types of workplace violence that, while very common, are rarely discussed or reported. This article raises…

  14. Religion and violence in a globalised world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Huber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Violent religious extremism is seen as one of the mega-problems of the 21st century. This article � based on a key lecture at the conference on �Violence in a democratic South Africa� at the University of Pretoria and the David de Villiers memorial lecture at the University of Stellenbosch, both held during August 2010 � critically discussed the interaction between religion and violence in our present-day, globalised world. Three different propositions on the relationship between religion and violence were scrutinised. In countering the proposition that religion, or more specifically monotheism, necessarily leads to violence, it was argued that violence is not an inherent, but rather an acquired or even an ascribed quality of religion. The second proposition that religion leads to non-violence was affirmed to the extent that religions do provide a strong impulse to overcome violence. However, they also tend to accept violence as an inevitable part of reality and even justify the use of violence on religious grounds. The third proposition was regarded as the most convincing, for it argues that the link between religion and violence is contingent. Some situations do seem to make the use of violence inevitable; however, religions should refrain from justifying the use of violence and maintain a preferential option for nonviolence.

  15. School Counselors' Role in Dating Violence Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigen, Laurie M.; Sikes, April; Healey, Amanda; Hays, Danica

    2009-01-01

    Dating violence among adolescents is a major public health concern. The purpose of this paper is to examine five factors of which school counselors must be aware in order to recognize, intervene, and report incidence of dating violence. These factors are (a) understanding the diverse definitions of dating violence, (b) recognizing dating violence…

  16. Teen Dating Violence Prevention Program Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Quincy Arrianna Rose

    2013-01-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) has identified the prevention of and intervention in relationship violence as a top priority (APA, n.d.). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's 2012 Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet, dating violence is a serious problem in the United States. In accordance with Foshee et al. (1998):…

  17. [Violence and health in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Agudelo, S

    1997-02-01

    In Colombia, violence seems uncontrollable. Along with massacres and group killings of astonishing cruelty, there are also kidnappings and disappearances, abuse of children and the elderly, and rape of young adolescents. Every day, without respite, Columbians are witnesses or victims of street crimes as well as racial, sexual, and socioeconomic discrimination. Unwillingly, they become agents of aggression in public transport, at home, at school, and at work. Colombia has the highest rates of mortality from homicide in the world. Apart from the enormous institutional burden that violence imposes on the health services and forensic medicine, it now constitutes the principal public health problem in the country. To confront it, the health sector must develop policies and finance actions, develop innovative ways to train personnel, implement public education processes, and devote more effort and greater creativity to research, which up to now has provided some, but not enough, important answers. Violence, which is the substitution of force for any type of dialogue, must be considered within the context of life and health. This it not merely an attempt to rationalize violence, much less to substitute words or reflection for action, but rather an attempt to understand it in depth in order to search for alternatives. With that goal, this article analyzes the subject of violence in Colombia, principally from the perspective of its effect on the health of the citizens and its implications for the health sector. The author fully recognizes the subjectivity and limitations of the views he expresses herein.

  18. [Violence on health care workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavò, M; Fusaro, N; Colaiuda, F; Rescigno, G; Fioravanti, M

    2017-01-01

    The Emergency Department (ED) is vulnerable for workplace violence, but little is known about this and its consequences. Objectives of this study were presence, characteristics and effects of violence from patients and visitors on health care workers in an Emergency Department (ED). This study was about the Accident and Emergency Department, S. Pertini Hospital, (ASL RMB, Rome, Italy). Data were collected from November 2014 to January 2015 on frequency and type of violent behavior in the past five years experienced by staff members and their level of stress by an ad hoc questionnaire for the evaluation of violent events in health activities (QVS) and a questionnaire on perceived work-related stress (QES). Of the 58 eligible workers, 51 completed the interview. Health care workers were regularly exposed to violence with a consequent severe underreporting to work authorities and only a minor reporting to the police. A diffuse belief that workplace violence is a normal part of the work was also identified. Aggressors were usually patients or their relatives and were mainly males. Health care workers may suffer physical and emotional harm. Emergency Department health care workers are at risk of experiencing workplace violence and should have specific training and support in the management of violent situations focused on early identification, communication strategies, and de-escalation techniques.

  19. Violence against women in war: rape, AIDS, sex slavery. International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    At an international conference attended by 2000 delegates, violence against women in Rwanda, former Yugoslavia, and Kurdistan was discussed. Kalliope Migirou, of the United Nations Human Rights Field Operation in Rwanda, described the slaughter of between 500,000 and 1.5 million Tutsis and moderate Hutus in 1994; estimates of the number of rapes ranged from 15,700 (Rwandan government) to 250,000-500,000 (UN special representative). Women were gang-raped and sexually mutilated; fathers were forced to rape their daughters, and sons, their mothers. The transmission of HIV was used as a weapon to murder women and their communities. Women were taken to refugee camps as sex slaves and have written their families about their "new marriages" to Hutu militia men. No rape charge is found among the more than 4000 cases prepared for the Rwandan war crimes trial. 80,000 Rwandans are in prison on suspicion of participating in the genocide; 8% are women. Violete Krasnic, of the Autonomous Women's Center Against Sexual Violence in Belgrade, spoke about the war in former Yugoslavia, which increased all forms of violence against women: 1) domestic violence, particularly in inter-ethnic marriages; 2) death threats against women (up 30-50%); 3) rape (up 30%); and 4) threats with weapons (40%). Men, upon exposure to nationalistic propaganda, used violence against their wives. Nazaneen Rasheed, a London-based representative of the Women's Union of Kurdistan, stated that women in northern Iraq had no power or land. While some turned to prostitution to survive, hundreds were killed by male relatives because of shame to the family.

  20. Early childhood educators' recognition and treatment of violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Pogačar, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The thesis analyses violence against children and early childhood educators' recognition of violence against children and their treatment. The theoretical part defines different types of violence which are: physical, mental, and sexual violence, child neglect, and economic violence. Definitions as well as signs of a certain type of violence are presented. The author also describes the role of practitioners in recognition of violence against children and the legislation that defines their ...

  1. Supporting Innovation Activities of SMEs with Innovation Vouchers Scheme%英国实施创新券计划支持中小企业创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      英国技术战略委员会(TSB)最新推出创新券计划(Innovation Vouchers Scheme),专门支持中小企业创新活动。作为英国政府推出新的创新资助工具之一,该计划资助对象明确、资助目标清晰,资助重点突出,并且在资助方式上跟以往科技计划比较有所创新。通过对TSB推出的创新券计划资助标准和原则、资助领域和重点以及申请和资助流程进行详细介绍和分析,简要总结出创新券计划的几个特点,以为我国有关科技计划和创新基金实施提供参考。%The Innovation Vouchers Scheme was launched by Technology Strategy Board (TSB) of UK in 2012 as a new funding tool to support the innovation activities of SMEs specifically. The objects and priorities of Innovation Vouchers Scheme are clearly defined and the funding mode of the scheme has a big difference from other S&T programs. This paper introduced the funding standards and principles of the scheme, analyzed its funding priorities and application procedure, and summarized the new characteristics of Innovation Vouchers Scheme, hoping to provide a useful reference for the policy making and implement of innovation plan and programs in China.

  2. [Child-to-parent violence and its association with exposure to marital violence and parent-to-child violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Calvete, Esther

    2012-05-01

    The aims of this study were: (a) to examine the relationships between the exposure to different types of family violence (intraparental violence and parent-to-child aggression) and the perpetration of child-to-parent violence (CPV); (b) to analyze sex differences in the relationships specified. The sample comprised 1681 Spanish university students who reported the exposure to different types of family violence during their childhood. Both psychological and physical family violence were analyzed separately. Results showed that both witnessing marital psychological violence and parent-to-child psychological aggression are related to CPV. Furthermore, psychological and physical parent-to-child aggression as well as witnessing physical aggression between parents was associated with physical CPV. Multigroup analyses showed that the relationships among variables were not significantly different as a function of sex. This finding suggests that the relation between exposure to family violence and CPV is similar for men and women.

  3. Climate Change and Collective Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W; Patz, Jonathan A

    2017-03-20

    Climate change is causing increases in temperature, changes in precipitation and extreme weather events, sea-level rise, and other environmental impacts. It is also causing or contributing to heat-related disorders, respiratory and allergic disorders, infectious diseases, malnutrition due to food insecurity, and mental health disorders. In addition, increasing evidence indicates that climate change is causally associated with collective violence, generally in combination with other causal factors. Increased temperatures and extremes of precipitation with their associated consequences, including resultant scarcity of cropland and other key environmental resources, are major pathways by which climate change leads to collective violence. Public health professionals can help prevent collective violence due to climate change (a) by supporting mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, (b) by promoting adaptation measures to address the consequences of climate change and to improve community resilience, and

  4. [Predisposition for violence in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeck-Fischer, A

    1995-01-01

    Uncontrolled aggressiveness, violence, and reckless behavior make up the contents of many myths of the 'real man'. For youths with unfavourable developmental conditions these myths are especially important. Two types of adolescents, willing use violence, with antisocial personality developments are illuminated with the help of psychoanalytic models of understanding; the borderline disorder on a low structure level and the mimicry development with its 'false' structure development, which often leads to a wrong diagnosis. With specific interactions with youths of both types in an inpatient setting, developmental processes are described which then often lead to the use of violence if effective interventions are not used enough. In closing pedagogic, social-therapeutic and psychotherapeutic strategies for dealing with such adolescents are discussed.

  5. INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSES TO SCHOOL VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Zapata Martelo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent, attend to, mitigate, and punish school violence, diverse programs, actions, and laws have been created and implemented at the international, national, and state levels. Nevertheless, these have proven inefficient and ineffective since school violence is increasing and becoming worse in all school levels. Some factors that have made difficult the implementation of laws have been the deficiencies regarding how to attend to the cases instead of just punishing them: the lack of knowledge of the laws by the public officials and the general population; the functioning of the educational system, the little availability of monetary, organizational, and human resources; multiplicity and multidimensionality where school violence prevails, and which does not coincide with what is stated in the written law and everyday life.

  6. Teachers faced with school violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana María Rodríguez Gómez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence is influenced by relationships of conflict among people, which sometimes may end up in violence and aggressiveness. Violence is the result of the accumulation of small hostile situations which arouse maladjustments in feelings and reactions. Recent empirical research has shown that the number of violent situations in the classroom has doubled. The answers offered by the administration and the educational centres are oriented to the setting up of programs for violence prevention, considering the school as an organisation which coexists with the conflict. Among the proposed alternatives, I emphasize individual and group tutorship and mediation processes as two viable resources which facilitate coexistence and improve the school’s climate together with a better understanding of the teacher’s use of non-verbal communication in the classroom

  7. Violence against educators: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerberich, Susan G; Nachreiner, Nancy M; Ryan, Andrew D; Church, Timothy R; McGovern, Patricia M; Geisser, Mindy S; Mongin, Steven J; Watt, Gavin D; Feda, Denise M; Sage, Starr K; Pinder, Evette D

    2011-03-01

    Identify the magnitude and risk factors for occupational physical assault (PA) and nonphysical violence (NPV) against Minnesota educators. Among 26,000 randomly selected licensed kindergarten to grade 12 educators, 6469 eligible educators reported whether they experienced PA or NPV during the prior year. Multiple logistic regression models were based on directed acyclic graphs. Respective PA and NPV annual rates per 100 educators were 8.3 and 38.4. Work changes resulted among PA (13% to 20%) and NPV (22%) victims. Risks increased for master's prepared or education specialists who worked in public alternative schools and special education. Risks decreased for those working for more than 20 years, part time, and in private schools. Physical assault risk decreased when teaching grades 3 to 12 (vs kindergarten to grade 2), but NPV risk increased. Targeted efforts on specific violence risk and protective factors are essential to improve educators' work environments.

  8. Metaphors about violence by preservice teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özabaci, Nilüfer; Erkan, Zülal

    2015-03-01

    Violence consists of a pattern of coercive behaviors used by a competent adult or adolescent to establish and maintain power and control over another competent adult or adolescent. These behaviors, which can occur alone or in combination, sporadically or continually, include physical violence, psychological abuse, talking, and nonconsensual sexual behavior. Research indicates that different types of violence are used as a means of enforcing discipline in the family and the school context. Children and adolescents who grow up in an environment where violence has a natural place tend to resort to violence at every stage of their lives without question. The aim of this research was therefore to preservice teachers' perception of the concept of violence through the use of metaphors. Accordingly, answers to the following questions were sought: What metaphors do the youth use to describe the concept of violence? Under which conceptual categories can these metaphors be grouped in terms of their common features? How do the conceptual categories vary in relation to the students' gender and the subjects they study at university? The study was conducted in 2009 with the help of 303 students at Mersin University and Eskişehir Osmangazi University (Faculty of Education). Incomplete statements such as "Violence is like..., because..." were used in an attempt to understand the students' perception of violence. The students were given questionnaire to complete the statements. Demographic questions were also asked on the students'age, gender and departments. The data were analyzed through qualitative analysis, and processes such as frequency distribution and quantitative correlation data were evaluated through SPSS data analysis. It emerged that the students used 74 metaphors of violence that could be divided into seven categories: (1) Violence as a way of controlling others; 2) Violence as part of social and affective life; (3) Violence as devastation; (4) Violence as learned

  9. Characteristics of peer violence in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinobad Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author analyses types and main characteristics of peer violence in schools as well as forms of their manifestation. The analysis refers to data about the prevalence of peer violence in schools in Serbia, and in particular to forms of peer violence within our country as well as in the world. The part of the text refers to characteristics of perpetrators and their victims as well as on consequences that spring up from long term exposure to violence. Finally, the article has been pointed out an importance of introducing intervention programs in schools, by which use peer violence could be significantly decreased.

  10. Lateral violence in the perioperative setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigony, Lorraine; Lipke, Tammy G; Lundberg, Ashley; McGraw, Carrie A; Pagac, Gretchen L; Rogers, Anne

    2009-04-01

    Lateral violence is disruptive, bullying, intimidating, or unsettling behavior that occurs between nurses in the workplace. The perioperative setting fosters lateral violence because of the inherent stress of performing surgery; high patient acuity; a shortage of experienced personnel; work demands; and the restriction and isolation of the OR, which allows negative behaviors to be concealed more easily. Lateral violence affects nurses' health and well-being and their ability to care for patients. Interventions to reduce lateral violence include empowerment of staff members and zero tolerance for lateral violence.

  11. Physical intimate partner violence in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragavan, Maya I; Iyengar, Kirti; Wurtz, Rebecca M

    2014-04-01

    In this article, we examine perceptions about the definition of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) in northern India utilizing feminist perspectives as a framework. We interviewed 56 women and 52 men affiliated with a health services nongovernmental organization in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan. We transcribed, coded, and analyzed the interviews utilizing grounded theory. We found that perceptions regarding physical IPV were associated with both structural and ideological patriarchal beliefs and microlevel constructs such as alcohol use. We discovered multiple types of physical IPV in the study region, including rationalized violence (socially condoned violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), unjustified violence (socially prohibited violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), and majboori violence (violence perpetrated by a wife against her husband). Our results add to the breadth of research available about IPV in India and create a framework for future research and IPV prevention initiatives.

  12. Violence and gender new proposals, old dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guita Grin Debert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses and analyzes the dilemmas involved in the use of notions that have been employed to qualify violence within social relationships marked by gender and their current developments in different instances of the justice system. Based on ethnographic studies conducted at the Women's Police Stations and Special Criminal Courts and the controversies surrounding the Maria da Penha Law, the meanings carried by expressions such as violence against women, marital violence, domestic violence, family violence and gender violence are mapped herein. The central argument is that the transformation of violence into crime leads to semantic and institutional developments that tend to replace the interest in politicizing Justice in the defense of women with the judicialization of family relations.

  13. Father's and Mother's Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, Claudiane; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2011-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A…

  14. Violence perception and victimization reasons of women exposed to spouse/partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Baskale

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine violence perception and victimization reasons of women exposed to spouse/partner violence who applied to the violence prevention and monitoring center. Methods: This study is a descriptive survey in order to determine violence perception and victimization reasons of women who applied because of violence. This study was made on women who exposed to spouse/partner violence applied to the violence prevention and monitoring center in the west of Turkey. In these dates 137 women applied to the violence prevention and monitoring center. We reached 51% of universe. In the study, demographic information was collected through the survey method face to face interviews consisted of questions which identify the causes of violence and victimization perception. Results: 31.4% of the women participating in the study exposed to violence for 1-5 years, 21.4% of them exposed for 11-15 years. 74.3% of women share violence with others, women who didn't share with others because of they didn't know what to do and where to apply. Children have witnessed domestic violence, 51.4% were exposed to the violence. causes of violence were determined as economic problems, spouse / partner's alcohol / substance abuse, women are responding to partner, he does not want his wife, and has been identified as not prompted by his partner's family. 91.4% of women don't participate in the idea of violence was sometimes necessary, 81.4% don't think not so much violence against women can be seen joining excused. 62.9% of them think people who experience violence would behave similarly. Most of the women exposed to violence think if there is violence when women-man arguing the bond of love will be extinction, 84.3% think violence is not a solution, and 14.3% stated that it might be a solution. Conclusion: Health personnel are the group that can identify the violence, can be found in initiatives and can lead women to cope. Steps to be taken to

  15. Surviving structural violence in Zimbabwe : The case study of a family coping with Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Moyo, Otrude N.

    2008-01-01

    Titre : Survivre à la violence structurelle au Zimbabwe : Étude de cas d’une famille affrontant la violence. Cette contribution discute de la relation entre la violence structurelle et celle sociale au Zimbabwe. La violence doit être comprise dans son contexte. Dans ce cas spécifique d’une famille zimbabwéenne, les relations  familiales peuvent être considérées comme des relations de pouvoir, dans un  contexte politico‑économique marqué par une histoire de violence. Une violence structurelle ...

  16. Perception of violence against women among future health professionals in an Industrial Township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Siddharth; Banerjee, Amitav

    2010-07-01

    There is a growing concern that medical education does not prepare the future health professional to effectively deal with violence against women. Against this background, the present study was undertaken. To elicit perception of violence against women among medical and nursing students, and study the association of these perceptions with certain demographic and social variables. The study was conducted among students of a Medical College and a Nursing College both located at Pune, India. A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used to elicit the perceptions of the study subjects toward violence against women. A random sample of 125 medical and 125 nursing students was selected. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were employed. Qualitative data collection was done by focus group discussions with key persons such as dean and faculty of medical and nursing colleges. The syllabi of medical and nursing colleges were also reviewed for any topic related to domestic violence. The WHO/CDC Statistical and Epidemiology Software Package was used for data entry and statistical analysis. Various associations were explored by nonparametric tests (Mann-Whitney) for ordinal data and by Chi-square and ODDS ratio (with 95% confidence intervals), for categorical data. Overall 35.6% (95% CI 29.1%-42.6%) of the study participants had witnessed/were aware of violence against women among their family/acquaintances. This awareness was significantly more among female respondents (OR=2.65, 95% CI 1.37-5.16), Chi Sq=9.81, df=1, P=0.001. Other socioeconomic variables such as urban/rural background, education, and income were not associated with perception about family violence. Majority (>80%) agreed/strongly agreed that social agencies should do more to help battered women. Course content on violence against women was lacking in both medical and nursing syllabi. Female participants were generally more perceptive about the issue. Medical and nursing syllabi

  17. Teaching about Family Violence to an At-Risk Population: Insights from Sociological and Feminist Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Brenda D.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses problems inherent in teaching sensitive subjects such as rape, disasters, and nuclear war; and presents ideas about preparing classes on these subjects. Comments and data are drawn from experience in teaching family violence classes, students comments, journals, and conversations with colleagues. (BSR)

  18. Evaluating the Effect of a Specialized MSW Course on Violence against Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Postmus, Judy L.; Warrener, Corinne; Plummer, Sara; Schwartz, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increased call to refine social work curricula to better prepare social workers to enter the field with the skills necessary to effectively respond to the needs of survivors of domestic violence and sexual assault. This study's purpose is to present the results of an evaluation of a newly developed, specialized…

  19. Communal violence and child psychosocial well-being: qualitative findings from Poso, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, W.A.; Reis, R.; Susanty, D.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the health care system in relation to communal violence-related psychosocial wellbeing in Poso, Indonesia, as preparation for conducting a cluster randomized trial of a psychosocial intervention. We employed focus groups with children (N = 9), parents (N = 11), and te

  20. Evaluating the Effect of a Specialized MSW Course on Violence against Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Postmus, Judy L.; Warrener, Corinne; Plummer, Sara; Schwartz, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increased call to refine social work curricula to better prepare social workers to enter the field with the skills necessary to effectively respond to the needs of survivors of domestic violence and sexual assault. This study's purpose is to present the results of an evaluation of a newly developed,…

  1. Domestic Violence. Technical Assistance Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Substance abuse has long been recognized as a precipitating factor in many domestic violence incidents. The main type of substance abuse is alcohol usage. Forty-six percent of the offenders reported being dependent on or abusing alcohol, while another 28% were found to be dependent on opiates, cocaine, marijuana, or inhalants. Nearly two-fifths of…

  2. Psychopathy subtypes and psychopathic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Koshkina Ekaterina Nikolaevna

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses two main subtypes of psychopathy and its characteristic traits that allow to differ them from each other. Following that, the existence of more specific subtypes of psychopathy and sociopathy is argued on the basis of the recent researches. Also, the inclination of psychopaths and sociopaths to various kinds of violence is examined.

  3. School Violence and the News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talk to Your Child About the News How Media Use Affects Your Child Helping Kids Deal With Bullies Gun Safety Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Word! Violence Disasters Gun Safety Terrorism Someone at School Has ...

  4. Children's Responses to Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Aimee Dorr; Roberts, Donald F.

    A paper-and-pencil measure of aggressive resonse was developed to study the effects on children of exposure to television-mediated violence. Using this measure, a series of experiments was conducted using actural television programs as stimulus material. The results of these studies suggest: 1) Although the majority of children understand the…

  5. National Coalition on Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radecki, Thomas

    Included in this newsletter are abstracts of recent articles and books on television violence and related topics. Literature searched includes psychiatry, psychology, and communications periodicals as well as a wide range of the social science literature. Also abstracted are items from both the industrial and the lay press, and the actions of…

  6. Understanding School Violence: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, an estimated 55 million students are enrolled in pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade. Another 15 million students attend colleges and universities across the country. While U.S. schools remain relatively safe, any amount of violence is unacceptable. Parents, teachers, and administrators expect schools to be safe havens of…

  7. Workplace violence in emergency medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chatterjee*

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Violence against ED health care workers is a real problem with significant implications to the victims, patients, and departments/institutions. ED WPV needs to be addressed urgently by stakeholders through continued research on effective interventions specific to Emergency Medicine. Coordination, cooperation, and active commitment to the development of such interventions are critical.

  8. The role of family-of-origin violence in men's marital violence perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsol, Catherine; Margolin, Gayla

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents overall transmission rates between family-of-origin violence and marital violence, as well as theoretical and empirical work on possible mechanisms of transmission. In identified samples, approximately 60% of the maritally violent men report family-of-origin violence, whereas slightly over 20% of the comparison group of maritally nonviolent men report family-of-origin violence. Modest associations between experiencing violence in the family of origin and marital violence are found in community samples and in studies with prospective and longitudinal designs. Variables that intervene in the association between family-of-origin violence and marital violence are reviewed, with a focus on personal characteristics such as antisocial personality, psychological distress, and attitudes condoning violence, as well as on contextual factors, such as marital problems and conflict resolution style. Variables associated with nonviolence in men who grew up in violent families also are identified, including strong interpersonal connections and the ability to create psychological distance from the family-of-origin violence. Continued empirical investigation of variables that potentiate or mitigate the association between family-of-origin violence and marital violence at different developmental stages is needed to identify explanatory mechanisms and, ultimately, to interrupt the intergenerational transmission of marital violence.

  9. Climate Change and Civil Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vink, G.; Plancherel, Y.; Hennet, C.; Jones, K. D.; Abdullah, A.; Bradshaw, J.; Dee, S.; Deprez, A.; Pasenello, M.; Plaza-Jennings, E.; Roseman, D.; Sopher, P.; Sung, E.

    2009-05-01

    The manifestations of climate change can result in humanitarian impacts that reverse progress in poverty- reduction, create shortages of food and resources, lead to migration, and ultimately result in civil violence and conflict. Within the continent of Africa, we have found that environmentally-related variables are either the cause or the confounding factor for over 80% of the civil violence events during the last 10 years. Using predictive climate models and land-use data, we are able to identify populations in Africa that are likely to experience the most severe climate-related shocks. Through geospatial analysis, we are able to overlay these areas of high risk with assessments of both the local population's resiliency and the region's capacity to respond to climate shocks should they occur. The net result of the analysis is the identification of locations that are becoming particularly vulnerable to future civil violence events (vulnerability hotspots) as a result of the manifestations of climate change. For each population group, over 600 social, economic, political, and environmental indicators are integrated statistically to measures the vulnerability of African populations to environmental change. The indicator time-series are filtered for data availability and redundancy, broadly ordered into four categories (social, political, economic and environmental), standardized and normalized. Within each category, the dominant modes of variability are isolated by principal component analysis and the loadings of each component for each variable are used to devise composite index scores. Comparisons of past vulnerability with known environmentally-related conflicts demonstrates the role that such vulnerability hotspot maps can play in evaluating both the potential for, and the significance of, environmentally-related civil violence events. Furthermore, the analysis reveals the major variables that are responsible for the population's vulnerability and therefore

  10. The violence against the elderly in films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Gomes Vianna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With the aging of the population, the issue of violence against the elderly need to be debated, in order to enlighten and educate the população about this issue. The movies utilization is a effective educational resource, contributing to reflection and understanding of these situation. Objective: To collect and analyze images in film productions that express the different types of violence against the elderly. Material and methods: Analysis of the national and international filmography, identifying scenes in commercial films portraying the violence against the elderly. We searched up the sites www.cinema10.com.br, www.adorocinema.com, www.cinemateca.gov.br, www.filmesdecinema.com.br, www.cineplayers, www.interfilmes,  www.cineclick.com.br, and  www.revistaforum.com.br. The films with scenes of violence against the elderly were listed. Results: We listed up 58 films showing scenes displaying different types of violence against the elderly: 24 (41% physical violence; 18 (31% psychological violence; 14 (24% social violence, 10 (17% self-neglect, 10 (17% economic abuse, 6 (10% abandonment, 3 (5% sexual violence, and 3 (5% negligence. Conclusion: Using film imagery, we can diffuse the issue of mistreatment against the elderly, as well as broaden the instances to denounce this violence. Thus, we search  to focus on the elderly citizenship, guaranteeing their rights and attending reframe the context and the images of aging.  

  11. Prevalence of Violence Tendency in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem HASKAN AVCI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the extensiveness of violence tendency to depending on individual and family factors in adolescents. For this purpose, information has been collected from 899 high school students educated in state schools located in Adana province. Violence Tendency Scale (VTS developed by Haskan and Yıldırım (2012 has been used in order to determine the violence tendency levels of the students. The prevalence of students’ tendency has been tested with chi-square. When analyzed in terms of individual characteristics, violence tendency has been found more extensive in boys rather than girls, and more extensive in the students watching violence and heroic movies. When it is analyzed in terms of family factors, violence tendency has been found to be more spread with the students experiencing violence at home, and having families using alcohol compared to the ones experiencing neither violence nor alcohol cases. Moreover, students whose fathers work and earn money display more tendency to violence than the ones whose fathers doesn’t make money by working. Besides, students having family members in prison have been understood to be more tend to violence.

  12. Guest Editorial: The Nexus of Violence, Violence Research, and Development. Introduction to the Focus Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Imbusch

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    This focus section of the International Journal of Conflict and Violence is dedicated to violence and violence research in the Global South. It examines the causes, forms, perpetrators, processes, and outcomes of violence. While the contributions go into detail on what is commonly understood as politically motivated violence, they also examine societal, criminal, urban, and gendered violence, as well as the involvement of youth. Four articles explore the significance of violence in specific regions: Africa south of the Sahara, West Asia and North Africa, East Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. The authors describe and assess the state of research within and about the different countries. Two further articles review the body of research on the causes of civil war, which has
    been the dominant issue in much violence-related research on the global South since the end of the Cold War.

  13. Anger management and the process mediating the link between witnessing violence between parents and partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte-Seabury, Catherine A

    2010-01-01

    Multinomial logistic regression was used on a sample of 14,252 students to determine the extent to which the relationship between witnessing interparental violence and the perpetration of violence is mediated by limited anger management ability, and to determine whether anger management is a mediator for women as well as men. Both males and females who witnessed interparental violence had higher levels of violence perpetration, and those who disclosed witnessing interparental violence had more limited anger management abilites. These limited anger management abilities were associated with increased levels of violence perpetration. This study is consistent with others finding a relationship between witnessing interparental violence and the perpetration of violence but also shows that the relationship between these two variables is mediated by limited anger management abilities.

  14. Exposure to violence and intentions to engage in moralistic violence during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, S; Kreiter, S; DuRant, R H

    2001-12-01

    This study examined young adolescents'intentions to use moralistic violence and their violence exposure, examining male-female differences. Sixth-grade students (n=702) from Georgia middle schools servicing impoverished communities participated. Data were obtained on the students' exposure to violence, family structure and education level, church attendance, gang interest, drug use, and depression status. The dependent variable, intention to use moralistic violence, was measured with an 11-item scale. Linear regression models were run separately for males and females. Males had significantly higher mean intention to use moralistic violence than females (p=0.002). Males reported being exposed to violence more than females, but exposure decreased as attendance to religious services increased. For these 11-12-year-olds, unconventional peer social norms, such as witnessing violence, increased their intention to use violence while involvement in conventional activities, such as church attendance, decreased it. The protective effect was greater for males than females.

  15. Violence-prevention summit at Virginia Tech tackles bullying, gender-based violence, more

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Bullying in schools, aggression in the workplace, violence against women -- all are complex problems. On Nov. 12 and 13, Virginia Tech hosts a gathering to make recommendations about violence prevention.

  16. Religion and violence in Nigeria: The way forward | Ntamu | Sophia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion and violence in Nigeria: The way forward. ... Islam approve of violence with its attendant social and economic problems in the name ... of our national development because of the negative impact of violence on the lives of the citizenry.

  17. The behavioral economics of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard

    2004-12-01

    From the viewpoint of teleological behaviorism the first question to ask in attempting to understand any behavior, including violent behavior, is: What are its contingencies of reward and punishment? Or, to put the question in economic terms: What are the short-term and long-term costs and benefits that such behavior entails? Let us therefore consider the costs and benefits of youth violence. Among the short-term costs of violent behavior are the physical effort of the act, the possibility of immediate physical retaliation, immediate social disapproval, and the opportunity cost of other social acts that the violent behavior takes the place of (you can't be affectionate and violent at the same time, for instance). Among the immediate benefits of violent behavior are the intrinsic satisfaction of the violent act itself and any extrinsic benefit; if A violently appropriates B's new sneakers then obtaining the sneakers reinforces A's violence. These immediate benefits may well outweigh the costs in many contexts. Among the long-term costs of violent behavior are delayed retaliation, possible social disapproval and loss of social support, rejection from a social group, job loss, and health risks associated with a violent lifestyle. Among the long-term benefits are long-term intimidation of others (your neighbor is less likely to build a fence on your property if you have a reputation for violence), and a possibly exciting lifestyle. These long-term benefits may well be outweighed by the long-term costs. Opposition of long-term net costs to short-term net benefits, where it exists, creates a personal self-control trap: Overall satisfaction may decrease monotonically with rate of the target behavior but, regardless of its rate, the immediate satisfaction of doing it is always higher than that of not doing it. In the case of violent behavior, this trap is exacerbated by the fact that as a person's violence increases, net immediate reinforcement also increases (due to

  18. Framing violence: the effect of survey context and question framing on reported rates of partner violence

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, Katherine V.

    2008-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigated two explanations for the variability in levels of partner violence found by large community surveys. In Study 1, I examined the effect of how questions about partner violence are introduced (question framing: conflict, violence-in-relationships, or attacks) on reports of partner violence. Although there was not a reliable effect of question framing, the pattern of findings was consistent across 3 of 4 analyses. Counter to predictions, an attacks question f...

  19. Bridging the gaps: a global review of intersections of violence against women and violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes, Alessandra; Bott, Sarah; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Colombini, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Background: The international community recognises violence against women (VAW) and violence against children (VAC) as global human rights and public health problems. Historically, research, programmes, and policies on these forms of violence followed parallel but distinct trajectories. Some have called for efforts to bridge these gaps, based in part on evidence that individuals and families often experience multiple forms of violence that may be difficult to address in isolation, and that vi...

  20. Primary School Administrators Views about Types of Violence and Method’s Coping with Violence Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    ÇUBUKÇU, Zühal; Dönmez, Ayşe

    2014-01-01

    Background. Violence is a major problem of today's society. Violence in schools is increasing every day and becoming a serious problem. School violence is considered in disciplines such as sociology and psychology, is one of the most important issue that produce negative consequences on the school climate, harm student's learning processes and prevent their development and also does not identify behavior, aggression and crimes.Violence is actually a part of human nature and ...