WorldWideScience

Sample records for preparation violence vouchers

  1. 32 CFR 536.70 - Preparation and forwarding of payment vouchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Preparation and forwarding of payment vouchers... Preparation and forwarding of payment vouchers. (a) An unrepresented claimant will be listed as the sole payee... attorney, only one payment voucher will be issued with the claimant and the attorney as joint payees. The...

  2. Exploring the effectiveness of the output-based aid voucher program to increase uptake of gender-based violence recovery services in Kenya: A qualitative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njuki Rebecca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies in Africa have explored in detail the ability of output-based aid (OBA voucher programs to increase access to gender-based violence recovery (GBVR services. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in 2010 and involved: (i in-depth interviews (IDIs with health managers, service providers, voucher management agency (VMA managers and (ii focus group discussions (FGDs with voucher users, voucher non-users, voucher distributors and opinion leaders drawn from five program sites in Kenya. Results The findings showed promising prospects for the uptake of OBA GBVR services among target population. However, a number of factors affect the uptake of the services. These include lack of general awareness of the GBVR services vouchers, lack of understanding of the benefit package, immediate financial needs of survivors, as well as stigma and cultural beliefs that undermine reporting of cases or seeking essential medical services. Moreover, accreditation of only hospitals to offer GBVR services undermines access to the services in rural areas. Poor responsiveness from law enforcement agencies and fear of reprisal from perpetrators also undermine treatment options and access to medical services. Low provider knowledge on GBVR services and lack of supplies also affect effective provision and management of GBVR services. Conclusions The above findings suggest that there is a need to build the capacity of health care providers and police officers, strengthen the community strategy component of the OBA program to promote the GBVR services voucher, and conduct widespread community education programs aimed at prevention, ensuring survivors know how and where to access services and addressing stigma and cultural barriers.

  3. Exploring the effectiveness of the output-based aid voucher program to increase uptake of gender-based violence recovery services in Kenya: a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njuki, Rebecca; Okal, Jerry; Warren, Charlotte E; Obare, Francis; Abuya, Timothy; Kanya, Lucy; Undie, Chi-Chi; Bellows, Ben; Askew, Ian

    2012-06-12

    Few studies in Africa have explored in detail the ability of output-based aid (OBA) voucher programs to increase access to gender-based violence recovery (GBVR) services. A qualitative study was conducted in 2010 and involved: (i) in-depth interviews (IDIs) with health managers, service providers, voucher management agency (VMA) managers and (ii) focus group discussions (FGDs) with voucher users, voucher non-users, voucher distributors and opinion leaders drawn from five program sites in Kenya. The findings showed promising prospects for the uptake of OBA GBVR services among target population. However, a number of factors affect the uptake of the services. These include lack of general awareness of the GBVR services vouchers, lack of understanding of the benefit package, immediate financial needs of survivors, as well as stigma and cultural beliefs that undermine reporting of cases or seeking essential medical services. Moreover, accreditation of only hospitals to offer GBVR services undermines access to the services in rural areas. Poor responsiveness from law enforcement agencies and fear of reprisal from perpetrators also undermine treatment options and access to medical services. Low provider knowledge on GBVR services and lack of supplies also affect effective provision and management of GBVR services. The above findings suggest that there is a need to build the capacity of health care providers and police officers, strengthen the community strategy component of the OBA program to promote the GBVR services voucher, and conduct widespread community education programs aimed at prevention, ensuring survivors know how and where to access services and addressing stigma and cultural barriers.

  4. The Veil of Vouchers

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, S.

    1997-01-01

    The author exposes some of the myths still surrounding the use of vouchers in mass privatization. He explains why using vouchers will not affect the price level in the economy-even though they carry a face value. He shows that vouchers allow assets to sell despite minimum acceptable bid prices because the secondary market discount of voucher prices acts as a safety valve. And he argues that ...

  5. Education Vouchers: Boon or Bane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David G.

    The idea of educational vouchers goes back to Adam Smith in 1778, according to this examination of past and present discussions about vouchers. The author begins by defining educational vouchers and summarizing the idea's history, especially since its revival in 1955 by economist Milton Friedman. Seven models of voucher systems are briefly…

  6. Vouchers in Dutch Higher Education : from debate to experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossensteyn, Johan J.

    2001-01-01

    As market-like mechanisms become more important in higher education, demand driven funding, and more specific vouchers, gain a lot of attention. As such, the advantages and disadvantages of vouchers have been discussed in a wide variety of settings. However, hardly any country has been prepared to

  7. Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov home / Home Relationships Dealing with conflict Violence Violence Violence among young people is a serious problem. ... according to a recent national survey Types of violence top Youth violence can include: Hitting, pinching, punching, ...

  8. Prepared for School Violence: School Counselors' Perceptions of Preparedness for Responding to Acts of School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Rebecca Anne; Zyromski, Brett; Asner-Self, Kimberly K.; Kimemia, Muthoni

    2010-01-01

    Analyses of 103 St. Louis metro area school counselors' using the National School Violence Survey (Astor et al., 1997; Astor et al., 2000; Furlong et al., 1996) suggests school counselors' perceptions of school violence and their preparedness to respond to said violence vary by both community setting and years of experience. Discussion frames the…

  9. Distributional impacts of meal vouchers

    OpenAIRE

    Röhryová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    The thesis aims to analyze distributional impacts of meal voucher sys- tem in the Czech Republic, especially in the context of income inequality between different income groups. In the first part, we study the features of the Czech meal voucher scheme, relevant legislative framework and offer a comparison of the Czech meal voucher system with other European coun- tries. In the second part, we perform an analysis of the redistributive effects of meal allowances on various income deciles, quant...

  10. Vouchers Revisited: The Prospects for Education Vouchers in the Eighties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, John H.

    Political and social changes that have increased the public's interest in educational vouchers are summarized in three categories. The first category, new support for the arguments made by voucher advocates, includes Milton Friedman's suggestion of a free and competitive market for education, and John E. Coons and Stephen D. Sugarman's…

  11. Public Voucher Plans. Trends and Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadderman, Margaret

    This document provides an overview of public-school voucher plans. Educational vouchers originated in the 1960s when Milton Friedman argued that vouchers would improve educational efficiency. Parents would receive the equivalent of per-pupil expenditures in the form of vouchers that could then be used at any school, either public and private. But…

  12. Vouchers for chronic disease care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Jennifer J; Segal, Leonie

    2008-08-01

    This paper explores the economic implications of vouchers for chronic disease management with respect to achieving objectives of equity and efficiency. Vouchers as a payment policy instrument for health care services have a set of properties that suggest they may address both demand-side and supply-side issues, and contribute to equity and efficiency. They provide a means whereby health care services can be targeted at selected groups, enabling consumer choice of provider, and encouraging competition in the supply of health services. This analysis suggests that, when structured appropriately, vouchers can support consumers to choose services that will meet their health care needs and encourage competition among providers. Although they may not be appropriate across the entire health care system, there are features of vouchers that make them a potentially attractive option, especially for the management of chronic disease.

  13. Electronic Voucher Approval - Financial Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This process provides a workflow and eSignature capability which allows the CFO to router vouchers for review and electronic signature approval to COTRs in AIDW. It...

  14. Educational Vouchers: Freedom to Choose?

    OpenAIRE

    Reel, Jordan; Block, Walter E.

    2013-01-01

    Milton Friedman is famous for his book title: “Free to Choose.” He also favors educational vouchers, which denies the freedom to choose to people who do not wish to subsidize the education of other people’s children. Thus, he is guilty of a logical contradiction. Why is it important to assess whether Friedman’s views on educational vouchers are logically consistent with his widespread reputation as an advocate of free enterprise, and, thus, freedom to chose? It is important to assess all figu...

  15. Does a voucher program improve reproductive health service delivery and access in Kenya?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njuki, Rebecca; Abuya, Timothy; Kimani, James; Kanya, Lucy; Korongo, Allan; Mukanya, Collins; Bracke, Piet; Bellows, Ben; Warren, Charlotte E

    2015-05-23

    Current assessments on Output-Based Aid (OBA) programs have paid limited attention to the experiences and perceptions of the healthcare providers and facility managers. This study examines the knowledge, attitudes, and experiences of healthcare providers and facility managers in the Kenya reproductive health output-based approach voucher program. A total of 69 in-depth interviews with healthcare providers and facility managers in 30 voucher accredited facilities were conducted. The study hypothesized that a voucher program would be associated with improvements in reproductive health service provision. Data were transcribed and analyzed by adopting a thematic framework analysis approach. A combination of inductive and deductive analysis was conducted based on previous research and project documents. Facility managers and providers viewed the RH-OBA program as a feasible system for increasing service utilization and improving quality of care. Perceived benefits of the program included stimulation of competition between facilities and capital investment in most facilities. Awareness of family planning (FP) and gender-based violence (GBV) recovery services voucher, however, remained lower than the maternal health voucher service. Relations between the voucher management agency and accredited facilities as well as existing health systems challenges affect program functions. Public and private sector healthcare providers and facility managers perceive value in the voucher program as a healthcare financing model. They recognize that it has the potential to significantly increase demand for reproductive health services, improve quality of care and reduce inequities in the use of reproductive health services. To improve program functioning going forward, there is need to ensure the benefit package and criteria for beneficiary identification are well understood and that the public facilities are permitted greater autonomy to utilize revenue generated from the voucher program.

  16. Education Vouchers, Growth and Income Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Buly A Cardak

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses a growth model with public and private education alternatives to investigate the implications of education voucher for economic growth and the evolution of income inequality. The results indicate that introducing education vouchers can increase economic growth. families that switch from public to private education due to vouchers experience higher incomes, leading to growth in the tax base which in turn raises public education expenditures and increases the growth of the whole...

  17. On The Political Economy Of Educational Vouchers

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis N. Epple; Richard Romano

    2012-01-01

    Two significant challenges hamper analyses of the collective choice of educational vouchers. One is the multi-dimensional choice set arising from the interdependence of the voucher, public education spending, and taxation. Second, even absent a voucher, preferences over public spending are not single-peaked; a middling level of public school spending may be less attractive to a household than either high public school spending or private education coupled with low public spending. We show tha...

  18. Use of housing vouchers in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Golda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of Housing Purchase Vouchers offers IDPs durablehousing and community integration, while allowing theman opportunity to choose their own homes and their owndurable solution.

  19. Voucher Payments and the Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colleen

    This report presents the case for competition in education, tenders the voucher plan as a means of fostering competition and providing choice in education, and discusses some problems associated with education voucher proposals. Two primary problems -- segregation and church-state conflict -- are given particular attention. The author also…

  20. 78 FR 49374 - Rural Development Voucher Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... subsidies. For the reasons set forth in the preamble, chapter XXXV, title 7, Code of Federal Regulations... voucher holder, transfer of the voucher holder to an assisted living or nursing home facility, or divorce... received. The notice will specify, in detail, the reason(s) that the assistance was determined to be...

  1. Educational Vouchers: Freedom to Choose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Reel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Milton Friedman is famous for his book title: “Free to Choose.” He also favors educational vouchers, which denies the freedom to choose to people who do not wish to subsidize the education of other people’s children. Thus, he is guilty of a logical contradiction. Why is it important to assess whether Friedman’s views on educational vouchers are logically consistent with his widespread reputation as an advocate of free enterprise, and, thus, freedom to chose? It is important to assess all figures in political economy, and indeed all of scholarship, for logical consistency. It is particularly important to do so in the present case, given the prestige in certain quarters accorded to this Nobel prize-winning economist. We argue in this paper that Friedman’s reputation for logical consistency, and adherence to the philosophy of laissez faire capitalism, are both overblown. Our solution to this challenge is to completely privatize education. Friedman does not advocate that vouchers be utilized for food, clothing or shelter; we see no relevant difference in the case of education. What is the justification of the undertaken topic? This topic is important because education of the next generation is crucial for the upkeep and improvement of society. What is the aim of the present study? It is to demonstrate that the solution offered by M. Friedman and R. Friedman (1990 is highly problematic. What is the methodology used in the study? We quote from this author, and criticize his analysis. What are our main results and conclusions/recommendations? We conclude that the last best hope for the educational industry is laissez faire capitalism, not the mixed economy recommended by Friedman.

  2. The Voucher Movement as a Freedom of Choice Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picus, Larry

    After describing the history of the educational voucher movement, this paper briefly discusses the various voucher models that have been proposed and considers some of the issues for and against the establishment of voucher systems. Tracing the voucher concept back to Adam Smith, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mill, the author notes that after the…

  3. 48 CFR 1842.7101 - Submission of vouchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Submission of Vouchers for Payment. (b) The auditor shall retain an unpaid copy of the voucher. (c) When a... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Submission of vouchers... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Submission of Vouchers 1842.7101...

  4. Housing Choice Voucher Program Support Division (PSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Program Management Programmatic Report for April to June 2010. This is inofrmation collected from Housing Authorities across the nation...

  5. Publicly provided private goods: education and selective vouchers

    OpenAIRE

    Piolatto, Amedeo

    2008-01-01

    The literature on vouchers often concludes that a vouchers-based system cannot be the outcome of a majority vote. This paper shows that, when the value of vouchers and who is entitled to receive them are fixed exogenously, the majority of voters are in favour of selective vouchers. On top of that, as long as the introduction of vouchers does not undermine the existence of the public school system, introducing selective vouchers induces a Pareto improvement. Middle class agents are the only on...

  6. 23 CFR 140.609 - Progress and final vouchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Progress and final vouchers. 140.609 Section 140.609 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT Reimbursement for Bond Issue Projects § 140.609 Progress and final vouchers. (a) Progress vouchers may be...

  7. 24 CFR 982.502 - Conversion to voucher program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Assistance Payment § 982.502 Conversion to voucher program. (a) New HAP contracts. On and after the merger... part, including calculation of the voucher housing assistance payment in accordance with § 982.505... requirements under this part, including calculation of the voucher housing assistance payment in accordance...

  8. The Preparation of Schools for Serious School Violence: An Analysis of New Mexico Public High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMatteo, Henry

    2012-01-01

    This study surveyed New Mexico high school principals on their current state of preparedness for serious school violence. The researcher surveyed 119 public high schools, receiving a 65% return rate from a 25-question survey. Specifically, this study analyzed the relationships of three predictor variables: prevention, response, and building of…

  9. Relief Plans Spurring Debate over Vouchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2005-01-01

    Washington is a safe distance from the powerful winds that have wreaked havoc on the Gulf Coast, but a political storm continued to brew in the capital over President Bush's plan to help pay the costs of private school tuition for students displaced by Hurricane Katrina. As voucher opponents decried the president's plan, Louisiana's two U.S.…

  10. Economic Modeling and Analysis of Educational Vouchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epple, Dennis; Romano, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of educational vouchers has evolved from market-based analogies to models that incorporate distinctive features of the educational environment. These distinctive features include peer effects, scope for private school pricing and admissions based on student characteristics, the linkage of household residential and school choices in…

  11. 31 CFR 250.3 - Voucher applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voucher applications. 250.3 Section 250.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... in 250.4 and returned to the Credit Accounting Branch with the relevant information and the...

  12. 78 FR 36520 - Rural Development Voucher Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... the process for providing voucher assistance to the eligible impacted families when an owner prepays a.... Non-Discrimination Statement The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination... origin, age, disability, sex, gender identity, religion, reprisal, and where applicable, political...

  13. Preparing for community violence: mood and behavioral correlates of the second Rodney King verdicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendsen, J D; Norman, S

    1998-01-01

    This prospective investigation applied the Experience Sampling Method to examine the mood and behavioral responses of individuals facing the risk of community violence (in anticipation of the second Rodney King verdicts). Threatened participants experienced more negative affect and were less stable in behavioral involvement than individuals not under threat. Threatened participants also avoided social contact except for well-known individuals, and were more likely to be traveling than nonthreatened participants. Social contact with family or close friends and being at home (one's own home or the home of familiar individuals) were associated with large reductions in negative affect for those at risk for urban violence. The findings are discussed in terms of risk factors for trauma following community-wide stressors.

  14. Neighborhood choices, neighborhood effects and housing vouchers

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Morris A.; Gregory, Jesse; Hartley, Daniel A.; Tan, Kegon T. K.

    2017-01-01

    We study how households choose neighborhoods, how neighborhoods affect child ability, and how housing vouchers influence neighborhood choices and child outcomes. We use two new panel data sets with tract-level detail for Los Angeles county to estimate a dynamic model of optimal tract-level location choice for renting households and, separately, the impact of living in a given tract on child test scores (which we call "child ability" throughout). We simulate optimal location choices and change...

  15. 75 FR 37825 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment for the Housing Choice Voucher...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Voucher, Portability Information, Housing Assistance Payments Contracts and Tenancy Addenda, Homeownership Obligations, Tenant Information for Owner, Voucher Transfers, Homeownership Contracts of Sale, Information for... Obligations, Tenant Information for Owner, Voucher Transfers, Homeownership Contracts of Sale, Information...

  16. Do vouchers lead to sorting under random private-school selection? Evidence from the Milwaukee voucher program

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of school vouchers on student sorting - defined as a flight to private schools by high-income and committed public-school students - and whether vouchers can be designed to reduce or eliminate it. Much of the existing literature investigates sorting in cases where private schools can screen students. However, publicly funded U.S. voucher programs require a private school to accept all students unless it is oversubscribed and to pick students randomly if it is ov...

  17. Preparing for the unexpected: violence in the home care environment, one agency's story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Sarah Via; Clark, Rebecca Culver; Glick, Roger E

    2013-06-01

    Home care and hospice agencies, bound by regulations, prepare for emergencies and disasters by creating policies and protocols for management of emergency situations, perhaps conducting table top or other types of drills, and discussing hazards likely to impact home care. Is this preparation merely an exercise to meet a requirement, or is it life-saving preparation? For one home care agency, the emergency exercise saved the day as the scenario enacted in the drill was actually lived out a few weeks after the exercise-a scenario the agency leaders hoped they would never face. This account explores how the agency prepared to meet the emergent situation and details lessons learned in the aftermath.

  18. 24 CFR 982.604 - SRO: Voucher housing assistance payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Types Single Room Occupancy (sro) § 982.604 SRO: Voucher housing assistance payment. (a) For a person... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false SRO: Voucher housing assistance payment. 982.604 Section 982.604 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  19. Under the Law: Vouchers Multiply Even without Public Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Public funding of private K-12 schooling through vouchers continues to be a contentious issue across the U.S., even though a solid majority of Americans continues to oppose them. The voucher plans run the risk of legal challenge for how they handle the rights of students with disabilities and whether they violate state constitutional provisions…

  20. School Vouchers in a Climate of Political Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Lenford C.; King, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Legal scrutiny of school voucher policies initially focused on the establishment clause concerning with allocating public dollars to schools sponsored by religious organizations. In recent years, advocates asserted that the exclusion of faith-based organizations from voucher plans that permit expenditures in secular private organizations violates…

  1. A Nineteenth-Century French Proposal to Use School Vouchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vliet, W.; Smyth, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    In light of the current American interest in school vouchers as proposed by economist Milton Friedman, recapitulates the origins, content, and fate of an 1872 law drafted by a French parliamentary commission to establish a countrywide voucher scheme for primary schools. (NEC)

  2. Percepciones de los estudiantes de education en Venezuela sobre su preparacion e intervencion en violencia domestica. [Perceptions of Education Students in Venezuela about Their Preparation and Intervention in Domestic Violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Anna P.; Cellitti, Anarella; Perez de Linares, Sonia

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated Venezuelan university students' perceptions regarding domestic violence and possible encounters with domestic violence in programs for young children. Students indicated that they expected to encounter only those situations they were prepared to confront, indicating needs for curriculum changes in teacher-training programs.…

  3. From Theory to Practice: Considerations for Implementing a Statewide Voucher System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Denis P.

    This monograph analyzes trends in American educational philosophy and history in its proposal to implement an all-public statewide school voucher system. Following an introduction, section 1, "Alternative Voucher Systems," discusses three concepts: universal unregulated vouchers, favored by Milton Friedman; regulated compensatory vouchers,…

  4. The Voucher System as an Alternative for Allocating Sports Grants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Pavlik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport funding at the municipal level has a long tradition, especially in Europe. Youth involvement in sport is usually an important aspect of grant policies. There are questions regarding how to allocate public resources more efficiently and how to increase youth participation in sport. We analyse sport vouchers as a tool for increasing transparency and efficiency as well as the involvement of young people and their parents in sport policy at the local level.Vouchers typically transfer purchasing power directly to the target group. Using sport vouchers as a tool for allocating public resources is still quite rare. Some attempts with sport vouchers were made in Australia and the UK, and there are examples of sport vouchers in the Czech Republic.The aim of this paper is to discuss the advantages of vouchers as an alternative method of sport funding at the municipal level. We also formulate recommendations for implementing a voucher system.

  5. Hearing children's voices? Including children's perspectives on their experiences of domestic violence in welfare reports prepared for the English courts in private family law proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Gillian S

    2017-03-01

    This research examined Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service (Cafcass) reports prepared for private family court proceedings in domestic violence cases in England. The research found that in cases where children's accounts identified them as victims of violence, these disclosures regularly disappeared from report recommendations. Particular discourses regarding 'child welfare' and 'contact' were identified, which routinely impacted on the ways in which children's voices were taken into account. Whilst culturally there has undoubtedly been an influential move towards including children's perspectives in decision-making that affects them, how these views are interpreted and represented is subject to adult 'gate-keeping' and powerful cultural and professional ideologies regarding 'child welfare' and 'post-separation family relationships'. This research found that the unrelenting influence of deeply embedded beliefs regarding the preservation or promotion of relationships with fathers continues to have the effect of marginalising issues of safeguarding, including children's voiced experiences of violence, in all but the most exceptional of cases. Rather, safeguarding concerns in respect of domestic violence and child abuse were persistently overshadowed by a dominant presumption of the overall benefits of contact with fathers. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An Analysis of Voucher Advocacy: Taking a Closer Look at the Uses and Limitations of "Gold Standard" Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubienski, Christopher; Brewer, T. Jameson

    2016-01-01

    Voucher proponents have increasingly pursued empirical evidence on the effectiveness of vouchers as a form of education improvement, in addition to advocating for vouchers on moral or ethical grounds. Voucher proponents contend that randomized assignment studies of students in voucher programs have consistently confirmed the effectiveness of…

  7. The Quality of Work in the Belgian Service Voucher System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousaid, Sarah; Huegaerts, Kelly; Bosmans, Kim; Julià, Mireia; Benach, Joan; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Several European countries implemented initiatives to boost the growth of the domestic cleaning sector. Few studies investigated the quality of work in these initiatives, although effects on workers' health and on social health inequalities can be expected. This study contributes to the scant research on this subject, by investigating the quality of work in the Belgian service voucher system - a subsidized system for domestic work. The applied research methodology includes a qualitative content analysis of parliamentary debates, legislation and previous research about the service voucher system and of 40 in-depth interviews with service voucher workers. The study shows that the legal framework that regulates the system must be further enhanced in order to improve the quality of work in the service voucher system. In addition, the actors involved must be better controlled, and sanctioned in case of non-compliance with legislation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Domestic violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... violence; Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... 2016. National Domestic Violence Hotline website. What is domestic violence? www.thehotline.org/is-this-abuse/abuse-defined . Accessed July 10, 2016.

  9. 77 FR 13619 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Housing Choice Voucher Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Housing Choice Voucher Program AGENCY: Office of the Chief... assistance payments, and budget and payment documentation. In some cases, PHAs voluntarily divest their voucher programs to a receiving PHA. PHAs may also project-base a portion of their vouchers or use their...

  10. 19 CFR 24.34 - Vouchers; vendors' bills of sale; invoices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... that the above bill is correct and just and that payment has not been received. Vouchers, vendors... employee, in which case the voucher may be in the name of the officer or employee who made the payment. (c... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vouchers; vendors' bills of sale; invoices. 24.34...

  11. Risk factors for redemption of feline neutering vouchers issued by welfare organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, Rachel H; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim J; Clements, Jane; Murray, Jane K

    2017-10-21

    Animal welfare organisations in the UK invest substantial resources to fund subsidised neutering vouchers to increase feline neutering rates. Little evidence exists to quantify factors influencing voucher redemption. This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors (including voucher value and expiry period) for redemption of neutering vouchers issued by staff of the feline welfare charity Cats Protection. Data were collected using telephone interview-administered questionnaires of cat owners who were issued a neutering voucher(s) and from Cats Protection voucher payment records. During the four-month study 2655 owners were issued 3935 vouchers. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that owners of cats that had produced ≥1 litter before voucher request, owners eligible for a voucher due to receiving benefits and owners who rented their homes or lived with family were less likely to redeem vouchers than owners whose cats had not had a litter, were eligible for a voucher for other reasons and/or owners who owned their home, respectively. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. 48 CFR 1852.216-87 - Submission of vouchers for payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Clauses 1852.216-87 Submission of vouchers for payment. As prescribed in 1816.307-70(e), insert the following clause: Submission for Vouchers for Payment (MAR 1998) (a) The designated billing office for cost vouchers for purposes of the Prompt Payment clause of this contract is indicated below...

  13. 75 FR 55596 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Housing Choice Voucher Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... Proposed Information Collection to OMB Housing Choice Voucher Program AGENCY: Office of the Chief... assistance payments, and budget and payment documentation. In some cases PHAs voluntarily divest their voucher programs to a receiving PHA. PHAs may also project-base a portion of their vouchers or use their...

  14. 48 CFR 1232.7002 - Invoice and voucher review and approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contractor to submit an invoice or voucher in order to receive payment under the contract. The invoice or..., Public Voucher for Purchases and Services Other Than Personal (Continuation Sheet), to request payments... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Invoice and voucher review...

  15. 78 FR 31972 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Request Voucher for Grant Payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... Information Collection for Public Comment; Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System... information: Title Of Proposal: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System (LOCCS... and proposed use: Payment request vouchers for distribution of grant funds using the automated Voice...

  16. 24 CFR 982.504 - Voucher tenancy: Payment standard for family in restructured subsidized multifamily project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voucher tenancy: Payment standard... ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.504 Voucher tenancy: Payment standard for family in restructured subsidized multifamily project. (a) This section applies to...

  17. 77 FR 20122 - Proposed Collection of Information: Voucher for Payment of Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Proposed Collection of Information: Voucher for Payment... Financial Management Service solicits comments concerning the form ``Voucher for Payment of Awards.'' DATES... of information described below: Title: Voucher for Payment of Awards. OMB Number: 1510-0037. Form...

  18. 77 FR 2682 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... provisional payment and sent to the disbursing office after a pre- payment review. Interim vouchers not... after a pre-payment review. Interim vouchers not selected for a pre-payment review will be considered to...] RIN 0750-AH52 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing AGENCY...

  19. On the Political Economy of Educational Vouchers. NBER Working Paper No. 17986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epple, Dennis N.; Romano, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Two significant challenges hamper analyses of collective choice of educational vouchers. One is the multi-dimensional choice set arising from the interdependence of the voucher, public education spending, and taxation. The other is that household preferences between public and private schooling vary with the policy chosen. Even absent a voucher,…

  20. The Voucher System as an Alternative for Allocating Sports Grants

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Pavlik; Michiel S. de Vries

    2014-01-01

    Sport funding at the municipal level has a long tradition, especially in Europe. Youth involvement in sport is usually an important aspect of grant policies. There are questions regarding how to allocate public resources more efficiently and how to increase youth participation in sport. We analyse sport vouchers as a tool for increasing transparency and efficiency as well as the involvement of young people and their parents in sport policy at the local level.Vouchers typically transfer purcha...

  1. Innovative voucher as a prospect tool for grant funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Barinova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to explore innovative international practice for advancing the mechanisms of distributing grant funding. Authors analyze a practical case study of successful implementation of innovative vouchers overseas, and draw parallels with regard to already formed institutes in Russia, corresponding with foreign in terms of their functional. Possible mechanisms for implementing successful foreign practices of utilizing innovative vouchers in Russia were studied in this article. On the basis of conducted analysis authors evaluate perspectives of implementing the suggested scheme in Russia.

  2. 20 CFR 645.221 - For what activities and services must local boards use contracts or vouchers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vouchers are subject to the payment requirements at § 645.230(a)(3) of this subpart. If an operating entity... boards use contracts or vouchers? 645.221 Section 645.221 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... vouchers? (a) Local boards and PIC's must provide the following activities and services through vouchers or...

  3. Front-Line Advocacy: Fighting Off a Voucher Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimesey, Robert P., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, the U.S. Senate's Armed Services Committee approved an amendment to the proposed National Defense Authorization Act. The amendment, known as Section 583, authorized a Defense Department pilot voucher program to mitigate the cost of private school tuition for special-needs children of military parents. Sen. Jim Webb, a member of…

  4. Lange and Hayek revisited: lessons from Czech voucher privatization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Filer, Randall K.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2002), s. 491-498 ISSN 0273-3072 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : Czech Republic * voucher privatization Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://search. ebscohost .com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=6463493&site=ehost-live

  5. Promoting Locally Fortified Sunflower Oil Using E-Vouchers ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The vouchers, transmitted through cell phone text messages, will deliver subsidies to vulnerable groups. They will target lactating mothers, while jumpstarting demand for fortified oil. Findings to improve health outcomes During the course of the project, subsidies will be systematically withdrawn to observe producers' and ...

  6. Needed: A Voucher Plan in Support of Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, David S.

    Opportunities for career advancement, an adequate pool of trained manpower, and the growth of our economy are inextricably connected with the availability of continuing education and training opportunities to working adults. Availability is a function of access to training and successful participation in training. The federally funded voucher plan…

  7. Skin conductance rises in preparation and recovery to psychosocial stress and its relationship with impulsivity and testosterone in intimate partner violence perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, A; Lila, M; Williams, R K; González-Bono, E; Moya-Albiol, L

    2013-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators were categorized into 2 groups using Gottman et al.'s (1995) typology depending on their skin conductance (SC) reactivity to stress. Overall, type I perpetrators tend to show autonomic underarousal, whereas type II perpetrators present a preparatory hyperreactivity to confront stress. Moreover, impulsivity traits and testosterone (T) levels may modulate SC responses to increase the risk of proneness to violence. In this study, SC response to stress was assessed by comparing IPV perpetrators with non-violent controls while performing a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Subjects with a history of IPV demonstrated higher non-specific SC responses during the recovery period than the non-violent controls. Nonetheless, there were no differences between groups in the case of mean SC levels. Furthermore, impulsivity and baseline T levels were associated with higher SC level reactivity during a preparation period only in IPV perpetrators, with both relationships being mediated by anger expression. Our results confirm that the IPV perpetrators correspond physiologically to type II and support the validity of SC as a diagnostic indicator for IPV classification. Our findings contribute to the development of effective treatment and prevention programs that could benefit from the use of biological indicators for analyzing the risk of recidivism in IPV perpetrators. © 2013.

  8. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  9. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Teens / Dating Violence Bulletins for Teens: Dating Violence What is it? If you are a victim ... often. If You Are a Victim of Dating Violence, You Might… Think it's your fault. Feel angry, ...

  10. Unreported workplace violence in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvas, A; Seljak, J

    2014-09-01

    Workplace violence occurs on a frequent basis in nursing. Most violent acts remain unreported. Consequently, we do not know the actual frequency of the occurrence of workplace violence. This requires research of nurses' actions following workplace violence and identification of reasons why most victims do not report violent acts in the appropriate manner. To explore violence in nursing as experienced by nurses in Slovenia. A survey was carried out with a representative sample of nurses in Slovenia. The questionnaire Workplace Violence in Nursing was submitted to 3756 nurses, with 692 completing the questionnaire. A total of 61.6% of the nurses surveyed had been exposed to violence in the past year. Most victims were exposed to psychological (60.1%) and economic violence (28.9%). Victims reported acts of violence in formal written form in a range from 6.5% (psychological violence) to 10.9% (physical violence). The largest share of victims who did not report violence and did not speak to anyone about it were victims of sexual violence (17.9%). The main reason for not reporting the violence was the belief that reporting it would not change anything, followed by the fear of losing one's job. Only a small share of the respondents reported violence in written form, the main reason being the victims' belief that reporting it would not change anything. This represents a severe criticism of the system for preventing workplace violence for it reveals the failure of response by leadership structures in healthcare organizations. Professional associations and the education system must prepare nurses for the prevention of violence and appropriate actions in the event of violent acts. Healthcare organizations must ensure the necessary conditions for enabling and encouraging appropriate actions following violent acts according to relevant protocols. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  11. Redeeming qualities: exploring factors that affect women’s use of reproductive health vouchers in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background One approach to delivering healthcare in developing countries is through voucher programs, where vouchers are distributed to a specific population for free or subsidized health care. Recent evaluations suggest that vouchers have the potential to extend coverage of priority health services to the poor in developing countries. In Cambodia, a reproductive health voucher program was implemented in January 2011. This study aims to explore women’s early experiences accessing health services with their vouchers at accredited clinics. Methods This qualitative exploratory study used focus group methodology to gather information from five groups of older (>25 years) and four groups of younger (18–25 years) women who were eligible for the voucher program in three rural provinces. Focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed and translated from Khmer into English. Data analysis was an iterative process, which comprised of open coding to find commonalities that reflected categories or themes and axial coding to relate initial themes to each other. Next, a basic framework for analysis was formed by integrating the themes into the framework. Results Two overarching themes were identified in the data: 1) factors that facilitate voucher use and 2) factors that inhibit voucher use. Within each of these themes, three subthemes were identified: 1) pre-existing factors, 2) distribution factors, and 3) redemption factors. Overall, women expressed positive feelings towards the voucher program, while several areas for program improvement were identified including the importance of addressing pre-existing demand-side barriers to using reproductive health services, the need for more comprehensive counselling during voucher distribution, and the persistent cost of unofficial payments expected by midwives after delivery irrespective of voucher use. Conclusions Early information from program beneficiaries can lead to timely and responsive changes that can help to maximize

  12. Assessing the Impacts of Zimbabwe’s Agricultural Vouchers Input Program

    OpenAIRE

    Mazvimavi, Kizito; Murendo, Conrad; Minde, Isaac J.; Kunzekweguta, Machiweyi

    2013-01-01

    Using data from ICRISAT 2010/11 household and fertilizer retailer surveys, the study reveals that open vouchers enhance farmers input choice. The targeting of vulnerable farmers was efficient in selecting, households with less livestock ownership and those affected by HIV/AIDS. The use of open vouchers enabled retailers to sale agricultural inputs, boost revenue and link them to suppliers. The use of open voucher is preferable in areas where retailer’s infrastructure and mobile telephone netw...

  13. Payment with Mobile (NFC) Vouchers – Using Co-design Techniques to Identify User Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Slegers, Karin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an ongoing co-design study focusing on the application of Near Field Communication (NFC) technology in the area of voucher payment. The research that is described is conducted to a) gain a thorough understanding of the current context of use of paper vouchers, including user experience and user needs, and b) evaluate the potential of the concept of NFC-vouchers with endusers in an early stage. Several aspects of the context of use as well as the future NFC-vouchers will be...

  14. Trivializing violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina Eske; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt

    2018-01-01

    This article analyzes narratives of violence based on interviews with 43 marginalized young Danish people. Their narratives reveal that violence is not only experienced as singular, dramatic encounters; violence is also trivialized in their everyday lives. By drawing on anthropological perspectives...... on everyday violence, we propose a sensitizing framework that enables the exploration of trivialized violence. This framework integrates three perspectives on the process of trivialization: the accumulation of violence; the embodiment of violence; and the temporal and spatial entanglement of violence....... This analysis shows how multiple experiences of violence—as victim, witness, or perpetrator—intersect and mutually inform each other, thereby shaping the everyday lives and dispositions of the marginalized youth. The concept of trivialized violence is a theoretical contribution to cultural and narrative...

  15. Workplace Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reduce workplace violence. Management Commitment: Provides the motivation and resources to deal effectively with workplace violence ... physical health of the employee. Appropriate allocation of authority and resources to responsible parties. Equal commitment to ...

  16. Teen Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teen violence refers to harmful behaviors that can start early and continue into young adulthood. The young person can ... victim, an offender, or a witness to the violence. Violent acts can include Bullying Fighting, including punching, ...

  17. Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual Violence Facts at a Glance 2012 Adults In a nationally representative survey of adults: 1 • Nearly 1 in ... 5.6% and 5.3%, respectively) experienced sexual violence other than rape, such as being made to ...

  18. Domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Tačík, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Domestic violence The present thesis deals with the phenomenon of domestic violence, from the substantive, procedural and criminological aspects. The first part defines the specifics of domestic violence, its signs and forms. It shows a typology of victims and perpetrators. It analyzes in detail the basic facts of the crimes that are the most commonly perpetrated forms of domestic violence. It also describes the sanctions and some of the treatment programs that are available for perpetrators ...

  19. Domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Kiurski Jasmina

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1960s, there has been growing awareness regarding the issue of domestic violence as a form of violence against women, which has been largely influenced by the work of feminist activist and scholars in North America and Europe (Dobash and Dobash 1992). Other terms have been used to describe the same phenomenon, including domestic abuse, spousal abuse, wife battering, marital violence, intimate partner violence. Though there is no doubt that this problem has existed for much more than...

  20. 24 CFR 982.617 - Shared housing: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Special Housing Types Shared Housing § 982.617 Shared housing: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shared housing: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment. 982.617 Section 982.617 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

  1. 24 CFR 982.613 - Group home: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Special Housing Types Group Home § 982.613 Group home: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Group home: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment. 982.613 Section 982.613 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

  2. 24 CFR 982.608 - Congregate housing: Voucher housing assistance payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Housing Types Congregate Housing § 982.608 Congregate housing: Voucher housing assistance payment. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congregate housing: Voucher housing assistance payment. 982.608 Section 982.608 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  3. School Vouchers: Stealing from the Poor to Give to the Rich?

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Jose, Alyssa L.

    2017-01-01

    School vouchers are defined as certificates of government funding that are allocated to students and intended to defer the cost of tuition at a private school of the student or the student's parents' choice. With strong views on opposing sides, the issue of school choice and the corresponding use of vouchers has certainly been catapulted into the…

  4. Vouchers, Tests, Loans, Privatization: Will They Help Tackle Corruption in Russian Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in Russia is currently being reformed. A standardized computer-graded test and educational vouchers were introduced to make higher education more accessible, fund it more effectively, and reduce corruption in admissions to public colleges. The voucher project failed and the test faces furious opposition. This paper considers…

  5. 24 CFR 982.505 - Voucher tenancy: How to calculate housing assistance payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.505 Voucher tenancy: How to calculate housing assistance... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voucher tenancy: How to calculate housing assistance payment. 982.505 Section 982.505 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

  6. 75 FR 14455 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Request Voucher for Grant Payment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Information Collection: Comment Request; Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System... Notice also lists the following information: Title of proposal: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and..., if applicable: 2535-0102. Description of the need for the information and proposed use: Payment...

  7. 76 FR 59711 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Housing Choice Voucher Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... and Congress have tried to balance fairness with cost savings, while trying to avoid large year-to... measurement of the work actually performed by voucher administrators. The study will measure and identify the... throughout the community is available to voucher families. The study will identify the costs involved in each...

  8. 48 CFR 652.232-71 - Voucher Submission (Cost-Reimbursement).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Reimbursement). 652.232-71 Section 652.232-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES... Voucher Submission (Cost-Reimbursement). As prescribed in 632.908(b), the contracting officer may insert a clause substantially the same as follows: Voucher Submission (Cost-Reimbursement) (AUG 1999) (a) General...

  9. Why Don't Housing Choice Voucher Recipients Live Near Better Schools? Insights from Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Horn, Keren Mertens; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Housing choice vouchers provide low-income households with additional income to spend on rental housing in the private market. The assistance vouchers provide is substantial, offering the potential to dramatically expand the neighborhood--and associated public schools--that low-income households can reach. However, existing research on the program…

  10. Non-Religion-Based State Constitutional Challenges to Educational Voucher and Tax Credit Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Preston C., III

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of non-religion-based state constitutional challenges to educational voucher and tax credit/scholarship programs. The first section discusses litigation examining whether education voucher programs violate constitutional provisions requiring the legislature to provide an efficient system of public schools. The…

  11. Freedom from Racial Barriers: The Empirical Evidence on Vouchers and Segregation. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    This report collects the results of all available studies using valid empirical methods to compare segregation in public and private schools, both in general and in the context of school voucher programs. Examining the widespread claims that private schools have high segregation levels and vouchers will lead to greater segregation, this report…

  12. School Voucher Program and Its Enlightenments to the Education Reform in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youlu

    2005-01-01

    This article roughly retrospects the idea of school voucher program proposed by Milton Friedman, lately developed by Peacock, Wiseman and Jencks. The reasons like privatization in education, deterioration of public schooling and school choice promote this program. Then taking a simple look at the ramification of voucher program and its value…

  13. Dollars to Discriminate: The (Un)Intended Consequences of School Vouchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Suzanne E.; Mead, Julie; Ulm, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Some private, religious schools that accept vouchers have been accused of discriminating against certain populations of students through their admissions processes. Discriminating against disfavored groups (e.g., racial minorities, LGBT students, students with disabilities, religious minorities) in voucher programs raises both legal and policy…

  14. Media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, J

    2000-08-01

    Research on the effects of media violence is not well understood by the general public. Despite this fact, there is an overwhelming consensus in the scientific literature about the unhealthy effects of media violence. Meta-analyses show that media-violence viewing consistently is associated with higher levels of antisocial behavior, ranging from the trivial (imitative violence directed against toys) to the serious (criminal violence), with many consequential outcomes in between (acceptance of violence as a solution to problems, increased feelings of hostility, and the apparent delivery of painful stimulation to another person). Desensitization is another well-documented effect of viewing violence, which is observable in reduced arousal and emotional disturbance while witnessing violence, the reduced tendency to intervene in a fight, and less sympathy for the victims of violence. Although there is evidence that youth who are already violent are more likely to seek out violent entertainment, there is strong evidence that the relationship between violence viewing and antisocial behavior is bidirectional. There is growing evidence that media violence also engenders intense fear in children which often lasts days, months, and even years. The media's potential role in solutions to these problems is only beginning to be explored, in investigations examining the uses and effects of movie ratings, television ratings, and the V-chip, and the effects of media literacy programs and public education efforts. Future research should explore important individual differences in responses to media violence and effective ways to intervene in the negative effects.

  15. School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is threefold. First, the chapter summarizes what is known about the prevalence of violence and weapons in U.S. schools. Second, the chapter examines theories that bear on school violence and the empirical evidence linked to those theories. Third, the chapter looks at attempts to prevent school violence and,…

  16. 75 FR 61253 - Final Fair Market Rents for Fiscal Year 2011 for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    .... Any questions related to use of FMRs or voucher payment standards should be directed to the respective... Housing Choice Voucher program, the FMR is the basis for determining the ``payment standard amount'' used... for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single Room Occupancy Program...

  17. 78 FR 46360 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Information Collection: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System (LOCCS) Voice.... Description of the need for the information and proposed use: Payment request vouchers for distribution of.... A. Overview of Information Collection Title of Information Collection: Request Voucher for Grant...

  18. 75 FR 30845 - Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System (LOCCS) Voice Response System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... subject proposal. Payment request vouchers for distribution of grant funds using the automated Voice... Lists the Following Information Title of Proposal: Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-46] Request Voucher for Grant...

  19. 77 FR 52258 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing (DFARS Case 2011-D054)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... after a pre-payment review. Interim vouchers not selected for a pre-payment review will be considered to... a pre- payment review. Interim vouchers not selected for a pre-payment review will be considered to... office after a pre-payment review. Interim vouchers not selected for a pre-payment review will be...

  20. 77 FR 9617 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; DoD Voucher Processing (DFARS Case 2011-D054)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... provisional payment and sent to the disbursing office after the pre-payment review. Interim vouchers not... evaluation of selected interim vouchers on a pre-payment basis in lieu of the current direct submission authorization, which does not allow for the pre-payment evaluation of higher risk interim vouchers. It is...

  1. 75 FR 11553 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... provided on the same website noted above. Any questions related to use of FMRs or voucher payment standards... the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single Room Occupancy Program for... County, ND. Both areas were having significant problems administering the Housing Choice Voucher program...

  2. Higher education: free tuition vs. quotas vs. targeted vouchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Carvalho Andrade

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares theoretically three alternative university systems: the current one adopted in Brazil, in which students who perform better in the entering exam obtain the right to attend the public university without paying the full tuition; a system of affirmative action quotas in public universities, to benefit low income students; and a targeted vouchers system that can be used either to pay private or public university tuiton. The comparison indicates that the last system leads to: (i a higher quality of the labor force; (ii a more efficient allocation of resources; and (iii a greater social mobility.Este trabalho compara, do ponto de vista teórico, três sistemas universitários alternativos: o atual adotado pelo Brasil, no qual os alunos das universidades públicas, que são praticamente gratuitas, são escolhidos através de um processo seletivo; um sistema de quotas nas universidades públicas para beneficiar estudantes de baixa renda; e um sistema de vouchers direcionados para estudantes de baixa renda que podem ser utilizados nas universidades privadas ou públicas. A comparação destes três sistemas indica que o último é o mais eficiente, pois gera: (i maior qualidade da mão de obra; (ii alocação mais eficiente dos recursos; e (iii maior mobilidade social.

  3. SISTEM INFORMASI PENJUALAN VOUCHER BELANJA PADA PT. PLAZA INDONESIA REALITY Tbk. JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baginda Oloan Lubis

    2016-05-01

      ABSTRAK - PT. Plaza Indonesia Realty Tbk. Jakarta dalam penjualan voucher yang transaksinya dimulai dari pencatatan voucher yang masuk, pencatatan data pelanggan, pembuatan faktur penjualan voucher, pencatatan serah terima voucher dengan pelanggan  sampai pembuatan laporan  masih dilakukan secara manual, sehingga memungkinkan pada saat proses berlangsung sering terjadi kesalahan dalam pencatatan, kurang akuratnya laporan yang dibuat dan keterlambatan dalam pencarian data pada saat dibutuhkan. Untuk itu dibutuhkan adanya suatu rancangan program yang akan menunjang kegiatan sistem penjualan voucher yang memudahkan user dan mempercepat transakasi dengan pelanggan dan pembuatan laporan. Model pengembangan sistem yang digunakan dalam pembuatan sistem informasi ini adalah SDCL (System Development Life Cycle air terjun (Waterfall atau alur hidup klasik atau classic life. Tahapan-tahapan yang dilalui dalam proses analisis dan perancangan sistem antara lain: analisa kebutuhan sistem, desain, kode generator, testing dan pendukung. Dari hasil penelitian ini diharapkan dengan adanya sistem informasi penjualan voucher ini dapat membantu user dalam hal ini disebut concierge pada PT. Plaza Indonesia Realty Tbk. Jakarta dalam melakukan transaksi penjualan sampai dengan pembuatan laporan terakomodasi Kata kunci: Sistem Informasi, Penjualan Voucher, SDLC

  4. Organ Vouchers and Barter Markets: Saving Lives, Reducing Suffering, and Trading in Human Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Mark J

    2017-10-01

    The essays in this issue of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy explore an innovative voucher program for encouraging kidney donation. Discussions cluster around a number of central moral and political/theoretical themes: (1) What are the direct and indirect health care costs and benefits of such a voucher system in human organs? (2) Do vouchers lead to more effective and efficient organ procurement and allocation or contribute to greater inequalities and inefficiencies in the transplantation system? (3) Do vouchers contribute to the inappropriate commodification of human body parts? (4) Is there a significant moral difference between such a voucher system and a market in human organs for transplantation? This paper argues that while kidney vouchers constitute a step in the right direction, fuller utilization of market-based incentives, including, but not limited to, barter exchanges (e.g., organ exchanges, organ chains, and organ vouchers), would save more lives and further reduce human suffering. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Preservice teachers' perceived confidence in teaching school violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandakai, Tina L; King, Keith A

    2002-01-01

    To examine preservice teachers' perceived confidence in teaching violence prevention and the potential effect of violence-prevention training on preservice teachers' confidence in teaching violence prevention. Six Ohio universities participated in the study. More than 800 undergraduate and graduate students completed surveys. Violence-prevention training, area of certification, and location of student- teaching placement significantly influenced preservice teachers' perceived confidence in teaching violence prevention. Violence-prevention training positively influences preservice teachers' confidence in teaching violence prevention. The results suggest that such training should be considered as a requirement for teacher preparation programs.

  6. Can reproductive health voucher programs improve quality of postnatal care? A quasi-experimental evaluation of Kenya's safe motherhood voucher scheme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Watt

    Full Text Available This study tests the group-level causal relationship between the expansion of Kenya's Safe Motherhood voucher program and changes in quality of postnatal care (PNC provided at voucher-contracted facilities. We compare facilities accredited since program inception in 2006 (phase I and facilities accredited since 2010-2011 (phase II relative to comparable non-voucher facilities. PNC quality is assessed using observed clinical content processes, as well as client-reported outcome measures. Two-tailed unpaired t-tests are used to identify differences in mean process quality scores and client-reported outcome measures, comparing changes between intervention and comparison groups at the 2010 and 2012 data collection periods. Difference-in-differences analysis is used to estimate the reproductive health (RH voucher program's causal effect on quality of care by exploiting group-level differences between voucher-accredited and non-accredited facilities in 2010 and 2012. Participation in the voucher scheme since 2006 significantly improves overall quality of postnatal care by 39% (p=0.02, where quality is defined as the observable processes or components of service provision that occur during a PNC consultation. Program participation since phase I is estimated to improve the quality of observed maternal postnatal care by 86% (p=0.02, with the largest quality improvements in counseling on family planning methods (IRR 5.0; p=0.01 and return to fertility (IRR 2.6; p=0.01. Despite improvements in maternal aspects of PNC, we find a high proportion of mothers who seek PNC are not being checked by any provider after delivery. Additional strategies will be necessary to standardize provision of packaged postnatal interventions to both mother and newborn. This study addresses an important gap in the existing RH literature by using a strong evaluation design to assess RH voucher program effectiveness on quality improvement.

  7. Who would eat more with a food voucher programme in South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Horn Van Heerden

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A Computable General Equilibrium model is used to find the effects of a food voucher scheme on the economy in South Africa. If firms consider the issuing of vouchers as increased remuneration, they will hire fewer labourers. The higher labour cost increases the total cost of production and lowers supply. Real Gross Domestic Product decreases and the economy becomes worse off.  However, depending on the size of the government’s involvement in such a scheme as well as the tax policies that are used to fund it, a food voucher scheme could benefit the poor, and improve the distribution of wealth in the country.

  8. Money matters: evidence from a large-scale randomized field experiment with vouchers for adult training

    OpenAIRE

    Messer, Dolores; Wolter, Stefan C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a randomized experiment analyzing the use of vouchers for adult training. In 2006, 2,400 people were issued with a training voucher which they were entitled to use in payment for a training course of their choice. User behavior was compared with a control group of 14,000 people. People in the treatment and in the control group were not aware at any time that they were part of an experiment. The experiment shows that the voucher had a significant causal impac...

  9. Collaboration Vouchers: A Policy to Increase Population Wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Heslop

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: While economic liberalism has delivered national wealth, substantial portions of the population have been left behind. The precariously and unemployed experience reduced wellbeing that may be remedied by their greater involvement in egalitarian, purposive collaborative groups. Policy to achieve this objective may be assisted by an understanding of how positive psychology interacts with social psychology. The PILAR model of collaboration is postulated to translate between an individual’s psychological capital (PsyCap and their meeting of basic psychological needs (BPN. In a proposed cyclical model, a collaborating individual will meet BPN, thereby experience enhanced wellbeing, which bolsters PsyCap, and hence promotes further collaboration. Given collaboration is amenable to incentivisation, a policy of collaboration vouchers might cost-effectively promote individual wellbeing throughout society, whilst having complementary effects such as social cohesion.

  10. VoSeq: a voucher and DNA sequence web application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Peña

    Full Text Available There is an ever growing number of molecular phylogenetic studies published, due to, in part, the advent of new techniques that allow cheap and quick DNA sequencing. Hence, the demand for relational databases with which to manage and annotate the amassing DNA sequences, genes, voucher specimens and associated biological data is increasing. In addition, a user-friendly interface is necessary for easy integration and management of the data stored in the database back-end. Available databases allow management of a wide variety of biological data. However, most database systems are not specifically constructed with the aim of being an organizational tool for researchers working in phylogenetic inference. We here report a new software facilitating easy management of voucher and sequence data, consisting of a relational database as back-end for a graphic user interface accessed via a web browser. The application, VoSeq, includes tools for creating molecular datasets of DNA or amino acid sequences ready to be used in commonly used phylogenetic software such as RAxML, TNT, MrBayes and PAUP, as well as for creating tables ready for publishing. It also has inbuilt BLAST capabilities against all DNA sequences stored in VoSeq as well as sequences in NCBI GenBank. By using mash-ups and calls to web services, VoSeq allows easy integration with public services such as Yahoo! Maps, Flickr, Encyclopedia of Life (EOL and GBIF (by generating data-dumps that can be processed with GBIF's Integrated Publishing Toolkit.

  11. Workplace violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    Workplace violence refers to incidents where workers are abused, threatened or assaulted, either by people from within or outside their workplace. Workplace violence may have severe negative consequences for the workers affected, their co-workers and families; as well as for organisations and the

  12. Family Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Robert E.

    1989-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers have begun to recognize the extent and severity of family violence, particularly its effects on children. But there is much disagreement about the definition of violence, its development, the consequences for victims, and the most effective avenues for intervention. Advances recommendations for further research.…

  13. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

  14. Assisted Housing - Housing Choice Vouchers by Tract - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD) Housing Choice Voucher Program (HCVP) is the federal government's major program for assisting very...

  15. [Family violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoudi, F; Chagh, R; Es-soussi, M; Asri, F; Tazi, I

    2013-09-01

    Family violence is a serious public health problem, the scale of which is seriously increasing in Morocco. Although it has existed for a long time, we ignore the real characteristics of this plague in our country; our work consisted in an epidemiological approach of family violence in Marrakech during 2006. After elaborating a questionnaire, which allows the study of the demographic and social profile of the families, the study of violence exercised in the family and the evaluation of the depression in the women, we led an inquiry amongst 265 women. Analysis of the results obtained has allowed us to underline the following characteristics: 16.6% of the women in our sample had been physically beaten; the young age is a risk factor; the age range most affected by violence is in women between the ages of 30 and 40 and which represent 39% of the battered women; domestic violence touches all the social, economic and cultural classes: in our study, 63% of the women having undergone violence were housewives, 25% were managers and 3% senior executives; family problems were the most important cause of violence in our study, representing 32.32%. Requests for money was the cause in 11.3% of the cases, and imposed sexual relations were found in 6.8% of the cases; alcoholism is an aggravating factor of family violence; 27.3% of the spouses who assaulted their wives were drunk; 52% of the assaulted women were victims of violence in childhood and 36% had been witness to their father's violence; in 63.6% of the cases of violence, the children were witnesses, and in 25% of the cases the children were victims of violence at the same time as their mothers; 50% of the women victims of violence did not react, while 38.6% left home, and 9.1 filed for divorce. Thirty-two percent of the assaulted woman had been traumatised by the aggression; the association of depression and violence was very high, 343% of the battered women in our study suffered from severe depression. This work

  16. The vouchers scheme as a mechanism of public support allocation in theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Pavlík

    2013-01-01

    Sport support at the municipal level has a long tradition, especially in Europe. Youth involvement to the sport is usually one of the important aspects of grant policies. There are questions regarding how to allocate public resources more efficiently and how to increase youth participation in sport. We analyze the sport vouchers as a tool for increasing transparency and efficiency as well as the involvement of youth and their parents in sport policy at the local level. Vouchers typically tran...

  17. Active children through incentive vouchers – evaluation (ACTIVE: a mixed-method feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Christian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents face many barriers to physical activity, demonstrated by the decline in physical activity levels in teenage populations. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of overcoming such barriers via the implementation of an activity-promoting voucher scheme to teenagers in deprived areas. Methods All Year 9 pupils (n = 115; 13.3 ± 0.48 years; 51 % boys from one secondary school in Wales (UK participated. Participants received £25 of activity vouchers every month for six months for physical activity or sporting equipment. Focus groups (n = 7, with 43 pupils, and qualitative interviews with teachers (n = 2 were conducted to assess feasibility, in addition to a process evaluation utilising the RE-AIM framework. Quantitative outcomes at baseline, five months (during intervention and twelve months (follow-up included: physical activity (accelerometer, aerobic fitness (12 min Cooper run and self-reported activity (PAQ-A. Motivation to exercise (BREQ-2 was measured three months post-baseline and at follow-up. Results Qualitative findings showed that vouchers encouraged friends to socialise through activity, provided opportunities to access local activities that pupils normally could not afford, and engaged both those interested and disinterested in physical education. Improvements in weekend moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and reductions in sedentary behaviour were observed in both sexes. Boys’ fitness significantly improved during the voucher scheme. ‘Non-active’ pupils (those not meeting recommended guidelines of 60 mins∙day−1 and those with higher motivation to exercise had higher voucher use. Conclusions Adolescents, teachers and activity providers supported the voucher scheme and felt the vouchers enabled deprived adolescents to access more physical activity opportunities. Voucher usage was associated with improved attitudes to physical activity, increased socialisation with

  18. Introducing Vouchers and Standardized Tests for Higher Education in Russia: Expectations and Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Osipian, Ararat

    2008-01-01

    The reform of higher education in Russia, based on standardized tests and educational vouchers, was intended to reduce inequalities in access to higher education. The initiative with the vouchers has failed and by now is already forgotten while the national test is planned to be introduced nationwide in 2009. The national test called to replace the present corrupt system of entry examinations has experienced numerous problems so far and will likely have even more problems in the future. This ...

  19. Wireless Sensor for Measuring Pump Efficiency: Small Business Voucher Project with KCF Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL; Koopman, Gary [KCF Technologies; Fugate, David L [ORNL

    2017-01-23

    This document is to fulfill the final report requirements for the Small Business Voucher (SBV) CRADA project with ORNL and KCF Technologies (CRADA/NFE-16-06133). Pumping systems account for nearly 20% of the world’s electrical energy demand and range from 25-50% of the energy usage in many industrial and building power plants. The energy cost is the largest element in the total cost of owning a pump (~40%). In response to a recent DOE mandate for improved pump efficiency pump manufacturers are preparing for the changes that the impending regulations will bring, including design improvements. This mandate also establishes a need for new low cost pump efficiency measurement systems. The standard industry definition of pump efficiency is the mechanical water horsepower delivered divided by the electrical horsepower input to the motor. KCF Technologies has developed a new sensor measurement technique to estimate fluid pump efficiency using a thermodynamic approach. KCF Technologies applied for a SBV grant with ORNL as the research partner. KCF needed a research partner with the proper facilities to demonstrate the efficacy of its wireless sensor unit for measuring pump efficiency. The ORNL Building Technologies Research and Integration Center (BTRIC) test resources were used to test and demonstrate the successful measurement of pump efficiency with the KCF sensor technology. KCF is now working on next steps to commercialize this sensing technology.

  20. Non-repeatable science: assessing the frequency of voucher specimen deposition reveals that most arthropod research cannot be verified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Turney

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Scientific findings need to be verifiable and grounded in repeatability. With specimen-level research this is in part achieved with the deposition of voucher specimens. These are labeled, curated, data-based specimens that have been deposited in a collection or museum, available for verification of the work and to ensure researchers are calling the same taxa by the same names. Voucher specimens themselves are the subject of research, from the discovery of new species by taxonomists to ecologists documenting historical records of invasive species. Our objective was to quantify the frequency of voucher specimen deposition in biodiversity and community ecology research through a survey of the peer-reviewed literature about arthropods, from 1989 until 2014. Overall rates of voucher deposition were alarmingly low, at under 25%. This rate increased significantly over time, with 35% of papers reporting on vouchers in 2014. Relative to the global mean, entomological research had a significantly higher rate of voucher deposition (46%, whereas researchers studying crustaceans deposited vouchers less than 6% of the time, significantly less than the mean. Researchers working in museums had a significantly higher frequency of voucher deposition. Our results suggest a significant culture shift about the process of vouchering specimens is required. There must be more education and mentoring about voucher specimens within laboratories and across different fields of study. Principal investigators and granting agencies need a proactive approach to ensuring specimen-level data are properly, long-term curated. Editorial boards and journals can also adopt policies to ensure papers are published only if explicit statements about the deposition of voucher specimens is provided. Although the gap is significant, achieving a higher rate of voucher specimen deposition is a worthy goal to ensure all research efforts are preserved for future generations.

  1. Non-repeatable science: assessing the frequency of voucher specimen deposition reveals that most arthropod research cannot be verified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Shaun; Cameron, Elyssa R; Cloutier, Christopher A; Buddle, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Scientific findings need to be verifiable and grounded in repeatability. With specimen-level research this is in part achieved with the deposition of voucher specimens. These are labeled, curated, data-based specimens that have been deposited in a collection or museum, available for verification of the work and to ensure researchers are calling the same taxa by the same names. Voucher specimens themselves are the subject of research, from the discovery of new species by taxonomists to ecologists documenting historical records of invasive species. Our objective was to quantify the frequency of voucher specimen deposition in biodiversity and community ecology research through a survey of the peer-reviewed literature about arthropods, from 1989 until 2014. Overall rates of voucher deposition were alarmingly low, at under 25%. This rate increased significantly over time, with 35% of papers reporting on vouchers in 2014. Relative to the global mean, entomological research had a significantly higher rate of voucher deposition (46%), whereas researchers studying crustaceans deposited vouchers less than 6% of the time, significantly less than the mean. Researchers working in museums had a significantly higher frequency of voucher deposition. Our results suggest a significant culture shift about the process of vouchering specimens is required. There must be more education and mentoring about voucher specimens within laboratories and across different fields of study. Principal investigators and granting agencies need a proactive approach to ensuring specimen-level data are properly, long-term curated. Editorial boards and journals can also adopt policies to ensure papers are published only if explicit statements about the deposition of voucher specimens is provided. Although the gap is significant, achieving a higher rate of voucher specimen deposition is a worthy goal to ensure all research efforts are preserved for future generations.

  2. Understanding Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet 2014 Dating violence is a type of intimate partner violence. It occurs between two people in a close relationship. The nature of dating violence can be physical, emotional, or sexual. • Physical— This ...

  3. Sexual Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Sexual Violence Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir April ... stop sexual violence before it begins. Understanding Sexual Violence Sexual violence is any sexual activity where consent ...

  4. Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room Social Media Publications Injury Center Teen Dating Violence Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... serious forms of violence. What is teen dating violence? Teen Dating Violence [550 KB, 2 Pages, 508] ...

  5. Increasing Contraceptive Access for Hard-to-Reach Populations With Vouchers and Social Franchising in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Benjamin; Mackay, Anna; Dingle, Antonia; Tuyiragize, Richard; Nnyombi, William; Dasgupta, Aisha

    2017-09-27

    From 2001 to 2011, modern contraceptive prevalence in Uganda increased from 18% to 26%. However, modern method use, in particular use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and permanent methods (PMs), remained low. In the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey, only 1 of 5 married women used a LARC or PM even though 34% indicated an unmet need for contraception. Between 2011 and 2014, a social franchise and family planning voucher program, supporting 400 private facilities to provide family planning counseling and broaden contraceptive choice by adding LARCs and PMs to the service mix, offered a voucher to enable poor women to access family planning services at franchised facilities. This study analyzes service trends and voucher client demographics and estimates the contribution of the program to increasing contraceptive prevalence in Uganda, using the Impact 2 model developed by Marie Stopes International. Between March 2011 and December 2014, 330,826 women received a family planning service using the voucher, of which 70% of voucher clients chose an implant and 25% chose an intrauterine device. The median age of voucher users was 28 years; 79% had no education or only a primary education; and 48% reported they were unemployed or a housewife. We estimated that by 2014, 280,000 of the approximately 8,600,000 women of reproductive age in Uganda were using a contraceptive method provided by the program and that 120,000 of the clients were "additional users" of contraception, contributing 1.4 percentage points to the national modern contraceptive prevalence rate. The combination of family planning vouchers and a franchise-based quality improvement initiative can leverage existing private health infrastructure to substantially expand family planning access and choice for disadvantaged populations and potentially improve contraceptive prevalence when scaled nationally. © Bellows et al.

  6. Increasing Contraceptive Access for Hard-to-Reach Populations With Vouchers and Social Franchising in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Benjamin; Mackay, Anna; Dingle, Antonia; Tuyiragize, Richard; Nnyombi, William; Dasgupta, Aisha

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT From 2001 to 2011, modern contraceptive prevalence in Uganda increased from 18% to 26%. However, modern method use, in particular use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and permanent methods (PMs), remained low. In the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey, only 1 of 5 married women used a LARC or PM even though 34% indicated an unmet need for contraception. Between 2011 and 2014, a social franchise and family planning voucher program, supporting 400 private facilities to provide family planning counseling and broaden contraceptive choice by adding LARCs and PMs to the service mix, offered a voucher to enable poor women to access family planning services at franchised facilities. This study analyzes service trends and voucher client demographics and estimates the contribution of the program to increasing contraceptive prevalence in Uganda, using the Impact 2 model developed by Marie Stopes International. Between March 2011 and December 2014, 330,826 women received a family planning service using the voucher, of which 70% of voucher clients chose an implant and 25% chose an intrauterine device. The median age of voucher users was 28 years; 79% had no education or only a primary education; and 48% reported they were unemployed or a housewife. We estimated that by 2014, 280,000 of the approximately 8,600,000 women of reproductive age in Uganda were using a contraceptive method provided by the program and that 120,000 of the clients were “additional users” of contraception, contributing 1.4 percentage points to the national modern contraceptive prevalence rate. The combination of family planning vouchers and a franchise-based quality improvement initiative can leverage existing private health infrastructure to substantially expand family planning access and choice for disadvantaged populations and potentially improve contraceptive prevalence when scaled nationally. PMID:28963175

  7. Determination System Of Food Vouchers For the Poor Based On Fuzzy C-Means Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anamisa, D. R.; Yusuf, M.; Syakur, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Food vouchers are government programs to tackle the poverty of rural communities. This program aims to help the poor group in getting enough food and nutrients from carbohydrates. There are several factors that influence to receive the food voucher, such as: job, monthly income, Taxes, electricity bill, size of house, number of family member, education certificate and amount of rice consumption every week. In the execution for the distribution of vouchers is often a lot of problems, such as: the distribution of food vouchers has been misdirected and someone who receives is still subjective. Some of the solutions to decision making have not been done. The research aims to calculating the change of each partition matrix and each cluster using Fuzzy C-Means method. Hopefully this research makes contribution by providing higher result using Fuzzy C-Means comparing to other method for this case study. In this research, decision making is done by using Fuzzy C-Means method. The Fuzzy C-Means method is a clustering method that has an organized and scattered cluster structure with regular patterns on two-dimensional datasets. Furthermore, Fuzzy C-Means method used for calculates the change of each partition matrix. Each cluster will be sorted by the proximity of the data element to the centroid of the cluster to get the ranking. Various trials were conducted for grouping and ranking of proposed data that received food vouchers based on the quota of each village. This testing by Fuzzy C-Means method, is developed and abled for determining the recipient of the food voucher with satisfaction results. Fulfillment of the recipient of the food voucher is 80% to 90% and this testing using data of 115 Family Card from 6 Villages. The quality of success affected, has been using the number of iteration factors is 20 and the number of clusters is 3

  8. Vouchers as demand side financing instruments for health care: a review of the Bangladesh maternal voucher scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jean-Olivier; Ensor, Tim; Hossain, Atia; Khan, Salam

    2010-07-01

    Demand side financing (DSF) mechanisms transfer purchasing power to specified groups for defined goods and services in order to increase access to specified services. This is an important innovation in health care systems where access remains poor despite substantial subsidies towards the supply side. In Bangladesh, a maternal health DSF pilot in 33 sub-districts was launched in 2007. We report the results of a rapid review of this scheme undertaken during 2008 after 1 year of its setup. Quantitative data collected by DSF committees, facilities and national information systems were assessed alongside qualitative data, i.e. key informant interviews and focus group discussions with beneficiaries and health service providers on the operation of the scheme in 6 sub-districts. The scheme provides vouchers to women distributed by health workers that entitle mainly poor women to receive skilled care at home or a facility and also provide payments for transport and food. After initial setbacks voucher distribution rose quickly. The data also suggest that the rise in facility based delivery appeared to be more rapid in DSF than in other non-DSF areas, although the methods do not allow for a strict causal attribution as there might be co-founding effects. Fears that the financial incentives for surgical delivery would lead to an over emphasis on Caesarean section appear to be unfounded although the trends need further monitoring. DSF provides substantial additional funding to facilities but remains complex to administer, requiring a parallel administrative mechanism putting additional work burden on the health workers. There is little evidence that the mechanism encourages competition due to the limited provision of health care services. The main question outstanding is whether the achievements of the DSF scheme could be achieved more efficiently by adapting the regular government funding rather than creating an entirely new mechanism. Also, improving the quality of health

  9. A taxonomy and results from a comprehensive review of 28 maternal health voucher programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Ben W; Conlon, Claudia M; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Townsend, John W; Nahed, Matta G; Cavanaugh, Karen; Grainger, Corinne G; Okal, Jerry; Gorter, Anna C

    2013-12-01

    It is increasingly clear that Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5 will not be achieved in many low- and middle-income countries with the weakest gains among the poor. Recognizing that there are large inequalities in reproductive health outcomes, the post-2015 agenda on universal health coverage will likely generate strategies that target resources where maternal and newborn deaths are the highest. In 2012, the United States Agency for International Development convened an Evidence Summit to review the knowledge and gaps on the utilization of financial incentives to enhance the quality and uptake of maternal healthcare. The goal was to provide donors and governments of the low- and middle-income countries with evidence-informed recommendations on practice, policy, and strategies regarding the use of financial incentives, including vouchers, to enhance the demand and supply of maternal health services. The findings in this paper are intended to guide governments interested in maternal health voucher programmes with recommendations for sustainable implementation and impact. The Evidence Summit undertook a systematic review of five financing strategies. This paper presents the methods and findings for vouchers, building on a taxonomy to catalogue knowledge about voucher programme design and functionality. More than 120 characteristics under five major categories were identified: programme principles (objectives and financing); governance and management; benefits package and beneficiary targeting; providers (contracting and service pricing); and implementation arrangements (marketing, claims processing, and monitoring and evaluation). Among the 28 identified maternal health voucher programmes, common characteristics included: a stated objective to increase the use of services among the means-tested poor; contracted-out programme management; contracting either exclusively private facilities or a mix of public and private providers; prioritizing community

  10. A Taxonomy and Results from a Comprehensive Review of 28 Maternal Health Voucher Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Claudia M.; Higgs, Elizabeth S.; Townsend, John W.; Nahed, Matta G.; Cavanaugh, Karen; Grainger, Corinne G.; Okal, Jerry; Gorter, Anna C.

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly clear that Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5 will not be achieved in many low- and middle-income countries with the weakest gains among the poor. Recognizing that there are large inequalities in reproductive health outcomes, the post-2015 agenda on universal health coverage will likely generate strategies that target resources where maternal and newborn deaths are the highest. In 2012, the United States Agency for International Development convened an Evidence Summit to review the knowledge and gaps on the utilization of financial incentives to enhance the quality and uptake of maternal healthcare. The goal was to provide donors and governments of the low- and middle-income countries with evidence-informed recommendations on practice, policy, and strategies regarding the use of financial incentives, including vouchers, to enhance the demand and supply of maternal health services. The findings in this paper are intended to guide governments interested in maternal health voucher programmes with recommendations for sustainable implementation and impact. The Evidence Summit undertook a systematic review of five financing strategies. This paper presents the methods and findings for vouchers, building on a taxonomy to catalogue knowledge about voucher programme design and functionality. More than 120 characteristics under five major categories were identified: programme principles (objectives and financing); governance and management; benefits package and beneficiary targeting; providers (contracting and service pricing); and implementation arrangements (marketing, claims processing, and monitoring and evaluation). Among the 28 identified maternal health voucher programmes, common characteristics included: a stated objective to increase the use of services among the means-tested poor; contracted-out programme management; contracting either exclusively private facilities or a mix of public and private providers; prioritizing community

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of a Family Planning Voucher Program in Rural Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Edward Ivor; Hameed, Waqas; Gul, Xaher; Sarfraz, Shabnum; Baig, Imam Yar; Villanueva, Monica

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on the effectiveness and efficiency from the program funder's perspective of the Suraj Social Franchise (SSF) voucher program in which private health-care providers in remote rural areas were identified, trained, upgraded, and certified to deliver family planning services to underserved women of reproductive age in 29 districts of Sindh and 3 districts of Punjab province, Pakistan between October 2013 and June 2016. A decision tree compared the cost of implementing SSF to the program funder and its effects of providing additional couple years of protection (CYPs) to targeted women, compared to business-as-usual. Costs included vouchers given to women to receive a free contraceptive method of their choice from the SSF provider. The vouchers were then reimbursed to the SSF provider by the program. A total of 168,206 married women of reproductive age (MWRA) received SSF vouchers between October 2013 and June 2016, costing $3,278,000 ($19.50/recipient). The average effectiveness of the program per voucher recipient was an additional 1.66 CYPs, giving an incremental cost-effectiveness of the program of $4.28 per CYP compared to not having the program (95% CI: $3.62-5.31). The result compares favorably to other interventions with similar objectives and appears affordable for the Pakistan national health-care system. It is therefore recommended to help address the unmet need for contraception among MWRA in these areas of Pakistan and is worthy of trial implementation in the country more widely.

  12. Guidelines for collecting vouchers and tissues intended for genomic work (Smithsonian Institution: Botany Best Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Funk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Next Generation Sequencing into the disciplines of plant systematics, ecology, and metagenomics, among others, has resulted in a phenomenal increase in the collecting and storing of tissue samples and their respective vouchers. This manual suggests standard practices that will insure the quality and preservation of the tissue and vouchers and their respective data. Although written for use by the Smithsonian Institution botanists it suggests a framework for collecting tissues and vouchers that other research programs can adapt to their own needs. It includes information on collecting voucher specimens, collecting plant tissue intended for genomic analysis, how to manage these collections, and how to incorporate the data into a database management system. It also includes many useful references for collecting and processing collections. We hope it will be useful for a variety of botanists but especially those who know how to collect plants and want to collect tissue samples that will be useful for genomic research, and those who are skilled in lab work and want to know how to properly voucher and record their tissue collections.

  13. 77 FR 69651 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program for Small Area Fair Market Rent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... the Housing Choice Voucher Program for Small Area Fair Market Rent Demonstration Program Participants... Authorities (PHAs) participating in the Small Area FMR Demonstration. SUMMARY: Section 8(c)(1) of the United... Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Program for those PHAs selected to participate in the Small Area FMR...

  14. 76 FR 33333 - Use of Small Area Fair Market Rents for Project Base Vouchers in the Dallas TX Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5525-N-01] Use of Small Area Fair Market Rents for Project Base Vouchers in the Dallas TX Metropolitan Area AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... Small Area Fair Market Rents (SAFMRs) for Project-Based Vouchers (PBVs) located in the Dallas, TX...

  15. Review of "The Effect of Special Education Vouchers on Public School Achievement: Evidence from Florida's McKay Scholarship Program"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, John T.

    2008-01-01

    A new report published by the Manhattan Institute for Education Policy, "The Effect of Special Education Vouchers on Public School Achievement: Evidence from Florida's McKay Scholarship Program," attempts to examine the complex issue of how competition introduced through school vouchers affects student outcomes in public schools. The…

  16. Segregation Levels in Cleveland Public Schools and the Cleveland Voucher Program. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Examining the widespread claims that private schools have high segregation levels and vouchers will lead to greater segregation, this study finds that both assertions are empirically unsupportable. Private schools participating in Cleveland's voucher program are much less segregated than Cleveland's public schools. This means that students using…

  17. Effects of PREPARE, a Multi-component, School-Based HIV and Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Prevention Programme on Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviour and IPV: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Catherine; Eggers, Sander M; Townsend, Loraine; Aarø, Leif E; de Vries, Petrus J; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; De Koker, Petra; McClinton Appollis, Tracy; Mtshizana, Yolisa; Koech, Joy; Wubs, Annegreet; De Vries, Hein

    2016-09-01

    Young South Africans, especially women, are at high risk of HIV. We evaluated the effects of PREPARE, a multi-component, school-based HIV prevention intervention to delay sexual debut, increase condom use and decrease intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adolescents. We conducted a cluster RCT among Grade eights in 42 high schools. The intervention comprised education sessions, a school health service and a school sexual violence prevention programme. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Regression was undertaken to provide ORs or coefficients adjusted for clustering. Of 6244 sampled adolescents, 55.3 % participated. At 12 months there were no differences between intervention and control arms in sexual risk behaviours. Participants in the intervention arm were less likely to report IPV victimisation (35.1 vs. 40.9 %; OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.61-0.99; t(40) = 2.14) suggesting the intervention shaped intimate partnerships into safer ones, potentially lowering the risk for HIV.

  18. Television Violence: Implications for Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the scientific and public-opinion debate on the impact television violence in America has on aggression and violence. Research supports the view that television violence contributes to children's level of aggressiveness and subsequent violence and criminality. Describes attempts to improve the quality of television programming for children…

  19. Net Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío del Carmen Serrano Barquín

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we make some reflections on the ways and means used by young men and women to communicate and interact college online and in social networks. In this sense, it is argued that youth socialization from electronic communication contributes to the manifestation of covert acts, sometimes symbolic violence foster or harsh environments, even at the level of representation of that identity. Expand knowledge and achievements that have such networks in youth socialization processes is an important contribution to the field of communication, new technologies and of course the violence.

  20. Using a voucher system to extend health services to migrant farmworkers.

    OpenAIRE

    Slesinger, D P; Ofstead, C

    1996-01-01

    FAMILY HEALTH/LA CLINICA de los Campesinos, Inc., is a federally funded migrant health clinic in the heart of Wisconsin's farmland that has offered outpatient health care since 1973 and an accompanying "voucher" program since 1988. The charges for outpatient care are based on the ability to pay. The clinic issues vouchers not only to migrant workers living and working in remote parts of the State but also to patients needing services the clinic does not offer. Between 1 April 1992 and 30 Marc...

  1. Lessons from sexual and reproductive health voucher program design and function: a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Developing countries face challenges in financing healthcare; often the poor do not receive the most basic services. The past decade has seen a sharp increase in the number of voucher programs, which target output-based subsidies for specific services to poor and underserved groups. The dearth of literature that examines lessons learned risks the wheel being endlessly reinvented. This paper examines commonalities and differences in voucher design and implementation, highlighting lessons learned for the design of new voucher programmes. Methodology The methodology comprised: discussion among key experts to develop inclusion/exclusion criteria; up-dating the literature database used by the DFID systematic review of voucher programs; and networking with key contacts to identify new programs and obtain additional program documents. We identified 40 programs for review and extracted a dataset of more than 120 program characteristics for detailed analysis. Results All programs aimed to increase utilisation of healthcare, particularly maternal health services, overwhelmingly among low-income populations. The majority contract(ed) private providers, or public and private providers, and all facilitate(d) access to services that are well defined, time-limited and reflect the country’s stated health priorities. All voucher programs incorporate a governing body, management agency, contracted providers and target population, and all share the same incentive structure: the transfer of subsidies from consumers to service providers, resulting in a strong effect on both consumer and provider behaviour. Vouchers deliver subsidies to individuals, who in the absence of the subsidy would likely not have sought care, and in all programs a positive behavioural response is observed, with providers investing voucher revenue to attract more clients. A large majority of programs studied used targeting mechanisms. Conclusions While many programs remain too small to address

  2. Public-private delivery of insecticide-treated nets: a voucher scheme in Volta Region, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Ian

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coverage of vulnerable groups with insecticide-treated nets (ITNs in Ghana, as in the majority of countries of sub-Saharan Africa is currently low. A voucher scheme was introduced in Volta Region as a possible sustainable delivery system for increasing this coverage through scale-up to other regions. Successful scale-up of public health interventions depends upon optimal delivery processes but operational research for delivery processes in large-scale implementation has been inadequate. Methods A simple tool was developed to monitor numbers of vouchers given to each health facility, numbers issued to pregnant women by the health staff, and numbers redeemed by the distributors back to the management agent. Three rounds of interviews were undertaken with health facility staff, retailers and pregnant women who had attended antenatal clinic (ANC. Results During the one year pilot 25,926 vouchers were issued to eligible women from clinics, which equates to 50.7% of the 51,658 ANC registrants during this time period. Of the vouchers issued 66.7% were redeemed by distributors back to the management agent. Initially, non-issuing of vouchers to pregnant women was mainly due to eligibility criteria imposed by the midwives; later in the year it was due to decisions of the pregnant women, and supply constraints. These in turn were heavily influenced by factors external to the programme: current household ownership of nets, competing ITN delivery strategies, and competition for the limited number of ITNs available in the country from major urban areas of other regions. Conclusion Both issuing and redemption of vouchers should be monitored as factors assumed to influence voucher redemption had an influence on issuing, and vice versa. More evidence is needed on how specific contextual factors influence the success of voucher schemes and other models of delivery of ITNs. Such an evidence base will facilitate optimal strategic decision making

  3. Lessons from sexual and reproductive health voucher program design and function: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Corinne; Gorter, Anna; Okal, Jerry; Bellows, Ben

    2014-04-29

    Developing countries face challenges in financing healthcare; often the poor do not receive the most basic services. The past decade has seen a sharp increase in the number of voucher programs, which target output-based subsidies for specific services to poor and underserved groups. The dearth of literature that examines lessons learned risks the wheel being endlessly reinvented. This paper examines commonalities and differences in voucher design and implementation, highlighting lessons learned for the design of new voucher programmes. The methodology comprised: discussion among key experts to develop inclusion/exclusion criteria; up-dating the literature database used by the DFID systematic review of voucher programs; and networking with key contacts to identify new programs and obtain additional program documents. We identified 40 programs for review and extracted a dataset of more than 120 program characteristics for detailed analysis. All programs aimed to increase utilisation of healthcare, particularly maternal health services, overwhelmingly among low-income populations. The majority contract(ed) private providers, or public and private providers, and all facilitate(d) access to services that are well defined, time-limited and reflect the country's stated health priorities. All voucher programs incorporate a governing body, management agency, contracted providers and target population, and all share the same incentive structure: the transfer of subsidies from consumers to service providers, resulting in a strong effect on both consumer and provider behaviour. Vouchers deliver subsidies to individuals, who in the absence of the subsidy would likely not have sought care, and in all programs a positive behavioural response is observed, with providers investing voucher revenue to attract more clients. A large majority of programs studied used targeting mechanisms. While many programs remain too small to address national-level need among the poor, large programs

  4. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... violence often starts with emotional abuse. You may think that behaviors like calling you names or insisting on seeing you ... in immediate danger, dial 911. If you are thinking about ending an abusive ... in mind: - Create a safety plan, like where you can go if you are in ...

  5. Student Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Edward

    This report discusses student violence within the framework of causes, issues, and false and true solutions. The author decries the abdication of responsibilities by both college administrators, who have permitted students to "do their thing," and leftwing students, who crusade thoughtlessly against educational institutions. Some true solutions…

  6. Sexual Violence

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-04

    This podcast discusses sexual violence - what it is, the long-term health problems it can contribute to, and tips to stop it before it begins.  Created: 4/4/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 4/4/2011.

  7. A study on the experiences and causes of school violence amongst middle school students in korea

    OpenAIRE

    都, 基鳳; 全, 宰一; 野島, 一彦; Do, Giebong; Jun, Jaeil; Nojima, Kazuhiko

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to prepare effective measures to successfully cope with school violence by examining student experiences of school violence and its causes. The participants were middle school students in Korea. An investigation was made into how male and female students are different from each other in patterns of violence experienced or committed and the causes of that violence. The results are as follows: 1) Students who were victims of school violence suffered more than those ...

  8. Midwifery student reactions to workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jesse; Boyle, Malcolm J; McKenna, Lisa

    2018-02-01

    Workplace violence, incidents against people in their workplaces, is a growing problem in Australia causing untold personal suffering as well as costing Australian businesses in productivity. Midwives have been highlighted as a group particularly at risk, yet in Australia there is little research into workplace violence against midwives and even less into midwifery students. This study aimed to explore Australian midwifery students' responses to workplace violence as well as to gauge the impact of workplace violence on them. Cross-sectional survey design was employed. Second and third year students were invited to participate at the end of a scheduled lecture. Fifty-two female midwifery students who had completed their work placement completed a survey indicating their immediate responses to workplace violence as well as the Impact of Event Scale. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Most students notified a co-worker immediately after a workplace violence incident, yet few completed an incident form or received official debriefing. There is a need for the reporting of workplace violence against midwifery students to be made easier to access thereby ensuring they can receive the assistance they require. Midwifery students need to understand the processes and supports in place for managing instances of workplace violence. Clinical placements can impact on midwifery students' future careers. Universities need to prepare students for the possibility of workplace violence and arm them with appropriate strategies for safely dealing with it. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intolerance for withdrawal discomfort and motivation predict voucher-based smoking treatment outcomes for smokers with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohsenow, Damaris J; Tidey, Jennifer W; Kahler, Christopher W; Martin, Rosemarie A; Colby, Suzanne M; Sirota, Alan D

    2015-04-01

    Identifying predictors of abstinence with voucher-based treatment is important for improving its efficacy. Smokers with substance use disorders have very low smoking cessation rates so identifying predictors of smoking treatment response is particularly important for these difficult-to-treat smokers. Intolerance for Smoking Abstinence Discomfort (IDQ-S), motivation to quit smoking, nicotine dependence severity (FTND), and cigarettes per day were examined as predictors of smoking abstinence during and after voucher-based smoking treatment with motivational counseling. We also investigated the relationship between IDQ-S and motivation to quit smoking. Smokers in residential substance treatment (n=184) were provided 14days of vouchers for complete smoking abstinence (CV) after a 5-day smoking reduction lead-in period or vouchers not contingent on abstinence. Carbon monoxide readings indicated about 25% of days abstinent during the 14days of vouchers for abstinence in the CV group; only 3-4% of all participants were abstinent at follow-ups. The IDQ-S Withdrawal Intolerance scale and FTND each significantly predicted fewer abstinent days during voucher treatment; FTND was nonsignificant when controlling for variance shared with withdrawal intolerance. The one significant predictor of 1-month abstinence was pretreatment motivation to quit smoking, becoming marginal (pmotivation to quit smoking. Implications for voucher-based treatment include the importance of focusing on reducing these expectancies of anticipated smoking withdrawal discomfort, increasing tolerance for abstinence discomfort, and increasing motivation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. 78 FR 54656 - Fee for Using a Priority Review Voucher in Fiscal Year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    .... currency by check, bank draft, or U.S. postal money order payable to the order of the Food and Drug... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0007] Fee for Using a Priority Review Voucher in Fiscal Year 2014 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...

  11. The consequences of implementing a child care voucher: Evidence from Australia, the Netherlands and USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, M.; Gradus, R.H.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the USA and Australia, public funding has promoted parental choice by introducing a voucher scheme for child care, where parents are free to choose the provider. The policy experiments and the outcomes in these three countries provide useful information about the consequences of

  12. Religious Challenges to School Voucher and Tax Benefit/Scholarship Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Martha

    2016-01-01

    A key component of current school reform efforts focuses on increasing parental choice through voucher systems and programs that provide tax benefits for contributions to scholarship programs for private school tuition. Indeed, proposals to adopt such programs have been or currently are being considered in four-fifths of the states, and about half…

  13. 77 FR 39722 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Housing Choice Voucher Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... overhead costs, transaction counts, and recent changes in voucher program operations (2 staff x 20 hours x... information on the costs of administering the HCV program across a national sample of high- [[Page 39723... via interviews and document review on overhead costs, other costs related to HCV program...

  14. Tuition Tax Credits and Vouchers: Political Finance Alternatives Rather than Rational Alternatives to Education Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Robert G.

    This paper describes the use of tuition tax credits and vouchers as political alternatives of choice and competition in a progressive society. School and public administration theorists identify two distinct finance models: the rational and the political. The first part of this paper examines and describes these two models. The next part…

  15. Life after Vouchers: What Happens to Students Who Leave Private Schools for the Traditional Public Sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Deven; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Few school choice evaluations consider students who leave such programs, and fewer still consider the effects of leaving these programs as policy-relevant outcomes. Using a representative sample of students from the citywide voucher program in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, we analyze more than 1,000 students who leave the program during a 4-year period.…

  16. Innovation Vouchers and LEP Structural Funds Strategies. Innovation and Growth Factsheet Series. No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This factsheet, the first in a series on innovation and growth, provides an overview of the benefits of innovation vouchers, and gives some examples of how universities and Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEPs) are including them in their European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) strategies. [For the second factsheet in the series,…

  17. Introduction of European priority review vouchers to encourage development of new medicines for neglected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, David B; Sánchez, Alfonso Calles

    2010-09-11

    Every year 1 billion people worldwide are affected by traditionally neglected diseases, such as malaria, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, and lymphatic filariasis, which impose tremendous public health burdens. Governments, foundations, and drug manufacturers have, however, started to support development of new treatments. European Union Member States have been leaders in implementing so-called push mechanisms (payment for drug development) and pull funding (reward for output), such as the advance market commitment, which creates a market for vaccines by guaranteeing prices. We propose an additional step that could be taken to encourage development of medicines for neglected diseases. A priority review voucher scheme, as is already in place in the USA, would reward a manufacturer that developed a new medicine for neglected diseases with a voucher that could be redeemed for priority review of a future medicine, probably a potential blockbuster drug. Unlike the US system a European voucher would also accelerate pricing and reimbursement decisions. This scheme would be likely to provide substantial benefits to voucher holders, society, and public health organisations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Vouchers for Private Schooling in Colombia: Evidence from a Randomized Natural Experiment. NBER Working Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrist, Joshua D.; Bettinger, Eric; Bloom, Erik; King, Elizabeth; Kremer, Michael

    This paper examines the impact of Colombia's Programa de Ampliacion de Cobertura de la Educacion Secundaria (PACES), which provided over 125,000 poor students with private secondary school vouchers, many of which were awarded by lottery. Researchers surveyed lottery winners and losers to compare educational and other outcomes. Results showed no…

  19. 48 CFR 2452.232-71 - Voucher submission (cost-reimbursement).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-reimbursement). 2452.232-71 Section 2452.232-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND... Clauses 2452.232-71 Voucher submission (cost-reimbursement). As prescribed in 2432.908(c)(2), insert a clause substantially the same as the following in all cost-reimbursement solicitations and contracts...

  20. 24 CFR 8.28 - Housing certificate and housing voucher programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing certificate and housing voucher programs. 8.28 Section 8.28 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION BASED ON HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS AND...

  1. How to Calculate the Costs or Savings of Tax Credit Voucher Policies. NEPC Policy Memo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welner, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    In this NEPC Policy Memo, Professor Welner explains that the most honest and conscientious approach to reporting the fiscal impact of tax credit vouchers is to provide a range of outcomes and let the readers--not the legislative analysts themselves--speculate on which is most likely. If a bottom line is demanded, it should be couched in as many…

  2. Do Vouchers and Tax Credits Increase Private School Regulation? A Statistical Analysis. CATO Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    School voucher and education tax credit programs have proliferated in the United States over the past two decades. Advocates have argued that they will enable families to become active consumers in a free and competitive education marketplace, but some fear that these programs may in fact bring with them a heavy regulatory burden that could stifle…

  3. Do Vouchers and Tax Credits Increase Private School Regulation? A Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    School voucher and education tax credit programs have proliferated in the United States over the past 2 decades. Advocates have argued that they will enable families to become active consumers in a free and competitive education marketplace, but some fear that these programs may bring a heavy regulatory burden that could stifle market forces.…

  4. After 60 Years, Do the Arguments for K-12 Vouchers Still Hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitsch, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In 1955, Milton Friedman authored a foundational paper proposing a shift in funding and governance mechanisms for public K-12 schools, suggesting that parents be awarded tuition vouchers that they could use to pay for private sector education services for their children, rather than relying on government provided neighborhood schools. Friedman…

  5. Violence prevention at work. A business perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, C W

    2001-02-01

    The risk of workplace violence varies depending on the type and location of the business. Business managers should assess violence risk and develop a program based on the level of risk faced by their employees. This assessment should include: (1) a review of workplace security and identification of positions with increased risk of exposure to violence, (2) risk reduction through environmental design and employee training, (3) development of a plan and identification of professional resources to respond to incidents should they occur, and (4) communication of the employer's commitment to providing a safe work environment for employees. For most businesses, threat assessment and management comprise the cornerstone of a workplace violence-prevention program. Planning and preparation are key to workplace violence prevention.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of a Family Planning Voucher Program in Rural Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ivor Broughton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThis study reports on the effectiveness and efficiency from the program funder’s perspective of the Suraj Social Franchise (SSF voucher program in which private health-care providers in remote rural areas were identified, trained, upgraded, and certified to deliver family planning services to underserved women of reproductive age in 29 districts of Sindh and 3 districts of Punjab province, Pakistan between October 2013 and June 2016.MethodA decision tree compared the cost of implementing SSF to the program funder and its effects of providing additional couple years of protection (CYPs to targeted women, compared to business-as-usual. Costs included vouchers given to women to receive a free contraceptive method of their choice from the SSF provider. The vouchers were then reimbursed to the SSF provider by the program.ResultsA total of 168,206 married women of reproductive age (MWRA received SSF vouchers between October 2013 and June 2016, costing $3,278,000 ($19.50/recipient. The average effectiveness of the program per voucher recipient was an additional 1.66 CYPs, giving an incremental cost-effectiveness of the program of $4.28 per CYP compared to not having the program (95% CI: $3.62–5.31.ConclusionThe result compares favorably to other interventions with similar objectives and appears affordable for the Pakistan national health-care system. It is therefore recommended to help address the unmet need for contraception among MWRA in these areas of Pakistan and is worthy of trial implementation in the country more widely.

  7. Youth Voucher Program in Madagascar Increases Access to Voluntary Family Planning and STI Services for Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Eva; Gold, Judy; Razafinirinasoa, Lalaina; Mackay, Anna

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Young people often express a preference for seeking family planning information and services from the private sector. However, in many Marie Stopes International (MSI) social franchise networks, the proportion of young clients, and particularly those under 20 years of age, remains low. Marie Stopes Madagascar (MSM) piloted a youth voucher program that joins a supply-side intervention—youth-friendly social franchisee training and quality monitoring—with a corresponding demand-side-component, free vouchers that reduce financial barriers to family planning access for young people. Methods: Young people identified by MSM's community health educators (CHEs) received a free voucher redeemable at a BlueStar social franchisee for a package of voluntary family planning and sexually transmitted infection (STI) information and services. BlueStar social franchisees—private providers accredited by MSM—are reimbursed for the cost of providing these services. We reviewed service statistics data from the first 18 months of the youth voucher program, from July 2013 to December 2014, as well as client demographic profile data from July 2015. Findings: Between July 2013 and December 2014, 58,417 vouchers were distributed to young people by CHEs through a range of community mobilization efforts, of which 43,352 (74%) were redeemed for family planning and STI services. Most clients (78.5%) chose a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC), and just over half (51%) of young people benefited from STI counseling as part of their voucher service. Most (78%) services were provided in the Analamanga region (the capital and its surroundings), which was expected given the population density in this region and the high concentration of BlueStar franchisees. The client profile data snapshot from July 2015 revealed that 69% of voucher clients had never previously used a contraceptive method, and 96% of clients were aged 20 or younger, suggesting that the voucher

  8. Youth Voucher Program in Madagascar Increases Access to Voluntary Family Planning and STI Services for Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Eva; Gold, Judy; Razafinirinasoa, Lalaina; Mackay, Anna

    2017-03-24

    Young people often express a preference for seeking family planning information and services from the private sector. However, in many Marie Stopes International (MSI) social franchise networks, the proportion of young clients, and particularly those under 20 years of age, remains low. Marie Stopes Madagascar (MSM) piloted a youth voucher program that joins a supply-side intervention-youth-friendly social franchisee training and quality monitoring-with a corresponding demand-side-component, free vouchers that reduce financial barriers to family planning access for young people. Young people identified by MSM's community health educators (CHEs) received a free voucher redeemable at a BlueStar social franchisee for a package of voluntary family planning and sexually transmitted infection (STI) information and services. BlueStar social franchisees-private providers accredited by MSM-are reimbursed for the cost of providing these services. We reviewed service statistics data from the first 18 months of the youth voucher program, from July 2013 to December 2014, as well as client demographic profile data from July 2015. Findings: Between July 2013 and December 2014, 58,417 vouchers were distributed to young people by CHEs through a range of community mobilization efforts, of which 43,352 (74%) were redeemed for family planning and STI services. Most clients (78.5%) chose a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC), and just over half (51%) of young people benefited from STI counseling as part of their voucher service. Most (78%) services were provided in the Analamanga region (the capital and its surroundings), which was expected given the population density in this region and the high concentration of BlueStar franchisees. The client profile data snapshot from July 2015 revealed that 69% of voucher clients had never previously used a contraceptive method, and 96% of clients were aged 20 or younger, suggesting that the voucher program is successfully reaching the

  9. The effects of cash transfers and vouchers on the use and quality of maternity care services: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Benjamin M.; Harrison, Sean; Portela, Anayda; Bick, Debra

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundCash transfers and vouchers are forms of `demand-side financing' that have been widely used to promote maternal and newborn health in low- and middle-income countries during the last 15 years.MethodsThis systematic review consolidates evidence from seven published systematic reviews on the effects of different types of cash transfers and vouchers on the use and quality of maternity care services, and updates the systematic searches to June 2015 using the Joanna Briggs Institute appr...

  10. Domestic violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  11. Neighborhood Effects on Crime for Female and Male Youth: Evidence from a Randomized Housing Voucher Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey R. Kling; Jens Ludwig; Lawrence F. Katz

    2004-01-01

    The Moving to Opportunity (MTO) demonstration assigned housing vouchers via random lottery to public housing residents in five cities. We use the exogenous variation in residential locations generated by MTO to estimate neighborhood effects on youth crime and delinquency. The offer to relocate to lower-poverty areas reduces arrests among female youth for violent and property crimes, relative to a control group. For males the offer to relocate reduces arrests for violent crime, at least in the...

  12. Costs and effects of the Tanzanian national voucher scheme for insecticide-treated nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Kara

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cost-effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs in reducing morbidity and mortality is well established. International focus has now moved on to how best to scale up coverage and what financing mechanisms might be used to achieve this. The approach in Tanzania has been to deliver a targeted subsidy for those most vulnerable to the effects of malaria while at the same time providing support to the development of the commercial ITN distribution system. In October 2004, with funds from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS Tuberculosis and Malaria, the government launched the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS, a nationwide discounted voucher scheme for ITNs for pregnant women and their infants. This paper analyses the costs and effects of the scheme and compares it with other approaches to distribution. Methods Economic costs were estimated using the ingredients approach whereby all resources required in the delivery of the intervention (including the user contribution are quantified and valued. Effects were measured in terms of number of vouchers used (and therefore nets delivered and treated nets years. Estimates were also made for the cost per malaria case and death averted. Results and Conclusion The total financial cost of the programme represents around 5% of the Ministry of Health's total budget. The average economic cost of delivering an ITN using the voucher scheme, including the user contribution, was $7.57. The cost-effectiveness results are within the benchmarks set by other malaria prevention studies. The Government of Tanzania's approach to scaling up ITNs uses both the public and private sectors in order to achieve and sustain the level of coverage required to meet the Abuja targets. The results presented here suggest that the TNVS is a cost-effective strategy for delivering subsidized ITNs to targeted vulnerable groups.

  13. Community-level impact of the reproductive health vouchers programme on service utilization in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obare, Francis; Warren, Charlotte; Njuki, Rebecca; Abuya, Timothy; Sunday, Joseph; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Ben

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines community-level association between exposure to the reproductive health vouchers programme in Kenya and utilization of services. The data are from a household survey conducted among 2527 women (15-49 years) from voucher and comparable non-voucher sites. Analysis entails cross-tabulations with Chi-square tests and significant tests of proportions as well as estimation of multi-level logit models to predict service utilization by exposure to the programme. The results show that for births occurring after the voucher programme began, women from communities that had been exposed to the programme since 2006 were significantly more likely to have delivered at a health facility and to have received skilled care during delivery compared with those from communities that had not been exposed to the programme at all. There were, however, no significant differences in the timing of first trimester utilization of antenatal care (ANC) and making four or more ANC visits by exposure to the programme. In addition, poor women were significantly less likely to have used safe motherhood services (health facility delivery, skilled delivery care and postnatal care) compared with their non-poor counterparts regardless of exposure to the programme. Nonetheless, a significantly higher proportion of poor women from communities that had been exposed to the programme since 2006 used the services compared with their poor counterparts from communities that had not been exposed to the programme at all. The findings suggest that the programme is associated with increased health facility deliveries and skilled delivery care especially among poor women. However, it has had limited community-level impact on the first trimester timing of antenatal care use and making four or more visits, which remain a challenge despite the high proportion of women in the country that make at least one antenatal care visit during pregnancy.

  14. Purchases Made with a Fruit and Vegetable Voucher in a Rural Mexican-Heritage Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanbury, Meagan M; Gomez-Camacho, Rosa; Kaiser, Lucia; Sadeghi, Banafsheh; de la Torre, Adela

    2017-10-01

    Recent recommendations for US food assistance programs are intended to ensure foods provided through these programs help households consume a varied, healthful diet. From a policy viewpoint, it is important to examine the impact of economic incentives to purchase healthy foods across subpopulations, particularly low-income Latinos, who comprise 40% of the WIC program nationwide. Our aim was to determine how rural, Mexican-heritage households (N = 227) residing in California's Central Valley distributed fruit and vegetable (F/V) voucher spending among F/V subgroups and specific items over a 1-year period. Households contained at least one child who was between 3 and 8 years old at baseline and had a parent of Mexican-heritage. F/V voucher purchase data were collected via grocery store scanners. Expenditure and frequency shares of subgroups and individual items were analyzed to determine purchasing habits. Fruits were the most commonly purchased subgroup, representing 55% of spending and 45% of frequency. Households allocated low percentages of their voucher to dark green and red/orange vegetables-7 and 9% respectively. Approximately 20% of purchases were good potassium sources and 30% of purchases were good fiber sources. Many of the most frequently purchased items were of cultural significance (tomatillo, chayote, chili/jalapeño pepper, and Mexican squash). This study suggests that economic incentives can contribute important nutrients to participants' diets and targeted vouchers provided by food assistance programs should continue to include culturally important foods and be aware of the cultural values of their participants.

  15. The Impact of Family Unification Housing Vouchers on Child Welfare Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergamit, Michael; Cunningham, Mary; Hanson, Devlin

    2017-09-01

    This study addresses whether providing housing vouchers through the Family Unification Program (FUP) to families involved in the child welfare system reduces child maltreatment and the need for child welfare services. The study uses child welfare administrative data on 326 children in Portland, Oregon, and 502 children in San Diego, California from the point at which their families were referred to the program through 18 months post-referral. Using a quasi-experimental waitlist comparison design, probit regressions show little impact of FUP on preventing child removal from home, but some positive impact on reunification among children already placed out of home. Hazard estimations show receipt of FUP speeds up child welfare case closure. Impacts on new reports of abuse and neglect are mixed, but point toward reduced reports. Low rates of removal among intact comparison families and high rates of reunification for children in out-of-home care suggest poor targeting of housing resources. Housing vouchers are being given to families not bearing the risks the program is intended to address. The presence of some positive findings suggests that housing vouchers might help reduce child welfare involvement if better targeting were practiced by child welfare agencies. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  16. The Impact of Violence on Television on Children: A Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Patricia; And Others

    Based on a review of relevant literature, a report was prepared which examines the impact of viewing violence on television on the social behavior of the viewer. An introduction discusses a definition of violence and proposes reasons why violence may appeal to viewers. The remainder of the text examines three major research questions: (l) the…

  17. Creating Safe and Healthy Futures: Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Reischl, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Youth are in the cross-fire of gun violence, and the highest rate in the nation is in Flint, Michigan. This article highlights six innovative strategies that prepare youth to solve problems at home and in their communities in peaceful ways. The Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center (MI-YVPC) works with community groups to strengthen…

  18. Community-level effect of the reproductive health vouchers program on out-of-pocket spending on family planning and safe motherhood services in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obare, Francis; Warren, Charlotte; Kanya, Lucy; Abuya, Timothy; Bellows, Ben

    2015-08-25

    Although vouchers can protect individuals in low-income countries from financial catastrophe and impoverishment arising from out-of-pocket expenditures on healthcare, their effectiveness in achieving this goal depends on whether both service and transport costs are subsidized as well as other factors such as service availability in a given locality and community perceptions about the quality of care. This paper examines the community-level effect of the reproductive health vouchers program on out-of-pocket expenditure on family planning, antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services in Kenya. Data are from two rounds of cross-sectional household surveys in voucher and non-voucher sites. The first survey was conducted between May 2010 and July 2011 among 2,933 women aged 15-49 years while the second survey took place between July and October 2012 among 3,094 women of similar age groups. The effect of the program on out-of-pocket expenditure is determined by difference-in-differences estimation. Analysis entails comparison of changes in proportions, means and medians as well as estimation of multivariate linear regression models with interaction terms between indicators for study site (voucher or non-voucher) and period of study (2010-2011 or 2012). There were significantly greater declines in the proportions of women from voucher sites that paid for antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services at health facilities compared to those from non-voucher sites. The changes were also consistent with increased uptake of the safe motherhood voucher in intervention sites over time. There was, however, no significant difference in changes in the proportions of women from voucher and non-voucher sites that paid for family planning services. The results further show that there were significant differences in changes in the amount paid for family planning and antenatal care services by women from voucher compared to those from non-voucher sites. Although there were greater

  19. Domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiurski Jasmina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article author examines a definition of a family, the role of a family as a social and legal institution as well as state reaction in a situation of mal function of a family. Special attention is given to a definition of a family, its protective function and criminal law in modern legal systems. Author also analyzes recent reform of our legislation firstly new criminal offence (Article 118a of the Criminal Code of Republic of Serbia - Domestic Violence - and its relation to other similar criminal offences. Finally, author gives an overview of up-to-now practice from District and Municipal Prosecutors Offices in Belgrade and suggestions for solving observed problems in implementation of this criminal offence.

  20. Youth violence: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Leonardo Díaz Galvis

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we try to summarize the principal concepts around the biological and psychological contributions that explain the juvenile violence. In the genetic part we talk about adoption, twins studies and the genes that had been related with violence. In the area of neurotransmitters we selective talk about serotonine. We outline the relationship between sexual y physical abuse with violence and the link of those that consume alcohol and drugs with violence conducts. We also briefly view the roll of TV and radio with juvenile violence. Finally the article describes the different kinds of treatment of violence.

  1. Gender Considerations in Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Renee; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Hall, Ryan

    2016-12-01

    The role of gender in violence is poorly understood. Research has shown that gender has an important and, at times, distinct role in the prediction of violence. However, this gender disparity diminishes in the setting of mental illness. The risk assessment of violence in women is largely based on research in violent men. There are distinct characteristics in female violence compared with male violence. Attention to these characteristics may lead to the development of gender-dependent tools that can be used to evaluate violence risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Price subsidies and the market for mosquito nets in developing countries: A study of Tanzania's discount voucher scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Chris D; Hanson, Kara; Marchant, Tanya; Mulligan, Jo-Ann; Mponda, Hadji

    2011-07-01

    This study uses a partial equilibrium simulation model to explore how price subsidies for insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) affect households' purchases of ITNs. The model describes the ITN market in a typical developing country and is applied to the situation in Tanzania, where the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS) provides a targeted subsidy to vulnerable population groups by means of a discount voucher. The data for this study come from a nationally-representative household survey completed July-August 2006 covering over 4300 households in 21 districts. The simulation results show the impact of the voucher program on ITN coverage among target households, namely those that experienced the birth of a child. More specifically, the share of target households purchasing an ITN increased from 18 to 62 percent because of the discount voucher. The model also suggests that the voucher program could cause the retail ITN price to rise due to an overall increase in demand. As a result, ITN purchases by households without a voucher may actually decline. The simulation model suggests that additional increases toward the stated goal of 80 percent ITN coverage for pregnant women and children could best be achieved through a combination of "catch up" mass distribution programs and expanding the target group for the voucher program to cover additional households. The model can be employed in other countries considering use of a targeted price subsidy for ITNs, and could be adapted to assess the impact of subsidies for other public health commodities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Violence against Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for example diarrhoeal disease or malnutrition). Social and economic costs The social and economic costs of intimate partner and sexual violence are ... Gynecologists (FIGO) and the UN Joint Programme on Essential Services Package for Women Subject to Violence. (1) ...

  4. Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Domestic Violence URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  5. Children and TV Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide TV Violence and Children No. 13; Updated December 2014 American ... Hundreds of studies of the effects of TV violence on children and teenagers have found that children ...

  6. An assessment of opportunities and challenges for public sector involvement in the maternal health voucher program in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, Jerry; Kanya, Lucy; Obare, Francis; Njuki, Rebecca; Abuya, Timothy; Bange, Teresah; Warren, Charlotte; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Ben

    2013-10-18

    Continued inequities in coverage, low quality of care, and high out-of-pocket expenses for health services threaten attainment of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in many sub-Saharan African countries. Existing health systems largely rely on input-based supply mechanisms that have a poor track record meeting the reproductive health needs of low-income and underserved segments of national populations. As a result, there is increased interest in and experimentation with results-based mechanisms like supply-side performance incentives to providers and demand-side vouchers that place purchasing power in the hands of low-income consumers to improve uptake of facility services and reduce the burden of out-of-pocket expenditures. This paper describes a reproductive health voucher program that contracts private facilities in Uganda and explores the policy and implementation issues associated with expansion of the program to include public sector facilities. Data presented here describes the results of interviews of six district health officers and four health facility managers purposefully selected from seven districts with the voucher program in southwestern Uganda. Interviews were transcribed and organized thematically, barriers to seeking RH care were identified, and how to address the barriers in a context where voucher coverage is incomplete as well as opportunities and challenges for expanding the program by involving public sector facilities were investigated. The findings show that access to sexual and reproductive health services in southwestern Uganda is constrained by both facility and individual level factors which can be addressed by inclusion of the public facilities in the program. This will widen the geographical reach of facilities for potential clients, effectively addressing distance related barriers to access of health care services. Further, intensifying ongoing health education, continuous monitoring and evaluation, and integrating the voucher

  7. Physicians and domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Joslin, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    Domestic violence, spouse abuse, and battering all refer to the victimization of a person with whom the abuser has or has had an intimate relationship. Domestic violence may take the form of physical, sexual and psychological abuse, is generally repeated, and often escalates within relationships. Most evidence indicates that domestic violence is predominantly perpetrated by men against women. Some evidence suggests that women are just as likely to use violence against male partners as men are...

  8. School violence: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawhacker, MaryAnn Tapper

    2002-04-01

    School violence is a growing area of concern for school nurses across the nation. Recent national data and a compilation of risk factors for youth violence and school shootings are presented as a general guide to identifying students who may be in need of assistance. The nurse's role in multidisciplinary planning and developing violence prevention strategies in the school and the community are examined.

  9. Alternatives to Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Today, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Notes that our capacity to diffuse conflict rests in our ability to recognize and verbalize feelings, develop empathy, and think of alternatives to violence. Explores the influence of role models and culture on violence and how the media can use violent images effectively in helping us confront a culture of violence. (HTH)

  10. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior

  11. Morphology of School Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Irene

    This paper discusses school violence, examining pertinent research, media, and policy documents. Section 1 examines the evolution of terminologies related to youth violence. Section 2 explains that when reviewing researchers' conclusions on school violence, it is important to consider the role perception had in determining those views. Section 3…

  12. Violence prevention education program for psychiatric outpatient departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert E

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 40 % of psychiatrists and up to 64 % of psychiatric residents have been physically assaulted. Ranges of 72-96 % of psychiatric residents in various studies have been verbally threatened. As violence risk occurs in outpatient settings, our department developed a quality and safety curriculum designed to prepare psychiatric residents and staff to optimally respond to aggressive outpatients and violence threats or events. In 2011 and 2012, we offered an 8-part violence prevention performance improvement curriculum/program including (1) situational awareness/creating a safe environment; (2) violence de-escalation training; (3) violence risk assessment training, use of risk assessment tools, and medical record documentation; (4) violence safety discharge planning; (5) legal issues and violence; (6) "shots fired on campus" video/discussion; (7) "2011 violence threat simulation" video/discussion; and (8) violence threat simulation exercise. This program was offered to approximately 60 psychiatric residents/staff in each year. We obtained qualitative comments about the entire program and data from 2 years of post-event surveys on the usefulness of the "violence threat simulation exercise." The large majority of comments about program elements 1 to 7 were positive. In 2011 and 2012, respectively, 76 and 86 % of participants responded to a post-event survey of the violence threat simulation exercise; 90 and 88 % of participants, respectively, reported the simulation to be very helpful/somewhat helpful; and 86 and 82 % of participants, respectively, reported feeling much better/better prepared to deal with a violent event. Although some participants experienced anxiety, sleep disturbances, increase in work safety concerns, and/or traumatic memories, the majority reported no post-simulation symptoms (72 and 80 %, respectively). Although we are unable to demonstrate that this program effectively prevents violence, the overall positive response from participants

  13. Demand-Side Financing--A Focus on Vouchers in Post-Compulsory Education and Training: Discussion Paper and Case Studies. CEDEFOP Dossier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Anne; Sparkes, Jo; Balabanov, Todor

    The use of demand-side financing mechanisms and vouchers for postcompulsory secondary-level education was examined through case studies of funding practices in the following countries: Austria; France; the United Kingdom; the United States; and Wallonia (the French community of Belgium). Different models of voucher use were identified in the…

  14. Follow the Money: A Comprehensive Review of the Funding Mechanisms of Voucher Programs in Six Cases. Informing Policy & Improving Practice Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Molly S.; Moon, Jodi S.

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive review is part of a three-part report, Follow the "Money: A Detailed Analysis of the Funding Mechanisms of Voucher Programs in Six Cases"; this review contains the cross-case analysis and findings of the funding mechanisms of voucher programs across five states (Arizona, Indiana, Louisiana, Ohio, and Wisconsin) and the…

  15. A ubiquitous NFC solution for the development of tailored marketing strategies based on discount vouchers and loyalty cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego-Jaraba, Francisco; Garrido, Pilar Castro; García, Gonzalo Cerruela; Ruiz, Irene Luque; Gómez-Nieto, Miguel Angel

    2013-05-14

    Because of the global economic turmoil, nowadays a lot of companies are adopting a "deal of the day" business model, some of them with great success. Generally, they try to attract and retain customers through discount coupons and gift cards, using, generally, traditional distribution media. This paper describes a framework, which integrates intelligent environments by using NFC, oriented to the full management of this kind of businesses. The system is responsible for diffusion, distribution, sourcing, validation, redemption and managing of vouchers, loyalty cards and all kind of mobile coupons using NFC, as well as QR codes. WingBonus can be fully adapted to the requirements of marketing campaigns, voucher providers, shop or retailer infrastructures and mobile devices and purchasing habits. Security of the voucher is granted by the system by synchronizing procedures using secure encriptation algorithms. The WingBonus website and mobile applications can be adapted to any requirement of the system actors.

  16. A Ubiquitous NFC Solution for the Development of Tailored Marketing Strategies Based on Discount Vouchers and Loyalty Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego-Jaraba, Francisco; Garrido, Pilar Castro; García, Gonzalo Cerruela; Ruiz, Irene Luque; Gómez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Because of the global economic turmoil, nowadays a lot of companies are adopting a “deal of the day” business model, some of them with great success. Generally, they try to attract and retain customers through discount coupons and gift cards, using, generally, traditional distribution media. This paper describes a framework, which integrates intelligent environments by using NFC, oriented to the full management of this kind of businesses. The system is responsible for diffusion, distribution, sourcing, validation, redemption and managing of vouchers, loyalty cards and all kind of mobile coupons using NFC, as well as QR codes. WingBonus can be fully adapted to the requirements of marketing campaigns, voucher providers, shop or retailer infrastructures and mobile devices and purchasing habits. Security of the voucher is granted by the system by synchronizing procedures using secure encriptation algorithms. The WingBonus website and mobile applications can be adapted to any requirement of the system actors. PMID:23673675

  17. A Ubiquitous NFC Solution for the Development of Tailored Marketing Strategies Based on Discount Vouchers and Loyalty Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Gómez-Nieto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of the global economic turmoil, nowadays a lot of companies are adopting a “deal of the day” business model, some of them with great success. Generally, they try to attract and retain customers through discount coupons and gift cards, using, generally, traditional distribution media. This paper describes a framework, which integrates intelligent environments by using NFC, oriented to the full management of this kind of businesses. The system is responsible for diffusion, distribution, sourcing, validation, redemption and managing of vouchers, loyalty cards and all kind of mobile coupons using NFC, as well as QR codes. WingBonus can be fully adapted to the requirements of marketing campaigns, voucher providers, shop or retailer infrastructures and mobile devices and purchasing habits. Security of the voucher is granted by the system by synchronizing procedures using secure encriptation algorithms. The WingBonus website and mobile applications can be adapted to any requirement of the system actors.

  18. A Policy Analysis of the implementation of a Reproductive Health Vouchers Program in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuya Timothy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Innovative financing strategies such as those that integrate supply and demand elements like the output-based approach (OBA have been implemented to reduce financial barriers to maternal health services. The Kenyan government with support from the German Development Bank (KfW implemented an OBA voucher program to subsidize priority reproductive health services. Little evidence exists on the experience of implementing such programs in different settings. We describe the implementation process of the Kenyan OBA program and draw implications for scale up. Methods Policy analysis using document review and qualitative data from 10 in-depth interviews with facility in-charges and 18 with service providers from the contracted facilities, local administration, health and field managers in Kitui, Kiambu and Kisumu districts as well as Korogocho and Viwandani slums in Nairobi. Results The OBA implementation process was designed in phases providing an opportunity for learning and adapting the lessons to local settings; the design consisted of five components: a defined benefit package, contracting and quality assurance; marketing and distribution of vouchers and claims processing and reimbursement. Key implementation challenges included limited feedback to providers on the outcomes of quality assurance and accreditation and budgetary constraints that limited effective marketing leading to inadequate information to clients on the benefit package. Claims processing and reimbursement was sophisticated but required adherence to time consuming procedures and in some cases private providers complained of low reimbursement rates for services provided. Conclusions OBA voucher schemes can be implemented successfully in similar settings. For effective scale up, strong partnership will be required between the public and private entities. The government’s role is key and should include provision of adequate funding, stewardship and looking for

  19. A policy analysis of the implementation of a Reproductive Health Vouchers Program in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Timothy; Njuki, Rebecca; Warren, Charlotte E; Okal, Jerry; Obare, Francis; Kanya, Lucy; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Ben

    2012-07-23

    Innovative financing strategies such as those that integrate supply and demand elements like the output-based approach (OBA) have been implemented to reduce financial barriers to maternal health services. The Kenyan government with support from the German Development Bank (KfW) implemented an OBA voucher program to subsidize priority reproductive health services. Little evidence exists on the experience of implementing such programs in different settings. We describe the implementation process of the Kenyan OBA program and draw implications for scale up. Policy analysis using document review and qualitative data from 10 in-depth interviews with facility in-charges and 18 with service providers from the contracted facilities, local administration, health and field managers in Kitui, Kiambu and Kisumu districts as well as Korogocho and Viwandani slums in Nairobi. The OBA implementation process was designed in phases providing an opportunity for learning and adapting the lessons to local settings; the design consisted of five components: a defined benefit package, contracting and quality assurance; marketing and distribution of vouchers and claims processing and reimbursement. Key implementation challenges included limited feedback to providers on the outcomes of quality assurance and accreditation and budgetary constraints that limited effective marketing leading to inadequate information to clients on the benefit package. Claims processing and reimbursement was sophisticated but required adherence to time consuming procedures and in some cases private providers complained of low reimbursement rates for services provided. OBA voucher schemes can be implemented successfully in similar settings. For effective scale up, strong partnership will be required between the public and private entities. The government's role is key and should include provision of adequate funding, stewardship and looking for opportunities to utilize existing platforms to scale up such

  20. Investor Outlook: Solving Gene Therapy Pricing…with a Cures Voucher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, Joshua; Breazzano, Steven

    2016-12-01

    Gene therapy reimbursement continues to be an intense topic of discussion in the field given the unique and durable benefits from a single administration and generally small patient populations against a reimbursement framework that is not optimized for such "cures" or long-lived benefits. As more gene therapy programs enter the market and late-stage development, it is increasingly important for the field to define a reimbursement model that works for all stakeholders in order to encourage the next wave of innovation. To add to the discussion around new payment models and potential solutions, we propose a flexible voucher system that takes advantage of existing infrastructure, precedent, and regulatory frameworks.

  1. The effects of cash transfers and vouchers on the use and quality of maternity care services: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Benjamin M; Harrison, Sean; Portela, Anayda; Bick, Debra

    2017-01-01

    Cash transfers and vouchers are forms of 'demand-side financing' that have been widely used to promote maternal and newborn health in low- and middle-income countries during the last 15 years. This systematic review consolidates evidence from seven published systematic reviews on the effects of different types of cash transfers and vouchers on the use and quality of maternity care services, and updates the systematic searches to June 2015 using the Joanna Briggs Institute approach for systematic reviewing. The review protocol for this update was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42015020637). Data from 51 studies (15 more than previous reviews) and 22 cash transfer and voucher programmes suggest that approaches tied to service use (either via payment conditionalities or vouchers for selected services) can increase use of antenatal care, use of a skilled attendant at birth and in the case of vouchers, postnatal care too. The strongest evidence of positive effect was for conditional cash transfers and uptake of antenatal care, and for vouchers for maternity care services and birth with a skilled birth attendant. However, effects appear to be shaped by a complex set of social and healthcare system barriers and facilitators. Studies have typically focused on an initial programme period, usually two or three years after initiation, and many lack a counterfactual comparison with supply-side investment. There are few studies to indicate that programmes have led to improvements in quality of maternity care or maternal and newborn health outcomes. Future research should use multiple intervention arms to compare cost-effectiveness with similar investment in public services, and should look beyond short- to medium-term service utilisation by examining programme costs, longer-term effects on service utilisation and health outcomes, and the equity of those effects.

  2. The effects of cash transfers and vouchers on the use and quality of maternity care services: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Benjamin M.; Harrison, Sean; Portela, Anayda; Bick, Debra

    2017-01-01

    Background Cash transfers and vouchers are forms of ‘demand-side financing’ that have been widely used to promote maternal and newborn health in low- and middle-income countries during the last 15 years. Methods This systematic review consolidates evidence from seven published systematic reviews on the effects of different types of cash transfers and vouchers on the use and quality of maternity care services, and updates the systematic searches to June 2015 using the Joanna Briggs Institute approach for systematic reviewing. The review protocol for this update was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42015020637). Results Data from 51 studies (15 more than previous reviews) and 22 cash transfer and voucher programmes suggest that approaches tied to service use (either via payment conditionalities or vouchers for selected services) can increase use of antenatal care, use of a skilled attendant at birth and in the case of vouchers, postnatal care too. The strongest evidence of positive effect was for conditional cash transfers and uptake of antenatal care, and for vouchers for maternity care services and birth with a skilled birth attendant. However, effects appear to be shaped by a complex set of social and healthcare system barriers and facilitators. Studies have typically focused on an initial programme period, usually two or three years after initiation, and many lack a counterfactual comparison with supply-side investment. There are few studies to indicate that programmes have led to improvements in quality of maternity care or maternal and newborn health outcomes. Conclusion Future research should use multiple intervention arms to compare cost-effectiveness with similar investment in public services, and should look beyond short- to medium-term service utilisation by examining programme costs, longer-term effects on service utilisation and health outcomes, and the equity of those effects. PMID:28328940

  3. The effects of cash transfers and vouchers on the use and quality of maternity care services: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Hunter

    Full Text Available Cash transfers and vouchers are forms of 'demand-side financing' that have been widely used to promote maternal and newborn health in low- and middle-income countries during the last 15 years.This systematic review consolidates evidence from seven published systematic reviews on the effects of different types of cash transfers and vouchers on the use and quality of maternity care services, and updates the systematic searches to June 2015 using the Joanna Briggs Institute approach for systematic reviewing. The review protocol for this update was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42015020637.Data from 51 studies (15 more than previous reviews and 22 cash transfer and voucher programmes suggest that approaches tied to service use (either via payment conditionalities or vouchers for selected services can increase use of antenatal care, use of a skilled attendant at birth and in the case of vouchers, postnatal care too. The strongest evidence of positive effect was for conditional cash transfers and uptake of antenatal care, and for vouchers for maternity care services and birth with a skilled birth attendant. However, effects appear to be shaped by a complex set of social and healthcare system barriers and facilitators. Studies have typically focused on an initial programme period, usually two or three years after initiation, and many lack a counterfactual comparison with supply-side investment. There are few studies to indicate that programmes have led to improvements in quality of maternity care or maternal and newborn health outcomes.Future research should use multiple intervention arms to compare cost-effectiveness with similar investment in public services, and should look beyond short- to medium-term service utilisation by examining programme costs, longer-term effects on service utilisation and health outcomes, and the equity of those effects.

  4. Know Your Rights: Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3224 TTD You CAN do something about domestic violence Domestic violence is a pattern of many behaviors directed ... violence. Look in the Yellow Pages under “domestic violence help,” “domestic violence shelters,” “human services organizations,” or “crisis intervention” ...

  5. The "wild shot": photography for more biology in natural history collections, not for replacing vouchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrouste, Romain

    2017-05-24

    Recently a correspondence in Zootaxa (Ceríaco et al., 2016) with more than 450 signatories including taxonomists, curators and other taxonomy users from all continents has received wide attention and has stimulated extensive discussion (a true buzz) around the possible interpretations of the Code (ICZN) about photography in taxonomy (Researchgate website link). This short note was necessary to recall the necessity of preserved specimens as vouchers for taxonomy, in response to photography-based taxonomy (PBT) as defended by Pape et al. (2016), and in a broad sense, for all the life sciences. This had been widely discussed and argued by Dubois & Nemésio (2007) who concluded on the importance of vouchers in taxonomy. But if the subject of these papers and discussions are about photography as the only way to document a new species, none of them discussed really what photography could represent in enhancing knowledge in natural sciences based on collections of specimens including type series and in association with other media (video and sound).

  6. Domestic violence and violence against children in Ghana 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Catherine; Tranchant, Jean-Pierre; Oosterhoff, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how domestic violence relates to violence against children, including severe corporal punishment. The literature suggests a link between intimate partner violence in the household and child abuse and maltreatment. Studies are, however, limited by the use of narrowly defined measures of violence against children, data availability, and a lack of characterization of domestic violence. In this paper we use original data on domestic violence and child disciplining methods ...

  7. Veto Violence - Violence Education Tools Online

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VetoViolence.cdc.gov has been developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide grantees and partners with access to training and tools...

  8. Violence exposure and teen dating violence among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Key Injury and Violence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Key Injury and Violence Data Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Injuries ... of death among persons 1-44. Injury- and violence-related deaths are only part of the problem ...

  10. Violence against Amazon women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Vera Lúcia de Azevedo; Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Monticelli, Marisa; Oliveira, Marília de Fátima Vieira de; Souza, Carlos Benedito Marinho de; Costa, Carlos Alberto Leal da; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative and exploratory study analyzed violence against Amazon women presented in print media according to type and severity, and whether aggressors fell under the Maria da Penha law. A total of 181 issues of a regional newspaper were consulted. Based on content analysis, 164 items addressing violence against women were selected and 46 were included in the corpus of analysis. Results were gathered in three thematic groups: women killed with cruelty, sexual violence against women regardless of age, and violence against women and the limitations of the Maria da Penha law. Violence against these women varied in terms of form and severity, including up to homicide. Women are submitted to sexual violence from childhood through adulthood. The enforcement of this law shows the community it has a means to cope with this social phenomenon.

  11. Criminal aspects domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Smetanová, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Smetanová, Kristina. Criminal aspects of domestic violence The topic of this thesis is the criminal aspects of domestic violence. The aim of the thesis is to describe this dangerous and complicated social problem and focus on outlining the possibilities of protection under Czech criminal law. The thesis consists of eight chapters. The first chapter explains what the domestic violence is and which sources, types and characters does it have.The second chapter shows who can be the violent person...

  12. Domestic violence : evidence review.

    OpenAIRE

    Westmarland, Nicole; Thorlby, Katie; Wistow, Jane; Gadd, David

    2014-01-01

    While domestic violence is high on the public policy agenda in the UK, successive reviews have highlighted policing problems. A recent HMIC report found domestic violence is not policed at the same level as other offences and identified a catalogue of policing failures that have a long history of recurrence. With domestic violence accounting for around a large proportion of violent crime incidents reported to the police, and the majority of all female homicides (Office for National Statistics...

  13. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts....... In this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....

  14. Religious Values and Tuition Vouchers: An Empirical Case Study of Parent Religiosity as a Factor of School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether parent religiosity is a statistically significant school choice factor. The Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) was administered to 215 parents in an urban, PreK-12 religious private school that participated in the Ohio Educational Choice (EdChoice) voucher program. The null hypothesis that there was…

  15. 77 FR 17086 - Section 8 Housing Choice Vouchers: Revised Implementation of the HUD-VA Supportive Housing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Housing g. Mobility and Portability of HUD-VASH Vouchers h. Case Management Requirements i. Turnover of... veterans with case management and clinical services provided by the VA through its community medical... services sites and Community-Based Outpatient Clinics (CBOCs) across the nation. The HUD- VASH program is a...

  16. 75 FR 27808 - Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program-Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... Voucher Program--Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in Certain Metropolitan Areas for.... ACTION: Notice of Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents (FMRs) in Selected Metropolitan... topics related to small area FMRs, including how these small areas should be defined. Small area FMRs...

  17. Does a competitive voucher program for adolescents improve the quality of reproductive health care? A simulated patient study in Nicaragua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, L.E.; Gorter, A.C.; Kester, A.D.M.; Knottnerus, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how sexual and reproductive (SRH) health can be made accessible and appropriate to adolescents. This study evaluates the impact and sustainability of a competitive voucher program on the quality of SRH care for poor and underserved female adolescents and the

  18. Perceived quality of reproductive care for girls in a competitive voucher programma: a quasi-experimental intervention study, Managua, Nicaragua.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, S.G.M.; Gorter, A.C.; Knottnerus, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether female adolescents from low-income areas in Managua were satisfied with the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care provided through a competitive voucher programme and to analyse the determinants of their satisfaction. Design: A community-based quasi-experimental

  19. Segregation Levels in Milwaukee Public Schools and the Milwaukee Voucher Program. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    This study compares segregation levels in Milwaukee public schools and in private schools participating in the Milwaukee voucher program. Using a segregation index that measures the difference between the percent of students in a school who are white and the percentage of school-age children in the greater metro area who are white, it finds that…

  20. Vouchers in the Bayou: The Effects of the Louisiana Scholarship Program on Student Achievement after 2 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jonathan N.; Wolf, Patrick J.

    2017-01-01

    The Louisiana Scholarship Program (LSP) offers publicly funded vouchers to students in low-performing schools with family income no greater than 250% of the poverty line, allowing them to enroll in participating private schools. Initially established in 2008 as a pilot program in New Orleans, the LSP was expanded statewide in 2012. This article…

  1. Schools' Responses to Voucher Policy: Participation Decisions and Early Implementation Experiences in the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Megan J.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the supply side of voucher programs, despite schools' central role in program effectiveness. Using survey and interview data on the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program (ICSP), I analyze schools' participation decisions and early implementation experiences to understand better how schools respond to program regulations. I find…

  2. Narratives of Domestic Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Second wave feminists in Australia brought the social issue of domestic violence out of the suburban shadows and into the activist and policy spotlight in the 1970s. Subsequent feminist-inspired law reforms around domestic violence included the introduction of state domestic violence order regimes in the 1980s, and amendments to the Family Law Act 1975 (Cth) in 1995 to specify family violence as one of the matters to be taken into account by the Family Court in\\ud determining the best interes...

  3. Stalking and Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermeyer, Britta; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Sorrentino, Renee; Booth, Brad D

    2016-12-01

    The three widely known stalker classifications assist in categorizing stalkers, which allows for better management of violence risk. Although 80% of stalking is done by men, women also engage in stalking, and their violence risk should not be underestimated. Juvenile stalkers do exist and juvenile stalking is also associated with violence. Clinicians can become a victim of stalking and may become victims of stalking by proxy, a special type of stalking behavior where the stalker involves other people or agencies to communicate with or track their victim. A careful stalking violence risk assessment is essential in the intervention and risk management process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Grammar of Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: This paper explores the Danish keyword vold ‘violence, abuse’ and its associated ethno-syntax. Calling into attention (i) the differences and similarities of violence-related concepts in ethnolinguistic communities, and (ii) the key role played by ethnosyntax in the elaboration...... of violence, vold, and similar concepts, the paper aims to open a new ethnolinguistic research agenda for the study of negative sociality constructs and the positive value system hidden in such concepts. The Danish ethnosyntax of vold ‘violence, abuse’ hidden in compound morphology is scrutinized. Focusing...

  5. Evaluation of the impact of the voucher and accreditation approach on improving reproductive health behaviors and status in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Charlotte; Abuya, Timothy; Obare, Francis; Sunday, Joseph; Njue, Rebecca; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Ben

    2011-03-23

    Alternatives to the traditional 'supply-side' approach to financing service delivery are being explored. These strategies are termed results-based finance, demand-side health financing or output-based aid which includes a range of interventions that channel government or donor subsidies to the user rather than the provider. Initial pilot assessments of reproductive health voucher programs suggest that, they can increase access and use, reducing inequities and enhancing program efficiency and service quality. However, there is a paucity of evidence describing how the programs function in different settings, for various reproductive health services. Population Council, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, intends to generate evidence around the 'voucher and accreditation' approaches to improving the reproductive health of low income women in Kenya. A quasi-experimental study will investigate the impact of the voucher approach on improving reproductive health behaviors, reproductive health status and reducing inequities at the population level; and assessing the effect of vouchers on increasing access to, and quality of, and reducing inequities in the use of selected reproductive health services. The study comprises of four populations: facilities, providers, women of reproductive health age using facilities and women and men who have been pregnant and/or used family planning within the previous 12 months. The study will be carried out in samples of health facilities - public, private and faith-based in: three districts; Kisumu, Kiambu, Kitui and two informal settlements in Nairobi which are accredited to provide maternal and newborn health and family planning services to women holding vouchers for the services; and compared with a matched sample of non-accredited facilities. Health facility assessments (HFA) will be conducted at two stages to track temporal changes in quality of care and utilization. Facility inventories, structured observations, and

  6. Evaluation of the impact of the voucher and accreditation approach on improving reproductive behaviors and RH status: Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob, Ubaidur; Rahman, Moshiur; Bellows, Benjamin

    2011-04-22

    Cost of delivering reproductive health services to low-income populations will always require total or partial subsidization by the government and/or development partners. Broadly termed "Demand-Side Financing" or "Output-Based Aid", includes a range of interventions that channel government or donor subsidies to the service user rather than the service provider. Initial findings from the few assessments of reproductive health voucher-and-accreditation programs suggest that, if implemented well, these programs have great potential for achieving the policy objectives of increasing access and use, reducing inequities and enhancing program efficiency and service quality. At this point in time, however, there is a paucity of evidence describing how the various voucher programs function in different settings, for various reproductive health services. Population Council-Nairobi, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, intends to address the lack of evidence around the pros and cons of 'voucher and accreditation' approaches to improving the reproductive health of low income women in five developing countries. In Bangladesh, the activities will be conducted in 11 accredited health facilities where Demand Side Financing program is being implemented and compared with populations drawn from areas served by similar non-accredited facilities. Facility inventories, client exit interviews and service provider interviews will be used to collect comparable data across each facility for assessing readiness and quality of care. In-depth interviews with key stakeholders will be conducted to gain a deeper understanding about the program. A population-based survey will also be carried out in two types of locations: areas where vouchers are distributed and similar locations where vouchers are not distributed. This is a quasi-experimental study which will investigate the impact of the voucher approach on improving maternal health behaviors and status and reducing inequities at the

  7. Evaluation of the impact of the voucher and accreditation approach on improving reproductive behaviors and RH status: Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Moshiur

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost of delivering reproductive health services to low-income populations will always require total or partial subsidization by the government and/or development partners. Broadly termed "Demand-Side Financing" or "Output-Based Aid", includes a range of interventions that channel government or donor subsidies to the service user rather than the service provider. Initial findings from the few assessments of reproductive health voucher-and-accreditation programs suggest that, if implemented well, these programs have great potential for achieving the policy objectives of increasing access and use, reducing inequities and enhancing program efficiency and service quality. At this point in time, however, there is a paucity of evidence describing how the various voucher programs function in different settings, for various reproductive health services. Methods/Design Population Council-Nairobi, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, intends to address the lack of evidence around the pros and cons of 'voucher and accreditation' approaches to improving the reproductive health of low income women in five developing countries. In Bangladesh, the activities will be conducted in 11 accredited health facilities where Demand Side Financing program is being implemented and compared with populations drawn from areas served by similar non-accredited facilities. Facility inventories, client exit interviews and service provider interviews will be used to collect comparable data across each facility for assessing readiness and quality of care. In-depth interviews with key stakeholders will be conducted to gain a deeper understanding about the program. A population-based survey will also be carried out in two types of locations: areas where vouchers are distributed and similar locations where vouchers are not distributed. Discussion This is a quasi-experimental study which will investigate the impact of the voucher approach on improving

  8. Introducing vouchers for malaria prevention in Ghana and Tanzania: context and adoption of innovation in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Savigny, Don; Webster, Jayne; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Mwita, Alex; Bart-Plange, Constance; Baffoe-Wilmot, Aba; Koenker, Hannah; Kramer, Karen; Brown, Nick; Lengeler, Christian

    2012-10-01

    There are striking similarities in health system and other contexts between Tanzania and Ghana that are relevant to the scaling up of continuous delivery of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) for malaria prevention. However, specific contextual factors of relevance to ITN delivery have led implementation down very different pathways in the two countries. Both countries have made major efforts and investments to address this intervention through integrating consumer discount vouchers into the health system. Discount vouchers require arrangements among the public, private and non-governmental sectors and constitute a complex intervention in both health systems and business systems. In Tanzania, vouchers have moved beyond the planning agenda, had policies and programmes formulated, been sustained in implementation at national scale for many years and have become as of 2012 the main and only publicly supported continuous delivery system for ITNs. In Ghana national-scale implementation of vouchers never progressed beyond consideration on the agenda and piloting towards formulation of policy; and the approach was replaced by mass distribution campaigns with less dependency on or integration with the health system. By 2011, Ghana entered a phase with no publicly supported continuous delivery system for ITNs. To understand the different outcomes, we compared the voucher programme timelines, phases, processes and contexts in both countries in reference to the main health system building blocks (governance, human resources, financing, informatics, technologies and service delivery). Contextual factors which provided an enabling environment for the voucher scheme in Tanzania did not do so in Ghana. The voucher scheme was never seen as an appropriate national strategy, other delivery systems were not complementary and the private sector was under-developed. The extensive time devoted to engagement and consensus building among all stakeholders in Tanzania was an important and

  9. Impact of social franchising on contraceptive use when complemented by vouchers: a quasi-experimental study in rural Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Khurram Azmat, Syed; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Tasneem Shaikh, Babar; Hameed, Waqas; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hussain, Wajahat; Asghar, Jamshaid; Ishaque, Muhammad; Ahmed, Aftab; Bilgrami, Mohsina

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan has had a low contraceptive prevalence rate for the last two decades; with preference for natural birth spacing methods and condoms. Family planning services offered by the public sector have never fulfilled the demand for contraception, particularly in rural areas. In the private sector, cost is a major constraint. In 2008, Marie Stopes Society - a local NGO started a social franchise programme along with a free voucher scheme to promote uptake of IUCDs amongst the poor. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of this approach, which is designed to increase modern long term contraceptive awareness and use in rural areas of Pakistan. We used a quasi-experimental study design with controls, selecting one intervention district and one control district from the Sindh and Punjab provinces. In each district, we chose a total of four service providers. A baseline survey was carried out among 4,992 married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in February 2009. Eighteen months after the start of intervention, an independent endline survey was conducted among 4,003 women. We used multilevel logistic regression for analysis using Stata 11. Social franchising used alongside free vouchers for long term contraceptive choices significantly increased the awareness of modern contraception. Awareness increased by 5% in the intervention district. Similarly, the ever use of modern contraceptive increased by 28.5%, and the overall contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 19.6%. A significant change (11.1%) was recorded in the uptake of IUCDs, which were being promoted with vouchers. Family planning franchise model promotes awareness and uptake of contraceptives. Moreover, supplemented with vouchers, it may enhance the use of IUCDs, which have a significant cost attached. Our research also supports a multi-pronged approach- generating demand through counselling, overcoming financial constraints by offering vouchers, training, accreditation and branding of the service providers

  10. Impact of Social Franchising on Contraceptive Use When Complemented by Vouchers: A Quasi-Experimental Study in Rural Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurram Azmat, Syed; Tasneem Shaikh, Babar; Hameed, Waqas; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hussain, Wajahat; Asghar, Jamshaid; Ishaque, Muhammad; Ahmed, Aftab; Bilgrami, Mohsina

    2013-01-01

    Background Pakistan has had a low contraceptive prevalence rate for the last two decades; with preference for natural birth spacing methods and condoms. Family planning services offered by the public sector have never fulfilled the demand for contraception, particularly in rural areas. In the private sector, cost is a major constraint. In 2008, Marie Stopes Society – a local NGO started a social franchise programme along with a free voucher scheme to promote uptake of IUCDs amongst the poor. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of this approach, which is designed to increase modern long term contraceptive awareness and use in rural areas of Pakistan. Methodology We used a quasi-experimental study design with controls, selecting one intervention district and one control district from the Sindh and Punjab provinces. In each district, we chose a total of four service providers. A baseline survey was carried out among 4,992 married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in February 2009. Eighteen months after the start of intervention, an independent endline survey was conducted among 4,003 women. We used multilevel logistic regression for analysis using Stata 11. Results Social franchising used alongside free vouchers for long term contraceptive choices significantly increased the awareness of modern contraception. Awareness increased by 5% in the intervention district. Similarly, the ever use of modern contraceptive increased by 28.5%, and the overall contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 19.6%. A significant change (11.1%) was recorded in the uptake of IUCDs, which were being promoted with vouchers. Conclusion Family planning franchise model promotes awareness and uptake of contraceptives. Moreover, supplemented with vouchers, it may enhance the use of IUCDs, which have a significant cost attached. Our research also supports a multi-pronged approach- generating demand through counselling, overcoming financial constraints by offering vouchers, training

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF SALES APPLICATION OF PREPAID ELECTRICITY VOUCHER BASED ON ANFROID PLATFORM USING QUICK RESPONSE CODE (QR CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky Akbar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN has implemented a smart electricity system or prepaid electricity. The customers pay the electricity voucher first before use the electricity. The token contained in electricity voucher that has been purchased by the customer is inserted into the Meter Prabayar (MPB installed in the location of customers. When a customer purchases a voucher, it will get a receipt that contains all of the customer's identity and the 20-digit of voucher code (token to be entered into MPB as a substitute for electrical energy credit. Receipts obtained by the customer is certainly vulnerable to loss, or hijacked by unresponsible parties. In this study, authors designed and develop an android based application by utilizing QR code technology as a replacement for the receipt of prepaid electricity credit which contains the identity of the customer and the 20-digit voucher code. The application is developed by implemented waterfall methodology. The implementation process of the waterfall methods used, are (1 analysis of functional requirement of the system by conducting a preliminary study and data collection based on field studies and literature, (2 system design by using UML diagrams and Business Process Model Notation (BPMN and Entity Relationship diagram (ERD, (3 design implementation by using OOP (Object Oriented programming technique. Web application is developed by using laravel PHP framework and database MySQL while mobile application is developed by using B4A (4 developed system is tested by using blackbox method testing. Final result of this research is a Web and mobile applications for the sale of electricityvoucher by QR Code technology.

  12. Impact of social franchising on contraceptive use when complemented by vouchers: a quasi-experimental study in rural Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Khurram Azmat

    Full Text Available Pakistan has had a low contraceptive prevalence rate for the last two decades; with preference for natural birth spacing methods and condoms. Family planning services offered by the public sector have never fulfilled the demand for contraception, particularly in rural areas. In the private sector, cost is a major constraint. In 2008, Marie Stopes Society - a local NGO started a social franchise programme along with a free voucher scheme to promote uptake of IUCDs amongst the poor. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of this approach, which is designed to increase modern long term contraceptive awareness and use in rural areas of Pakistan.We used a quasi-experimental study design with controls, selecting one intervention district and one control district from the Sindh and Punjab provinces. In each district, we chose a total of four service providers. A baseline survey was carried out among 4,992 married women of reproductive age (MWRA in February 2009. Eighteen months after the start of intervention, an independent endline survey was conducted among 4,003 women. We used multilevel logistic regression for analysis using Stata 11.Social franchising used alongside free vouchers for long term contraceptive choices significantly increased the awareness of modern contraception. Awareness increased by 5% in the intervention district. Similarly, the ever use of modern contraceptive increased by 28.5%, and the overall contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 19.6%. A significant change (11.1% was recorded in the uptake of IUCDs, which were being promoted with vouchers.Family planning franchise model promotes awareness and uptake of contraceptives. Moreover, supplemented with vouchers, it may enhance the use of IUCDs, which have a significant cost attached. Our research also supports a multi-pronged approach- generating demand through counselling, overcoming financial constraints by offering vouchers, training, accreditation and branding of the

  13. Effectiveness and equity of the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme for mosquito nets over 10 years of implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Karen; Mandike, Renata; Nathan, Rose; Mohamed, Ally; Lynch, Matthew; Brown, Nick; Mnzava, Ally; Rimisho, Wilhelmina; Lengeler, Christian

    2017-06-15

    The Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS) was a public private partnership managed by the Ministry of Health that provided pregnant women and infants with highly subsidized (long-lasting) insecticide-treated nets between 2004 and 2014. It was implemented in the context of the National Insecticide Treated Nets (NATNETS) Programme and was the main keep up strategy for vulnerable populations. The programme design was adjusted considerably over time to incorporate new evidence, shifting public health policies, and changing donor priorities. Three TNVS models can be distinguished: (1) the fixed discount; (2) the fixed top-up; (3) the hybrid voucher model. The changes improved equity and effectiveness, but also had a profound effect on how the programme was managed and implemented. The TNVS reached the majority of beneficiaries with vouchers, and significantly increased household ownership and use of LLINs. While two mass distribution campaigns implemented between 2009 and 2011 achieved universal coverage and equity, the TNVS ensured continuous protection of the vulnerable populations before, during and after the campaigns. The TNVS stimulated and maintained a large national retail network which managed the LLIN supply chain. The effectiveness of the TNVS was a function of several interdependent factors, including the supply chain of vouchers through the public health system; the supply chain of nets in the commercial sector; the demand for nets from voucher recipients; management and risk mitigation measures; and the influence of global and donor objectives. The TNVS was a highly innovative and globally influential programme, which stimulated the thinking around effectively and equitably distributing ITNs, and contributed directly to the evolution of global policy. It was a fundamental component of the NATNETS programme which protected a malaria-vulnerable population for over a decade.

  14. Using targeted vouchers and health equity funds to improve access to skilled birth attendants for poor women: a case study in three rural health districts in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ir, Por; Horemans, Dirk; Souk, Narin; Van Damme, Wim

    2010-01-07

    In many developing countries, the maternal mortality ratio remains high with huge poor-rich inequalities. Programmes aimed at improving maternal health and preventing maternal mortality often fail to reach poor women. Vouchers in health and Health Equity Funds (HEFs) constitute a financial mechanism to improve access to priority health services for the poor. We assess their effectiveness in improving access to skilled birth attendants for poor women in three rural health districts in Cambodia and draw lessons for further improvement and scaling-up. Data on utilisation of voucher and HEF schemes and on deliveries in public health facilities between 2006 and 2008 were extracted from the available database, reports and the routine health information system. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions and key informant interviews. We examined the trend of facility deliveries between 2006 and 2008 in the three health districts and compared this with the situation in other rural districts without voucher and HEF schemes. An operational analysis of the voucher scheme was carried out to assess its effectiveness at different stages of operation. Facility deliveries increased sharply from 16.3% of the expected number of births in 2006 to 44.9% in 2008 after the introduction of voucher and HEF schemes, not only for voucher and HEF beneficiaries, but also for self-paid deliveries. The increase was much more substantial than in comparable districts lacking voucher and HEF schemes. In 2008, voucher and HEF beneficiaries accounted for 40.6% of the expected number of births among the poor. We also outline several limitations of the voucher scheme. Vouchers plus HEFs, if carefully designed and implemented, have a strong potential for reducing financial barriers and hence improving access to skilled birth attendants for poor women. To achieve their full potential, vouchers and HEFs require other interventions to ensure the supply of sufficient quality maternity

  15. Using targeted vouchers and health equity funds to improve access to skilled birth attendants for poor women: a case study in three rural health districts in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souk Narin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many developing countries, the maternal mortality ratio remains high with huge poor-rich inequalities. Programmes aimed at improving maternal health and preventing maternal mortality often fail to reach poor women. Vouchers in health and Health Equity Funds (HEFs constitute a financial mechanism to improve access to priority health services for the poor. We assess their effectiveness in improving access to skilled birth attendants for poor women in three rural health districts in Cambodia and draw lessons for further improvement and scaling-up. Methods Data on utilisation of voucher and HEF schemes and on deliveries in public health facilities between 2006 and 2008 were extracted from the available database, reports and the routine health information system. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions and key informant interviews. We examined the trend of facility deliveries between 2006 and 2008 in the three health districts and compared this with the situation in other rural districts without voucher and HEF schemes. An operational analysis of the voucher scheme was carried out to assess its effectiveness at different stages of operation. Results Facility deliveries increased sharply from 16.3% of the expected number of births in 2006 to 44.9% in 2008 after the introduction of voucher and HEF schemes, not only for voucher and HEF beneficiaries, but also for self-paid deliveries. The increase was much more substantial than in comparable districts lacking voucher and HEF schemes. In 2008, voucher and HEF beneficiaries accounted for 40.6% of the expected number of births among the poor. We also outline several limitations of the voucher scheme. Conclusions Vouchers plus HEFs, if carefully designed and implemented, have a strong potential for reducing financial barriers and hence improving access to skilled birth attendants for poor women. To achieve their full potential, vouchers and HEFs require other

  16. Can vouchers make a difference to the use of private primary care services by older people? Experience from the healthcare reform programme in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Carrie H K; Liu, Su; Huang, Olivia H Y; Yeoh, E K; Griffiths, Sian M

    2011-10-07

    As part of its ongoing healthcare reform, the Hong Kong Government introduced a voucher scheme, intended for encouraging older patients to use primary healthcare services in the private sector, thereby, reducing burden on the overwhelmed public sector. The voucher program is also considered one of the strategies to further develop the public private partnership in healthcare, a policy direction of high political priority as indicated in the Chief Executive Policy Address in 2008-09. This study assessed whether the voucher scheme, as implemented so far, has reached its intended goals, and how it might be further improved in the context of public-private partnership. This was a cross-sectional study using structured questionnaires by face-to-face interviews with older people aged 70 or above in Hong Kong, the target group of the demand-side voucher program. 71.2% of 1,026 older people were aware of the new voucher scheme but only 35.0% had ever used it. The majority of the older people used the vouchers for acute curative services in the private sector (82.4%) and spent less on preventive services. Despite the provision of vouchers valued US$30 per year as an incentive to encourage the use of private primary care services, after 12-months of implementation, 66.2% of all respondents agreed with the statement that "the voucher scheme does not change their health seeking behaviours on seeing public or private healthcare professionals". The most common reasons for no change in their behaviours included "I am used to seeing doctors in the public system" and "The amount of the subsidy is too low". Those who usually used a mix of public and private doctors and those with better self-reported health condition compared to last year were more likely to perceive a change in their own health seeking behaviours. Our study showed that despite a reasonably high awareness of the voucher scheme, its usage was low. The voucher alone was not enough to realize the government's policy of

  17. Markets, voucher subsidies and free nets combine to achieve high bed net coverage in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrets Rene PM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania has a well-developed network of commercial ITN retailers. In 2004, the government introduced a voucher subsidy for pregnant women and, in mid 2005, helped distribute free nets to under-fives in small number of districts, including Rufiji on the southern coast, during a child health campaign. Contributions of these multiple insecticide-treated net delivery strategies existing at the same time and place to coverage in a poor rural community were assessed. Methods Cross-sectional household survey in 6,331 members of randomly selected 1,752 households of 31 rural villages of Demographic Surveillance System in Rufiji district, Southern Tanzania was conducted in 2006. A questionnaire was administered to every consenting respondent about net use, treatment status and delivery mechanism. Findings Net use was 62.7% overall, 87.2% amongst infants (0 to1 year, 81.8% amongst young children (>1 to 5 years, 54.5% amongst older children (6 to 15 years and 59.6% amongst adults (>15 years. 30.2% of all nets had been treated six months prior to interview. The biggest source of nets used by infants was purchase from the private sector with a voucher subsidy (41.8%. Half of nets used by young children (50.0% and over a third of those used by older children (37.2% were obtained free of charge through the vaccination campaign. The largest source of nets amongst the population overall was commercial purchase (45.1% use and was the primary means for protecting adults (60.2% use. All delivery mechanisms, especially sale of nets at full market price, under-served the poorest but no difference in equity was observed between voucher-subsidized and freely distributed nets. Conclusion All three delivery strategies enabled a poor rural community to achieve net coverage high enough to yield both personal and community level protection for the entire population. Each of them reached their relevant target group and free nets only temporarily

  18. A Live Threat Violence Simulation Exercise for Psychiatric Outpatient Departments: A Valuable Aid to Training in Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert E; Yager, Joel

    2017-10-30

    Violence in psychiatric outpatient settings is a ubiquitous concern. This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a live threat violence simulation exercise, designed to reduce the risk of future outpatient clinic violence and minimize the effects of future incidents on staff. The psychiatric outpatient clinic at the University of Colorado Hospital developed, implemented, and evaluated a 4-hour live violence threat simulation exercise as a companion to a 7-hour violence prevention program. The simulation includes an orientation, two threat simulation scenarios, three debriefings, satisfaction surveys, problem identification, action plans, and annual safety and process improvements. The authors have conducted live violence simulation exercises from 2011-2016, and have collected survey data about our annual simulation exercise from 2014-2016. Each year ≥ 52% of participants responded, and each year ≥ 90% of respondents rated the simulation as "very helpful/helpful", ≥ 86% believed themselves to be "much better/better" prepared to deal with violent episodes, and simulation side effects such as worries about past trauma; anxiety; sleep problems; increase in workplace concerns. From 2011-2016, the clinic experienced 4 major violent episodes and 36 episodes of potential violence with no staff injuries and minimal psychological sequelae to one staff member. Violence prevention efforts and the development of close police/staff relationships may have contributed to these fortunate outcomes. Satisfaction surveys suggest that the simulations are very helpful/helpful, with participants feeling much better/ better prepared to manage violence. The exercises led the authors to initiate staff safety related behavioral changes as well as physical space and safety processes improvements. The violence prevention program and simulation exercises have promoted excellent relationships with police and a consistent safety record over six years. This

  19. Various Viewpoints on Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Bonita; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents four articles addressing various aspects of violence in the context of children's everyday life: video game violence, gun play, violent children's television programming, and war play. Proposes possible developmentally appropriate solutions. Urges teachers, parents, and the community in general to actively work to provide a safer, saner…

  20. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, M

    1999-01-01

    In India, violence against women is increasing and takes many forms while laws to protect women are ignored. Despite this fact, the new reproductive and child health program ignores sexual violence. Health personnel can respond by: 1) accepting the magnitude of the problem; 2) investigating the deaths of young women; 3) documenting findings; 4) ensuring that sexual abuse is recognized as a public health problem; 5) disseminating findings; 6) ensuring the protection of female field workers; 7) recognizing violence as an occupational health hazard; 8) facilitating the empowerment of women; 9) training women in self-defense; 10) ensuring that colleges and training institutes address violence as a women's health concern; 11) studying the psychological effects of violence; 12) collaborating with the National Commission for Women and the National Human Rights Commission; and 13) advocating for incorporation of sexual violence as a reproductive health issue in the national reproductive health program. In particular, domestic violence is a pervasive violation of women's human rights and has been resistant to social advances because of its "hidden" nature. Domestic violence exists because husbands believe they have an absolute right over the sexuality of their wives. Abusive husbands also abuse their daughters while sons learn violent behavior from their fathers. Crimes must be considered irrespective of whether they are committed outside or inside the home.

  1. [Children, television and violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zann, M

    2000-03-01

    The relationships between children and television are a source of heated debate. Several studies, mainly conducted in North America, have found a correlation between television violence viewing and aggressive behavior, preadolescents appearing as the most vulnerable. However, in France opinions are more nuanced and one generally considers that television-induced violence in children mainly depends upon individual and educative socio-familial factors.

  2. Understanding Youth Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offender. Risk factors for youth violence include: • Prior history of violence • Drug, alcohol, or tobacco use • Association with delinquent peers • Poor family functioning • Poor grades in school • Poverty in the community Note: This is a partial ...

  3. Preventing School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

    2011-01-01

    School violence has mushroomed into a devastating epidemic and is deteriorating the basic foundation of education. In this article, the author will present several teaching strategies for preventing school violence from becoming an arduous enigma within the classroom and school environments, and focus on assessment and reflection in order to…

  4. Witnessing Interparental Violence and Acceptance of Dating Violence as Predictors for Teen Dating Violence Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marie E; Temple, Jeff R; Weston, Rebecca; Le, Vi Donna

    2016-04-01

    We examined the association between witnessing interparental violence, attitudes about dating violence, and physical and psychological teen dating violence (TDV) victimization. Participants were 918 teens with dating experience. Witnessing interparental violence and acceptance of dating violence were significant predictors of TDV victimization. Acceptance of dating violence was also a partial mediator between witnessing interparental violence and TDV victimization. Witnessing mother-to-father violence and acceptance of female-perpetrated violence were the most consistent predictors. TDV programs aiming to prevent victimization could benefit from targeting youth exposed to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence, targeting attitudes about violence, and tailoring interventions to gender-specific risk factors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Differential Health and Social Needs of Older Adults Waitlisted for Public Housing or Housing Choice Vouchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Paula; Luhr, Gretchen; Kohon, Jacklyn

    2016-01-01

    Affordable housing is an important form of income security for low-income older persons. This article describes characteristics of older persons waitlisted for either public housing or a housing choice voucher (HCV; previously Section 8) in Portland, Oregon. 358 persons (32% response rate) completed a mailed survey with questions about demographics, health and housing status, food insecurity, and preference for housing with services. Findings indicate that many waitlisted older persons experienced homelessness or housing instability, poor health, high hospital use, and food insecurity. Public housing applicants were significantly more likely to report lower incomes, homelessness, and food insecurity than HCV applicants. We conclude with policy implications for housing and health agencies that serve low-income older persons.

  6. Taking action against violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, K

    1996-05-01

    Significant increase in violent crimes in recent years forced Icelandic men to take action against violence. Television was seen as a major contributory factor in increasing violence. Surveys indicate that 10-15 years after television broadcasting commences in a particular society, the incidence of crime can be expected to double. While the majority of the individuals arrested for violent crimes are men, being male does not necessarily mean being violent. The Men's Committee of the Icelandic Equal Rights Council initiated a week-long information and education campaign under the theme "Men Against Violence". This campaign involved several events including an art exhibit, speeches on violence in families, treatment sought by those who are likely to resort to violence, booklet distribution among students in secondary schools, and a mass media campaign to raise public awareness on this pressing problem.

  7. Ethnicities and violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    Ethnicities and Violence Bodil Pedersen, University of Roskilde A recent publication (Thiara, Condon and Schröttle 2011) presents and discusses questions concerning diverse forms of violence against women from ethnic minorities in Europe. The issue raises unsolved questions of how to study...... as violence and what meanings do we attribute to it? What meanings does gender and ethnicities have for diverse participants in violent relations? What are their societal consequences and how do we study these? Central is also how we conceptualise and study questions concerning violence in minorised as well...... as against ethnic communities. On one hand our research should allow for conceptualising and studying specific practices in these communities. On the other hand - risking repeating and supporting dominant discourses of gendered violence as characteristic for them – we do not intend to represent them...

  8. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  9. Neighborhood Interventions to Reduce Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Elena Andreyeva; Eugenia C. South; John M. MacDonald; Charles C. Branas

    2018-01-01

    Violence is a widespread problem that affects the physical, mental, and social health of individuals and communities. Violence comes with an immense economic cost to its victims and society at large. Although violence interventions have traditionally targeted individuals, changes to the built environment in places where violence occurs show promise as practical,...

  10. Symbolic Violence and Gendered Sexualised Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    It has been suggested, that Bourdieu ´s concept of symbolic violence is useful in explaining gendered phenomena of late modern western societies, which can no longer simply be understood as classic patriarchies (B. Krais 1993). In these societies, and in spite of the existence of gendered...... sexualised phenomena such as rape and prostitution, it is often assumed that full equality of the sexes has been achieved. The concept of symbolic violence implies the participation of both men and women in aspects of discourses and other social practices related to gendering and thus to gendered sexualised...... violence. It deconstructs the dualisation of gender in gendered phenomena that contribute to the dualising/blaming controversies concerning responsibility and guilt common in discourses, activism and research pertaining to this field. Furthermore the use of the concept makes it possible to do so without...

  11. Violence against emergency department employees and the attitude of employees towards violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çıkrıklar, H Í; Yürümez, Y; Güngör, B; Aşkın, R; Yücel, M; Baydemir, C

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of violent incidents in the workplace among the various professional groups working in the emergency department. We characterised the types of violence encountered by different occupation groups and the attitude of individuals working in different capacities. This cross-sectional study included 323 people representing various professional groups working in two distinct emergency departments in Turkey. The participants were asked to complete questionnaires prepared in advance by the researchers. The data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (Windows version 15.0). A total of 323 subjects including 189 (58.5%) men and 134 (41.5%) women participated in the study. Their mean (± standard deviation) age was 31.5 ± 6.5 years and 32.0 ± 6.9 years, respectively. In all, 74.0% of participants had been subjected to verbal or physical violence at any point since starting employment in a medical profession. Moreover, 50.2% of participants stated that they had been subjected to violence for more than 5 times. Among those who reported being subjected to violence, 42.7% had formally reported the incident(s). Besides, 74.3% of participants did not enjoy their profession, did not want to work in the emergency department, or would prefer employment in a non-health care field after being subjected to violence. According to the study participants, the most common cause of violence was the attitude of patients or their family members (28.7%). In addition, 79.6% (n=257) of participants stated that they did not have adequate safety protection in their working area. According to the study participants, there is a need for legal regulations to effectively deter violence and increased safety measures designed to reduce the incidence of violence in the emergency department. Violence against employees in the emergency department is a widespread problem. This situation has a strong negative effect on employee

  12. The Othering of Domestic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montoya, Celeste; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2013-01-01

    Violence against women is a universal problem, affecting women at all levels of society; however, differently situated women have unique experiences with violence. Theoretically, this calls for the necessity to balance universality with intersectionality. Analyzing EU policy texts, we argue...... that the recognition of different forms of violence has led to an increased tendency toward culturalization, i.e. articulating culture as the only explanation behind certain forms of violence or focusing exclusively on culturalized forms of violence. While largely ignoring the gendered nature of violence, cultural...... framings of violence also create a dichotomy between “insiders” (non-violent Europeans) and “outsiders” (violent others)....

  13. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Scott,Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior) abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and developmen...

  14. Decreased Risk of Preeclampsia After the Introduction of Universal Voucher Scheme for Antenatal Care and Birth Services in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Seung-Ah; Min, Hye Sook; Cho, Sung-Il

    2017-01-01

    Objectives A number of interventions to reduce disparities in maternal health have been introduced and implemented without concrete evidence to support them. In Korea, a universal voucher scheme for antenatal care and birth services was initiated in December 2008 to improve Korea's fertility rate. This study explores the risk of preeclampsia after the introduction of a universal voucher scheme. Methods Population-based cohort data from the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC) covering 2002-2013 were analysed. A generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) was used to estimate the relationship between the risk of preeclampsia and voucher scheme introduction. Results The annual age-adjusted incidence of preeclampsia showed no significant unidirectional change during the study period. In the GLMM analysis, the introduction of a voucher scheme was associated with a reduced risk of preeclampsia, controlling for potential confounding factors. The interaction between household income level and voucher scheme was not significant. Conclusions for Practice This finding suggests that the introduction of a voucher scheme for mothers is related to a reduced risk of preeclampsia even under universal health coverage.

  15. Violence Against Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulu, Emma; Miedema, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Globalization theories have proliferated over the past two decades. However, global developments have yet to be systematically incorporated into theories around violence against women. This article proposes to add a global level to the existing ecological model framework, popularized by Lori Heise in 1998, to explore the relationships between global processes and experiences of violence against women. Data from the Maldives and Cambodia are used to assess how globalized ideologies, economic development and integration, religious fundamentalisms, and global cultural exchange, as components of a larger globalization process, have affected men and women’s experiences and perceptions of violence against women. PMID:26215287

  16. Femmes, genre et violence

    OpenAIRE

    Castan-Vicente, Florys; Benevent, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Le présent article s’attache à comparer deux ouvrages sur la violence et les femmes, parus à quinze ans d’intervalle : De la violence et des femmes (1997) et Penser la violence des femmes (2012). Il s’agira de dégager de cette comparaison des conclusions sur l’évolution, entre ces deux dates, de ce champ d’étude, très neuf lors de la parution du premier ouvrage, et ayant connu un développement important par la suite.

  17. Helping Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Domestic Violence and Children No. 109; Updated April 2013 As ... each year. This kind of violence is called domestic violence or intimate partner violence. The US Department of ...

  18. Impact of social franchising on contraceptive use when complemented by vouchers: a quasi-experimental study in rural Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Hameed, Waqas; Mustafa, Ghulam; Hussain, Wajahat; Asghar, Jamshaid; Ishaque, Muhammad; Ahmed, Aftab; Bilgrami, Mohsina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pakistan has had a low contraceptive prevalence rate for the last two decades; with preference for natural birth spacing methods and condoms. Family planning services offered by the public sector have never fulfilled the demand for contraception, particularly in rural areas. In the private sector, cost is a major constraint. In 2008, Marie Stopes Society - a local NGO started a social franchise programme along with a free voucher scheme to promote uptake of IUCDs amongst the poor....

  19. Do small fish mean no voucher? Using a flatbed desktop scanner to document larval and small specimens before destructive analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalous, L.; Šlechtová, Věra; Petrtýl, M.; Kohout, Jan; Čech, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2010), s. 614-617 ISSN 0175-8659 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1371; GA ČR GP206/09/P266 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : small fish * voucher * desktop scanner Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 0.945, year: 2010

  20. GENDER VIOLENCE IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalva Ruiz-Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available School violence is multifactorial. Social and cultural, family, personal, and institutional aspects, among others, influence educational institutions, in all academic levels. Because this type of violence is increasingly common and has serious consequences, there is a need to prevent and deal with the different types of violence practiced in schools, such as bullying, mobbing, gender violence, and others. Gender violence in institutions is not produced in this scope, in the strict sense, but rather has its origin in social and cultural aspects, rooted in the patriarchal and androcentric culture. Much has been written on the different forms in which violence affects mostly women in the educational system. This essay, without being thorough, attempts to answer three basic questions on gender violence in educational institutions: Why is there gender violence in educational institutions? How is gender violence manifested in schools? And finally, what actions have been taken to mitigate aggressions against women?

  1. Violence, xenophobia and crime

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prominent domestic and international media coverage of threats of xenophobic violence, predicted to start ..... 2010; V Igglesden, T Monson et al., Humanitarian. Assistance to ... Johannesburg, CoRMSA, Crisis in Zimbabwe. Coalition, FMS ...

  2. School Violence: Data & Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Social Media Publications Injury Center School Violence: Data & Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The first ... Vehicle Safety Traumatic Brain Injury Injury Response Data & Statistics (WISQARS) Funded Programs Press Room Social Media Publications ...

  3. Ethnic Violence in Moldolva

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barclay, Keith

    2002-01-01

    The Moldovan Transdniester War of 1992 is illustrative of modern day ethno-national violence and yields unique lessons on the role and use of military power in dealing with and resolving such crises...

  4. Masculinity, War and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...

  5. Symbolic Violence and Victimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2009-01-01

    has been criticised for over-generalisations, as well as for disregarding culture and the embeddedness of psychological problems in situated societal processes. The proposed paper is a contribution to this critique. It will draw on Bourdieu's concept of symbolic violence (1992). The concept connects......Nay (1999). It also undertakes a critical discussion of symbolic violence in the meanings given to victimisation and its aftermaths, as when conceptualised with the help of PTSD (e.g. may the use of concepts of this kind and the practices developed in relation to it constitute symbolic violence...... and contribute to victimisation?) Furthermore the analysis aims at unfolding an understanding of victimisation inclusive of connections between cultural/ societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence and lives of concrete subjects. The discussion takes its point of departure in theoretical deliberations...

  6. Relative efficacy of cash versus vouchers in engaging opioid substitution treatment clients in survey-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, Libby; Islam, M Mofizul; Day, Carolyn Ann

    2013-04-01

    Concerns that cash payments to people who inject drugs (PWID) to reimburse research participation will facilitate illicit drug purchases have led some ethical authorities to mandate department store/supermarket vouchers as research reimbursement. To examine the relative efficacy of the two forms of reimbursement in engaging PWID in research, clients of two public opioid substitution therapy clinics were invited to participate in a 20-30 min, anonymous and confidential interview about alcohol consumption on two separate occasions, 4 months apart. Under the crossover design, at Time 1, clients of Clinic 1 were offered $A20 cash as reimbursement, while clients of Clinic 2 were offered an $A20 voucher; at Time 2, the form of reimbursement was reversed. Using clinic records to determine the denominator (number of clients dosed), we found that compared with clients offered a voucher, a significantly higher proportion of clients who were offered cash participated in the survey (58% (139/241) vs 74% (186/252); χ(2)=14.27; p=0.0002). At first participation, respondents most commonly reported planning to purchase food/drinks/groceries (68%), cigarettes (21%) and transport/fuel (11%) with their payments, with those reimbursed in cash more likely to report planning to fund transport/fuel (19% vs 1%; ppayment. Results demonstrate that modest cash payments enhanced recruitment of this group, an important consideration given the challenges of delineating the parameters of a population defined by illegal activity, seemingly without promoting excessive additional drug use.

  7. Piloting an HIV self-test kit voucher program to raise serostatus awareness of high-risk African Americans, Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin, Robert W; Young, Sean D; Bristow, Claire C; Wilson, Greg; Rodriguez, Jeffrey; Ortiz, Jose; Mathew, Rhea; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2014-11-26

    Up to half of all new HIV cases in Los Angeles may be caused by the 20-30% of men who have sex with men (MSM) with unrecognized HIV infection. Racial/ethnic minority MSM are at particularly high risk for being sero-unaware and due to stigma and poor healthcare access might benefit from novel private, self-testing methods, such as the recently FDA-approved OraQuick® In-Home HIV Test. From July-November 2013, we undertook a pilot study to examine the feasibility of a voucher program for free OraQuick® tests targeting African American MSM in Los Angeles. We determined feasibility based on: (1) the establishment of a voucher redemption and third-party payment system, (2) the willingness of community-based organizations (CBOs) to disseminate vouchers, and (3) the collection of user demographics, test and linkage-to-care results with an anonymous telephone survey. We partnered with Walgreens® to create a voucher and third-party reimbursement system for free OraQuick® tests. Voucher distribution was divided into two periods. In total, 641 vouchers were supplied to CBOs: 274 (42.7%) went to clients and of those 53 (19.3%) were redeemed. Fifty (18.2%) of the 274 clients were surveyed: 44 (88%) were African American, 39 (78%) reported being likely to repeat voucher use, 44 (88%) reported reviewing pre-test information, and 37 (74%) the post-test information. Three (6%) of 50 survey respondents reported newly testing HIV-positive of whom all (100%) reported seeking medical care. Two withheld their results, both of whom also sought medical care. Developing and partnering with a commercial pharmacy to institute a voucher system to facilitate HIV self-testing with linkage-to-care was feasible. Our findings suggest the voucher program was associated with increasing the identification of new cases of HIV infection with high rates of linkage to care. Expanded research and evaluation of voucher programs for HIV self-test kits among high-risk groups is warranted.

  8. Evaluating Domestic Violence Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Parmar, Alpa; Sampson, Alice

    2006-01-01

    This paper critiques the approach of identifying ‘best practice’ projects and discusses the problem with simply transferring projects into different contexts. The argument is illustrated by explaining the evaluation process of three domestic violence projects which all had the same aim, which was to reduce domestic violence. The evaluated projects all delivered advocacy programmes and were located in disadvantaged areas in the United Kingdom. A more suitable evaluation approach is proposed wh...

  9. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Domestic violence constitutes historical behavior in accord with patriarchal systems. Family and domestic violence includes female infanticide, higher female mortality, female genital mutilation, bride burning, rape, wife battering, and early marriage. These practices are commonly integrated into values and beliefs. Women accept domestic violence in violation of their basic human rights due to social prejudice and low self esteem. Mothers who perpetuate female genital mutilation believe that they are acting in the best interests of the child by adhering to centuries-long traditions. Women who allow female infanticide or female abortion are motivated to do so in order to maintain the security of their marriage. Women are in unequal power relationships and submit to their own detriment. Negative attitudes against women are perpetuated through incorrect interpretations of religious principles and myths. Economic self-reliance gives women the courage to stand up against domestic violence. Empowerment through education and appropriate and protective legislation also gives women the means to fight violence. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) at the national, regional, and international levels are active in creating awareness of domestic violence and influencing policy change. The NGO Working Group on Traditional Practices and the Inter-African Committee have a 10-year history of fighting against practices such as female genital mutilation. In order to bring about change, there must be cooperative and joint action among governmental and inter-governmental groups and NGOs.

  10. [Violence towards pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramek, J; Grzymała-Krzyzostaniak, A; Celewicz, Z; Ronin-Walknowska, E

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of the scale of violence towards pregnant women in the westpomeranian province, the definition of the social-biological profile of women exposed to violence and social-biological profile of their partners. The evaluation of the influence of violence on pregnant women's ending term and the weight of the newborns. 481 women were enrolled and an anonymous study was used in the form of questionnaires. A questionnaire was a modified form of a query-sheet proposed by WHO. 25% of the enrolled women were exposed to physical and psychological (emotional) abuse, 7.1% to psychical violence, women and men exposed to violence in their childhood more often become violent in their adult life. Men that physically abuse pregnant women are often of primary school education, are unemployed, drink alcohol and smoke. Physical abuse by a partner during pregnancy usually experience women with primary school education, who drink and smoke. Violence during pregnancy is usually associated with premature delivery as well as low birth weight of the newborns.

  11. THE DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVCA Lucia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Any form of domestic violence leaves its mark on minority's personality forma¬tion and generates dysfunctions in the behavioral, cognitive and emotional sphere. The study found that in the modern family up to 30% of children suffer from physical violence and up to 45% by psychological violence. Sexual violence, unlike other forms of violence, is more difficult to discover. It has more dramatic consequences and re¬quires a longer time for psychological recovery. In this study, are described a few cases of sexual violence in the family literally

  12. Exposure of Students to Emotional and Physical Violence in the School Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Şahbal; Özan, Sema; Timbil, Sevgi; Şemin, Semih; Kasapçi, Oya

    2016-12-01

    While peer abuse or physical violence in school is emphasized more, the physical and emotional violence caused by school staff has been emphasized less. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variables related to emotional and physical violence that students are exposed to in the school environment. This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted by applying a questionnaire to 434 fifth-grade students receiving education in the primary schools in Konak district of Izmir province. Being prepared by the researchers of this study, the questionnaire consisted of questions about the socio-demographic features of the child and the family, the place where the child has been raised, family income, average grade, and the emotional and physical violence of teachers, parents, and peers s/he has been exposed to within the last year. The Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analyses. The study group consisted of 214 (49.3%) female and 220 (50.7%) male students. Students reported that they were exposed to at least one type of emotional violence from 59.4% of teachers, 52.8% of parents, and 61.8% of children at school; they were exposed to at least one type of physical violence from 42.9% of teachers, 33.6% of parents, and 24.9% of children at school. While the rate of encountering with the beating of another child was 53%, the rate of watching this in television/cinema was 52.8%. Regarding exposure to at least one type of violence, males were found to be significantly more exposed to emotional and physical violence from male teachers, female teachers, and fathers and physical violence from children at school. The factors regarding the exposure to emotional and physical violence by teachers were evaluated using logistic regression analysis, and it was determined that the physical violence from teachers, emotional violence from children in school, and emotional violence from parents could predict the

  13. Exposure of Students to Emotional and Physical Violence in the School Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARAS, Şahbal; ÖZAN, Sema; TIMBIL, Sevgi; ŞEMİN, Semih; KASAPÇI, Oya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While peer abuse or physical violence in school is emphasized more, the physical and emotional violence caused by school staff has been emphasized less. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variables related to emotional and physical violence that students are exposed to in the school environment. Methods This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted by applying a questionnaire to 434 fifth-grade students receiving education in the primary schools in Konak district of Izmir province. Being prepared by the researchers of this study, the questionnaire consisted of questions about the socio-demographic features of the child and the family, the place where the child has been raised, family income, average grade, and the emotional and physical violence of teachers, parents, and peers s/he has been exposed to within the last year. The Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analyses. Results The study group consisted of 214 (49.3%) female and 220 (50.7%) male students. Students reported that they were exposed to at least one type of emotional violence from 59.4% of teachers, 52.8% of parents, and 61.8% of children at school; they were exposed to at least one type of physical violence from 42.9% of teachers, 33.6% of parents, and 24.9% of children at school. While the rate of encountering with the beating of another child was 53%, the rate of watching this in television/cinema was 52.8%. Regarding exposure to at least one type of violence, males were found to be significantly more exposed to emotional and physical violence from male teachers, female teachers, and fathers and physical violence from children at school. The factors regarding the exposure to emotional and physical violence by teachers were evaluated using logistic regression analysis, and it was determined that the physical violence from teachers, emotional violence from children in school, and emotional violence from

  14. Domestic Violence and Private Family Court Proceedings: Promoting Child Welfare or Promoting Contact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Gillian S

    2016-06-01

    Despite improved understanding regarding domestic violence, child welfare and child contact, and related policy developments, problems persist regarding how the family courts deal with fathers' violence in contested contact/residence cases. In the study reported here, analysis was undertaken of welfare reports prepared for the courts in such cases to investigate how and to what extent issues of domestic violence and children's perspectives on these issues were taken into account when making recommendations to the courts. Analysis found that despite evidence of domestic violence and child welfare concerns, contact with fathers was viewed as desirable and inevitable in the vast majority of cases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Does a competitive voucher program for adolescents improve the quality of reproductive health care? A simulated patient study in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorter Anna C

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how sexual and reproductive (SRH health can be made accessible and appropriate to adolescents. This study evaluates the impact and sustainability of a competitive voucher program on the quality of SRH care for poor and underserved female adolescents and the usefulness of the simulated patient (SP method for such evaluation. Methods 28,711 vouchers were distributed to adolescents in disadvantaged areas of Managua that gave free-of-charge access to SRH care in 4 public, 10 non-governmental and 5 private clinics. Providers received training and guidelines, treatment protocols, and financial incentives for each adolescent attended. All clinics were visited by female adolescent SPs requesting contraception. SPs were sent one week before, during (with voucher and one month after the intervention. After each consultation they were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. Twenty-one criteria were scored and grouped into four categories. Clinics' scores were compared using non-parametric statistical methods (paired design: before-during and before-after. Also the influence of doctors' characteristics was tested using non-parametric statistical methods. Results Some aspects of service quality improved during the voucher program. Before the program started 8 of the 16 SPs returned 'empty handed', although all were eligible contraceptive users. During the program 16/17 left with a contraceptive method (p = 0.01. Furthermore, more SPs were involved in the contraceptive method choice (13/17 vs.5/16, p = 0.02. Shared decision-making on contraceptive method as well as condom promotion had significantly increased after the program ended. Female doctors had best scores before- during and after the intervention. The improvements were more pronounced among male doctors and doctors older than 40, though these improvements did not sustain after the program ended. Conclusion This study illustrates provider

  16. Understanding sexual violence as a form of caste violence

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi Patil

    2016-01-01

    The paper attempts to understand narratives of sexual violence anchored within the dynamics of social location of caste and gender. Apparent caste-patriarchy and gender hierarchies which are at play in cases of sexual violence against lower-caste and dalit women speak about differential experiences of rape and sexual abuse that women have in India. The paper endeavours to establish that sexual violence is also a form of caste violence by rereading the unfortunate cases of Bhanwari Devi, Khair...

  17. FAMILY VIOLENCE – MARRIAGE VIOLENCE WITH A FATAL OUTCOME

    OpenAIRE

    Lidija Kostic-Banovic; Ljubisa Milosavljevic; Radovan Karadzic; Aleksandra Antovic

    2006-01-01

    Family violence represents an especially dangerous social form of violence by means of which the rights of an individual – a member of a family – to live, to have psychic, physical and sexual integrity, freedom, security and human dignity, have been violated. The term marriage violence entails every form of physical, sexual, psychic and economic abuse of women by husbands or illegitimate partner. The family violence represents a widespread form of crime, and since it has become dramatic and d...

  18. Conochironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Asia: new and redescribed species and vouchering issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Peter S

    2016-05-09

    The presence of the Afro-Australian genus Conochironomus Freeman, 1961 (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Asia has been recognised only informally. An unpublished thesis included Conochironomus from Singapore, and the genus has been keyed from Malaysia without named species. Here, the Sumatran Conochironomus tobaterdecimus (Kikuchi & Sasa, 1980) comb. n. is recorded from Singapore and Thailand. The species is transferred from Sumatendipes Kikuchi & Sasa, 1980, rendering the latter a junior synonym (syn. n.) of Conochironomus Freeman. Conochironomus nuengthai sp. n. and Conochironomus sawngthai sp. n. are described as new to science, based on adult males from Chiang Mai, Thailand. All species conform to existing generic diagnoses for all life stages, with features from male and female genitalia, pupal cephalic tubercles and posterolateral 'spurs' of tergite VIII providing evidence for species distinction. Some larvae are linked to C. tobaterdecimus through molecular barcoding. Variation in other larvae, which clearly belong to Conochironomus and are common throughout Thailand, means that they cannot be segregated to species. Larval habitats include pools in river beds, urban storage reservoirs, drains with moderately high nutrient loadings, and peat swamps. Endochironomus effusus Dutta, 1994 from north-eastern India may be a congener but may differ in adult morphology, thereby precluding formal new combination until discrepancies can be reconciled. Many problems with vouchering taxonomic and molecular material are identified that need to be rectified in the future.

  19. Symbiota – A virtual platform for creating voucher-based biodiversity information communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Gries

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We review the Symbiota software platform for creating voucher-based biodiversity information portals and communities. Symbiota was originally conceived to promote small- to medium-sized, regionally and/or taxonomically themed collaborations of natural history collections. Over the past eight years the taxonomically diverse portals have grown into an important resource in North America and beyond for mobilizing, integrating, and using specimen- and observation-based occurrence records and derivative biodiversity information products. Designed to mirror the conceptual structure of traditional floras and faunas, Symbiota is exclusively web-based and employs a novel data model, information linking, and algorithms to provide highly dynamic customization. The themed portals enable meaningful access to biodiversity data for anyone from specialist to high school student. Symbiota emulates functionality of modern Content Management Systems, providing highly sophisticated yet intuitive user interfaces for data entry, batch processes, and editing. Each kind of content provision may be selectively accessed by authenticated information providers. Occupying a fairly specific niche in the biodiversity informatics arena, Symbiota provides extensive data exchange facilities and collaborates with other development projects to incorporate and not duplicate functionality as appropriate.

  20. Animal violence demystified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent's body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent). Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. We address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely (1) Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. (2) Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent's submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. (3) Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. (4) Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding. (5) Low prefrontal serotonin (5-HT) levels upon repeated aggression. (6) Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL) mice suggesting a qualitative difference between violence and

  1. Horizontal violence in Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsimoulaki Evangelia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One’s effort to clarify the definition of horizontal labour violence is of great importance, due to the variety of definitions that are mentioned in the worldwide scientific literature. Furthermore, the reference of multiple forms of such violence herein the nurse professional group is challenging, as well. Another fact of great importance is that, any form of professional violence (horizontal violence, horizontal mobbing in the work place environment can be possibly escalated and include even physical abuse (Bullying, besides the psychological and emotional impact for the victim. The definitions of Horizontal violence, Mobbing and Bullying, include a repeated negative behaviour emanating from at least one “predator” towards at least one “victim”, with work status differences and the existence or lack of physical abuse (Bullying. Horizontal violence is a hostile, aggressive and harmful behaviour which is either overt or concealed and is pointed from an individual to another individual of the same working rank and causes intense emotional pain at the victim. The manifestations vary from humiliating tasks assignment or the victim’s efforts undermining to clearly aggressive behaviors (criticism, intimidation, sarcasm etc.. The reason behind this phenomenon is multifactorial extended not only towards the working environment but also to the personal characteristics of the “predator” as well as the possible “victim”. The researchers emphasize the high incidence of the phenomenon, as well as the cost that is induced by the violent behaviors to both the health professionals and the hospital. Finally, they point out the paradox of the presence of violence inside a system that is designed to promote health.

  2. Animal violence demystified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Natarajan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/ biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent’s body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent. Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. To begin with, we address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely 1. Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. 2. Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent’s submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. 3. Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. 4. Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding 5. Low pre-frontal serotonin (5-HT levels upon repeated aggression. 6. Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL mice suggesting a qualitative

  3. Sexual violence in the media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Matloff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Reporting on sexual violence is a challenge even for seasoned war journalists. How should correspondents, news editors and producers report the impact of sexual violence on individuals and communities without causing further distress or danger?

  4. Sexual violence in the media

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Matloff

    2007-01-01

    Reporting on sexual violence is a challenge even for seasoned war journalists. How should correspondents, news editors and producers report the impact of sexual violence on individuals and communities without causing further distress or danger?

  5. Violence as a Vicious Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Gulec

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the conclusion that the violence as a behavior is not (cannot be determined within an absolute genetic determinism has been reached for long years, environmental factors are increasingly examined. We witness that human behavior in society can easily convert into coping with stressful events with violence. Individual or social violence as a behavior has a similar pattern with violence committed in primitive society and by children. After a brief review of violence, its description, etiological theories and types, this article majorly focuses on children and their early and late response to violence. The purpose here is to draw attention to the individuals who were previously exposed to violence (either directly or indirectly resort to violence, perpetuating a vicious cycle.

  6. The science of violence prevention

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years after Rodrigo Guerrero-Velasco treated violence like a disease, using epidemiology to find the causes, his approach to violence prevention has been taken up across the Americas. He talks to Alyssa Greenhouse.

  7. Factors affecting workplace bullying and lateral violence among clinical nurses in Korea: descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyunjin; Uhm, Dong Choon; Yoon, Young Joo

    2016-04-01

    Workplace bullying and lateral violence are serious issues affecting the work life of hospital nurses. The purpose of this study was to identify the selected individual and institutional characteristics for workplace bullying and lateral violence using a conceptual framework. A descriptive survey design was used. A convenience sample of 255 nurses in tertiary hospitals, who had a minimum of 6 months clinical experience, completed the survey. Regression analysis was used to determine factors significantly associated with workplace bullying and lateral violence. The Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised and the Lateral Violence scale were used to measure workplace bullying and lateral violence. A negative affect, individualism and working in hospital specialty units predicted workplace bullying. Individualism, a negative affect, affiliated hospital and working hours predicted verbal abuse whereas the place of employment was significantly associated with lateral violence. The results of this study identified factors that are associated with bullying and violence but did not fully support the conceptual framework. The individual characteristic negative affect was significantly associated with most types of workplace bullying and lateral violence bully whereas the place of employment was an important factor in lateral violence. Nurse managers need to be aware that both individual and institutional factors may impact levels of workplace bullying and lateral violence in their hospitals and need to prepare specific strategies to address these multiple factors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Domestic violence shelter partnerships and veterinary student attitudes at North American veterinary schools and colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creevy, Kate E; Shaver, Stephanie L; Cornell, Karen K

    2013-01-01

    Animal abuse and domestic violence are linked issues, and pet ownership is reported to play a crucial role in the choice to leave an abusive situation. Although veterinarians witness the effects of abuse and violence over the course of their careers, they have limited training regarding these issues. One mechanism for educating veterinary students while providing a service for victims of domestic violence is the creation of partnerships between domestic violence shelters and veterinary schools. These extracurricular programs can provide both care for pets belonging to victims of domestic violence and an educational platform for student participants. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence and characteristics of domestic violence shelter partnerships (DVSPs) at North American veterinary teaching hospitals and to determine whether the presence of a DVSP was associated with increased awareness among veterinary students regarding animal abuse and domestic violence. Nine of 33 veterinary schools surveyed described a DVSP program. Students at schools with DVSPs associated with their veterinary teaching hospitals were significantly more likely to indicate that their awareness of the link between animal abuse and domestic violence had increased during veterinary school. Most veterinary students reported that they felt poorly prepared to handle domestic violence and animal abuse issues in the workplace. This study indicates that extracurricular DVSPs are a viable means of educating veterinary students regarding domestic violence and animal abuse. A need for improved education on these topics in veterinary schools across North America is identified.

  9. Criminal aspects of domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Váňová, Radka

    2013-01-01

    Criminal aspects of domestic violence SUMMARY Domestic violence is a serious social concern with high level of latency. The domestic violence victims protection is ensured by legal standarts of Civil, Administrative and Criminal Law and other legal standarts. Criminal Law is one of the important instruments for tackling of serious forms of domestic violence. However Criminal Law is an instrument "ultima ratio" which needs claiming of subsidiarity principal of the crime repression. The purpose...

  10. Violence in Children's Literature Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimon, Maureen

    Because violence is an inescapable reality of the world, this paper asks the question, "Does violence have any place in children's literature?" For centuries, children's literature has encompassed stories in which the virtuous were rewarded and evildoers suffered retribution. Historically, violence was frequently part of punishment.…

  11. Engaging Men in Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher T.; Wheeler, Joshua A.

    2009-01-01

    Violence prevention groups on college campuses, in schools, and in communities are increasingly aware that violence against women cannot end unless men take an active role in stopping it, and the failure of many men to take the issue of violence against women seriously cannot be overlooked. At the University of South Carolina (USC), collaboration…

  12. Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, D.J.; Jong-A-Pin, R.

    Bezemer, Dirk, and Jong-A-Pin, Richard Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence Do democratization and globalization processes combine to increase the incidence of violence in developing and emerging economies? The present paper examines this hypothesis by a study of internal violence in

  13. Understanding sexual violence as a form of caste violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Patil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to understand narratives of sexual violence anchored within the dynamics of social location of caste and gender. Apparent caste-patriarchy and gender hierarchies which are at play in cases of sexual violence against lower-caste and dalit women speak about differential experiences of rape and sexual abuse that women have in India. The paper endeavours to establish that sexual violence is also a form of caste violence by rereading the unfortunate cases of Bhanwari Devi, Khairlanji, Lalasa Devi and Delta Meghwal Keywords: caste-patriarchy, Dalit women, POA Act, rape, sexual violence

  14. The Situation of Pregnant Women Exposure to Violence by Husband and the Factors Associated With Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulay Sagkal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was planned to determine the pregnant women living in rural areas exposure the situation to violence by husband and the factors associated with violence. METHODS: This descriptive cross-section research was conducted all of 5 Family Health Center located in the center of Odemis in izmir. The study sample consisted of 230 pregnant women who are willing to participate in the study, which surveyed admitted to Family Health Center between December 2011 - February 2012. Data are collected through a questionnaire prepared by examining the literature. The questionnaire consists of a total of 20 questions which including socio-demographic characteristics of pregnant women (8 questions, pregnancy, physical, emotional, economic and sexual violence, to determine (12 questions. Data were collected by face to face interviews by the researchers, were evaluated with number, percentage and chi-square tests. RESULTS: The average age of pregnant women was 25.75 +/- 4.63 (min:15-max:40, who was 83% of willingly got pregnant, 43% of first pregnancy, 79.6% of during pregnancy support of husband, 67% of the support of the family, % 32.6 of her husband doesn and #8217;t use substance but use alcohol, 10.9% of pregnant women reported physical, 52.6% of emotional, 31.7% of economic and 8.3% were exposed to sexual violence. CONCLUSiON: In this study, having pregnant woman and her husband to have graduated from primary school, moderate of the economic situation, unwilling pregnancy, lack of family support were the factors most strongly associated with violence. It is suggested that by health care institutions and health care providers must be routine screenings to determine violence during pregnancy. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 381-390

  15. Violence in society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Pedro de Andrade Dores

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent interest in the sociology of violence has arisen at the same time that western societies are being urged to consider the profound social crisis provoked by global financial turmoil. Social changes demand the evo- lution of sociological practices. The analysis herein proposed, based on the studies of M. Wieviorka, La Violence (2005, and of R. Collins, Violence: A Micro-sociological Theory (2008, concludes that violence is subject to sociological treatments cen- tered on the aggressors, on the struggles for power and on male gender. There is a lack of connection between prac- tical proposals for violence prevention and the sociol- ogy of violence. It is accepted that violence as a subject of study has the potential, as well as the theoretical and social centrality, to promote the debate necessary to bring social theory up to date. This process is more likely to oc- cur in periods of social transformation, when sociology is open to considering subjects that are still taboo in its study of violence, such as the female gender and the state. The rise of the sociology of violence confronts us with a dilemma. We can either collaborate with the construc- tion of a sub discipline that reproduces the limitations and taboos of current social theory, or we can use the fact that violence has become a “hot topic” as an opportunity to open sociology to themes that are taboo in social the- ory (such as the vital and harmonious character of the biological aspects of social mechanisms or the normative aspects of social settings. ResumenEl interés reciente en la sociología de la violencia ha surgido al mismo tiempo que las sociedades occidenta- les están requiriendo considerar la profunda crisis social provocada por la agitación financiera global. Los cambios sociales demandan la evolución de las prácticas socioló- gicas. El análisis aquí expuesto, basado en los estudios de M. Wieviorka, La Violence (2005, and of R. Collins

  16. Violence and Contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irme Salete Bonamigo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the etymological meaning of the term violence, analyzes the multiple possibilities of the definition and practices considered violent today. Contemporaneity is understood through a reference to Ulrich Beck’s theory of the global society of risks, which allows conceiving violence as contemporaneous configurations, linked to imprevisibility and to the risks that compose the current world. It identifies the emerging discourse of security as a possibility to mobilize people and legitimize practices of vigilance and social control, constituting a strategy of access and maintenance of the power of governing a municipality, state or nation. The paper presents some theoretical-methodological proposals for the study of contemporary violence, based on the study conducted and on the sociology of actor-network.

  17. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    - to praxis, and drawing on the concept of symbolic violence, this article contributes to their critique. In order to develop the analysis of difficulties victims may experience, they will be reconceptualised using critical psychological concepts such as 1st person perspectives and participation. The analysis...... seeks to undertake a discussion of personal meanings attributed to 'traumatisation'. It raises questions as to whether concepts of this kind and related practices may constitute symbolic violence and contribute to victimisation through looping-processes. Furthermore it aims at unfolding an understanding...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion....

  18. Problems and perspectives of domestic violence prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kasperskis, Darius

    2009-01-01

    This paper will analyze the domestic violence prevention problems and perspectives. The goal of this work is to discuss the main domestic violence characteristics, analyze Lithuanian and international prevention means and offer suggestions to improve Lithuanian domestic violence prevention. This work consentrates on mens violence over women. The conseption of violence is analyzed – the general violence features in criminology and law literature are discussed, the main domestic violence forms ...

  19. Workplace violence against resident doctors in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Tanu; Grover, Shekhar; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Madhan; Ingle, Gopal Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare workers particularly doctors are at high risk of being victims of verbal and physical violence perpetrated by patients or their relatives. There is a paucity of studies on work-related violence against doctors in India. We aimed to assess the exposure of workplace violence among doctors, its consequences among those who experienced it and its perceived risk factors. This study was done among doctors working in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. Data were collected by using a self-administered questionnaire containing items for assessment of workplace violence against doctors, its consequences among those who were assaulted, reporting mechanisms and perceived risk factors. Of the 169 respondents, 104 (61.4%) were men. The mean (SD) age of the study group was 28.6 (4.2) years. Sixty-nine doctors (40.8%) reported being exposed to violence at their workplace in the past 12 months. However, there was no gender-wise difference in the exposure to violence (p=0.86). The point of delivery of emergency services was reported as the most common place for experiencing violence. Verbal abuse was the most common form of violence reported (n=52; 75.4%). Anger, frustration and irritability were the most common symptoms experienced by the doctors who were subjected to violence at the workplace. Only 44.2% of doctors reported the event to the authorities. 'Poor communication skills' was considered to be the most common physician factor responsible for workplace violence against doctors. A large proportion of doctors are victims of violence by their patients or relatives. Violence is being under-reported. There is a need to encourage reporting of violence and prepare healthcare facilities to tackle this emerging issue for the safety of physicians.

  20. Violence in childhood, attitudes about partner violence, and partner violence perpetration among men in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yount, K.M.; Huyen, T.P.; Tran, H.M.; Krause, K.H.; Schuler, S.R.; Hoang, T.A.; VanderEnde, K.; Kramer, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We assess the association of men’s exposure to violence in childhood—witnessing physical violence against one’s mother and being hit or beaten by a parent or adult relative—with their attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. We explore whether men’s perpetration of IPV

  1. Children and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Domeena C

    2006-01-01

    In this "information era" it can no longer be said that children are being raised in Eden or in a gentle environment of kindness and love. However rural their home, children will undoubtedly see depictions of violence on television, in the movies, or in newspapers, or hear about it on the radio or while at school or on classroom computers. All children require safety education in order to learn how to protect themselves from harm at home, at school, or in the neighborhood. This article outlines how violence may impact today's children who seek medical care.

  2. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Scott

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and development of projects. Activities funded by the seven federal departments and agencies involved in the Initiative emphasize partnerships with the professional, voluntary, corporate, non-government and government sectors.

  3. Women's primary care nursing in situations of gender violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Visentin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective.Identify the actions conducted by primary health care nurses for women in situations of domestic violence. Methodology. Exploratory-descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Participants were 17 nurses who worked in the Basic Health Unit in a city in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and the information processing was performed using the interview content analysis technique. Results. By acting in a context of the violence, the nurses describe some elements and strategies they use that allow recognition and action to combat violence, namely: acceptance and empathy, establishing a bond of trust between the professional and the woman, dialogue, and intent listening. The limitations mentioned by participants were: lack of professional training to address the situation, feeling of unpreparedness, lack of time for the workload, the professional's difficulty in recognizing and dealing with violence given its complexity, low efficiency of the service network, and the sense of professional impotence against the gravity and complexity involved in violence. Conclusion. The participants are not adequately prepared to care for women in situations of domestic violence. It is necessary that this issue be addressed in the training of nursing professionals.

  4. DNA barcoding of vouchered xylarium wood specimens of nine endangered Dalbergia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Jiao, Lichao; Guo, Juan; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C; He, Tuo; Jiang, Xiaomei; Yin, Yafang

    2017-12-01

    ITS2+ trnH - psbA was the best combination of DNA barcode to resolve the Dalbergia wood species studied. We demonstrate the feasibility of building a DNA barcode reference database using xylarium wood specimens. The increase in illegal logging and timber trade of CITES-listed tropical species necessitates the development of unambiguous identification methods at the species level. For these methods to be fully functional and deployable for law enforcement, they must work using wood or wood products. DNA barcoding of wood has been promoted as a promising tool for species identification; however, the main barrier to extensive application of DNA barcoding to wood is the lack of a comprehensive and reliable DNA reference library of barcodes from wood. In this study, xylarium wood specimens of nine Dalbergia species were selected from the Wood Collection of the Chinese Academy of Forestry and DNA was then extracted from them for further PCR amplification of eight potential DNA barcode sequences (ITS2, matK, trnL, trnH-psbA, trnV-trnM1, trnV-trnM2, trnC-petN, and trnS-trnG). The barcodes were tested singly and in combination for species-level discrimination ability by tree-based [neighbor-joining (NJ)] and distance-based (TaxonDNA) methods. We found that the discrimination ability of DNA barcodes in combination was higher than any single DNA marker among the Dalbergia species studied, with the best two-marker combination of ITS2+trnH-psbA analyzed with NJ trees performing the best (100% accuracy). These barcodes are relatively short regions (wood as the source material, a necessary factor to apply DNA barcoding to timber trade. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of using vouchered xylarium specimens to build DNA barcoding reference databases.

  5. Violence and Asthma: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujiwara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that exposure to community violence is, directly and indirectly, associated with asthma. This article reviews the findings on the impact of violence on asthma, and the pathways for the association of violence and asthma are suggested: 1 exposure to violence is directly associated with asthma, mainly through dysregulation of sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, 2 exposure to violence is associated with the change of susceptibility of outdoor air pollution on asthma, probably through the change of an immune response, and 3 behavioral change due to exposure to violence (e.g. keeping children indoors leads to more exposure to indoor pollutants. The suggested framework may be useful to develop health policy on asthma in high-violence communities.

  6. Sensation Seeking in Street Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    Sensation seeking leads to violence—runs an influential hypothesis in the social scientific study of violent behavior. Although studies confirm that violence is sometimes structured by sensation-seeking motives, the literature seldom comments on the limits to this explanation of violence....... The present study examines the scale of violence motivated by sensation seeking and the degree to which there are several distinct forms of sensation seeking motives operative in violence, rather than a sensation-seeking motive in the singular. The study draws on a sample of situations from Copenhagen...... involving street violence, which are coded quantitatively and qualitatively. Our analysis shows that sensation seeking only seldom seems to play a role in the structuring of street violence. Moreover, the data indicate that sensation seeking finds expression in street violence situations in two different...

  7. Effectively engaging the private sector through vouchers and contracting - A case for analysing health governance and context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtnebel, Matthias; O'Mahony, Ashleigh; Pillai, Nandini; Hort, Kris

    2015-11-01

    Health systems of low and middle income countries in the Asia Pacific have been described as mixed, where public and private sector operate in parallel. Gaps in the provision of primary health care (PHC) services have been picked up by the private sector and led to its growth; as can an enabling regulatory environment. The question whether governments should purchase services from the private sector to address gaps in service provision has been fiercely debated. This purposive review draws evidence from systematic reviews, and additional published and grey literature, for input into a policy brief on purchasing PHC-services from the private sector for underserved areas in the Asia Pacific region. Additional published and grey literature on vouchers and contracting as mechanisms to engage the private sector was used to supplement the conclusions from systematic reviews. We analysed the literature through a policy lens, or alternatively, a 'bottom-up' approach which incorporates components of a realist review. Evidence indicates that both vouchers and contracting can improve health service outcomes in underserved areas. These outcomes however are strongly influenced by (1) contextual factors, such as roles and functions attributable to a shared set of key actors (2) the type of delivered services and community demand (3) design of the intervention, notably provider autonomy and trust (4) governance capacity and provision of stewardship. Examining the experience of vouchers and contracting to expand health services through engagement with private sector providers in the Asia Pacific found positive effects with regards to access and utilisation of health services, but more importantly, highlighted the significance of contextual factors, appropriate selection of mechanism for services provided, and governance arrangements and stewardship capacity. In fact, for governments seeking to engage the private sector, analysis of context and capacities are potentially a more

  8. Urban children's perceptions of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Karen; Kim, Lynn E; Galvin, John P

    2004-01-01

    To determine how preadolescent urban children conceptualize and experience violence in their lives. This qualitative study reports the results of focus groups designed to examine perceptions of violence among preadolescent urban children. Program directors were trained to conduct the sessions using a semistructured script. All groups were audiotaped or videotaped. The summaries were analyzed for recurring themes. A community-based visual arts program for children designed to be a secondary violence-prevention program. There were 12 focus groups of volunteer participants. Each consisted of 3 to 6 children aged 8 to 12 years, separated by sex and age. Fifty children participated: 27 boys and 23 girls. These children defined violence in a broader way than most adults would. Not only did the children identify shootings and stabbings as examples of violence, but they also considered violence to be any act that might hurt someone's feelings (such as cheating and lying) or any act accompanying violence (such as cursing and yelling). The boys and girls were very similar in their views except regarding the issue of intimate-partner violence. The girls were almost universally concerned about this issue, but the boys seemed noticeably unaware that intimate-partner violence was considered a form of violence. Most children felt safe at home, and almost no child felt safe at school. They looked to trusted adults to keep them safe. Future investigators measuring the effect of violence-prevention activities on preteen children should be aware that their definition of violence may differ from that of young children and should be cognizant of potential sex differences, especially around the topic of intimate-partner violence. Those designing violence-prevention programs for children should consider engaging adult family members as well because children usually turn to them for safety.

  9. An ex-ante economic evaluation of the Maternal and Child Health Voucher Scheme as a decision-making tool in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingkaew, Pritaporn; Werayingyong, Pitsaphun; Aye, San San; Tin, Nilar; Singh, Alaka; Myint, Phone; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2016-01-01

    Reducing child and maternal mortality in order to meet the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 remains a major challenge in Myanmar. Inadequate care during pregnancy and labour plays an important role in the maternal mortality rate in Myanmar. A Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Voucher Scheme comprising a subsidization for pregnant women to receive four antenatal care (ANC), delivery and postnatal care (PNC) free-of-charge was planned to help women overcome financial barriers in addition to raising awareness of ANC and delivery with skilled birth attendants (SBA), which can reduce the rate of maternal and neonatal death. This study is part of an ex-ante evaluation of a feasibility study of the MCH Voucher Scheme. A cost-utility analysis was conducted using a decision tree model to assess the cost per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted from the MCH Voucher Scheme compared with the current situation. Most input parameters were obtained from Myanmar context. From the base-case analysis, where the financial burden on households was fully subsidized, the MCH Voucher Scheme increased utilization for ANC from 73% up to 93% and for delivery from SBAs from 51% up to and 71%, respectively; hence, it is considered to be very cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 381 027 kyats per DALY averted (2010, price year). From the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the MCH Voucher Scheme had a 52% chance of being a cost-effective option at 1 GDP per capita threshold compared to the current situation. Given that the Voucher Scheme is currently being implemented in one township in Myanmar as a result of this study, ongoing evaluation of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this scheme is warranted. PMID:26412858

  10. An ex-ante economic evaluation of the Maternal and Child Health Voucher Scheme as a decision-making tool in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingkaew, Pritaporn; Werayingyong, Pitsaphun; Aye, San San; Tin, Nilar; Singh, Alaka; Myint, Phone; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2016-05-01

    Reducing child and maternal mortality in order to meet the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 remains a major challenge in Myanmar. Inadequate care during pregnancy and labour plays an important role in the maternal mortality rate in Myanmar. A Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Voucher Scheme comprising a subsidization for pregnant women to receive four antenatal care (ANC), delivery and postnatal care (PNC) free-of-charge was planned to help women overcome financial barriers in addition to raising awareness of ANC and delivery with skilled birth attendants (SBA), which can reduce the rate of maternal and neonatal death. This study is part of an ex-ante evaluation of a feasibility study of the MCH Voucher Scheme. A cost-utility analysis was conducted using a decision tree model to assess the cost per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted from the MCH Voucher Scheme compared with the current situation. Most input parameters were obtained from Myanmar context. From the base-case analysis, where the financial burden on households was fully subsidized, the MCH Voucher Scheme increased utilization for ANC from 73% up to 93% and for delivery from SBAs from 51% up to and 71%, respectively; hence, it is considered to be very cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 381 027 kyats per DALY averted (2010, price year). From the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the MCH Voucher Scheme had a 52% chance of being a cost-effective option at 1 GDP per capita threshold compared to the current situation. Given that the Voucher Scheme is currently being implemented in one township in Myanmar as a result of this study, ongoing evaluation of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this scheme is warranted. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  11. Preventing Youth Violence: Opportunities for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Simon, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    All forms of violence, including youth violence, suicidal behavior, child maltreatment, sexual violence, intimate partner violence, and elder abuse, negatively affect the health and well-being of this country. Youth violence, in particular, is a significant public health problem. Many young people and communities view the grim facts about youth…

  12. Intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronholm, Peter F; Fogarty, Colleen T; Ambuel, Bruce; Harrison, Suzanne Leonard

    2011-05-15

    Intimate partner violence is a common source of physical, psychological, and emotional morbidity. In the United States, approximately 1.5 million women and 834,700 men annually are raped and/or physically assaulted by an intimate partner. Women are more likely than men to be injured, sexually assaulted, or murdered by an intimate partner. Studies suggest that one in four women is at lifetime risk. Physicians can use therapeutic relationships with patients to identify intimate partner violence, make brief office interventions, offer continuity of care, and refer them for subspecialty and community-based evaluation, treatment, and advocacy. Primary care physicians are ideally positioned to work from a preventive framework and address at-risk behaviors. Strategies for identifying intimate partner violence include asking relevant questions in patient histories, screening during periodic health examinations, and case finding in patients with suggestive signs or symptoms. Discussion needs to occur confidentially. Physicians should be aware of increased child abuse risk and negative effects on children's health observed in families with intimate partner violence. Physicians also should be familiar with local and national resources available to these patients.

  13. Violence in Children's Cartoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Sue

    A British 12-year-old boy died while imitating the heroic leaps of the cartoon character Batman. Tragic incidents stemming from cartoon imitation such as this one occur with alarming frequency. Still, many people choose to ignore violence in children's cartoons. Even some experts don't recognize that cartoons may be harmful. Researcher Wilbur…

  14. Defining gratuitous violence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    special report on South Africa, released to coincide with the opening of ... difficult to answer questions about whether or not violence in South ... forward attempts to answer this question, partly because ... be due to the fact that this causes 'losses of self- esteem' .... cases other factors shape the motivations of the perpetrator ...

  15. An upbringing to violence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    in the incidence of ciolent behaviour that leads to convictions among adolescents and young men. In this study information from population-based registers covers various aspects both for children, aged between 15 and 27 years, and their parents: health (mental and physical), education, social networks, family...... violence, self-destructive behaviour, parental alcohol or drug abuse, and unemployment....

  16. Viewer Definitions of Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Deanna Campbell; And Others

    Segments of primetime and Saturday morning television programing were viewed by 225 people who then reported what criteria they used to assess violence on commercial and public television. The subjects also provided data on their visual media experience, their viewing habits, their viewing attitudes, and demographic characteristics. The subjects…

  17. Violence and Community Capabilities:

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ous cities boast community-based initiatives that significantly reduce the ..... account the ambiguous yet critical role that gangs can play at the local level. .... promote and exercise other forms of violence, such as extortion, sexual abuse, and ... of employment that comes without any rights or protection, and making informal.

  18. Unemployment and domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Anderberg; Helmut Rainer; Jonathan Wadsworth; Tanya Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Contrary to popular belief, the incidence of domestic violence in Britain does not seem to have risen during the recession. But according to research by Jonathan Wadsworth and colleagues, men and women have experienced different risks of unemployment - and these have had contrasting effects on the level of physical abuse.

  19. Understanding Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in adulthood. 1 Perpetrating bullying in early middle school is associated with sexual harassment perpetration in adolescence. 5 How can we stop sexual violence before it starts? CDC developed a technical package to help ... family, school, community, and societal factors that influence risk and ...

  20. Confronting Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Raymond J.; Heller, Daniel A.; Binet, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    To be safe havens for children, schools cannot address the intellect only. Brattleboro (Vermont) Union High School went beyond academics by sponsoring a performance of "The Yellow Dress," a powerful one-woman play about a teenage victim of dating violence. The production challenged participants to unite school and community, intellect…

  1. Intimate partner violence (IPV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Van, Toan Ngo; Nguyen, Hanh Thi Thuy

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global problem that affects one-third of all women. The present study aims to develop and determine the validity of a screening instrument for the detection of IPV in pregnant women in Tanzania and Vietnam and to determine the minimum number...

  2. Vaccinating Children against Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    A firm commitment to prevention and a caring curriculum are a school's best defense against student violence. Few educators have training for meeting students' psychological needs or techniques for working with angry, frustrated youngsters. If loners' need for recognition is not met, they will eventually act out or withdraw. (MLH)

  3. Islam and Political Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Esposito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The global threat of Al Qaeda post 9/11 and ISIL, increased Sunni-Shia conflicts, and violence in the Middle East and Pakistan dominate headlines and challenge governments in the region and globally. Both Muslim extremists and some Western experts and observers speak of a clash of civilizations or a culture war in Muslim-West relations. Both the discourse and violence yet again raise questions about the relationship of Islam to violence and terrorism: is Islam a particularly violent religion? Critics cite Quranic passages, doctrines like jihad and events in Muslim history as strong indicators and proof that Islam is the primary driver of Muslim extremism and terrorism. What do the Quran and Islamic law have to say about violence, jihad and warfare? What are the primary drivers of terrorism in the name of Islam today? This article will address these questions in the context of development of global jihadist movements, in particular Al Qaeda and ISIL, their roots, causes, ideology and agenda.

  4. A cycle of violence? Examining family-of-origin violence, attitudes, and intimate partner violence perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Li; Mazerolle, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to violence in the family-of-origin has consistently been linked to intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration in adulthood. However, whether the transmission of violence across generations is role- and gender-specific still remains unclear. The current study examined the effects of experiencing child abuse and observing parental violence on IPV perpetration among a sample of male arrestees (N = 303). The differential effects of observing violence perpetrated by same-sex (father to mother), opposite-sex (mother to father), and both parents on subsequent IPV perpetration were examined. Logistic regression analyses showed that while observing father-only violence and bidirectional interparental violence was predictive of IPV perpetration, observing mother-only violence and direct experiences of child abuse was not. These findings suggest that the transmission of violence across generations is both role- and gender-specific and highlight the importance of examining unique dimensions of partner violence to assess influences on children. The study further examined whether attitudes justifying wife beating mediate the effect of exposure to violence and subsequent IPV perpetration. Results showed that although attitudes were predictive of perpetration, these attitudes did not mediate the relationship. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Healthcare Workers and Workplace Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Pinar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Workplace violence is a threatening worldwide public health problem. Healthcare workers have under particular risk of workplace violence, and they are being exposed to violence 4-16 times more than other service workers. The frequency of violence in the health sector in the world has indicated in different range of results since there is no consistent definition of workplace violence and differences in research methodology (any type of violence: 22,0% - 60,0%; physical violence: 2,6% - 57,0%; verbal violence: 24,3% - 82,0%; sexual harassment: %1,9 - 10,5%. All healthcare workers have right to work in a safe working place. The safety of healthcare workers should deserve the same priority as patient safety. Various risk factors including social, cultural, environmental, organizational and personal elements play a role in the formation of workplace violence that is very important for our country. Considering all those factors, the workplace violence in health sector should be seriously handled and the strategies and policies must be developed for prevention. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 315-326

  6. Violence on canadian television networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Guy

    2004-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, the question of the effects of violence on television has figured prominently in public opinion and hundreds of studies have been devoted to this subject. Many researchers have determined that violence has a negative impact on behavior. The public, broadcasters and political figures all support the idea of reducing the total amount of violence on television - in particular in shows for children. A thousand programs aired between 1993 and 2001 on major non-specialty television networks in Canada were analyzed: TVA, TQS, as well as CTV and Global, private French and English networks, as well as the English CBC Radio and French Radio-Canada for the public networks. The methodology consists of a classic analysis of content where an act of violence constitutes a unit of analysis. The data collected revealed that the amount of violence has increased regularly since 1993 despite the stated willingness on the part of broadcasters to produce programs with less violence. The total number of violent acts, as well as the number of violent acts per hour, is increasing. Private networks deliver three times more violence than public networks. Researchers have also noted that a high proportion of violence occurs in programs airing before 21:00 hours, thereby exposing a large number of children to this violence. Psychological violence is taking on a more significant role in Canadian Television.

  7. Violence in the Street, Violence of the Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    While in his early and general theory of interaction rituals Randall Collins emphasised that social situations are both ’symbolic’ and ’material’, the latter dimension is largely absent from Collins’ theory of violence(Collins 2004; 1993: 214). Compared with criminology’s more recent situational...... studies of violence, it is noticeable that the analytical success of these studies is closely linked with understanding street violence as a spatial-situational phenomenon (Clarke 1997; Eck & Weisburd 1995; Bragand & Weisburd; 2010; Wikström et al. 2012; Sampson et al. 1997). In light of evidence...... for the spatial concentration of street violence, this paper takes its point of departure in a large study of Street Violence among youth in Copenhagen, Denmark (combining quantitative data from filed police reports (N = 501), data from CCTV (N=100) and qualitative analysis of selected cases of street violence...

  8. FAMILY VIOLENCE – MARRIAGE VIOLENCE WITH A FATAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Kostic-Banovic

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Family violence represents an especially dangerous social form of violence by means of which the rights of an individual – a member of a family – to live, to have psychic, physical and sexual integrity, freedom, security and human dignity, have been violated. The term marriage violence entails every form of physical, sexual, psychic and economic abuse of women by husbands or illegitimate partner. The family violence represents a widespread form of crime, and since it has become dramatic and dynamic during the recent years, the need for a direct forensic processing of the violence consequences within this specific and sensitive social group has arisen. In accordance with what has been outlined above, three cases of extreme, systematic and continuous marriage violence with fatal consequences of the abused women, whose bodies have been abducted at the Forensics Institute in Nis, have been presented in this paper.

  9. VIOLENCE DRESSED IN HUMOR: COMEDIC VIOLENCE IN ADVERTISING

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia Gradinaru

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the concepts of humor and violence and their complex relationships contextualised in the advertising domain. Thus, the main theories of humor and the most important elements from media violence paradigms are critically pointed out. The effects of comedic violence in advertising may be positive (great involvement with the ad message, retention of brand information, higher pass-along probability), and also negative (offending the audience, desensitization, damaging the r...

  10. Addition of generic medication vouchers to a pharmacist academic detailing program: effects on the generic dispensing ratio in a physician-hospital organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Vinay; Greg, Mark E; Shields, Mark C

    2010-01-01

    Generic dispensing ratio (GDR) is an important measure of efficiency in pharmacy benefit management. A few studies have examined the effects of academic detailing or generic drug samples on GDR. On July 1, 2007, a physician-hospital organization (PHO) with a pay-for-performance incentive for generic utilization initiated a pilot generic medication voucher program that augmented its existing pharmacist-led academic detailing efforts. No published studies have examined the role of generic medication vouchers in promoting generic drug utilization. To determine if supplementing an existing academic detailing initiative in a PHO with a generic medication voucher program would be more effective in increasing the GDR compared with academic detailing alone. The intervention took place over the 9-month period from July 1, 2007, through March 31, 2008. Vouchers provided patients with the first fill of a 30-day supply of a generic drug at no cost to the patient for 8 specific generic medications obtained through a national community pharmacy chain. The study was conducted in a PHO composed of 7 hospitals and approximately 2,900 physicians (900 primary care providers [PCPs] and 2,000 specialists). Of the approximately 300 PCP practices, 21 practices with at least 2 physicians each were selected on the basis of high prescription volume (more than 500 pharmacy claims for the practice over a 12-month pre-baseline period) and low GDR (practice GDR less than 55% in the 12-month pre-baseline period). These 21 practices were then randomized to a control group of academic detailing alone or the intervention group that received academic detailing plus generic medication vouchers. One of 10 intervention groups declined to participate, and 2 of 11 control groups dropped out of the PHO. GDR was calculated monthly for all pharmacy claims including the 8 voucher medications. GDR was defined as the ratio of the total number of paid generic pharmacy claims divided by the total number of paid

  11. Ending gender violence | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-11-18

    Nov 18, 2014 ... In no way should gender-based violence and sexual harassment be ... against women are men, any long-term solution to prevent violence and harassment ... roles in both preventing and condemning violence against women.

  12. Violence and Abuse in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Violence and Abuse in Rural America Violence and abuse ... of harassment, stalking, and bullying? How prevalent is violence and abuse in rural America? According to the ...

  13. Gaming Against Violence: A Grassroots Approach to Teen Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crecente, Drew

    2014-08-01

    Teen dating violence is a pervasive problem that affects millions of adolescents worldwide. Although there have been various approaches to addressing this problem, using videogames had not been employed before 2008, when Jennifer Ann's Group, an Atlanta, GA-based nonprofit organization, created an annual competition. The Life.Love. Game Design Challenge rewards game developers for creating videogames about teen dating violence without using any violence in the games themselves. The resulting videogames have increased awareness about teen dating violence and provided educational information to assist adolescents, parents, and teachers in identifying abusive relationships.

  14. Violence related to health work

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana da Silva Oliveira; Roberta Laíse Gomes Leite Morais; Elisama Nascimento Rocha; Sérgio Donha Yarid; Edite Lago da Silva Sena; Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira Boery

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to present a critical and reflective literature review on the violence related to health work. The survey was conducted through an integrated search in the Virtual Health Library in the months of May and June 2011. We selected 24 articles. The reading of the material led us to the following division results: studies characterization and bioethical reflection on violence related to health work. The work-related violence has consequences not only direct on ...

  15. Medicolegal characteristics of domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Antović Aleksandra R.; Stojanović Jovan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction/Objective. Domestic violence is a phenomenon as old as the history of human civilization, present in all cultures, epochs and social systems. Despite the fact that domestic violence represents a dangerous and unacceptable social phenomenon, as well as a significant medical problem, there are still no precise data on the prevalence of this phenomenon in our country. This study aims to determine the elementary forensic characteristics of domestic violence that would represented the...

  16. Children's experiences of domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Callaghan, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the key findings of a two year project focused on children's experiences of domestic violence. It draws on 107 interviews with children in Greece, Italy, Spain and the UK. The paper explores children's capacity to articulate their experiences, and highlights that they are not 'witnesses' to intimate partner violence, but experience it directly and make meaning of it, as members of a family affected by violence. I argue that children need to be recognised as direct victims...

  17. Family Violence and Family Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Carol P.

    1991-01-01

    The acronym IDEALS summarizes family physicians' obligations when violence is suspected: to identify family violence; document injuries; educate families and ensure safety for victims; access resources and coordinate care; co-operate in the legal process; and provide support for families. Failure to respond reflects personal and professional experience and attitudes, fear of legal involvement, and lack of knowledge. Risks of intervention include physician burnout, physician overfunctioning, escalation of violence, and family disruption. PMID:21228987

  18. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only been undertaken in the past 25 years. In the article the most important mechanisms, by which alcohol affects behavior, are explained. Aggression in persons with alcohol dependence and the connection between antisocial (dissocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression are described. In addition different forms of aggression or violence, that have been committed under the influence of alcohol, such as inter-partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse, crime and traffic accidents are described.Conclusions: The research findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related aggression.

  19. SCHOOL VIOLENCE: A COMPLEX PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Ayala-Carrillo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available School violence is one type of violence that reflects the breakdown of current society. It is impossible to speak of school violence as an isolated phenomenon without establishing nexuses between public and private life, between collective and individual behaviors, between family and community aspects, without making reference to differences in gender and the life stories of those who are the aggressors or the victims, and without considering the patriarchal culture and interpersonal relationships. When all these factor are interrelated, they make the problem of violence a very complex one that requires us to know the different factors in order to understand it and deal with it.

  20. [Forensic assessment of violence risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol Robinat, Amadeo; Mohíno Justes, Susana; Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 20 years there have been steps forward in the field of scientific research on prediction and handling different violent behaviors. In this work we go over the classic concept of "criminal dangerousness" and the more current of "violence risk assessment". We analyze the evolution of such assessment from the practice of non-structured clinical expert opinion to current actuarial methods and structured clinical expert opinion. Next we approach the problem of assessing physical violence risk analyzing the HCR-20 (Assessing Risk for Violence) and we also review the classic and complex subject of the relation between mental disease and violence. One of the most problematic types of violence, difficult to assess and predict, is sexual violence. We study the different actuarial and sexual violence risk prediction instruments and in the end we advise an integral approach to the problem. We also go through partner violence risk assessment, describing the most frequently used scales, especially SARA (Spouse Assault Risk Assessment) and EPV-R. Finally we give practical advice on risk assessment, emphasizing the importance of having maximum information about the case, carrying out a clinical examination, psychopathologic exploration and the application of one of the described risk assessment scales. We'll have to express an opinion about the dangerousness/risk of future violence from the subject and some recommendations on the conduct to follow and the most advisable treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Empowering Parents' Choice of Schools: The Rhetoric and Reality of How Hong Kong Kindergarten Parents Choose Schools under the Voucher Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Kit-Ho Chanel; Lam, Chi-Chung

    2011-01-01

    School choice gives parents greater power over their children's education. But ever since the Pre-primary Education Voucher Scheme (PEVS) was introduced in Hong Kong in 2007, school choice has become a hotly debated topic. The scheme was introduced to empower kindergarten parents in choosing a school for their children by offering them direct fee…

  2. Slight Decline in Use of Private School Tuition Vouchers in 2010-2011: Loss of Schools Results in Fewer Students. Research Brief. Volume 99, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Anneliese; Schmidt, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    For the first time since its 1998 expansion to include religious schools, enrollment in the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) did not grow in the 2010-2011 school year. Currently, 20,996 private school students receive taxpayer-funded tuition vouchers (of $6,442 per pupil), a decrease of 66 students over last year. Chart 1 shows program…

  3. Electoral Violence in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo, Eldrigde; Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi; Nyström, Daniel; Utas, Mats

    2012-01-01

    In the time period 2012–2013, over 20 national elections and two constitutional referendums are scheduled in Africa. In several of these elections, violence is anticipated to play a prominent role. There is great urgency to support the establishment of effective and legitimate electoral institutions and electoral frameworks; institute reforms aimed at lowering the stakes of elections; encourage the devolution of powers; improve the socio-economic standing of the populace; and devise strategie...

  4. Deconstructing domestic violence policy

    OpenAIRE

    Branney, PE

    2006-01-01

    The primary objectives of this thesis are to, circularly, deconstruct contemporary domestic violence policy while developing and evaluating methods for deconstructing policy. Policy is theorised as a discursive practice, which allows a variety of policies to be compared and critiqued by how they position the people they affect. These are known as subject positions, or subjectivities, and throughout this thesis I attempt to critique policy by examining the (re)construction of subjectivity. In ...

  5. Heavy Alcohol Use and Dating Violence Perpetration During Adolescence: Family, Peer and Neighborhood Violence as Moderators

    OpenAIRE

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating viol...

  6. Honour, Violence and Heteronormativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Asquith

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Popular representations of Honour Based Violence (HBV and honour killings construct this violence as an artefact of an uncivilised code of morality. Here ird, sharaf or izzat and shame are adhered to particular moral codes that are more likely to be found in the Quran. This clichéd version of HBV frames Muslim women’s sexual autonomy as exceptionally regulated, most commonly by male family members with the complicity of female relatives. In its most extreme (and publicly known form, HBV is epitomised by the ‘honour’ killings that come to the attention of the criminal justice system and, as a consequence, the media. Yet emerging research shows that HBV unfolds through increasingly punitive systems of social punishment, which is neither unique to Islam, nor religious communities more generally. In this paper, it is argued that the construction of HBV as a matter of deviant and antiquated Muslim honour codes is Islamophobic and that a more productive lens through which to understand collective familial violence may lie in the conceptual framework of heteronormativity.

  7. Predicting inpatient violence using the Broset Violence Checklist (BVC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almvik, R; Woods, P

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports early analysis of the Broset Violence Checklist. An instrument aiming to assist in the process of the prediction of violence from mentally ill in-patients. Early results appear promising and directions for future research using the instrument are suggested.

  8. From violence to more violence in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Medina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many Central American migrants flee their home country as a result of violence and threats from the criminal gangs. A large number of them also encounter the same type of violence that they are fleeing when on the migratory routes through Mexico.

  9. Child-to-Parent Violence: Challenging Perspectives on Family Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Declan

    2011-01-01

    Until relatively recently, the focus of research, policy and intervention responses to abuse and violence within families has been almost exclusively on the behaviour of adults rather than on the violence within families carried out by children and adolescents. As a consequence, the aggressive and violent behaviour of children and adolescents at…

  10. Association between Domestic Violence and School Violence: a preliminary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Williams

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Usually, one investigates marital violence, children victimization, and school violence in an isolated way. The aim of this paper is to highlight the relationship between domestic violence and school violence, suggesting actions to deal with these serious issues. With this goal in mind, two studies are described in this paper. The first one evaluates if boys who behave aggressively in school, in comparison with their non-aggressive peers, have more incidence of domestic violence exposure and victimization. The second study investigates if exposure to domestic violence and child victimization are factors associated with bullying. These studies indicated that there is a relation between the violence experienced in these two contexts; however they emphasize the need for further investigations with more participant and longitudinal studies. Teacher in-service training is suggested, aimed at: identifying students living in families with a history of domestic violence; supporting teachers and principals in case of disclosures in the school setting; social skills training for students; class discussions about healthy and non-violent family relationships and, psychotherapy referral to students who are victimized.

  11. Clustering of Adolescent Dating Violence, Peer Violence, and Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossarte, Robert M.; Simon, Thomas R.; Swahn, Monica H.

    2008-01-01

    To understand the co-occurrence of multiple types of violence, the authors developed a behavioral typology based on self-reports of suicidal behaviors, physical violence, and psychological abuse. Using a sample of dating adolescents from a high-risk school district, they identified five clusters of behaviors among the 1,653 students who reported…

  12. Understanding sexual and reproductive violence: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzelatto, J

    1998-12-01

    International agreements recognizing different forms of violence as violations of human rights and the definition provided by the 1993 UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women are taken as a starting point and its implications analyzed, emphasizing gender roles and stereotypes. Violence against women is related to violence in general, to the so-called culture of violence. Factors influencing a culture of violence are discussed, as well as the differences between public and private violence, emphasizing the need to understand their interaction to be effective in preventing violence against women. It is concluded that all violence stems from unbalanced exercise of power, creating injustice and lack of real democratic interaction. When left unchallenged such situations become part of the culture of individuals and societies, reinforcing the use of violence to solve conflicts. Hence, preventing violence against women requires cultural, social, economic, and political changes that are only possible by mobilizing society as a whole.

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a voucher scheme combined with obstetrical quality improvements: quasi experimental results from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Y Natalia; Bishai, David; Bua, John; Mutebi, Aloysius; Mayora, Crispus; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Uganda has declined significantly during the last 20 years, but Uganda is not on track to reach the millennium development goal of reducing MMR by 75% by 2015. More evidence on the cost-effectiveness of supply- and demand-side financing programs to reduce maternal mortality could inform future strategies. This study analyses the cost-effectiveness of a voucher scheme (VS) combined with health system strengthening in rural Uganda against the status quo. The VS, implemented in 2010, provided vouchers for delivery services at public and private health facilities (HF), as well as round-trip transportation provided by private sector workers (bicycles or motorcycles generally). The VS was part of a quasi-experimental non-randomized control trial. Improvements in institutional delivery coverage (IDC) rates can be estimated using a difference-in-difference impact evaluation method and the number of maternal lives saved is modelled using the evidence-based Lives Saved Tool. Costs were estimated from primary and secondary data. Results show that the demand for births at HFs enrolled in the VS increased by 52.3 percentage points. Out of this value, conservative estimates indicate that at least 9.4 percentage points are new HF users. This 9.4% bump in IDC implies 20 deaths averted, which is equivalent to 1356 disability-adjusted-life years (DALYs) averted. Cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the status quo and VS's most conservative effectiveness estimates shows that the VS had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per DALY averted of US$302 and per death averted of US$20 756. Although there are limitations in the data measures, a favourable cost-effectiveness ratio persists even under extreme assumptions. Demand-side vouchers combined with supply-side financing programs can increase attended deliveries and reduce maternal mortality at a cost that is acceptable. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School

  14. Sexual Violence on Religious Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwoerd, James R.; Cheng, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Religious colleges and universities make up a substantial segment of the higher education landscape in North America, but the incidence of sexual violence on these campuses remains understudied. This study estimates the incidence of sexual violence on independent Christian campuses using a sample of part-time and full-time undergraduate students…

  15. Domestic violence screening in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Mikiko Yazawa; Higa, Nicole A; Parker, Willie J; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2009-11-01

    Domestic violence is an important health concern that has been shown to have adverse effects on maternal and neonatal outcomes. The objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of prenatal screening for domestic violence in a hospital-based resident clinic setting with screening practices in private obstetric offices in Honolulu, Hawai'i and to explore physician attitudes towards domestic violence screening during pregnancy. A retrospective chart review was conducted at Queen's Medical Center in Honolulu, Hawai'i in women who delivered between 2003 and 2004. A 6 item written survey was also given to all attending and resident physicians with obstetric privileges. Descriptive statistics including frequency measures were generated and chi square tests were used to compare categorical variables. A total of 270 charts were reviewed. There was a statistically significant difference (p obstetric practices (39.3 percent) that were screened for domestic violence. While the majority of respondents (77.6%) to the domestic violence survey were aware that the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends domestic violence screening in pregnancy most respondents (69.0 percent) indicated that they "never or rarely" screened their patients for domestic violence. Despite professional recommendations and an awareness of these recommendations, between 2003 and 2004, routine prenatal screening for domestic violence was markedly lacking for patients in this study population.

  16. Screen violence and youth behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Craig A.; Bushman, Brad J.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Cantor, Joanne; Christakis, Dimitri; Coyne, Sarah M.; Donnerstein, Edward; Brockmyer, Jeanne Funk; Gentile, Douglas A.; Green, C. Shawn; Huesmann, Rowell; Hummer, Tom; Krahé, Barbara; Strasburger, Victor C.; Warburton, Wayne; Wilson, Barbara J.; Ybarra, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Violence in screen entertainment media (ie, television, film, video games, and the Internet), defined as depictions of characters (or players) trying to physically harm other characters (or players), is ubiquitous. The Workgroup on Media Violence and Violent Video Games reviewed numerous

  17. Cutting the Roots of Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziey, Paul W.

    1996-01-01

    Violence is rooted in obedience to authority and in comparisons--foundations of our institutions of parenting and schooling. Obedience brings reward and punishment, comparison perpetuates a cycle of competition and conflict. Television violence is especially harmful because children easily understand visual images. The Reality Research approach to…

  18. TV Violence: Myth and Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Mary A.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, with an average national television viewing time of more than seven hours daily, the prevalence of violence in broadcasts is a serious concern. Summarizes research on the effects of television violence on children. Includes eight suggested student activities to develop critical media skills. (CFR)

  19. Domestic Violence as Everyday Terrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Cunningham, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society.......Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society....

  20. Guns and Violence. Current Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Henny H., Ed.

    This book focuses on gun violence and gun control, presenting both sides of arguments about firearms ownership and gun control. Each of five chapters poses a question about gun control and provides answers for both sides of the question. The following essays are included: (1) "Gun Violence Is Becoming an Epidemic" (Bob Herbert); (2) "Gun Violence…

  1. Dating Violence among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Dating violence is a significant problem on college campuses. More than one-fifth of the undergraduate dating population are physically abused by their dating partners and an even greater percentage are psychologically abused. Researchers have identified risk factors for college student dating violence. Preventive interventions are strongly…

  2. The Relationship between Violence in the Family of Origin and Dating Violence among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, Angela R.; Kaukinen, Catherine; Fox, Kathleen A.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research has established that violence in dating relationships is a serious social problem among adolescents and young adults. Exposure to violence during childhood has been linked to dating violence victimization and perpetration. Also known as the intergenerational transmission of violence, the link between violence during childhood and…

  3. Anger Mediates the Relation between Violence Exposure and Violence Perpetration in Incarcerated Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimonis, Eva R.; Ray, James V.; Branch, Jessica R.; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Youth who are exposed to violence are more likely to perpetrate violence. Incarcerated youth are a special population that is at a significantly greater risk for violent offending because of their relatively greater rates of violence exposure. Two important outcomes of violence exposure that may help explain its link with violence perpetration are…

  4. Eastern Orthodox perspectives on violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton Saggau, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the post-communist era, the contemporary national Eastern Orthodox churches have often been accused of taking either direct or ideological part in violence across Eastern Europe. In several scholarly analyses, the churches have been linked with ethnic and national violence. They have...... thus been identified as an ideological root for a distinctive ethno-religious nationalism either blocking the way for a pluralistic society or simply defying it. These cases of violence and conflicts, as well as their subsequent analysis, only point to a practical and visible manifestation of conflicts......, and they therefore don’t answer a broader theological question, namely the question of the general position of the Eastern Orthodox churches regarding violence. This article will address this broader question of what the Orthodox churches’ position is on violence and discuss the co-relation and intersection between...

  5. Financing R&D Projects in Southern Italy: The “Technological Vouchers and Cooperative Research” Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpaolo Iazzolino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation and financing of research and innovation projects. The paper analyzes and discusses the “Technological Vouchers and Cooperative Research” program in the Calabria Region (Southern Italy, as a program for financing R&D projects in a geographical area far behind in development. Three real cases of R&D projects are described. The program was effective as regards the stimulus to realizing R&D activities by Calabrian SMEs and furthermore in relation to the improvement of cooperation between SMEs, research centers, universities and technological laboratories. The weak points of the program mainly regard the evaluation phase that made it impossible to get a feedback useful for policy and for driving future agenda.

  6. Conflict, Power, and Violence in Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin L.

    2010-01-01

    Research on conflict, power, and violence in families in the 2000s developed a promising focus on the interconnections between types of violence and between the experience of violence and locations in larger structures of power and inequality. I examine research on poly-victimization, typologies of violence, dyadic research, and links between…

  7. TV Violence: What's All the Fuss About?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Dorothy G.; Singer, Jerome L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems posed by television violence; how behavioral and social scientists became interested in television violence and its effects on children; how psychologists study relationships between television violence and behavior; how television violence can be counteracted by television industry, parents, and educators; and results from the…

  8. Swaps and Chains and Vouchers, Oh My!: Evaluating How Saving More Lives Impacts the Equitable Allocation of Live Donor Kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Evelyn M

    2018-03-01

    Live kidney donation involves a delicate balance between saving the most lives possible and maintaining a transplant system that is fair to the many thousands of patients on the transplant waiting list. Federal law and regulations require that kidney allocation be equitable, but the pressure to save patients subject to ever-lengthening waiting times for a transplant has been swinging the balance toward optimizing utility at the expense of justice. This article traces the progression of innovations created to make optimum use of a patient's own live donors. It starts with the simplest - direct donation by family members - and ends with voucher donations, a very recent and unique innovation because the donor can donate 20 or more years before the intended recipient is expected to need a kidney. In return for the donation, the intended recipient receives a voucher that can be redeemed for a live kidney when it is needed. Other innovations that are discussed include kidney exchanges and list paired donation, which are used to facilitate donor swaps when donor/recipient pairs have incompatible blood types. The discussion of each new innovation shows how the equity issues build on each other and how, with each new innovation, it becomes progressively harder to find an acceptable balance between utility and justice. The article culminates with an analysis of two recent allocation methods that have the potential to save many additional lives, but also affirmatively harm some patients on the deceased donor waiting list by increasing their waiting time for a life-saving kidney. The article concludes that saving additional lives does not justify harming patients on the waiting list unless that harm can be minimized. It also proposes solutions to minimize the harm so these new innovations can equitably perform their intended function of stimulating additional transplants and extending the lives of many transplant patients.

  9. Conceptualizing violence for health and medical geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVerteuil, Geoffrey

    2015-05-01

    Despite the fact that violence is a major threat to public health, the term itself is rarely considered as a phenomenon unto itself, and rarely figures explicitly in work by health and medical geographers. In response, I propose a definitionally and conceptually more robust approach to violence using a tripartite frame (interpersonal violence, structural violence, mass intentional violence) and suggest critical interventions through which to apply this more explicit and conceptually more robust approach: violence and embodiment via substance abuse in health geography, and structural violence via mental illness in medical geography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Przemoc domowa = Domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Łepecka-Klusek, Celina; Pawłowska-Muc, Agnieszka Konstancja; Pilewska-Kozak, Anna Bogusława; Stadnicka, Grażyna; Pałucka, Klaudia

    2015-01-01

    Łepecka-Klusek Celina, Pawłowska-Muc Agnieszka Konstancja, Pilewska‑Kozak Anna Bogusława, Stadnicka Grażyna, Pałucka Klaudia. Przemoc domowa = Domestic violence. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(6):169-182. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI 10.5281/zenodo.18420 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%286%29%3A169-182 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/564476 http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.18420 Formerly Journal of Health Sciences. ISSN 1429-9623 / 2300-665X. A...

  11. Violence the Western way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, B E

    1997-10-01

    Despite the quiet revolution in response to changing conceptualizations of gender in psychoanalysis, the Western has remained the domain of aggressive phallic masculinity. The iconic imagery of the Western, when combined with its narrative trajectory, is used to tell stories of violent encounters between men. The acceptance of the genre, and its duplication by other cultures and film makers, indicates that the Westerns' imagery and moral solutions tap into some basic deep structures of anxiety and pleasure in violence between men. As long as societies require subtle sublimations of aggressive and violent drives, it is likely that men will seek imaginary regressive experiences to discharge frustrations.

  12. Violence or law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimminich, O.; Troendle, H.; Middendorff, W.; Flor, G.; Guenzler, C.; Boehme, W.

    1982-01-01

    Bloody demonstrations, occupations of houses and airports, violence against things and persons make the citizens feel that the protection of life and property is no longer in a good state in the F.R. of Germany. How can a further erosion of the sense of justice be met. What can the citizens do to strengthen the sense of justice and to help making the respect of law grow again as a condition for the peaceful coexistence of people. The contributions from a meeting of the Evangelische Akademie Bad Herrenalb deal with these problems. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Preventing Domestic Violence in Alberta: A Cost Savings Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Wells

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that Alberta has the fifth highest rate of police reported intimate partner violence and the second highest rate of self reported spousal violence in Canada, and despite a 2.3 percent decline over the last decade, the province’s rate of self-reported domestic violence has stubbornly remained among the highest in Canada; rates of violence against women alone are 2.3 percentage points higher than the national average. In fact, every hour of every day, a woman in Alberta will undergo some form of interpersonal violence from an ex-partner or ex-spouse. Besides the devastating toll that domestic violence has on victims and their families, the ongoing cost to Albertans is significant. In the past five years alone it is estimated that over $600 million will have been spent on the provision of a few basic health and non health supports and that the majority of this cost ($521 million is coming out of the pockets of Albertans in the form of tax dollars directed at the provision of services. Fortunately, investment in quality prevention and intervention initiatives can be very cost effective, returning as much as $20 for every dollar invested. Recent research on preventative programming in the context of domestic violence shows promising results in reducing incidents of self-reported domestic violence. The economic analysis of this preventative programming suggests that the benefits of providing the various types of programming outweighed the costs by as much as 6:1. The potential cost savings for the Alberta context are significant; the implementation of these preventative programs has been estimated to be approximately $9.6 million while generating net cost-benefits of over $54 million. Domestic violence is a persistent blight, and continues to have a significant impact on individuals and families in Alberta, but potent tools exist to fight it. This brief paper offers a cogent summary of its costs, and the benefits that could be

  14. Global status report on violence prevention, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Butchart, A.; Mikton, C.

    2014-01-01

    The Global status report on violence prevention 2014, which reflects data from 133 countries, is the first report of its kind to assess national efforts to address interpersonal violence, namely child maltreatment, youth violence, intimate partner and sexual violence, and elder abuse.\\ud \\ud Jointly published by WHO, the United Nations Development Programme, and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the report reviews the current status of violence prevention efforts in countries, and...

  15. The relationship between severity of violence in the home and dating violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Eva Nowakowski; Dodd, Virginia J Noland; Tejeda, Manuel J

    2008-01-01

    This study used propositions from the social learning theory to explore the effects of the combined influences of child maltreatment, childhood witness to parental violence, sibling violence, and gender on dating violence perpetration using a modified version of the Conflict Tactics Scale 2 (CTS2). A weighted scoring method was utilized to determine how severity of violence in the home impacts dating violence perpetration. Bivariate correlations and linear regression models indicate significant associations between child maltreatment, sibling violence perpetration, childhood witness to parental violence, gender, and subsequent dating violence perpetration. Multiple regression analyses indicate that for men, history of severe violence victimization (i.e., child maltreatment and childhood witness to parental violence) and severe perpetration (sibling violence) significantly predict dating violence perpetration.

  16. Violence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A.; Mercy, James A.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Hillis, Susan D.; Klevens, Joanne; Houry, Debra

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interpersonal violence, which includes child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse, affects millions of US residents each year. However, surveillance systems, programs, and policies to address violence often lack broad, cross-sector collaboration, and there is limited awareness of effective strategies to prevent violence. OBJECTIVES To describe the burden of interpersonal violence in the United States, explore challenges to violence prevention efforts and to identify prevention opportunities. DATA SOURCES We reviewed data from health and law enforcement surveillance systems including the National Vital Statistics System, the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports, the US Justice Department’s National Crime Victimization Survey, the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence, the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—All Injury Program. RESULTS Homicide rates have decreased from a peak of 10.7 per 100 000 persons in 1980 to 5.1 per 100 000 in 2013. Aggravated assault rates have decreased from a peak of 442 per 100 000 in 1992 to 242 per 100 000 in 2012. Nevertheless, annually, there are more than 16 000 homicides and 1.6 million nonfatal assault injuries requiring treatment in emergency departments. More than 12 million adults experience intimate partner violence annually and more than 10 million children younger than 18 years experience some form of maltreatment from a caregiver, ranging from neglect to sexual abuse, but only a small percentage of these violent incidents are reported to law enforcement, health care clinicians, or child protective agencies. Moreover, exposure to violence increases vulnerability to a broad range of mental and physical health problems over the life course; for example

  17. School violence: an insider view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shelley A; Fisher, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    To discover what teachers perceive to be contributing factors to violence in schools. Open-ended questions were asked of a convenience sample of teachers ( = 396) during an in-service education program on school violence. The teachers were in a semi-rural school district in a Mid-Atlantic state. Answers were analyzed using content analysis; all responses were reviewed and important themes were extracted. Identified themes were then placed into suitable categories and studied to determine relationships. Of the surveys analyzed ( = 239), 13 themes were identified. The three categories which then identified probable causes of school violence were (1) lack of knowledge, (2) lack of support, and (3) inadequate safety measures. Nurses can use the results of this study in multiple ways. One is to help parents understand their role in preventing school violence. Because violence in the home and violence in the media seem to foster violent acting-out behavior, nurses can teach parents about these correlations and seek solutions such as the elimination of family violence, and monitoring television viewing and video games. Nursing assessments of school-aged children and their families can include these elements. School nurses in particular can use these study results as an opportunity to develop interventions for students, teachers, and families that stress knowledge building about impulse control, anger management, appropriate parenting, and early intervention for at-risk children.

  18. Multi-perpetrator domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Michael

    2014-04-01

    A significant proportion of reports of domestic violence against women involve multiple perpetrators. Although the number of perpetrators has been consistently identified as a measure of abuse severity, only a minority of studies of domestic violence examine the role of multiple offenders. Data on multi-perpetrator domestic violence (MDV) is frequently removed from analysis in domestic violence studies, or multi-perpetrator incidents are treated as single-perpetrator incidents. However, the available research links MDV to negative mental and physical health outcomes, intimate partner homicide, homelessness among women, and severe mental illness and suicidality. This article reviews the available prevalence data on MDV and draws together research on the contexts in which MDV takes place. It highlights two groups that are particularly vulnerable to MDV: (1) girls and women partnered to members of gangs and organized crime groups and (2) girls and women in some ethnic minority communities. While discussions of honor in relation to domestic violence are often racialized in Western media, this article highlights the cross-cultural role of masculine honor in collective violence against women in the working class and impoverished communities of majority cultures as well as in migrant and ethnic minority communities. It is clear that such complex forms of violence present a range of challenges for intervention and treatment and the article emphasizes the need for specialized and coordinated modes of investigation, support, and care.

  19. Critical Routes: Women Facing Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Nazareth Meneghel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Critical Routes International Seminar – Women Facing Violence , which took place in Porto Alegre in 2008. The seminar was promoted by the Graduate Program on Collective Health at Unisinos and by the Public Health School/RS and was supported by outstanding researchers working in the fields of collective health, and social and human sciences. Initially, we discuss some conceptual aspects about gender violence, its dimensions and its consequences for the health and the life quality of the affected women. Our understanding is that violence is one of the most effective methods of controlling women in societies scarred with gender hierarchies. The structure of the seminar focused on three main discussion themes: breaking up with the violence, mechanisms for working with gender and hearing the services. These themes were chosen aiming at looking for ways to help the women and to explore efficient mechanisms to combat, reduce and, if possible, eliminate the violence perpetrated against women. At the end of the seminar, we reiterate the political commitment on the accomplishment of the public policies to face violence and the fight against all inequality, discrimination and violence forms based on gender.

  20. Domestic Violence Among Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Sadia; Abbasi, Nasreen; Khan, Bushra; Danish, Nargis; Nazir, Quratulain

    2018-01-01

    Domestic violence during pregnancy is an important social & health issue in all societies. In Muslim world and particularly underdeveloped countries, domestic violence is often under reported. It is the need of hour to encourage reporting of such events & implementation of research-based policies for prevention of women abuse & support of the victims of domestic violence (DV). The objective of this study was to highlight this neglected social problem of our society & to identify at risk population. This is a cross sectional study conducted at Ayub Teaching Hospital & Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad (January 2014 to December. 2016). Pregnant women were inquired regarding history of abuse by husband and sociodemographic characteristics were noted in a Performa to analyse the risk factors for domestic violence. The overall prevalence was found to be 35%. Out of 1000 pregnant women, 270 (27%) suffered from simple violence and 60 (6%) were victims of grievous assault. Violence among pregnant women is found to be more prevalent among residents of urban areas, women of older age being uneducated & belonging to poor socioeconomic status. Domestic violence during pregnancy is a common & often neglected psychosocial health problem. High risk population needs to be identified so that preventive strategies can be planned & implemented.

  1. Violence in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Keith R; Hughes, Nolan P; Rozel, John S

    2016-12-01

    Violence is common in the emergency department (ED). The ED setting has numerous environmental risk factors for violence, including poor staffing, lack of privacy, overcrowding, and ready availability of nonsecured equipment that can be used as weapons. Strategies can be taken to mitigate the risk of violence toward health care workers, including staff training, changes to the ED layout, appropriate use of security, and policy-level changes. Health care providers in the ED should be familiar with local case law and standards related to the duty to warn third parties when a violent threat is made by a patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Violence related to health work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to present a critical and reflective literature review on the violence related to health work. The survey was conducted through an integrated search in the Virtual Health Library in the months of May and June 2011. We selected 24 articles. The reading of the material led us to the following division results: studies characterization and bioethical reflection on violence related to health work. The work-related violence has consequences not only direct on professionals’ health, but also for the citizen and society as a whole. Make it visible is the first action needed for prevention / control and to promote healthier workplaces.

  3. VIOLENCE RELATED TO HEALTH WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to present a critical and reflective literature review on the violence related to health work. The survey was conducted through an integrated search in the Virtual Health Library in the months of May and June 2011. We selected 24 articles. The reading of the material led us to the following division results: studies characterization and bioethical reflection on violence related to health work. The work-related violence has consequences not only direct on professionals’ health, but also for the citizen and society as a whole. Make it visible is the first action needed for prevention / control and to promote healthier workplaces.

  4. [Violence against persons in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgenkrantz, Simone

    2009-01-01

    The violence against persons in France are various, from those inflicted by society against human groups or individuals, from those, almost unrecognizable, occurring inside the families. It is an important public health problem and need population-based surveys to evaluate and to prevent it. The numerous publications about violence, and particularly about violence against women which have been recently published reflect the actual awareness. But they demonstrate also the diversity and the evolution of the policies which do not simplify the the ways to find solutions.

  5. VIOLENCE DRESSED IN HUMOR: COMEDIC VIOLENCE IN ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Gradinaru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the concepts of humor and violence and their complex relationships contextualised in the advertising domain. Thus, the main theories of humor and the most important elements from media violence paradigms are critically pointed out. The effects of comedic violence in advertising may be positive (great involvement with the ad message, retention of brand information, higher pass-along probability, and also negative (offending the audience, desensitization, damaging the reputation and the brand equity. A lot of factors change the perception of comedic violent ads (gender, social norm beliefs etc., so that a multidimensional analysis of consumer perceptions is needed if we want to draw a more accurate picture of this phenomenon. The analysis of the specific ad that I developed in the second part of this paper showed clearly the interplay between perceived humor and perceived violence and also the relevance of the cultural background in its interpretation.

  6. Violence in childhood, attitudes about partner violence, and partner violence perpetration among men in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M; Pham, Huyen Tran; Minh, Tran Hung; Krause, Kathleen H; Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Anh, Hoang Tu; VanderEnde, Kristin; Kramer, Michael R

    2014-05-01

    We assess the association of men's exposure to violence in childhood-witnessing physical violence against one's mother and being hit or beaten by a parent or adult relative-with their attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. We explore whether men's perpetration of IPV mediates this relationship and whether men's attitudes about IPV mediate any relationship of exposure to violence in childhood with perpetration of IPV. Five hundred twenty-two married men 18-51 years in Vietnam were interviewed. Multivariate regressions for ordinal and binary responses were estimated to assess these relationships. Compared with men experiencing neither form of violence in childhood, men experiencing either or both had higher adjusted odds of reporting more reasons to hit a wife (aOR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.03-2.00 and aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.05-2.64, respectively). Men's lifetime perpetration of IPV accounted fully for these associations. Compared with men experiencing neither form of violence in childhood, men experiencing either or both had higher adjusted odds of ever perpetrating IPV (aOR, 3.28; 95% CI, 2.15-4.99 and aOR, 4.56; 95% CI, 2.90-7.17, respectively). Attitudes about IPV modestly attenuated these associations. Addressing violence in childhood is needed to change men's risk of perpetrating IPV and greater subsequent justification of it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. To Reverse the Cycle of Violence, Try Humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The social tradition of the church constantly has decried violence. Pope Paul VI was clear when he stated: "The Church cannot accept violence ... because she knows that violence always provokes violence and irresistibly engenders new forms of oppression and enslavement."'.

  8. Jocks, gender, binge drinking, and adolescent violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen E; Melnick, Merrill J; Farrell, Michael P; Sabo, Donald F; Barnes, Grace M

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has suggested a link between athletic involvement and elevated levels of adolescent violence outside the sport context. The present study expanded on this literature by positing differences in the sport-violence relationship across dimensions of athletic involvement (athletic participation vs. jock identity), type of violence (family vs. nonfamily), and gender as well as by examining the impact of binge drinking on the sport-violence relationship. Regression analyses using a sample of 608 Western New York adolescents indicated that (a) jock identity (but not athletic participation) was associated with more frequent violence, (b) jock identity predicted nonfamily violence (but not family violence), and (c) the link between jock identity and nonfamily violence was stronger for boys than for girls. Binge drinking predicted family violence among nonjocks only.

  9. PSA: Topic of gender violence

    OpenAIRE

    Accensi Martínez, Maria Cinta

    2016-01-01

    Breu reflexió sobre la violència existent actualment envers les dones. Breve reflexión sobre la violencia existente actualmente hacia las mujeres. Brief reflection on currently existing violence against women.

  10. Preventing Interpersonal Violence in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Sethi

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSION: Community surveys can play an important role to better understand the scale and risk factors of different types of interpersonal violence. Readers are called upon to support a coordinated public health response to prevent this societal and health threat.

  11. Cash transfers and domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidrobo, Melissa; Fernald, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Violence against women is a major health and human rights problem yet there is little rigorous evidence as to how to reduce it. We take advantage of the randomized roll-out of Ecuador's cash transfer program to mothers to investigate how an exogenous increase in a woman's income affects domestic violence. We find that the effect of a cash transfer depends on a woman's education and on her education relative to her partner's. Our results show that for women with greater than primary school education a cash transfer significantly decreases psychological violence from her partner. For women with primary school education or less, however, the effect of a cash transfer depends on her education relative to her partner's. Specifically, the cash transfer significantly increases emotional violence in households where the woman's education is equal to or more than her partner's. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Between Agency and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    The Role of Symbolic Violence in Research and Policy: In Denmark it is a common assumption that gender equality, especially concerning sexual practices and other personal relations, has been fully accomplished. Consequently, public as well as professional discourses and practices concerning rape...... - could be exposed to sexualised violence. Another example is that therapy and other forms of help do not draw on critical perspectives on gender conditions. Rather, frequently and in essencialising approaches to concepts of femininity and masculinity, they individualise or over...... of this kind in public policies concerning gendered and gendering violence, it is necessary to develop critiques of aspects of symbolic violence (Beate Krais 1993), that have been conceptualised as ‘genderless gender’ by Suvi Ronkainen (2001). Thus statistic and other forms of research approaches wishing...

  13. The Legitimation of Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Miniuci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This text is oriented by the following questions: What is terrorism? How does it differ from other legitimized violent acts committed during war or in the course of a revolution? In order to answer them, this article discusses, first, the legitimacy of violence and the moral judgment of it; second, it will address the distinction between terrorist acts, acts of war, common crimes and revolutionary action, on the one hand, and the concept of innocent victim and the legitimacy of the target, on the other. In short, a new classification for terrorism will be seen, which will appear as a tactic used by political groups, as well as by public authorities, in the course of a revolution or during a war.

  14. The Semantics of "Violence"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    This paper presents a semantic analysis of “violence” – a word around which Anglo-internationaldiscourses revolve. Many ethnolinguistic communities around the world are currently adapting thisEnglish lexical concept into their linguistic systems, and, presumably also, the view of the worldembodied...... by the “violence” concept.Based on semantic fieldwork in Port Vila, the creolophone capital of Vanuatu in the SouthPacific, the paper investigates the discursive introduction of “violence” into a community which,until recently, lived by other concepts. I compare and contrast the traditional Bislama concepts...... kilimand faetem with the newly imported English word vaeolens (violence). My study provides newevidence for how cognitive and semantic change co-occur in the context of postcolonial linguisticcommunities, and my paper addresses an important, ongoing controversy related to the notion of“Anglocentric bias...

  15. Longitudinal evaluation of a training program to promote routine antenatal enquiry for domestic violence by midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Kathleen; Creedy, Debra K; Saito, Amornrat S; Eustace, Jennifer

    2018-01-15

    Routine enquiry about domestic violence during pregnancy is accepted best practice. Training is essential to improve knowledge and practice. Few studies have undertaken a comprehensive evaluation of training impact over time. To evaluate the longitudinal impact of a domestic violence training and support program to promote midwives' routine antenatal enquiry for domestic violence using a mixed methods design. Data sources included (1) surveys of midwives at 6 months post-training, (2) interviews with key stakeholders at 12 months, (3) chart audit data of screening, risk, and disclosure rates (for 16 months). Measures included midwives' knowledge, preparation for routine enquiry, knowledge of domestic violence and perceptions of impact of the training and support for practice change. Forty (out of 83) participant surveys could be matched and responses compared to baseline and post-training scores. Wilcoxon signed-rank test identified that all 6-month follow-up scores were significantly higher than those at baseline. Level of preparedness increased from 42.3 to 51.05 (Z=4.88, p90%) reported improved confidence to undertake routine inquiry. A chart audit of screening rates revealed that of the 6671 women presenting for antenatal care, nearly 90% were screened. Disclosure of domestic violence was low (<2%) with most women at risk or experiencing violence declining referral. Training, support processes, and referral pathways, contributed to midwives' sustained preparedness and knowledge to conduct routine enquiry and support women disclosing domestic violence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Investigating sexual violence and abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Synnott, John

    2017-01-01

    This special issue brings together emerging research concerning the issue of Sexual Violence and Abuse from around the world. The importance of pulling together research that explores the central topic of sexual violence and abuse is more pressing than ever and having a collection of work using different methodological approaches to unique samples previously unexplored contributes significantly to our understanding towards this type of offence.

  17. Immigrant Women and Partner Violence

    OpenAIRE

    KUUSELA, HANNA

    2011-01-01

    Violence against women is a global problem, which can be recognized in every society and culture. Both in Canada and Finland the research about violence against immigrant women has begun quite recently and therefore, there is still a lot we do not know about this phenomenon and thus a demand for research. Immigrant women face unique circumstances and are in a vulnerable position of being abused. They are not a homogeneous group, on the contrary, they have individual life experiences but they ...

  18. Screen Violence and Youth Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A; Bushman, Brad J; Bartholow, Bruce D; Cantor, Joanne; Christakis, Dimitri; Coyne, Sarah M; Donnerstein, Edward; Brockmyer, Jeanne Funk; Gentile, Douglas A; Green, C Shawn; Huesmann, Rowell; Hummer, Tom; Krahé, Barbara; Strasburger, Victor C; Warburton, Wayne; Wilson, Barbara J; Ybarra, Michele

    2017-11-01

    Violence in screen entertainment media (ie, television, film, video games, and the Internet), defined as depictions of characters (or players) trying to physically harm other characters (or players), is ubiquitous. The Workgroup on Media Violence and Violent Video Games reviewed numerous meta-analyses and other relevant research from the past 60 years, with an emphasis on violent video game research. Consistent with every major science organization review, the Workgroup found compelling evidence of short-term harmful effects, as well as evidence of long-term harmful effects. The vast majority of laboratory-based experimental studies have revealed that violent media exposure causes increased aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiologic arousal, hostile appraisals, aggressive behavior, and desensitization to violence and decreases prosocial behavior (eg, helping others) and empathy. Still, to more fully understand the potential for long-term harm from media violence exposure, the field is greatly in need of additional large-sample, high-quality, longitudinal studies that include validated measures of media violence exposure and measures of other known violence risk factors. Also, although several high-quality media violence intervention studies have been conducted, larger-scale studies with more comprehensive and longer-term assessments are needed to fully understand long-term effects and to inform the development of tools that will help to reduce problems associated with aggression and violence. The evidence that violent screen media constitutes a causal risk factor for increased aggression is compelling. Modern social-cognitive theories of social behavior provide useful frameworks for understanding how and why these effects occur. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Workplace violence: protecting your practice from an epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calway, R C

    2001-01-01

    Workplace violence, in the form of verbal threats and/or intimidation and physical aggression, is commonplace in medical practices today. The practice must be prepared to respond to this disaster in the same manner with which they prepare for responses to a medical emergency, fire, or loss of electricity. The risks and liabilities of failing to build a robust program include low staff morale and productivity, employee injury, lost work time, regulatory fines and sanctions, and the risk of civil judgments against the practice. The most successful programs receive commitment (read: involvement) from management and include staff in program development and implementation.

  20. Rural youth and violence: a gender perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Barry L; Kulig, Judith; Grant Kalischuk, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    The public health system must consider violence as an all too common reality in modern life. Violence can contribute to long-lasting negative consequences for individuals and communities. Research on violence has primarily focused on urban environments. Research examining youth violence within rural communities is limited. This is particularly the case for the links between gender and violence in small rural settings. The purpose of this study was to examine rural violence from a gender perspective by examining four variables: meaning, causes, consequences and solutions. A survey was completed in Central Alberta, Canada with 178 students from grades 6 to 12. The schools' geographic locations represented two distinct economic settings: one natural resources and the other agriculture. The mean age of the participants was 16 years with 60% of the youth female and 40% male. The survey instrument was composed of demographic questions and 70 questions that focused on violence. Violence was a concern for all youth, but there were gender differences. Females viewed the meaning of violence as having the intent to harm others and causes contributing to violence included television, movies, video games and the internet. Females were more concerned than males about the emotional consequences of violence. For solutions, females were more accepting of intrusive means to control violence such as increased security and stricter school rules, and involving non-peer helpers such as teachers and community based agencies as a means to help combat violence. The results of this study indicate that violence exists among rural youth and causes a great deal of concern. In particular, the study underscores the fact that there are potential gender differences in relation to causes, meaning, impact and solutions to violence. All the youth believed that violence in their lives needs to be addressed and want to develop anti-violence strategies. Females in particular see the development of such

  1. Preventing Sexual Violence and HIV in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommarin, Clara; Kilbane, Theresa; Mercy, James A.; Moloney-Kitts, Michele; Ligiero, Daniela P.

    2018-01-01

    Background Evidence linking violence against women and HIV has grown, including on the cycle of violence and the links between violence against children and women. To create an effective response to the HIV epidemic, it is key to prevent sexual violence against children and intimate partner violence (IPV) against adolescent girls. Methods Authors analyzed data from national household surveys on violence against children undertaken by governments in Swaziland, Tanzania, Kenya, and Zimbabwe, with support of the Together for Girls initiative, as well as an analysis of evidence on effective programmes. Results Data show that sexual and physical violence in childhood are linked to negative health outcomes, including increased sexual risk taking (eg, inconsistent condom use and increased number of sexual partners), and that girls begin experiencing IPV (emotional, physical, and sexual) during adolescence. Evidence on effective programmes addressing childhood sexual violence is growing. Key interventions focus on increasing knowledge among children and caregivers by addressing attitudes and practices around violence, including dating relationships. Programmes also seek to build awareness of services available for children who experience violence. Discussion Findings include incorporating attention to children into HIV and violence programmes directed to adults; increased coordination and leveraging of resources between these programmes; test transferability of programmes in low- and middle-income countries; and invest in data collection and robust evaluations of interventions to prevent sexual violence and IPV among children. Conclusions This article contributes to a growing body of evidence on the prevention of sexual violence and HIV in children. PMID:24918598

  2. Domestic Violence and Social Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Black

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A violência doméstica é o uso da força entre parceiros que vivem juntos como um casal. A maioria é uma forma de gestão de conflitos conhecida como autoajuda: o tratamento de uma queixa com agressão. Em Violência doméstica e tempo social eu introduzo dois princípios de violência doméstica que explicam 1 quais casais têm mais violência e 2 o que causa sua violência. O primeiro princípio - a violência doméstica é uma função direta da distância doméstica – explica por que algumas estruturas domésticas (como “patriarquias frias” têm mais violência do que outras (como “democracias estreitas”. O segundo princípio – a violência doméstica é uma função direta do movimento do tempo doméstico – explica casos particulares de violência doméstica com mudanças (como diminuição da intimidade ou aumento da desigualdade nas relações domésticas onde elas ocorrem. Esses princípios explicam a violência doméstica nas sociedades tradicionais e modernas, entre homens e mulheres, e em casais heterossexuais e do mesmo sexo. Domestic violence is the use of force between partners who live together as a couple. Most is a form of conflict management known as self-help: the handling of a grievance with aggression. Here I introduce two principles of domestic violence that explain 1 which couples have more violence and 2 what causes their violence. The first principle – domestic violence is a direct function of domestic distance – explains why some domestic structures (such as “cold patriarchies” have more violence than others (such as “close democracies”. The second principle – domestic violence is a direct function of the movement of domestic time – explains particular cases of domestic violence with changes (such as decreases of intimacy or increases of inequality in the domestic relationships where they occur. These principles explain domestic violence in traditional and modern societies, by men and

  3. Primary Prevention of Violence: Stopping Campus Violence before It Starts. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Violence is a serious problem on college campuses. The literature on primary prevention of violence does not call for the adoption of specific programs or policies but rather suggests a paradigm shift in the way practitioners approach violence. Primary prevention means asking the question, "Why is violence happening in the first place?" in order…

  4. Heavy alcohol use and dating violence perpetration during adolescence: family, peer and neighborhood violence as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T

    2012-08-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating violence perpetration across grades 8 through 12. The effects of heavy alcohol use on dating violence tended to diminish over time and were stronger in the spring than in the fall semesters. Consistent with hypotheses, across all grades, relations between heavy alcohol use and dating violence were stronger for teens exposed to higher levels of family violence and friend dating violence. However, neither friend peer violence nor neighborhood violence moderated relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Taken together, findings suggest that as adolescents grow older, individual and contextual moderators may play an increasingly important role in explaining individual differences in relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Implications for the design and evaluation of dating abuse prevention programs are discussed.

  5. Heavy Alcohol Use and Dating Violence Perpetration During Adolescence: Family, Peer and Neighborhood Violence as Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating violence perpetration across grades 8 through 12. The effects of heavy alcohol use on dating violence tended to diminish over time and were stronger in the spring than in the fall semesters. Consistent with hypotheses, across all grades, relations between heavy alcohol use and dating violence were stronger for teens exposed to higher levels of family violence and friend dating violence. However, neither friend peer violence nor neighborhood violence moderated relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Taken together, findings suggest that as adolescents grow older, individual and contextual moderators may play an increasingly important role in explaining individual differences in relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Implications for the design and evaluation of dating abuse prevention programs are discussed. PMID:21494801

  6. Violence as Understandable, Deserved or Unacceptable? Listening for Gender in Teenagers' Talk about Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Vanita

    2013-01-01

    Youth violence is a topic of increasing global concern. Research has primarily focused on young people's responses to existing definitions of violence in seeking to understand how best to develop violence prevention. Little work has explored how young people themselves define violence and the factors which influence their acceptance, and use, of…

  7. Adult Violence with the Mother and Sibling as Predictors of Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M.; Burns, Mary K.; Can, S. Hakan; Scherer, Cory R.

    2012-01-01

    The present study provides the first available evaluation of how violence with the mother and siblings during adulthood is associated with the occurrence of partner violence in young adults. Because a pattern of reciprocal partner violence is well documented, the authors hypothesized that reciprocal violence would also be found for adults and…

  8. Violence toward health care workers in emergency departments in Denizli, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, Bora; Acar, Kemalettin; Ergin, Ahmet; Erdur, Bulent; Kurtulus, Ayse; Turkcuer, Ibrahim; Ergin, Nesrin

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to determine the frequency and types of violence that occurred during the previous year against health care workers in emergency departments in Denizli, Turkey, and to discern the views of workers on the prevention of such aggressive behavior. This study was conducted from March 1 to April 15, 2003, and included a group of 79 health care workers from the emergency departments of 3 hospitals in Denizli, namely, the Hospital of Pamukkale University Medical Faculty, the City Hospital of Denizli, and the Hospital of the Social Insurance Foundation. Data were collected from a self-administered questionnaire. In all, 88.6% of participants had been subjected to or had witnessed verbal violence, and 49.4% of them had been subjected to or had witnessed physical violence during the previous year. The most frequent reason (31.4%) for violence was abuse of alcohol and drugs by perpetrators. The second most frequent reason (24.7%) was the long waiting times typical of emergency departments. The most common type of violence was loud shouting; swearing, threatening, and hitting were the next most frequent violent behaviors. In all, 36.1% of subjects who had experienced violence reported that they developed psychological problems after the incident. Most participants commented on the insufficiency of currently available security systems within emergency departments and on the need for further training about violence. All health care personnel within emergency departments should be aware of the risk of violence and should be prepared for unpredictable conditions and events; in addition, security systems should be updated so that violence within emergency departments can be prevented.

  9. Violence against women in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlick Robinson, G

    2003-08-01

    Although North America is viewed as a place where women have equal rights and status, violence against women is still rampant. Forty to 51% of women experience some type of violence in their lifetime including child abuse, physical violence, rape and domestic violence. The perpetrator is most likely to be a current or former partner. Such violence stems from historical views of women as property and may flourish because of the public's reluctance to get involved in family matters. The concept of violence has been expanded to include non-traditional types such as sexual harassment, breeches of fiduciary trust and stalking. Treatment of victims of violence must include ensuring their safety, encouraging them to make healthy choices and helping them to understand they are not at fault. Education at all levels is required to change attitudes which perpetuate violence despite laws which forbid it.

  10. National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC) is a national information and resource hub relating to all aspects of sexual violence. NSVRC staff collect and...

  11. Gender symmetry, sexism, and intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher T; Swan, Suzanne C; Raghavan, Chitra

    2009-11-01

    This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in their relationships with intimate partners, the path models suggest that women's violence tends to be in reaction to male violence, whereas men tend to initiate violence and then their partners respond with violence. Benevolent sexism was shown to have a protective effect against men's violence toward partners. Findings highlight the importance of studying women's violence not only in the context of men's violence but also within a broader sociocultural context.

  12. Spousal violence and pregnancy termination among married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-25

    spousal sexual violence, and 19% had experienced spou- sal emotional violence7. ... ment of women's fundamental human rights and sexual ..... Gender Issues and National Response to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. ... tation.pdf , August 25, 2013. 16.

  13. Desensitization of Children to Television Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Victor B.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    To find if children do become desensitized to violence, a test for a measurable physiological difference in emotional response to filmed violence was administered to children who are high exposure and low exposure television viewers. (Author/KM)

  14. Violence against women: global scope and magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2002-04-06

    An increasing amount of research is beginning to offer a global overview of the extent of violence against women. In this paper we discuss the magnitude of some of the most common and most severe forms of violence against women: intimate partner violence; sexual abuse by non-intimate partners; trafficking, forced prostitution, exploitation of labour, and debt bondage of women and girls; physical and sexual violence against prostitutes; sex selective abortion, female infanticide, and the deliberate neglect of girls; and rape in war. There are many potential perpetrators, including spouses and partners, parents, other family members, neighbours, and men in positions of power or influence. Most forms of violence are not unique incidents but are ongoing, and can even continue for decades. Because of the sensitivity of the subject, violence is almost universally under-reported. Nevertheless, the prevalence of such violence suggests that globally, millions of women are experiencing violence or living with its consequences.

  15. Workplace violence: a study of Turkish workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytac, Serpil; Bozkurt, Veysel; Bayram, Nuran; Yildiz, Selver; Aytac, Mustafa; Akinci, Fusun Sokullu; Bilgel, Nazan

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted to address the experience of workplace violence of Turkish workers from different sectors and to investigate the impact of the exposed violence on their psychological well-being. Data were collected anonymously with printed questionnaires from the volunteer participants and depended on self-reporting. The response rate was 79.0% (1708/2161). The prevalence of workplace violence was found to be 44.8%. The most common type was verbal violence together with mobbing (bullying). Victims of physical violence were mostly males, whereas females were found to be victims of verbal, psychological and sexual violence. Most cases did not result in legal action and the victims remained silent. Psychological well-being of exposed workers in terms of depression, anxiety and stress seemed to deteriorate. Workplace violence remains a silent epidemic in Turkey. Preventive measures against workplace violence and social support for violated workers do not exist.

  16. Exclusion, Violence, and Community Responses in Central ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Personal

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... similar conditions of social exclusion, different levels of violence can be explained because communities capacities to face violence. • Methodology: ... in El Salvador. • Mix of quantitative and qualitative techniques of research.

  17. Intimate Partner Violence, 1993-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015 Special Report NCJ 2392 03 Intimate Partner Violence, 1993–2010 Shannan Catalano, Ph.D., BJS Statistician ... to 2010, the overall rate of intimate partner violence in the United States declined by 64%, from ...

  18. Youth Violence: Facts at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youth Violence Facts at a Glance 2016 Yout h Vi olence • In 2014, 4,300 young people ages 10 ... in combined medical and work loss costs. 1 Violence-related Behaviors In a 2015 nationally-representative sample ...

  19. Mainstreaming domestic and gender-based violence into sociology and the criminology of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, Sylvia; Towers, Jude; Francis, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Sociological and criminological views of domestic and gender-based violence generally either dismiss it as not worthy of consideration, or focus on specific groups of offenders and victims (male youth gangs, partner violence victims). In this paper, we take a holistic approach to violence, extending the definition from that commonly in use to encompass domestic violence and sexual violence. We operationalize that definition by using data from the latest sweep of the Crime Survey for England and Wales. By so doing, we identify that violence is currently under-measured and ubiquitous; that it is gendered, and that other forms of violence (family violence, acquaintance violence against women) are equally of concern. We argue that violence studies are an important form of activity for sociologists.

  20. Mainstreaming domestic and gender-based violence into sociology and the criminology of violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, Sylvia; Towers, Jude; Francis, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Sociological and criminological views of domestic and gender-based violence generally either dismiss it as not worthy of consideration, or focus on specific groups of offenders and victims (male youth gangs, partner violence victims). In this paper, we take a holistic approach to violence, extending the definition from that commonly in use to encompass domestic violence and sexual violence. We operationalize that definition by using data from the latest sweep of the Crime Survey for England and Wales. By so doing, we identify that violence is currently under-measured and ubiquitous; that it is gendered, and that other forms of violence (family violence, acquaintance violence against women) are equally of concern. We argue that violence studies are an important form of activity for sociologists. PMID:25641992

  1. Hypothetical intertemporal choice and real economic behavior: delay discounting predicts voucher redemptions during contingency-management procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Warren K; Jones, Bryan A; Landes, Reid D; Christensen, Darren R; Jackson, Lisa; Mancino, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Delay discounting rates are predictive of drug use status, the likelihood of becoming abstinent, and a variety of health behaviors. Rates of delay discounting may also be related to other relevant behaviors associated with addiction, such as the frequency at which individuals redeem contingency management voucher earnings. This study examined the discounting rates of 152 participants in a buprenorphine treatment program for opioid abuse. Participants received up to 12 weeks of buprenorphine treatment combined with contingency management. Participant's drug use was measured via urine specimens submitted three times a week. Successive negative urine specimens were reinforced with increasing amounts of money. After each negative urine specimen, a participant could either redeem his or her earnings or accumulate it in an account. Analysis of the frequency of redemptions showed that participants with higher rates of delay discounting at study intake redeemed their earnings significantly more often than participants with lower rates of discounting. Age and income also predicted redemption rates. We suggest that delay discounting rates can be used to predict redemption behaviors in a contingency management treatment program and that these findings are consistent with the recent theory of the competing neurobehavioral decision systems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Status of Isoetes coromandeliana L.f. and Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Voucher in Gujarat State, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh K. PATEL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of Isoetes coromandeliana L.f. in natural ponds of Harni, Savali and Tuwa (India is known since 1956 by earlier workers. Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Voucher was also reported in 1962 growing as wild at Savali. Available literature indicates that I. coromandeliana falls under the category of ‘near threatened’ in Asian continents and as an ‘endangered species’ at national (India level. In the current field work study, the authors could not locate the investigated species from the locations earlier documented by researchers. Few saplings of I. coromandeliana were observed at Talod and Vaktapur near Gandhinagar, a new location for the species. In contrast, E. debile appeared to be lost in wild from Gujarat. Their extinction from earlier reported locations is associated with anthropogenic pressure and thus legal action for their protection is needed. The present paper suggests further survey and habitat based studies and recommends conservation and management action plans based upon the ecology of the habitat.

  3. Resistance of Mayan Women against Obstetric Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Flores, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Mayan women are often victims of obstetric violence in the Yucatan Peninsula. Obstetric violence is defined as violence women experience by health officials or midwives during birth. This article will examine five different communities within the states of Yucatan, Campeche, and Quintana Roo in Mexico and compare and contrast activism efforts against obstetric violence among Mayan women. Mayan women are organizing to create unions for midwives, workshops on reproductive rights and health care...

  4. VIOLENCE AGAINST TEACHERS- RULE OR EXCEPTION?

    OpenAIRE

    Siniša Opić; Maja Lokmić; Vesna Bilić

    2013-01-01

    Abstract- The objective of this study is to examine the prevalence of violence against teachers by students. The study included 175 teachers, five primary and five secondary schools. The age of respondents (teachers) ranges from 20 to 65, with average age being 44,33 years. The used  instrument has assessed violence against teachers and has consisted of  data about the characteristics of respondents, frequency and type of violence experienced from students.The results suggest that violence ag...

  5. Mainstreaming domestic and gender-based violence into sociology and the criminology of violence

    OpenAIRE

    Walby, Sylvia; Towers, Jude; Francis, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Sociological and criminological views of domestic and gender-based violence generally either dismiss it as not worthy of consideration, or focus on specific groups of offenders and victims (male youth gangs, partner violence victims). In this paper, we take a holistic approach to violence, extending the definition from that commonly in use to encompass domestic violence and sexual violence. We operationalize that definition by using data from the latest sweep of the Crime Survey for England a...

  6. [Experiencing familiar violence: men who commit violence against their mates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira; Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Freire, Normélia Maria

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand which elements are present on the construction of the identity of men who commit violence against their mates. This qualitative study took as theoretical reference the Social Representations. It was carried out on Calafate community, San Martin, Salvador, BA. Its population was composed by 7 men who committed violence against their mates. Semi-structured interview provided data, which was organized through Bardin's Content Analysis, specifically thematic analysis, in the axis Familiar Relation. The study enabled us to identify elements that interfere on the construction of the identity of men who commit violence against their mates. Its origin is in the familiar relationship, marked by factors as lack of dialogue and physical aggressions.

  7. Gender violence: transgender experiences with violence and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, E L; Wilchins, R A; Priesing, D; Malouf, D

    2001-01-01

    There is a pervasive pattern of discrimination and prejudice against transgendered people within society. Both economic discrimination and experiencing violence could be the result of a larger social climate that severely sanctions people for not conforming to society's norms concerning gender; as such, both would be strongly associated with each other. Questionnaires were distributed to people either through events or through volunteers, and made available upon the World Wide Web. A sample of 402 cases was collected over the span of 12 months (April 1996-April 1997). We found that over half the people within this sample experienced some form of harassment or violence within their lifetime, with a quarter experiencing a violent incident. Further investigation found that experiencing economic discrimination because one is transgendered had the strongest association with experiencing a transgender related violent incident. Economic discrimination was related to transgendered people's experience with violence. Therefore, both hate crimes legislation and employment protections are needed for transgendered individuals.

  8. Violence against women: the phenomenon of workplace violence against nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, R J Howerton; Mentes, Janet C

    2010-02-01

    Registered nurses have been the recipients of an alarming increase in workplace violence (WPV). Emergency and psychiatric nurses have been found to be the most vulnerable and yet few solid reporting procedures exist to fully account for a true number of incidents. Further compounding the problem is the lack of a standard definition of violence to guide reporting procedures, interventions, legislation, and research. While there are certain risk factors that not only predispose the nurse and the patient to WPV, research continues to attempt to parse out which risk factors are the key determinants of WPV and also which interventions prove to be significant in reducing WPV. The nursing shortage is expected only to increase; recruitment and retention of qualified staff members may be deterred by WPV. This necessitates focused research on the phenomenon of workplace violence in health care.

  9. Violence and health in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Franco Agudelo

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, violence seems uncontrollable. Along with massacres and group killings of astonishing cruelty, there are also kidnappings and disappearances, abuse of children and the elderly, and rape of young adolescents. Every day, without respite, Colombians are witnesses or victims of street crimes as well as racial, sexual, and socioeconomic discrimination. Unwillingly, they become agents of aggression in public transport, at home, at school, and at work. Colombia has the highest rates of mortality from homicide in the world. Apart from the enormous institutional burden that violence imposes on the health services and forensic medicine, it now constitutes the principal public health problem in the country. To confront it, the health sector must develop policies and finance actions, develop innovative ways to train personnel, implement public education processes, and devote more effort and greater creativity to research, which up to now has provided some important, albeit insufficient, responses. Violence, which is the substitution of force for any type of dialogue, must be considered within the context of life and health. Doing so is not an attempt to rationalize violence, much less to substitute words or reflection for action, but rather an attempt to understand it in depth in order to search for alternatives. With that goal, this article analyzes the subject of violence in Colombia, principally from the perspective of its effect on the health of the citizens and its implications for the health sector. The author fully recognizes the subjectivity and limitations of the views he expresses herein.

  10. Violence in the Mesolithic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Roksandic

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mesolithic populations of the Danube’s Iron Gates Gorge (Serbia/Romania spanned over 1500 years (from before 7000 BC to around 5500 BC in one of the more favourable foraging environments of Europe. Over most of this period, the dominant economy was foraging, but farming was practiced by communities in the region from around 6500 BC. This research examines individuals from four sites on the Danube (Lepenski Vir, Vlasac, Padina, and Hajdučka Vodenica whose traumatic lesions can be most plausibly interpreted as resulting from violent interactions. Given the number of individuals buried at these sites (MNI = 418, the episodes of violent interactions were few and without evidence of a specific temporal pattern. They probably represent sporadic episodes of interpersonal conflict that do not support the notion of endemic warfare deemed typical of the Mesolithic, or elevated levels of interpersonal/intertribal conflict at the time of contact with farming communities. The difference in the pattern of violence between the Mesolithic sites on the right bank of the Danube and a coeval site of Schela Cladovei on the left bank is explained in terms of differences in archaeological context, geographic location and possibly specific local histories.

  11. The economics of violence in natural states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Besouw, B.; Ansink, Erik; van Bavel, B.

    2016-01-01

    Violence is key to understanding human interaction and societal development. The natural state of societal organization is that a subset of the population, capable of mustering organized large-scale violence, forms an elite coalition that restrains both violence and coercive appropriation. We

  12. Third-Person Perception and School Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, John; Coleman, Grace

    This study is the first of its kind to study third-person perception within the context of school violence. Linkages to the health psychology literature (optimistic bias) provide the basis for further understanding of adolescents' perceptions of school violence and the influence of media violence in their lives. Results from a survey of 1,500…

  13. The impact of violence on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, J D

    1999-01-01

    Existing research on the effects of children's exposure to violence covers a broad range of community, family, and media violence. This research is relevant and useful to an examination of domestic violence in two key ways. First, understanding how exposure to various types of violence affects children and what best enables them to cope can point to important considerations when trying to help children cope with exposure to domestic violence in particular. And second, many families experiencing domestic violence are exposed to other types of violence as well. Exposure to violence on multiple levels can affect the parents' behavior and can compound the effects on children. This article begins with an overview of the extent of children's exposure to various types of violence, and then examines what is known about the effects of this exposure across the developmental continuum. Key protective factors for children exposed to violence are examined. Research indicates that the most important resource protecting children from the negative effects of exposure to violence is a strong relationship with a competent, caring, positive adult, most often a parent. Yet, when parents are themselves witnesses to or victims of violence, they may have difficulty fulfilling this role. In the final section, directions for future research are discussed.

  14. Children's Witnessing of Adult Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edleson, Jeffrey L.

    1999-01-01

    Expands common definitions of how children witness adult domestic violence through a review of 31 research articles. A variety of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive-functioning problems among children were found to be associated with exposure to domestic violence. Factors that appear to moderate the impact of witnessing violence (child abuse,…

  15. Teaching about Domestic Violence: Strategies for Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Saundra

    1993-01-01

    Offers the author's experiences in teaching a college-level domestic violence sociology course, presenting specific strategies and a description of the syllabus. The course presents a feminist analysis of domestic violence and examines how the patriarchal structure and ideology of society create and perpetuate violence. (SLD)

  16. National Television Violence Study. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  17. National Television Violence Study. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  18. National Television Violence Study. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  19. Violence in the Media: One Teacher's Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenberg, Harvey

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses and shares his opinion about violence in the media. He states that many of the students in class have honestly responded to his inquiries about violence in culture, that they are "fascinated" with violence in movies, in television shows, in video games, and in the music they listen to away from school.…

  20. Mobbing: Workplace Violence in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Jeanmarie; McDermott, J. Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Incidents of workplace violence are becoming all too common at colleges and universities. Generally, one thinks of shootings and assaults in relation to campus workplace violence. However, mobbing and bullying of faculty by other faculty are types of workplace violence that, while very common, are rarely discussed or reported. This article raises…

  1. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  2. Domestic Violence against Men: Know the Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Adult health Domestic violence against men isn't always easy to identify, but it can be a serious threat. Know how to recognize if ... Staff Women aren't the only victims of domestic violence. Understand the signs of domestic violence against men, ...

  3. Resilience in Women who Experience Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna

    2018-03-01

    Violence in the family constitutes a serious social and psychological problem with harmful consequences leading, among others, to changes in the psychological functioning of the victim and, secondarily, also the perpetrator. The aim of this study was to examine resilience in women experiencing domestic violence. The "Ego Resiliency Scale" (ERS) was used to study the group of women suffering domestic violence. The study group included 52 women aged 30-65 years (mean age: 40.15) using assistance of the Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence. They most often reported suffering psychological and physical violence, with the husband or intimate partner being the most common perpetrator. Study women experiencing domestic violence obtained significantly lower scores on the ERS. The lowest scores on the ERS were achieved by women suffering paternal violence, while the highest - by women experiencing violence on the part of the intimate partner. Resilience of study women suffering domestic violence was lower than resilience of the general population, i.e. individuals not experiencing domestic violence. Suffered violence inflicted by the father exerted the greatest adverse impact on resilience. It seems advisable to consider resilience in the process of providing women experiencing domestic violence with psychosocial help.

  4. Risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, N.Ph.L.; de Bruijn, J.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence

  5. Religion and violence in a globalised world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Huber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Violent religious extremism is seen as one of the mega-problems of the 21st century. This article � based on a key lecture at the conference on �Violence in a democratic South Africa� at the University of Pretoria and the David de Villiers memorial lecture at the University of Stellenbosch, both held during August 2010 � critically discussed the interaction between religion and violence in our present-day, globalised world. Three different propositions on the relationship between religion and violence were scrutinised. In countering the proposition that religion, or more specifically monotheism, necessarily leads to violence, it was argued that violence is not an inherent, but rather an acquired or even an ascribed quality of religion. The second proposition that religion leads to non-violence was affirmed to the extent that religions do provide a strong impulse to overcome violence. However, they also tend to accept violence as an inevitable part of reality and even justify the use of violence on religious grounds. The third proposition was regarded as the most convincing, for it argues that the link between religion and violence is contingent. Some situations do seem to make the use of violence inevitable; however, religions should refrain from justifying the use of violence and maintain a preferential option for nonviolence.

  6. Severe interpersonal violence against children in sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vertommen, Tine; Kampen, Jarl; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Uzieblo, Kasia; Eede, Van Den Filip

    2018-01-01

    In a recent large-scale prevalence study of interpersonal violence (IV) against child athletes in the Netherlands and Belgium we found that 9% of adult respondents who participated in organized sports before the age of 18 had experienced severe psychological violence, 8% severe physical violence,

  7. Humor as Camouflage of Televised Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James; Warren, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to research on schema theory and media effects by examining how violence is portrayed in comedy programs. Finds a high rate of violence (especially verbal forms) on comedy programs; and the combination of humor, minor acts of violence, and program context tend to trivialize its presence. Suggests that viewers' schema for comedy uses…

  8. Teen Dating Violence Prevention Program Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Quincy Arrianna Rose

    2013-01-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) has identified the prevention of and intervention in relationship violence as a top priority (APA, n.d.). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's 2012 Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet, dating violence is a serious problem in the United States. In accordance with Foshee et al. (1998):…

  9. School Counselors' Role in Dating Violence Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigen, Laurie M.; Sikes, April; Healey, Amanda; Hays, Danica

    2009-01-01

    Dating violence among adolescents is a major public health concern. The purpose of this paper is to examine five factors of which school counselors must be aware in order to recognize, intervene, and report incidence of dating violence. These factors are (a) understanding the diverse definitions of dating violence, (b) recognizing dating violence…

  10. Violence Exposure among Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is children with disabilities exposed to a broad range of violence types including child maltreatment, domestic violence, community violence, and war and terrorism. Because disability research must be interpreted on the basis of the definitional paradigm employed, definitions of disability status and current prevalence…

  11. Childrearing Violence and Child Adjustment Following Exposure to Kenyan Post-election Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Ann T; Oburu, Paul; Lansford, Jennifer E; Bacchini, Dario

    2014-01-01

    This study examines parents' and children's exposure to short-term political violence and the relation between childrearing violence and child adjustment following widespread violence that erupted in Kisumu, Kenya after the disputed presidential election in December 2007. Mothers of 100 Luo children (mean age = 8.46 years, 61% female) reported on their own use of childrearing violence at Time 1, approximately 4 months after the disputed election, and again at Times 2 ( n = 95) and 3 ( n = 95), approximately 12 and 24 months later, respectively. At Time 2, mothers reported about post-election violence directed at them and about their children's exposure to post-election violence. Children reported about their own externalizing behaviors at Times 1, 2, and 3. Children's exposure to post-election violence was related to Time 2 externalizing behavior, and childrearing violence at Time 1 predicted child externalizing behavior at Time 2. Exposure to post-election violence was not directly related to either childrearing violence or children's externalizing behavior by Time 3, although children's externalizing at Time 2 predicted more childrearing violence at Time 3. These results support earlier work that links childrearing violence and children's exposure to political violence with increases in child externalizing behavior, but examined these links in the under-studied area of short-term political violence. Even though sudden and severe political violence may subside significantly in weeks or months, increased attention to long-term effects on parenting and child adjustment is warranted.

  12. Violence and Violence Research in Africa South of the Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suren Pillay

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    This review presents the major lines of investigation regarding violence in Africa since the Cold War. After a historical introduction to the development of violent phenomena and their political contexts, diverse issues such as civil war, democratization, vigilantism, and the role of youth are assessed. It is argued that recent research has produced important insights by re-focusing on violent phenomena beyond the state. Yet despite the increasing number of non-state violent actors active on the African continent, to speak of a “privatization” of violence may be premature.

  13. How Should Trainees Respond in Situations of Obstetric Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubashkin, Nicholas; Minckas, Nicole

    2018-03-01

    Argentina passed a law for humanized birth in 2004 and another law against obstetric violence in 2009, both of which stipulate the rights of women to achieve respectful maternity care. Clinicians and women might still be unaware of these laws, however. In this article, we discuss the case of a fourth-year medical student who, while visiting Argentina from the United States for his obstetric rotation, witnesses an act of obstetric violence. We show that the student's situation can be understood as one of moral distress and argue that, in this specific instance, it would be appropriate for the student to intervene by providing supportive care to the patient. However, we suggest that medical schools have an obligation to better prepare students for rotations conducted abroad. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Human violence: a treatable epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zulueta, F I

    1998-01-01

    Domestic violence is common, afflicting at least one in 15 of the population. The victims are usually women and children and the perpetrators often the traditional male head of the family. It commonly leads to a form of post-traumatic stress disorder manifested as psychiatric illness in women and violent crime in men. It is proposed that a major underlying factor is a failure of attachment in infancy. This form of violence can be prevented by better health care before and after birth, particularly in the inner cities and with reduction of inequality; education for parenting; free nursery education; and diminishing 'legitimate' violence, in the media, by government (capital or corporal punishment) and as violent sporting activities.

  15. Gun violence trends in movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J; Jamieson, Patrick E; Weitz, Ilana; Romer, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Many scientific studies have shown that the mere presence of guns can increase aggression, an effect dubbed the "weapons effect." The current research examines a potential source of the weapons effect: guns depicted in top-selling films. Trained coders identified the presence of violence in each 5-minute film segment for one-half of the top 30 films since 1950 and the presence of guns in violent segments since 1985, the first full year the PG-13 rating (age 13+) was used. PG-13-rated films are among the top-selling films and are especially attractive to youth. Results found that violence in films has more than doubled since 1950, and gun violence in PG-13-rated films has more than tripled since 1985. When the PG-13 rating was introduced, these films contained about as much gun violence as G (general audiences) and PG (parental guidance suggested for young children) films. Since 2009, PG-13-rated films have contained as much or more violence as R-rated films (age 17+) films. Even if youth do not use guns, these findings suggest that they are exposed to increasing gun violence in top-selling films. By including guns in violent scenes, film producers may be strengthening the weapons effect and providing youth with scripts for using guns. These findings are concerning because many scientific studies have shown that violent films can increase aggression. Violent films are also now easily accessible to youth (e.g., on the Internet and cable). This research suggests that the presence of weapons in films might amplify the effects of violent films on aggression.

  16. La violence homicide en Colombie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Pissoat

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Les années 1980 sont marquées en Colombie par le retour d'une violence généralisée, en constante augmentation. Une cartographie des homicides par commune facilite l'analyse de ce phénomène protéiforme, aggravé par l'économie de la drogue. Entre phases de propagation mais aussi de rétraction de la violence, se trouve posé le problème de l'illusion de sa diffusion.

  17. Towards a Relational Phenomenology of Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudigl, Michael

    This article elaborates a relational phenomenology of violence. Firstly, it explores the constitution of all sense in its intrinsic relation with our embodiment and intercorporality. Secondly, it shows how this relational conception of sense and constitution paves the path for an integrative understanding of the bodily and symbolic constituents of violence. Thirdly, the author addresses the overall consequences of these reflections, thereby identifying the main characteristics of a relational phenomenology of violence. In the final part, the paper provides an exemplification of the outlined conception with regard to a concrete phenomenon of violence, i.e., slapping, and a concluding reflection upon its overall significance for research on violence.

  18. Characteristics of peer violence in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinobad Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author analyses types and main characteristics of peer violence in schools as well as forms of their manifestation. The analysis refers to data about the prevalence of peer violence in schools in Serbia, and in particular to forms of peer violence within our country as well as in the world. The part of the text refers to characteristics of perpetrators and their victims as well as on consequences that spring up from long term exposure to violence. Finally, the article has been pointed out an importance of introducing intervention programs in schools, by which use peer violence could be significantly decreased.

  19. Metaphors about violence by preservice teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özabaci, Nilüfer; Erkan, Zülal

    2015-03-01

    Violence consists of a pattern of coercive behaviors used by a competent adult or adolescent to establish and maintain power and control over another competent adult or adolescent. These behaviors, which can occur alone or in combination, sporadically or continually, include physical violence, psychological abuse, talking, and nonconsensual sexual behavior. Research indicates that different types of violence are used as a means of enforcing discipline in the family and the school context. Children and adolescents who grow up in an environment where violence has a natural place tend to resort to violence at every stage of their lives without question. The aim of this research was therefore to preservice teachers' perception of the concept of violence through the use of metaphors. Accordingly, answers to the following questions were sought: What metaphors do the youth use to describe the concept of violence? Under which conceptual categories can these metaphors be grouped in terms of their common features? How do the conceptual categories vary in relation to the students' gender and the subjects they study at university? The study was conducted in 2009 with the help of 303 students at Mersin University and Eskişehir Osmangazi University (Faculty of Education). Incomplete statements such as "Violence is like..., because..." were used in an attempt to understand the students' perception of violence. The students were given questionnaire to complete the statements. Demographic questions were also asked on the students'age, gender and departments. The data were analyzed through qualitative analysis, and processes such as frequency distribution and quantitative correlation data were evaluated through SPSS data analysis. It emerged that the students used 74 metaphors of violence that could be divided into seven categories: (1) Violence as a way of controlling others; 2) Violence as part of social and affective life; (3) Violence as devastation; (4) Violence as learned

  20. Dehumanization increases instrumental violence, but not moral violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Tage S.; Valdesolo, Piercarlo; Graham, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Across five experiments, we show that dehumanization—the act of perceiving victims as not completely human—increases instrumental, but not moral, violence. In attitude surveys, ascribing reduced capacities for cognitive, experiential, and emotional states to victims predicted support for practices where victims are harmed to achieve instrumental goals, including sweatshop labor, animal experimentation, and drone strikes that result in civilian casualties, but not practices where harm is perceived as morally righteous, including capital punishment, killing in war, and drone strikes that kill terrorists. In vignette experiments, using dehumanizing compared with humanizing language increased participants’ willingness to harm strangers for money, but not participants’ willingness to harm strangers for their immoral behavior. Participants also spontaneously dehumanized strangers when they imagined harming them for money, but not when they imagined harming them for their immoral behavior. Finally, participants humanized strangers who were low in humanity if they imagined harming them for immoral behavior, but not money, suggesting that morally motivated perpetrators may humanize victims to justify violence against them. Our findings indicate that dehumanization enables violence that perpetrators see as unethical, but instrumentally beneficial. In contrast, dehumanization does not contribute to moral violence because morally motivated perpetrators wish to harm complete human beings who are capable of deserving blame, experiencing suffering, and understanding its meaning. PMID:28739935

  1. Dehumanization increases instrumental violence, but not moral violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Tage S; Valdesolo, Piercarlo; Graham, Jesse

    2017-08-08

    Across five experiments, we show that dehumanization-the act of perceiving victims as not completely human-increases instrumental, but not moral, violence. In attitude surveys, ascribing reduced capacities for cognitive, experiential, and emotional states to victims predicted support for practices where victims are harmed to achieve instrumental goals, including sweatshop labor, animal experimentation, and drone strikes that result in civilian casualties, but not practices where harm is perceived as morally righteous, including capital punishment, killing in war, and drone strikes that kill terrorists. In vignette experiments, using dehumanizing compared with humanizing language increased participants' willingness to harm strangers for money, but not participants' willingness to harm strangers for their immoral behavior. Participants also spontaneously dehumanized strangers when they imagined harming them for money, but not when they imagined harming them for their immoral behavior. Finally, participants humanized strangers who were low in humanity if they imagined harming them for immoral behavior, but not money, suggesting that morally motivated perpetrators may humanize victims to justify violence against them. Our findings indicate that dehumanization enables violence that perpetrators see as unethical, but instrumentally beneficial. In contrast, dehumanization does not contribute to moral violence because morally motivated perpetrators wish to harm complete human beings who are capable of deserving blame, experiencing suffering, and understanding its meaning.

  2. Comparison of Quality And Content of Violence Guidelines For The Health Care Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Kahveci

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 50% of the employees in health sector are exposed to violence at any time. This study investigated international workplace violence guidelines for the health care sector to compare their quality and content and explore whether these guidelines could be used in different settings. We ran a broad review to identify international guidelines for violence in health care. After identification of the guidelines, the quality of the guidelines was assessed by personal experience and views of the authors, also taking AGREE domains into consideration as a guidance. The identified guidelines were later qualitatively analyzed for the content by two researchers and compared to each other. Canada, New Zealand, USA, UK and Turkey’s guidelines were involved in the study. Definitions of workplace violence, risk factors, objectives of the guideline, legal requirements, responsible stakeholders, target population, strategies recommended, physical environment, training and staffing were assessed in the content of the violence guidelines. It was found that current guidelines need improvement in both quality and content, but it is possible to have an international guidance that could be applicable in different settings. The development of violence guidelines should be the first and most strategic step for better protection of the health care workers. We expect our results to be useful in preparation of new guidelines for different settings.

  3. Another face of violence against women: Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Rusen; Taner, Aylin; Guneri, Sezer Er; Yilmaz, Bulent

    2017-01-01

    Background & Objective: Violence against women is a widespread problem and has serious implications on women’s health. Infertility, in many ways, is a very stressful condition that affect social and marital life of a couple; moreover, compared to fertile women, infertile women are twice as vulnerable against violence. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of violence and define the effect of infertility on violence on women receiving infertility treatment. Methods: Descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out 301 infertile women between November 2015 and August 2016 in a state hospital, Izmir. Data were collected as “Sociodemographic Characteristics Form” and “Infertile Women’s Exposure to Violence Determination Scale”. Results: The mean age of women was 31.77±5.46 years; the average duration of marriage was 6.93±4.53 years. About 32.5% of women stated that they have suffered from violence throughout their lives and 4.7% of women were still suffering from violence, while 5.0% of women were subjected to violence after infertility was diagnosed. Conclusion: It is an encouraging finding that infertile women have a low exposure to violence. However, despite a low violence rate, there is an increase in violence toward women who have been diagnosed with infertility. PMID:29067064

  4. Violence against women: the physician's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuel, E; Schenker, J G

    1998-10-01

    Violence against women is one reflection of the unequal power relationship between men and women in societies. Reflections of this inequality include marriage at a very young age, lack of information or choice about fertility control and forced pregnancy within marriage. The different forms of violence against women are: domestic violence and rape, genital mutilation or, gender-based violence by police and security forces, gender-based violence against women during armed conflict, gender-based violence against women refugees and asylum-seekers, violence associated with prostitution and pornography, violence in the workplace, including sexual harassment. Violence against women is condemned, whether it occurs in a societal setting or a domestic setting. It is not a private or family matter. The FIGO Committee for the Study of Ethical Aspects of Human Reproduction released statements to physicians treating women on this issue. Physicians are ethically obliged to inform themselves about the manifestations of violence and recognize cases, to treat the physical and psychological results of violence, to affirm to their patients that violent acts toward them are not acceptable and to advocate for social infrastructures to provide women the choice of seeking secure refuge and ongoing counselling.

  5. Violence and gender new proposals, old dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guita Grin Debert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses and analyzes the dilemmas involved in the use of notions that have been employed to qualify violence within social relationships marked by gender and their current developments in different instances of the justice system. Based on ethnographic studies conducted at the Women's Police Stations and Special Criminal Courts and the controversies surrounding the Maria da Penha Law, the meanings carried by expressions such as violence against women, marital violence, domestic violence, family violence and gender violence are mapped herein. The central argument is that the transformation of violence into crime leads to semantic and institutional developments that tend to replace the interest in politicizing Justice in the defense of women with the judicialization of family relations.

  6. Adolescent violence exposure, gender issues and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munni, Ray; Malhi, P

    2006-07-01

    Youth violence is a growing problem worldwide. Research on adolescent violence in India is limited. Fifteen hundred high school students were investigated to study the prevalence and demographic characteristics of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of violence and to see the impact of violence exposure on their psychosocial adjustments. Sixty nine percent of students had witnessed violence in real life and 28% were of serious nature. Media violence exposure was universal. The prevalence of victims and perpetrators was 27% and 13% respectively. Bullying was prevalent. Male sex was the most important predictive risk factor for witnessing and perpetrating violence (P gender differences exist. Its impact on their psychosocial adjustments is detrimental. Early identification and corrective interventions of these adolescents is vital.

  7. Dutch police officers' preparation and performance of their arrest and self-defence skills: A questionnaire study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renden, P.G.; Nieuwenhuys, A.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how Dutch police officers perceive their preparation for arrest and self-defence skills (ASDS) and their ability to manage violence on duty. Furthermore, we assessed whether additional experience (i.e., by having encountered violence on duty or by practicing martial arts) and

  8. Dutch police officers’ preparation and performance of their arrest and self-defence skills: A questionnaire study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renden, P.G.; Nieuwenhuys, A.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how Dutch police officers perceive their preparation for arrest and self-defence skills (ASDS) and their ability to manage violence on duty. Furthermore, we assessed whether additional experience (i.e., by having encountered violence on duty or by practicing martial arts) and

  9. Domestic violence shapes Colombian women's partner choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borras-Guevara, Martha Lucia; Batres, Carlota; Perrett, David I

    2017-01-01

    Potential protection from violence has been suggested as an explanation for women's preferences for more masculine partners. Previous studies, however, have not considered that violence may be multi-modal, and hence come from different sources. Therefore, we tested the effect of different fears of violence (i.e. vulnerability to public crime, likelihood of within-partnership violence) on masculinity preferences of women from Colombia, a country known for its high rates of violence. Eighty-three adult heterosexual women (mean age ± SD = 26.7 ± 6.01) answered a survey that included questions about health (e.g. frequency of illnesses during the last year and during childhood), access to media (e.g. time spent watching television, frequency of internet use), education (i.e. highest level achieved) and violence perceptions. Participants' masculinity preferences for Salvadoran, European and Colombian male faces were recorded. Factor analysis revealed two different factors for the answers to questions related to violence. One factor loaded mostly on questions related to public violence and the second factor related to domestic violence. We found that women with higher scores on the domestic violence factor preferred significantly less masculine Colombian male faces. Even after controlling for participant age, education, access to media (TV and internet) and health-related factors, the domestic violence factor contributed significantly to explaining masculinity preferences. The results presented here suggest that women's preferences for masculinity may be a strategy to avoid aggressive partners and that the source of violence matters in mate choice. Women who perceive higher risks of domestic violence prefer less masculine looking partners. Using an experimental approach, we show that Colombian women who feel more in danger of violence within partnership prefer the faces of less masculine males. This was true even after controlling for women's education level

  10. The impact of training program on nurses' attitudes toward workplace violence in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Nahla Mansour; Al Faouri, Ibrahim; Al-Niarat, Tahany Fareed

    2016-05-01

    Nurses' attitudes toward workplace violence are still inadequately explored, and possess an impact in preventing, and managing the violent incidents and the quality of nursing care. Creating a demand for an effective intervention program to improve nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward workplace violence. To study the impact of the training program on nurses' attitudes toward workplace violence in a military hospital in Jordan. One group before-after design was employed. A stratified random sample of 100 nurses working in three shifts was recruited. Data were collected earlier and after the preparation program using the Attitudes Toward Patient Physical Assault Questionnaire. "The Framework Guidelines for addressing workplace violence in the health sector", was adopted in this work. The preparation sessions were for one day each week over five weeks. The post-test assessment was over five weeks using the same questionnaire. A total of 97 nurses completed the survey. The outcomes demonstrated the significant impact of the training program on nurses' attitudes towards workplace violence (t=6. 62, df=96, p=0.000). The prevalence of verbal abuse by patients and visitors was 63.9% and for physical abuse, 7.2% were from patients and 3.1% of visitors. Most violent incidents occurred during day duty and during delivering nursing care (40.2% and 32%, respectively). Major source of emotional support for abused nurses was from the nursing team (88.7%), while the legal support was from nursing management (48.5%). The study highlights a general concern among nursing staff about workplace violence. Confirming that violence prevention education for staff is a necessary step forward to deescalate the problem. A significant effect of the training program was evident in this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Active children through individual vouchers – evaluation (ACTIVE: protocol for a mixed method randomised control trial to increase physical activity levels in teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela James

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many teenagers are insufficiently active despite the health benefits of physical activity (PA. There is strong evidence to show that inactivity and low fitness levels increase the risk of non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD, type 2 diabetes and breast and colon cancers (Lee et al. Lancet 380:219–29, 2012. A major barrier facing adolescents is accessibility (e.g. cost and lack of local facilities. The ACTIVE project aims to tackle this barrier through a multi-faceted intervention, giving teenagers vouchers to spend on activities of their choice and empowering young people to improve their fitness and PA levels. Design ACTIVE is a mixed methods randomised control trial in 7 secondary schools in Swansea, South Wales. Quantitative and qualitative measures including PA (cooper run test (CRT, accelerometery over 7 days, cardiovascular (CV measures (blood pressure, pulse wave analysis and focus groups will be undertaken at 4 separate time points (baseline, 6 months,12 months and follow-up at 18 months. Intervention schools will receive a multi-component intervention involving 12 months of £20 vouchers to spend on physical activities of their choice, a peer mentor scheme and opportunities to attend advocacy meetings. Control schools are encouraged to continue usual practice. The primary aim is to examine the effect of the intervention in improving cardiovascular fitness. Discussion This paper describes the protocol for the ACTIVE randomised control trial, which aims to increase fitness, physical activity and socialisation of teenagers in Swansea, UK via a voucher scheme combined with peer mentoring. Results can contribute to the evidence base on teenage physical activity and, if effective, the intervention has the potential to inform future physical activity interventions and policy. Trial registration ISRCTN75594310 (Assigned 06/03/2017.

  12. Father's and Mother's Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, Claudiane; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2011-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A…

  13. Workplace violence in emergency medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chatterjee*

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Violence against ED health care workers is a real problem with significant implications to the victims, patients, and departments/institutions. ED WPV needs to be addressed urgently by stakeholders through continued research on effective interventions specific to Emergency Medicine. Coordination, cooperation, and active commitment to the development of such interventions are critical.

  14. School Violence and the News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and teens have many sources of information about school shootings or other tragic events. They might see or hear news stories or graphic images on TV, radio, or online, over and over. ... of a news story about school violence can make some kids feel that might ...

  15. Effect of domestic violence training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, Eman; Keogh, Kelly; Ratnapalan, Savithiri

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe and evaluate the effectiveness of domestic violence education in improving physicians’ knowledge, recognition, and management of abused women. Data sources The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, and EMBASE were searched for articles published between January 1, 2000, and November 1, 2012. This search was supplemented by manual searches for relevant articles using a combined text-word and MeSH-heading search strategy. Study selection Randomized controlled trials were selected that used educational interventions among physicians and provided data on the effects of the interventions. Synthesis Nine randomized controlled trials were included that described different educational approaches with various outcome measures. Three studies examined the effects of educational interventions among postgraduate trainee physicians and found an increase in knowledge but no change in behaviour with regard to identifying victims of domestic violence. Six studies examined educational interventions for practising physicians. Three of these studies used multifaceted physician training that combined education with system support interventions to change physician behaviour, such as increasing general awareness of domestic violence with brochures and posters, providing aids to remind physicians how to identify victims, facilitating physician access to victim support services, and providing audits and feedback. Multifaceted educational interventions included interactive workshops, Web-based learning, and experiential training. Another study used focus-group discussions and training, and showed improved domestic violence reporting among physicians. The remaining 2 studies showed improved perceptions of practising physicians’ self-efficacy using problem-based online learning. Conclusion It was difficult to determine the most effective educational strategy, as the educational interventions and the outcome measures varied

  16. Climate Change and Civil Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vink, G.; Plancherel, Y.; Hennet, C.; Jones, K. D.; Abdullah, A.; Bradshaw, J.; Dee, S.; Deprez, A.; Pasenello, M.; Plaza-Jennings, E.; Roseman, D.; Sopher, P.; Sung, E.

    2009-05-01

    The manifestations of climate change can result in humanitarian impacts that reverse progress in poverty- reduction, create shortages of food and resources, lead to migration, and ultimately result in civil violence and conflict. Within the continent of Africa, we have found that environmentally-related variables are either the cause or the confounding factor for over 80% of the civil violence events during the last 10 years. Using predictive climate models and land-use data, we are able to identify populations in Africa that are likely to experience the most severe climate-related shocks. Through geospatial analysis, we are able to overlay these areas of high risk with assessments of both the local population's resiliency and the region's capacity to respond to climate shocks should they occur. The net result of the analysis is the identification of locations that are becoming particularly vulnerable to future civil violence events (vulnerability hotspots) as a result of the manifestations of climate change. For each population group, over 600 social, economic, political, and environmental indicators are integrated statistically to measures the vulnerability of African populations to environmental change. The indicator time-series are filtered for data availability and redundancy, broadly ordered into four categories (social, political, economic and environmental), standardized and normalized. Within each category, the dominant modes of variability are isolated by principal component analysis and the loadings of each component for each variable are used to devise composite index scores. Comparisons of past vulnerability with known environmentally-related conflicts demonstrates the role that such vulnerability hotspot maps can play in evaluating both the potential for, and the significance of, environmentally-related civil violence events. Furthermore, the analysis reveals the major variables that are responsible for the population's vulnerability and therefore

  17. Exposure to Family Violence as a Predictor of Dating Violence and Child-to-Parent Aggression in Spanish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre, Ainhoa; Calvete, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment may place children on a lifelong trajectory toward violence. The primary aim of this research was to examine the associations between exposure to violence at home and two forms of violence in close relationships in Spanish adolescents: child-to-parent violence (CPV) and dating…

  18. The violence against the elderly in films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Gomes Vianna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With the aging of the population, the issue of violence against the elderly need to be debated, in order to enlighten and educate the população about this issue. The movies utilization is a effective educational resource, contributing to reflection and understanding of these situation. Objective: To collect and analyze images in film productions that express the different types of violence against the elderly. Material and methods: Analysis of the national and international filmography, identifying scenes in commercial films portraying the violence against the elderly. We searched up the sites www.cinema10.com.br, www.adorocinema.com, www.cinemateca.gov.br, www.filmesdecinema.com.br, www.cineplayers, www.interfilmes,  www.cineclick.com.br, and  www.revistaforum.com.br. The films with scenes of violence against the elderly were listed. Results: We listed up 58 films showing scenes displaying different types of violence against the elderly: 24 (41% physical violence; 18 (31% psychological violence; 14 (24% social violence, 10 (17% self-neglect, 10 (17% economic abuse, 6 (10% abandonment, 3 (5% sexual violence, and 3 (5% negligence. Conclusion: Using film imagery, we can diffuse the issue of mistreatment against the elderly, as well as broaden the instances to denounce this violence. Thus, we search  to focus on the elderly citizenship, guaranteeing their rights and attending reframe the context and the images of aging.  

  19. Domestic violence on pregnant women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergönen, Akça Toprak; Ozdemir, M Hakan; Can, Ismail Ozgür; Sönmez, Ersel; Salaçin, Serpil; Berberoğlu, Evrim; Demir, Namik

    2009-04-01

    Domestic violence is accepted worldwide as an important health problem. Besides diagnosis and treatment process, there are difficulties when considering of medico-legal evaluation of pregnant women subjected to domestic violence. As a signatory of the ''Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)'' Turkey has certain commitments regarding domestic violence and made regulations on national law. The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy among the women who applied to obstetrics clinics and evaluating of the participants' knowledge level about the legal legislation concerning domestic violence. Pregnant women attending for antenatal care to department of Gynecology and Obstetrics were interviewed using an anonymous and confidential questionnaire. The questionnaire used was a version of Abuse Assessment Screen with guidance of references. 28 (13.4%) women stated that they had been subjected to violence before pregnancy. Only 10 (4.67%) women had stated experience of violence during pregnancy. 148 (69.2%) of them had stated that they had no knowledge about any legislation concerning domestic violence in our country. We believe that society awareness should be increased and the health workers should be informed about their ethical and legal responsibilities concerning domestic violence during pregnancy. The knowledge and sensitivity of health care personnel in Prenatal Clinics and Family Planning Services should be increased and examination protocols should be provided about domestic violence against pregnant women.

  20. Violence-prevention summit at Virginia Tech tackles bullying, gender-based violence, more

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Bullying in schools, aggression in the workplace, violence against women -- all are complex problems. On Nov. 12 and 13, Virginia Tech hosts a gathering to make recommendations about violence prevention.

  1. The behavioral economics of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard

    2004-12-01

    From the viewpoint of teleological behaviorism the first question to ask in attempting to understand any behavior, including violent behavior, is: What are its contingencies of reward and punishment? Or, to put the question in economic terms: What are the short-term and long-term costs and benefits that such behavior entails? Let us therefore consider the costs and benefits of youth violence. Among the short-term costs of violent behavior are the physical effort of the act, the possibility of immediate physical retaliation, immediate social disapproval, and the opportunity cost of other social acts that the violent behavior takes the place of (you can't be affectionate and violent at the same time, for instance). Among the immediate benefits of violent behavior are the intrinsic satisfaction of the violent act itself and any extrinsic benefit; if A violently appropriates B's new sneakers then obtaining the sneakers reinforces A's violence. These immediate benefits may well outweigh the costs in many contexts. Among the long-term costs of violent behavior are delayed retaliation, possible social disapproval and loss of social support, rejection from a social group, job loss, and health risks associated with a violent lifestyle. Among the long-term benefits are long-term intimidation of others (your neighbor is less likely to build a fence on your property if you have a reputation for violence), and a possibly exciting lifestyle. These long-term benefits may well be outweighed by the long-term costs. Opposition of long-term net costs to short-term net benefits, where it exists, creates a personal self-control trap: Overall satisfaction may decrease monotonically with rate of the target behavior but, regardless of its rate, the immediate satisfaction of doing it is always higher than that of not doing it. In the case of violent behavior, this trap is exacerbated by the fact that as a person's violence increases, net immediate reinforcement also increases (due to

  2. A Calm before the Storm? Beyond Schooling as Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The pervasive violence in schools is a manifestation of gender inequality. Discourses of school violence suggest that "others" are responsible and militarist solutions are necessary. These discourses prevent recognition that violence is a symptom of social inequality. (SK)

  3. 16 Days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-11-25

    Nov 25, 2017 ... The International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women on November 25 ... against gender-based violence and culminates with Human Rights Day ... to Canada's strong voice in the fight against sexual violence.

  4. Reducing Vulnerability to Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    electoral violence in Kenya since the 1990s, the fact that a considerable part of that violence was gender and sexual in nature has gone largely unnoticed. The Nairobi Women's Hospital Gender Violence Recovery Center reports that between ...

  5. The severity of violence against women by intimate partners and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: physical violence, psychological abuse, stalking, intimate partner, problem ... of violence in their current or most recent partnership (Gupta et al., 2008). .... of Violence Against Women Scale (SAVAWS), several studies have found ...

  6. Framing violence: the effect of survey context and question framing on reported rates of partner violence

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, Katherine V.

    2008-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigated two explanations for the variability in levels of partner violence found by large community surveys. In Study 1, I examined the effect of how questions about partner violence are introduced (question framing: conflict, violence-in-relationships, or attacks) on reports of partner violence. Although there was not a reliable effect of question framing, the pattern of findings was consistent across 3 of 4 analyses. Counter to predictions, an attacks question f...

  7. Southwest Border Violence: Issues in Identifying and Measuring Spillover Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    business in general. One recent study, for example, examined the impact of surges in violence on businesses in various industries in locations of varying...personal service industries ) and located in typically low-crime areas. Specifically, the impact on business was in terms of a reduction in the number...Attorneys Offices, and state and local law enforcement. The Mexican law enforcement agency Secretaria de Seguridad Publica is a partner along the

  8. Les violences conjugales à Dakar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumah, Mohamed Maniboliot; Issa, Abdoul Wahab; Ndiaye, Mor; Ndoye, El Hadj Oumar; Sow, Mamadou Lamine

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif était d’évaluer les aspects épidémiologiques des violences conjugales, identifier les facteurs de risques et les différents types de violences conjugales, évaluer les conséquences des violences conjugales sur la santé des victimes, afin d'améliorer la prise en charge des victimes et la prévention du phénomène. Il s'est agit d'une étude transversale effectuée de décembre 2012 à janvier 2013 à Dakar. Les données ont été recueillies, après consentement, sur fiche d'enquête anonyme soumise à toute personne volontaire vivant en couple et résidant à Dakar. L'analyse statistique a été effectuée avec le logiciel SPSS 13.0. Le nombre de personnes victimes de violences conjugales était de 60 soit 37,30% dont 31 femmes (51,70%) et 29 hommes (48,30%). Le sex-ratio était de 0,93. Parmi les victimes, 53 étaient scolarisées soit 88,30%. Le régime matrimonial était de type monogame dans 39 cas (65%) et polygame dans 21 cas (35%). La vie en couple durait depuis moins de 11 ans dans 60% des cas et durait de 11 ans à 20 ans au plus dans 26,6% des cas. L’étude des types de violences montrait la fréquence des agressions physiques. Les armes utilisées étaient surtout les armes naturelles. Les principaux facteurs de risque de violence conjugale sont les facteurs sociodémographiques, culturels et économiques comme le jeune âge, l'inégalité du genre, les jeunes couples, la précarité, le niveau d'instruction élevé. La prise en charge des victimes et la prévention du phénomène restent insuffisantes dans nos pays. PMID:26918077

  9. Acculturative dissonance, ethnic identity, and youth violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thao N; Stockdale, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Studies suggest that the process of acculturation for immigrant youth, particularly for second-generation youth, is significantly associated with delinquency and violence. This study explored the acculturation-violence link with respect to acculturative dissonance and ethnic identity. The results revealed in a sample of 329 Chinese, Cambodian, Mien/Laotian, and Vietnamese youth that acculturative dissonance was significantly predictive of serious violence, with full mediation through peer delinquency. Ethnic identity was not significantly associated with peer delinquency or serious violence. Although acculturative dissonance and ethnic identity accounted for a small percentage of variance in violence compared with peer delinquency, it cannot be discounted as trivial. Structural equation analyses provided support for both measurement and structural invariance across the four ethnic groups, lending support for cross-cultural comparisons. The results also lend support for the inclusion of cultural factors in youth violence prevention and intervention efforts. 2008 APA

  10. Pupils as Victims of Peer Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvek Mihaela

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The school is an educational institution that has to provide appropriate control of adults over pupils, which they do. Nevertheless, violence cannot be avoided. Pupils encounter peer violence in different roles, as observers, victims, perpetrators, or both. The objective of our research was to examine how often pupils are victims of peer violence, and to what extent the latter depends on pupils’ gender and age. The results of the research made among pupils in the fifth, seventh, and eighth grades of various primary schools across Slovenia showed that 24.1 per cent of pupils had already been victims of peer violence. The ones that they tend to tell about such episodes are their parents. The results have also shown that school is really a place where violence is very common, and that psychological and verbal abuse are the most common types of violence used.

  11. Degendering (sexual) violence in intimate relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Eva; Østerby Sørensen, William; Jensen, Mathilde Worch

    2018-01-01

    Even though Denmark in many respects shows some of the most gender equality rates in the world, the rates of physical and/or sexual violence against women in Denmark are among the highest in Europe. In this article we seek to describe state responses to these figures. We do so by investigating...... the symbolic representations of sexual violence in intimate relationships, framing contemporary political/societal developments of the Danish field of welfare work addressing violence in intimate relationships as well as the dominating knowledge production substantiating these. Theoretically, Slavoj Zizek...... and his concept objective violence inform the paper, in order to analyze authoritative representations of ‘sexual violence in intimate relationships’ in three areas: Danish legislation and legal practices, Danish research on sexual violence, and policy-papers. Thus the Danish Criminal Code, selected...

  12. Analysis of violence against primary and secondary schools students

    OpenAIRE

    Knafelc, Breda

    2013-01-01

    This master's thesis studies peer and domestic violence on elementary and secondary schools pupils from the theoretical and practical point of view. The first part of the theoretical part in detail studies the notion of violence. Forms of violence are presented with its specific forms, goals and consequences of individual forms of violence. In detail are presented forms of physical violence which represent one of the roughest forms of overpowering an individual, psychological violence as ...

  13. Sexual Violence: Helping Men Become Allies. A Sexual Violence Bystander Intervention Program for Collegiate Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leacock, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Sexual violence in the United States continues to be a growing problem. Collegiate women face some of the highest rates of sexual violence, with statistics estimating one in four women will have this unwanted experience sometime during their college career. With Title IX administrators required to provide sexual violence awareness, more colleges…

  14. 77 FR 14378 - Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants for Domestic Violence Shelters and Supportive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...- being (Section 308(b)(1)(B)). Provision of individual and group counseling, peer support groups, and..., domestic violence, or dating violence, including age- appropriate counseling, supportive services, and... violence, and their dependents, for short-term, transitional, or long-term safety; and Provide counseling...

  15. Youth Experiences of Family Violence and Teen Dating Violence Perpetration: Cognitive and Emotional Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria; Grych, John H.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a conceptual model of cognitive and emotional processes proposed to mediate the relation between youth exposure to family violence and teen dating violence perpetration. Explicit beliefs about violence, internal knowledge structures, and executive functioning are hypothesized as cognitive mediators, and their potential…

  16. Intimate Partner Violence: The Role of the Relationship between Perpetrators and Children Who Witness Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Emily; Stover, Carla

    2009-01-01

    The issue of the father-child relationship has been greatly ignored in the domestic violence research literature. This study investigated whether intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrated by biological fathers resulted in higher levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms and behavior problems than violence perpetrated by nonbiological fathers and…

  17. 78 FR 64245 - AG Survey of Transitional Housing Assistance for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE [OMB Number 1122-NEW] AG Survey of Transitional Housing Assistance for Victims of Domestic Violence, Dating Violence, Stalking, or Sexual Assault Program Grantees Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection ACTION: 60-day notice. The Department of Justice, Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) will be...

  18. Poverty, Violence, and Health: The Impact of Domestic Violence during Pregnancy on Newborn Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Two percent of women in the United States suffer from intimate partner violence annually, with poor and minority women disproportionately affected. I provide evidence of an important negative externality associated with domestic violence by estimating a negative and causal relationship between violence during pregnancy and newborn health,…

  19. Does Movie Violence Increase Violent Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon Dahl; Stefano DellaVigna

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory experiments in psychology find that media violence increases aggression in the short run. We analyze whether media violence affects violent crime in the field. We exploit variation in the violence of blockbuster movies from 1995 to 2004, and study the effect on same-day assaults. We find that violent crime decreases on days with larger theater audiences for violent movies. The effect is partly due to voluntary incapacitation: between 6PM and 12AM, a one million increase in the audi...

  20. Metaphors about Violence by Preservice Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Özabaci, Nilüfer; Erkan, Zülal

    2015-01-01

    Violence consists of a pattern of coercive behaviors used by a competent adult or adolescent to establish and maintain power and control over another competent adult or adolescent. These behaviors, which can occur alone or in combination, sporadically or continually, include physical violence, psychological abuse, talking, and nonconsensual sexual behavior. Research indicates that different types of violence are used as a means of enforcing discipline in the family and the school ...